Sample records for adjuvant photodynamic therapy

  1. Calreticulin as Cancer Treatment Adjuvant: Combination with Photodynamic Therapy and Photodynamic Therapy-Generated Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Korbelik, Mladen; Banáth, Judit; Saw, Kyi Min; Zhang, Wei; ?iplys, Evaldas

    2015-01-01

    Calreticulin is recognized as one of the pivotal damage-associated molecular pattern molecules alerting the host of the presence of distressed cells. In this role, calreticulin becomes exposed on the surface of tumor cells treated by several types of cancer therapy including photodynamic therapy (PDT). The goal of the present study was to examine the potential of externally added calreticulin for augmenting antitumor effect mediated by PDT. Recombinant calreticulin was found to bind to mouse SCCVII tumor cells treated by PDT. Compared to the outcome with PDT alone, cure rates of SCCVII tumors grown in immunocompetent C3H/HeN mice were elevated when calreticulin (0.4?mg/mouse) was injected peritumorally immediately after PDT. Such therapeutic gain with PDT plus calreticulin combination was not obtained with SCCVII tumors growing in immunodeficient NOD-scid mice. In PDT-vaccine protocol, where PDT-treated SCCVII cells are used for vaccination of SCCVII tumor-bearing mice, adding recombinant calreticulin to cells before their injection produced improved therapeutic effect. The expression of calreticulin gene was reduced in PDT-treated cells, while no changes were observed with the expression of this gene in tumor, liver, and spleen tissues in PDT-vaccine-treated mice. These findings reveal that externally added recombinant calreticulin can boost antitumor response elicited by PDT or PDT-generated vaccines, and can thus serve as an effective adjuvant for cancer treatment with PDT and probably other cancer cell stress-inducing modalities. PMID:25692097

  2. Mortality in experimental adjuvant intraoperative photodynamic therapy (AIOPDT) using ALA, Photofrin II, and mTHPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Steffi; Prosst, Ruediger L.; Stern, Josef; Rheinwald, Markus; Haase, Thomas; Herfarth, Christian; Gahlen, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    A clinical problem in the treatment of colorectal cancer is the high rate of local tumor recurrence. Adjuvant therapy methods are necessary to receive a better clinical outcome in minimizing local tumor relapse. Adjuvant intraoperative photodynamic therapy (AIOPDT) seems to be a promising alternative therapy in the treatment of malignant colorectal diseases. IN experimental settings the success of AIOPDT depends on the accumulation of the photosensitizer (PS) in tumor tissue and may be jeopardized by high mortality rates, due to inadequate energy doses. Our study evaluated mortality rates of nude mice after AIOPDT with ALA, Photofrin II and mTHPC using the following various light doses: ALA/Photofrin II: 100J, 50J, 25J; mTHPC: 30J, 15J, 5J generated by an Argon-Dye-laser system. There was a close correlation between laser energy applied for AIOPDT and postoperative mortality rate. Initial high mortality rates were lowered by stepwise reduction of the energy dose. Mortality rates reached a maximum 24 hours after AIOPDT in all groups.

  3. Indocyanine green (ICG) as a new adjuvant for the antimicrobial photo-dynamic therapy (aPDT) in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Joerg; Hopp, Michael; Schäfers, Johannes; Verbeek, Jonas; Kraus, Dominik; Frentzen, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    Clinical surveys show a continuous increase of antimicrobial resistance related to the frequency of the administrated medication. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an effective adjuvant to reduce the need of antibiotics in dentistry, especially in periodontics. The antimicrobial effect of lightactivated photosensitizers in periodontics is demonstrated in clinical studies and case reports. Indocyanine green (ICG) as a new adjuvant shows the high potential of antiphlogistic and antimicrobial effects in combination with laser-light activation. In trying to answer the question of just how far the influence of temperature is acting on bacteria, this study was carried out. The influences of ICG at different concentrations (0.01 up to 1 mg/ml) in combination with a culture medium (brain-heart-infusion) and a bacteria culture (Streptococcus salivarius) at different optical densities (OD600 0.5 and 0.1) were investigated under laser-light activation. Laser activation was carried out with diode laser at 810 nm and two different power settings (100 mW/300 mW). The pulse repetition rate was 2 kHz. Taking account of the fiber diameter, distance and spot size on the sample surface, the applicated intensities were 6.2 and 18.7 W/cm2. Total irradiation time was 20 s for all meaurements. Transmitted laser power and temperature increase in the culture medium as well as in the bacteria culture were determined. Additionally the influence of ICG regarding bacterial growth and bactericidal effect was investigated in the bacteria culture without laser irradiation. Without laser, no bactericidal effect of ICG was observed. Only a bacteriostatic effect could be proved. In dependence of the ICG concentration and the applied intensities a temperature increase of ?T up to 80°C was measured.

  4. New Photodynamic Therapy Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doiron, Dan

    1988-09-01

    I am going go over photodynamic therapy first, just an overview for those of you not familiar with it, as it is quite different from most of the normal surgical laser applications. Then I will be talking about the various aspects of the technology, and what we feel the market potentials are in the various aspects of the photodynamic therapy.

  5. Photodynamic Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can’t be treated with laser therapy alone Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia, a pre-cancerous condition that may ... optic glass strand. To treat esophageal cancer or Barrett’s esophagus, the fiber-optic strand is passed down the ...

  6. Photodynamic Therapy in Dermatology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clemens Fritsch; Gunter Goerz; Thomas Ruzicka

    1998-01-01

    hotodynamic therapy (PDT) uses exogenously administered or endogenously formed photosensitizers activated by light to induce cell death via formation of singlet oxygen and other free radicals. Photodynamic therapy is increasingly used for the treatment of skin cancers and other indications. The efficacy of PDT depends on the structure of the photosensitizer, the administration modality, the light source, and the treatment

  7. Photodynamic therapy in dermatology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrin Kalka; Hans Merk; Hasan Mukhtar

    2000-01-01

    The combination of light and chemicals to treat skin diseases is widely practiced in dermatology. Within this broad use of light and drugs, in recent years the concept of photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged. PDT is a promising modality for the management of various tumors and nonmalignant diseases, based on the combination of a photosensitizer that is selectively localized in

  8. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  9. Photodynamic therapy for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young M; Adelzadeh, Lily; Wu, Jashin J

    2014-06-17

    Abstract Introduction: Photodynamic therapy for psoriasis showed promise in the early 1990s with reports of plaque clearance following topical aminolevulinic acid - photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT). Methods: In December 2013, we conducted a systematic search of the PubMed Medline database using the keywords "psoriasis" and "photodynamic therapy". Results: Numerous clinical studies have failed to demonstrate a consistent, efficacious response to topical ALA-PDT. Furthermore, severe pain and burning sensations were repeatedly reported, many cases being intolerable for patients. Discussion: The variability in clinical response and the painful side effects have made topical ALA-PDT an unsuitable treatment option for chronic plaque psoriasis. Nonetheless, early clinical studies of other modalities such as topical hypericin and methylene blue, as well as systemic ALA and verteporfin, have shown that these photosensitizers are efficacious and much better tolerated than topical ALA. Conclusion: With the current landscape of phototherapy dominated by psoralen combined with ultraviolet A (PUVA) and narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB), an alternative light therapy utilizing the visible spectrum is certainly promising and a worthwhile endeavor to pursue. PMID:24881473

  10. Photodynamic therapy with fullerenes†

    PubMed Central

    Mroz, Pawel; Tegos, George P.; Gali, Hariprasad; Wharton, Tim; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Fullerenes are a class of closed-cage nanomaterials made exclusively from carbon atoms. A great deal of attention has been focused on developing medical uses of these unique molecules especially when they are derivatized with functional groups to make them soluble and therefore able to interact with biological systems. Due to their extended ?-conjugation they absorb visible light, have a high triplet yield and can generate reactive oxygen species upon illumination, suggesting a possible role of fullerenes in photodynamic therapy. Depending on the functional groups introduced into the molecule, fullerenes can effectively photoinactivate either or both pathogenic microbial cells and malignant cancer cells. The mechanism appears to involve superoxide anion as well as singlet oxygen, and under the right conditions fullerenes may have advantages over clinically applied photosensitizers for mediating photodynamic therapy of certain diseases. PMID:17973044

  11. Photodynamic therapy: oncologic horizons.

    PubMed

    Allison, Ron R

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a light-based intervention with a long and successful clinical track record for both oncology and non-malignancies. In cancer patients, a photosensitizing agent is intravenously, orally or topically applied and allowed time to preferentially accumulate in the tumor region. Light of the appropriate wavelength and intensity to activate the particular photosensitizer employed is then introduced to the tumor bed. The light energy will activate the photosensitizer, which in the presence of oxygen should allow for creation of the toxic photodynamic reaction generating reactive oxygen species. The photodynamic reaction creates a cascading series of events including initiation of apoptotic and necrotic pathways both in tumor and neovasculature, leading to permanent lesion destruction often with upregulation of the immune system. Cutaneous phototoxicity from unintentional sunlight exposure remains the most common morbidity from PDT. This paper will highlight current research and outcomes from the basic science and clinical applications of oncologic PDT and interpret how these findings may lead to enhanced and refined future PDT. PMID:24328413

  12. Nontumor photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bergh, Hubert

    1997-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become an approved treatment for different types of cancer in many countries over the last few years. As an example one might mention PDT of the early stages of bronchial or esophageal cancer which have been treated with only about 20% recurrence being observed over several years of follow-up. The low degree of invasion of PDT, as compared to most alternative treatments as well as minimal sided effects, and good repeatability, all speak for this treatment modality. Improved and cheap screening procedures, that are now being developed for the early stage disease, will lead to a more frequent application of PDT for these indications. Detailed studies of PDT showed that certain dyes, after systematic or topical application, could be taken up more in neoplastic tissue as compared to the surrounding normal tissue in the clinical context, thus leading to 'selective' or at least partially selective destruction of the tumor following light application. This selectivity of uptake of certain compounds in hyperproliferative tissue, as well as the observation that PDT can lead to blood vessel stasis, suggested that photodynamic therapy might be worth trying in non-tumor disease. Some of the diseases associated with hyperproliferation and/or neovascularization which are being considered for PDT are listed in table I.

  13. Photodynamic Therapy for Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Talreja, Jayant P.

    2010-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the primary malignancy arising from the biliary epithelium, and it presents as jaundice, cholestasis, and cholangitis. Over 50 percent of patients present with advanced-stage disease, and the prognosis is poor with the survival measured in months even after biliary decompression. Palliative management has become the standard of care for unresectable disease, and this involves an endoscopic approach. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the administration of a photosensitizer followed by local irradiation with laser therapy. The use of PDT for palliation of bile-duct tumors has produced promising results. Several studies conducted in Europe and the United States have shown that PDT produces a marked improvement in the symptoms of cholestasis, survival, and quality of life. This chapter summarizes the principle of PDT, the technique employed, and the published experience regarding PDT for cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:21103297

  14. Intracranial Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian C.; Madsen, Steen J.

    This chapter presents the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for clinical applications in the brain, particularly treatment of patients with solid brain tumors such as malignant gliomas. The principles and background of PDT are first described, followed by a summary of brain tumors and presentation of a heuristic model that serves to illustrate how PDT may be utilized. Subsequent sections will summarize what has been achieved to date in intracranial applications of PDT, and then the particular technical challenges that brain tumors pose for effective delivery of PDT treatment and some of the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological strategies that have been explored to overcome these. The final section looks ahead to potential future needs and developments, both fundamental and practical.

  15. Photodynamic therapy in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junheng

    1993-03-01

    After the pioneering work of photodynamic therapy of malignant tumors had been reported by Dr. Dougherty and his colleagues, applications of hematoporphyrin derivative for the diagnosis and treatment of human cancers has been reported by Professor Hayata et al. Chinese HpD was first made by Shi-Lin Xu, an engineer of Beijing Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry in 1980. The first patient to receive the PDT in China was a case of basal cell carcinoma of the lower eyelid, treated in 1981 by Dr. Ping Zhu a physician in Tong Ren Hospital in Beijing using a Chinese made laser. In 1982, research groups of PDT were established under the sponsorships of the State Science and Technology Commission of China, Beijing Commission for Science and Technology, etc. Physics, chemistry, preclinical and clinical research studies of PDT were then started widely.

  16. Photodynamic Therapy in Bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart K. Bisland

    Recent work within our group suggests that the application of photodynamic ther- apy (PDT) in bone holds considerable promise for a number of key conditions spe- cific to bone, including the treatment of primary and secondary cancers, infection, and skeletal deformity. In this chapter I will provide a synopsis of preclinical results obtained using PDT in bone that starts with

  17. Photodynamic Therapy, Optical Trapping and Photostimulated Emission Using

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    by the photosensitizer, which generates singlet oxygen cell death #12;Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Photosensitizer LightPhotodynamic Therapy, Optical Trapping and Photostimulated Emission Using Upconverting nanothermometry MRI Photodynamic Therapy #12;· Attractive features: - Stability with respect to photobleaching

  18. Endobronchial photodynamic therapy for hemoptysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughan, James S.; Williams, Thomas; Hawley, Philip; Miller, Cynthia

    1994-07-01

    Hemoptysis (sometimes life threatening) is a frequent symptom of patients with endobronchial tumors. We recorded the amount of hemoptysis of 140 patients before treatment of the tumors with Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and at subsequent follow up examinations. Follow up was 100. A hemoptysis scale of: 0 equals none; 1 equals streaks; 2 equals drops and clots; 3 equals large clots life threatening; 4 equals massive (life threatening requiring transfusions) was recorded.

  19. Appraising Adjuvant Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith A. Perez

    Tamoxifen, once the gold standard adjuvant endocrine therapy for early breast cancer, is being challenged by third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) that have demonstrated improved disease-free survival in a vari- ety of adjuvant settings for early breast cancer. Tamoxi- fen and AIs have different safety profiles, which should allow physicians to begin to individualize treatment based on a patient's comorbidities and

  20. Augmentation of tumor immunity with ENHANZYN adjuvant following verteporfin PDT: photodynamic vaccination (PDV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, P. M.; Stewart, A. J.; Hardwicke, L.; Smits, Claire; North, John R.

    2001-07-01

    The immune system is implicated in the mechanism of tumor destruction following photodynamic therapy (PDT). Several investigators have shown that immune stimulation can augment PDT. In this study, a single intratumoral injection of ENHANZYNTM adjuvant was administered to tumor-bearing mice immediately following verteporfin PDT in a therapeutic modality referred to as Photodynamic Vaccination (PDV). After optimal PDT, little difference in the rate of tumor re-growth or time to tumor reappearance was seen upon addition of the adjuvant. This may be as expected as this treatment regimen results in effective long-term tumor cure in mice. The effect of adjuvant and sub-optimal PDT was less clear as both groups treated with either a high or low does of adjuvant showed tumor re-growth earlier than those animals treated with PDT alone. However, tumors of mice receiving sub-optimal PDT followed by high dose immune adjuvant did not show the rapid, uncontrolled growth seen in other groups and, in the majority of cases, tumor volume decreased steadily with time. This resulted in a superior period of survival despite the animals being tumor-bearing. Interestingly, the data obtained in this study clearly demonstrates the ability of PDT to protect against re- challenge with a second round of tumor implantation. This was seen in all groups and stresses the importance of the immune response in PDT tumor control. Addition of the high immune adjuvant does to sub-optimal PDT appeared to be the most effective treatment group in this respect, giving complete protection against tumor re-implantation.

  1. Immunological effects of photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Patricia M.; Newton, Jo-anne; Richter, Anna M.; Yip, Stephen; Levy, Julia G.

    1990-07-01

    There are few reports in the literature regarding the effect that photodynamic therapy (PDT) might have on immune function. illumination of skin with light in the long UV range is well known to have immunosuppressive properties mediated by the amplification of a subpopulation of T suppressor cells1. However, PDT effected by light at between 600 and 700 nm and accompanied by an acute inflammatory response has not been studied in depth in terms of its influence on immune function. A few recent reports have documented suppression of immune function in the days immediately following PDTZ3. In one report, the cells responsible for this suppressive effect were characterized as a non-T cell population which were incapable of adoptively transferring the effect2. It is probable that the cells responsible for transient immunosupppression following PDT are activated macrophages, no doubt stimulated by the photodynamic effect and well known for their release ofprostaglandin E2 which is non-specifically immunosuppressive. On the other hand, there is anecdotal evidence from clinical studies attesting to what might be interpreted as immunological enhancement following PDT (infiltration of lymphocytes into inflammatory lesions), as well as reports of elevated levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the urine of patients treated with PDT for bladder cancer'5. Some investigators have reported lymphokine involvement in photodynamically initiated lesions6. Recent work by Gomer and his associates have shown positive correlation with PDT and enhanced natural killer cell activity7 and have suggested that this could play a role in reduction of the metastatic potential of surviving tumor cells8.

  2. Photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershova, Ekaterina Y.; Karimova, Lubov N.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Patients with acne were treated with ALA plus red light. Ten percent water solution of ALA was applied with 1,5-2 h occlusion and then 18-45 J/cm2 630 nm light was given. Bacterial endogenous porphyrins fluorescence also was used for acne therapy. Treatment control and diagnostics was realized by fluorescence spectra and fluorescence image. Light sources and diagnostic systems were used: semiconductor laser (?=630 nm, Pmax=1W), (LPhT-630-01-BIOSPEC); LED system for PDT and diagnostics with fluorescent imager (?=635 nm, P=2W, p=50 mW/cm2), (UFPh-630-01-BIOSPEC); high sensitivity CCD video camera with narrow-band wavelength filter (central wavelength 630 nm); laser electronic spectrum analyzer for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy monitoring (LESA-01-BIOSPEC). Protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) and endogenous porphyrins concentrations were measured by fluorescence at wavelength, correspondingly, 700 nm and 650 nm. It was shown that topical ALA is converted into PP IX in hair follicles, sebaceous glands and acne scars. The amount of resulting PP IX is sufficient for effective PDT. There was good clinical response and considerable clearance of acne lesion. ALA-PDT also had good cosmetic effect in treatment acne scars. PDT with ALA and red light assist in opening corked pores, destroying Propionibacterium acnes and decreasing sebum secretion. PDT treatment associated with several adverse effects: oedema and/or erytema for 3-5 days after PDT, epidermal exfoliation from 5th to 10th day and slight pigmentation during 1 month after PDT. ALA-PDT is effective for acne and can be used despite several side effects.

  3. Photodynamic Cancer Therapy - Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamse, Heidi [Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein (South Africa)

    2011-09-22

    The basic principle of the photodynamic effect was discovered over a hundred years ago leading to the pioneering work on PDT in Europe. It was only during the 1980s, however, when 'photoradiation therapy' was investigated as a possible treatment modality for cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a photochemotherapeutic process which requires the use of a photosensitizer (PS) that, upon entry into a cancer cell is targeted by laser irradiation to initiate a series of events that contribute to cell death. PSs are light-sensitive dyes activated by a light source at a specific wavelength and can be classified as first or second generation PSs based on its origin and synthetic pathway. The principle of PS activation lies in a photochemical reaction resulting from excitation of the PS producing singlet oxygen which in turn reacts and damages cell organelles and biomolecules required for cell function and ultimately leading to cell destruction. Several first and second generation PSs have been studied in several different cancer types in the quest to optimize treatment. PSs including haematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), aminolevulinic acid (ALA), chlorins, bacteriochlorins, phthalocyanines, naphthalocyanines, pheophorbiedes and purpurins all require selective uptake and retention by cancer cells prior to activation by a light source and subsequent cell death induction. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is based on the fluorescence effect exhibited by PSs upon irradiation and is often used concurrently with PDT to detect and locate tumours. Both laser and light emitting diodes (LED) have been used for PDT depending on the location of the tumour. Internal cancers more often require the use of laser light delivery using fibre optics as delivery system while external PDT often make use of LEDs. Normal cells have a lower uptake of the PS in comparison to tumour cells, however the acute cytotoxic effect of the compound on the recovery rate of normal cells is not known. Subcellular localization of PS is of vital importance when cell death mechanism is identified. Programmed cell death (PCD) viz. apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy have all been identified as inducible cell death mechanisms during PDT. While apoptosis is probably the preferred cell death mechanism, understanding the molecular differences and identifying the cross-talk between these mechanisms are crucial to the development of new PSs aimed at improving the killing efficiency and overall effectiveness of PDT as a cancer treatment modality. This paper reviews the process of PDT cancer therapy, the available PSs, their effectiveness for different cancers as well as the cell death mechanisms identified during PDT of different cancers associated with specific PSs.

  4. Photodynamic therapy toward selective endometrial ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadir, Yona; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Berns, Michael W.

    1993-05-01

    Potential applications of photodynamic therapy for endometrial disease are discussed. Experimental models that may lead to diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis as well as selective endometrial ablation are summarized.

  5. Photodynamic therapy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hatogai, Ken; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Yoda, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses a photosensitizing drug that is administered to the patient, localized to a tumor, and then activated with a laser to induce a photochemical reaction to destroy the cell. PDT using porfimer sodium followed by excimer dye laser irradiation is approved as a curative treatment for superficial esophageal cancer in Japan. While endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is currently more popular for esophageal cancer, there is evidence to support PDT as an alternative treatment and as a salvage treatment for local failure after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A photosensitizing agent has also been developed that requires a shorter sun shade period after administration, and studies are currently underway to establish an esophageal cancer indication for this next-generation PDT in Japan. PMID:25333005

  6. BODIPY Dyes In Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kamkaew, Anyanee; Lim, Siang Hui; Lee, Hong Boon; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong

    2012-01-01

    BODIPY dyes tends to be highly fluorescent, but their emissions can be attenuated by adding substituents with appropriate oxidation potentials. Substituents like these have electrons to feed into photoexcited BODIPYs, quenching their fluorescence, thereby generating relatively long-lived triplet states. Singlet oxygen is formed when these triplet states interact with 3O2. In tissues, this causes cell damage in regions that are illuminated, and this is the basis of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The PDT agents that are currently approved for clinical use do not feature BODIPYs, but there are many reasons to believe that this situation will change. This review summarizes the attributes of BODIPY dyes for PDT, and in some related areas. PMID:23014776

  7. BODIPY dyes in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kamkaew, Anyanee; Lim, Siang Hui; Lee, Hong Boon; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong; Burgess, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    BODIPY dyes tend to be highly fluorescent, but their emissions can be attenuated by adding substituents with appropriate oxidation potentials. Substituents like these have electrons to feed into photoexcited BODIPYs, quenching their fluorescence, thereby generating relatively long-lived triplet states. Singlet oxygen is formed when these triplet states interact with (3)O(2). In tissues, this causes cell damage in regions that are illuminated, and this is the basis of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The PDT agents that are currently approved for clinical use do not feature BODIPYs, but there are many reasons to believe that this situation will change. This review summarizes the attributes of BODIPY dyes for PDT, and in some related areas. PMID:23014776

  8. Photodynamic therapy of gastrointestinal cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foultier, Marie-Therese; Vonarx-Coinsmann, Veronique; Harel, Yann; Cordel, S.; Antona, B.; Patrice, Thierry

    1994-03-01

    A new photosensitizer (PS), meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl-chlorin(m-THPC), has been clinically evaluated for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early squamous cell carcinomas located in the upper aerodigestive tract, the oesophagus and the tracheobronchial tree. The injected doses ranged between 0.1 - 0.3 mg/kg m-THPC and the wavelength of the excitation light was either at 514 nm or 652 nm. The evaluation of the m-THPC induced phototoxicity was carried out on healthy mucosae of the bronchi, the oral cavity and the skone cell population to the other. Appearance of aneuploid populations after PDT suggests that destruction of sensitive cell populations allows the growth of initially non FCM detectable aneuploid clones. MDA assay could thus be a good prognostic tool although larger series of patients are needed. 115

  9. Current Concepts in Gastrointestinal Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Webber, John; Herman, Mark; Kessel, David; Fromm, David

    1999-01-01

    Objective To review current concepts of photodynamic therapy (PDT) applied to the treatment of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Summary Background Data PDT initially involves the uptake or production of a photosensitive compound by tumor cells. Subsequent activation of the photoreactive compound by a specific wavelength of light results in cell death, either directly or as a result of vascular compromise and/or apoptosis. Methods The authors selectively review current concepts relating to photosensitization, photoactivation, time of PDT application, tissue selectivity, sites of photodynamic action, PDT effects on normal tissue, limitations of PDT, toxicity of photosensitizers, application of principles of PDT to tumor detection, and current applications of PDT to tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Results PDT is clearly effective for small cancers, but it is not yet clear in which cases such treatment is more effective than other currently acceptable approaches. The major side effect of PDT is cutaneous photosensitization. The major limitation of PDT is depth of tumor kill. As data from current and future clinical trials become available, a clearer perspective of where PDT fits in the treatment of cancers will be gained. Many issues regarding pharmacokinetic data of photosensitizers, newer technology involved in light sources, optimal treatment regimens that take advantage of the pharmacophysiology of photoablation, and light dosimetry still require solution. One can foresee application of differing sensitizers and light sources depending on the specific clinical situation. As technologic advances occur, interstitial PDT may have significant application. Conclusions PDT has a potentially important role either as a primary or adjuvant mode of treatment of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:10400031

  10. Current status of photodynamic therapy in oncology.

    PubMed

    van Hillegersberg, R; Kort, W J; Wilson, J H

    1994-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment based on the accumulation in malignant tissue of a photosensitiser with low systemic toxicity. Subsequent illumination induces a type II photochemical reaction with singlet oxygen production that results in destruction of biomolecules and subcellular organelles. The first full clinical report of PDT dates from 1976. Haematoporphyrin derivative, a complex mixture of porphyrins, was initially used as a photosensitiser. An enriched fraction (porfimer sodium) is now the most commonly used clinical agent. After systemic administration porphyrins bind to albumin and lipoproteins. Accumulation occurs mainly in tumours and organs of the reticuloendothelial system. The light of an argon-dye laser can be tuned to the appropriate wavelength and delivered either superficially, interstitially or intraluminally. Light distribution can be assessed by using a radiation transport model and tissue optical properties, or direct measurement with light detectors. The effects of PDT depend in a complex way on: characteristics, tissue concentration and localisation of the photosensitiser; the target tissue optical properties and oxygenation; activation wavelength, power density and treatment regimen. Future research is directed towards: better photosensitisers (i.e. phthalocyanines, chlorins or protoporphyrin IX endogenously produced from 5-aminolevulinic acid); improved light generation and delivery; and combination with hyperthermia, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery. Adjuvant intraoperative PDT is a promising approach to destroying residual tumour after surgery. PMID:7528127

  11. Light distributors for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bergh, Hubert; Mizeret, Jerome C.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Woodtli, Alain; Bays, Roland; Robert, D.; Thielen, P.; Philippoz, J. M.; Braichotte, Daniel; Forrer, Martin; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.

    1995-01-01

    A brief overview is given of light distributors developed by our group in Lausanne for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. We focus on fiberoptic devices which have to a large extent been tested over the years in the clinic for PDT of the upper aerodigestive tract, the tracheobronchial tree, the esophagus, the uterus, and the skin. Both surface and interstitial light distributors are discussed. Several different physical principles for obtaining the desired light intensity distribution in tissue are demonstrated, including the use of specially shaped reflecting surfaces, light scattering and refraction by particles, the use of flexible highly reflecting balloons, controlled fiber core surface roughening, and microlenses. PDT can be improved using 'intelligent' light distributors, which permit the measurement of the light intensity reflected from the irradiated surface, as well as the dye fluorescence signals. Both are measured in situ and in real time during the treatment. The use of such devices, which can measure photobleaching kinetics, and enable one to adjust the light dose to the observed dye fluorescence signals, thus giving better PDT control, is discussed.

