Cerezo, M A; Frias, D
Research on the impact of maltreatment on children has increased in the last years, as there is a need to design appropriate treatment strategies. Social, cognitive, and emotional areas may be affected in these children. This research is aimed to study the psychological functioning of child victims, particularly in their emotional and cognitive adjustment. Nineteen children (10.3 years old) with case histories of at least 2 years of physical and emotional parental abuse and a group of 26 nonmaltreated children (9.4 years old) matched in socio-economic characteristics and coming from the same community area were compared in depressive symptomatology and attributional style by using the standardized measures from Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and Kaslow's Children Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ). General and detailed statistical analyses on the emotional and cognitive areas assessed showed significant differences between groups. Child victims showed greater feelings of sadness, lower self-esteem and self-worth, and they perceived the aversive events in their lives as unpredictable which generated helplessness. This is a result of their lack of control of those aversive events. Results are contrasted with those obtained by other researchers who used similar methodology and are discussed in terms of the learned helplessness' model proposed and developed by Seligman, Kaslow, Alloy, Peterson, Tanenbaum, and Abramson (1984). Implications for the child abuse victims' emotional and cognitive rehabilitation are also analyzed and discussed. PMID:7850601
Brendgen, Mara; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.; Tremblay, Richard E.
Using a prospective design spanning 17 years, the authors studied in a sample of 231 boys and girls the predictive links of verbal abuse by the teacher during childhood to high-school graduation and behavioral and emotional problems in young adulthood, as well as the putative mediating role of individuals' generalized and domain-specific…
Riggs, Shelley A.; Cusimano, Angela M.; Benson, Karen M.
In an effort to improve understanding of the mechanisms that link early maltreatment to later outcomes, this study investigated the mediation effects of adult attachment processes on the association between childhood emotional abuse and later romantic relationships among heterosexual couples. College students and their dating partners (N = 310;…
Langevin, Rachel; Cossette, Louise; Hébert, Martine
Emotion regulation is closely related to mental health in children and adults. Low emotion regulation competencies have been found in school-aged sexually abused girls. The aim of the present study was to investigate emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschool girls and boys using a multi-informant approach. Emotion regulation was assessed in 62 sexually abused and 65 non-abused preschoolers using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. Both parents and educators reported lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschoolers, especially boys, than in non-abused children. The narrative task completed by the children also revealed lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused boys. These findings could have an important impact on intervention programs offered to these at-risk children. PMID:25724803
Mackey, Amber L; Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B
This study of 59 undergraduate men and 85 undergraduate women explored how defining emotional and physical sibling abuse affected the frequency of reported sibling abuse. In addition, the current study examined how the emotional context of the sibling relationship (i.e., rivalry and conflict) moderated the relationship between sibling abuse and later psychological adjustment (i.e., depression and anxiety). Respondents completed self-report questionnaires of sibling abuse (CTS2-SP), self-labeling of sibling abuse, quality of sibling relationships (SRQ), depression (CES-D), and anxiety (ZAS). Results indicated differences in frequency of reported abuse depending on how sibling abuse was defined. Also, there were no statistically significant correlations between the CTS2-SP and measures of psychological adjustment. Although self-labeling as emotionally abused correlated with later anxiety, the emotional context of the sibling relationship did not moderate this relationship. PMID:19734372
Sullivan, Cris M.; Bybee, Deborah; Juras, Jennifer; Nguyen, Huong; Allen, Nicole
This article reviews evidence that an abuser's relationship to the child (whether a biological father, stepfather/father figure, or nonfather figure) is an important variable in understanding a child's adjustment. Although the level of physical abuse did not differ by grouping, stepfathers were the most emotionally abusive and children reported…
McEachern, Adriana G.; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Kenny, Maureen C.
Emotional abuse of students by teachers is a topic infrequently discussed in the child abuse literature. In some classrooms, it can be a daily occurrence. This article defines emotional abuse and discusses the types of classroom behaviors teachers may demonstrate that are emotionally abusive to students. The role of school-based counselors in the…
Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.; Annest, Amalia
This article examined emotion competence in children exposed to domestic violence (DV). It also examined the hypothesis that children's emotional competence mediates relations between DV and children's later difficulties with peers and behavioral adjustment. DV was assessed when children were at the age of five, emotional competence was assessed…
Ferguson, Kristin M.
This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…
... depressed, shows bizarre behavior, or uses alcohol or drugs WHAT YOU CAN DO TO HELP If you think a child is in immediate danger because of abuse or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ...
Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Koopman, Cheryl; McGarvey, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Nicole; Canterbury, R. J., II
Examines the relationships of sexual, physical and emotional abuse to emotional and behavioral problems among incarcerated girls and boys. Analyses indicated that girls were more likely than boys to internalize their problems. The only abuse variable that was positively and significantly associated with emotional problems was emotional abuse.…
Rimza, Mary Ellen; And Others
Chart reviews and telephone interviews with 72 sexual abuse victims found that 48 of the children had symptoms similar to the "rape trauma" syndrome. Two-thirds of victims commonly had somatic complaints (such as abdominal pain) and emotional/behavioral problems (runaway behavior, suicide attempts). (DB)
Firestone, Robert W.
Emotional child abuse is virtually inevitable in the context of the traditional nuclear family and often has a more detrimental effect on children than other, more widely publicized forms of maltreatment. This paper documents clinical, statistical, and empirical evidence showing that "normative" child-rearing practices in our culture have…
Lake, Stephanie; Wood, Evan; Dong, Huiru; Dobrer, Sabina; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas
Introduction and Aims Childhood emotional abuse is a known risk factor for various poor social and health outcomes. While people who inject drugs (IDU) report high levels of violence, in addition to high rates of childhood maltreatment, the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and later life violence within this population has not been examined. Design and Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from an open prospective cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada. Childhood emotional abuse was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine potential associations between childhood emotional abuse and being a recent victim or perpetrator of violence. Results Between December 2005 and May 2013, 1437 IDU were eligible for inclusion in this analysis, including 465 (32.4%) women. In total, 689 (48.0%) reported moderate to severe history of childhood emotional abuse, while 333 (23.2%) reported being a recent victim of violence and 173 (12.0%) reported being a recent perpetrator of violence. In multivariate analysis, being a victim of violence (adjusted odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.15–1.94) and being a perpetrator of violence (adjusted odds ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval 1.12–2.24) remained independently associated with childhood emotional abuse. Discussion and Conclusions We found high rates of childhood emotional abuse and subsequent adult violence among this sample of IDU. Emotional abuse was associated with both victimisation and perpetration of violence. These findings highlight the need for policies and programs that address both child abuse and historical emotional abuse among adult IDU. PMID:24635836
Carmody, Karen Appleyard; Haskett, Mary E.; Loehman, Jessisca; Rose, Roderick A
Childhood physical abuse predicts emotional/behavioral, self-regulatory, and social problems. Yet factors from multiple ecological levels contribute to children’s adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which the social-emotional adjustment of physically abused children in first grade would be predicted by a set of child-, parent-, and family-level predictors in kindergarten. Drawing on a short-term longitudinal study of 92 physically abused children and their primary caregivers, the current study used linear regression to examine early childhood child (i.e., gender, IQ, child perceptions of maternal acceptance), parent (i.e., parental mental health), and family relationship (i.e., sensitive parenting, hostile parenting, family conflict) factors as predictors of first grade internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, emotion dysregulation, and negative peer interactions. We used a multi-method, multi-informant approach to measuring predictors and children’s adjustment. Internalizing symptomatology was significantly predicted by child IQ, parental mental health, and family conflict. Externalizing symptomatology and emotion dysregulation were predicted by child IQ. Although a large proportion of variance in measures of adjustment was accounted for by the set of predictors, few individual variables were unique predictors of child adjustment. Variability in the predictors of adjustment for physically abused children underscores the need for individualized treatment approaches. PMID:26401095
Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.
Objective: Research on and intervention for child emotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. Methods: We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define child emotional abuse for clinical settings and (b)…
Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.
Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…
Whitcomb, Brian W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.
Abstract Background: Previous studies have suggested that violence victimization is prevalent among women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, it is unclear whether early life abuse contributes directly to PMS or whether associations are explained by the high prevalence of PMS risk factors including smoking and obesity among women reporting childhood abuse. Methods: We have assessed the relation of early life abuse and the incidence of moderate-to-severe PMS in a study nested within the prospective Nurses' Health Study 2. Participants were aged 27–44 years and free from PMS at baseline, including 1,018 cases developing PMS over 14 years and 2,277 comparison women experiencing minimal menstrual symptoms. History of early life emotional, physical, and sexual abuse was self-reported in 2001. Results: After adjustment for obesity, smoking, and other factors, emotional abuse was strongly related to PMS (pTrend<0.0001); women reporting the highest level of emotional abuse had 2.6 times the risk of PMS as those reporting no emotional abuse (95% confidence interval, 1.7–3.9). Women reporting severe childhood physical abuse had an odds ratio of 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–2.9; pTrend<0.001) compared with those reporting no physical abuse. Sexual abuse was less strongly associated with risk. Adjustment for childhood social support minimally affected findings. Conclusions: Findings from this large prospective study suggest that early life emotional and physical abuse increase the risk of PMS in the middle-to-late reproductive years. The persistence of associations after control for potential confounders and mediators supports the hypothesis that early life abuse is importantly related to PMS. PMID:25098348
Eslick, Guy D.; Koloski, Natasha A.; Talley, Nicholas J.
Objectives: Approximately one third of patients with non cardiac chest pain (NCCP) report a history of abuse, however no data exists on the prevalence of abuse among people with unexplained chest pain in the general population. We aimed to determine if there is a relationship between childhood sexual, physical, emotional abuse and unexplained…
Padilla Paredes, Patricia; Calvete, Esther
This study tested whether childhood parental emotional abuse and peer emotional bullying serve as antecedents of depression in adolescence and identified the cognitive mechanisms involved in this process. It was hypothesized that the experience of emotional abuse would predict depressive symptoms via development of rumination and negative inferences. A 3-wave longitudinal study was carried out with 998 adolescents (471 girls and 526 boys) between 13 and 17 years of age. Results showed that emotional abuse by parents and peers at Time 1 predicted a worsening of several cognitive vulnerabilities at Time 2. In addition, brooding mediated between the experiences of abuse and the increase of depressive symptoms at Time 3. Thus, findings suggest that the experiences of childhood emotional abuse by parents and peers serve as antecedents to develop a negative cognitive style, vulnerability that, once developed, is a risk factor for the onset of depressive symptoms in adolescence. PMID:24292965
Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan
Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…
Kanamori, Mariano; Weissman, Jessica; De La Rosa, Mario; Trepka, Mary Jo; Rojas, Patria; Cano, Miguel Angel; Melton, James; Unterberger, Alayne
To date, no studies have investigated emotional abuse of adult Latina women by their mothers despite evidence that emotional maternal abuse may significantly contribute to the emotional abuse experienced by Latina women in their lifetime. Cross-sectional data including 316 women was analyzed using mediation and logistic regression. Overall, 7.1 % of mothers and 24.1 % of daughters abused drugs; and, 19.5 % of daughters were emotionally abused by their mothers. Mother's attachment to her daughter mediated the association between mother's drug abuse and emotionally abusing her adult daughter (indirect effect: 0.863). Latina women can serve as perpetrators of emotional abuse of their adult children. Since drug-abusing daughters are more likely to be victims of emotional abuse by their mothers and drug-abusing mothers are more likely to abuse their daughters, drug-rehabilitation practitioners should incorporate a family abuse component into rehabilitation programs. PMID:26614091
Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G
Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. PMID:25550167
Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xuan; Hu, Chun; Liao, Huayu; Yang, Tong; Shen, Mowei
Although evidence suggests that drug abusers exhibit biases when coding individual emotional facial expressions, little is known about how they process multiple expressions simultaneously. The present study evaluated the mean emotions perceived by abstinent heroin abusers. Male abstinent heroin abusers (AHs) and healthy controls (HCs) were randomly assigned into three emotional conditions (happy, sad, or angry), viewed sets of four faces (Experiment 1) or individual faces (Experiment 2) that varied in emotionality (neutral to happy/sad/angry), and judged whether a test face presented later was more/less emotional than the preceding stimuli. Average points of subjective equality were calculated to reflect participants' biases in perceiving emotions of sets or single faces. Relative to HCs, AHs overestimated mean emotions for sad and angry faces in Experiment 1; however, no such biases were found in Experiment 2. This suggests biased ensemble coding towards negative emotional facial expressions in AHs. Furthermore, when controlling for depression and anxiety, AHs' enhanced perception of mean emotion for angry or sad faces in Experiment 1 decreased, indicating a possible mediating effect of these psychopathological variables in the relationship between drug addiction history and abnormal ensemble processing for sets of emotional expressions. PMID:26595559
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa
The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point…
Pilowsky, Tammy; Yirmiya, Nurit; Doppelt, Osnat; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Shalev, Ruth S.
Background: Social and emotional adjustment of siblings of children with autism was examined, to explore their risk or resilience to effects of genetic liability and environmental factors involved in having a sibling with autism. Method: Social-emotional adjustment, behavior problems, socialization skills, and siblings' relationships were compared…
Stirling, John; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa
Children who have suffered early abuse or neglect may later present with significant behavior problems including emotional instability, depression, and a tendency to be aggressive or violent with others. Troublesome behaviors may persist long after the abusive or neglectful environment has changed or the child has been in foster care placement. Neurobiological research has shown that early abuse results in an altered physiological response to stressful stimuli, a response that deleteriously affects the child's subsequent socialization. Pediatricians can assist caregivers by helping them recognize the abused or neglected child's altered responses, formulate more effective coping strategies, and mobilize available community resources. PMID:18762538
Stocker, Clare M.; Richmond, Melissa K.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Kiang, Lisa
This study examined associations between parents' emotion coaching and emotional expressiveness, and adolescents' internalizing and externalizing symptoms. The sample included 131 16-year-olds and their mothers and fathers. Adolescents completed an open-ended interview about their parents' emotion coaching. Adolescents rated parents' negative…
Mackey, Amber L.; Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B.
This study of 59 undergraduate men and 85 undergraduate women explored how defining emotional and physical sibling abuse affected the frequency of reported sibling abuse. In addition, the current study examined how the emotional context of the sibling relationship (i.e., rivalry and conflict) moderated the relationship between sibling abuse and…
Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante
Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…
Pollak, Seth D.; Cicchetti, Dante; Hornung, Katherine; Reed, Alex
Two experiments assessed recognition of emotion among physically abused and neglected preschoolers. Results showed that neglected children had more difficulty discriminating emotional expressions that control or abused children. Abused children displayed response bias for angry facial expressions. Control children viewed discrete emotions as…
Buser, Trevor J.; Buser, Juleen K.