  12. Photodynamic therapy of gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzin, N. M.; Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Sclyanskaya, Olga A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the use of laser endoscopic spectrum analyzer (LESA-5), the spectral-analyzing video-imaging system, Kr laser and various types of catheters for different tumor localizations, and Phthalocyanine aluminum photosensitizers in patients with gastric cancer was discussed. PDT was carried out in fifteen patients with gastric cancer. There were the following indications for PDT: early gastric cancer (3 patients), malignant stenosis of the cardia or pyloric portion of the stomach (4 patients), cancer of gastric stump with stenosis of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1 patient), preoperative treatment of patients with large but probably resectable gastric tumor size (7 patients). Usually we used 3 - 4 seances of laser treatment 10 - 30 minutes long. Concentration of photosensitizer in normal and malignant tissue was controlled by LESA-5. Treatment was monitored by spectral-analyzing video- imaging system in fluorescent light. The results show high efficiency of PDT especially in patients with early gastric cancer (necrosis of all tumor mass, i.e. complete regression of tumor). For all other patients we obtained partial regression of gastric cancer.

  13. Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A fact sheet that explains different types of adjuvant therapy (treatment given after primary therapy to increase the chance of long-term survival) and neoadjuvant therapy (treatment given before primary therapy). Discusses side effects, risks, and benefits of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer.

  14. Adjuvant therapy for endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    DeLeon, Maria C.; Ammakkanavar, Natraj R.

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is a common gynecologic malignancy typically diagnosed at early stage and cured with surgery alone. Adjuvant therapy is tailored according to the risk of recurrence, estimated based on the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and other histological factors. The objective of this manuscript is to review the evidence guiding adjuvant therapy for early stage and locally advanced uterine cancer. For patients with early stage disease, minimizing toxicity, while preserving outstanding cure rates remains the major goal. For patients with locally advanced endometrial cancer optimal combined regimens are being defined. Risk stratification based on molecular traits is under development and may aid refine the current risk prediction model and permit personalized approaches for women with endometrial cancer. PMID:24761218

  15. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation and Photodynamic Therapy for Infections

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liyi; Dai, Tianhong; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was initially discovered over 100 years ago by its ability to kill microorganisms, but its use to treat infections clinically has not been much developed. However, the present relentless increase in antibiotic resistance worldwide and the emergence of strains that are resistant to all known antibiotics has stimulated research into novel antimicrobial strategies such as PDT that are thought to be unlikely to lead to the development of resistance. In this chapter we will cover the use of PDT to kill pathogenic microbial cells in vitro and describe a mouse model of localized infection and its treatment by PDT without causing excessive damage to the host tissue. PMID:20552347

  16. Photodynamic therapy photosensitizers derived from chlorophyll a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnett, Raymond; Benzie, Robin; Grahn, Michael F.; Salgado, A.; Valles, Maria A.

    1994-03-01

    A series of hydroxychlorins and another of (omega) -carboxyalkyloxy derivatives have been prepared from chlorophyll (alpha) , and their potential photosensitizing ability for the photodynamic therapy of cancer tested in vitro by the MTT assay. The results show that the monohydroxychlorin VI, because of its high photoactivity and its low dark toxicity, is the most promising compound of these series.

  17. Heat-shock Proteins and Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylis, Joanne; Downs, Craig A.; Jones, Linda R.; Heckathorn, Scott A.

    1998-11-01

    Many cancer treatments, such as photodynamic therapy, generate active oxygen species, often in the mitochondria. These oxygen species adversely react with cellular processes, thereby destroying cancer cells and tissue. Heat-shock proteins are up-regulated in response to heat stress or other environmental stresses and are known to protect cells from active oxygen species. In tumor cells, heat-shock proteins accumulate in the mitochondria under non-stress conditions at higher levels than in normal cells. The objective of our work is to determine whether specific mitochondrial heat-shock proteins are responsible for the increased resistance of cancer cells to oxidative-based anti-cancer therapies. We will first determine which heat-shock proteins accumulate in the mitochondria of cancer cells (lung carcinomas). We will determine if the over-expression of specific heat-shock proteins in the mitochondria can protect cells from Photofrin®-mediated photodynamic therapy through protection of mitochondrial electron transport.

  18. Ocular Photodynamic Therapy – Standard Applications and New Indications (Part 1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Mennel; Irene Barbazetto; Carsten H. Meyer; Silvia Peter; Michael Stur

    2007-01-01

    Ocular photodynamic therapy (PDT) was introduced as a novel treatment for neovascular forms of age-related macular degeneration and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to pathologic myopia in the mid\\/end 1990s. The current treatment recommendations are based on the results of two large, prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trials (Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Photodynamic Therapy and Verteporfin in Photodynamic Therapy Studies)

  19. Photodynamic therapy for occluded biliary metal stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Joseph V. E.; Krasner, Neville; Sturgess, R.

    1999-02-01

    In this abstract we describe the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to recanalize occluded biliary metal stents. In patients with jaundice secondary to obstructed metal stents PDT was carried out 72 hours after the administration of m THPC. Red laser light at 652 nm was delivered endoscopically at an energy intensity of 50 J/cm. A week later endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram showed complete recanalization of the metal stent.

  20. Combined surgery and photodynamic therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douplik, Alexandre

    According to the recent guidelines, the gold standard is resecting an extra 0.5-3 cm beyond the lesion margins that are visually detected and/or biopsy confirmed depending on type of malignancy and its localisation to avoid missing the residuals of the tumour. Often, such a large resection leads to dysfunctions of the organ or tissues, which underwent the surgery. In some cases, an extra tumour-free margin cannot be achieved because of tumour proximity to vital sites such as major vascular or nerve structures. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an emerging clinical modality to locally destroy cancer lesions selectively. The limitation of photodynamic therapy is the curable depth of an order of one centimetre or less. A combination of cancer surgery following by PDT can bring a benefit to reduce the resection and minimise the impact on the organ or tissue functionality. Combination of cancer surgery and photodynamic therapy provides another opportunity-fluorescence image guidance of cancer removal. Most of the photosensitizers intensively fluoresce and hence facilitate a strong fluorescence contrast versus healthy adjacent tissues.

  1. Antitumor immune reaction elicited by photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen

    1999-06-01

    This work examines why photodynamic therapy (PDT) is capable of eliciting a strong immune reaction against treated solid tumors. It is postulated that this phenomenon originates from the basic charter of the insult inflicted by the photodynamic treatment, which is dominated by singlet oxygen-mediated oxidative stress. The early event associated with this initial impact, which is of major relevance for the development of immune response, is the generation of photo-oxidative lesions responsible for the activation of cellular signal transduction pathways and consequent induction of stress proteins. Importantly, these lesions, as well as other types of PDT mediated oxidative injury, have a strong pro-inflammatory character. It is suggested that the antitumor immune response is primed and propagated by the PDT-induced inflammatory process. Of critical importance for the immune recognition of treated tumor is the generation of large amounts of cancer cell debris that occurs rapidly following PDT treatment.

  2. Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; Leite, Marieli F. M.; Trujillo, Jose R.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors, especially in Gynecology. The photodynamic reaction is based on the production of reactive oxygen species after the activation of a photosensitizer. Advantages of the PDT in comparison to the surgical resection are: ambulatory treatment and tissue recovery highly satisfactory, through a non-invasive procedure. The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I and II presents potential indications for PDT. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the PDT for the diagnostics and treatment of CIN I and II. The equipment and the photosensitizer are produced in Brazil with a representative low cost. It is possible to visualize the fluorescence of the cervix and to treat the lesions, without side effects. The proposed clinical protocol shows great potential to become a public health technique.

  3. SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION OF PHOTOSENSITISER UPTAKE KINETICS IN PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION OF PHOTOSENSITISER UPTAKE KINETICS IN PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY T. Bastogne L to the experimental modelling of photosensitiser uptake kinetics in photodynamic therapy. The experimental framework is limited to one cancer cell line (HT29-A4), one photosensitiser (Chlorin e6), one photosensitiser dose (5µg

  4. Interstitial photodynamic therapy for prostate cancer: a developing modality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil E. Martin; Stephen M. Hahn

    2004-01-01

    Patients with early stage prostate cancer are generally treated with either a radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. While both approaches have good survival outcomes, they are associated with significant side effects and non-trivial failure rates. Photodynamic therapy has been studied as a possible treatment for both recurrent and primary prostate cancer. Interstitial photodynamic therapy requires strict dosimetry, mandating an understanding of

  5. Cell Death Pathways in Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer

    E-print Network

    Mroz, Pawel

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging cancer therapy that uses the combination of non-toxic dyes or photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species and destroy tumors. The PS can be ...

  6. Photodynamic therapy for treatment subretinal neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetisov, Sergey E.; Budzinskaja, Maria V.; Kiseleva, Tatyana N.; Balatskaya, Natalia V.; Gurova, Irina V.; Loschenov, Viktor B.; Shevchik, Sergey A.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Vorozhtsov, Georgy N.

    2007-07-01

    This work are devoted our experience with photodynamic therapy (PDT) with <> for patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV). 18 patients with subfoveal CNV in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 24 patients with subfoveal CNV in pathological myopia (PM) and 4 patients with subfoveal CNV associated with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were observed. CNV was 100% classic in all study patients. Standardized protocol refraction, visual acuity testing, ophthalmologic examinations, biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography were performed before treatment and 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after treatment; were used to evaluate the results of photodynamic therapy with <> (0.02% solution of mixture sulfonated aluminium phtalocyanine 0.05 mg/kg, intravenously). A diode laser (<>, Inc, Moscow) was used operating in the range of 675 nm. Need for retreatment was based on fluorescein angiographic evidence of leakage at 3-month follow-up intervals. At 3, 6, 9 month 26 (56.5%) patients had significant improvement in the mean visual acuity. At the end of the 12-month minimal fluorescein leakage from choroidal neovascularization was seen in 12 (26.1%) patients and the mean visual acuity was slightly worse than 0.2 which was not statistically significant as compared with the baseline visual acuity. Patients with fluorescein leakage from CNV underwent repeated PDT with <>. 3D-mode ultrasound shown the decreasing thickness of chorioretinal complex in CNV area. Photodynamic therapy with <> can safely reduce the risk of severe vision loss in patients with predominantly classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD, PM and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis.

  7. Hormonal component of tumor photodynamic therapy response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones in the response of the treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) comes from the induction of acute phase response by this modality. This adrenal gland activity is orchestrated through the engagement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal axis incited by stress signals emanating from the PDT-treated tumor. Glucocorticoid hormone activity engendered within the context of PDT-induced acute phase response performs multiple important functions; among other involvements they beget acute phase reactant production, systemic neutrophil mobilization, and control the production of inflammation-modulating and immunoregulatory proteins.

  8. Acceleration Of Wound Healing Ny Photodynamic Therapy

    DOEpatents

    Hasan, Tayyaba (Arlington, MA); Hamblin, Michael R. (Revere, MA); Trauner, Kenneth (Sacramento, CA)

    2000-08-22

    Disclosed is a method for accelerating wound healing in a mammal. The method includes identifying an unhealed wound site or partially-healed wound site in a mammal; administering a photosensitizer to the mammal; waiting for a time period wherein the photosensitizer reaches an effective tissue concentration at the wound site; and photoactivating the photosensitizer at the wound site. The dose of photodynamic therapy is selected to stimulate the production of one or more growth factor by cells at the wound site, without causing tissue destruction.

  9. Photodynamic therapy and anti-tumour immunity

    PubMed Central

    Castano, Ana P.; Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light in combination with oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species that kill malignant cells by apoptosis and/or necrosis, shut down the tumour microvasculature and stimulate the host immune system. In contrast to surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy that are mostly immunosuppressive, PDT causes acute inflammation, expression of heat-shock proteins, invasion and infiltration of the tumour by leukocytes, and might increase the presentation of tumour-derived antigens to T cells. PMID:16794636

  10. Topical photodynamic therapy in dermatology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf-Markus Szeimies; PierGiacomo Calzavara-Pinton; Sigrid Karrer; Bernhard Ortel; Michael Landthaler

    1996-01-01

    Although photodyamiic therapy (PDT) was first used in the treatment of skin diseases, phase-III-clinical trials were primarily conducted for the treatment of bladder cancer, endobronchial and oesophageal carcinoma. In dermatology PDT has most extensively been used for the treatment of malignant cutaneous lesions. Up to now those patients have been treated systematically with first-generation photosensitizers. However, prolonged skin photosensitivity is

  11. Graphene-based nanovehicles for photodynamic medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Dong, Haiqing; Li, Yongyong; Shi, Donglu

    2015-01-01

    Graphene and its derivatives such as graphene oxide (GO) have been widely explored as promising drug delivery vehicles for improved cancer treatment. In this review, we focus on their applications in photodynamic therapy. The large specific surface area of GO facilitates efficient loading of the photosensitizers and biological molecules via various surface functional groups. By incorporation of targeting ligands or activatable agents responsive to specific biological stimulations, smart nanovehicles are established, enabling tumor-triggering release or tumor-selective accumulation of photosensitizer for effective therapy with minimum side effects. Graphene-based nanosystems have been shown to improve the stability, bioavailability, and photodynamic efficiency of organic photosensitizer molecules. They have also been shown to behave as electron sinks for enhanced visible-light photodynamic activities. Owing to its intrinsic near infrared absorption properties, GO can be designed to combine both photodynamic and photothermal hyperthermia for optimum therapeutic efficiency. Critical issues and future aspects of photodynamic therapy research are addressed in this review.

  12. Role of multidrug resistance in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diddens, Heyke C.

    1992-06-01

    Multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy is a well established phenomenon. One of the most common phenotypical changes in acquired or intrinsic multidrug resistance in human tumor cells is the overexpression of the mdrl gene product P-glycoprotein, which acts as an active efflux pump. Increased levels of P-glycoprotein are associated with resistance to a variety of anticancer drugs commonly used in tumor chemotherapy like anthracyclins, vinca- alcaloids, epipodophyllotoxins or actinomycin D. We investigated the efficacy or photodynamic therapy in the treatment of tumor cells expressing the multidrug resistance phenotype. Our data show that multidrug resistant cells are highly cross resistant to the phototoxic stain rhodamine 123 but exhibit only low degrees of cross resistance (2 - 3 -folds) to the photosensitizers Photosan-3, Clorin-2, methylene blue and meso-tetra (4- sulfonatophenyl) porphine (TPPS4). Resistance is associated with a decrease in intracellular accumulation of the photosensitizer. Verapamil, a membrane active compound known to enhance drug sensitivity in multidrug resistant cells by inhibition of P-glycoprotein, also increases phototoxicity in multidrug resistant cells. Our results imply that tumors expressing the multidrug resistance phenotype might fail to respond to photochemotherapy with rhodamine 123. On the other hand, multidrug resistance may not play an important role in photodynamic therapy with Photosan-3, Chlorin-2, methylene blue or TPPS4.

  13. Photodynamic effect of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes: a potential sensitizer for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Shi, Jinjin; Liu, Ruiyuan; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Chaofeng; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2014-04-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) possess unique physical and chemical properties, which make them very attractive for a wide range of applications. In particular, SWNTs and their composites have shown a great potential for photodynamic therapy (PDT). SWNTs have usually been used for photothermal therapy; herein, the photodynamic effect of two functionalized SWNTs are detected under visible light illumination in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that the photodynamic effect is not entirely dependent on illumination time, but also on the modification method of the SWNTs. The ability of SWNTs complexes to combine with photodynamic therapy significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatment, and the combined treatment demonstrated a synergistic effect. These findings suggest that the SWNTs composite has great potential as sensitizer for PDT.

  14. Stimulation of dendritic cells enhances immune response after photodynamic therapy

    E-print Network

    Mroz, Pawel

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the primary tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell necrosis ...

  15. PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY OF CANCER: AN UPDATE

    PubMed Central

    Agostinis, Patrizia; Berg, Kristian; Cengel, Keith A.; Foster, Thomas H.; Girotti, Albert W.; Gollnick, Sandra O.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Juzeniene, Asta; Kessel, David; Korbelik, Mladen; Moan, Johan; Mroz, Pawel; Nowis, Dominika; Piette, Jacques; Wilson, Brian C.; Golab, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved, minimally invasive therapeutic procedure that can exert a selective cytotoxic activity toward malignant cells. The procedure involves administration of a photosensitizing agent followed by irradiation at a wavelength corresponding to an absorbance band of the sensitizer. In the presence of oxygen, a series of events lead to direct tumor cell death, damage to the microvasculature and induction of a local inflammatory reaction. Clinical studies revealed that PDT can be curative particularly in early-stage tumors. It can prolong survival in inoperable cancers and significantly improve quality of life. Minimal normal tissue toxicity, negligible systemic effects, greatly reduced long-term morbidity, lack of intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms, and excellent cosmetic as well as organ function-sparing effects of this treatment make it a valuable therapeutic option for combination treatments. With a number of recent technological improvements, PDT has the potential to become integrated into the mainstream of cancer treatment. PMID:21617154

  16. Initiation of Autophagy by Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, David; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the irradiation of photosensitized cells with light. Depending on localization of the photosensitizing agent, the process can induce photodamage to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, plasma membrane, and/or lysosomes. When ER or mitochondria are targeted, antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family are especially sensitive to photodamage. Both apoptosis and autophagy can occur after PDT, autophagy being associated with enhanced survival at low levels of photodamage to some cells. Autophagy can become a cell-death pathway if apoptosis is inhibited or when cells attempt to recycle damaged constituents beyond their capacity for recovery. While techniques associated with characterization of autophagy are generally applicable, PDT introduces additional factors related to unknown sites of photodamage that may alter autophagic pathways. This chapter discusses issues that may arise in assessing autophagy after cellular photodamage. PMID:19216899

  17. Somatostatin Analogues for Receptor Targeted Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kaš?áková, Slávka; Hofland, Leo J.; De Bruijn, Henriette S.; Ye, Yunpeng; Achilefu, Samuel; van der Wansem, Katy; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angelique; van Koetsveld, Peter M.; Brugts, Michael P.; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; ten Hagen, Timo L. M.; Robinson, Dominic J.; van Hagen, Martin P.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment modality, used mainly for anticancer therapy that relies on the interaction of photosensitizer, light and oxygen. For the treatment of pathologies in certain anatomical sites, improved targeting of the photosensitizer is necessary to prevent damage to healthy tissue. We report on a novel dual approach of targeted PDT (vascular and cellular targeting) utilizing the expression of neuropeptide somatostatin receptor (sst2) on tumor and neovascular-endothelial cells. We synthesized two conjugates containing the somatostatin analogue [Tyr3]-octreotate and Chlorin e6 (Ce6): Ce6-K3-[Tyr3]-octreotate (1) and Ce6-[Tyr3]-octreotate-K3-[Tyr3]-octreotate (2). Investigation of the uptake and photodynamic activity of conjugates in-vitro in human erythroleukemic K562 cells showed that conjugation of [Tyr3]-octreotate with Ce6 in conjugate 1 enhances uptake (by a factor 2) in cells over-expressing sst2 compared to wild-type cells. Co-treatment with excess free Octreotide abrogated the phototoxicity of conjugate 1 indicative of a specific sst2-mediated effect. In contrast conjugate 2 showed no receptor-mediated effect due to its high hydrophobicity. When compared with un-conjugated Ce6, the PDT activity of conjugate 1 was lower. However, it showed higher photostability which may compensate for its lower phototoxicity. Intra-vital fluorescence pharmacokinetic studies of conjugate 1 in rat skin-fold observation chambers transplanted with sst2+ AR42J acinar pancreas tumors showed significantly different uptake profiles compared to free Ce6. Co-treatment with free Octreotide significantly reduced conjugate uptake in tumor tissue (by a factor 4) as well as in the chamber neo-vasculature. These results show that conjugate 1 might have potential as an in-vivo sst2 targeting photosensitizer conjugate. PMID:25111655

  18. Melanoma resistance to photodynamic therapy: new insights

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Vecchio, Daniela; Avci, Pinar; Yin, Rui; Garcia-Diaz, Maria; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, with a steeply rising incidence and a poor prognosis in its advanced stages. Melanoma is highly resistant to traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, although modern targeted therapies such as BRAF inhibitors are showing some promise. Photodynamic therapy (PDT, the combination of photosensitizing dyes and visible light) has been tested for melanoma with some promising results, but melanoma is generally considered to also be resistant to PDT. Optical interference by the highly-pigmented melanin, the anti-oxidant effect of melanin, the sequestration of photosensitizers inside melanosomes, defects in apoptotic pathways, and the efflux of photosensitizers by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have all been implicated in melanoma resistance to PDT. Approaches to overcoming melanoma resistance to PDT include: the discovery of highly active photosensitizers absorbing in the 700–800-nm near infrared spectral region; interventions that can temporarily reduce the amount or the pigmentation of the melanin; compounds that can reverse apoptotic defects or inhibit drug-efflux of photosensitizers; and immunotherapy approaches that can take advantage of the ability of PDT to activate the host immune system to the treated tumor. PMID:23152406

  19. Photodynamic Therapy for Infections: Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kharkwal, Gitika B.; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Dai, Tianhong; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered over 100 years ago by its ability to kill various microorganisms when the appropriate dye and light were combined in the presence of oxygen. However it is only in relatively recent times that PDT has been studied as a treatment for various types of localized infections. This resurgence of interest has been partly motivated by the alarming increase in drug resistance amongst bacteria and other pathogens. This review will focus on the clinical applications of antimicrobial PDT. Study Design/Materials and Methods The published peer-reviewed literature was reviewed between 1960 and 2011. Results The basics of antimicrobial PDT are discussed. Clinical applications of antimicrobial PDT to localized viral infections caused by herpes and papilloma viruses, and nonviral dermatological infections such as acne and other yeast, fungal and bacterial skin infections are covered. PDT has been used to treat bacterial infections in brain abscesses and non-healing ulcers. PDT for dental infections including periodontitis and endodontics has been well studied. PDT has also been used for cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Clinical trials of PDT and blue light alone therapy for gastric Helicobacter pylori infection are also covered. Conclusion As yet clinical PDT for infections has been mainly in the field of dermatology using 5-aminolevulanic acid and in dentistry using phenothiazinium dyes. We expect more to see applications of PDT to more challenging infections using advanced antimicrobial photosensitizers targeted to microbial cells in the years to come. PMID:22057503

  20. Photodynamic therapy of malignant mesothelioma of pleura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warloe, Trond; Heyerdahl, Helen; Peng, Qian; Hoie, J.; Normann, E.; Solheim, O.; Moan, Johan; Giercksky, Karl-Erik

    1995-03-01

    Nine patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma underwent extensive surgery followed by intra-operative photodynamic therapy. Two mg/kg Photofrin was given 48 hours prior to surgery. The thoracic cavity and eventual remaining lung were exposed to 15 - 30 Joules/cm2 of 630 nm laser light. Tumor tissue was analyzed by microscopic photometrical techniques. Five patients with mixed or epithelioid tumors with fluorescence intensity > 100 gray level/pixel seemed to benefit from the given therapy. One patient was free of disease 18 months after treatment. Two patients were treated for metastasis after 12 months with no sign of intrathoracic recurrence. Both are still alive, one without further sign of disease 32 months after initial treatment. Two patients presented generalized disease after 9 and 13 months and intrathoracic recurrence several months later. Two patients with poorly differentiated tumors and 2 patients with moderate to highly differentiated tumors, but with fluorescence intensity < 100 gray level/pixel, presented recurrences after 4 months. PDT-efficiency seems to be predicted by the intensity and distribution of drug-induced fluorescence in tumor tissue. PDT may enhance the possibility to achieve complete local tumor control after excision. Multimodal therapeutic approach of local and systemic disease seems mandatory to further improve survival.

  1. System identification of the intracellular photoreaction process induced by photodynamic therapy

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -- Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative treatment for cancer that involves the administration. INTRODUCTION Photodynamic therapy (PDT) [1], [2], [12] is a treatment of displastic tissues such as cancersSystem identification of the intracellular photoreaction process induced by photodynamic therapy

  2. Integrating spheres for improved skin photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Glennie, Diana L; Farrell, Thomas J; Hayward, Joseph E; Patterson, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    The prescribed radiant exposures for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of superficial skin cancers are chosen empirically to maximize the success of the treatment while minimizing adverse reactions for the majority of patients. They do not take into account the wide range of tissue optical properties for human skin, contributing to relatively low treatment success rates. Additionally, treatment times can be unnecessarily long for large treatment areas if the laser power is not sufficient. Both of these concerns can be addressed by the incorporation of an integrating sphere into the irradiation apparatus. The light fluence rate can be increased by as much as 100%, depending on the tissue optical properties. This improvement can be determined in advance of treatment by measuring the reflectance from the tissue through a side port on the integrating sphere, allowing for patient-specific treatment times. The sphere is also effective at improving beam flatness, and reducing the penumbra, creating a more uniform light field. The side port reflectance measurements are also related to the tissue transport albedo, enabling an approximation of the penetration depth, which is useful for real-time light dosimetry. PMID:21054127

  3. Light emitting fabric technologies for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Mordon, Serge; Cochrane, Cédric; Tylcz, Jean Baptiste; Betrouni, Nacim; Mortier, Laurent; Koncar, Vladan

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered to be a promising method for treating various types of cancer. A homogeneous and reproducible illumination during clinical PDT plays a determinant role in preventing under- or over-treatment. The development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of optical fiber into flexible structures could offer an interesting alternative. This paper aims to describe different methods proposed to develop Side Emitting Optical Fibers (SEOF), and how these SEOF can be integrated in a flexible structure to improve light illumination of the skin during PDT. Four main techniques can be described: (i) light blanket integrating side-glowing optical fibers, (ii) light emitting panel composed of SEOF obtained by micro-perforations of the cladding, (iii) embroidery-based light emitting fabric, and (iv) woven-based light emitting fabric. Woven-based light emitting fabrics give the best performances: higher fluence rate, best homogeneity of light delivery, good flexibility. PMID:25481663

  4. Tissue temperature monitoring during interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Jenny; Johansson, Ann; Svanberg, Katarina; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    During ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) a high light fluence rate is present close to the source fibers. This might induce an unintentional tissue temperature increase of importance for the treatment outcome. In a previous study, we have observed, that the absorption in the tissue increases during the treatment. A system to measure the local tissue temperature at the source fibers during IPDT on tissue phantoms is presented. The temperature was measured by acquiring the fluorescence from small Cr3+-doped crystals attached to the tip of the illumination fiber used in an IPDT-system. The fluorescence of the Alexandrite crystal used is temperature dependent. A ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence was formed between two different wavelength bands in the red region. The system was calibrated by immersing the fibers in an Intralipid solution placed in a temperature controlled oven. Measurements were then performed by placing the fibers interstitially in a pork chop as a tissue phantom. Measurements were also performed superficially on skin on a volunteer. A treatment was conducted for 10 minutes, and the fluorescence was measured each minute during the illumination. The fluorescence yielded the temperature at the fiber tip through the calibration curve. The measurements indicate a temperature increase of a few degrees during the simulated treatment.

  5. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a biological modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obochi, Modestus; Tao, Jing-Song; Hunt, David W. C.; Levy, Julia G.

    1996-04-01

    The capacity of photosensitizers and light to ablate cancerous tissues and unwanted neovasculature constitutes the classical application of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Cell death results from either necrotic or apoptotic processes. The use of photosensitizers and light at doses which do not cause death has been found to affect changes in certain cell populations which profoundly effect their expression of cell surface molecules and secretion of cytokines, thereby altering the functional attributes of the treated cells. Cells of the immune system and the skin may be sensitive to modulation by 'sub-lethal PDT.' Ongoing studies have been conducted to assess, at the molecular level, changes in both lymphocytes and epidermal cells (EC) caused by treatment with low levels of benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) (a photosensitizer currently in clinical trials for cancer, psoriasis, endometriosis and age-related macular degeneration) and light. Treatment of skin with BPD and light, at levels which significantly enhanced the length of murine skin allograft acceptance, have been found to down-regulate the expression of Langerhans cell (LC) surface antigen molecules [major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1] and the formation of some cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- (alpha) ).

  6. Photodynamic tumor therapy: mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed Central

    Verma, A.; Facchina, S. L.; Hirsch, D. J.; Song, S. Y.; Dillahey, L. F.; Williams, J. R.; Snyder, S. H.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy employs photosensitive agents such as porphyrins to treat a variety of tumors accessible to light-emitting probes. This approach capitalizes on the selective retention of porphyrins by cancer cells. Cancer cells also have elevated levels of mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors which bind porphyrins with high affinity. METHODS: Cultured cancer cell lines were exposed to porphyrin and porphyrin-like compounds and then irradiated with light. Cytotoxicity of this treatment was measured via clonogenic assays. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor pharmacology was studied using [3H] PK11195 binding to cancer cell homogenates and isolated kidney mitochondrial membranes. RESULTS: We show that therapeutic potencies of porphyrins correlate closely with affinities for mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors. Sensitivities of tumor cell lines to photodynamic therapy parallel their densities of these receptors. CONCLUSION: We propose that porphyrin photodynamic therapy is mediated by mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors. PMID:9513188

  7. Melanoma: Adjuvant therapy and other treatment options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia Terando; Michael S. Sabel; Vernon K. Sondak

    2003-01-01

    Opinion statement  Melanoma, diagnosed and treated at its earliest stages, can be successfully cured by surgery alone. However, when metastatic\\u000a beyond the regional nodes, it is almost uniformly deadly. Adjuvant therapy targeted toward the treatment of microscopic residual\\u000a disease after surgical resection is the subject of intense scientific investigation because this is the stage at which it\\u000a is possible to have

  8. Photodynamic Therapy: The Imminent Milieu For Treating Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Neeta; Jalaluddin, MD; Kotina, Sreekanth; Routray, Samapika; Ingale, Yashwant

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used in curative and palliative treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and other oral lesions. Oral infections (such as mucosal and endodontic infections, periodontal diseases, caries, and peri-implantitis) are among the specific targets where PDT can be applied Photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy depends on the local dose deposited in the lesion as well as oxygen availability in the lesion. Further long-term clinical studies are necessary in establishing a more specific place of the technique in the field of dentistry. PMID:23905154

  9. How to access photodynamic therapy for bile duct carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Isomoto, Hajime; Abo, Takafumi; Nonaka, Takashi; Morisaki, Tomohito; Arai, Junichi; Takagi, Katsunori; Ohnita, Ken; Shoji, Hiroyuki; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Senoo, Takemasa; Murakami, Goshi; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment option for local control of remnant cancer after surgical resection or biliary stenosis by the unresectable tumor in patients with bile duct carcinomas (BDC). To achieve effective tumor necrosis, an appropriate approach to laser irradiation is necessary. Methods The efficacy of endoscopy-guided PDT using porfimer (n=12) or talaporfin sodium (n=13) was investigated by evaluating the transhepatic biliary routes and endoscopic retrograde biliary (ERB) routes in 25 patients with BDC. Results Diseases included perihilar intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in four patients, extrahepatic BDCs in 19 and ampular carcinoma (AC) in two patients. Adjuvant PDT after surgical resection was performed in 18 patients, and PDT for tumor biliary stenosis was performed in seven. In patients undergoing surgical resections, the mean period between the operation and PDT was 87±42 days. In patients who underwent prior surgical resections, the transhepatic route was used in five (28%), the jejunal loop was used in 11 (61%), the T-tube route was used in one, and the endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) route via papilla Vater was used in one. In unresectable BDC, the ERC route was used in four patients (57%), and the transhepatic biliary route was used in three (43%). Endoscopic-guided PDT could not be performed in one patient because of a technical failure. Except for the complication of photosensitivity, endoscopy-related complications were not observed in any patients. Patients undergoing PDT with porfimer sodium had a significantly longer admission period compared to patients undergoing PDT with talaporfin sodium (36 vs. 5 days, respectively) (P<0.01). Conclusions PDT was safely and definitively performed using the endoscopy-guided approach via the transhepatic or ERC route. By considering the disadvantages of both routes, PDT must be adequately achieved for local control of BDC. PMID:25332999

  10. Fluorescence guided evaluation of photodynamic therapy as acne treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marica B. Ericson; Camilla Horfelt; Elaine Cheng; Frida Larsson; Olle Larko; Ann-Marie Wennberg

    2005-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive alternative treatment for patients with acne because of its efficiency and few side effects. Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) are bacteria present in the skin, which produce endogenous porphyrins that act as photosensitisers. In addition, application of aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester (mALA) results in increased accumulation of porphyrins in the pilosebaceous units. This makes

  11. Photochemical predictive analysis of photodynamic therapy in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Salas-García, I.; López-Escobar, M.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic Therapy is a recent treatment modality that allows malignant tissue destruction. The technique provides a localized effect and good cosmetic results. The application of Photodynamic Therapy is based on the inoculation of a photosensitizer and the posterior irradiation by an optical source. This radiation chemically activates the drug and provokes reactions that lead to tissue necrosis. Nowadays there are fixed clinical Photodynamic Therapy protocols that make use of a particular optical dose and photosensitizer amount. These parameters are independent of the patient and the lesion. In this work we present a Photodynamic Therapy model that tries to predict the effect of the treatment on the skin. First the results of a clinical study in the Dermatology Department of the Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital are presented. The most common lesions and some unsuccessful cases are stated. The predictive model proposed is based on a 3D optical propagation of radiation by a Monte Carlo approach. Once the optical energy is obtained, a complex photochemical model is employed. This model takes into account the electronic transitions between molecular levels and particles concentrations. As the process of generation of photosensitizer is not homogeneous, the photosensitizer distribution is also taken into account. The optical power of the source, the exposition time and the optochemical characteristics of the tissue can be varied. This implies that these parameters could be adjusted to the particular pathology we are dealing with, so the unsuccessful cases could be better treated.

  12. Optical coherence tomography guided retreatment of photodynamic therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Krebs; S Binder; U Stolba; K Schmid; C Glittenberg; W Brannath; A Goll

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the results of a retreatment modality of photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA). To quantify the effect of PDT with the help of measurement of the retinal thickness.Methods: Eyes with predominantly classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) due to age related macular degeneration were included. PDT was performed every three months,

  13. Mitochondria-based photodynamic anti-cancer therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Morgan; Allan R Oseroff

    2001-01-01

    As photodynamic therapy (PDT) becomes established as a treatment for cancer, there is increasing interest in identifying critical mechanisms of cell killing and understanding the bases for effective photosensitizers. The existence of multiple cellular targets makes it difficult to distinguish the critical events leading to cell death from PDT. However, with more sensitive techniques to detect photosensitizer localization, the isolation

  14. Multiphoton Biomedical Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy: Agents & Applications

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    -reactive model Hydrophobic and hydrophilic dyes Two-Photon Photodynamic Therapy #12;"Two-photon laser scanning at the focus of the scanning pulsed-infrared laser beam, resulting in a much less harmful light dose during visible excitation. #12;Two-Photon Imaging can Afford 3D Localization Prepare cell Visualize and irradiate

  15. Anti-tumor effects on the combination of photodynamic therapy with arsenic compound in TC-1 cells implanted C57BL/6 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyu Wan; Wen, Lan Ying; Bae, Su Mi; Park, Choong Hak; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Lee, Doo Yun; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2009-06-01

    The effects of As4O6 were studied as adjuvant on photodynamic therapy. As4O6 is considered to have anticancer activity via several biological actions such as free radical producing and inhibition of VEGF expression. In vitro experiments, cell proliferation and morphology were determined by MTT assay. Also, quantitative PCR array was performed to study the synergetic mechanism. Additionally, this study was supported by the finding that combination of photodynamic therapy and As4O6 shows an inhibition effect of tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice with TC-1 cells xenographs in vivo. Radachlorin and As4O6 significantly inhibited TC-1 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Antiproliferative effect of combination treatment was significantly higher than those of TC-1 cells treated with either photodynamic therapy or As4O6 (62.4 and 52.5% decrease, respectively, compared to photodynamic therapy or As4O6 alone, P < 0.05). In addition, cell proliferation in combination of photodynamic therapy and As4O6 treatment significantly decreased by 77.4% compared to vehicle-only treated TC-1 cells (P < 0.05). Cell survival pathway (Naip1, Tert and Aip1) and p53-dependent pathway (Bax, p21Cip1, Fas, Gadd45, IGFBP-3 and Mdm-2) were markedly increased by combination treatment of photodynamic therapy and As4O6. Besides, the immunology response NEAT pathway (Ly- 12, CD178 and IL-2) also modulated after combination treatment of photodynamic therapy and As4O6. This combination effect apparently shows a same pattern in vivo model. These findings suggest the benefit of the combination treatment of photodynamic therapy and As4O6 for the inhibition of cervical cancer growth.

  16. New biotinylated phthalocyanines for the photodynamic therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirth, Andreas; Bartik, Bernd; Bogdahn-Rai, Tatjana; Woehrle, Dieter; Kaul, Sepp

    1997-12-01

    Suitable substituted phthalocyanines are promising and widely investigated photosensitizers (PS) for the photodynamic therapy of cancer (PDT). However, selective accumulation of the PSs in tumor tissues, avoiding contamination of healthy tissues, is still an unsolved central problem. We present first results on the synthesis of new biotinylated phthalocyanines as potentially selective photosensitizers when applied in a polyphasic tumor targeting (tumor cell plus first step: biotinylated/monoclonal antibody, second step: streptavidin, and third step: biotinylated PS). The binding and the photodynamic activity of biotinylated PS in this three step model is shown in tumor cell lines.

  17. Effects of telomerase expression on photodynamic therapy of Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kenneth K.; Anderson, Marlys; Buttar, Navtej; WongKeeSong, Louis-Michel; Borkenhagen, Lynn; Lutzke, Lori

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been applied to Barrett's esophagus and has been shown in prospective randomized studies to eliminate dysplasia as well as decrease the occurrence of cancer. However, the therapy isnot always effective and there are issues with residual areas of Barrett's mucosa despite therapy. There has not been a good explanation for these residual areas and they seem to imply that there may exist a biological mechanisms by which these cells may be resistant to photodynamic therapy. It was our aim to determine if known abnormalities in Barrett's mucosa could be correlated with the lack of response of some of these tissues. We examined the tissue from mulitpel patients who had resonse to therapy as well as those who did not respond. We assessed the tissue for p53 mutations, inactivatino of p16, ploidy status, cell proliferation, telomerase activity, and degree of dysplasia. Interestingly, the only genetic marker than was found to be correlated with lack of reonse was p53 and telomerase activity. This suggests that cells that have lost mechanisms for cell death such as apoptosis or telomere shortengin may be more resistant to photodynamic therapy. In this study, we examined patients before and after PDT for telomerase activity.

  18. Photodynamic Diagnosis and Therapy in Dermatology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Fritsch; K. Lang; W. Neuse; T. Ruzicka; P. Lehmann

    1998-01-01

    The topical application of ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) induces porphyrin formation in the skin, preferentially in tumor tissues. Irradiation of the porphyrin-enriched tumor tissue with Wood’s light leads to emission of a brick-red fluorescence. This principle may be used as a diagnostic procedure which may be termed photodynamic diagnosis (PDD). In ALA-PDD, tumors and precancerous lesions of the skin reveal a

  19. Intravesical adjuvant therapy using mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Bhuiyan, Z H; Shameem, I A

    2006-01-01

    Bladder cancer is mostly superficial at first diagnosis. High incidence of recurrence is the major problem after initial management with transurethral resection (TUR) of bladder tumor. Adjuvant chemotherapy has been advocated to reduce the incidence of recurrence. A study was carried out to observe the efficacy of intravesical adjuvant therapy with single immediate versus delayed multi-dose regimen of Mitomycin C (MMC) in preventing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. One hundred Patients having intermediate risk superficial bladder cancer were randomized into two equal groups. All patients were followed carefully. Total duration of follow-up was minimum 12 months, maximum 36 months, mean 29 months. No recurrence was seen on 3(rd), 6(th) and 9(th) month of intravesical therapy. As much as 94% and 96% of recurrence free rate was observed in immediate single and delayed multi-dose group respectively on 12(th) month; 86% and 84% on 18(th) month; 74% and 72% on 24(th) month; 70% and 68% on 36(th) month of follow-up cystoscopy respectively. Efficacy of post transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) MMC single immediate dose was found similar to that of MMC delayed multi-dose regimen in preventing the recurrence of intermediate risk superficial bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in the study. The difference between the two groups insignificant (p>0.05). PMID:16467761

  20. Vaccines and photodynamic therapies for oral microbial-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Zhu, Wen-Hong; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The mouth is a favorable habitat for a great variety of bacteria. Microbial composition of dental plaque is the usual cause of various oral diseases in humans, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. In general, oral antibacterial agents such as antibiotics are commonly used to treat oral bacterial infection. Traditional periodontal surgery is painful and time-consuming. In addition, bacterial resistance and toxicity of antibiotics have become a global pandemic and unavoidable. Recently, vaccines for dental caries and periodontal disease have been developed and applied. Moreover, the use of photodynamic therapy has become an alternative to antibiotic drugs. The purpose of this article is to highlight the advantages of vaccine therapy and photodynamic therapy for oral microbial-related diseases compared to treatments with antimicrobial agents and traditional periodontal surgery. PMID:19149517

  1. Vaccines and Photodynamic Therapies for Oral Microbial-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Zhu, Wen-Hong; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The mouth is a favorable habitat for a great variety of bacteria. Microbial composition of dental plaque is the usual cause of various oral diseases in humans, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. In general, oral antibacterial agents such as antibiotics are commonly used to treat oral bacterial infection. Traditional periodontal surgery is painful and time-consuming. In addition, bacterial resistance and toxicity of antibiotics have become a global pandemic and unavoidable. Recently, vaccines for dental caries and periodontal disease have been developed and applied. Moreover, the use of photodynamic therapy has become an alternative to antibiotic drugs. The purpose of this article is to highlight the advantages of vaccine therapy and photodynamic therapy for oral microbial-related diseases compared to treatments with antimicrobial agents and traditional periodontal surgery. PMID:19149517

  2. Photodynamic therapy in treatment of oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Diana; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-06-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic immunologic mucocutaneous disorder. Although there are many presenting treatments, some of them proved its failure. Recently, the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been expanding due to its numerous advantages, as it is safe, convenient, and non-invasive and has toxic effect towards selective tissues. This article provides comprehensive review on OLP, its etiology, clinical features and recent non-pharmacological treatments. We also describe the topical PDT and its mechanisms. Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of PDT in treatment of OLP through collecting the data of the related clinical studies. We searched in PubMed website for the clinical studies that were reported from 2000 to 2014 using specific keywords: "photodynamic therapy" and "treatment of oral lichen planus". Inclusion criteria were English publications only were concerned. In the selected studies of photodynamic treatment, adult patients (more than 20 years) were conducted and the OLP lesions were clinically and histologically confirmed. Exclusion criteria were classical and pharmacological treatments of OLP were excluded and also the using of PDT on skin lesions of lichen planus. We established five clinical studies in this review where all of them reported improvement and effectiveness of PDT in treatment of OLP lesions. The main outcome of comparing the related clinical studies is that the photodynamic is considered as a safe, effective and promising treatment modality for OLP. PMID:25883701

  3. Photodynamic Therapy in Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Diana; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic immunologic mucocutaneous disorder. Although there are many presenting treatments, some of them proved its failure. Recently, the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been expanding due to its numerous advantages, as it is safe, convenient, and non-invasive and has toxic effect towards selective tissues. This article provides comprehensive review on OLP, its etiology, clinical features and recent non-pharmacological treatments. We also describe the topical PDT and its mechanisms. Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of PDT in treatment of OLP through collecting the data of the related clinical studies. We searched in PubMed website for the clinical studies that were reported from 2000 to 2014 using specific keywords: “photodynamic therapy” and “treatment of oral lichen planus”. Inclusion criteria were English publications only were concerned. In the selected studies of photodynamic treatment, adult patients (more than 20 years) were conducted and the OLP lesions were clinically and histologically confirmed. Exclusion criteria were classical and pharmacological treatments of OLP were excluded and also the using of PDT on skin lesions of lichen planus. We established five clinical studies in this review where all of them reported improvement and effectiveness of PDT in treatment of OLP lesions. The main outcome of comparing the related clinical studies is that the photodynamic is considered as a safe, effective and promising treatment modality for OLP.

  4. Towards image-guided photodynamic therapy of Glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Huang, Huang-Chiao; Liu, Joyce; Mai, Zhiming; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2013-03-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive cancer with dismal survival rates and few new treatment options. Fluorescence guided resection of GBM followed by photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown promise in several chemo- or radiotherapy non-responsive GBM treatments clinically. PDT is an emerging light and photosensitizer (PS) mediated cytotoxic method. However, as with other therapeutic modalities, the outcomes are variable largely due to the nonpersonalization of dose parameters. The variability can be attributed to the differences in heterogeneous photosensitizer accumulation in tumors. Building upon our previous findings on utilizing PS fluorescence for designing tumor-specific PDT dose, we explore the use of photoacoustic imaging, a technique that provides contrast based on the tissue optical absorption properties, to obtain 3D information on the tumoral photosensitizer accumulation. The findings of this study will form the basis for customized photodynamic therapy for glioblastoma and have the potential to serve as a platform for treatment of other cancers.

  5. Photodynamic therapy for implanted VX2 tumor in rabbit brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiangkai; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi; Li, Cong-yan

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect and the safety of single photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphyrin derivative produced in China, 60 New Zealand adult rabbits with VX2 tumor implanted into the brain were divided randomly into non-PDT-group and PDT-group. 36 rabbits of the PDT-group were performed photodynamic therapy. The survival time, neurological deteriorations, intracranial pressure (ICP), histology, pathology, tumor volume and brain water content were measured. Other 12 rabbits were received hematoporphyrin derivative and light irradiation of the normal brain. The ICP, histology, pathology, and brain water content were measured. The result indicated that Simple PDT may elongate the average survival time of the rabbits with VX2 tumors significantly; kill tumor cells; cause transient brain edema and increase ICP, but it is safe to be used in treating brain tumor.

  6. Development of Low-Cost Photodynamic Therapy Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Momchilov; I. Bliznakova; E. Borisova; P. Troyanova

    2007-01-01

    Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma skin cancers using delta-aminolevulinic acid\\/protoporphyrin IX (5-ALA\\/PpIX) give a combined application with broadest dissemination in the current clinical practice. The problems with using of lasers as light sources are the expenses associated with the operation of these types of installations. This is why we test the capability of cheaper sources - light-emitting diodes at

  7. A look at clinical applications and developments of photodynamic therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arménio Serra; Marta Pineiro; Nelson Pereira; António Rocha Gonsalves; Mafalda Laranjo; Margarida Abrantes; Filomena Botelho

    2008-01-01

    The battle against cancer is so important that all possible weapons must be considered. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic\\u000a approach which has proved its capacity to give many excellent results, but it is having some difficulty in being imposed.\\u000a The simplicity of the mechanism of action of this technique has been compromised by the multidisciplinary approach required\\u000a for its

  8. Sealed hollow waveguide for catheter-based pulsed photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shunichi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2004-06-01

    Sealed hollow waveguides have been used to transmit nanosecond red light pulses for photodynamic therapy. With a 1-mm inner diameter, 1-m long, COP (cyclic olefin polymer)-coated silver hollow waveguide, available transmitted pulse energy exceeded 15 mJ, the corresponding peak power and intensity at the output window being 3 MW and 380 MW/cm2 respectively. Because the diameter of the window was as small as 1.5 mm, the waveguide can be introduced to catheters.

  9. Photodynamic therapy decreases cancer colonic cell adhesiveness and metastatic potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Vonarx; M.-T. Foultier; L. Xavier de Brito; L. Anasagasti; L. Morlet; T. Patrice

    1995-01-01

    Plasma membrane damage induced in various cell targets by hematoporphyrin (HPD) photodynamic therapy (PDT) could modify cancer\\u000a cell adhesiveness, an important parameter in cancer metastasis. We investigated the effect of HPD or HPD incubation followed\\u000a by argon laser light on the adhesiveness of progressive (PROb) or regressive (REGb) cancer cells of the same colonic origin\\u000a but with a different in

  10. On the combination of photodynamic therapy with ionizing radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zivile Luksiene; Audrone Kalvelyte; Rosanna Supino

    1999-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites carcinoma growth and cell damage have been examined after photodynamic therapy (PDT), radiotherapy (RT) and combined treatment. Haematoporphyrin dimethyl ether (HPde) is used as a photosensitizer for PDT and tested as a radiosensitizer for RT. For PDT a non-coherent light source (370

  11. Polymeric micelles to deliver photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelus F van Nostrum

    2004-01-01

    Polymeric micelles are emerging as attractive drug delivery systems. Hydrophobic drugs including photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy can be covalently bound or physically entrapped in the core of the micelles and thus be systemically delivered to, for example, tumors using passive or active targeting strategies. Polymers used for photosensitizer encapsulation include pluronics, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)–lipid conjugates, and pH-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) based micelles

  12. Ocular Photodynamic Therapy – Standard Applications and New Indications (Part 2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Mennel; Irene Barbazetto; Carsten H. Meyer; Silvia Peter; Michael Stur

    2007-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a well-established treatment for vascular forms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The implementation of evidence-based medicine principles into the treatment regimen of AMD seems to be immensly important, since AMD continues to be the most frequent cause of blindness among patients older than 65 years in industrialized countries. Numerous randomized prospective studies demonstrated high levels

  13. Photodynamic therapy of choroidal hemangioma: two case reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Barbazetto; Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth

    2000-01-01

    Background: Photocoagulation, cryotherapy and radiotherapy have been used to treat angiomatous lesions. Depending on the location of\\u000a the angioma, these treatments can cause additional, significant functional damage. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) however, allows\\u000a a selective occlusion of vascular lesions without damaging adjacent retinal structures.?\\u000a Methods: Two patients with isolated choroidal hemangiomas involving the posterior pole were treated with PDT. Treatments were

  14. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matei, C; Tampa, M; Poteca, T; Panea-Paunica, G; Georgescu, SR; Ion, RM; Popescu, SM; Giurcaneanu, C

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical procedure based on the activation of the molecules of various exogenous or endogenous chemical substances called photosensitizers by a light source emitting radiation of an adequate wavelength, usually situated in the visible spectrum; photosensitizers are chemical compounds bearing the capacity to selectively concentrate in the neoplastic cells. The energy captured by the molecules of these substances pervaded in the tumor cells is subsequently discharged in the surrounding tissue, triggering certain photodynamic reactions that result in the destruction of the tumor. The procedure is applicable in numerous medical fields. Skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent type of cancer of the human species, is a cutaneous tumor that responds very well to this innovative treatment method. By reviewing numerous recent studies in the field, this article aims to present the role and the indications of photodynamic therapy in the management of basal cell carcinoma, as well as the most important results achieved so far by this therapy in the field of dermato-oncology. PMID:23599819

  15. Fluorescence-guided resections and photodynamic therapy for malignant gliomas using 5-aminolevulinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Herbert G.; Beck, Tobias; Beyer, Wolfgang; Pongratz, Thomas; Sroka, Ronald; Baumgartner, Reinhold; Stummer, Walter; Olzowy, Bernhard; Mehrkens, Jan H.; Tonn, Joerg C.; Reulen, Hans J.

    2005-04-01

    Oral application of 20 mg/kg bw of 5-aminolevulinic acid results in a highly specific accumulation of fluorescent and phototoxic Protoporphyrin IX in malignant glioma tissue. Surgical removal with fluorescence guidance is studied in a phase III clinical trial, adjuvant Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) to the surgical cavity is in phase II and for interstitial PDT of recurrent gliomas, a phase I/II study has started. Fluorescence guided resections have been shown to be safe and effective in augmenting neurosurgical removal of malignant gliomas in 52 consecutive patients. Intra-operative fluorescence spectroscopy showed statistically significant higher sensitizer accumulation in vital brain tumor versus the infiltration zone and in the infiltration zone versus adjacent normal brain, which contained very little PPIX. This is promisingly exploited for PDT - both to the surgical cavity by surface irradiation and for stereotactically guided interstitial irradiation.