Many school counselors experience difficulties in identifying and reporting suspected cases of emotional abuse. These difficulties are concerning, given the relatively high prevalence rates of emotional abuse. In this article, we discuss the definition of emotional abuse, review research on its prevalence and psychological correlates, and provide…
Cole, Elizabeth B.; Shade, Maureen
Social-emotional adjustment patterns of eight mainstreamed hearing impaired adolescents were compared with identical measures of a matched group of eight normally hearing adolescents. No statistically significant differences between the groups were found. Results presented a picture of social and emotional well-being similar for both the hearing…
Haskett, Mary E.; Stelter, Rebecca; Proffit, Katie; Nice, Rachel
Objective Identifying factors associated with school functioning of abused children is important in prevention of long-term negative outcomes associated with school failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation predicted early school behavior of abused children. Methods The sample included 92 physically abused children ages 4-7 and one of their parents (95.7% mothers). Parents completed a measure of their own emotional expressiveness, and parents and teachers provided reports of children's self-regulatory skills. Children's school functioning was measured by observations of playground aggression and teacher reports of aggression and classroom behavior. Results Parents’ expression of positive and negative emotions was associated with various aspects of children's self-regulation and functioning in the school setting. Links between self-regulation and children's school adjustment were robust; poor self-regulation was associated with higher aggression and lower cooperation and self-directed behavior in the classroom. There was minimal support for a mediating role of children's self-regulation in links between parent expressiveness and children's behavior. Practice implications Findings point to the relevance of parent emotional expressivity and children's self-regulatory processes in understanding physically abused children's functioning at the transition to school. Although further research is needed, findings indicate that increasing parental expression of positive emotion should be a focus in treatment along with reduction in negativity of abusive parents. Further, addressing children's self-regulation could be important in efforts to reduce aggression and enhance children's classroom competence. PMID:22565040
Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth
Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)
This article analyzing national data (N=7,408) examines the connection between men's and women's relative economic contributions in families and the risk of husband-to-wife physical violence and emotional abuse. Family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the risk of intimate partner violence with…
Leemans, C; Loas, S
Abuse is a complex psychosocial issue with multiple implications. This paper takes a look at the physical and psychological manifestations of domestic violence, i.e. between adult (romantic) partners as well as abuse of the elderly. Past studies have looked at the relationship between emotional dependency, the occurence and sustainability of abuse and the likehood that a victimized person will terminate a relationship. Indeed, individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) or with dependent characteristics present a higher risk of becoming abusive (both physically and mentally) as well as becoming a victim of abuse. Regarding the elderly, the concept of "reverse violence"--where the current abuser was the victim of the senior who is being abused-, also entails dependent relationships. We identified three concepts that are necessary in the understanding of how dependent relationships underpin abuse: Rusbult's model of commitment in intimate relationships, the notion of dependency-possessiveness and Murphy et al's notion of escalating affective dependency. Thus, it is imperative that future studies in the field of domestic violence look at the dynamics of dyads rather than the individuals alone. PMID:27487692
Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten
Background Previous research has indicated that aggressive behaviour and DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders (PD) may be associated with professionals' emotional reactions to clients, and that cluster C PD may be associated with positive emotional reactions. Methods Staff members recruited from workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Questionnaire. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis was used to assess the associations between personality disorders and emotional reations. Results Cluster B disorder features were associated with feeling distance to patients, and cluster C disorder features were associated with feeling helpful towards patients. Cluster A disorders had no significant impact on emotional reactions. Conclusion The findings confirm clinical experiences that personality disorder features in patients with substance abuse have an impact on staff members reactions to them. These reactions should be considered in supervision of staff, and in treatment models for patients with co-morbid personality disorders and substance abuse. PMID:18402658
You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R
Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 10, 24, and 36 weeks. Sadness, guilt, and shame-proneness were associated with self-reported and observer-rated SI across time after adjusting for depressive and PTSD symptoms, suicide attempt history, and sociodemographic characteristics associated with SI. These findings highlight the need for clinical attention to self-directed negative emotions to potentially reduce suicide-related risk. PMID:22409700
Bailey, Craig S; Denham, Susanne A; Curby, Timothy W; Bassett, Hideko H
Preschool teachers, like parents, support children in ways that promote the regulation capacities that drive school adjustment, especially for children struggling to succeed in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to explore the emotionally and organizationally supportive classroom processes that contribute to the development of children's emotion regulation and executive control. Emotion regulation and executive control were assessed in 312 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children. The 44 teachers of these children completed questionnaires asking about 3 components of children's school adjustment: Positive/Engaged, Independent/Motivated, and Prosocial/Connected. Observations of classroom emotional and organizational supports were conducted. Results of multilevel models indicated emotion regulation was significantly associated with the Positive/Engaged school adjustment component, but only when teachers' emotional and organizational supports were taken into account. Children with lower levels of emotion regulation, who were also in less supportive classrooms, had the lowest scores on the Positive/Engaged component. Children's executive control was associated with the Independent/Motivated and Prosocial/Connected components independently of teacher effects. In general, moderate support was found for the notion that teachers' supports can be particularly helpful for children struggling to regulate their emotions to be better adjusted to school. Children's emotionally salient classroom behaviors, and teachers' emotion scaffolding, are discussed. PMID:26479772
Smith, Timothy W; Baron, Carolynne E; Grove, Jeremy L
A variety of aspects of personality and emotional adjustment predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD), as do indications of marital quality (e.g., satisfaction, conflict, strain, disruption). Importantly, the personality traits and aspects of emotional adjustment that predict CHD are also related to marital quality. In such instances of correlated risk factors, traditional epidemiological and clinical research typically either ignores the potentially overlapping effects or examines independent associations through statistical controls, approaches that can misrepresent the key components and mechanisms of psychosocial effects on CHD. The interpersonal perspective in personality and clinical psychology provides an alternative and integrative approach, through its structural and process models of interpersonal behavior. We present this perspective on psychosocial risk and review research on its application to the integration of personality, emotional adjustment, and marital processes as closely interrelated influences on health and disease. PMID:24118013
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Wilson, Anna C; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa
The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N=196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point occurring 1 year apart. LPA identified 5 frustration and 4 anxiety regulation profiles based on children's physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. The relation of effortful control to conduct problems was mediated by frustration regulation profiles, as was the relation of effortful control to depression. Anxiety regulation profiles did not mediate relations between temperament and adjustment. PMID:21413935
Wells, Robert D.; And Others
Girls who had been sexually abused (n=68) or had alleged being sexually abused (n=68) exhibited sleep problems, fearfulness, emotional and behavioral changes, concentration problems, and sexual curiosity and knowledge. Girls known to have been abused were more self-conscious, fearful of being left alone, and had more nightmares than the allegedly…
Adomeh, Ilu O. C.
This study examined the efficacy of Albert Ellis' Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) in fostering emotional adjustment among Nigerian adolescents. Fifty senior secondary school students were randomly selected and divided equally into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was treated with REBT twice a week for six weeks.…
Dennis, Tracy A.; Kelemen, Deborah A.
Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and…
Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia
This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…
Ogoemeka, Obioma Helen
In the process of educating adolescents, good emotional development and life adjustment are two significant factors for teachers to know. This study employed random cluster sampling of senior secondary school students in Ondo and Oyo States in south-western Nigeria. The Random sampling was employed to select 1,070 students. The data collected were…
Solomon, Zahava; Debby-Aharon, Shimrit; Zerach, Gadi; Horesh, Danny
The current study aimed to examine the implications of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and emotional sharing in marital adjustment and parental functioning among Israeli veterans of the 1982 Lebanon War. The sample consisted of combat stress reaction (CSR) veterans (n = 264) and non-CSR veterans (n = 209). Results show that traumatized…
Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo
This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…
Dennis, Tracy A; Kelemen, Deborah A
Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and fear. Forty-seven adults were presented with a parallel questionnaire. Participants rated the degree to which six emotion-regulation strategies were effective in decreasing negative emotions. Results showed that even the youngest preschoolers viewed cognitive and behavioral distraction and repairing the situation as relatively effective; compared to adults, however, preschoolers favored relatively "ineffective" strategies such as venting and rumination. Children also showed a functional view of emotion regulation; that effective strategies depend on the emotion being regulated. All participants favored repairing a negative situation to reduce anger and behavioral distraction to reduce sadness and fear. Finally, the more children indicated that venting would reduce negative emotions, the lower their maternal report of social skills. Findings are discussed in terms of functional emotion theory and implications of emotion-regulation understanding for child adjustment. PMID:19724663
Karakurt, Günnur; Silver, Kristin E.
The present study aimed to investigate the moderating roles of gender and age on emotional abuse within intimate relationships. This study included 250 participants with an average age of 27 years. Participants completed the Emotional Abuse Questionnaire (EAQ; Jacobson and Gottman, 1998), whose four subscales are isolation, degradation, sexual abuse, and property damage. Multigroup analysis with two groups, female (n = 141) and male (n = 109), was used to test the moderation effect. Younger men reported experiencing higher levels of emotional abuse, which declined with age. Older females reported experiencing less emotional abuse than older males. Overall, emotional abuse was more common in younger participants. Younger women experienced higher rates of isolation, and women’s overall experience of property damage was higher than that of men and increased with age. Results are interpreted through the Social Exchange and Conflict frameworks. PMID:24364124
Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Klika, J Bart; Skinner, Martie L
Analyses tested hypotheses that pertain to direct and indirect effects of parent-reported physical and emotional abuse on later self-reported criminal behavior in a sample of 356 adults of a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. Childhood antisocial behavior was included in analyses as a potential mediator. Physical abuse only predicted adult crime indirectly through childhood antisocial behavior, whereas emotional abuse predicted adult outcome both directly and indirectly. Chronicity of physical abuse was indirectly related to later crime in a subsample test for those who had been physically abused (n=318), whereas chronicity of emotional abuse was neither directly nor indirectly related to adult crime in a test of those who had been emotionally abused (n=225). Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:26439922
Background Emotional abuse is central to other forms of abuse. The primary objective of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of emotional abuse among pupils in basic education schools and the risk factors associated with it in Aden governorate, Yemen. Methods Four districts were randomly selected from across the governorate of Aden, 2 schools were selected at random in each district, and then 1066 pupils were randomly selected from the 8 schools. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver.15. Mean, standard deviation and chi square were used for descriptive statistics. Univariate and Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between emotional abuse with pupils/parents characteristics. Results Pupils reported high rates of emotional abuse 55.2% at least once in their school lifetime. Male pupils had higher prevalence of emotional abuse 72.6% than females 26.1%. Teachers constituted the highest proportion of perpetrators 45.6%. Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval) showed statistically significant association between emotional abuse and pupils' gender, family type and father education: 9.94 (7.19-13.74), 1.40 (1.02-1.91), .58 (.39-.86) respectively. Conclusion Emotional child abuse was highly prevalent in pupils in basic school education. Pupils' gender, family type and father education were the main risk factors associated with emotional abuse. PMID:22888950
Feeney, Tawn R.
The paper examines the nature of child abuse and neglect, considers its effects on the emotional well being of the child, and describes treatment approaches. Emotional neglect is differentiated from emotional disturbance. Long-term effects of child maltreatment include irreversible physical damage to the central nervous system, emotional damage,…
Rodgers, Jennifer; Calder, Peter
Examined relationship of marital adjustment and level of disability of persons with multiple sclerosis (n=104) to emotional adjustment. Found emotional adjustment significantly related to perceived level of marital adjustment, but no relationship found for level of disability. Results suggest, although marital adjustment is important for emotional…
Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly
This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage…
Asla, Nagore; de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia
Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether parents at high risk for physical child abuse, in comparison with parents at low risk, show deficits in emotion recognition, as well as to examine the moderator effect of gender and stress on the relationship between risk for physical child abuse and emotion recognition. Methods: Based…
Objective: To develop further the understanding of emotional abuse and neglect. Methods: Building on previous work, this paper describes the further development of a conceptual framework for the recognition and management of emotional abuse and neglect. Training in this framework is currently being evaluated. The paper also briefly reviews more…
This document provides an annotated bibliography of 24 empirical studies of child abuse and a summary of the findings. Annotations are organized in three sections covering effects of child abuse on children's cognitive, emotional, and social development. A 5-page summary of research findings generally indicated that abused children possessed…
Shapero, Benjamin G.; Black, Shimrit K.; Liu, Richard T.; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Objective Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. Method In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. PMID:23800893
This study examined the effects of emotional abuse in childhood, along with physical and sexual abuse, on suicidality in adulthood, and whether and how emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediate the association between the childhood emotional abuse and suicidality. The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey with a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used to analyze the relationships between childhood emotional abuse and suicidality and the mediating effects. Random effects models showed that emotional abuse in childhood was positively associated with suicidality in adulthood, even after controlling for physical and sexual abuse in childhood. Emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediated the association between emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality. Depressive symptoms also mediated between emotional abuse in adulthood and suicidality. These findings suggest that emotional abuse in childhood has indirect harmful effects on suicidality in adulthood. It increases suicidality through higher occurrences of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Practitioners and policy makers should recognize that experiences of emotional abuse in childhood may result in re-victimization in adulthood, which, in turn, lead to suicidality. Early intervention programs to reduce the likelihood of experiencing re-victimization may be critical for people exposed to emotional abuse in childhood. PMID:25890665
Jina, Ruxana; Jewkes, Rachel; Hoffman, Susie; Dunkle, Kristen L.; Nduna, Mzikazi; Shai, Nwabisa J.
There is a lack of data on the prevalence of emotional abuse in youth. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of emotional abuse in intimate partnerships among young women in rural South Africa and to measure the association between lifetime experience of emotional abuse (with and without the combined experience of physical…
Horrocks, Julie; Kamano, Saori
Objectives. As part of the World Health Organization's cross-national research effort, we investigated the relationship between various health indicators and the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), which included emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, among women in Yokohama, Japan. Methods. We used multivariate logistic and negative binomial regression to examine the relationship between health status and IPV in a stratified cluster sample of 1371 women aged 18 to 49 years. Results. In 9 of 11 health indicators examined, the odds of experiencing health-related problems were significantly higher (P < .05) among those that reported emotional abuse plus physical or sexual violence than among those that reported no IPV, after we controlled for sociodemographic factors, childhood sexual abuse, and adulthood sexual violence perpetrated by someone other than an intimate partner. For most health indicators, there were no significant differences between those that reported emotional abuse only and those that reported emotional abuse plus physical or sexual violence. Conclusions. The similarity of outcomes among those that reported emotional abuse only and those that reported emotional abuse plus physical or sexual violence suggests the need for increased training of health care providers about the effects of emotional abuse. PMID:18703455
Stanton, M P; Seidl, A; Pillitteri, A; Smith, C
Some studies have linked birth defects, disability, and chronic illness with an increased incidence of child abuse. Nurses who are involved with disabled children face a challenge in preventing child abuse and intervening in cases in which abuse has occurred. Nurse must become aware of the risk factors and signs of abuse, understand the role of their personal attitudes toward abuse and abusers, and develop the skills to intervene effectively and deal with abusers. Thus, the authors of this article undertook a study to ascertain nurses' attitudes about emotional, sexual, and physical abuse of children with disabilities and to determine if nurses' anticipated level of comfort differed when dealing with abusers of children with disabilities in contrast to abusers of children without disabilities. PMID:7831522
Pinto-Gouveia, José; Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, Marina; Matos, Marcela
Little is known about emotional regulation processes of psychological flexibility/acceptance, self-compassion, and coping styles in infertility and the way they may exert a protective function towards depression. The aim of the current study was to explore how these emotion regulation processes are related to depression and to the sense of self-efficacy to deal with infertility in infertile patients. Gender differences were also considered. One hundred couples without known fertility problems and 100 couples with an infertility diagnosis completed the instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, Coping Styles Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Self-Compassion Scale and Infertility Self-efficacy Scale. Infertile couples presented statistically significantly higher scores on depression and lower scores in psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion than the control group. This pattern was particularly identified in women who also tended to use less an emotional/detached coping style and to perceive themselves as less confident to deal with infertility than men. Multiple regression analysis showed that psychological flexibility/acceptance was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in men and women with infertility. Emotional regulation processes, such as psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion, seem to be relevant to the understanding of depressive symptoms and psychological adjustment to infertility, suggesting that these issues should be addressed in a therapeutic context with these couples. PMID:22309792
Langevin, Rachel; Hébert, Martine; Allard-Dansereau, Claire; Bernard-Bonnin, Anne-Claude
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with emotion regulation deficits in childhood. Parents play a crucial role in the development of emotion regulation in their children, especially at younger ages. Close to 50% of mothers of sexually abused children report having been sexually victimized themselves as children. They are consequently at risk of experiencing significant distress following the disclosure of sexual abuse of their child. Parents' distress could interfere with their ability to provide support and to foster development of emotion regulation in their children. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship of parental factors (history of sexual victimization in childhood and the current level of distress) to sexually abused preschoolers' emotion regulation competencies. Emotion regulation was assessed in 153 preschoolers by their parents with the Emotion Regulation Checklist; 75 of these children were abused (14 boys); 78 were not abused (21 boys) and were part of a comparison group. Parents reported their level of distress using the Psychiatric Symptom Index. Results indicated that parental factors contributed to some dimensions of preschoolers' emotion regulation (namely displays of underregulation of emotion) above and beyond children's victimization status and gender (Cohen's ƒ(2) = .15). Identifying parental distress and history of sexual victimization as positively associated with emotional dysregulation in preschool children victims of CSA has important research and clinical implications. PMID:26915665
Burns, Erin E.; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L.; Harding, Hilary G.
The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual…
Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.
Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…
Zajac, Kristyn; Ralston, M Elizabeth; Smith, Daniel W
Maternal support has been widely cited as an important predictor of children's adjustment following disclosure of sexual abuse. However, few studies have examined these effects longitudinally. The current study examines the relationships between a multidimensional assessment of maternal support rated by both mothers and children and children's adjustment in various domains (internalizing, externalizing, anger, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms) concurrently and longitudinally. Participants were 118 mother-child dyads recruited from a Child Advocacy Center where children were determined through a forensic evaluation to be victims of sexual abuse. Child and mother ratings of maternal support and child adjustment were collected shortly after the forensic evaluation and at 9-month follow-up. Results were consistent with findings from past studies that maternal support is significantly related to children's post-disclosure adjustment and extends these findings longitudinally. Additionally, the study sheds light on differential relations between dimensions of maternal support (Emotional Support, Blame/Doubt, Vengeful Arousal, and Skeptical Preoccupation) and child adjustment and suggests the importance of using both child and mother ratings of maternal support in future research. PMID:25736053
Wagner, William G.
In this study of brief-term concomitant of child sexual abuse, children's reports of self-concept and depression, and parents' ratings of their children's depressive symptomology, were examined for child victims of molestation or sexual abuse outside the family, and for nonabused children whose parents sought psychological services for them. (BB)
Burns, Erin E; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L; Harding, Hilary G
The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual and physical abuse. Structural equation modeling was utilized to simultaneously examine the effects of all three abuse types on multiple dependent variables as well as examine whether deficits in emotion regulation mediated the relationship between abuse and eating pathology. Results from a survey of 1,254 female college students revealed significant paths from abuse subtypes to specific eating disorder symptoms, with CEA evidencing the strongest association with ED symptoms. Additionally, emotion dysregulation was positively associated with ED symptoms, and mediated the effects of emotional abuse on symptoms. Findings support previous research on the enduring effects of emotional abuse as well as highlight the importance of the assessment of CEA in the treatment of ED symptoms. PMID:22265934
Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Knight, Bob G.