  16. Localized electric field of plasmonic nanoplatform enhanced photodynamic tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiye; Wen, Tao; Zhao, Ruifang; Liu, Xixi; Ji, Tianjiao; Wang, Hai; Shi, Xiaowei; Shi, Jian; Wei, Jingyan; Zhao, Yuliang; Wu, Xiaochun; Nie, Guangjun

    2014-11-25

    Near-infrared plasmonic nanoparticles demonstrate great potential in disease theranostic applications. Herein a nanoplatform, composed of mesoporous silica-coated gold nanorods (AuNRs), is tailor-designed to optimize the photodynamic therapy (PDT) for tumor based on the plasmonic effect. The surface plasmon resonance of AuNRs was fine-tuned to overlap with the exciton absorption of indocyanine green (ICG), a near-infrared photodynamic dye with poor photostability and low quantum yield. Such overlap greatly increases the singlet oxygen yield of incorporated ICG by maximizing the local field enhancement, and protecting the ICG molecules against photodegradation by virtue of the high absorption cross section of the AuNRs. The silica shell strongly increased ICG payload with the additional benefit of enhancing ICG photostability by facilitating the formation of ICG aggregates. As-fabricated AuNR@SiO2-ICG nanoplatform enables trimodal imaging, near-infrared fluorescence from ICG, and two-photon luminescence/photoacoustic tomography from the AuNRs. The integrated strategy significantly improved photodynamic destruction of breast tumor cells and inhibited the growth of orthotopic breast tumors in mice, with mild laser irradiation, through a synergistic effect of PDT and photothermal therapy. Our study highlights the effect of local field enhancement in PDT and demonstrates the importance of systematic design of nanoplatform to greatly enhancing the antitumor efficacy. PMID:25375193

  17. Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy for colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Willett, C G; Tepper, J E; Skates, S J; Wood, W C; Orlow, E C; Duttenhaver, J R

    1987-01-01

    One hundred thirty-three patients with Stage B2, B3, and C colonic carcinoma had resection for curative intent followed by adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy to the tumor bed. The 5-year actuarial local control and disease-free survival rates for these 133 patients were 82% and 61%, respectively. Stage for stage, the development of local regional failure was reduced for patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy compared with a historic control series. Local recurrence occurred in 8%, 21%, and 31% of patients with Stage B3, C2, and C3 tumors who had radiation therapy, respectively, whereas the local failure rates were 31%, 36%, and 53% in patients treated with surgery alone. There was a 13% and 12% improvement in the 5-year disease-free survival rate in the patients with Stage B3 and C3 lesions who had radiotherapy compared with the historic controls. For patients with Stage C disease, local control and disease-free survival rates decreased progressively with increasing nodal involvement; however, local control and disease-free survival rates were higher in the patients who had radiotherapy than in those who had surgery alone. Failure patterns in the patients who had radiotherapy did not show any notable changes compared with those for patients who had surgery alone. Postoperative radiation therapy for Stage B3, C2, and C3 colonic carcinoma is a promising treatment approach that deserves further investigation. PMID:3689006

  18. Contributions of experiment designs in photodynamic therapy: photosensitizer design, treatment analysis and optimization.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    therapeutic factors: the phenotype of the cancer cell line, the food type, the nature of photosensitizerContributions of experiment designs in photodynamic therapy: photosensitizer design, treatment.bastogne@cran.uhp-nancy.fr Introduction One of the difficulties in the development of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) is inherent

  19. A Comprehensive Tutorial on In Vitro Characterization of New Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Antitumor Therapy and Photodynamic Inactivation of Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Maisch, Tim; Berneburg, Mark; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2013-01-01

    In vitro research performed on eukaryotic or prokaryotic cell cultures usually represents the initial step for characterization of a novel photosensitizer (PS) intended for application in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of microorganisms. Although many experimental steps of PS testing make use of the wide spectrum of methods readily employed in cell biology, special aspects of working with photoactive substances, such as the autofluorescence of the PS molecule or the requirement of light protection, need to be considered when performing in vitro experiments in PDT/PDI. This tutorial represents a comprehensive collection of operative instructions, by which, based on photochemical and photophysical properties of a PS, its uptake into cells, the intracellular localization and photodynamic action in both tumor cells and microorganisms novel photoactive molecules may be characterized for their suitability for PDT/PDI. Furthermore, it shall stimulate the efforts to expand the convincing benefits of photodynamic therapy and photodynamic inactivation within both established and new fields of applications and motivate scientists of all disciplines to get involved in photodynamic research. PMID:23762860

  20. Polyacrylamide nanoparticles as a delivery system in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kuruppuarachchi, Maheshika; Savoie, Huguette; Lowry, Ann; Alonso, Cristina; Boyle, Ross W

    2011-06-01

    Nanoparticles can be targeted towards, and accumulate in, tumor tissue by the enhanced permeability and retention effect, if sequestration by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) is avoided. The application of nanoparticles in the field of drug delivery is thus an area of great interest, due to their potential for delivering high payloads of drugs site selectively. One area which may prove to be particularly attractive is photodynamic therapy, as the reactive oxygen species (ROS) which cause damage to the tumor tissue are not generated until the drug is activated with light, minimizing generalized toxicity and giving a high degree of spatial control over the clinical effect. In the present study, we have synthesized two types of nanoparticles loaded with photodynamic sensitizers: polylysine bound tetrasulfonato-aluminum phthalocyanine entrapped nanoparticles (PCNP) and polylysine bound tetrasulfonato-aluminum phthalocyanine entrapped nanoparticles coated with a second, porphyrin based, photosensitizer (PCNP-P) to enhance the capacity for ROS generation, and hence therapeutic potential. The mean sizes of these particles were 45 ± 10 nm and 95 ± 10 nm respectively. Uptake of the nanoparticles by human Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29) was determined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Cell viability assays using PCNP-P and PCNP corresponding to the minimum uptake time (<5 min) and maximum uptake time (25 h) demonstrated that these cancer cells can be damaged by light activation of these photodynamic nanoparticles both in the external media and after internalization. The results suggest that, in order to induce photodynamic damage, the nanoparticles need only to be associated with the tumor cell closely enough to deliver singlet oxygen: their internalization within target cells may not be necessary. Clinically, this could be of great importance as it may help to combat the known ability of many cancer cells to actively expel conventional anticancer drugs. PMID:21410233

  1. Biomodulatory Approaches to Photodynamic Therapy for Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sanjay; Ortel, Bernhard J.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) uses a photosensitizing drug in combination with visible light to kill cancer cells. PDT has an advantage over surgery or ionizing radiation because PDT can eliminate tumors without causing fibrosis or scarring. Disadvantages include the dual need for drug and light, and a generally lower efficacy for PDT versus surgery. This minireview describes basic principles of PDT, photosensitizers available, and aspects of tumor biology that may provide further opportunities for treatment optimization. An emerging biomodulatory approach, using methotrexate or Vitamin D in combination with aminolevulinate-based PDT, is described. Finally, current clinical uses of PDT for solid malignancies are reviewed. PMID:22842096

  2. Characterizing low fluence thresholds for in vitro photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hartl, Brad A.; Hirschberg, Henry; Marcu, Laura; Cherry, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    The translation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to the clinic has mostly been limited to superficial diseases where traditional light delivery is noninvasive. To overcome this limitation, a variety of mechanisms have been suggested to noninvasively deliver light to deep tissues. This work explores the minimum amount of light required by these methods to produce a meaningful PDT effect in the in vitro setting under representative low fluence and wavelength conditions. This threshold was found to be around 192 mJ/cm2 using the clinically approved photosensitizer aminolevulinic acid and 12 mJ/cm2 for the more efficient, second generation photosensitizer TPPS2a. PMID:25798302

  3. Photodynamic therapy of tumor-associated pathology of uterine cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, E. G.; Trushina, O. I.; Sokolov, V. V.; Filonenko, E. V.

    2005-08-01

    We have analyzed the results of photodynamic therapy using light-sensitizing agent "Photoheme" in 56 patients - 44 women with pre-cancerous lesions of cervix (group 1) and 12 women with early cervical cancer (group 2). The results were as follows: group 1 - c omplete regression - 3 7 ( 84%), p artial regression - 4 ( 9,%), s tabilization - 2 (4,6%), progression -1 (2,3%); group 2 - complete regression - 8 (66,7%), partial regression - 1 (8,3%), stabilization - 3 (25%). Anti-viral effect was registered in 38 (90,4%) cases after first procedure, in 4 cases - after second procedure.

  4. Synthesis, bioanalysis and biodistribution of photosensitizer conjugates for photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Denis, Tyler GSt; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered in 1900 by Raab, and has since emerged as a promising tool for treating diseases characterized by unwanted cells or hyperproliferating tissue (e.g., cancer or infectious disease). PDT consists of the light excitation of a photosensitizer (PS) in the presence of O2 to yield highly reactive oxygen species. In recent years, PDT has been improved by the synthesis of targeted bioconjugates between monoclonal antibodies and PS, and by investigating PS biodistribution and PD. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of major developments in PS-immunoconjugate-based PDT and the bioanalysis of these agents, with a specific emphasis on anticancer and antimicrobial PDT. PMID:23641699

  5. Optical dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of human uterus and brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Steen J.; Svaasand, Lars O.; Hirschberg, Henry; Tadir, Yona; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1999-06-01

    Optical 'dose' is one of the fundamental parameters required in the design of an efficacious regimen of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The issues involved in delivering a sufficient optical dose to the human uterus and brain during PDT will be discussed. Specifically, measurements of optical properties and fluence rates in excised human uteri are presented. Measured fluence rates are compared to the predictions of a simple diffusion model and the clinical utility of the treatment is discussed. The delivery of light to brain tissue via a surgically implanted balloon applicator will also be considered. The time required to deliver and adequate dose is calculated based on known optical properties and diffusion theory.

  6. Prognostic factors related to photodynamic therapy for central serous chorioretinopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Woong Moon; Hyeong Gon Yu; Tae Wan Kim; Hyung Chan Kim; Hum Chung

    2009-01-01

    Background  To investigate the effects and prognostic factors related to photodynamic therapy (PDT) for central serous chorioretinopathy\\u000a (CSC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective medical record reviewing of consecutive CSC patients (chronic or persistent typical CSC) treated with conventional\\u000a PDT (full-dose verteporfin, laser (689 nm) delivery for 83 s, total light energy of 50 J\\/cm2) was performed. Besides overall anatomic and functional outcomes, the prognostic influences of various

  7. Photodynamic Therapy Using Endogenous Photosensitization for Gastrointestinal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Webber, John; Kessel, David; Fromm, David

    1997-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel approach in the treatment of carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. This review defines PDT, discusses means of photosensitization and considers the mechanisms by which PDT causes cell death of the target tissue while at the same time avoid damage to normal tissues. Additional considerations include the time of PDT application, activation of the photosensitizer, effectiveness and toxicity of PDT, potential need for additional modalities of treatment and concludes with application of PDT principals to the early detection of malignancy. Data regarding the long term effectiveness of PDT for digestive tract adenocarcinomas are lacking because this field is still in its infancy.

  8. Rose bengal acetate photodynamic therapy-induced autophagy.

    PubMed

    Dini, Luciana; Inguscio, Valentina; Tenuzzo, Bernardetta; Panzarini, Elisa

    2010-11-15

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an anticancer therapy requiring the exposure of cells or tissue to a photosensitizing drug followed by irradiation with visible light of the appropriate wavelength, induces cell death by the efficient induction of apoptotic as well as non-apoptotic mechanisms, such as necrosis and autophagy, or a combination of all three mechanisms. However, the exact role of autophagy in photodynamic therapy is still a matter of debate. To understand the role of autophagy in PDT, we investigated the induction of autophagy in HeLa cells photosensitized with Rose Bengal Acetate (RBAc). After incubation with Rose Bengal Acetate (10-5 M), HeLa cells were irradiated for 90 seconds (green LED DPL 305, emitting at 530 +15 nm to obtain 1.6 J/cm2 as the total light dose) and allowed to recover for 72 h. Induction of autophagy and apoptosis were observed with peaks at 8 h and 12 h after irradiation, respectively. Autophagy was detected by biochemical (Western Blotting for the LC3B protein) and morphological criteria (TEM, cytochemistry). In addition, the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD, was unable to completely prevent cell death. The simultaneous onset of apoptosis and autophagy following Rose Bengal Acetate PDT is of remarkable interest in light of the findings that autophagy can result in the class II presentation of antigens and thus, explain why low dose PDT can yield anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:20935508

  9. Photodynamic therapy: Palliation and endoscopic technique in cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Richter, James A; Kahaleh, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the primary malignancy arising from the biliary epithelium. The disease is marked by jaundice, cholestasis, and cholangitis. Over 50 percent of patients present with advanced stage disease, precluding curative surgical resection as an option of treatment. Prognosis is poor, and survival has been limited even after biliary decompression. Palliative management has become the standard of care for unresectable disease and has evolved to include an endoscopic approach. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) consists of administration of a photosensitizer followed by local irradiation with laser therapy. Several studies conducted in Europe and the United States have shown a marked improvement in the symptoms of cholestasis, survival, and quality of life. This article summarizes the published experience regarding PDT for cholangiocarcinoma and the steps required to administer this therapy safely. PMID:21173912

  10. Perspectives on the application of nanotechnology in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Monge-Fuentes, Victoria; Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; de Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and has been traditionally considered difficult to treat. The worldwide incidence of melanoma has been increasing faster than any other type of cancer. Early detection, surgery, and adjuvant therapy enable improved outcomes; nonetheless, the prognosis of metastatic melanoma remains poor. Several therapies have been investigated for the treatment of melanoma; however, current treatment options for patients with metastatic disease are limited and non-curative in the majority of cases. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proposed as a promising minimally invasive therapeutic procedure that employs three essential elements to induce cell death: a photosensitizer, light of a specific wavelength, and molecular oxygen. However, classical PDT has shown some drawbacks that limit its clinical application. In view of this, the use of nanotechnology has been considered since it provides many tools that can be applied to PDT to circumvent these limitations and bring new perspectives for the application of this therapy for different types of diseases. On that ground, this review focuses on the potential use of developing nanotechnologies able to bring significant benefits for anticancer PDT, aiming to reach higher efficacy and safety for patients with malignant melanoma. PMID:25317253

  11. Selective tumor kill of cerebral glioma by photodynamic therapy using a boronated porphyrin photosensitizer.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, J S; Kahl, S B; Stylli, S S; Nakamura, Y; Koo, M S; Kaye, A H

    1995-01-01

    The prognosis for patients with the high-grade cerebral glioma glioblastoma multiforme is poor. The median survival for primary tumors is < 12 months, with most recurring at the site of the original tumor, indicating that a more aggressive local therapy is required to eradicate the unresectable "nests" of tumor cells invading into adjacent brain. Two adjuvant therapies with the potential to destroy these cells are porphyrin-sensitized photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron-sensitized boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The ability of a boronated porphyrin, 2,4-(alpha, beta-dihydroxyethyl) deuteroporphyrin IX tetrakiscarborane carboxylate ester (BOPP), to act as a photosensitizing agent was investigated in vitro with the C6 rat glioma cell line and in vivo with C6 cells grown as an intracerebral tumor after implantation into Wistar rats. These studies determined the doses of BOPP and light required to achieve maximal cell kill in vitro and selective tumor kill in vivo. The data show that BOPP is more dose effective in vivo by a factor of 10 than the current clinically used photosensitizer hematoporphyrin derivative and suggest that BOPP may have potential as a dual PDT/BNCT sensitizer. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8618857

  12. Efficient Photodynamic Therapy on Human Retinoblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Jan; Schastak, Stanislas; Dukic-Stefanovic, Sladjana; Wiedemann, Peter; Neuhaus, Jochen; Claudepierre, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown to be a promising technique to treat various forms of malignant neoplasia. The photodynamic eradication of the tumor cells is achieved by applying a photosensitizer either locally or systemically and following local activation through irradiation of the tumor mass with light of a specific wavelength after a certain time of incubation. Due to preferential accumulation of the photosensitizer in tumor cells, this procedure allows a selective inactivation of the malignant tumor while sparing the surrounding tissue to the greatest extent. These features and requirements make the PDT an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of retinoblastoma, especially when surgical enucleation is a curative option. This extreme solution is still in use in case of tumours that are resistant to conventional chemotherapy or handled too late due to poor access to medical care in less advanced country. In this study we initially conducted in-vitro investigations of the new cationic water-soluble photo sensitizer tetrahydroporphyrin-tetratosylat (THPTS) regarding its photodynamic effect on human Rb-1 and Y79 retinoblastoma cells. We were able to show, that neither the incubation with THPTS without following illumination, nor the sole illumination showed a considerable effect on the proliferation of the retinoblastoma cells, whereas the incubation with THPTS combined with following illumination led to a maximal cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells. Moreover the phototoxicity was lower in normal primary cells from retinal pigmented epithelium demonstrating a higher phototoxic effect of THPTS in cancer cells than in this normal retinal cell type. The results at hand form an encouraging foundation for further in-vivo studies on the therapeutic potential of this promising photosensitizer for the eyeball and vision preserving as well as potentially curative therapy of retinoblastoma. PMID:24498108

  13. Photodynamic therapy using Photofrin and Foscan and the treatment of malignancies of the head and neck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1998-05-01

    One hundred thirty patients with neoplastic diseases of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx and skin have been treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) with follow-up to 79 months. Those patients with primary or recurrent leukoplakia, carcinoma-in- situ (CIS) and T1 carcinomas obtained a complete response after one PDT treatment and 87% remain free of disease. Sixteen patients with deeply invasive T2 and T3 carcinomas were treated with PDT. Of those sixteen, ten obtained a complete response, but six have recurred locally. Although a response can be achieved with PDT in the larger solid tumors, it is not a consistent complete response because of the depth of invasion of the tumor. This is due to the inability to adequately deliver laser light to the depths of the tumor bed. Fourteen patients with massive recurrences of squamous cell carcinomas were treated with intraoperative adjuvant PDT following tumor resection. Two patients developed a local recurrence within the field of treatment. PDT is highly effective for the curative treatment of early carcinomas (CIS, T1) of the head and neck. T2 and T3 superficial carcinomas, with invasion less than 0.5 cm, are also curatively treated with PDT with significantly reduced morbidity compared to conventional modes of treatment. Also, intraoperative adjuvant PDT may increase cure rates of large infiltrating carcinomas of the head and neck.

  14. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of malignancies of the head and neck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.; Boss, Ellen E.

    1996-04-01

    Seventy-nine patients with neoplastic diseases of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, and skin have been treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) with follow-up to 65 months. Patients with carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) and T1 carcinomas obtained a complete response after one PDT treatment. All but two patients remain free of disease. Four patients with T2 and T3 superficial carcinomas were treated with PDT. One patient developed recurrence with 51- month follow-up. Eleven patients with deeply invasive T2, T3, and T4 carcinomas were treated with PDT. Of those eleven, eight obtained a complete response, but five have recurred locally. A response can be achieved with PDT, although not a consistent complete response because of the depth of invasion of the tumor. This is due to the inability to adequately deliver laser light to the depths of the tumor bed. Eight patients with massive neck recurrences of squamous cell carcinomas were treated with intraoperative adjuvant PDT following tumor resection. Only one patient developed recurrence with 30-month follow-up. PDT is highly effective for the curative treatment of early carcinomas (CIS, T1) of the head and neck. T2 and T3 superficial carcinomas, with invasion less than 0.5 cm, are also curatively treated with PDT with significantly reduced morbidity compared to conventional modes of treatment. Also, intraoperative adjuvant PDT may increase cure rates of large infiltrating carcinomas of the head and neck.

  15. Adjuvant endocrine therapies for premenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Rodríguez Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Adjuvant endocrine treatment for premenopausal woman remains a controversial area in the therapeutical approach of early stages\\u000a of breast cancer. Metaanalysis show that ovarian ablation and suppression produce, in a global way, significant benefits in\\u000a terms of reduction of the risk of recurrence and death. Nevertheless, in the presence of adjuvant chemotherapy, the benefits\\u000a of ovarian suppression or ablation are

  16. Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Photodynamic Therapy and Stenting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Wiedmann; Joachim Mössner; Helmut Witzigmann

    Carcinomas of the biliary tree are rare tumors of the gastrointestinal tract with rising inci dence during the last years.\\u000a Endoscopic therapy plays a central role in the preopera-tive and palliative treatment of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC).\\u000a In obstructive jaundice, biliary drainage may cause only few complications and relieves symptoms reliably. It can prevent\\u000a further complica tions and is indispensable in

  17. The use of photodynamic therapy to treat hidradenitis suppurativa a review and critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory disease that results in abscesses, keloids, and fistulas. Acne inversa is likely to result from aberrant cellular immunity and dysfunction of the hair follicle in which coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS) and perhaps other bacteria appear e.g Corynebacterium sp.to play a role by creating biofilms and stimulating the immune system. One treatment that has been proposed for HS is photodynamic therapy. The cases series reported are small and not double blinded. As of October of 2104, 8 articles with 64 patients report success with photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid (PDT-ALA) or its methyl ester (PDT-MAL). One of these 8 reports noted superiority of the free methylene blue gel over niosomal methylene blue gel. Another report described success in a 27-patient trial using intralesional 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in saline at a concentration of 1%. This was administered at a dose of 0.2 ml per cm3 and an HS fistula was irradiated by a continuous 630-nm laser diode through a 1-mm thick optical fiber to 1 Watt per cm3 for 3 minutes (180 Joules). However, 3 articles reported failure with PDT-ALA or pulse dye laser-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDL-PDT) and one article note 1 failure and 1 success. We suggest that it is the ability of PDT-ALA or PDT-MAL to break up the bio-film produced by CONS and other antibacterial effects that account for its success in treating HS in patients in whom bio-film plays a pivotal part of their pathogenesis. Other effects are also possible as well. Other mechanisms by which PDT may improve HS include cytotoxic effects, which cause selective cell necrosis, and immunomodulatory effects. The data suggests that if PDT is to be used, it should be with MAL or intralesional ALA. Note that there are a variety of causes of HS. These include hyperkeratosis of in the follicular infundibulum, aberrant cellular immunity, down regulations of defensins in stage III HS, and the infiltration of neutrophils, mast cells, plasma cells, and lymphocytes into the affected follicle, among others. However, it is likely that in individual cases one cause is primary and others secondary. In conclusion, PDT is not a first line treatment for HS but in some cases could be added as an adjuvant to therapies such as clindamycin and rifampin. PMID:25612117

  18. Hematoporphyrin derivative uptake and photodynamic therapy in pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, T.; Chen, I.W.; Sperling, M.; Bell, R.H. Jr.; Brackett, K.; Joffe, S.N.

    1988-05-01

    Little information is currently available concerning the uptake of porphyrins by pancreatic tumors, or the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on pancreatic cancer. In Syrian golden hamsters (n = 33), the organ distribution of /sup 125/I-labeled dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE) was studied in a pancreatic cancer model. In the same animal model the effect of PDT was studied using a gold vapor laser for energy delivery 3 hr after the injection of DHE (n = 7). DHE was 2.4 times more concentrated in the pancreatic tumor than in the nontumorous pancreas at 3 hr. Simultaneously there was a considerable accumulation of DHE in the surrounding gastrointestinal tract, causing perforation of the duodenum and jejunum with resultant death in four (57%) animals after PDT. Photodynamic therapy caused extensive tumor necrosis without any obvious effect on the nontumor-bearing pancreas. Damage to the surrounding tissue in the hamster indicates that precautions should be taken if PDT is to be used clinically in pancreatic cancer. Intratumoral injection of DHE may give higher drug concentrations with greater specificity for tumor treatment.

  19. Measurement of intracellular oxygen concentration during photodynamic therapy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Weston, Mark A; Patterson, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    A technique is introduced that monitors the depletion of intracellular ground state oxygen concentration ([(3)O(2)]) during photodynamic therapy of Mat-LyLu cell monolayers and cell suspensions. The photosensitizer Pd(II) meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine (PdT790) is used to manipulate and indicate intracellular [(3)O(2)] in both of the in vitro models. The Stern-Volmer relationship for PdT790 phosphorescence was characterized in suspensions by flowing nitrogen over the suspension while short pulses of 405 nm light were used to excite the sensitizer. The bleaching of sensitizer and the oxygen consumption rate were also measured during continuous exposure of the cell suspension to the 405 nm laser. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was conducted in both cell suspensions and in cell monolayers under different treatment conditions while the phosphorescence signal was acquired. The intracellular [(3)O(2)] during PDT was calculated by using the measured Stern-Volmer relationship and correcting for sensitizer photobleaching. In addition, the amount of oxygen that was consumed during the treatments was calculated. It was found that even at large oxygen consumption rates, cells remain well oxygenated during PDT of cell suspensions. For monolayer treatments, it was found that intracellular [(3)O(2)] is rapidly depleted over the course of PDT. PMID:24521344

  20. Upconversion Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Therapy and Other Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Cheng, Liang; Liu, Zhuang

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality for a variety of diseases including cancer. PDT based on upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) has received much attention in recent years. Under near-infrared (NIR) light excitation, UCNPs are able to emit high-energy visible light, which can activate surrounding photosensitizer (PS) molecules to produce singlet oxygen and kill cancer cells. Owing to the high tissue penetration ability of NIR light, NIR-excited UCNPs can be used to activate PS molecules in much deeper tissues compared to traditional PDT induced by visible or ultraviolet (UV) light. In addition to the application of UCNPs as an energy donor in PDT, via similar mechanisms, they could also be used for the NIR light-triggered drug release or activation of 'caged' imaging or therapeutic molecules. In this review, we will summarize the latest progresses regarding the applications of UCNPs for photodynamic therapy, NIR triggered drug and gene delivery, as well as several other UCNP-based cancer therapeutic approaches. The future prospects and challenges in this emerging field will be also discussed. PMID:23650479

  1. Adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer: Current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Marcus; Leong, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    The management of gastric cancer continues to evolve. Whilst surgery alone is effective when tumours present early, a large proportion of patients are diagnosed with loco-regionally advanced disease, resulting in high loco-regional and distant relapse rates, with subsequent poor survival. Early attempts at improving outcomes following resection were disappointing; however, randomized trials have now established either post-operative chemoradiotherapy (INT0116) or peri-operative chemotherapy as standard adjuvant therapies in the Western world. There remain, however, significant differences in the approach to management between the West and East. In Asia, where there is the highest incidence of gastric cancer, extended resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy represents the standard of care. This review discusses current standard adjuvant therapy in gastric adenocarcinoma, as well as recent and ongoing trials investigating novel (neo)adjuvant approaches, which hope to build on the successes of previous studies. PMID:25320509

  2. Autologous bone marrow transplantation by photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliya, Kirpal S.

    1992-06-01

    Simultaneous exposure of Merocyanine 540 dye containing cultured tumor cells to 514-nm laser light (93.6 J/cm2) results in virtually complete cell destruction. Under identical conditions, 40% of the normal progenitor (CFU-GM) cells survive the treatment. Laser- photoradiation treated, cultured breast cancer cells also were killed, and living tumor cells could not be detected by clonogenic assays or by anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody method. Thus, laser photoradiation therapy could be useful for purging of contaminating tumor cells from autologous bone marrow.

  3. Antivascular Treatment of Solid Melanoma Tumors with Bacteriochlorophyll–serine-based Photodynamic Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Zilberstein; Smadar Schreiber; Monique C. W. M. Bloemers; Peter Bendel; Michal Neeman; Edna Schechtman; Fortune Kohen; Avigdor Scherz; Yoram Salomon

    2001-01-01

    We describe here a strategy for photodynamic eradica- tion of solid melanoma tumors that is based on photo- induced vascular destruction. The suggested protocol re- lies on synchronizing illumination with maximal circu- lating drug concentration in the tumor vasculature at- tained within the first minute after administrating the sensitizer. This differs from conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors where illumination

  4. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment and diagnosis of cancers: a sixty-case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kang-jun; Shi, Weng-jun; Gong, Huai-nang; Zhan, Xi-de; Li, Zhi-jian

    1993-03-01

    This 60-case report deals with the application of photodynamic therapy in the treatment and diagnosis of cancer. The application of photodynamic therapy in the treatment and diagnosis of cancer is a development from the late seventies. Since March 1989, we have diagnosed and treated 60 cancer patients with this therapy. Our results show that the positive rate in diagnosis is 100 percent, the effective rate in treatment is 75 percent.

  5. Physical and mathematical modeling of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürgermeister, Lisa; López, Fernando Romero; Schulz, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a promising method to treat local bacterial infections. The therapy is painless and does not cause bacterial resistances. However, there are gaps in understanding the dynamics of the processes, especially in periodontal treatment. This work describes the advances in fundamental physical and mathematical modeling of aPDT used for interpretation of experimental evidence. The result is a two-dimensional model of aPDT in a dental pocket phantom model. In this model, the propagation of laser light and the kinetics of the chemical reactions are described as coupled processes. The laser light induces the chemical processes depending on its intensity. As a consequence of the chemical processes, the local optical properties and distribution of laser light change as well as the reaction rates. The mathematical description of these coupled processes will help to develop treatment protocols and is the first step toward an inline feedback system for aPDT users.

  6. Percutaneous transluminal photodynamic therapy of atheroma using mono-L-aspartyl chlorin e6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Junichi; Sato, Hideaki; Saito, Takashi; Kuroiwa, Yukari; Aizawa, Katsuo; Fujiwara, Tatsushi; Hosoda, Yasuhiro

    1995-03-01

    Structural changes after photodynamic therapy of atherosclerotic lesions of the thoracic aorta were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Cholesterol fed atherosclerotic rabbits were injected intravenously with 5 mg/kg of NPe6. At 6 hours after NPe6 loading, a diode laser irradiated angioscopically on the surface of atheroma with the total energy of 200 mJ/cm2. Scanning electron microscopy showed degeneration of atherosclerotic plaques of the thoracic aorta examined at one week after photodynamic therapy. NPe6 could be a potent photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of atheroma.

  7. Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can include chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, the targeted drug trastuzumab (Herceptin®), radiation therapy, or a combination of treatments. ... can include chemotherapy, hormonal therapy , the targeted drug trastuzumab (Herceptin®), radiation therapy , or a combination of treatments. ...