Purpose: This study examined whether recalled childhood parental emotional abuse and support were associated with emotional reactivity to network stress among middle-aged and older adults. Design and Methods: Hypotheses were tested by performing 2-level multilevel modeling analysis on 787 participants aged 33-83 who participated in the Daily…
Estefan, Lianne Fuino; Coulter, Martha L; VandeWeerd, Carla
Intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure has been associated with poor mental health outcomes for victims, but fewer studies have examined the unique contributions of emotional abuse to mental health. This study explored the contextual relationships between the type and frequency of IPV, community factors, and emotional health. Data were collected from a community-based IPV intervention program. Logistic regression found an increased likelihood of depression for respondents who experienced emotional abuse more than once per week (odds ratio [OR] = 4.864) and were worried about contact by the abuser (OR = 5.898). Results indicate the need for specific policy and practice attention to this issue. PMID:26825117
Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo
In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…
Simon, Valerie A; Smith, Erin; Fava, Nicole; Feiring, Candice
Meanings made of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences are important to psychosocial adjustment. The current study examined adolescents' and young adults' perceptions of posttraumatic change (PTC) in the self, relationships, sexuality, and worldviews attributed to prior CSA experiences. We sought to document the prevalence of positive and negative PTC and examine their unique and joint associations with psychosocial adjustment. Participants included 160 youth with confirmed cases of CSA (73% female; 8-14 years at abuse discovery) who were part of a longitudinal study of the long-term effects of CSA. Six years after discovery, youth were interviewed about their abuse experiences. Interviews were coded for the valence and strength of PTC. The majority of youth reported PTC, and negative changes were more frequent and stronger than positive changes. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and negative PTC, positive PTC was associated with lower abuse stigmatization for all youth. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and positive PTC, negative PTC was associated with greater abuse stigmatization, post-traumatic stress disorder, sexual problems, and dating aggression for all youth. Relations of positive PTC with depression and support from friends and romantic partner were moderated by negative PTC, such that positive PTC was associated with better adjustment for youth with low versus high levels of negative PTC. Results highlight the importance of both negative and positive PTC for understanding meanings made of CSA experiences and their implications for psychosocial adjustment and intervention. PMID:26092440
Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Loening-Voysey, Heidi
Background Physical, emotional and sexual abuse of children is a major problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. To date, no known studies have used data directly obtained from community-based samples of children to investigate prevalence, incidence, locations and perpetrators of child abuse victimisation. This study aims to investigate prevalence and incidence, perpetrators, and locations of child abuse victimisation in South Africa using a multicommunity sample. Methods 3515 children aged 10–17 years (56.6% female) were interviewed from all households in randomly selected census enumeration areas in two South African provinces. Child self-report questionnaires were completed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (96.7% retention). Results Prevalence was 56.3% for lifetime physical abuse (18.2% past-year incidence), 35.5% for lifetime emotional abuse (12.1% incidence) and 9% for lifetime sexual abuse (5.3% incidence). 68.9% of children reported any type of lifetime victimisation and 27.1% reported lifetime multiple abuse victimisation. Main perpetrators of abuse were reported: for physical abuse, primary caregivers and teachers; for emotional abuse, primary caregivers and relatives; and for sexual abuse, girlfriend/boyfriends or other peers. Conclusions This is the first study assessing current self-reported child abuse through a large, community-based sample in South Africa. Findings of high rates of physical, emotional and sexual abuse demonstrate the need for targeted and effective interventions to prevent incidence and re-victimisation. PMID:26962202
Daigre, Constanza; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Tarifa, Núria; Rodríguez-Martos, Lola; Grau-López, Lara; Berenguer, Marta; Casas, Miguel; Roncero, Carlos
Sexual, emotional or physical abuse history is a risk factor for mental disorders in addicted patients. However, the relationship between addiction and abuse lifespan is not well known. This study aims to compare clinical and psychopathological features of addicted patients according to the experience of abuse and to the number of different types of abuse suffered. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. 512 addicted patients seeking treatment were included, 45.9% reported abuse throughout life (38.9% emotional, 22.3% physical and 13.5% sexual abuse). It was found that female gender; depressive symptoms and borderline personality disorder were independently associated with history of any abuse throughout life. As well, it was found that 14% have been suffered from all three types of abuse (sexual, emotional and physical), 34.5% from two and 55.5% from one type. Female gender and borderline personality disorder were independently associated independently with a greater number of different types of abuse. Results suggest that history of abuse is frequent among substance-dependent patients and these experiences are more prevalent in women and are associated with more psychiatric comorbidity. PMID:26279128
Young, Joanna Cahall; Widom, Cathy Spatz
To determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities in adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood. Potential mediators (IQ, Post-Traumatic Stress [PTSD], Generalized Anxiety [GAD], Dysthymia, and Major Depressive [MDD] Disorders, and psychopathy) were assessed in young adulthood with standardized assessment techniques. In middle adulthood (Mage=47), the International Affective Picture System was used to measure emotion processing. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation models. Individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment were less accurate in emotion processing overall and in processing positive and neutral pictures than matched controls. Childhood physical abuse predicted less accuracy in neutral pictures and childhood sexual abuse and neglect predicted less accuracy in recognizing positive pictures. MDD, GAD, and IQ predicted overall picture recognition accuracy. However, of the mediators examined, only IQ acted to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and emotion processing deficits. Although research has focused on emotion processing in maltreated children, these new findings show an impact child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in middle adulthood. Research and interventions aimed at improving emotional processing deficiencies in abused and neglected children should consider the role of IQ. PMID:24747007
Theoklitou, D.; Kabitsis, N.; Kabitsi, A.
The existence of child abuse is unfortunately a reality of contemporary society. Although various organizations and researchers have been making progress in the struggle against abuse, it has not been decisively dealt with thus far. Most of the research on abuse has focused on the abuse of children in their family environment. Objective: The aim…
Reed, Gayle L.; Enright, Robert D.
Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years…
Feinson, Marjorie C; Hornik-Lurie, Tzipi
Recent studies reveal that childhood emotional abuse (CEA) is the trauma most clearly associated with adult eating pathology. Yet, relatively little is understood about psychological mechanisms linking these distal experiences. Anger's mediational role in the relationship between CEA and adult binge eating (BE) is explored in a community-based sample of 498 adult women (mean age 44). Detailed telephone interviews assess BE (7 items), CEA (single item), and unresolved anger (single item) along with self-criticism (modified Rosenberg self-esteem scale), depression and anxiety symptoms (BSI sub-scales). Statistical analyses include Pearson correlations, Baron and Kenny's steps for mediation, and Preacher and Hayes bootstrapping method to test proposed multiple mediators simultaneously. Findings reveal significantly more respondents (n = 476 with complete data) with serious BE behaviors report a history of CEA compared to women with considerable and/or minimal BE (53% vs 37%, p = 0.002 respectively). Significant correlations are found among all study variables. Mediation analyses focus on anger together with self-criticism, depression and anxiety. Findings reveal anger and self-criticism fully mediate the CEA-BE relationship. In contrast, depression and anxiety symptoms are not significant mediators in a model that includes anger and self-criticism. Although additional research is warranted to more fully understand complex causal processes, in the interim, treatment interventions should be broadened to include assessments of anger among adult women with BE behaviors, especially those with histories of childhood abuse. Additionally, prevention strategies that incorporate learning how to express anger directly and positively may be particularly effective in reducing various disordered eating behaviors among women and girls. PMID:27208594
Goodall, Karen; Rush, Robert; Grünwald, Lisa; Darling, Stephen; Tiliopoulos, Niko
Developmental theories highlight the salience of attachment theory in explaining vulnerability towards psychosis. At the same time there is increasing recognition that psychosis is associated with childhood trauma variables. This study explored the interaction between attachment and several trauma variables in relation to schizotypy levels in a non-clinical sample. 283 non-clinical participants completed online measures of schizotypy, attachment, childhood abuse and neglect. When five types of abuse/neglect were entered into a linear regression analysis emotional abuse was the sole independent predictor of schizotypy. Age, attachment anxiety and avoidance were independent predictors after the effects of emotional abuse were controlled for. The overall model was significant, explaining 34% of the variation in schizotypy. Moderation analysis indicated that the effect of emotional abuse was not conditional upon attachment. Parallel mediation analysis indicated small but significant indirect effects of emotional abuse on schizotypy through attachment avoidance (13%) and attachment anxiety (8%). We conclude that emotional abuse contributes to vulnerability towards psychosis both directly and indirectly through attachment insecurity. PMID:26474661
Lamis, Dorian A; Wilson, Christina K; Shahane, Amit A; Kaslow, Nadine J
Although there is an association between experiencing childhood emotional abuse and feeling hopeless as an adult, it is critical to understand the factors that may be protective in this relationship. The goal of this study was to determine if two protective factors, namely spiritual well-being, including both religious and existential well-being, and positive self-esteem, served to mediate the association between childhood emotional abuse and adult hopelessness. The sample for this investigation was low-income African American women suicide attempters who were abused by a partner in the prior year (N=121). A path analysis revealed that in this sample, the childhood emotional abuse-hopelessness link was mediated by existential well-being and positive self-esteem, as well as by the two-mediator path of emotional abuse on existential well-being on self-esteem on hopelessness. Results suggested that existential well-being may be a more salient protective factor for hopelessness than religious well-being among abused, suicidal African American women who experienced childhood emotional abuse. Findings highlight the value of culturally relevant strategies for enhancing existential well-being and self-esteem in this at-risk population to reduce their vulnerability to feelings of hopelessness. PMID:24360716
Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache
Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555
Camras, Linda A.; And Others
A total of 20 abused and 20 nonabused pairs of children of three-seven years and their mothers participated in a facial expression posing task and a facial expression recognition task. Findings suggest that abused children may not observe as often as nonabused children do the easily interpreted voluntary displays of emotion by their mothers. (RH)
Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore…
Bogdaniak, Roman C.
Dually diagnosed adolescents suffering from both severe emotional disturbance and substance abuse/addiction constitute a special population which poses a challenge to health professionals in special education as well as clinical settings. The prevalence of substance use, abuse, and addiction has been shown to be significantly above the national…
You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.
Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression.…
Hillman, Charles H; Rosengren, Karl S; Smith, Darin P
Thirty-six participants (18 female, 18 male) viewed affective pictures to investigate the coupling between emotional reactions and motivated behavior. Framed within the biphasic theory of emotion, the three systems approach was employed by collecting measures of subjective report, expressive physiology, and motivated behavior. Postural adjustments associated with viewing affective pictures were measured. Results indicated sex-differences for postural responses to unpleasant pictures; an effect not found for pleasant and neutral picture contents. Females exhibited increased postural movement in the posterior direction, and males exhibited increased movement in the anterior direction, for unpleasant pictures. Subjective report of valence and arousal using the self-assessment manikin (SAM), and the startle eye-blink reflex were collected during a separate session, which replicated previous picture-viewing research. Specifically, participants rated pleasant pictures higher in valence and exhibited smaller startle responses compared to unpleasant pictures. Females also reported lower valence ratings compared to males across all picture contents. These findings extend our knowledge of motivated engagement with affective stimuli and indicate that postural responses may provide insight into sex-related differences in withdrawal behavior. PMID:15019170
This article discusses the emotional toll for professionals working with children who are abused or neglected. It identifies feelings or conflicts that interfere consistently with effective delivery of care and notes several studies on this topic. Issues of countertransference, denial, the need to protect oneself, and other emotional challenges…
Hudson, Clifton R.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Clements, Nicolle T.; Benishek, Lois A.; Nick, Claire E.
Little normative information is available about the psychosocial functioning of women who have a substance abusing intimate partner. This study examined whether the social adjustment of women who indicate that they have a substance abusing partner (n=69) is compromised relative to that of women who indicate that their partner does not abuse substances (n=68). Women with a substance abusing partner reported compromised social adjustment relative to a comparison sample both overall and in five of six life domains (work, social/leisure, primary relationship, parental, family). Results suggest the potential benefit of expanding the focus of research and treatment to include effects and outcomes for these women and to influence treatment-related policy. PMID:25052786
Crow, Thomas; Cross, Dorthie; Powers, Abigail; Bradley, Bekh
Abuse and neglect in childhood are well-established risk factors for later psychopathology. Past research has suggested that childhood emotional abuse may be particularly harmful to psychological development. The current cross-sectional study employed multiple regression techniques to assess the effects of childhood trauma on adulthood depression and emotion dysregulation in a large sample of mostly low-income African Americans recruited in an urban hospital. Bootstrap analyses were used to test emotion dysregulation as a potential mediator between emotional abuse in childhood and current depression. Childhood emotional abuse significantly predicted depressive symptoms even when accounting for all other childhood trauma types, and we found support for a complementary mediation of this relationship by emotion dysregulation. Our findings highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation and childhood emotional abuse in relation to adult depression. Moving forward, clinicians should consider the particular importance of emotional abuse in the development of depression, and future research should seek to identify mechanisms through which emotional abuse increases risk for depression and emotion dysregulation. PMID:25035171
Mundorf, Elisabeth S; Paivio, Sandra C
This study predicted that the quality of trauma narratives written before and following emotion-focused therapy for child abuse trauma would be positively associated with psychological disturbance before and following therapy. Narratives for 37 clients were coded for emotion words, temporal orientation, incoherence, and depth of experiencing. At pretreatment, negative emotion words and experiencing were correlated with abuse resolution, r(35) = -.36, and r(35) = -.34, respectively. At posttreatment, narrative incoherence was correlated with trauma symptoms, r(35) = .33, whereas present-future orientation and experiencing were correlated with abuse resolution, r(35) = -.37, and r(35) = -.31, respectively. Pretreatment incoherence was associated with posttreatment trauma symptoms, r(35) = .42, and pretreatment depth of experiencing was associated with posttreatment abuse resolution, r(35) = -.37. Results support narrative quality as an index of trauma disturbance. PMID:22144230
Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane
Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. PMID:27364540
Lum, Mark Stephen
This review of research studies on the psychological adjustment of gifted persons focused on five dimensions: social/behavioral conduct, family adjustment, emotional functioning (personality characteristics, anxiety, depression), social functioning (interpersonal relationships, social skills), and perceived competence (self-concept, self-esteem,…
Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad
The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…
Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.
Aggression is associated with a host of behavioral, social, and emotional adjustment difficulties. However, some aggressive youth are perceived as "popular" by peers. Although these perceived popular aggressive youth appear relatively well adjusted, especially in the social domain, the emotional well-being of these youth is understudied. The…
Adeyemo, David Akinlolu
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and adjustment of students transitioning from primary school to secondary school. Method: The study is a descriptive survey research in which emotional intelligence stands as the independent variable and adjustment as the dependent variable.…
Ireland, Jane L; Birch, Philip
Emotionally abusive behaviors reported across a 6-month period in intimate relationships were examined. There were 269 participants aged 18-25 years who took part (98 men, 171 women). All completed the Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse (MMEA) and a measure of implicit aggression, the Puzzle Test. Implicit processing refers to subtle cognitive processing that occurs outside of conscious awareness. This study focused on aggressive implicit processing. Overall emotional victimization by a partner was associated with increased implicit aggressive levels, particularly for women. Those classified as perpetrators/victims (mutual aggressors and victims) were also predicted by increased implicit aggression. Women reported higher levels of implicit aggression than men. Results are discussed regarding future research and the value of theory in understanding the association between emotional abuse and implicit aggression. PMID:24047045
Katz, Carmit; Paddon, Misha Janet; Barnetz, Zion
Addressing the characteristics of children as witnesses has been a focus of many researchers; however, the emotion derived from children during investigative interviews is an understudied field that is vital for practitioners from various contexts. The current study explores the emotional language that children use during forensic investigations following suspected sexual abuse. The sample comprises 97 investigative interviews with children (N = 97) aged 3-14 years. These interviews were randomly selected from all forensic interviews carried out in Israel in 2011. All of the interviews were conducted in conformity with the National Institute of Child Health and Development Protocol, and the emotional language of the children was coded. The results reveal a limited overall presence of emotional language. Children hardly used positive emotional language and mainly employed negative emotional language. The interview phase and the age of the children greatly affected the use of emotional language, and gender and suspect familiarity had no effect on the children's emotional language. The findings from the current study enhance existing knowledge on the emotional language of children during forensic investigations and highlight the study's unique characteristics in the context of abuse, trauma, and forensic investigation. The results of this study demonstrate the need for including probes about emotions in investigative interviews and the addition of emotional language to coding schemes for investigative interviews. PMID:27135380
Warm and emotionally close relationships with parents and grandparents have been found in previous studies to be linked with better adolescent adjustment. The present study, informed by Family Systems Theory and Intergenerational Solidarity Theory, uses a moderated mediation model analyzing the contribution of the dynamics of these intergenerational relationships to adolescent adjustment. Specifically, it examines the mediating role of emotional closeness to the closest grandparent in the relationship between emotional closeness to a parent (the offspring of the closest grandparent) and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The model also examines the moderating role of emotional closeness to parents in the relationship between emotional closeness to grandparents and adjustment difficulties. The study was based on a sample of 1,405 Jewish Israeli secondary school students (ages 12-18) who completed a structured questionnaire. It was found that emotional closeness to the closest grandparent was more strongly associated with reduced adjustment difficulties among adolescents with higher levels of emotional closeness to their parents. In addition, adolescent adjustment and emotional closeness to parents was partially mediated by emotional closeness to grandparents. Examining the family conditions under which adolescents' relationships with grandparents is stronger and more beneficial for them can help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties and expand our understanding of the mechanisms that shape child outcomes. PMID:26237053
Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz
Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…
Tarter, Ralph E.; And Others
The Drug Use Screening Inventory's (DUSI) sensitivity in detecting adolescents (N=706) who abuse drugs is demonstrated. Severity of drug involvement and psychiatric disturbance correlated with scores on the School Adjustment domain. Recommends additional research be conducted to determine the predictive validity and temporal stability of DUSI…
Dennis, Tracy A.; Kelemen, Deborah A.
Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and fear. Forty-seven adults were presented with a parallel questionnaire. Participants rated the degree to which six emotion-regulation strategies were effective in decreasing negative emotions. Results showed that even the youngest preschoolers viewed cognitive and behavioral distraction and repairing the situation as relatively effective; compared to adults, however, preschoolers favored relatively “ineffective” strategies such as venting and rumination. Children also showed a functional view of emotion regulation; that effective strategies depend on the emotion being regulated. All participants favored repairing a negative situation to reduce anger and behavioral distraction to reduce sadness and fear. Finally, the more children indicated that venting would reduce negative emotions, the lower their maternal report of social skills. Findings are discussed in terms of functional emotion theory and implications of emotion-regulation understanding for child adjustment. PMID:19724663
Dyer, Anne S; Feldmann, Robert E; Borgmann, Elisabeth
Traumatic experiences are associated with emotions such as anxiety, shame, guilt, disgust, and anger. For patients who have experienced child sexual abuse, these emotions might be triggered by perceptions of their own body. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of the association of the body to traumatic experiences and to discern the emotions linked to trauma-associated body areas. Ninety-seven female participants were assigned to four groups: post-traumatic stress disorder following child sexual abuse with co-occurring borderline personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder following child sexual abuse without co-occurring borderline personality disorder, borderline personality disorder without post-traumatic stress disorder, and healthy controls. Participants rated 26 body areas regarding their association with trauma and 7 emotions. Emotions were assessed by questionnaires. Results suggest that specific areas of the body are associated with trauma and linked to highly aversive emotions. In post-traumatic stress disorder patients, the areas associated with highly negative emotions were the pubic region and inner thighs. Thus, the patient's body may act as a trigger for traumatic memories. PMID:26340071
Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C
Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abuse with aggression, and childhood emotional abuse with emotion dysregulation. 280 inpatients (M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American) in substance use treatment completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Affect Intensity and Dimensions of Affiliation Motivation (AIM). Consistent with our hypotheses, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale uniquely predicted exchanging sex for cocaine and heroin, number of arrests for prostitution, engaging in unprotected sex with a casual partner during the prior year, and experiencing low sexual arousal when sober. The physical abuse subscale uniquely predicted number of arrests for assault and weapons offenses. The emotional abuse subscale uniquely predicted the DERS total score, AIM score, and DTS score. Among substance users, different types of abuse are uniquely associated with specific negative effects. Assessment of specific abuse types among substance users may be informative in treatment planning and relapse prevention. PMID:24521524
van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; de Jong, Peter J; Glashouwer, Klaske A; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Elzinga, Bernet M
Individuals reporting Childhood Abuse (CA) (i.e., emotional neglect, emotional-, physical- and sexual-abuse) are marked by increased explicit (i.e. self-reported) negative self-associations, and an increased risk to develop depression or anxiety disorders. Automatic self-associations might play an important role in the development and maintenance of affective disorders after exposure to CA, since automatic associations are assumed to be involved in uncontrolled (spontaneous) affective behavior. This study examined whether individuals reporting a history of CA show stronger automatic (and explicit) self-depression and/or self-anxiety associations than individuals who report no CA in a large cohort study (Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), n = 2981). The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was utilized to assess automatic self-depression and self-anxiety associations. We found that CA was associated with enhanced automatic (and explicit) self-depression and self-anxiety associations. Additionally, when compared to physical- and sexual-abuse, Childhood Emotional Maltreatment (CEM; emotional abuse and emotional neglect) had the strongest link with enhanced automatic (and explicit) self-depression and self-anxiety associations. In addition, automatic and explicit negative self-associations partially mediated the association between CEM and depressive or anxious symptomatology. Implications regarding the importance of CA, and CEM in particular will be discussed. PMID:20303472
Moeller, Tamerra P.; And Others
The health effects of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse during childhood were studied in 668 middle class females. Approximately 28% recounted exposure to one type of abuse, 18% to two types, and 5% to three types. Abused women reported more hospitalizations for illnesses, more physical and psychological problems, and lower overall health than…
... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...
Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard; Wong, Christopher; Tomasi, Dardo
Moves to legalize marijuana highlight the urgency to investigate effects of chronic marijuana in the human brain. Here, we challenged 48 participants (24 controls and 24 marijuana abusers) with methylphenidate (MP), a drug that elevates extracellular dopamine (DA) as a surrogate for probing the reactivity of the brain to DA stimulation. We compared the subjective, cardiovascular, and brain DA responses (measured with PET and [(11)C]raclopride) to MP between controls and marijuana abusers. Although baseline (placebo) measures of striatal DA D2 receptor availability did not differ between groups, the marijuana abusers showed markedly blunted responses when challenged with MP. Specifically, compared with controls, marijuana abusers had significantly attenuated behavioral ("self-reports" for high, drug effects, anxiety, and restlessness), cardiovascular (pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure), and brain DA [reduced decreases in distribution volumes (DVs) of [(11)C]raclopride, although normal reductions in striatal nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND)] responses to MP. In ventral striatum (key brain reward region), MP-induced reductions in DVs and BPND (reflecting DA increases) were inversely correlated with scores of negative emotionality, which were significantly higher for marijuana abusers than controls. In marijuana abusers, DA responses in ventral striatum were also inversely correlated with addiction severity and craving. The attenuated responses to MP, including reduced decreases in striatal DVs, are consistent with decreased brain reactivity to the DA stimulation in marijuana abusers that might contribute to their negative emotionality (increased stress reactivity and irritability) and addictive behaviors. PMID:25024177
Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard; Wong, Christopher; Tomasi, Dardo
Moves to legalize marijuana highlight the urgency to investigate effects of chronic marijuana in the human brain. Here, we challenged 48 participants (24 controls and 24 marijuana abusers) with methylphenidate (MP), a drug that elevates extracellular dopamine (DA) as a surrogate for probing the reactivity of the brain to DA stimulation. We compared the subjective, cardiovascular, and brain DA responses (measured with PET and [11C]raclopride) to MP between controls and marijuana abusers. Although baseline (placebo) measures of striatal DA D2 receptor availability did not differ between groups, the marijuana abusers showed markedly blunted responses when challenged with MP. Specifically, compared with controls, marijuana abusers had significantly attenuated behavioral (“self-reports” for high, drug effects, anxiety, and restlessness), cardiovascular (pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure), and brain DA [reduced decreases in distribution volumes (DVs) of [11C]raclopride, although normal reductions in striatal nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND)] responses to MP. In ventral striatum (key brain reward region), MP-induced reductions in DVs and BPND (reflecting DA increases) were inversely correlated with scores of negative emotionality, which were significantly higher for marijuana abusers than controls. In marijuana abusers, DA responses in ventral striatum were also inversely correlated with addiction severity and craving. The attenuated responses to MP, including reduced decreases in striatal DVs, are consistent with decreased brain reactivity to the DA stimulation in marijuana abusers that might contribute to their negative emotionality (increased stress reactivity and irritability) and addictive behaviors. PMID:25024177
Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J
Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111
Thaut, Michael H; Gardiner, James C; Holmberg, Dawn; Horwitz, Javan; Kent, Luanne; Andrews, Garrett; Donelan, Beth; McIntosh, Gerald R
This study examined the immediate effects of neurologic music therapy (NMT) on cognitive functioning and emotional adjustment with brain-injured persons. Four treatment sessions were held, during which participants were given a pre-test, participated in 30 min of NMT that focused on one aspect of rehabilitation (attention, memory, executive function, or emotional adjustment), which was followed by post-testing. Control participants engaged in a pre-test, 30 min of rest, and then a post-test. Treatment participants showed improvement in executive function and overall emotional adjustment, and lessening of depression, sensation seeking, and anxiety. Control participants improved in emotional adjustment and lessening of hostility, but showed decreases in measures of memory, positive affect, and sensation seeking. PMID:19673815
Shipman, Kimberly; Schneider, Renee; Sims, Chandler
This study investigated maternal emotion socialization in physically maltreating and nonmaltreating mother-child dyads (N = 63 dyads) to examine the relation between maternal support in response to children's emotional displays and children's psychological adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Child participants…
Fantuzzo, John W.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca; Fusco, Rachel A.; McWayne, Christine
The study examined the unique relationship between multiple dimensions of classroom behavioral adjustment problems and salient social-emotional competencies for urban Head Start children. These relationships were investigated using a hierarchical model that controlled for the variance in social-emotional outcomes attributed to age, gender, and…
Kim, Min-Hee; Moon, Hyukjun
In a child day-care setting, the naturally occurring social-emotional behaviours and play interaction of 51 infants were observed and recorded. Individual differences in gender, age, temperament, and maternal parenting behaviours were examined to understand how these variables might be related to social-emotional adjustment of infants. The…
Herndon, Kristina J.; Bailey, Craig S.; Shewark, Elizabeth A.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.
Children's expression and regulation of emotions are building blocks of their experiences in classrooms. Thus, the authors' primary goal was to investigate whether preschoolers' expression or ability to regulate emotions were associated with teachers' ratings of school adjustment. A secondary goal was to investigate how boys…
Hernández, Maciel M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Spinrad, Tracy L; Silva, Kassondra M; Berger, Rebecca H; Diaz, Anjolii; Terrell, Nathan; Thompson, Marilyn S; Southworth, Jody
This study evaluated direct relations of both kindergarteners' (N = 301) naturalistically observed emotion in 2 different school contexts and early kindergarten verbal competence to academic adjustment (i.e., standardized measures of academic achievement, teacher-reported academic skills, teacher-reported and observed school engagement) and if these relations were mediated by teacher-reported conflict with students and by peer acceptance. When controlling for verbal competence, positive emotions expressed in the classroom context positively directly predicted academic skills, whereas positive emotions expressed outside class (lunch/recess) negatively predicted academic skills. Negative emotions observed in the classroom context and during lunch/recess negatively predicted academic achievement. Positive emotions observed in both contexts indirectly predicted higher school engagement through its positive relation to peer acceptance; positive emotions expressed in lunch and recess indirectly predicted higher school engagement via lower teacher-student conflict. Negative emotions observed in both contexts also indirectly predicted lower school engagement via higher teacher-student conflict. Furthermore, verbal competence indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via lower teacher-student conflict. Moreover, verbal competence moderated the association between peer acceptance (but not teacher-student conflict) and academic adjustment. Because verbal competence moderated the associations from peer competence, positive emotions in both contexts indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via higher peer acceptance primarily for children with low, but not high, initial verbal competence. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751629
Trickett, Penelope K.; Kim, Kihyun; Prindle, John
Objective Based on the data obtained through Child Protective Services (CPS) case records abstraction, this study aimed to explore patterns of overlapping types of child maltreatment in a sample of urban, ethnically diverse male and female youth (n= 303) identified as maltreated by a large public child welfare agency. Methods A cluster analysis was conducted on data for 303 maltreated youth. The overall categorization of four types of abuse (i.e., physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect) was used to provide a starting point for clustering of the 303 cases and then the subtypes of emotional abuse were broken down in the clusters. The different clusters of child maltreatment were compared on the multiple outcomes such as mental health, behavior problems, self-perception, and cognitive development. Results In this study, we identified four clusters of child maltreatment experiences. Three patterns involved emotional abuse. One cluster of children experienced all four types. Different clusters were differentially associated with multiple outcome measures. In general, multiply-maltreated youth fared worst, especially when the cluster involved sexual abuse. Also, sex differences were found in these associations. Boys who experienced multiple types of maltreatment showed more difficulties than girls. Conclusion & practice implications These results reiterate the importance of creating more complex models of child maltreatment. Children who have experienced various types of maltreatment are especially in need of more attention from professionals and resources should be allocated accordingly. PMID:22018516
Bounoua, Nadia; Felton, Julia F; Long, Katie; Stadnik, Ryan D; Loya, Jennifer M; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a pervasive personality disorder that poses a burden for affected individuals, their family members and society as a whole. Current research suggests that early childhood abuse, including emotional abuse, may be an important predictor of later BPD symptomology. Further, an emerging body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity (AS) may serve as a form of emotional vulnerability and be a key variable in the relation between abuse and the development of BPD symptomatology. This literature has relied on retrospective recall of abuse and AS in adult samples. As a result, there is a dearth of literature examining these variables in adolescence, which is a developmental period in which personality traits begin to emerge. This study explored the impact of AS in the development of BPD symptoms in a group of 277 adolescents. Results suggest a significant indirect effect of emotional abuse on BPD symptoms via AS, after controlling for sex, grade and prior levels of AS (indirect effect = 0.04, standard error (SE) = 0.02 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001-0.070)). These findings suggest that, among adolescents, AS may serve as an important contributor to the development of BPD symptoms. Implications for interventions and future research are further discussed. PMID:25940514
Shaw, Benjamin A.
The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…
Data of reported cases of emotional abuse were collected from six Zimbabwe education offices and a questionnaire was administered to 150 primary school teacher trainees and 300 teachers. The majority of participants believe that shouting, scolding, use of vulgarities, humiliation, and negative labeling of pupils is done by female teachers.…
Haskett, Mary E.; Stelter, Rebecca; Proffit, Katie; Nice, Rachel
Objective: Identifying factors associated with school functioning of abused children is important in prevention of long-term negative outcomes associated with school failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation predicted early school behavior of abused…
McKenzie, Kathryn Bell
Illuminating and understanding the emotional abuse inflicted on many students of color is a necessity in creating conditions for their school success. However, this topic is rarely discussed among educators and those preparing educators. However, from the author's recent experiences conducting research in racially diverse schools as well as her…
McCoy, Monica L.; Nightingale, Narina Nunez
Examined how intellectually and emotionally biased media presentations influenced mock jurors' decisions in sex abuse cases. Results show that, when assessed immediately, videos significantly influenced verdicts. However, with a significant time delay (four weeks) and no obvious connection between presentation and trial, no effects on verdicts…
Naude, H.; Du Preez, C. S.; Pretorius, E.
This article aims to explore Executive Emotional System (EES) disruption as causal agent in frontal lobishness among abused children. The "Revised Senior South African Individual Scale" (SSAIS-R) was used to assess a sample population of seventy-five male and female subjects between the ages of 8 years 0 months and 16 years 11 months who were…
Binder, Renee L.; McNiel, Dale E.
A school-based child sexual abuse prevention program consisting of separate two-hour workshops for children (ages 5-12), parents, and teachers was evaluated. Results indicated parents were more informed and interactive with their children following the workshops. Children showed no increased emotional stress and reported feeling safer and better…
Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Kim, Mikyoung; Jeong, Hyun Ju
This study tests the processes through which child abuse public service announcements (PSAs) are effective. The proposed model builds upon the persuasion mediation model of Dillard and Peck (2000 ), which integrates emotional response and perceived effectiveness as antecedents of issue attitudes and behavioral intention. The model tested the mediating role of perceived effectiveness in the persuasion process. Multigroup structural equation modeling was performed for three different types of child abuse prevention PSAs shown on YouTube to 486 college students. The model was well fitted across all three child abuse PSAs. Emotional response seems to exert the largest influence on behavioral intention directly and indirectly through perceived effectiveness and issue attitudes. In addition, perceived effectiveness has both a direct and an indirect impact on behavioral intention. PMID:21512928
Paivio, Sandra C; Jarry, Josee L; Chagigiorgis, Helen; Hall, Imogen; Ralston, Margaret
This study evaluated and compared emotion-focused therapy for trauma (EFTT) with imaginal confrontation (IC) of perpetrators (n=20) and EFTT with empathic exploration (EE) of trauma material (n=25). Clients were women and men with histories of different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, physical, and sexual abuse; emotional neglect). Clients were randomly assigned to treatment condition. Outcome measures assessed symptom distress, self and interpersonal problems, and abuse resolution. Results indicated statistically and clinically significant improvements on eight measures at posttest, maintenance of gains at follow-up, and no statistically significant differences between conditions. There were higher rates of clinically significant change in IC and a lower attrition rate for EE (7% vs. 20%). More severe personality pathology negatively influenced some dimensions of outcome, particularly in EE. PMID:20099203
Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Fantuzzo, John W.; McDermott, Paul A.
An empirical typology of classroom emotional and behavioral adjustment was developed for preschool children living in urban poverty. Multistage hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify six distinct and reliable subtypes of classroom adjustment, differentiated by high and low levels of behavioral (aggressive, inattentive,…
Villanueva, Lidón; Górriz, Ana Belén; Prado-Gascó, Vicente; González, Remedios
Emotion awareness is a key concept related to different child adjustment outcomes. This relationship, influenced by mood, has been found in the preadolescent and adolescent population for somatic complaints. However, little is known in the case of younger children and when other adjustment outcomes are included. The objective of this work is to analyze the contribution of emotion awareness and mood upon different adjustment outcomes (somatic complaints, maladjustment, and peer sociometric status), in children aged 8-12 years old. Self-reported questionnaires and peer-nomination scales were administered to 1423 children (mean age = 9.8 years old). Results support the influence of emotion awareness reinforced by mood, not only upon somatic complaints, but also upon new indicators of personal and social maladjustment, within an age bracket that has not been considered previously. These results stress the importance of emotional abilities and the corresponding affective moods in children's daily life. PMID:25233901
Boiger, Michael; Mesquita, Batja; Tsai, Annie Y; Markus, Hazel
Emotions are for action, but action styles in emotional episodes may vary across cultural contexts. Based on culturally different models of agency, we expected that those who engage in European-American contexts will use more influence in emotional situations, while those who engage in East-Asian contexts will use more adjustment. European-American (N=60) and Asian-American (N=44) college students reported their action style during emotional episodes four times a day during a week. Asian Americans adjusted more than European Americans, whereas both used influence to a similar extent. These cultural differences in action style varied across types of emotion experienced. Moreover, influencing was associated with life satisfaction for European Americans, but not for Asian Americans. PMID:21707271
Zajac, Kristyn; Ralston, M. Elizabeth; Smith, Daniel W.
Maternal support has been widely cited as an important predictor of children’s adjustment following disclosure of sexual abuse. However, few studies have examined these effects longitudinally. The current study examines the relationships between a multidimensional assessment of maternal support rated by both mothers and children and children’s adjustment in various domains (internalizing, externalizing, anger, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms) concurrently and longitudinally. Participants were 118 mother-child dyads recruited from a Child Advocacy Center where children were determined through a forensic evaluation to be victims of sexual abuse. Child and mother ratings of maternal support and child adjustment were collected shortly after the forensic evaluation and at 9-month follow-up. Results were consistent with findings from past studies that maternal support is significantly related to children’s post-disclosure adjustment and extends these findings longitudinally. Additionally, the study sheds light on differential relations between dimensions of maternal support (Emotional Support, Blame/Doubt, Vengeful Arousal, and Skeptical Preoccupation) and child adjustment and suggests the importance of using both child and mother ratings of maternal support in future research. PMID:25736053
Hawkins, Amy L.; Haskett, Mary E.