  8. Photodynamic hyperthermal chemotherapy with indocyanine green: a novel cancer therapy for 16 cases of malignant soft tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Onoyama, Masaki; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Azuma, Kazuo; Kawashima, Kazuhiko; Ishi, Hiroshi; Takayama, Takahiro; Ogawa, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen cases of malignant soft tissue sarcoma (STS; 10 canines and six felines) were treated with a novel triple therapy that combined photodynamic therapy, hyperthermia using indocyanine green with a broadband light source, and local chemotherapy after surgical tumor resection. This triple therapy was called photodynamic hyperthermal chemotherapy (PHCT). In all cases, the surgical margin was insufficient. In one feline case, PHCT was performed without surgical resection. PHCT was performed over an interval of 1 to 2 weeks and was repeated three to 21 times. No severe side effects, including severe skin burns, necrosis, or skin suture rupture, were observed in any of the animals. No disease recurrence was observed in seven out of 10 (70.0%) dogs and three out of six (50.0%) cats over the follow-up periods ranging from 238 to 1901 days. These results suggest that PHCT decreases the risk of STS recurrence. PHCT should therefore be considered an adjuvant therapy for treating companion animals with STS in veterinary medicine. PMID:24136207

  9. Photosensitizer nanocarriers modeling for photodynamic therapy applied to dermatological diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-García, I.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; López-Escobar, M.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2011-02-01

    Photodynamic Therapy involves the therapeutic use of photosensitizers in combination with visible light. The subsequent photochemical reactions generate reactive oxygen species which are considered the principal cytotoxic agents to induce cell death. This technique has become widely used in medicine to treat tumors and other nonmalignant diseases. However, there are several factors related to illumination or the photosensitizer that limit an optimal treatment outcome. The use of nanoparticles (NP) for PDT has been proposed as a solution to current shortcomings. In this way, there are NPs that act as carriers for photosensitizers, NPs that absorb the light and transfer the energy to the photosensitizer and NPs that are themselves photodynamically active. In dermatology, the use of topical photosensitizers produces a time dependent inhomogeneous distribution within the tumor, where the stratum corneum is the main barrier to the diffusion of the photosensitizer to the deeper layers of skin. This produces an insufficient photosensitizer accumulation in tumor tissues and therefore, a low therapeutic efficiency in the case of deep lesions. This work focuses in the use of NPs as photosensitizer carriers to improve the actual topical drug distribution in malignant skin tissues. We present a mathematical model of PS distribution in tumor tissue using NPs that takes into account parameters related to nanoparticles binding. Once the concentration profile of NPs into tissue is obtained, we use a photochemical model which allows us to calculate the temporal evolution of reactive oxygen species according to PS distribution calculated previously from NPs profile.

  10. Targeted photodynamic therapy for infected wounds in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; O'Donnell, David A.; Zahra, Touqir; Contag, Christopher H.; McManus, Albert T.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2002-06-01

    Although many workers have used photodynamic therapy to kill bacteria in vitro, the use of this approach has seldom been reported in vivo in animal models of infection. We report on the use of a targeted polycationic photosensitizer conjugate between poly-L-lysine and chlorin(e6) that can penetrate the Gram (-) outer membrane together with red laser light to kill Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infecting excisional wounds in mice. We used genetically engineered luminescent bacteria that allowed the infection to be imaged in mouse wounds using a sensitive CCD camera. Wounds were infected with 5x106 bacteria, followed by application of the conjugate in solution and illumination. There was a light-dose dependent loss of luminescence as measured by image analysis in the wound treated with conjugate and light, not seen in control wounds. This strain of E coli is non-invasive and the infection in untreated wounds spontaneously resolved in a few days and all wounds healed equally well showing the photodynamic treatment did not damage the host tissue. P aeruginosa is highly invasive and mice with untreated or control wounds all died while 90% of PDT treated mice survived. PDT may have a role to play in the rapid treatment of infected wounds in view of the worldwide rise in antibiotic resistance.

  11. Immunomodulators as adjuvants for vaccines and antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Erin F; Madera, Laurence; Hancock, Robert E W

    2010-12-01

    A highly effective strategy for combating infectious diseases is to enhance host defenses using immunomodulators, either preventatively, through vaccination, or therapeutically. The effectiveness of many vaccines currently in use is due in part to adjuvants, molecules that have little immunogenicity by themselves but which help enhance and appropriately skew the immune response to an antigen. The development of new vaccines necessitates the development of new types of adjuvants to ensure an appropriate immune response. Herein, we review commonly used vaccine adjuvants and discuss promising adjuvant candidates. We also discuss various other immunomodulators (namely cytokines, Toll-like receptor agonists, and host defense peptides) that are, or have potential to be, useful for antimicrobial therapies that exert their effects by boosting host immune responses rather than targeting pathogens directly. PMID:20946578

  12. Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization with verteporfin in the ocular histoplasmosis syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A Saperstein; Philip J Rosenfeld; Neil M Bressler; Robert H Rosa; Michel Sickenberg; Paul Sternberg; Thomas M Aaberg; Troy A Reaves

    2002-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the safety and effect on visual acuity of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (Visudyne, Novartis AG) in patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to the ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (OHS).

  13. Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin in ocular histoplasmosis: Uncontrolled, open-label 2-year study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Rosenfeld; David A. Saperstein; Neil M. Bressler; Troy A. Reaves; Michel Sickenberg; Robert H. Rosa; Paul Sternberg; Thomas M. Aaberg

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the safety, effect on visual function, and fluorescein angiographic appearance of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) through 2 years after photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (Visudyne; Novartis AG, Basel, Switzerland) in patients with ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (OHS).

  14. Anti-CTLA-4 antibody adjuvant therapy in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Testori, Alessandro; Maio, Michele; Robert, Caroline

    2010-10-01

    Thus far the development of adjuvant therapies in melanoma has suffered greatly from the lack of effective drugs in stage IV melanoma. Chemotherapy, cytokines, vaccines, and combinations of drugs have been used with minimal success. This has led to adjuvant therapies that are not used uniformly or widely because of the rather marginal benefits, as no consistent and clinically significant impact on survival has been demonstrated. A new development for interferon-based adjuvant therapy seems to be the observation that better effects are observed in patients with lower tumor load and in patients with an ulcerated primary melanoma. A benefit for patients with more advanced lymphnodal involvement is quite unsure, clearly requiring new drugs to be explored. A new era in the treatment of melanoma treatment has arrived with the anti-cytoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (anti-CTLA-4) monoclonal antibodies. The randomized trial in advanced metastatic melanoma demonstrated a clear benefit with prolongation of survival. The anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody ipilimumab has finally changed the landscape. It is therefore only logical that a worldwide adjuvant trial with ipilimumab versus placebo, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 18071, is ongoing in patients with lymph node metastases, and that another adjuvant trial with ipilimumab compared to high-dose interferon (HDI) is planned in the United States. The EORTC 18071 trial will reach full accrual in 2011 and thus results are expected in 2013 or 2014. PMID:21074060

  15. Nanoparticles: their potential use in antibacterial photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Perni, Stefano; Prokopovich, P; Pratten, Jonathan; Parkin, Ivan P; Wilson, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proposed as a new technique to inactivate microorganisms as it does not lead to the selection of mutant resistant strains; a clear benefit compared to antibiotic treatment. PDT has also attracted the interest of nanotechnology as the effectiveness of the treatment can be greatly enhanced by the use of nanoparticles. In the last decade, different approaches to the combination of nanoparticles and PDT have been investigated in relation to the antimicrobial applications of the technique. One use of the nanoparticles is to improve the delivery of photosensitiser to the bacteria; others use the nanoparticles to improve the inactivation kinetics. A different approach utilises nanoparticles as a photosensitiser. In this review these diverse types of interactions will be described. PMID:21380441

  16. Enhancing antibiofilm efficacy in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: effect of microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishen, Anil; George, Saji

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a microbubble containing photosensitizer when activated with light would enable comprehensive disinfection of bacterial biofilms in infected root dentin by antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT). Experiments were conducted in two stages. In the stage-1, microbubble containing photosensitizing formulation was tested for its photochemical properties. In the stage-2, the efficacy of microbubble containing photosensitizing formulation was tested on in vitro infected root canal model, developed with monospecies biofilm models of Enterococcus faecalis on root dentin substrate. The findings from this study showed that the microbubble containing photosensitizing formulation was overall the most effective formulation for photooxidation, generation of singlet oxygen, and in disinfecting the biofilm bacteria in the infected root canal model. This modified photosensitizing formulation will have potential advantages in eliminating bacterial biofilms from infected root dentin.

  17. Cationic porphycenes as potential photosensitizers for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ragàs, Xavier; Sánchez-García, David; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Dai, Tianhong; Agut, Montserrat; Hamblin, Michael R.; Nonell, Santi

    2010-01-01

    Structures of typical photosensitizers used in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy are based on porphyrins, phthalocyanines and phenothiazinium salts, with cationic charges at physiological pH values. However derivatives of the porphycene macrocycle (a structural isomer of porphyrin) have barely been investigated as antimicrobial agents. Therefore, we report the synthesis of the first tricationic water-soluble porphycene and its basic photochemical properties. We successfully tested it for in vitro photoinactivation of different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as a fungal species (Candida) in a drug-dose and light-dose dependent manner. We also used the cationic porphycene in vivo to treat an infection model comprising mouse 3rd degree burns infected with a bioluminescent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain. There was a 2.6-log10 reduction (p < 0.001) of the bacterial bioluminescence for the PDT-treated group after irradiation with 180 J·cm-2 of red light. PMID:20936792

  18. Photodynamic therapy in patients with advanced breast cancer: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Khailenko, V. V.; Shental, Victor V.; Komov, D. V.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Bouidenok, Y. V.

    1996-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using phtalocyanine Al, has been provided in 5 patients with advanced breast cancer (ABC). In 3 patients with ABC T4NO-2MO have been provided preoperative PDT, in 2 cases with T4N1Mx PDT have been done after previous combined treatment for subcutaneous metastases. Multiple lesions were treated in one patient. As a source of light we have used quantoscope (scanning electron beam semiconductive laser, and solid laser with doubled frequency. Combined surface and interstitial laser irradiation has been provided in cases of preoperative PDT. Preliminary results of our study show the pronounced efficacy of PDT for subcutaneous metastases of breast cancer and possibility of providing preoperative PDT for advanced breast cancer.

  19. Blue laser system for photo-dynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabu, R.; Carstocea, B.; Blanaru, C.; Pacala, O.; Stratan, A.; Ursu, D.; Stegaru, F.

    2007-03-01

    A blue laser system for eye diseases (age related macular degeneration, sub-retinal neo-vascularisation in myopia and presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome - POHS) photo-dynamic therapy, based on riboflavin as photosensitive substance, has been developed. A CW diode laser at 445 nm wavelength was coupled through an opto-mechanical system to the viewing path of a bio-microscope. The laser beam power in the irradiated area is adjustable between 1 mW and 40 mW, in a spot of 3-5 mm diameter. The irradiation time can be programmed in the range of 1-19 minutes. Currently, the laser system is under clinic tests.

  20. Photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancer with different sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Shental, Victor V.; Abdoullin, N. A.; Kuvshinov, Yury P.; Tabolinovskaia, T. D.; Edinak, N. J.; Poddubny, Boris K.; Kondratjeva, T. T.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Agafonov, Valery V.

    1997-12-01

    This paper deals with the results of clinical trials for sulfated aluminum phthalocyanine (PHS) (Photosens, Russia; Photogeme (PG) in Russia. The results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of head and neck tumors (HNT), side effects and ways of their correction and prevention, as well as possibility to work out less toxic regimes of PDT with photosense, choice of laser and type of irradiation are discussed. PDT have been provided in 79 patients with different head and neck tumors. Efficacy of PDT depended on tumor size and its histological type. Undesirable changes in plasma content of antioxidants by means of high pressure liquid chromatography (HLPC) have been found in patients after PHS injection. Influence of short-term and long-term supplementation with beta-carotene and vitamin E on this parameters are discussed.

  1. Endoscopic photodynamic therapy of tumors using gold vapor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvshinov, Yury P.; Poddubny, Boris K.; Mironov, Andrei F.; Ponomarev, Igor V.; Shental, V. V.; Vaganov, Yu. E.; Kondratjeva, T. T.; Trofimova, E. V.

    1996-01-01

    Compact sealed-off gold vapor laser (GVL) with 2 W average power and 628 nm wavelength was used for endoscopic photodynamic therapy in 20 patients with different tumors in respiratory system and upper gastrointestinal tract. Russian-made hematoporphyrin derivative (Hpd) `Photohem' was used as a photosensitizer. It was given intravenously at a dose of 2 - 2.5 mg/kg body weight 48 hours prior to tumor illumination with 628 nm light from GVL. Intermittent irradiation with GVL was done through flexible endoscope always under local anaesthesia at a power of 200 - 400 mW/sm2 and a dose of 150 - 400 J/sm2. 80% patients showed complete or partial response depending on stage of tumor. In cases of early gastric cancer all patients had complete remission with repeated negative biopsies. No major complication occurred.

  2. 5-ALA-assisted photodynamic therapy in canine prostates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Muschter, Rolf; Knuechel, Ruth; Steinbach, Pia; Perlmutter, Aaron P.; Martin, Thomas; Baumgartner, Reinhold

    1996-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and interstitial thermotherapy are well known treatment modalities in urology. The approach of this study is to combine both to achieve a selective treatment procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma. Measurements of thy in-vivo pharmacokinetics of 5-ALA induced porphyrins by means of fiber assisted ratiofluorometry showed a maximum fluorescence intensity at time intervals of 3 - 4 h post administration. Fluorescence microscopy at that time showed bright fluorescence in epithelial cells while in the stroma fluorescence could not be observed. Interstitial PDT using a 635-nm dye laser with an irradiation of 50 J/cm2 resulted in a nonthermic hemorrhagic lesion. The lesion size did not change significantly when an irradiation of 100 J/cm2 was used. The usefulness of PDT for treating BPH as well as prostate carcinoma has to be proven in further studies.

  3. Photodynamic therapy in dermatology: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darlenski, Razvigor; Fluhr, Joachim W.

    2013-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive therapeutic method first introduced in the field of dermatology. It is mainly used for the treatment of precancerous and superficial malignant skin tumors. Today PDT finds new applications not only for nononcologic dermatoses but also in the field of other medical specialties such as otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology, neurology, gastroenterology, and urology. We are witnessing a broadening of the spectrum of skin diseases that are treated by PDT. Since its introduction, PDT protocol has evolved significantly in terms of increasing method efficacy and patient safety. In this era of evidence-based medicine, it is expected that much effort will be put into creating a worldwide accepted consensus on PDT. A review on the current knowledge of PDT is given, and the historical basis of the method's evolution since its introduction in the 1900s is presented. At the end, future challenges of PDT are focused on discussing gaps that exist for research in the field.

  4. Photodynamic therapy induces an immune response against a bacterial pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Vecchio, Daniela; Garcia-Diaz, Maria; Chang, Julie; Morimoto, Yuji; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the triple combination of photosensitizers, visible light and ambient oxygen. When PDT is used for cancer, it has been observed that both arms of the host immune system (innate and adaptive) are activated. When PDT is used for infectious disease, however, it has been assumed that the direct antimicrobial PDT effect dominates. Murine arthritis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the knee failed to respond to PDT with intravenously injected Photofrin®. PDT with intra-articular Photofrin produced a biphasic dose response that killed bacteria without destroying host neutrophils. Methylene blue was the optimum photosensitizer to kill bacteria while preserving neutrophils. We used bioluminescence imaging to noninvasively monitor murine bacterial arthritis and found that PDT with intra-articular methylene blue was not only effective, but when used before infection, could protect the mice against a subsequent bacterial challenge. The data emphasize the importance of considering the host immune response in PDT for infectious disease. PMID:22882222

  5. Physicochemical properties of potential porphyrin photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kempa, Marta; Kozub, Patrycja; Kimball, Joseph; Rojkiewicz, Marcin; Ku?, Piotr; Gryczy?ski, Zugmunt; Ratuszna, Alicja

    2015-07-01

    This research evaluated the suitability of synthetic photosensitizers for their use as potential photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy using steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. Four tetraphenylporphyrin derivatives were studied in ethanol and dimethyl sulfoxide. The spectroscopic properties namely electronic absorption and emission spectra, ability to generate singlet oxygen, lifetimes of the triplet state, as well as their fluorescence quantum yield were determined. Also time-correlated single photon counting method was used to precisely determine fluorescence lifetimes for all four compounds. Tested compounds exhibit high generation of singlet oxygen, low generation of fluorescence and they are chemical stable during irradiation. The studies show that the tested porphyrins satisfy the conditions of a potential drug in terms of physicochemical properties. PMID:25819312

  6. TransOral Robotic Photodynamic Therapy for the Oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    Quon, Harry; Finlay, Jarod; Cengel, Keith; Zhu, Timothy; O’Malley, Bert; Weinstein, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for head and neck carcinomas with little experience in the oropharynx due to technical challenges in achieving adequate exposure. We present the case of a patient with a second right tonsil carcinoma following previous treatment with transoral robotic surgery (TORS) and postoperative chemoradiation for a left tonsil carcinoma. Repeat TORS for the right tonsil carcinoma reviewed multiple positive surgical margins. The power output from the robotic camera was modified to facilitate safe intraoperative three dimensional visualization of the tumor bed. The robotic arms facilitated clear exposure of the tonsil and tongue base with stable administration of the fluence. Real-time measurements confirmed stable photobleaching with augmentation of the prescribed light fluence secondary to light scatter in the oropharynx. We report a potential new role using TORS for exposure and accurate PDT in the oropharynx. PMID:21333937

  7. Current evidence and applications of photodynamic therapy in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Marilyn T; Lin, Jennifer Y

    2014-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT) a photosensitizer – a molecule that is activated by light – is administered and exposed to a light source. This leads both to destruction of cells targeted by the particular type of photosensitizer, and immunomodulation. Given the ease with which photosensitizers and light can be delivered to the skin, it should come as no surprise that PDT is an increasingly utilized therapeutic in dermatology. PDT is used commonly to treat precancerous cells, sun-damaged skin, and acne. It has reportedly also been used to treat other conditions including inflammatory disorders and cutaneous infections. This review discusses the principles behind how PDT is used in dermatology, as well as evidence for current applications of PDT. PMID:24899818

  8. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy in Spain: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, L; García-Gavín, J; Gilaberte, Y

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an option for the treatment of actinic keratosis, Bowen disease, and certain types of basal cell carcinoma. It is also used to treat various other types of skin condition, including inflammatory and infectious disorders. The main disadvantages of PDT are the time it takes to administer (both for the patient and for health professionals) and the pain associated with treatment. Daylight-mediated PDT has recently been reported to be an alternative to the conventional approach. Several studies have shown it to be similar in efficacy to and better tolerated than classic PDT for the treatment of mild to moderate actinic keratosis. Nevertheless, most of these studies are from northern Europe, and no data have been reported from southern Europe. The present article reviews the main studies published to date, presents the treatment protocol, and summarizes our experience with a group of treated patients. PMID:24726043

  9. Experimental use of photodynamic therapy in high grade gliomas: a review focused on 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Tetard, Marie-Charlotte; Vermandel, Maximilien; Mordon, Serge; Lejeune, Jean-Paul; Reyns, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) consists of a laser light exposure of tumor cells photosensitized by general or local administration of a pharmacological agent. Nowadays, PDT is a clinically established modality for treatment of many cancers. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has proven its rational in fluoro-guided resection of malignant gliomas due to a selective tumor uptake and minimal skin sensitization. Moreover, the relatively specific accumulation of photosensitizing PPIX within the tumor cells has gained interest in the PDT of malignant gliomas. Several experimental and clinical studies have then established ALA-PDT as a valuable adjuvant therapy in the management of malignant gliomas. However, the procedure still requires optimizations in the fields of tissue oxygenation status, photosensitizer concentration or scheme of laser light illumination. In this extensive review, we focused on the methods and results of ALA-PDT for treating malignant gliomas in experimental conditions. The biological mechanisms, the effects on tumor and normal brain tissue, and finally the critical issues to optimize the efficacy of ALA-PDT were discussed. PMID:24905843

  10. Photodynamic therapy repeated without reinjection of Photofrin (porfimer sodium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughan, James S.

    1998-05-01

    Background and objective: To compare the effectiveness in decreasing the amount of obstruction caused by endobronchial tumors when they are retreated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) several weeks after injection of PhotofrinR (porfimer sodium). Study design, materials and methods: The percentage of endobronchial obstruction from tumors before PDT and at the end of toilet bronchoscopy of 91 sites with PDT performed within 4 days after injection of porfimer sodium was compared to that obtained when PDT was repeated without re-injection of porfimer sodium in the time frames 2 - 4 weeks after injection to 11 sites and the period 4 - 8 weeks after injection to 17 sites. All patients were injected intravenously with 60 mg of PhotofrinR per square meter of body surface and all treatments were done with a power density of 500 mW/CF and a light dose of 400 J/CF delivered from cylinder diffusing fibers. Results: Paired Student's t tests and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed significant decreases in the percentage of endobronchial obstruction regardless of whether the PDT was first performed or repeated. Unpaired Student's t tests and Mann-Whitney U statistical comparisons showed a significant difference between the decrease of obstruction when treatment was performed within the first 4 days after injection (mean 41%) as compared to the repeated group 2 to 4 weeks after injection (mean 16%) and the group treated 4 to 8 weeks after injection (mean 19%). However there was no significant difference in the amount of decrease of obstruction between the 2 - 4 week group and the 4 - 8 week group. Conclusions: Photodynamic therapy to relieve endobronchial obstruction can be repeated without reinjection of PhotofrinR up to 8 weeks after injection with a significant decrease in the amount of obstruction. However, it will only be about 1/3 as effective as the initial treatment performed within the first four days of injection.

  11. The Disinfecting Efficacy of Root Canals with Laser Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xhevdet, Aliu; Stubljar, David; Kriznar, Igor; Jukic, Tomislav; Skvarc, Miha; Veranic, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Infecting microorganisms of the root canals are difficult to eliminate during endodontic treatment. In this study the effect of root canal disinfection with photodynamic therapy (PDT) at different time intervals in comparison to 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) in extracted teeth colonized with Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans was tested to assess which treatment reaches the best disinfection rate. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, sterilized, and incubated with Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Candida albicans (ATCC 60193). The two groups were further divided into 6 groups depending on the treatment mode; HELBO®Endo Blue photosensitizer dye application followed by HELBO laser irradiation, with the output power 100 mW and emission of 660 nm, for a 1, 3 and 5 minutes, irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl, 10 second PUI with 2.5% NaOCl and control group. Flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis were used to determine the effectiveness of the different disinfecting methods. Results: The different disinfecting methods had a significantly different effect on the percent of dead cells (p<0.001). A statistical significance of dead cells between organisms (p<0.001) was observed. Interaction between the disinfecting method and both of organisms had shown the statistical significance (p=0.045). Percent of dead cells in treatment groups were significantly higher compared to control group for both organisms (p<0.001). Conclusions: PUI still remains the most effective method for disinfection of infected root canals in endodontics compared to hand instrumentation for both microorganisms. SEM analysis only confirmed the results. Other results ex vivo suggested that prolonging the time from 1 to 5 minutes of PDT increased the number of killed microorganisms significantly, therefore longer times of photodynamic therapy were recommended. Irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl showed similar results to 5 min irradiation. PMID:25606335

  12. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy to Kill Gram-negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Felipe F; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a new promising strategy to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The search for new approaches that can kill bacteria but do not induce the appearance of undesired drug-resistant strains suggests that PDT may have advantages over traditional antibiotic therapy. PDT is a non-thermal photochemical reaction that involves the simultaneous presence of visible light, oxygen and a dye or photosensitizer (PS). Several PS have been studied for their ability to bind to bacteria and efficiently generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photostimulation. ROS are formed through type I or II mechanisms and may inactivate several classes of microbial cells including Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are typically characterized by an impermeable outer cell membrane that contains endotoxins and blocks antibiotics, dyes, and detergents, protecting the sensitive inner membrane and cell wall. This review covers significant peer-reviewed articles together with US and World patents that were filed within the past few years and that relate to the eradication of Gram-negative bacteria via PDI or PDT. It is organized mainly according to the nature of the PS involved and includes natural or synthetic food dyes; cationic dyes such as methylene blue and toluidine blue; tetrapyrrole derivatives such as phthalocyanines, chlorins, porphyrins, chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll derivatives; functionalized fullerenes; nanoparticles combined with different PS; other formulations designed to target PS to bacteria; photoactive materials and surfaces; conjugates between PS and polycationic polymers or antibodies; and permeabilizing agents such as EDTA, PMNP and CaCl2. The present review also covers the different laboratory animal models normally used to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections with antimicrobial PDT. PMID:23550545

  13. A meta-analysis of adjuvant therapy after potentially curative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; He, Xiao Dong; Yao, Nan; Liang, Wen Jia; Zhang, You Cheng

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The high recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after potentially curative treatment determines the long-term prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant therapies in patients with HCC who have undergone hepatic resection, transplantation or locoregional ablation therapy. METHODS: Several databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) fulfilling the predefined selection criteria. Meta-analyses were performed to estimate the effects of adjuvant therapies of any modality on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Eight adjuvant modalities were identified from 27 eligible RCTs conducted predominantly in Asian populations comparing adjuvant with no adjuvant therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy, internal radiation and heparanase inhibitor PI-88 therapy failed to improve RFS or OS, while interferon (IFN) therapy yielded significant survival results. The findings of adjuvant vitamin analogue therapy required further examination. Adjuvant adoptive immunotherapy conferred significant benefit for RFS but not for OS. Although cancer vaccine therapy and radioimmunotherapy may improve survival after radical surgery, the results were from single, small-scale trials. Severe side effects were observed in the studies of adjuvant chemotherapy and of IFN therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant IFN therapy can improve both RFS and OS; however, the benefits of using this agent should be weighed against its side effects. Combination of systemic and transhepatic arterial chemotherapy is not recommended for HCC after potentially curative treatment. Other adjuvant therapies produce limited success for survival. Additional RCTs with proper design are required to establish the role of adjuvant therapies for HCC. PMID:23781519

  14. Magnetic resonance image-guided photodynamic therapy of xenograft pancreas tumors with verteporfin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Chen, Alina; Rizvi, Imran; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer generally has very poor prognosis, with less than 4% survival at 5 years after diagnosis. This dismal survival rate is in part due to the aggressive nature of the adenocarcinoma, leading to a late-stage at diagnosis and exhibits resistance to most therapies. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a model cellular and vascular therapy agent, which uses light activation of the delivered drug to photosensitize the local cellular millieu. We suggest that interstitial verteporfin (benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A) PDT has the potential to be an adjuvant therapy to the commonly used Gemcitabine chemotherapy. In the current study, an orthotopic pancreatic cancer model (Panc-1) has undergone interstitial verteporfin PDT (40 J/cm with verteporfin and 40 J/cm without verteporfin). Prior to PDT, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to determine the location and size of the tumor within the pancreas, allowing accurate placement of the diffusing fiber. The success of therapy was monitored in vivo by assessing the total tumor and vascular perfusion volumes 24 hours pre- and 48 hours post-PDT. Total tumor and vascular perfusion volumes were determined using T2 weighted (T2W) and Gd-DTPA difference T1 weighted (T1W) turbo spin echo (TSE) MR imaging sequences, respectively. The validity of the in vivo imaging for therapeutic response was confirmed by ex vivo fluorescence and histological staining of frozen tissue sections. The ex vivo DiOC7(3) fluorescence analysis correlates well with the information provided from the MR images, indicating that MR imaging will be a successful surrogate marker for interstitial PDT.

  15. Engineered bacteriophage targeting gene networks as adjuvants for antibiotic therapy

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    Engineered bacteriophage targeting gene networks as adjuvants for antibiotic therapy Timothy K. Lua, we engineered bacteriophage to overexpress proteins and attack gene networks that are not directly bacteriophage en- hances killing by quinolones by several orders of magnitude in vitro and significantly

  16. Advance in Photosensitizers and Light Delivery for Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Il; Li, Jia Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The brief history of photodynamic therapy (PDT) research has been focused on photosensitizers (PSs) and light delivery was introduced recently. The appropriate PSs were developed from the first generation PS Photofrin (QLT) to the second (chlorins or bacteriochlorins derivatives) and third (conjugated PSs on carrier) generations PSs to overcome undesired disadvantages, and to increase selective tumor accumulation and excellent targeting. For the synthesis of new chlorin PSs chlorophyll a is isolated from natural plants or algae, and converted to methyl pheophorbide a (MPa) as an important starting material for further synthesis. MPa has various active functional groups easily modified for the preparation of different kinds of PSs, such as methyl pyropheophorbide a, purpurin-18, purpurinimide, and chlorin e6 derivatives. Combination therapy, such as chemotherapy and photothermal therapy with PDT, is shortly described here. Advanced light delivery system is shown to establish successful clinical applications of PDT. Phtodynamic efficiency of the PSs with light delivery was investigated in vitro and/or in vivo. PMID:23423543

  17. Photodynamic methods for fluorescence diagnosis and therapy of photosensitized tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsoeld, Eberhard

    1992-03-01

    Several substances, e.g., hematoporphyrin derivatives (HpD), dihematoporphyrin ether/ester (DHE), phthalocyanines, porphycenes, and other drugs are known to be temporarily and selectively stored in tumors after systematic application. This transient marking opens up new perspectives for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The marker most commonly used today is DHE intravenously injected at doses of 0.2 up to 3.0 mg/kg bodyweight for diagnosis and therapy respectively. The corresponding clearance intervals after injection of DHE range from 3 - 48 h and 25 - 75 h. The highly sensitive two-wavelength laser excitation method with computerized fluorescence imaging offers great advantages for the detection of photosensitized tumors and adds support to conventional diagnostic techniques. Photoinduced production of singlet oxygen is said to be the initial process leading to tumor destruction. Homogeneous irradiation of the area to be treated and a reliable light dosimetry are prerequisites for an effective tumor therapy. Standard instruments for a routine application so far do not exist. Integral irradiation techniques and special laser fiber modifications, however, are under development, which guarantee a uniform distribution of light on the area to be treated. Positive results are such treatments--especially in urology, pneumology, and otorhinolaryngology--indicate the future potential of photodynamic therapy of tumors.

  18. Anti-VEGF therapy for choroidal neovascularisation previously treated with photodynamic therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Jyothi; H R Chowdhury; V Chong; S Sivaprasad

    2010-01-01

    PurposeThis interventional, non-comparative case series assessed the outcome of intravitreal pan-anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents in eyes with persistent or reactivated choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) following previous treatment with photodynamic therapy (PDT).MethodsBaseline assessments including best-corrected visual acuity, fluorescein angiography (FFA), and optical coherent tomography (OCT) were performed. Intravitreal ranibizumab and\\/ or bevacizumab were administered on a PRN basis, guided by

  19. Cost Effectiveness of Extended Adjuvant Letrozole in Postmenopausal Women after Adjuvant Tamoxifen Therapy: The UK Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Karnon; Thomas Delea; Stephen R. D. Johnston; Robert Smith; Jane Brandman; Jennifer Sung; Paul E. Goss

    2006-01-01

    Background: MA17 was a randomised placebo-controlled trial of letrozole 2.5 mg\\/day in 5187 estrogen receptor-positive, 50% node-negative, postmenopausal women (median age 62 years at enrolment) with early breast cancer, post-5 years' adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. The objective of this evaluation was to extrapolate the findings from the MA17 trial to estimate the lifetime cost effectiveness of letrozole in this setting. Methods:

  20. Adjuvant Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sumanta K.

    2014-01-01

    At the present time, the standard of care for patients who have received nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is radiographic surveillance. With a number of novel targeted agents showing activity in the setting of metastatic RCC, there has been great interest in exploring the potential of the same agents in the adjuvant setting. Herein, we discuss the evolution of adjuvant trials in RCC, spanning from the immunotherapy era to the targeted therapy era. Pitfalls of current studies are addressed to provide a context for interpreting forthcoming results. Finally, we outline avenues to incorporate promising investigational agents, such as PD-1 (programmed death-1) inhibitors and MNNG transforming gene inhibitors, in future adjuvant trials. PMID:24969163

  1. Adjuvant therapy for renal cell carcinoma: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sumanta K; Haas, Naomi B

    2014-08-01

    At the present time, the standard of care for patients who have received nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is radiographic surveillance. With a number of novel targeted agents showing activity in the setting of metastatic RCC, there has been great interest in exploring the potential of the same agents in the adjuvant setting. Herein, we discuss the evolution of adjuvant trials in RCC, spanning from the immunotherapy era to the targeted therapy era. Pitfalls of current studies are addressed to provide a context for interpreting forthcoming results. Finally, we outline avenues to incorporate promising investigational agents, such as PD-1 (programmed death-1) inhibitors and MNNG transforming gene inhibitors, in future adjuvant trials. PMID:24969163

  2. Photodynamic therapy: An adjunct to conventional root canal disinfection strategies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shipra; Nagpal, Rajni; Manuja, Naveen; Tyagi, Sashi Prabha

    2014-11-17

    Although chemical-based root canal disinfectants are important to reduce microbial loads and remove infected smear layer from root dentin, they have only a limited ability to eliminate biofilm bacteria, especially from root complexities. This paper explores the novel photodynamic therapy (PDT) for antimicrobial disinfection of root canals. The combination of an effective photosensitizer, the appropriate wavelength of light and ambient oxygen is the key factor in PDT. PDT uses a specific wavelength of light to activate a non-toxic dye (photosensitizer), leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen molecules can damage bacterial proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids, which promote bacterial cell death. In, addition PDT may enhance cross-linking of collagen fibrils in the dentin matrix and thereby improving dentin stability. The concept of PDT is plausible and could foster new therapy concepts for endodontics. The available knowledge should enable and encourage steps forward into more clinical-oriented research and development. This article discusses PDT as related to root canal disinfection, including its components, mechanism of action, reviews the current endodontic literature and also highlights the shortcomings and advancements in PDT techniques. PMID:25404404

  3. Photodynamic therapy in early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Dal Fante, Marco; Mancini, Andrea; Massetti, Renato; Meroni, Emmanuele

    1995-03-01

    From 1/1985 to 7/1993, 18 patients underwent endoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) for early stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma -- as two patients had two synchronous esophageal cancers, 20 lesions were treated. Tumors were staged as Tis in 7 cases and T1 in 13. The average light energy delivered was 50 J/cm2 and 70 J/cm2 for the treatment of Tis and T1, respectively. To obtain a more uniform distribution of laser light in 12 cases the irradiation was performed through the wall of a transparent tube previously placed over the endoscope and advanced into the stomach. The overall results show a complete response in 14/20 (70%) tumors. Three patients developed a local recurrence, 6, 12, and 14 months after therapy. After a follow-up of 5 to 75 months, there was no evidence of disease in 10/18 patients (56%). The actuarial survival rate was 95%, 79%, and 26% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Complications were skin reaction in one patient and esophageal stenosis at the treatment site, that gradually responded to endoscopic bougienage, in 2 patients. Endoscopic PDT proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of superficial carcinoma of the esophagus.

  4. Photodynamic Therapy for Bowen's Disease of the Vulva Area

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hong-Kyu; Yun, Jeong-Hwan; Son, Young-Min; Roh, Joo-Young

    2014-01-01

    Bowen's disease is a squamous cell carcinoma in situ and has the potential to progress to a squamous cell carcinoma. The authors treated two female patients (a 39-year-old and a 41-year-old) with Bowen's disease in the vulva area using topical photodynamic therapy (PDT), involving the use of 5-aminolaevulinic acid and a light-emitting diode device. The light was administered at an intensity of 80 mW/cm2 for a dose of 120 J/cm2 biweekly for 6 cycles. The 39-year-old patient showed excellent clinical improvement, but the other patient achieved only a partial response. Even though one patient underwent a total excision 1 year later due to recurrence, both patients were satisfied with the cosmetic outcomes of this therapy and the partial improvement over time. The common side effect of PDT was a stinging sensation. PDT provides a relatively effective and useful alternative treatment for Bowen's disease in the vulva area. PMID:24882981

  5. Stimulation of anti-tumor immunity by photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mroz, Pawel; Hashmi, Javad T; Huang, Ying-Ying; Lange, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a rapidly developing cancer treatment that utilizes the combination of nontoxic dyes and harmless visible light to destroy tumors by generating reactive oxygen species. PDT produces tumor-cell destruction in the context of acute inflammation that acts as a ‘danger signal’ to the innate immune system. Activation of the innate immune system increases the priming of tumor-specific T lymphocytes that have the ability to recognize and destroy distant tumor cells and, in addition, lead to the development of an immune memory that can combat recurrence of the cancer at a later point in time. PDT may be also successfully combined with immunomodulating strategies that are capable of overcoming or bypassing the escape mechanisms employed by the progressing tumor to evade immune attack. This article will cover the role of the immune response in PDT anti-tumor effectiveness. It will highlight the milestones in the development of PDT-mediated anti-tumor immunity and emphasize the combination strategies that may improve this therapy. PMID:21162652

  6. Photodynamic therapy for pancreatic and biliary tract carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Stephen P.

    2009-02-01

    Patients with non-resectable pancreatic and biliary tract cancer (cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer) have a dismal outlook with conventional palliative therapies, with a median survival of 3-9 months and a 5 year survival of less than 3%. Surgery is the only curative treatment but is appropriate in less than 20% of cases, and even then is associated with a 5-year survival of less than 30%. Although most applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in gastroenterology have been on lesions of the luminal gut, there is increasing experimental and clinical evidence for its efficacy in cancers of the pancreas and biliary tract. Our group has carried out the only clinical study of PDT in pancreatic carcinoma reported to date, and showed that PDT is feasible for local debulking of pancreatic cancer. PDT has also been used with palliative intent in patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, with patients treated with stenting plus PDT reporting improvements in cholestasis, quality of life and survival compared with historical or randomized controls treated with stenting alone. Further controlled studies are needed to establish the influence of PDT and chemotherapy on the survival and quality of life of patients with pancreatic and biliary tract carcinoma.

  7. Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma skin cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikram, M.; Khan, R. U.; Firdous, S.; Atif, M.; Nawaz, M.

    2011-02-01

    In this prospective study duly approved from Institutional Ethics Review Committee for research in medicine, PAEC General Hospital Islamabad, Pakistan, we investigate the efficacy, safety and tolerability along with cosmetic outcome of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) and their precursors. Patients with Histological diagnosis of NMSCs and their precursors were assessed for PDT, after photographic documentation of the lesions and written consent, underwent two (2) sessions of PDT in one month (4 weeks) according to standard protocol. A freshly prepared 20% 5-ALA in Unguentum base was applied under occlusive dressing for 4-6 h as Drug Light Interval (DLI) and irradiated with light of 630 nm wavelength from a diode laser at standard dose of 90 J/cm2. Approximately 11% patients reported pain during treatment which was managed in different simple ways. In our study we regularly followed up the patients for gross as well as histopathological response and recurrence free periods during median follow-up of 24 months. Regarding Basal cell carcinomas complete response was observed in 86.2% (25/29), partial response in 10.3% (3/29) and recurrence during first year in 3.5% (1/29) lesions. All the lesions which showed partial response or recurrence were nBCCs. Regarding Actinic Keratosis complete response was observed in 95.3% (20/21), partial response in 4.7% (1/21) while Bowen's disease showed 100% (2/2) results. 81.8% (9/11) Squamous Cell Carcinomas showed complete, 9% (1/11) partial response and 9% (1/11) presented with recurrence after 3 months. We observed excellent and good cosmetic results along with tumor clearance in our study. Treatment sessions were well tolerated with high level of patient's satisfaction and only minor side effects of pain during treatment sessions and inflammatory changes post photodynamic therapy were observed. We concluded that 5-ALA PDT is an effective and safe emerging treatment modality for management of superficial non-melanoma skin cancers and their precursors with better cosmetic outcome and minor side effects.

  8. Predictive analysis of photodynamic therapy applied to esophagus cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; del Campo-Gutiérrez, M.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2008-04-01

    The use of optical techniques in medicine has revolutionized in many cases the medical praxis, providing new tools for practitioners or improving the existing ones in the fight against diseases. The application of this technology comprises mainly two branches, characterization and treatment of biological tissues. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) provides a solution for malignant tissue destruction, by means of the inoculation of a photosensitizer and irradiation by an optical source. The key factor of the procedure is the localization of the damage to avoid collateral harmful effects. The volume of tissue destroyed depends on the type of photosensitizer inoculated, both on its reactive characteristics and its distribution inside the tissue, and also on the specific properties of the optical source, that is, the optical power, wavelength and exposition time. In this work, a model for PDT based on the one-dimensional diffusion equation, extensible to 3D, to estimate the optical distribution in tissue, and on photosensitizer parameters to take into account the photobleaching effect is proposed. The application to esophagus cancer allows the selection of the right optical source parameters, like irradiance, wavelength or exposition time, in order to predict the area of tissue destruction.

  9. Core – shell upconversion nanoparticle – semiconductor heterostructures for photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Qing Qing; Rengaramchandran, Adith; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with diverse chemical compositions have been attracting greater attention in recent years. However, it has been a challenge to develop CSNPs with different crystal structures due to the lattice mismatch of the nanocrystals. Here we report a rational design of core-shell heterostructure consisting of NaYF4:Yb,Tm upconversion nanoparticle (UCN) as the core and ZnO semiconductor as the shell for potential application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The core-shell architecture (confirmed by TEM and STEM) enables for improving the loading efficiency of photosensitizer (ZnO) as the semiconductor is directly coated on the UCN core. Importantly, UCN acts as a transducer to sensitize ZnO and trigger the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce cancer cell death. We also present a firefly luciferase (FLuc) reporter gene based molecular biosensor (ARE-FLuc) to measure the antioxidant signaling response activated in cells during the release of ROS in response to the exposure of CSNPs under 980?nm NIR light. The breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1) exposed to CSNPs showed significant release of ROS as measured by aminophenyl fluorescein (APF) and ARE-FLuc luciferase assays, and ~45% cancer cell death as measured by MTT assay, when illuminated with 980?nm NIR light. PMID:25652742

  10. Photodynamic therapy on the ultrastructure of glioma cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaoshan; Zhang, Ruyou; Zheng, Yongri

    2005-07-01

    OBJECTIVE ?the main purpose of this experiment was to study the change of C6 glioma cells' ultrastructure treated by photodynamic therapy(PDT), observe the change of morphology METHOD ?Make the model of rat glioma by transplanted C6 glioma cells into caudate nucleus?treated the glioma rat by PDT after two weeks. Observed the difference of subcellular structure before and after PDT by electron microscope. RESULT ? Apoptosis and necrosis can be seen after treated by PDT in the C6 glioma, basal membrance damaged ?number of cellular organ of endothelial cell of blood capillary declined?tight junction of endothelial cell lengthen and the gap enlarge. The PDT has slightly effect on the nomorl rat"s subcellular structue. CONCLUSION: PDT can induce the apoptosis and necrosis of C6 glioma cell. The damage of the ultramicrostructure of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum was the foundmentol of the change. PDT initiate the damage of BBB of the C6 glioma cell and weeken the function?and makes it a useful way of treating the glioma combained with chemotherapy.

  11. Photodynamic Therapy with the Phthalocyanine Photosensitizer Pc 4

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Janine D.; Baron, Elma D.; Scull, Heather; Hsia, Andrew; Berlin, Jeffrey C.; McCormick, Thomas; Colussi, Valdir; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Cooper, Kevin D.; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a promising non-invasive treatment for cancers. PDT involves either local or systemic administration of a photosensitizing drug, which preferentially localizes within the tumor, followed by illumination of the involved organ with light, usually from a laser source. Here, we provide a selective overview of our experience with PDT at Case Western Reserve University, specifically with the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4. We first review our in-vitro studies evaluating the mechanism of cell killing by Pc 4-PDT. Then we briefly describe our clinical experience in a Phase I trial of Pc 4-PDT and our preliminary translational studies evaluating the mechanisms behind tumor responses. Preclinical work identified (a) cardiolipin and the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as targets of Pc 4-PDT, (b) the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, with the key participation of caspase-3, as a central response of many human cancer cells to Pc 4-PDT, (c) signaling pathways that could modify apoptosis, and (d) a formulation by which Pc 4 could be applied topically to human skin and penetrate at least through the basal layer of the epidermis. Clinical-translational studies enabled us to develop an immunohistochemical assay for caspase-3 activation, using biopsies from patients treated with topical Pc 4 in a Phase I PDT trial for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Results suggest that this assay may be used as an early biomarker of clinical response. PMID:17397888

  12. Failure to treat alopecia areata with photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guarino, M; Harto, A; García-Morales, I; Pérez-García, B; Arrazola, J M; Jaén, P

    2008-08-01

    We treated six patients with static alopecia areata (AA) with photodynamic therapy (PDT). All patients had received other treatment before starting PDT, but with no benefit. All previous treatments were stopped at least 3 months before beginning PDT, and no other treatment was given during the study period. PDT was used on only one of the affected areas, or if there was only one affected area, to only part of that area; untreated areas served as controls. For all patients methylaminolaevulinic acid was applied under occulsion 3 h after irradiation with red light at 630 nm (37 J/cm(2), 7.5 min). One session was carried out each month. Clinical and fluorescence photographs were taken with a digital camera connected to ultraviolet flashes, both before and after each treatment. None of the patients with AA of the scalp achieved complete hair regrowth, either in the treated or the untreated areas. Two of the patients showed growth of some thin hair over < 10 of the treated area. The remaining patients had no change. However, the patient with AA of the beard experienced complete regrowth after four sessions. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AA treated with PDT in this location. It may be that AA of beard hair responds better to PDT, but further studies are necessary. PMID:18355356

  13. Photodynamic therapy with fullerenes in vivo: reality or a dream?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sulbha K; Chiang, Long Y; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the combination of nontoxic photosensitizers and visible light that is absorbed by the chromophore to produce long-lived triplet states that can carry out photochemistry in the presence of oxygen to kill cells. The closed carbon-cage structure found in fullerenes can act as a photosensitizer, especially when functionalized to impart water solubility. Although there are reports of the use of fullerenes to carry out light-mediated destruction of viruses, microorganisms and cancer cells in vitro, the use of fullerenes to mediate PDT of diseases such as cancer and infections in animal models is less well developed. It has recently been shown that fullerene PDT can be used to save the life of mice with wounds infected with pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Fullerene PDT has also been used to treat mouse models of various cancers including disseminated metastatic cancer in the peritoneal cavity. In vivo PDT with fullerenes represents a new application in nanomedicine. PMID:22122587

  14. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia: good response to photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, E; Apalla, Z; Patsatsi, A; Panagiotidou, D Devliotou; Ioannides, D

    2009-12-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon benign vascular disease of unknown pathogenesis, that occurs as solitary or multiple nodules or papules. Lesions are located mainly on the head, forehead and neck, and may be persistent and difficult to eradicate. We report a case of ALHE treated with aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT). Treatment consisted of two ALA-PDT sessions with a 2-week interval. Clinical evaluation, 8 weeks after treatment, showed marked improvement though not complete regression. The treatment was well tolerated. At follow-up 4 months after treatment, the lesions were stable. We believe that PDT could be an alternative therapeutic approach for ALHE or could be used as a neoadjuvant treatment to reduce lesion size especially where size or site of lesions limits the efficacy or acceptability of other treatments. The lack of cumulative effects allows repeated treatments with ALA-PDT, but long-term follow-up is advised for assessment of recurrence. PMID:19549233

  15. New approaches to photodynamic therapy of tumors with Al phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Chental, V. V.; Kuvshinov, Yury P.; Poddubny, Boris K.

    1999-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors of different localization and histology with new photosensitizer aluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (Photosense, Russia). PDT have been provided in 106 patients with different tumors. The initial dose (2.0 - 2.5 mg/kg) of PHS was significantly reduced till 0.5 - 0.8 mg/kg during clinical trials because of phototoxicity. The results of PDT, side effects and ways of their correction and prevention, as well as possibility to work out less toxic regimes of PDT with photosense, choice of laser and type of irradiation are discussed. Efficacy of PDT depended on tumor size and it's histological type. Using low doses of PHS we've reduced the phototoxicity of sensitizer with the same direct effectiveness of treatment. Undesirable changes in plasma content of antioxidants by means of high pressure liquid chromatography have been found in patients after PHS injection. Influence of short-term and long-term supplementation with beta- carotene and vitamin E on this parameters are discussed.

  16. Fluorescence guided evaluation of photodynamic therapy as acne treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericson, Marica B.; Horfelt, Camilla; Cheng, Elaine; Larsson, Frida; Larko, Olle; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive alternative treatment for patients with acne because of its efficiency and few side effects. Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) are bacteria present in the skin, which produce endogenous porphyrins that act as photosensitisers. In addition, application of aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester (mALA) results in increased accumulation of porphyrins in the pilosebaceous units. This makes it possible to treat acne with PDT. This initial study investigates the possibility of fluorescence imaging as assessment tool in adjunct to PDT of patients with acne. Twenty-four patients with acne on the cheeks have been treated with PDT with and without mALA. Fluorescence images have been obtained before and after treatment. The clinical acne score was assessed as base line before PDT, and at every follow up visit. Additionally the amount of P.acnes was determined. The clinical evaluation showed a general improvement of acne, even though no difference between treatment with and without mALA was observed. By performing texture analysis and multivariate data analsysis on the fluorescence images, the extracted texture features were found to correlate with the corresponding clinical assessment (67%) and amount of P.acnes (72%). The analysis showed that features describing the highly fluorescent pores could be related to the clinical assessment. This result suggests that fluorescence imaging can be used as an objective assessment of acne, but further improvement of the technique is possible, for example by including colour images.

  17. Light distribution in the endometrium during photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Sten; Svaasand, Lars O.; Fehr, Mathias K.; Tadir, Yona; Ngo, Phat; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1995-01-01

    Hysterectomy is the most common major operation performed in the United States with dysfunctional uterine bleeding being a major indication. Endometrial destruction by photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been suggested as a possible alternative to invasive surgical procedures for abnormal uterine bleeding due to benign changes. Effective destruction of the endometrium during PDT requires a sufficient amount of light to be delivered to the entire endometrium in a reasonable time. To satisfy these criteria, we have developed a trifurcated optical applicator consisting of three cylindrical diffusing fibers. The applicator was inserted into freshly excised, intact human uteri and the optical distribution was measured with an isotropic fiber probe at various locations in the uterus. The results were in good agreement with the predictions of a mathematical model based on diffusion theory. The results indicate that irradiation of the endometrium by the trifurcated applicator can destroy tissue to a depth of 4 mm given an optical power of 100 mW per cm of diffusing tip (100 mW/cm) for an exposure time of less than 20 minutes.

  18. Core – shell upconversion nanoparticle – semiconductor heterostructures for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Qing Qing; Rengaramchandran, Adith; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Zhang, Yong

    2015-02-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with diverse chemical compositions have been attracting greater attention in recent years. However, it has been a challenge to develop CSNPs with different crystal structures due to the lattice mismatch of the nanocrystals. Here we report a rational design of core-shell heterostructure consisting of NaYF4:Yb,Tm upconversion nanoparticle (UCN) as the core and ZnO semiconductor as the shell for potential application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The core-shell architecture (confirmed by TEM and STEM) enables for improving the loading efficiency of photosensitizer (ZnO) as the semiconductor is directly coated on the UCN core. Importantly, UCN acts as a transducer to sensitize ZnO and trigger the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce cancer cell death. We also present a firefly luciferase (FLuc) reporter gene based molecular biosensor (ARE-FLuc) to measure the antioxidant signaling response activated in cells during the release of ROS in response to the exposure of CSNPs under 980 nm NIR light. The breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1) exposed to CSNPs showed significant release of ROS as measured by aminophenyl fluorescein (APF) and ARE-FLuc luciferase assays, and ~45% cancer cell death as measured by MTT assay, when illuminated with 980 nm NIR light.

  19. Photodynamic Therapy and the Development of Metal-Based Photosensitisers

    PubMed Central

    Josefsen, Leanne B.; Boyle, Ross W.

    2008-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that has been used in the successful treatment of a number of diseases and disorders, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), psoriasis, and certain cancers. PDT uses a combination of a selectively localised light-sensitive drug (known as a photosensitiser) and light of an appropriate wavelength. The light-activated form of the drug reacts with molecular oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and radicals; in a biological environment these toxic species can interact with cellular constituents causing biochemical disruption to the cell. If the homeostasis of the cell is altered significantly then the cell enters the process of cell death. The first photosensitiser to gain regulatory approval for clinical PDT was Photofrin. Unfortunately, Photofrin has a number of associated disadvantages, particularly pro-longed patient photosensitivity. To try and overcome these disadvantages second and third generation photosensitisers have been developed and investigated. This Review highlights the key photosensitisers investigated, with particular attention paid to the metallated and non-metallated cyclic tetrapyrrolic derivatives that have been studied in vitro and in vivo; those which have entered clinical trials; and those that are currently in use in the clinic for PDT. PMID:18815617

  20. Photodynamic therapy improves the ultraviolet-irradiated hairless mice skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, Ana Elisa S.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Parizotto, Nivaldo A.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-03-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) sunlight causes premature skin aging. In light of this fact, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging modality for treating cancer and other skin conditions, however its response on photoaged skin has not been fully illustrated by means of histopathology. For this reason, the aim of this study was analyze whether PDT can play a role on a mouse model of photoaging. Hence, SKH-1 hairless mice were randomly allocated in two groups, UV and UV/PDT. The mice were daily exposed to an UV light source (280-400 nm: peak at 350 nm) for 8 weeks followed by a single PDT session using 20% 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) topically. After the proper photosensitizer accumulation within the tissue, a non-coherent red (635 nm) light was performed and, after 14 days, skin samples were excised and processed for light microscopy, and their sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's Trichrome. As a result, we observed a substantial epidermal thickening and an improvement in dermal collagen density by deposition of new collagen fibers on UV/PDT group. These findings strongly indicate epidermal and dermal restoration, and consequently skin restoration. In conclusion, this study provides suitable evidences that PDT improves the UV-irradiated hairless mice skin, supporting this technique as an efficient treatment for photoaged skin.

  1. On the combination of photodynamic therapy with ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Luksiene, Z; Kalvelyte, A; Supino, R

    1999-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites carcinoma growth and cell damage have been examined after photodynamic therapy (PDT), radiotherapy (RT) and combined treatment. Haematoporphyrin dimethyl ether (HPde) is used as a photosensitizer for PDT and tested as a radiosensitizer for RT. For PDT a non-coherent light source (370 < lambda < 680 nm) equipped with filters is used. gamma-Irradiation consists of 60Co irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy. Both PDT and RT induce a significant delay and inhibition in tumour growth (33 and 38%, respectively). Nevertheless cell damage after these treatments is different: after PDT the cell membrane integrity is damaged and no serious chromosomal aberrations are observed; whereas after gamma-irradiation there is no cell membrane integrity damage, but more significant DNA injuries are observed. It seems evident that HPde is able to act as a photosensitizer as well as a radiosensitizer. Combining PDT and RT produces an additive effect, not dependent on the sequence in which the two treatments are given, when a 1 h time window is used. PMID:10643073

  2. A robotic multi-channel platform for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sharikova, Anna V.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    A custom-made robotic multichannel platform for interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) and diffuse optical tomography (DOT) was developed and tested in a phantom experiment. The system, which was compatible with the operating room (OR) environment, had 16 channels for independent positioning of light sources and/or isotropic detectors in separate catheters. Each channel’s motor had an optical encoder for position feedback, with resolution of 1.5 mm, and a maximum speed of 5 cm/s. Automatic calibration of detector positions was implemented using an optical diode beam that defined the starting position of each motor, and by means of feedback algorithms controlling individual channels. As a result, the accuracy of zero position of 0.1 mm for all channels was achieved. We have also employed scanning procedures where detectors automatically covered the appropriate range around source positions. Thus, total scan time for a typical optical properties (OP) measurement throughout the phantom was about 1.5 minutes with point sources. The OP were determined based on the measured light fluence rates. These enhancements allow a tremendous improvement of treatment quality for a bulk tumor compared to the systems employed in previous clinical trials.