Background: Abused children's internal working models (IWM) of relationships are known to relate to their socioemotional adjustment, but mechanisms through which negative representations increase vulnerability to maladjustment have not been explored. We sought to expand the understanding of individual differences in IWM of abused children and…
Recent research has documented the long-term mental health consequences of childhood psychological maltreatment; however, this research is limited in that it typically fails to recognize the qualitative differences of the various behaviors labeled as psychological maltreatment. This study examines the predictive ability of caregiver terrorizing, degradation, ignoring, and isolating during childhood on the self-reported occurrence of anxiety, depression, somatic complaints, and features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a sample of 256 university students between the ages of 18 and 22. Witnessing violence and childhood physical abuse are included in the analyses. Simultaneous regression analyses reveal that different forms of maltreatment emerge as predictors of the variables of emotional adjustment. Terrorizing predicted anxiety and somatic concerns, ignoring predicted scores of depression and features of BPD, and degradation predicted BPD features only. Findings suggest psychological maltreatment is a multifaceted construct requiring further research to investigate the long-term impact of various subtypes. PMID:18556593
Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G
Evidence of reciprocal associations between individual emotional adjustment and the quality of intimate relationships has led to the growing use of interventions that combine a focus on couple issues with a focus on individual emotional functioning. In these approaches, spouse ratings of emotional functioning can provide an important second method of assessment, beyond the much more commonly used self-reports. Although an extensive literature demonstrates substantial convergent correlations between self-reported and spouse-rated emotional adjustment, levels of adjustment evident across these 2 assessment methods are much less commonly compared, especially among couples reporting higher levels of marital distress. Well-documented limitations of both self-reports and spouse ratings suggest that differences--which would not necessarily be evident in correlations between methods--might be common and substantial, perhaps raising complications in couple assessments and intervention. The present study compared self-reports and spouse ratings of neuroticism and its specific components using the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised in a sample of 301 middle-aged and older couples. For overall neuroticism and the specific facets of anxiety, angry hostility, and vulnerability, self-reported levels of negative emotionality were consistently lower than the parallel ratings by spouses, most notably among couples reporting low levels of marital adjustment. Hence, substantial underestimates of negative emotionality obtained through self-reports as compared to ratings by spouses (or overestimates as obtained through spouse ratings) may be common and could complicate couple assessment and intervention. PMID:25844498
Moehler, Eva; Biringen, Zeynep; Poustka, Luise
Maternal history of abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for child maltreatment, but the background of this "cycle of abuse" is as yet poorly understood. As a contribution toward a deeper understanding of this phenomenon, this study analyzed whether emotional availability is altered by maternal experiences of physical or sexual abuse during their upbringing. Mothers were contacted by mail and presented with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. To form the index group, women who reached a cutoff for severe sexual and/or physical abuse and whose children were term babies with APGAR scores 7 were included in the study. The women were invited to the laboratory when their infants were 5 months old. Emotional availability was compared with a group of mother-infant pairs matched for infant gender, maternal education, marital status, number of infants, and birth weight. The results show that 5-month postnatal mothers with a history of physical or sexual abuse were significantly more intrusive toward their children than were control mothers. PMID:18194042
Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Bannon, Sarah M; O'Leary, K Daniel
The purpose of this article was to evaluate theories that (1) weight-related abuse (WRA) plays a unique role in the development of disordered eating, above and beyond general childhood verbal abuse and weight-related teasing, and (2) the perceived emotional impact of WRA mediates the relationship between WRA and current disordered eating. Self-report questionnaires on childhood trauma, weight-related teasing, WRA, and current eating behaviors were administered to a total of 383 undergraduate students. In initial regressions, WRA significantly predicted binge eating, emotional eating, night eating, and unhealthy weight control. WRA continued to significantly predict all 4 forms of disordered eating following the introduction of measures of weight-related teasing and childhood verbal abuse into the regression. Latent variable analysis confirmed that perceived emotional impact of WRA mediated the relationship between WRA and disordered eating, and tests for indirect effects yielded a significant indirect effect of WRA on disordered eating through perceived emotional impact. In sum, WRA is a unique construct and the content of childhood or adolescent maltreatment is important in determining eventual psychopathology outcomes. These findings support the necessity of incorporating information on developmental history and cognitive factors into assessment and treatment of individuals with disordered eating. PMID:25636523
Mullen, P E; Martin, J L; Anderson, J C; Romans, S E; Herbison, G P
The associations between giving a history of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse in children and a range of mental health, interpersonal, and sexual problems in adult life were examined in a community sample of women. Abuse was defined to establish groups giving histories of unequivocal victimization. A history of any form of abuse was associated with increased rates of psychopathology, sexual difficulties, decreased self-esteem, and interpersonal problems. The similarities between the three forms of abuse in terms of their association with negative adult outcomes was more apparent than any differences, though there was a trend for sexual abuse to be particularly associated to sexual problems, emotional abuse to low self-esteem, and physical abuse to marital breakdown. Abuse of all types was more frequent in those from disturbed and disrupted family backgrounds. The background factors associated with reports of abuse were themselves often associated to the same range of negative adult outcomes as for abuse. Logistic regressions indicated that some, though not all, of the apparent associations between abuse and adult problems was accounted for by this matrix of childhood disadvantage from which abuse so often emerged. PMID:8640429
Choi, Ji Young; Choi, Young Min; Gim, Min Sook; Park, Jun Hyun; Park, Soo Hyun
The purpose of the present study was to first examine whether childhood abuse predicts symptom complexity, as indicated by the number of clinically elevated scales on the MMPI-2 in an adult clinical sample. Secondly, we investigated whether emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and symptom complexity. A total of 162 adult outpatients not presenting with psychotic symptoms completed the Korean Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (K-CTQ), Life Events Checklist (LEC), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and Korean Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Partial correlation analysis results indicated that after controlling for the presence of adulthood trauma, childhood abuse was associated with more symptom complexity, or more clinically elevated scales on the MMPI-2. Furthermore, structural equation modeling results showed that emotion regulation difficulties partially mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and symptom complexity. These findings indicate that individuals who had experienced childhood abuse evidence simultaneous presentation of diverse clinical symptoms. PMID:24841063
Cooper, M L; Shaver, P R; Collins, N L
Attachment style differences in psychological symptomatology, self-concept, and risky or problem behaviors were examined in a community sample (N = 1,989) of Black and White adolescents, 13 to 19 years old. Overall, secure adolescents were the best-adjusted group, though not necessarily the least likely to engage in risky behaviors. Anxious adolescents were the worst-adjusted group, reporting the poorest self-concepts and the highest levels of symptomatology and risk behaviors. In contrast, avoidant adolescents reported generally high levels of symptomatology and poor self-concepts but similar levels of risk behaviors to those found among secures. Mediation analyses suggested that the observed differences in problem behaviors were at least partially accounted for by the differential experience of distress symptoms (primarily hostility and depression) and by social competence. Finally, patterns of attachment effects were similar across age, gender, and racial groups, with some important exceptions. PMID:9599450
Moretti, Marlene M.; Craig, Stephanie G.
Objective: Current research has established that depression is a common outcome of child abuse. The current study extends previous research by examining the relationship between parental emotional and physical abuse and adolescents' depressive symptoms using a prospective longitudinal design. We anticipated that this relationship would be mediated…
Harter, Stephanie; And Others
Investigated family and social cognitive characteristics as mediators of social adjustment among college women. Indicated decreased cohesion and adaptability in the family of origin, increased perception of social isolation, and poorer social adjustment among subjects abused as children. Family characteristics and especially increased perceptions…
Maneta, E.K.; Cohen, S.; Schulz, M.S.; Waldinger, R.J.
Research linking childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and adult marital satisfaction has focused on individuals without sufficient attention to couple processes. Less attention has also been paid to the effects of CEA on the ability to read other’s emotions, and how this may be related to satisfaction in intimate relationships. In this study, 156 couples reported on histories of CEA, marital satisfaction and empathic accuracy of their partners’ positive and hostile emotions during discussion of conflicts in their relationships. Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling was used to examine links between CEA and marital satisfaction, with empathic accuracy as a potential mediator. Both men’s and women’s CEA histories were linked not only with their own lower marital satisfaction but also with their partners’ lower satisfaction. Empathic accuracy for hostile emotions mediated the link between women’s CEA and their satisfaction and their partners’ satisfaction in the relationship. Findings suggest that a history of CEA is associated with difficulties with empathic accuracy, and that empathic inaccuracy in part mediates the association between CEA and adult marital dissatisfaction. PMID:25151303
Koizumi, Michiko; Takagishi, Haruto
Child abuse and neglect affect the development of social cognition in children and inhibit social adjustment. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability to identify the emotional states of others between abused and non-abused children. The participants, 129 children (44 abused and 85 non-abused children), completed a children's version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Results showed that the mean accuracy rate on the RMET for abused children was significantly lower than the rate of the non-abused children. In addition, the accuracy rates for positive emotion items (e.g., hoping, interested, happy) were significantly lower for the abused children, but negative emotion and neutral items were not different across the groups. This study found a negative relationship between child abuse and the ability to understand others' emotions, especially positive emotions. PMID:24465891
Cloitre, Marylene; Miranda, Regina; Stovall-McClough, K. Chase; Han, Hyemee
This study sought to determine the relative contribution of problems in emotion regulation and interpersonal functioning compared to PTSD symptoms in predicting functional impairment among women with childhood abuse histories. One hundred sixty-four treatment-seeking women completed measures of emotion regulation, interpersonal problems, PTSD…
Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Silk, Jennifer S.
SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms among adolescents from predominantly disadvantaged backgrounds. The indirect effects of psychological control on adolescent adjustment through adolescent emotion regulation (anger and sadness regulation) were examined as well as the moderating effects of adolescent emotion regulation. Design 206 adolescents (ages 10–18) reported on parental psychological control and their own depressive symptoms, and parents and adolescents reported on adolescent emotion regulation and aggressive behavior. Indirect effect models were tested using structural equation modeling; moderating effects were tested using hierarchical multiple regression. Results The associations between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms were indirect through adolescents’ anger regulation. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parental psychological control and adolescent depressive symptoms was stronger among adolescents with poor sadness regulation and the association between psychological control and aggressive behavior was stronger among older adolescents with poor anger regulation. Conclusions Psychological control is negatively associated with adolescent adjustment, particularly among adolescents who have difficulty regulating emotions. Emotion regulation is one mechanism through which psychological control is linked to adolescent adjustment, particularly anger dysregulation, and this pattern holds for both younger and older adolescents and for both boys and girls. PMID:25057264
Aguilar de Arcos, Francisco; Verdejo Garcia, Antonio; Lopez Jimenez, Angeles; Montañez Pareja, Matilde; Gomez Juarez, Encarnacion; Arraez Sanchez, Francisco; Perez Garcia, Miguel
In a phenomenon as complex as drug dependence there is no doubt that affective and emotional aspects are involved. However, there has been little research to date on these emotional aspects, especially in specific relation to everyday affective stimuli, unrelated to drug use. In this work we investigate whether the consumption of narcotic substances causes changes in the emotional response to powerful unconditional natural stimuli, such as those of a sexual nature. To this end, I.A.P.S. images with explicit erotic content were shown to 84 drug-dependent males, in separate groups according to preferred substance. These groups' results were compared with each other and with the values obtained by non-consumers. The results indicate that drug abusers respond differently to visual stimuli with erotic content compared to non-consumers, and that there are also differences in response among consumers according to preferred substance. PMID:18551224
Sanchez-Perez, Noelia; Gonzalez-Salinas, Carmen
From different research perspectives, the cognitive and emotional characteristics associated with ADHD in children have been identified as risk factors for the development of diverse adjustment problems in the school context. Research in nonclinical population can additionally help in understanding ADHD deficits, since children with specific…
Harold, Gordon T.; Shelton, Katherine H.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark
Addressing a gap in process-oriented understanding of relations between marital conflict and children's adjustment, propositions of the emotional security hypothesis from a family-wide perspective were tested in a longitudinal research design. Participants were 181 families and their 11-12 year-old-child (115 boys, 76 girls) living in Wales, in…
Watt, Toni Terling
Uses National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health 1994 to determine whether adolescents benefit from small and/or private schools. Examines depression, suicide and violent dispositions. Refutes claims that students attending these schools are more emotionally adjusted. Discovers these small and/or private schools may actually be detrimental to…
Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…
Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Coplan, Robert J.; Weeks, Murray
The goal of the present study was to explore the moderating role of teacher-child relationships in the relation between shyness and socio-emotional adjustment in early elementary school. Participants were n = 169 grade 1 children (M[subscript age] = 76.93 mos, SD = 3.86). Shortly after the start of the school year (September), parents completed an…
Johnson, Vanessa Kahen; Gans, Susan E.; Kerr, Sandra; LaValle, William
Using a self-reported assessment of 320 first-time college students, we tested the hypothesis that one's ability to manage emotion moderates the relationship between family environment and college adjustment. Results add to growing evidence that the way one views one's whole family environment during the emerging adulthood years is linked to one's…
Vandervalk, Inge; Spruijt, Ed; De Goede, Martijn; Meeus, Wim; Maas, Cora
This study examined the relationship between adolescent emotional adjustment and the family environment (i.e., family status, family process, and parental resources). This was done by way of multilevel analyses, with a sample of 2,636 parent-child couples of both intact and divorced families. The results indicated that adolescent emotional…
Martinez, Charles R., Jr.; McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark
This study examined behavioral and emotional adjustment in family contexts in which there was high versus low demand for adolescents to serve as language brokers in a sample of 73 recently immigrated Latino families with middle-school-aged adolescents. Language brokering was conceptualized as a family process rather than merely an individual…
Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, Mark E.
This multimethod, prospective study examined the nature of pathways between interparental hostility and withdrawal, parental emotional unavailability, and subsequent changes in children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and school adjustment difficulties over a 3-year period in a sample of 210 mothers, fathers, and 6-year-old children.…
Anhalt, Karla; Telzrow, Cathy F.; Brown, Courtney L.
An emerging literature suggests that maternal distress during the prenatal and perinatal period may adversely affect offspring development. The association between maternal stress and emotional status in the perinatal period (defined as 1 month after birth) and adjustment of first-grade children was examined in 948 mother-child dyads from the…
Overbeek, Geertjan; Stattin, Hakan; Vermulst, Ad; Ha, Thao; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
This study examined whether detrimental childhood relationships with parents were related to partner relationship quality and emotional adjustment in adulthood. The authors tested a theoretical model in which (a) low-quality parent-child relationships were related to conflict and low-quality communication with parents in adolescence, (b)…
Soleimannejad, Maryam; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Khorrami, Anahita; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Pishyareh, Ebrahim
Introduction: We hypothesized that inappropriate attention during the period of abstinence in individuals with substance use disorder can result in an inadequate perception of emotion and unsuitable reaction to emotional scenes. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the attentional bias towards emotional images in former substance abusers and compare it to healthy adults. Methods: Paired images of general scenes consisting of pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images were presented to subjects for 3 s while their attentional bias and eye movements were measured by eye tracking. The participants were 72 male adults consisting of 23 healthy control, 24 morphine former abusers, and 25 methamphetamine former abusers. The former abusers were recruited from a private addiction quitting center and addiction rehabilitation campus. The healthy individuals were selected from general population. Number and duration of first fixation, duration of first gaze, and sustained attention towards emotional scenes were measured as the main variables and the data were analyzed using the repeated measures ANOVA. Results: A significant difference was observed between former morphine abusers and healthy control in terms of number and duration of first fixations and first gaze duration towards pleasant images. Discussion: Individuals with morphine use disorder have more problems with attending to emotional images compared to methamphetamine abusers and healthy people. PMID:26649160
Bergman, Kathleen N.; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.
Adolescents exposed to interparental aggression are at increased risk for developing adjustment problems. The present study explored intervening variables in these pathways in a community sample that included 266 adolescents between 12 and 16 years old (M = 13.82; 52.5% boys, 47.5% girls). A moderated mediation model examined the moderating role of adrenocortical reactivity on the meditational capacity of their emotional insecurity in this context. Information from multiple reporters and adolescents’ adrenocortical response to conflict were obtained during laboratory sessions attended by mothers, fathers and their adolescent child. A direct relationship was found between marital aggression and adolescents’ internalizing behavior problems. Adolescents’ emotional insecurity mediated the relationship between marital aggression and adolescents’ depression and anxiety. Adrenocortical reactivity moderated the pathway between emotional insecurity and adolescent adjustment. The implications for further understanding the psychological and physiological effects of adolescents’ exposure to interparental aggression and violence are discussed. PMID:25360061
Reed, Gayle L; Enright, Robert D
Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years (M = 5.00 years, SD = 2.61; n = 10 per group). Participants, who were matched, yoked, and randomized to treatment group, met individually with the intervener. Mean intervention time was 7.95 months (SD = 2.61). The relative efficacy of FT and AT was assessed at p < .05. Participants in FT experienced significantly greater improvement than AT participants in depression, trait anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptoms, self-esteem, forgiveness, environmental mastery, and finding meaning in suffering, with gains maintained at follow-up (M = 8.35 months, SD = 1.53). FT has implications for the long-term recovery of postrelationship emotionally abused women. PMID:17032096
Musliner, Katherine L.; Singer, Jonathan B.
The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of emotional support from friends and parents at two time points (adolescence and adulthood) on adult depression in a nationally representative sample of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and examine whether the associations were moderated by the identity of the perpetrator (parent/caregiver vs. not). Data was taken from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study sample included 1,238 Add Health participants with a history of CSA and an equivalently sized comparison group of individuals with no history of CSA. Parental support was measured using four items from each wave that assessed the warmth of participants' relationships with their parents and their satisfaction with those relationships. Friend support in adolescence was measured using participants' perceptions of how much their friends cared about them and in adulthood using participants' self-reported number of close friends. Depression was measured using a 10-item subscale of the CES-D. Support from friends and parents in adulthood were significantly associated with lower odds of adult depression in CSA survivors with a history of non-parent/caregiver abuse. Among survivors of parent/caregiver abuse, emotional support was not significantly associated with adult depression regardless of when or by whom it was provided. Emotional support in adulthood from friends and parents is associated with reduced odds of adult depression in CSA survivors, but only in cases where the abuse was perpetrated by someone other than a parent or caregiver. PMID:24630442
Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja
The purpose of the present study was to identify the mediating effects of emotion regulation on the association between cumulative childhood trauma and behavior problems in sexually abused children in Korea, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were collected on 171 children (ages 6-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Seoul, Korea. Cumulative childhood traumas were defined on the basis of number of traumas (physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, neglect, traumatic separation from parent, and sexual abuse) and the severity and duration of traumas. Children were evaluated by their parents on emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. SEM analyses confirmed the complete mediation model, in which emotion dysregulation fully mediates the relationship between cumulative childhood traumas and internalizing/externalizing behavior problems. These findings indicate that emotion regulation is an important mechanism that can explain the negative effects of cumulative childhood traumas and that there is a need to focus on emotion regulation in sexually abused children exposed to cumulative trauma. PMID:24210271
... Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs ... may be a sudden change in the person's financial situation. Elder abuse will not stop on its ...
... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...
Sowa, Claudia J.; May, Kathleen M.
A study of 20 gifted children (ages 9-14) provides the basis of a model of social and emotional adjustment to stressors presented in this article. Intrapersonal, family, school, and peer influences, as well as functional and dysfunctional patterns of social and emotional adjustment, are explained within the framework of the model. (Author/CR)
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.
Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…
Hiraoka, Regina; Crouch, Julie L; Reo, Gim; Wagner, Michael F; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J
The present study extends prior research examining the association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and child physical abuse (CPA) risk. We hypothesized that: (1) high CPA risk parents (compared to low CPA risk parents) would more often report clinically elevated levels of BPD features; (2) high CPA risk parents with elevated BPD features would represent a particularly high-risk subgroup; and (3) the association between elevated BPD features and CPA risk would be partially explained by emotion regulation difficulties. General population parents (N=106; 41.5% fathers) completed self-report measures of BPD features, CPA risk, and emotion regulation difficulties. Results support the prediction that BPD features are more prevalent among high (compared to low) CPA risk parents. Among the parents classified as high CPA risk (n=45), one out of three (33.3%) had elevated BPD features. In contrast, none of the 61 low CPA risk parents reported elevated BPD symptoms. Moreover, 100% of the parents with elevated BPD features (n=15) were classified as high-risk for CPA. As expected, high CPA risk parents with elevated BPD features (compared to high CPA risk parents with low BPD features) obtained significantly higher scores on several Child Abuse Potential Inventory scales, including the overall abuse scale (d=1.03). As predicted, emotion regulation difficulties partially explained the association between BPD features and CPA risk. Findings from the present study suggest that a subset of high CPA risk parents in the general population possess clinically significant levels of BPD symptoms and these parents represent an especially high-risk subgroup. Interventions designed to address BPD symptoms, including emotion regulation difficulties, appear to be warranted in these cases. PMID:26754570
McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly
Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads. PMID:21479509
Jaffee, Sara R.
Objective The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics---penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment---in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with victims’ emotional and behavioral problems. Methods The sample was drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a sample of children investigated by United States child welfare services. Youth in the current study (n = 573, including 234 adolescents) were investigated for alleged sexual abuse. Logistic regression and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to test for sex differences in abuse characteristics, and to determine whether sex moderated associations between abuse characteristics and emotional and behavioral problems. Results Girls were more likely than boys to have their abuse substantiated and to experience penetrative abuse (although differences in penetration status did not emerge among adolescents). Substantiation status and child age were positively associated with caregiver-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Sex did not moderate the relationship between abuse characteristics and youth emotional and behavioral problems. Conclusions Sexual abuse characteristics might not be highly predictive factors when making decisions about services needs. Furthermore, there may not be a strong empirical basis for operating on the assumption that one sex is more vulnerable to negative consequences of abuse than the other, or that abuse affects girls and boys differently. The processes explaining why some victims exhibit more impairment than others are likely complex. PMID:20400178
Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud
Childhood abuse is an important precursor of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The current study compared the emotional reactivity to abuse-related stress of these patients on a direct and an indirect level. Changes in self-reported affect and schema modes, psychophysiology and reaction time based cognitive associations were assessed following confrontation with an abuse-related film fragment in patients with BPD (n=45), ASPD (n=21), Cluster C personality disorder (n=46) and non-patient controls (n=36). Results indicated a hyperresponsivity of BPD-patients on self-reported negative affect and schema modes, on some psychophysiological indices and on implicit cognitive associations. The ASPD-group was comparable to the BPD group on implicit cognitions but did not show self-reported and physiological hyper-reactivity. These findings suggest that BPD and ASPD-patients are alike in their implicit cognitive abuse-related stress reactivity, but can be differentiated in their self-reported and physiological response patterns. PMID:19854433
Hastings, Paul D; Nuselovici, Jacob N; Utendale, William T; Coutya, Julie; McShane, Kelly E; Sullivan, Caroline
Effective emotion regulation is essential for children's positive development. Polyvagal theory provides a framework for understanding how parasympathetic regulation of cardiac activity contributes to children's adaptive versus maladaptive functioning. Maintenance of cardiac respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) under social challenge should support emotion regulation and behavioral adjustment. Children's effective parasympathetic regulation and behavioral adjustment should be supported by appropriate parental socialization. These proposals were evaluated in a short-term longitudinal study of 94 preschool-aged children. Parenting and basal RSA were measured at home, then 6-10 months later behavioral adjustment and RSA in lab baseline and socially challenging contexts were measured. Children with relatively higher RSA in social challenge than at baseline (DeltaRSA) had fewer internalizing problems (IP) and externalizing problems (EP), and better behavioral self-regulation (SR). Mothers who used more negative control had children with lower DeltaRSA, more IP and EP, and less SR. Structural equation modeling showed that vagal regulation mediated associations between maternal negative control and children's adjustment; maternal negative control did not predict EP or SR after accounting for DeltaRSA. Associations were consistent across boys and girls, with one exception: Higher DeltaRSA was significantly associated with fewer EP in boys only. These findings suggest that the practical significance of physiological regulation might be best revealed in ecologically valid procedures, and that children's physiological mechanisms of emotion regulation are shaped by their experiences of parental socialization. PMID:18722499
Valdez, Christine E; Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Parker, Christopher P
Many foster youth experience maltreatment in their family-of-origin and additional maltreatment while in foster care. Not surprisingly, rates of depression are higher in foster youth than the general population, and peak during ages 17-19 during the stressful transition into adulthood. However, no known studies have reported on whether foster youth perceive positive changes following such adversity, and whether positive change facilitates psychological adjustment over time. The current study examined components of positive change (i.e., compassion for others and self-efficacy) with depression severity from age 17 to 18 as youth prepared to exit foster care. Participants were youth from the Mental Health Service Use of Youth Leaving Foster Care study who endorsed child maltreatment. Components of positive change and severity of abuse were measured initially. Depression was measured initially and every three months over the following year. Latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the course of depression as a function of initial levels of positive change and severity of abuse. Results revealed that decreases in depression followed an inverse quadratic function in which the steepest declines occurred in the first three months and leveled off after that. Severity of abuse was positively correlated with higher initial levels of depression and negatively correlated with decreases in depression. Greater self-efficacy was negatively associated with initial levels of depression and predicted decreases in depression over the year, whereas compassion for others was neither associated with initial depression nor changes in depression. Implications for intervention, theory, and research are discussed. PMID:26210859
Breeman, L D; Wubbels, T; van Lier, P A C; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Maras, A; Hopman, J A B; Tick, N T
The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher-child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both the individual and classroom levels among 414 children with emotional and behavioral disorders placed in special education. Two models were specified. In the first model, children's classroom adjustment was regressed on social relationships and teacher characteristics. In the second model, reversed links were examined by regressing teacher characteristics on social relationships and children's adjustment. Results of model 1 showed that, at the individual level, better social and emotional adjustment of children was predicted by higher levels of teacher-child closeness and better behavioral adjustment was predicted by both positive teacher-child and peer interactions. At the classroom level, positive social relationships were predicted by higher levels of teacher competence, which in turn were associated with lower classroom levels of social problems. Higher levels of teacher wellbeing were directly associated with classroom adaptive and maladaptive child outcomes. Results of model 2 showed that, at the individual and classroom levels, only the emotional and behavioral problems of children predicted social classroom relationships. At the classroom level, teacher competence was best predicted by positive teacher-child relationships and teacher wellbeing was best predicted by classroom levels of prosocial behavior. We discuss the importance of positive teacher-child and peer interactions for children placed in special education and suggest ways of improving classroom processes by targeting teacher competence. PMID:25636262
Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…
Frodi, A; Smetana, J
Sixty children between the ages of 3 and 5 participated in this study of children's ability to discriminate emotions in others. Twelve children were identified as neglected, and eight were identified as abused. Two additional groups of nonmaltreated children included one comparable on IQ and one with significantly higher intelligence. All children were given three tests: The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the Borke Interpersonal Awareness Test and the Rothenberg Social Sensitivity Test. The results showed that normal children with the higher IQ were significantly better able to identify and discriminate other people's emotions from picture stories than were the other groups of children, who were not different from one another on any of the measures. Furthermore, when IQ was covaried in the ANOVAS, all group-differences disappeared. It was suggested that previous studies demonstrating inferior performance on measures of social cognition by maltreated children may have been due to the failure to control for IQ. PMID:6542818
Grattagliano, I; Greco, R; Di Vella, G; Campobasso, C P; Corbi, G; Romanelli, M C; Petruzzelli, N; Ostuni, A; Brunetti, V; Cassibba, R
The authors of this study tackle the complex subject of parricide, which is a rare and often brutal form of homicide. Parricide has a high emotional impact on public opinion and on our collective imagination, especially in light of the fact that the perpetrators are often minors.. Three striking cases of parricide, taken from various documented sources and judicial files from the "N. Fornelli" Juvenile Penal Institute (Bari, Italy), are presented here. A review of the literature on the topic has revealed differences between parricides committed by adults and those committed by minors. In the end, the complex issues underlying such an unusual crime are connected to abuses and maltreatment that minor perpetrators of parricide have suffered, especially the emotional processes that are activated. PMID:25756267
Siffert, Andrea; Schwarz, Beate
Guided by the emotional security hypothesis and the cognitive-contextual framework, the authors investigated whether the associations between negative parental conflict resolution styles and children's internalizing and externalizing problems were mediated by children's appraisals of threat and self-blame and their emotion regulation. Participants were 192 Swiss 2-parent families with children aged 9-12 years (M age = 10.62 years, SD = 0.41 years). Structural equation modeling was used to test the empirical validity of the theoretical model. Results indicated that children's maladaptive emotion regulation mediated the association between negative parental conflict resolution styles and children's internalizing as well as externalizing problems. Whereas perceived threat was related only to children's internalizing problems, self-blame did not mediate the links between negative parental conflict resolution styles and children's adjustment. Implications for understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to interparental conflict could lead to children's maladjustment and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:21452750
Cummings, E. Mark; George, Melissa R. W.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Davies, Patrick T.
Advancing the long-term prospective study of explanations for the effects of marital conflict on children’s functioning, relations were examined between interparental conflict in kindergarten, children’s emotional insecurity in the early school years, and subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Based on a community sample of 235 mothers, fathers and children (M = 6.00, 8.02, 12.62 years), and multi-method and multi-reporter assessments, structural equation model (SEM) tests provided support for emotional insecurity in early childhood as an intervening process related to adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems, even with stringent auto-regressive controls over prior levels of functioning for both mediating and outcome variables. Discussion considers implications for understanding pathways between interparental conflict, emotional insecurity and adjustment in childhood and adolescence. PMID:22694264
Norman, Rosana E.; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo
Background Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. Methods and Findings A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16–2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43–3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61–2.77]); drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67–2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11–1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21–1.54]); suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17–5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44–4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13–3.37]); and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50–2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49–2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39–1.78]). Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these
Okado, Yuko; Haskett, Mary E.
Background: There is limited knowledge about how positive and negative parenting practices differ across individuals and change over time in parents with substantiated physical abuse history, and how trajectories of these parenting practices affect child adjustment. Objective: The present study examined latent trajectories of positive and negative…
Roberts, Ron; O'Connor, Tom; Dunn, Judy; Golding, Jean
Objective: To investigate links between child sexual abuse (occurring before 13 years), later mental health, family organization, parenting behaviors, and adjustment in offspring. Method: The present study investigates a subsample of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children an ongoing study of women and their families in the area of…
Gordon, Kathryn H; Simonich, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Dhankikar, Swati; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Kwan, Mun Yee; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G
Self-harm and suicide attempts occur at elevated rates among individuals with bulimia nervosa, particularly among those who have experienced childhood abuse. This study investigated the potential mediating roles of emotion dysregulation and affective intensity in the relationship between these variables in 125 women with bulimia nervosa. Analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between sexual and emotional abuse with both self-harm and suicide attempts. Negative affective intensity mediated the relationship between abuse and suicide attempts. The findings may advance the understanding of mechanisms underlying suicide-related behaviors in women with bulimia nervosa who experienced abuse and suggest potential clinical targets. PMID:26052753
Leisring, Penny A
Intimate partner violence is extremely common in college samples. To inform prevention and intervention efforts, understanding the motivation for engaging in partner aggression is critically important. The predominant view in the domestic violence field has been that women's use of intimate partner violence occurs in the context of self-defense. However, there has been a dearth of solid evidence to support this claim. The present study explored the motivations for the perpetration of minor and severe physical aggression and for three types of emotional abuse (restrictive engulfment, denigration, and dominance/intimidation) among college women. A detailed definition of self-defense was used and motivations for women who were sole perpetrators of physical violence as well as motivations for women who had been aggressed against in their romantic relationships were examined. Anger, retaliation for emotional hurt, to get partner's attention, jealousy, and stress were all common reasons for perpetrating partner violence among college women. Few women indicated that self-defense was a motive for their abusive behavior. The results suggest that prevention and intervention efforts to reduce partner violence perpetration by women should include anger and stress management. PMID:23262827
Coyle, Eimear; Karatzias, Thanos; Summers, Andy; Power, Mick
Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. Objective This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. Method A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109) completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES)—Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist—Civilian Version (PCL-C); and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Results Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES—General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. Conclusions The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and psychopathology in CSA
Shamroy, Jerilyn A.
The Cincinnati Children's Hospital treated preadolescent children for symptoms, signs, or complaints of sexual abuse. The alleged abuser was known to the children in 72 percent of the cases. Describes the hospital's procedure for identifying these children and the follow-up services necessary for their protection and emotional adjustment. (Author)
Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W; Larzelere, Robert E; Criss, Michael M; Houltberg, Benjamin J
The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents' emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years of age, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA values and respiration rates were computed. Adolescents reported on their own emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Multilevel latent growth modeling was employed to capture RSA responses across time (i.e., linear and quadratic changes; time course approach), and adolescent emotion regulation and adjustment variables were included in the model to test their links to RSA responses. Results indicated that high RSA baseline was associated with more adolescent prosocial behavior. A pattern of initial RSA decreases (RSA suppression) in response to angry event recall and subsequent RSA increases (RSA rebound) were related to better anger and sadness regulation and more prosocial behavior. However, RSA was not significantly linked to adolescent aggressive behavior. We also compared the time course approach with the conventional linear approach and found that the time course approach provided more meaningful and rich information. The implications of adaptive RSA change patterns are discussed. PMID:25642723
Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W.; Larzelere, Robert E.; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.
The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents’ emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10–18 years old, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA values and respiration rates were computed. Adolescents reported on their own emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Multi-level latent growth modeling was employed to capture RSA responses across time (i.e., linear and quadratic changes; time course approach), and adolescent emotion regulation and adjustment variables were included in the model to test their links to RSA responses. Results indicated that high RSA baseline was associated with more adolescent prosocial behavior. A pattern of initial RSA decreases (RSA suppression) in response to angry event recall and subsequent RSA increases (RSA rebound) were related to better anger and sadness regulation and more prosocial behavior. However, RSA was not significantly linked to adolescent aggressive behavior. We also compared the time course approach with the conventional linear approach and found that the time course approach provided more meaningful and rich information. The implications of adaptive RSA change patterns are discussed. PMID:25642723
Knudsen, Hannah K; Ducharme, Lori J; Roman, Paul M
An intriguing hypothesis is that clinical supervision may protect against counselor turnover. This idea has been mentioned in recent discussions of the substance abuse treatment workforce. To test this hypothesis, we extend our previous research on emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among counselors by estimating the associations between clinical supervision and these variables in a large sample (N = 823). An exploratory analysis reveals that clinical supervision was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Given our previous findings that emotional exhaustion and turnover intention were associated with job autonomy, procedural justice, and distributive justice, we estimate a structural equation model to examine whether these variables mediated clinical supervision's associations with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. These data support the fully mediated model. We found that the perceived quality of clinical supervision is strongly associated with counselors' perceptions of job autonomy, procedural justice, and distributive justice, which are, in turn, associated with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. These data offer support for the protective role of clinical supervision in substance abuse treatment counselors' turnover and occupational well-being. PMID:18424048
... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...
Sebre, Sandra; Sprugevica, Ieva; Novotni, Antoni; Bonevski, Dimitar; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante; Popescu, Daniela; Turchina, Tatiana; Friedrich, William; Lewis, Owen
Objectives: This study was designed to assess the incidence of child emotional and physical abuse, associated risk factors and psychosocial symptoms in a cross-cultural comparison between post-communist bloc countries. Method: One-thousand one-hundred forty-five children ages 10-14 from Latvia (N=297), Lithuania (N=300), Macedonia (N=302), and…
Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Wall, Anne-Marie; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael; Trocme, Nico; Waechter, Randall
Objective: For child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional…
A longitudinal study examined 20 neglected and emotionally abused boys (ages 30-42 months) who entered foster residential care and remained a year after initial placement. At placement, children showed a mild form of chronic malnutrition with growth failure. Growth failure was reversible after the first year of stay. (Contains references.)…
Spertus, Ilyse L.; Yehuda, Rachel; Wong, Cheryl M.; Halligan, Sarah; Seremetis, Stephanie V.