  3. Reduction of Endotracheal Tube Biofilms Using Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Biel, Merrill A.; Sievert, Chet; Usacheva, Marina; Teichert, Matthew; Wedell, Eric; Loebel, Nicolas; Rose, Andreas; Zimmermann, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is reported to occur in 12 to 25% of patients who require mechanical ventilation with a mortality rate of 24 to 71%. The endotracheal (ET) tube has long been recognized as a major factor in the development of VAP since biofilm harbored within the ET tube become dislodged during mechanical ventilation and have direct access to the lungs. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of a non-invasive antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) treatment method of eradicating antibiotic resistant biofilms from ET tubes in an in vitro model. Methods Antibiotic resistant polymicrobial biofilms of Pseudomonas aerugenosa and MRSA were grown in ET tubes and treated, under standard ventilator conditions, with a methylene blue (MB) photosensitizer and 664nm non-thermal activating light. Cultures of the lumen of the ET tube were obtained before and after light treatment to determine efficacy of biofilm reduction. Results The in vitro ET tube biofilm study demonstrated that aPDT reduced the ET tube polymicrobial biofilm by >99.9% (p<0.05%) after a single treatment. Conclusions MB aPDT can effectively treat polymicrobial antibiotic resistant biofilms in an ET tube. PMID:21987599

  4. Photodynamic therapy for melanoma: efficacy and immunologic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Kawakubo, Masayoshi; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the fastest growing cancers and if it cannot be completely surgically removed the prognosis is bleak. Melanomas are known to be particularly resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Various types of immunotherapy have however been investigated with mixed reports of success. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has also been tested against melanoma, again with mixed effects as the melanin pigment is thought to act as both an optical shield and as an antioxidant. We have been investigating PDT against malignant melanoma in mouse models. We have compared B16F10 melanoma syngenic to C57BL/6 mice and S91 Cloudman melanoma syngenic to DBA2 mice. We have tested the hypothesis that S91 will respond better than B16 because of higher expression of immunocritical molecules such as MHC-1, tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-2 gp100, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Some of these molecules can act as tumor rejection antigens that can be recognized by antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8 T cells that have been stimulated by PDT. Moreover it is possible that DBA2 mice are intrinsically better able to mount an anti-tumor immune response than C57BL/6 mice. We are also studying intratumoral injection of photosensitzers such as benzoporphyrin monoacid ring A and comparing this route with the more usual route of intravenous administration.

  5. Photodynamic therapy for bile duct invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bahng, Sunha; Yoo, Byung Chul; Paik, Seung Woon; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Lee, Kyu Teak; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Kwang Hyuck

    2013-03-01

    The prognosis of patients with obstructive jaundice caused by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is dismal, because effective biliary drainage is difficult due to frequent malfunction of the drainage tube caused by hemobilia and/or tumor emboli. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) improves biliary patency and prolongs survival in hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of PDT in unresectable HCC with bile duct invasion. Between January 2009 and September 2010, eleven patients with bile duct invasion of unresectable HCC were enrolled at Samsung Medical Center. PDT was performed with 180 J cm(-1) light activation 48 hours after administration of the photosensitizer at a dose of 2 mg kg(-1) body weight. Biliary drainages were performed in all patients. The safety and efficacy of PDT were prospectively evaluated. Eleven patients had successful PDT and biliary drainage. Jaundice improved in seven out of ten patients who had jaundice before PDT. Hemobilia, which had developed in six cases, was controlled by PDT. There were no complications from the photosensitizer. There was no 30-day mortality, and the mean survival was 140.5 days. PDT controlled hemobilia associated with bile duct invasion of HCC and could be an effective treatment option in these patients. PMID:23175171

  6. Cationic porphyrin derivatives for application in photodynamic therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prack McCormick, Bárbara P.; Florencia Pansa, M.; Milla Sanabria, Laura N.; Carvalho, Carla M. B.; Faustino, M. Amparo F.; Neves, Maria Graça P. M. S.; Cavaleiro, José A. S.; Rumie Vittar, Natalia B.; Rivarola, Viviana A.

    2014-04-01

    Current studies in photodynamic therapy (PDT) against cancer are focused on the development of new photosensitizers (PSs), with higher phototoxic action. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficiency of tri-cationic meso-substituted porphyrin derivatives (Tri-Py+–Me–PF, Tri-Py+–Me–Ph, Tri-Py+–Me–CO2Me and Tri-Py+–Me–CO2H) with the well-known tetra-cationic T4PM. The phototoxic action of these derivatives was assessed in human colon adenocarcinoma cells by cell viability, intracellular localization and nuclear morphology analysis. In the experimental conditions used we determined that after light activation –PF, –Ph and –CO2Me cause a more significant decline of cell viability compared to –CO2H and T4PM. These results suggest that the nature of the peripheral substituent influences the extent of cell photodamage. Moreover, we have demonstrated that PS concentration, physicochemical properties and further light activation determine the PDT response. All porphyrins were clearly localized as a punctuated pattern in the cytoplasm of the cells, and the PDT scheme resulted in apoptotic cell death after 3 h post-PDT. The tri-cationic porphyrin derivatives Tri-Py+–Me–PF, Tri-Py+–Me–Ph and Tri-Py+–Me–CO2Me showed a promising ability, making them good photosensitizer candidates for oncological PDT.

  7. Photodynamic therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandanayake, N. S.; Huggett, M. T.; Bown, S. G.; Pogue, B. W.; Hasan, T.; Pereira, S. P.

    2010-02-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma ranks as the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the USA. Patients usually present late with advanced disease, limiting attempted curative surgery to 10% of cases. Overall prognosis is poor with one-year survival rates of less than 10% with palliative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Given these dismal results, a minimally invasive treatment capable of local destruction of tumor tissue with low morbidity may have a place in the treatment of this disease. In this paper we review the preclinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) studies which have shown that it is possible to achieve a zone of necrosis in normal pancreas and implanted tumour tissue. Side effects of treatment and evidence of a potential survival advantage are discussed. We describe the only published clinical study of pancreatic interstitial PDT, which was carried out by our group (Bown et al Gut 2002), in 16 patients with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. All patients had evidence of tumor necrosis on follow-up imaging, with a median survival from diagnosis of 12.5 months. Finally, we outline a phase I dose-escalation study of verteporfin single fibre PDT followed by standard gemcitabine chemotherapy which our group is currently undertaking in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Randomized controlled studies are also planned.

  8. Characterizing light propagation in bone for photodynamic therapy of osteosarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Vincent M.; Gustafson, Scott B.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2009-02-01

    This work aims at characterizing how light propagates through bone in order to efficiently guide treatment of osteosarcoma with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Optical properties of various bone tissues need to be characterized in order to have a working model of light propagation in bone. Bone tissues of particular interest include cortical bone, red and yellow marrow, cancellous bone, and bone cancers themselves. With adequate knowledge of optical properties of osseous tissues, light dosimetry can determine how best to deliver adequate light to achieve phototoxic effects within bone. An optical fiber source-collector pair is used for diffuse reflectance spectroscopic measurements in order to determine the scattering and absorption properties of bone tissues. Native absorbers of interest at visible and near-IR wavelengths include water and oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. A cylindrically symmetric Monte Carlo model is then used, incorporating these results, in order to predict and guide the delivery of light within bone in order to achieve the desired phototoxic effect in PDT.

  9. Synthesis of folate receptor-targeted photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaopu; Zou, Qianli; Zhao, Yuxia; Wu, Feipeng

    2014-11-01

    A series of amphiphilic benzylidene cycloalkanes ketone photosensitizers C1-C4 with or without folate receptor-targeted agent were designed and synthesized. Their photophysical properties and in vitro photodynamic therapy (PDT) effects were studied. The results showed that all compounds exhibited appropriate lipid-water partition coefficients and high reactive oxygen yields. The introduction of the folate receptor-targeted agent had no obvious influence on the basic photophysical & photochemical properties of C2 and C4 compared to those of their corresponding prototype compounds (C1 and C3). In vitro studies were carried out using MCF-7 cells (FR+), Hela cells (FR+) and A549 cells (FR-), which represented different levels of folate receptor (FR) expression. All of C1-C4 showed low dark toxicity and superior PDT effects compared with the clinical drug PSD-007 (a mixture of porphyrins). What's more, folate receptor-targeted photosensitizers (C2 and C4) achieved higher accumulation and more excellent PDT effects in MCF-7 cells (FR+) and Hela cells (FR+) than photosensitizers (C1 and C3) without folate receptor-targeted agent and PSD-007. The photocytotoxicity of these photosensitizers showed no obvious differences in A549 cells (FR-).

  10. Five years experience of photodynamic therapy with new chlorin photosensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalov, Valery A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Kochneva, Elena V.

    2005-08-01

    Clinical results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a novel natural second generation chlorin-type photosensitizer "Radachlorin", mainly consisting of sodium chlorine e6, are presented. This sensitizer possesses a number of advantages over sensitizers of hematoporphyrin and phthalocyanine types. In particular, Radachlorin is excreted from organism much faster (in 1-2 days), as a result the problem of patient light hypersensitivity for a few months is non-actual for Radachlorin. As light source there was used a 662 nm diode laser specially designed for PDT with Radachlorin. The 5 year clinical results of PDT application to 89 patients with different malignant tumors are summarized and analysed. It is shown in particular that PDT with Radachlorin is a radical high efficient method for treatment of basal cell carcinoma of skin. At intravenous introduction in drug dose 0.5 mg/kg with light fluence 300-350 J/cm2 or in dose 1 mg/kg with fluence 200-250 J/cm2 the method gives full recovery in almost 100% cases with excellent cosmetic effect. The method was successfully combined with surgical operations, laser ablations, radio- and chemotherapy. Preoperative and intraoperative PDT favors improvement of results in complex treatment of malignant tumors. The method has a potential as palliative measure; in a number of incurable cases it allowed us to achieve recanalization of obturated hollow organs, eliminate the inflammatory complications, and as a result to improve life quality.

  11. Photodynamic therapy using topical methyl 5-aminolevulinate compared with cryotherapy for actinic keratosis: A prospective, randomized study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Szeimies; S. Karrer; S. Radakovic-Fijan; A. Tanew; P. G. Calzavara-Pinton; C. Zane; A. Sidoroff; M. Hempel; J. Ulrich; T. Proebstle; H. Meffert; M. Mulder; D. Salomon; H. C. Dittmar; J. W. Bauer; K. Kernland; L. Braathen

    2002-01-01

    Background: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are the most common premalignant tumors. Without treatment, a significant number of patients with AK will experience squamous cell carcinoma. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the new highly selective photosensitizer methyl 5-aminolevulinate is a promising new treatment modality for AK. Objective: We investigated the complete response rates, cosmetic outcome, and patient satisfaction after photodynamic therapy (PDT) using

  12. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: an effective alternative approach to control fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Baltazar, Ludmila M.; Ray, Anjana; Santos, Daniel A.; Cisalpino, Patrícia S.; Friedman, Adam J.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Skin mycoses are caused mainly by dermatophytes, which are fungal species that primarily infect areas rich in keratin such as hair, nails, and skin. Significantly, there are increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance among dermatophytes, especially for Trichophyton rubrum, the most frequent etiologic agent worldwide. Hence, investigators have been developing new therapeutic approaches, including photodynamic treatment. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes a photosensitive substance activated by a light source of a specific wavelength. The photoactivation induces cascades of photochemicals and photobiological events that cause irreversible changes in the exposed cells. Although photodynamic approaches are well established experimentally for the treatment of certain cutaneous infections, there is limited information about its mechanism of action for specific pathogens as well as the risks to healthy tissues. In this work, we have conducted a comprehensive review of the current knowledge of PDT as it specifically applies to fungal diseases. The data to date suggests that photodynamic treatment approaches hold great promise for combating certain fungal pathogens, particularly dermatophytes.

  13. Photodynamic Therapy With Verteporfin in Subfoveal Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erdem Ergun; Michael Tittl; Michael Stur

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy and safety of pho- todynamic therapy with verteporfin in the treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to cen- tral serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Design: Prospective interventional, noncomparative case series. Methods: After the diagnosis of a subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to CSC, 26 eyes of 24 pa- tients were treated with photodynamic therapy with verte- porfin. Patients

  14. Adjuvant Therapy of Breast Cancer – Bisphosphonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiina Saarto

    The skeleton is a first site of recurrence in every third relapse in breast cancer. Approximately 705 (50–80%) of metastatic\\u000a breast cancer patients have bone metastases [1]. Bisphosphonates have been used successfully in the treatment of malignant\\u000a hypercalcaemia and skeletal metastases [2]. The use of bisphosphonates in addition to hormone therapy or chemotherapy reduces\\u000a the risk of developing skeletal events

  15. Photodynamic therapy for localized infections – state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered over one hundred years ago by observing the killing of microorganisms when harmless dyes and visible light were combined in vitro. Since then it has primarily been developed as a treatment for cancer, ophthalmologic disorders and in dermatology. However in recent years interest in the antimicrobial effects of PDT has revived and it has been proposed as a therapy for a large variety of localized infections. This revival of interest has largely been driven by the inexorable increase in drug resistance amongst many classes of pathogen. Advantages of PDT include equal killing effectiveness regardless of antibiotic resistance, and a lack of induction of PDT resistance. Disadvantages include the cessation of the antimicrobial effect when the light is turned off, and less than perfect selectivity for microbial cells over host tissue. This review will cover the use of PDT to kill or inactivate pathogens in ex vivo tissues and in biological materials such as blood. PDT has been successfully used to kill pathogens and even to save life in several animal models of localized infections such as surface wounds, burns, oral sites, abscesses and the middle ear. A large number of clinical studies of PDT for viral papillomatosis lesions and for acne refer to its anti-microbial effect, but it is unclear how important this microbial killing is to the overall therapeutic outcome. PDT for periodontitis is a rapidly growing clinical application and other dental applications are under investigation. PDT is being clinically studied for other dermatological infections such as leishmaniasis and mycobacteria. Antimicrobial PDT will become more important in the future as antibiotic resistance is only expected to continue to increase. PMID:19932449

  16. Radical Pleurectomy and Intraoperative Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Friedberg, Joseph S.; Culligan, Melissa J.; Mick, Rosemarie; Stevenson, James; Hahn, Stephen M.; Sterman, Daniel; Punekar, Salman; Glatstein, Eli; Cengel, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background Radical pleurectomy (RP) for mesothelioma is often considered either technically infeasible or an operation limited to patients who would not tolerate a pneumonectomy. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using RP and intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) for mesothelioma. Methods 38 patients (42–81 years) underwent RP-PDT. 35/38 (92%) patients also received systemic therapy. Standard statistical techniques were employed for analysis. Results 37/38 (97%) patients had Stage III/IV (AJCC) cancer and 7/38 (18%) patients had nonepithelial subtypes. Macroscopic complete resection was achieved in 37/38 (97%) patients. There was one postoperative mortality (stroke). At a median follow-up of 34.4 months, the median survival was 31.7 months for all 38 patients, 41.2 months for the 31/38 (82%) epithelial patients and 6.8 months for the 7/38 (18%) nonepithelial patients. The median progression free survivals were 9.6, 15.1 and 4.8 months, respectively. The median and progression free survivals for the 20/31 (64%) epithelial patients with N2 disease were 31.7 and 15.1 months, respectively. Conclusions It was possible to achieve a macroscopic complete resection utilizing lung-sparing surgery in 97% of these stage III/IV patients. The survival we observed with this approach was unusually long for the epithelial subtype patients but, interestingly, the progression free survival was not. The reason for this prolonged survival in spite of recurrence is not clear, but is potentially related to preservation of the lung and/or some PDT-induced effect. We conclude that the results of this lung-sparing approach are safe, encouraging and warrant further investigation. PMID:22541196

  17. Photodynamic therapy of cancer: five-year clinical experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Skobelkin, Oleg K.; Vorozhtsov, Georgy N.; Mironov, Andrei F.; Beshleul, Stanislav E.; Markitchev, Nikolai A.; Riabov, Michail V.

    1997-12-01

    The results of application of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treatment of malignant tumors of skin, breasts, tongue, oral mucose, lower lip, larynx, stomach, bladder, rectum and other localizations were assessed. In 1992 - 1997 more than 1200 tumoral foci in 288 patients have been treated with PDT. Most of the patients have been taken for PDT for tumoral recurrences or intradermal metastases after surgery, gamma- therapy or combined treatment. A certain number of patients had not been treated before due to severe accompanying diseases or old age. Russian photosensitizers Photoheme in dosage 1.0 - 5.0 mg/kg body weight, and Photosense in dosage 0.5 - 1.5 mg/kg body weight were used. Laser irradiation was performed using Coherent 'Innova-200' and Russian laser devices: copper vapor-pumped dye laser (wavelength 630 nm, output power -- 5 W), gold-vapor lasers (wavelength 628 nm, output power -- 2 W), solid-state laser (wavelength 670 nm, output power -- 2 W). In several cases non-laser light emitting devices have been employed. Up to date we possess the follow-up data in term from 2 months to 5 years. Therapeutic effect took place in 94.4% of the cases, including complete tumor resorption in 56.2% and partial resorption in 38.2% of the cases. The results of PDT application for treating malignant tumors allow one to estimate PDT as an adequate technique and in some tumor localizations PDT might become a method of choice. This new promising technique of cancer treatment is successfully applied in Russia. New photosensitizers and sources of light for PDT and fluorescent diagnostics are being developed.

  18. Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Early Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mundhenke, Christoph; Schem, Christian; Jonat, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Summary Five years of adjuvant tamoxifen treatment has been the gold standard for women with early hormone-responsive breast cancer. Results from two large phase III, adjuvant studies have indicated that the third-generation aro-matase inhibitors (AIs) letrozole and anastrozole offer greater protection against recurrence than tamoxifen in upfront substitution strategies in the first 5 years. Similarly, changeover to an AI (exemestane or anastrozole) after 2-3 years of tamoxifen has been more efficient to prevent recurrence than 5 years of tamoxifen. Most early breast cancer recurrences occur 5 or more years after surgery. Letrozole has been shown to offer greater protection against recurrence than placebo in the 5 years after a standard course of tamoxifen. The optimal adjuvant use (duration and sequencing) of AIs requires further investigation. Safety implications of treatment with these AIs for 5 years or more are closely monitored. The anticipated effects of estrogen deprivation on bone health may be treatable with bisphosphonates. Effects on the cardiovascular system, and other estrogen-sensitive systems such as the central nervous system, are currently examined. The AIs letrozole, anastrozole, and ex-emestane have recently replaced tamoxifen as the recommended adjuvant endocrine therapy, on the basis of greater efficacy and better tolerability. PMID:20824026

  19. Toluidine blue O-conjugated gold nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy of cultured colon cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Majmaie, Rasoul; Alattar, Nebras; Zerulla, Dominic; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2012-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging technique for the treatment of cancerous and non-cancerous conditions. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) possess unique physical and chemical properties which allow them to act as multifunctional agents in nanomedicine. GNP- photosensitizer conjugates have attracted increasing attention in drug delivery for photodynamic cancer therapy. In the present investigation, we prepared covalent conjugates of the photosensitizer Toluidine Blue O (TBO) and thiol protected GNPs. The suitability of TBO- GNPs conjugates for in vitro PDT was assayed using the SW480 Human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. Our results suggest that gold nanoparticle conjugates are an excellent vehicle for delivery of photosensitizer agents in the photodynamic therapy of cultured tumour cells.

  20. Contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging as a surrogate to map verteporfin delivery in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Bryant, Amber; Gunn, Jason R.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-12-01

    The use of in vivo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a surrogate for photosensitizer (verteporfin) dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of pancreas cancer is demonstrated by correlating MR contrast uptake to ex vivo fluorescence images on excised tissue. An orthotopic pancreatic xenograft mouse model was used for the study. A strong correlation (r=0.57) was found for bulk intensity measurements of T1-weighted gadolinium enhancement and verteporfin fluorescence in the tumor region of interest. The use of contrast-enhanced MR imaging shows promise as a method for treatment planning and photosensitizer dosimetry in human photodynamic therapy (PDT) of pancreas cancer.

  1. Contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging as a surrogate to map verteporfin delivery in photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Bryant, Amber; Gunn, Jason R.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. The use of in vivo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a surrogate for photosensitizer (verteporfin) dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of pancreas cancer is demonstrated by correlating MR contrast uptake to ex vivo fluorescence images on excised tissue. An orthotopic pancreatic xenograft mouse model was used for the study. A strong correlation (r=0.57) was found for bulk intensity measurements of T1-weighted gadolinium enhancement and verteporfin fluorescence in the tumor region of interest. The use of contrast-enhanced MR imaging shows promise as a method for treatment planning and photosensitizer dosimetry in human photodynamic therapy (PDT) of pancreas cancer. PMID:24365954

  2. Canine treatment with SnET2 for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Donita L.; Milligan, Andrew J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Morgan, Alan R.; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1990-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a treatment technique that utilizes the photoactived species of a drug to destroy tumor tissue. To be successful, the drug must localize in tumor tissue preferentially over normal tissue and must be activated by light of a specific wavelength. Currently the only drug to be approved for clinical use is Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) although a series of new drugs are being developed for use in the near future. One of the drugs belongs to a class called purpurins which display absorp-' tions between 630-711 nm. Along with several other investigators, we are currently exploring the characteristics of a specific purpurin (SnET2) in normal and tumorous canine tissue. The use of this compound has demonstrated increased tumor control rates in spontaneous dog tumors. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have been performed on 6 normal beagle dogs. SnET2 (2 mg/kg) was injected intravenously over 10 minutes and blood was collected at 5, 15, 30, 45 minutes and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours following administration for determination of drug concentration and calculation of pharinacokinetic parameters. Skin biopsies were collected at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours. Dogs were euthanized at 24 hours and tissues (liver, kidney muscle, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileura, colon, adrenal gland, thyroid, heart, lung, urinary bladder, prostate, pancreas, eye, brain) were collected for drug raeasurement. Drug was shown to persist in liver and kidney for a prolonged period of time coiapared to other tissues. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug will greatly add to the ability to treat patients with effective protocols.

  3. Nanophotonic ensembles for targeted multi-photon photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Charles W.; Meng, Fanqing; Gong, Aijun; Drobizhev, Mikhail A.; Karotki, Aliaksandr; Rebane, Aleksander, II

    2004-06-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the application of new technologies for the treatment of cancerous tumors over the past decade, but for the most part, the treatment of most tumors still involves some combination of invasive surgery, chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which involves the activation of an administered compound with laser light followed by a series of events leading to programmed cell death of the tumor, has been proposed as a noninvasive alternative treatment to replace the standard surgery/chemotherapy/radiation protocol. However, currently approved PDT agents operate in the Visible portion of the spectrum, and laser light in this region cannot penetrate the skin more than a few millimeters. Two-photon irradiation using more highly penetrating Near-infrared (NIR) light in the tissue transparency window (700-1000 nm) has been proposed for the treatment of subcutaneous tumors, but most porphyrins exhibit extremely small two-photon cross-sections. Classical PDT also suffers from the lengthy time necessary for accumulation at the tumor site, a relative lack of discrimination between healthy and diseased tissue, particularly at the tumor margins, and difficulty in clearing from the system in a reasonable amount of time. We have recently discovered a new design paradigm for porphyrins with greatly enhanced two-photon cross-sections, and are now proposing a nano-ensemble that would also incorporate small molecule targeting agents, and possibly one-photon NIR imaging agents along with these porphyrins in one therapeutic agent. Thus these ensembles would incorporate targeting/imaging/PDT functions in one therapeutic agent, and hold the promise of single-session outpatient treatment of a large variety of subcutaneous tumors.

  4. Low dose mTHPC photodynamic therapy for cholangiocarcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Herbert; Kniebühler, Gesa; Pongratz, Thomas; Betz, Christian S.; Göke, Burkhard; Sroka, Ronald; Schirra, Jörg

    2013-06-01

    Objective: Demonstration of whether a low dose of mTHPC (temoporfin , Foscan) is sufficient to induce an efficient clinical response in palliative PDT of non-resectable cholangiocarcinoma (CC), while showing a low side effect profile as compared to the standard Photofrin PDT. Materials and Methods: 13 patients (14 treatment sessions) with non-resectable CC were treated with stenting and PDT (3 mg Foscan per treatment, 0.032-0.063 mg/kg body weight, 652 nm, 50 J/cm). Fluorescence measurements were performed with a single bare fiber for 5/13 patients prior to PDT at the tumor site to determine the fluorescence contrast. For another 7/13 patients, long-term fluorescence-kinetics were measured on the oral mucosa to determine the time of maximal relative fluorescence intensity. Results: Foscan fluorescence could clearly be identified spectroscopically as early as 20 hours after administration. It was not significantly different between lesion and normal tissue within the bile duct. Fluorescence kinetics assessed at the oral mucosa were highest at 72-96 hours after administration. The DLI was therefore extended from 20 hours to approx. 70 hours for the last 5 patients treated. The treatment effect was promising with a median survival of 11 months for the higher grade tumors (Bismuth types III and IV). Local side effects occurred in one patient (pancreatitis), systemic side effects were much reduced compared to prior experience with Photofrin. Conclusion: Combined stenting and photodynamic therapy (PDT) performed with a low dose of Foscan results in comparable survival times relative to standard Photofrin PDT, while lowering the risk of side effects significantly.

  5. Pentamethylpyrromethene boron difluoride complexes in human ovarian cancer photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Lee R.; Chaudhuri, Aulena; Gillen, Laura E.; Boyer, Joseph H.; Wolford, Lionel T.

    1990-07-01

    Quasiaromatic heterocycles (QAM) such as substituted 1 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 8-pentamethylpyrromethene boron difluorides (PMP-BF2) and - (dimethoxyphosphinylmethyl, methyl) bimane have been evaluated for their abilities to produce cellular toxicities when used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for ovarian cancer. The most active QAH tested to date has been the disodiuxn salt of PMP-2,6-disulfonate--BF2 (PMPDS-BF2). Human ovarian cancer cells from fifteen different patients have been grown in culture. Cells were obtained from biopsy material and grown in RPMI medium with 10% FBA plus penicillin and streptomycin. Cells were harvested and as single cell suspensions exposed to PMP-BF2 complexes or bimanes in concentrations of 0.004-0.4 ug/106 cells/ml of medium. Initially the cells were exposed to the chemicals for 30 minutes in a 5% CO2 incubator (37°C) with gentle shaking. The cells were washed with plain RPMI medium, then resuspended in the enriched RPMI medium and exposed to a sunlamp for 10-20 minutes. Cells were then allowed to grow in an soft agar culture media at 37°C (5% C02) for 14 days. When compared to controls (only light or only chemicals) there was 100% inhibition of all cellular growth for PMPDSBF2 at the 0.4 ug/mi concentrations. There was variations in concentrations of the chemical needed to produce 100% inhibition when the 15 different ovarian cancer cell specimens were compared at all concentrations. PMP-BF2 complexes are characterized by extremely high extinction coefficients, superior laser activity and little if any triplet-triplet absorption. The biamanes share these properties however are less active in ovarian cancer cell The lasing properties of PMP-BF2, and bimanes will be compared to their PDT effectiveness.