Objective: There were two aims to this study: first to examine whether emotional abuse and neglect are significant predictors of psychological and somatic symptoms, and lifetime trauma exposure in women presenting to a primary care practice, and second to examine the strength of these relationships after controlling for the effects of other types…
Haferkamp, Lisa; Bebermeier, Anke; Möllering, Andrea; Neuner, Frank
Theories of dissociation emphasize that symptoms of dissociation are correlated with traumatic events. Although the association of dissociative symptoms and retrospective reports of child abuse with a focus on mainly sexual and physical abuse has been well documented, investigation of the contribution of emotional or psychological types of maltreatment to the prediction of dissociation has been neglected to a great extent. The aim of this study was to determine the differential impact of different types of maltreatment on dissociative symptoms in a sample of 203 female residential patients treated for posttraumatic stress disorder linked to child maltreatment. Moreover, it was examined whether the link between dissociation and child maltreatment is direct or indirect. Subjects completed questionnaires on child maltreatment, posttraumatic stress, and dissociative symptoms. Although all types of maltreatment were related to dissociative symptoms, emotional abuse was the strongest and most direct predictor of dissociation in multivariate hierarchical analyses with the influence of other trauma types being confounded by emotional abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional types of maltreatment for the genesis of dissociative symptoms in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:25365464
Otterpohl, Nantje; Wild, Elke
Numerous studies have reported substantive correlations between indicators of parenting, children's emotion regulation (ER), and children's psychosocial adjustment. However, studies on underlying mechanisms are scarce. Particularly in early adolescence, it is still unclear whether relations between parenting and ER are caused by adolescent behavior, by parent behavior, or by reciprocal processes. Moreover, it is unclear whether ER can be seen as an antecedent or a consequence of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine predictive relations among parenting and adolescents' ER, and adolescents' ER and psychosocial adjustment, respectively. We collected longitudinal, multiple informant data at two measurement occasions (Grade 6, Grade 7). All told, 1,100 adolescents (10-14 years) and their parents filled out questionnaires assessing responsiveness and psychological control, adolescents' anger regulation, and adolescents' problem and prosocial behavior. Cross-lagged analyses revealed reciprocal effects between parenting, ER, and adjustment for the parent and boys', but not for the girls', report. Moreover, relations were different for adolescents with versus without clinically elevated symptoms of psychopathology. Our findings support the assumption that reciprocal relations between parenting, ER, and psychosocial adjustment are likely to persist until early adolescence. Nevertheless, the moderating role of gender and psychopathology should be taken into account. Possible reasons for the different findings, and practical implications, are discussed. PMID:24320075
Ullman, Sarah E; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Relyea, Mark
This study examined whether coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame mediate relationships of trauma histories with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in adult sexual assault victims (N = 1863). A path analysis showed that theorized mediators partially mediated associations between trauma history variables and psychological symptoms. Specifically, child sexual abuse severity was related to greater post-traumatic stress disorder and depression indirectly through maladaptive coping and decreased emotion regulation but not self-blame. Other traumas had direct relationships with symptoms and partially mediated effects through maladaptive coping and emotion regulation. Child sexual abuse was unrelated to self-blame, but other traumas were related to greater self-blame. Results differed according to whether women had counseling post-assault. Implications are drawn for future research and clinical treatment of adult sexual assault victims. PMID:24393091
Holahan, William; Brounstein, Paul J.
The literature on the emotional adjustment of intellectually gifted adolescents and the literature on adjustment of students admitted at younger than normal ages into college are reviewed. The review on gifted adolescents is divided into the following sections: background (acceleration in elementary and secondary grades); personality and…
Martinez, Charles R., Jr.; McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Wilson, D. Molloy
Little is known about contributors to positive social, behavioral, and emotional adjustment among foreign-born youth at different stages of adapting to life in the United States. Using baseline data from the Adolescent Latino Acculturation Study (N = 217), this article examines the effects of time in residency on parent adjustment, family stress,…
Teti, Douglas M; Crosby, Brian; McDaniel, Brandon T; Shimizu, Mina; Whitesell, Corey J
Although parents' structuring of infant sleep is complexly determined, little attention has been given to parents' marital and personal adjustment in shaping sleep arrangement choices. Linkages were examined between infant sleep arrangements at 1 and 6 months and mothers' marital adjustment, co-parenting quality, and depressive symptoms. The final study sample was composed of 149 families (53% girl infants, 86% European American). Bed sharing mothers had lower co-parenting quality, and, at 6 months, more depressive symptoms than mothers of infants in solitary sleep. One-month co-parenting quality was associated with predictable shifts in sleep arrangements from 1 to 6 months, but 1-month sleep arrangements did not predict changes in personal or co-parenting quality. Findings emphasize the need for greater attention to marital and emotional health in influencing family-level decisions about infant sleep arrangements. PMID:25704741
Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents’ and mothers’ self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth’s academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents’ heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth. PMID:19636729
The current study examines how Latino adolescents’ daily cybervictimization experiences are associated with their emotional and physical well-being and school adjustment. Latino high school students (N = 118) completed daily checklists across five consecutive school days. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that daily cybervictimization experiences were associated with greater feelings of distress, anger, shame and physical symptoms. Moderation analyses showed gender differences such that the daily level associations with distress and anger were significant for Latinas but not Latino adolescents. Daily cybervictimization experiences were also related to increased school attendance problems such as arriving late to class or skipping a class. Mediation models indicated that daily feelings of distress accounted for the association between single episodes of cybervictimization and attendance problems. The results address several voids in the cybervictimization literature and demonstrate that a discrete encounter of victimization online is associated with compromised well-being and school adjustment among Latino adolescents. PMID:27307652
Baurain, Céline; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Dionne, Carmen
This study examined the extent to which socio-emotional regulation displayed in three dyadic interactive play contexts (neutral, competitive or cooperative) by 45 children with intellectual disability compared with 45 typically developing children (matched on developmental age, ranging from 3 to 6 years) is linked with the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. A Coding Grid of Socio-Emotional Regulation by Sequences (Baurain & Nader-Grosbois, 2011b, 2011c) focusing on Emotional Expression, Social Behavior and Behavior toward Social Rules in children was applied. The Social Adjustment for Children Scale (EASE, Hugues, Soares-Boucaud, Hochman, & Frith, 1997) and the Assessment, Evaluation and Intervention Program System (AEPS, Bricker, 2002) were completed by teachers. Regression analyses emphasized, in children with intellectual disability only, a positive significant link between their Behavior toward Social Rules in interactive contexts and the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. Children with intellectual disabilities who listen to and follow instructions, who are patient in waiting for their turn, and who moderate their externalized behavior are perceived by their teachers as socially adapted in their daily social relationships. The between-groups dissimilarity in the relational patterns between abilities in socio-emotional regulation and social adjustment supports the "structural difference hypothesis" with regard to the group with intellectual disability, compared with the typically developing group. Hierarchical cluster cases analyses identified distinct subgroups showing variable structural patterns between the three specific categories of abilities in socio-emotional regulation and their levels of social adjustment perceived by teachers. In both groups, several abilities in socio-emotional regulation and teachers' perceptions of social adjustment vary depending on children's developmental age. Chronological age in children with
Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D; Cummings, E Mark
Dimensions of martial conflict, children's emotional security regarding interparental conflict, and parenting style were examined as mediators between parental dysphoria and child adjustment. A community sample of 262 children, ages 8-16, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' interactions during marital conflict resolution tasks, which children later observed to assess their emotional security. Questionnaires assessed parents' dysphoria, parenting, and children's adjustment. Structural equation modeling indicated that parental dysphoria was linked with child adjustment through specific and distinct mediating family processes, including marital conflict and parenting. Children's emotional security in the context of particular marital conflict styles also mediated relations between parental dysphoria and child adjustment problems, with similar pathways found for mothers and fathers. These pathways remained significant even after significant parenting contributions were considered. PMID:17390219
... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...
Davies, Michelle; Patel, Fehmida; Rogers, Paul
The current study investigated the impact that respondent gender, victim-perpetrator relationship, and the level of emotional closeness had on attributions in a hypothetical child sexual abuse case. A total of 160 university students read a hypothetical scenario depicting a female child sexually abused by an adult male. The perpetrator was either the victim's biological father or her stepfather, with this relationship described as being either emotionally close or emotionally distant. Respondents read one of four (2 victim-perpetrator relationship × 2 emotional closeness) scenarios before completing 26 attribution items pertaining to credibility, blame, and severity. Principle components analysis yielded five factors, namely victim credibility, mother culpability, perpetrator culpability, assault severity, and victim culpability. Multivariate analysis of covariance--controlling for respondent (Caucasian vs. non-Caucasian) ethnicity--revealed, as predicted, significant main effects for respondent gender, victim-perpetrator relationship, and emotional closeness. In general, females assigned more provictim/ antiperpetrator/antimother attributions than males. Results were also suggested that both victim-perpetrator relationship and emotional closeness influence attributions made toward the victim, perpetrator, and nonoffending mother. Methodological issues and suggestions for future work are also discussed. PMID:23027835
Estrada, Lisi; Dupoux, Errol; Wolman, Clara
This study investigated the relationship between locus of control and social and personal-emotional adjustment to college life in students with and without learning disabilities (LD). Differences in locus of control in college students with and without LD were also examined. The Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal/External Locus of Control Scale…
Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John
Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…
Validez Convergente de la Version Espanola Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depresion y Aduste Marital (Convergent Validity of the Preliminary Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depression and Marital Adjustment).
Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia; de Paul, Joaquin
"Convergent validity" of preliminary Spanish version of Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was studied. CAP uses ecological-systemic model of child maltreatment to evaluate individual, family, and social factors facilitating physical child abuse. Depression and marital adjustment were measured in three groups of mothers. Results found…
Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed
This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children’s emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a four-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the four-waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 years (SD = 1.96), respectively. Building on previous studies of the role of emotional insecurity in child adjustment, the current study examines within-person change in emotional insecurity using latent growth curve analyses. The results showed that children’s trajectories of emotional insecurity about community were related to risk for developing conduct and emotion problems. These findings controlled for earlier adjustment problems, age and gender, and took into account the time-varying nature of experience with sectarian violence. Discussion considers the implications for children’s emotional insecurity about community for relations between political violence and children’s adjustment, including the significance of trajectories of emotional insecurity over time. PMID:23527495
Lundahl, Brad W.; Nimer, Janelle; Parsons, Bruce
Objective: A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of parent training programs to reduce parents' risk of abusing a child. Method: A total of 23 studies were submitted to a meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included parents' attitudes toward abuse, emotional adjustment, child-rearing skills, and actual abuse. Conclusions:…
Wilson, Anna C; Lengua, Liliana J; Tininenko, Jennifer; Taylor, Adam; Trancik, Anika
This longitudinal study utilized a community sample of children (N=91, 45% female, 8-11 years at time 1) to investigate physiological responses (heart rate reactivity [HRR] and electrodermal responding [EDR]) during delay of gratification in relation to emotionality, self-regulation, and adjustment problems. Cluster analyses identified three profiles among children who successfully delayed: children who waited easily with low EDR and moderate HRR, children who had difficulty waiting with high EDR and moderate HRR, and children who had difficulty waiting with low EDR and low HRR. The 3 clusters and children who did not wait were compared. Children with low EDR-low HRR had the lowest self-regulation, and like the no-wait group, demonstrated the greatest baseline adjustment problems. The high EDR-moderate HRR group demonstrated highest self-regulation and increases in depression across one year. Distinct profiles among children in delay contexts point to children who are over- and under-regulated with implications for adjustment problems. PMID:20046898
Parkhill, Michele R; Pickett, Scott M
Although numerous studies document a link between child sexual abuse and later sexual assault perpetration in men, little research has examined why this relationship exists. One potential mechanism may be emotional regulation difficulties. The current study utilizes a college sample of 132 men to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties on the relationship between experiencing child sexual abuse and later sexual aggression. Although emotion regulation difficulties in general was not significantly related to sexual aggression, one facet, impulse control difficulties, emerged as a significant mediator of the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual aggression. Intervention programs should focus on the care that children receive following sexual abuse, with particular emphasis on how emotion regulation abilities may be impacted. PMID:27561122
Van Zalk, Maarten H W; Branje, Susan J T; Denissen, Jaap; Van Aken, Marcel A G; Meeus, Wim H J
The current study aimed to provide more insight into the role of online chatting in young adults' emotional adjustment. A model was tested that takes into account (a) extraversion of individuals who communicate online, (b) the kind of peers these individuals communicate with online (i.e., online-exclusive peers vs. friends), and (c) the extent to which effects of online chatting on emotional adjustment are mediated by individuals' ability to provide support to others. Young adults (age M = 18.9) filled out questionnaires about themselves and their fellow students at three measurements with a 4-month interval. Results showed that only for less extraverted individuals, chatting with peers found exclusively online directly predicted higher self-esteem and indirectly predicted less depressive symptoms through increases in supportiveness. Thus, results supported a model of social compensation where effects of online chatting with online-exclusive peers improved young adults' emotional adjustment. PMID:21673194
Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.
The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…
Overbeek, Geertjan; Stattin, Håkan; Vermulst, Ad; Ha, Thao; Engels, Rutger C M E
This study examined whether detrimental childhood relationships with parents were related to partner relationship quality and emotional adjustment in adulthood. The authors tested a theoretical model in which (a) low-quality parent-child relationships were related to conflict and low-quality communication with parents in adolescence, (b) parent-adolescent conflict and low-quality communication were linked to low-quality partner relationships in young adulthood, and (c) low-quality partner relationships in young adulthood were predictive of low-quality partner relationships as well as depression, anxiety, and dissatisfaction with life at midlife. Multi-informant data were used from 212 Swedish individuals who were followed from birth into adulthood. Results demonstrated that, as hypothesized, negative parent-child bonds were indirectly related to low-quality partner relationships and dissatisfaction with life in adulthood (but not anxiety and depression) through conflictual parent-adolescent communication and low-quality partner relationships in young adulthood. PMID:17352550
Campione-Barr, Nicole; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Kruse, Anna
Issues of equality and fairness and invasion of the personal domain, 2 previously identified topic areas of adolescent sibling conflict (N. Campione-Barr & J. G. Smetana, 2010), were examined in 145 dyads (Mfirst-born = 14.97, SD = 1.69 years; Msecond-born = 12.20, SD = 1.90 years) for their differential effects on youths' emotional adjustment over 1 year. The impact of internalizing symptoms on later sibling conflicts also was tested. Invasion of the personal domain conflicts were associated with higher levels of anxiety and lower self-esteem 1 year later, whereas Equality and Fairness issues were associated with greater depressed mood. Conversely, greater internalizing symptomatology and lower self-esteem predicted more of both types of conflict. Moderating influences of gender and ordinal position were also examined. PMID:23278528
Kim, Jungmeen; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel
Objective Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation and positive parenting behaviors to the development of externalizing and internalizing symptomatology spanning from preschool to 1st grade. Methods Data were collected on a total of 95 physically abused children (58% boys); our longitudinal analyses involved 43 children at Time 1 (preschool), 63 children at Time 2 (kindergarten), and 54 children at Time 3 (1st grade). Children's self-regulation was measured by parent report, and their externalizing and internalizing symptomatology was evaluated by teachers. Parents completed self-report measures of positive parenting. Results Our structural equation modeling analyses revealed positive parenting as a protective factor that attenuated the concurrent association between low self-regulation and externalizing symptomatology among physically abused children. Our findings regarding longitudinal changes in children's externalizing symptomatology supported the differential susceptibility hypothesis: Physically abused children who were at greater risk due to low levels of self-regulation were more susceptible to the beneficial effects of positive parenting, compared to those with high levels of self-regulation. Conclusions Findings suggest that although physical abuse presents formidable challenges that interfere with the development of adaptive self-regulation, positive parenting behaviors may ameliorate the detrimental effects of maladaptive self-regulation on the development of externalizing symptomatology. In addition, the positive and negative effects of caregiving behaviors were more prominent among physically abused children at great risk due to low self-regulation. Practice
Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija
This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed. PMID:21449245
Poerio, Giulia L.; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor
Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, one’s current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university) using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation. PMID:26834685
Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; Schneider, Barry H.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating role of child-teacher relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependence) in the association between children's shyness and indices of socio-emotional adjustment and maladjustment. The participants were Italian preschool children (63 boys; 66 girls) and two lead…
Beebe, Jennifer Elizabeth
The current study investigated the prevalence and frequency of cyber bullying victimization and examined the impact of cyber bullying on academic, social, and emotional college adjustment. Participants were recruited from two universities in the United States. Participants completed the Revised Cyber Bullying Survey (Kowalski & Limber, 2007) and…
Jung, Woo Sik; Stinnett, Terry A.
Social, emotional, behavioural and school adjustment functioning among Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American children was examined with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Self-Report of Personality (SRP) and the Parent Rating Scale (PRS). One hundred and twenty Korean, Korean-American and Caucasian-American children, ages…
Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed
Links between political violence and children's adjustment problems are well-documented. However, the mechanisms by which political tension and sectarian violence relate to children's well-being and development are little understood. This study longitudinally examined children's emotional security about community violence as a possible regulatory…
Langsford, Marian; Griffiths, Trevor
This article describes an innovative, rapidly effective, low cost, health promoting educational input that can strengthen social systems to support the social and emotional development of orphan children. The training project took place in a resource-poor area of rural southern Zimbabwe. The teaching was found to be culturally relevant and transferable, to the extent that several of the learners progressed to become tutors, training others to use the method in local languages. The method promotes healthy adjustment, emotional resilience and intelligent decision-making for health. By reducing chronic stress in orphans and their carers, lifelong learning may improve immune function. PMID:25808248
Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stephane; Lussier, Yvan
This study compared the usefulness of single- and multiple-indicator strategies in a model examining the role of child sexual abuse (CSA) to predict later marital satisfaction through attachment and psychological distress. The sample included 1,092 women and men from a nonclinical population in cohabiting or marital relationships. The single-item…
Becci, A Akin; Brook, Jody; Lloyd, Margaret H
This study is a mixed-methods examination of the prevalence and impact of parental substance abuse among families involved in foster care who have a child with a serious emotional disturbance. Data utilized for this study were both administrative and assessment data collected by case managers and parents as part of a federally funded demonstration project in a Midwestern state. At baseline, parent self-report and case manager ratings of family functioning found that parents affected by substance abuse fared worse in domains related to socioeconomics, parental trauma, parental mental health, and social supports when compared to families without parental substance abuse. Case managers and independent raters scored parents affected by substance abuse higher on effective parenting than parents not affected by substance abuse. While all children in the sample have a serious emotional disturbance, parents and case managers rated children's functioning higher among children whose families were characterized by parental substance abuse. These results suggest that, among families who have children with a serious emotional disturbance and are in foster care, those with and without substance abuse may represent two distinct service groups, each with a unique set of needs and contextual factors. For families with parental substance abuse, findings suggest that an appropriate child welfare response should attend to both children's and parent's behavioral health needs and include strategies that are well matched to the families' socioeconomic and social support needs. PMID:26827477
Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Broidy, Lisa; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mazerolle, Paul
This article examines the relation among gender, social-emotional adjustment, and deviant behavior among serious juvenile offenders. A sample of 105 adolescent offenders completed questionnaires assessing social-emotional characteristics and self-reported involvement in deviant behaviors. Results indicate significant associations between distress and restraint in predicting deviance, a finding that was invariant across gender. Analysis of four distinct social-emotional profiles found that membership in the reactive group was associated with the greatest amount of deviant behavior. Results also indicate that not only do serious offending girls internalize more than serious offending boys, they appear equally likely to externalize. However, although boys exhibit less distress than girls, those boys who report high rates of deviance may exhibit internalizing and externalizing problems similar to girls. The use of social-emotional measures in general, and distinct profiles in particular, may aid in targeting specific programming and treatment in an effort to provide offenders with more effective interventions. PMID:15070469
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Skinner, Ellen A
We examined adjustment problems as risks for patterns of emotions, appraisals, and coping with rejection, and explored whether these processes could account for sex (boy/girl) differences in coping. Young adolescents (N = 669, grades 6-8) completed questionnaires, which assessed responses to peer rejection threat with two short scenarios. Using structural equation modeling to test a multivariate process model, adolescents with heightened social anxiety had the most maladaptive responses to rejection threat, including elevated emotional reactions, more self-blame, and coping using more social isolation, rumination and opposition. Adolescents reporting more depressive symptoms felt less control and anticipated using less adaptive coping (less support seeking, distraction, and negotiation), whereas aggressive adolescents responded with more anger and coped via opposition. Moreover, as anticipated, sex differences in coping, symptoms, emotions, and appraisals were found. However, coping differences between boys and girls were mostly nonsignificant after accounting for symptoms, aggression, emotional reactions, and appraisals. PMID:26439867
... threaten, or dismiss kids or teens until their self-esteem and feelings of self-worth are damaged. Emotional ... can affect every aspect of their lives, especially self-esteem. How much harm is done often depends on ...
Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Najafi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javidi, Nasirudin; Hoseini Kamkar, Elnaz; Mahboubi, Mohamad
Background The purpose of this investigation is to determine the efficacy of emotionally focused couples therapy (EFT-C) on enhancement of marital adjustment in infertile couples. Materials and Methods This was a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post-test design. We selected 30 infertile couples (60 subjects) by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly assigned to two groups, sample and control. Each group consisted of 15 couples who had marital maladjustment and low sexual satisfaction. Couples answered the marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction questionnaires at baseline after which the sample group received 10 sessions of EFT-C. Results Results of pre-test and post-test showed that EFT-C significantly impacted marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion EFT-C had a significant effect on enhancement of satisfaction, cohesion and affectional expression. This approach impacted physical and emotional sexual satisfaction of infertile couples. PMID:26644864
The schema therapy model posits that maltreatment generates early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that lead to the development of emotional disorders throughout the life span. The model also stipulates that temperament moderates the influence of maltreatment on EMSs. This study examines (a) whether emotional abuse perpetrated by parents and peers, both alone and interactively with temperament, predicts the worsening of EMSs; and (b) whether EMSs in turn predict an increase in depressive and social anxiety symptoms in adolescents. A total of 1,052 adolescents (Mage=13.43; SD=1.29) were assessed at three time points, each of which was separated by 6 months. The subjects completed measures of emotional abuse by parents and peers, neuroticism, extraversion, EMSs, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety. The findings indicate that emotional bullying victimization and neuroticism predict a worsening of all schema domains over time. Contrary to expectations, there was no significant interaction between temperament dimensions and emotional abuse. The results confirmed the mediational hypothesis that changes in EMSs mediated the predictive association between bullying victimization and emotional symptoms. This study provides partial support for the schema therapy model by demonstrating the role of emotional abuse and temperament in the genesis of EMSs. PMID:24252743
Levendosky, Alytia A.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
Utilizes sheltered battered women (n=60) and their 7- to 12-year-old children and nonsheltered women (n=61) and their children, to examine the potential moderating effects of maternal parenting stress on children's adjustment in homes with varying levels of domestic violence. Results indicate that children's adjustment was predicted by parenting…
Isosävi, Sanna; Flykt, Marjo; Belt, Ritva; Posa, Tiina; Kuittinen, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
We studied how attachment representations contribute to central components of transition to motherhood, prenatal emotion processing (EP) and emotional availability (EA) of mother-infant interaction, and whether there are group specific differences. Participants were 51 treatment-enrolled substance-abusing (SA) mothers and their infants and 50 non-using comparison dyads with obstetric risk. Mother's attachment representations (AAI) and EP were assessed prenatally and EA when infants were four months. Results showed that autonomous attachment only had a buffering effect on prenatal EP among comparisons. All SA mothers showed more dysfunctional EP than comparisons and, contrary to comparisons, autonomous SA mothers reported more negative cognitive appraisals and less meta-evaluation of emotions than dismissing SA mothers. Preoccupied SA mothers showed high negative cognitive appraisals, suggesting under-regulation of emotions. Attachment representations were not associated with EA in either group; rather, SA status contributed to global risk in the relationship. Surprisingly, autonomous SA mothers showed a tendency towards intrusiveness. We propose that obstetric risk among comparisons and adverse relational experiences among almost all SA mothers might override the protective role of mother's autonomous representations for dyadic interaction. We conclude that prenatal emotional turbulence and high interaction risk of all SA mothers calls for holistic treatment for the dyad. PMID:26978721
Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon
Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families. PMID:19899647
Silva, Teresa C; Graña, José Luis; González-Cieza, Luis
The aim of this exploratory study was twofold. First, the severity of physical and emotional abuse perpetrated by parents and its association with internalizing and externalizing problems were explored in a sample of 104 male and female youth offenders. Second, we tested the moderate effect of callous-unemotional traits on the relation between physical and emotional victimization and internalizing and externalizing problems in boys. The analyses revealed that a high percentage of youth offenders reported having been physically abused. More severe physical abuse was not related to higher levels of internalizing or externalizing problems. Young offenders' emotional abuse levels were low; however, this type of abuse was positively associated with externalizing problems among boys, regardless of the level of callous-unemotional traits. Thus, we suggest that youth offenders must be assessed using measures of physical and emotional abuse, and their case management should integrate specific programs to focus on the family environment to which the adolescents will most likely return after their sentence. PMID:23378520
Powers, Abigail; Fani, Negar; Pallos, Andrew; Stevens, Jennifer; Ressler, Kerry J.; Bradley, Bekh
Objective Previous findings suggest a relationship between childhood abuse and pain-related conditions. It is yet to be determined whether adult PTSD symptoms may mediate the association between the experience of childhood abuse and reported pain in adulthood. Emotion dysregulation may also play a role in mediating PTSD and pain levels. Methods We examined subjects (N=814) recruited from the primary care clinics of an urban public hospital as part of an NIMH-funded study of trauma related risk and resilience. We evaluated childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), PTSD symptoms with the PTSD Symptom Severity scale (PSS), and emotional dysregulation with the Emotion Dysregulation Scale (EDS). Pain and functional limitations of pain were assessed through self-report. Results We found that both childhood abuse and current PTSD symptoms predicted higher levels of reported pain. Childhood abuse, PTSD symptoms, and emotion dysregulation all predicted higher levels of functional impairment related to pain. Using the Sobel method and bootstrapping techniques and controlling for current level of negative affect, we found that PTSD fully mediated the effect of childhood abuse on pain level and pain-related limitations; emotion dysregulation partially mediated the effect of PTSD symptoms in predicting higher levels of pain-related limitations. Conclusions Although causality cannot be determined in the present study, these findings suggest that PTSD may serve as the pathway between exposure to childhood abuse and the development of pain-related conditions in adulthood, and that emotion dysregulation is a significant factor in understanding how PTSD relates to specific pain-related functional impairment. PMID:24360527
Walsh, Kate; Uddin, Monica; Soliven, Richelo; Wildman, Derek E.; Bradley-Davino, Bekh
Background Prior studies have found that the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) interacts with stressful life events to increase general risk for PTSD, but this association has not extended to African American samples. Further, little is known about the effects of this interaction on specific PTSD symptom clusters, despite indications that clusters may have different biological substrates. The current study examined the interaction between exposure to childhood emotional abuse and 5-HTTLPR genotype on risk for PTSD symptom severity and severity of specific PTSD symptom clusters in two African American samples. Methods Participants were 136 African American household residents from Detroit, MI and 546 African American patients recruited from waiting rooms in primary care clinics in Atlanta, GA. Participants reported emotional abuse exposure and PTSD symptom severity, and provided DNA for triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotyping. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine main effects and interactions. Results In both African American samples, 5-HTTLPR genotype modified the effect of emotional abuse on PTSD symptom severity. Participants with the low-expression SS genotype who were exposed to emotional abuse had significantly lower reexperiencing and arousal symptom severity scores. Limitations The DNHS genetic sample size was small, and abuse data were assessed retrospectively. Conclusions The SS variant of 5-HTTLPR appears to buffer against developing the reexperiencing and arousal symptoms of PTSD in two independent African American samples exposed to childhood emotional abuse. Findings also highlight the importance of considering emotional abuse experiences in patients with suspected PTSD. PMID:24751314
Guerino, Marcelo R.; Briel, Alysson F.; Araújo, Maria das Graças Rodrigues
[Purpose] Hippotherapy is a therapeutic resource that uses the horse as a kinesiotherapy instrument to elicit motor and cognitive improvements in individuals with special needs. [Subjects and Methods] This research evaluated two women aged 18 and 21 years, who had suffered sexual violence when they were children between the ages of 6 and 7 years old. The subjects did not have mental dysfunction but they were regular students registered at a school of special education. The patients presented severe motor limitation, difficulty with coordination, significant muscular retractions, thoracic and cervical kyphosis, cervical protrusion wich was basically a function of the postures they had adopted when victims of the sexual violence suffered in childhood. The patients performed twenty sessions of 30 minutes of hippotherapy on a horse. The activities were structured to stimulate coordination, proprioception, the vestibular and motor-sensorial systems for the improvement of posture, muscle activity and cognition. [Results] The activities provided during the hippotherapy sessions elicited alterations in postural adjustment resulting in 30% improvement, 80% improvement in coordination in, 50% improvement in corporal balance and in sociability and self-esteem. [Conclusion] Hippotherapy proved to be an effective treatment method for coordination, balance and postural correction, and also improved the patients’ self-esteem that had suffered serious emotional stress. PMID:25931769
Guerino, Marcelo R; Briel, Alysson F; Araújo, Maria das Graças Rodrigues
[Purpose] Hippotherapy is a therapeutic resource that uses the horse as a kinesiotherapy instrument to elicit motor and cognitive improvements in individuals with special needs. [Subjects and Methods] This research evaluated two women aged 18 and 21 years, who had suffered sexual violence when they were children between the ages of 6 and 7 years old. The subjects did not have mental dysfunction but they were regular students registered at a school of special education. The patients presented severe motor limitation, difficulty with coordination, significant muscular retractions, thoracic and cervical kyphosis, cervical protrusion wich was basically a function of the postures they had adopted when victims of the sexual violence suffered in childhood. The patients performed twenty sessions of 30 minutes of hippotherapy on a horse. The activities were structured to stimulate coordination, proprioception, the vestibular and motor-sensorial systems for the improvement of posture, muscle activity and cognition. [Results] The activities provided during the hippotherapy sessions elicited alterations in postural adjustment resulting in 30% improvement, 80% improvement in coordination in, 50% improvement in corporal balance and in sociability and self-esteem. [Conclusion] Hippotherapy proved to be an effective treatment method for coordination, balance and postural correction, and also improved the patients' self-esteem that had suffered serious emotional stress. PMID:25931769
Ferrier, Amanda G.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cimini, M. Dolores
The authors investigated the relationship between abuse in adult relationships and the tendency to engage in unhealthy weight loss behaviors. Undergraduate women responded to questions regarding weight loss behaviors, whether or not they had recently been in an abusive relationship, and perceived body image. Results indicated that women who had…
Clements, Caroline; Ogle, Richard; Sabourin, Caryn
The authors assessed perceived control, dysphoria, hopelessness, self-esteem, and optimism in 280 college students involved in abusive and nonabusive relationships. Women reported higher levels of dysphoria and lower levels of self-esteem and optimism than men. Women in abusive relationships reported more psychological symptoms than men in abusive…
Rose, Amanda J.; Carlson, Wendy; Waller, Erika M.
Co-ruminating, or excessively discussing problems, with friends is proposed to have adjustment tradeoffs. Co-rumination is hypothesized to contribute both to positive friendship adjustment and to problematic emotional adjustment. Previous single-assessment research was consistent with this hypothesis, but whether co-rumination is an antecedent…
Bartholow, B N; Doll, L S; Joy, D; Douglas, J M; Bolan, G; Harrison, J S; Moss, P M; McKirnan, D
From May 1989 through April 1990, 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men attending urban sexually transmitted disease clinics were interviewed regarding abusive sexual contacts during childhood and adolescence. Sexual abuse was found to be significantly associated with mental health counseling and hospitalization, psychoactive substance use, depression, suicidal thought or actions, social support, sexual identity development, HIV risk behavior including unprotected and intercourse and injecting drug use, and risk of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection. Data suggest that sexual abuse may have a wide-ranging influence on the quality of life and health risk behavior of homosexual men. Increased awareness as to the potential outcomes of male sexual abuse is critically important to the design and implementation of medical and psychological services for sexually abused men. PMID:8000905
Chaplo, Shannon D; Kerig, Patricia K; Bennett, Diana C; Modrowski, Crosby A
To date, scholars have established associations among nonsuicidal self-injury and sexual abuse, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and dissociation. However, leading theoretical models of the mechanisms underlying the association between trauma and negative outcomes suggest a more parsimonious explanation in that deficits in emotion regulation may underlie these various risk factors for self-injury. This study examined whether sexual abuse was differentially associated with nonsuicidal self-injury over and above other forms of traumatic experiences and whether the association between sexual abuse and self-injury was statistically mediated by emotion dysregulation and dissociation. Participants included 525 youth (392 boys, 133 girls) recruited from the U.S. juvenile justice system who completed measures of self-reported trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, dissociation, and emotion dysregulation. Results of a hierarchical regression demonstrated that sexual abuse predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms and self-injury over and above other forms of traumatic experiences. Results of bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that emotion dysregulation and dissociation in combination were implicated in self-injury among youth. The results suggest that youth in the juvenile justice system who experience sexual abuse may be at risk for higher rates of posttraumatic stress symptoms and that self-injury may be particularly salient for youth who experience sexual abuse. Furthermore, the results shed light on the role that dissociation and emotion dysregulation play in the relation between sexual abuse and self-injury, suggesting that a larger framework of self-regulation may have both empirical and clinical utility in helping to understand the underlying processes at play in these associations. PMID:25759937
Saunders, Blair; Jentzsch, Ines
The current research investigated differences in reactive and proactive cognitive control as a function of depressive symptomatology. Three participant groups with varying symptom levels (Beck Depression Inventory-II, BDI-II score) completed both the classic and an emotional-face Stroop task separately under speed and accuracy instructions. All groups made equivalent speed-accuracy trade-offs independent of task, suggesting that proactive adjustments are unaffected by depressive symptoms. Additionally, groups made equivalent reactive control adjustments (Stroop effects, congruency sequence effects) in the classic Stroop task, suggesting that these reactive control adjustments are spared across a wide range of BDI-II scorers. In contrast, the high BDI-II group displayed a selective impairment in the resolution of conflict in the emotional-face Stroop task. Thus, while proactive control and many aspects of reactive control were unaffected by the level of depressive symptoms, specific impairments occurred when current task demands required the trial-to-trial regulation of emotional processing. PMID:24070406
Bell, Kathryn M.; Higgins, Lorrin
The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person’s ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk. PMID:25893570
Helminen, Elisa; Punamaki, Raija-Leena
This study examines the impact of military trauma on contextualized emotional images in children's dreams, and the function of the intensity and valence of the emotional images in protecting mental health from negative trauma impact. Participants were 345 Palestinian children and adolescents (aged 5-16 years) belonging to high trauma (Gaza) and…
Maughan, Angeline; Cicchetti, Dante
Examined the effects of child maltreatment and interadult violence on children's developing strategies of emotion regulation and socioemotional development, and the role of emotion dysregulation in mediating the link between children's pathogenic relational experiences and behavioral outcomes for 3- to 6-year-olds. Found that maltreatment history…