  6. Galactodendritic Phthalocyanine Targets Carbohydrate-Binding Proteins Enhancing Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia M. R.; Silva, Sandrina; Cavaleiro, José A. S.; Ribeiro, Carlos A. F.; Tomé, João P. C.; Fernandes, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Photosensitizers (PSs) are of crucial importance in the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer. Due to their high reactive oxygen species production and strong absorption in the wavelength range between 650 and 850 nm, where tissue light penetration is rather high, phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been studied as PSs of excellence. In this work, we report the evaluation of a phthalocyanine surrounded by a carbohydrate shell of sixteen galactose units distributed in a dendritic manner (PcGal16) as a new and efficient third generation PSs for PDT against two bladder cancer cell lines, HT-1376 and UM-UC-3. Here, we define the role of galacto-dendritic units in promoting the uptake of a Pc through interaction with GLUT1 and galectin-1. The photoactivation of PcGal16 induces cell death by generating oxidative stress. Although PDT with PcGal16 induces an increase on the activity of antioxidant enzymes immediately after PDT, bladder cancer cells are unable to recover from the PDT-induced damage effects for at least 72 h after treatment. PcGal16 co-localization with galectin-1 and GLUT1 and/or generation of oxidative stress after PcGal16 photoactivation induces changes in the levels of these proteins. Knockdown of galectin-1 and GLUT1, via small interfering RNA (siRNA), in bladder cancer cells decreases intracellular uptake and phototoxicity of PcGal16. The results reported herein show PcGal16 as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of bladder cancer, which is the fifth most common type of cancer with the highest rate of recurrence of any cancer. PMID:24763311

  7. Photodynamic therapy: a new antimicrobial approach to infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs a non-toxic dye, termed a photosensitizer (PS), and low intensity visible light which, in the presence of oxygen, combine to produce cytotoxic species. PDT has the advantage of dual selectivity, in that the PS can be targeted to its destination cell or tissue and, in addition, the illumination can be spatially directed to the lesion. PDT has previously been used to kill pathogenic microorganisms in vitro, but its use to treat infections in animal models or patients has not, as yet, been much developed. It is known that Gram-(?) bacteria are resistant to PDT with many commonly used PS that will readily lead to phototoxicity in Gram-(+) species, and that PS bearing a cationic charge or the use of agents that increase the permeability of the outer membrane will increase the efficacy of killing Gram-(?) organisms. All the available evidence suggests that multi-antibiotic resistant strains are as easily killed by PDT as naïve strains, and that bacteria will not readily develop resistance to PDT. Treatment of localized infections with PDT requires selectivity of the PS for microbes over host cells, delivery of the PS into the infected area and the ability to effectively illuminate the lesion. Recently, there have been reports of PDT used to treat infections in selected animal models and some clinical trials: mainly for viral lesions, but also for acne, gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori and brain abcesses. Possible future clinical applications include infections in wounds and burns, rapidly spreading and intractable soft-tissue infections and abscesses, infections in body cavities such as the mouth, ear, nasal sinus, bladder and stomach, and surface infections of the cornea and skin. PMID:15122361

  8. Photodynamic Therapy for Acinetobacter baumannii Burn Infections in Mice?

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Tegos, George P.; Lu, Zongshun; Huang, Liyi; Zhiyentayev, Timur; Franklin, Michael J.; Baer, David G.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections represent a growing problem, especially in traumatic wounds and burns suffered by military personnel injured in Middle Eastern conflicts. Effective treatment with traditional antibiotics can be extremely difficult, and new antimicrobial approaches are being investigated. One of these alternatives to antimicrobials could be the combination of nontoxic photosensitizers (PSs) and visible light, known as photodynamic therapy (PDT). We report on the establishment of a new mouse model of full-thickness thermal burns infected with a bioluminescent derivative of a clinical Iraqi isolate of A. baumannii and its PDT treatment by topical application of a PS produced by the covalent conjugation of chlorin(e6) to polyethylenimine, followed by illumination of the burn surface with red light. Application of 108 A. baumannii cells to the surface of 10-s burns made on the dorsal surface of shaved female BALB/c mice led to chronic infections that lasted, on average, 22 days and that were characterized by a remarkably stable bacterial bioluminescence. PDT carried out on day 0 soon after application of the bacteria gave over 3 log units of loss of bacterial luminescence in a light exposure-dependent manner, while PDT carried out on day 1 and day 2 gave an approximately 1.7-log reduction. The application of PS dissolved in 10% or 20% dimethyl sulfoxide without light gave only a modest reduction in the bacterial luminescence from mouse burns. Some bacterial regrowth in the treated burn was observed but was generally modest. It was also found that PDT did not lead to the inhibition of wound healing. The data suggest that PDT may be an effective new treatment for multidrug-resistant localized A. baumannii infections. PMID:19564369

  9. Susceptibility of multispecies biofilm to photodynamic therapy using Photodithazine®.

    PubMed

    Quishida, Cristiane Campos Costa; Carmello, Juliana Cabrini; Mima, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Machado, Ana Lúcia; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia

    2015-02-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the multispecies biofilm of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Streptococcus mutans. Standardized fungal and bacterial suspensions were cultivated appropriately for each species and inoculated in 96-well microtiter plates for mix-biofilm formation. After 48 h of incubation, the biofilms were submitted to PDT (P?+?L+) using Photodithazine® (PDZ) at 100, 150, 175, 200, or 250 mg/mL for 20 min and 37.5 J/cm(2) of light-emitting diode (LED) (660 nm). Additional samples were treated only with PDZ (P?+?L-) or LED (P-L+), or neither (control, P-L-). Afterwards, the biofilms were evaluated by quantification of colonies (CFU/mL), metabolic activity (XTT reduction assay), total biomass (crystal violet staining), and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p?

  10. The design of a robotic multichannel platform for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yida; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2009-06-01

    A compact robotic platform is designed for simultaneous multichannel motion control for light delivery and dosimetry during interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT). Movements of light sources and isotropic detectors are controlled by individual motors along different catheters for interstitial PDT. The robotic multichannel platform adds feedback control of positioning for up to 16 channels compared to the existing dual-motor system, which did not have positioning encoders. A 16-channel servo motion controller and micro DC motors, each with high resolution optical encoder, are adopted to control the motions of up to 16 channels independently. Each channel has a resolution of 0.1mm and a speed of 5cm/s. The robotic platform can perform light delivery and dosimetry independently, allowing arbitrary positioning of light sources and detectors in each catheter. Up to 16 compact translational channels can be combined according to different operational scheme with real-time optimal motion planning. The characteristic of high speed and coordinating motion will make it possible to use short linear sources (e.g., 1- cm) to deliver uniform PDT treatment to a bulk tumor within reasonable time by source stepping optimization of multiple sources simultaneously. Advanced robotic control algorithm handles the various unexpected circumstance in clinical procedure, e.g., positiontorque/ current control will be applied to prevent excessive force in the case of resistance in the fiber or motorized mechanism. The robotic platform is fully compatible with operation room (OR) environment and improves the light delivery and dosimetry in PDT. It can be adopted for diffusing optical tomography (DOT), spectroscopic DOT and fluorescent spectroscopy.

  11. Target cell specific antibody-based photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblum, Lauren T.; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Kakareka, John W.; Morgan, Nicole Y.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2011-03-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), localized monochromatic light is used to activate targeted photosensitizers (PS) to induce cellular damage through the generation of cytotoxic species such as singlet oxygen. While first-generation PS passively targeted malignancies, a variety of targeting mechanisms have since been studied, including specifically activatable agents. Antibody internalization has previously been employed as a fluorescence activation system and could potentially enable similar activation of PS. TAMRA, Rhodamine-B and Rhodamine-6G were conjugated to trastuzumab (brand name Herceptin), a humanized monoclonal antibody with specificity for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), to create quenched PS (Tra-TAM, Tra-RhoB, and Tra-Rho6G). Specific PDT with Tra-TAM and Tra-Rho6G, which formed covalently bound H-dimers, was demonstrated in HER2+ cells: Minimal cell death (<6%) was observed in all treatments of the HER2- cell line (BALB/3T3) and in treatments the HER2+ cell line (3T3/HER2) with light or trastuzumab only. There was significant light-induced cell death in HER2 expressing cells using Tra-TAM (3% dead without light, 20% at 50 J/cm2, 46% at 100 J/cm2) and Tra-Rho6G (5% dead without light, 22% at 50 J/cm2, 46% at 100 J/cm2). No efficacy was observed in treatment with Tra-RhoB, which was also non-specifically taken up by BALB/3T3 cells and which had weaker PS-antibody interactions (as demonstrated by visualization of protein and fluorescence on SDS-PAGE).

  12. Status of adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Adjuvant endocrine therapy reduces the risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer in women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the standard therapy for decades, and this is still the case for pre-menopausal women. Ovarian suppression is of similar efficacy but currently there is no strong evidence for adding this to tamoxifen and the additional morbidity can be considerable. Results from two important trials addressing this issue are imminent. In post-menopausal women, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (letrozole, anastrozole, or exemestane) are superior to tamoxifen in preventing recurrence but only letrozole has been shown to improve survival. The main gain is against high-risk cancers, and tamoxifen gives very similar benefit for low-risk disease. Traditionally, treatment has been given for around 5 years, but many women remain at risk of relapse for 10 years or more. The AIs, and more recently tamoxifen, have been shown to reduce further the risk of late recurrence in women still in remission after 5 years of tamoxifen if given for a further 5 years. The comparative benefits of these two options and the selection of patients most likely to benefit from long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy are important topics for further research, as is the optimum duration of AI therapy started upfront. PMID:25032258

  13. Impact of Tamoxifen Adjuvant Therapy on Symptoms, Functioning, and Quality of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Ganz

    This article reviews the symptoms and everyday problems associated with tamoxifen adjuvant therapy and their im- pact on patients' quality of life. In addition, the purported toxic effects of tamoxifen therapy (e.g., premature meno- pause, weight gain, and depression) are discussed, and data are presented that refute claims of the toxicity of tamoxifen therapy. From randomized controlled trials of adjuvant

  14. Pheophorbide-a conjugates with cancer-targeting moieties for targeted photodynamic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    You, Hyun; Yoon, Hyo-Eun; Jeong, Pyeong-Hwa; Ko, Hyojin; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Chul

    2015-04-01

    Pheophorbide-a, a non-selective photosensitizer, was conjugated with cancer-targeting moieties, such as folic acid, the CRGDLASLC peptide, the cRGDfK peptide and leuprorelin, for the purpose of targeted photodynamic cancer therapy. The cellular uptake of pheophorbide-a conjugates in cancer cells overexpressing the corresponding receptors of the targeting moieties was largely enhanced compared with that in the receptor-negative cells. In the study of in vitro photodynamic activity and selectivity of pheophorbide-a conjugates in the receptor-positive and receptor-negative cells, a pheophorbide-a conjugate, (14) with an ?v?6 ligand (CRGDLASLC) exhibited the highest selectivity in the positive FaDu cells. Targeted PDT with 14 induced cell death through apoptosis and morphological apoptosis-like characteristics. These results suggest that pheophorbide-a conjugate 14 could be utilized in selective photodynamic therapy for oral cancers primarily expressing the ?v?6 receptor. PMID:25753328

  15. Combined photothermal and photodynamic therapy delivered by PEGylated MoS2 nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Teng; Wang, Chao; Cui, Wei; Gong, Hua; Liang, Chao; Shi, Xiaoze; Li, Zhiwei; Sun, Baoquan; Liu, Zhuang

    2014-09-01

    Single- or few-layered transitional metal dichalcogenides, as a new genus of two-dimensional nanomaterials, have attracted tremendous attention in recent years, owing to their various intriguing properties. In this study, chemically exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets are modified with lipoic acid-terminated polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG), obtaining PEGylated MoS2 (MoS2-PEG) with high stability in physiological solutions and no obvious toxicity. Taking advantage of its ultra-high surface area, the obtained MoS2-PEG is able to load a photodynamic agent, chlorin e6 (Ce6), by physical adsorption. In vitro experiments reveal that Ce6 after being loaded on MoS2-PEG shows remarkably increased cellular uptake and thus significantly enhanced photodynamic therapeutic efficiency. Utilizing the strong, near-infrared (NIR) absorbance of the MoS2 nanosheets, we further demonstrate photothermally enhanced photodynamic therapy using Ce6-loaded MoS2-PEG for synergistic cancer killing, in both in vitro cellular and in vivo animal experiments. Our study presents a new type of multifunctional nanocarrier for the delivery of photodynamic therapy, which, if combined with photothermal therapy, appears to be an effective therapeutic approach for cancer treatment.Single- or few-layered transitional metal dichalcogenides, as a new genus of two-dimensional nanomaterials, have attracted tremendous attention in recent years, owing to their various intriguing properties. In this study, chemically exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets are modified with lipoic acid-terminated polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG), obtaining PEGylated MoS2 (MoS2-PEG) with high stability in physiological solutions and no obvious toxicity. Taking advantage of its ultra-high surface area, the obtained MoS2-PEG is able to load a photodynamic agent, chlorin e6 (Ce6), by physical adsorption. In vitro experiments reveal that Ce6 after being loaded on MoS2-PEG shows remarkably increased cellular uptake and thus significantly enhanced photodynamic therapeutic efficiency. Utilizing the strong, near-infrared (NIR) absorbance of the MoS2 nanosheets, we further demonstrate photothermally enhanced photodynamic therapy using Ce6-loaded MoS2-PEG for synergistic cancer killing, in both in vitro cellular and in vivo animal experiments. Our study presents a new type of multifunctional nanocarrier for the delivery of photodynamic therapy, which, if combined with photothermal therapy, appears to be an effective therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03753g

  16. Optical Dosimetry and Treatment Planning for Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Timothy M.

    Accurate dosimetry and treatment planning for photodynamic therapy (PDT) require knowledge of tissue optical properties and models of light propagation. We present techniques, based on reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy, to examine these problems using analytical approximations and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. We begin with studies that monitored PDT in mouse models using reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy. In the first, spectroscopy informed the optimization of treatment parameters for methylene blue PDT, with dependencies on injection vehicle, drug-light interval, and fluence found. In the second, fluorescence photobleaching during Pc 4 PDT was examined for correlation to tumor response. Irradiance-dependent photobleaching was demonstrated, but was not predictive of tumor response. Next we outline the graphics processing unit enhanced MC model that was used to simulate light propagation in tissue. We demonstrate a number of source models that were used in subsequent experiments. We then focus on the recovery of optical properties from diffuse reflectance measurements by examining two studies. In the first study, diffuse reflectance measurements were made at the surface of human kidneys to extract optical properties, which were then used in MC simulations of interstitial PDT. We found that the optical properties measured make PDT feasible in human kidneys. We then examined the interstitial recovery of optical properties using a custom optical probe. This recovery was based on a MC model of the probe used, with a mean error of 6.5% in the determination of absorption. We examined fluorescence detection by cylindrical diffusing fibers using a MC model. This model predicted heterogeneous fluorescence detection, which was verified experimentally. Recovery of intrinsic fluorescence from point, interstitial measurements was demonstrated. This technique did not require a prori knowledge of the tissue optical properties, and was used to determine these values. Mean error of fluorophore concentration recovery was 12%, while mean error for background absorption was 23%. Finally, we demonstrate a treatment planning modality for interstitial PDT based on clinical imaging, optical spectroscopy, and MC simulations. This allows for individualized therapy based on the patient's anatomy and optical properties. We demonstrate optimization of diffuser placement, and show results for determination of deposited dose.

  17. Polymeric photosensitizer-embedded self-expanding metal stent for repeatable endoscopic photodynamic therapy of cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bae, Byoung-chan; Yang, Su-Geun; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Na, Kun; Kim, Joon Mee; Costamagna, Guido; Kozarek, Richard A; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Deviere, Jacques; Seo, Dong Wan; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2014-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new therapeutic approach for the palliative treatment of malignant bile duct obstruction. In this study, we designed photosensitizer-embedded self-expanding nonvascular metal stent (PDT-stent) which allows repeatable photodynamic treatment of cholangiocarcinoma without systemic injection of photosensitizer. Polymeric photosensitizer (pullulan acetate-conjugated pheophorbide A; PPA) was incorporated in self-expanding nonvascular metal stent. Residence of PPA in the stent was estimated in buffer solution and subcutaneous implantation on mouse. Photodynamic activity of PDT-stent was evaluated through laserexposure on stent-layered tumor cell lines, HCT-116 tumor-xenograft mouse models and endoscopic intervention of PDT-stent on bile duct of mini pigs. Photo-fluorescence imaging of the PDT-stent demonstrated homogeneous embedding of polymeric Pheo-A (PPA) on stent membrane. PDT-stent sustained its photodynamic activities at least for 2 month. And which implies repeatable endoscopic PDT is possible after stent emplacement. The PDT-stent after light exposure successfully generated cytotoxic singlet oxygen in the surrounding tissues, inducing apoptotic degradation of tumor cells and regression of xenograft tumors on mouse models. Endoscopic biliary in-stent photodynamic treatments on minipigs also suggested the potential efficacy of PDT-stent on cholangiocarcinoma. In vivo and in vitro studies revealed our PDT-stent, allows repeatable endoscopic biliary PDT, has the potential for the combination therapy (stent plus PDT) of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:25043500

  18. Total Tumor Cell Elimination with Minimum Damage to Normal Tissues in Musculoskeletal Sarcomas following Photodynamic Therapy with Acridine Orange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuyuki Kusuzaki; Katsuhiro Aomori; Takehiko Suginoshita; Ginjorou Minami; Hideyuki Takeshita; Hiroaki Murata; Shin Hashiguchi; Tsukasa Ashihara; Yasusuke Hirasawa

    2000-01-01

    Acridine orange (AO) has unique biological actions enabling tumor visualization (fluorovisualization) and a strong cytocidal effect (photodynamic therapy: AO-PDT) under illumination with blue light. Accordingly, in this study, we attempted to develop a new surgical technique for total tumor cell elimination using these photodynamic reactions with AO in a mouse osteosarcoma model. The results showed that local tumor recurrence was

  19. Comparison between scaling-root-planing (SRP) and SRP/photodynamic therapy: six-month study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this long-term clinical study was to examine the additional efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to scaling and root planing (SRP) in patients with chronic periodontal disease. Methods A total of 22 patients (mean age: 59.3 ± 11.7 years) with chronic periodontal disease and four teeth with probing depth ? 5 mm were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were: no systemic disease, no smoking, no pregnancy and no long-term medication. Beside the anamnesis, the following clinical parameters were assessed at baseline (one week before therapy), and one, three and six months after the therapy: bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI) probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss. All measurements were done by the same examiner with a fixed periodontal probe (PCP 12, Hu-Friedy) at six measurements/tooth. In each patient, two teeth were treated with SRP alone and two teeth with SRP and PDT (Periowave, Ondine Biopharma, Vancouver, Canada). The nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used for comparison of the effect of the two treatments (p ? 0.05). Results After both types of treatment, the number of teeth positive for BOP declined. At baseline, the CAL measured 7.2 ± 1.2 mm (SRP) or 8.1 ± 1.3 mm (SRP/PDT); one, three and six months after both types of treatment an improvement was observed. At baseline, the probing depth was 5.9 ± 0.8 mm (SRP) or 6.4 ± 0.8 mm (SRP/PDT); after six months, an improvement of 2.4 ± 0.6 mm (SRP) or 2.9 ± 0.8 mm (SRP/PDT) was found. The greater reduction of the PD, achieved by a combination of SRP/PDT, was statistically significant after six months (p = 0.007). Conclusion This clinical study demonstrates that SRP in combination with PDT seems to be effective and is therefore suitable as an adjuvant therapy to the mechanical conditioning of the periodontal pockets in patients with chronic periodontal diseases. PMID:22480188

  20. Photodynamic Therapy With Motexafin Lutetium Induces Redox-Sensitive Apoptosis of Vascular Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiping Chen; Kathryn W. Woodburn; Can Shi; Daniel C. Adelman; Campbell Rogers; Daniel I. Simon

    2010-01-01

    Motexafin lutetium is a photosensitizer that accumulates in atherosclerotic plaque and, after activation by far-red light, produces cytotoxic singlet oxygen. The combination of photosensitizer and illumination, known as photodynamic therapy (PDT), has been shown to reduce atheroma formation in animal models and is under clinical investigation. However, the effects of PDT with motexafin lutetium on isolated vascular cells are unknown.

  1. Topical ALA-Photodynamic Therapy for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wichai Hongcharu; Charles R. Taylor; Yuchiao Chang; David Aghassi; Kittisak Suthamjariya; R. Rox Anderson

    2000-01-01

    Topical aminolevulinic acid is converted into a potent photosensitizer, protoporphyrin, in human hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Photodynamic therapy with topical aminolevulinic acid was tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris, in an open-label prospective human study. Each of 22 subjects with acne on the back was treated in four sites with aminolevulinic acid plus red light, aminolevulinic acid alone,

  2. Photorejuvenation--topical photodynamic therapy as therapeutic opportunity for skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Sjerobabski Masnec, Ines; Situm, Mirna

    2014-12-01

    The intrinsic aging process of the skin in unavoidable and depends on the passage of time per se. Among harmful environmental factors that contribute to extrinsic aging, long-term effects of repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation are the most significant and are referred to as photoaging. Photoaging is directly correlated to the quantity of UV rays received during the course of a lifetime. Topical photodynamic therapy is well-established procedure for the treatment of actinic keratoses, Bowen disease and basal cell carcinomas. Clinical experience has demonstrated that extensive treatment of actinic keratoses on sun-damaged skin also produces as a positive side effects significant improvement of the signs of skin aging. An improvement of lentigines, skin roughness, fine lines, increases in skin smoothness and improvement of actinic elastosis, skin colour and reduction of hyperpigmentation were seen. The reversible side effects of photodynamic therapy include pain, erythema, oedema, scaling and crusting, and sometimes in darker skin types post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Photodynamic therapy is promising approach for treatment ofphotoinduced skin aging and takes place between ablative and non-ablative methods for skin rejuvenation. Effective improvement of photoaged skin, the possibility of repeated treatments and imitated side effects makes photodynamic therapy a promising procedure for skin rejuvenation. PMID:25842769

  3. Photodynamic therapy of early stage cancer of lung, esophagus, and stomach with two different photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chissov, Valery I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Trakhtenberg, A. K.; Mamontov, A. S.; Vaschakmadze, L. A.; Frank, George A.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Belous, T. A.; Gladunov, V. K.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Menenkov, V. D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early-stage cancer of lung (17 patients), esophagus (8 patients) and stomach (10 patients). Fifteen patients had second primary tumors. New drugs photoheme and photosens were used as photosensitizers. Complete remission was obtained in 87%. The patients are followed up without relapses to 2.5 years.

  4. Monitoring photodynamic therapy of solid tumors online by BOLD-contrast MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shimon Gross; Assaf Gilead; Avigdor Scherz; Michal Neeman; Yoram Salomon

    2003-01-01

    Antivascular photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors with palladium-bacteriopheophorbide (TOOKAD) relies on in situ photosensitization of the circulating drug by local generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, which leads to rapid vascular occlusion, stasis, necrosis and tumor eradication. Intravascular production of reactive oxygen species is associated with photoconsumption of O2 and consequent evolution of paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin. In this study we evaluate

  5. Response Surface Methodology: An Extensive Potential to Optimize in vivo Photodynamic Therapy Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loraine Tirand; Thierry Bastogne; Denise M. Sc. Bechet; Michel Linder; Noémie Thomas; Céline Frochot; François Guillemin; Muriel Barberi-Heyob

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the interaction of a photosensitizing (PS) agent, light, and oxygen. Few new PS agents are being developed to the in vivo stage, partly because of the difficulty in finding the right treatment conditions. Response surface methodology, an empirical modeling approach based on data resulting from a set of designed experiments, was suggested as

  6. Photodynamic therapy for treatment of AIDS-related mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

    1992-06-01

    Since 1975, Phase I/II studies have demonstrated the successfulness of hematoporphyrin derivative photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of various malignancies of the skin, eye, bladder, lung, and head and neck. Moreover, in 1981 two cases of traditional Western cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (TKS) have been treated with photodynamic therapy with both early and late complete response. To date, attempts to cure and palliation of the more aggressive AIDS-related oral Kaposi's sarcoma with conventional radiation, chemotherapy or immunotherapy, or surgical excision have been limited and often associated with debilitating mucositis and further immunosuppression. Certain aspects of photodynamic therapy may be efficacious for treatment of mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma: (1) the selective retention of hematoporphyrin derivative by neoplastic lesions (endothelial cell tumors); (2) a tumor- specific cytotoxic agent (i.e., free oxygen radical); (3) absence of systemic toxicity from immunosuppression; (4) the potential for retreatment without increasing side effects; and (5) porphyrin-mediated photoinactivation of enveloped viruses. Herein presented are seven cases of AIDS-related KS (EKS) with diffuse, superficial, and nodular mucocutaneous lesions treated with dihematoporphyrin derivative and photodynamic therapy with subsequent dramatic early partial and complete responses.

  7. Photodynamic therapy suppresses tumor growth in an in vivo model of human hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaehoon; Kim, Woo Jung; Park, Sang Woo; Xu, Lianji; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Min, Hye Sook; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Kim, Sukwha; Choi, Tae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against infantile hemangioma using a hemangioma animal model. Eighty-three hemangioma specimens from five children were implanted into nude mice. The gross and volume changes of the implants were evaluated for up to 13 weeks. The histological change of the implant was evaluated at 5 weeks after transplantation. Photodynamic therapy was performed between 6 and 10 weeks after transplantation. The photosensitizer uptake of the implant was evaluated at 24 h after photosensitizer administration. The implant response was evaluated at 0, 12, and 24 h after light delivery. The change in ATF3 levels, a transcription factor induced under severe hypoxic conditions, was investigated immediately after treatment. The implant volume increased slowly during the first 4 weeks and then involuted. At 5 weeks after transplantation, plump endothelial cells formed tightly packed sinusoidal channels, and the endothelial cells were positive for CD31 and GLUT1 expression. At 24 h after photosensitizer administration, confocal analysis showed that the photosensitizer was present within CD31-positive cells. The implant volume was significantly decreased in the treated implants compared with the untreated implants (p < 0.0001). At 24 h after light delivery, most cells had collapsed. ATF3 expression increased gradually and then reached a maximum level at 4 h after treatment. Photodynamic therapy was effective in the treatment of infantile hemangioma. Apoptosis, a major mechanism of hemangioma destruction in the early phase, might be caused by ischemic injury as well as direct effects of photodynamic therapy. PMID:23784382

  8. Antibacterial Effect of Photodynamic Therapy on Prepared Tooth Structure Contaminated with Streptococcus mutans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Sui; Pingting Wang; Rui Li; Changyi Li

    2009-01-01

    Several studies during the last few years have demonstrated the antibacterial potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The overall objective of ongoing studies in our laboratory is to assess the efficiency of antibacterial PDT on various oral pathogenic bacteria, as well as to determine the side-effects of PDT upon tooth structure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the

  9. Photodynamic therapy for Barrett’s esophagus with high-grade dysplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert C. Wolfsen

    2005-01-01

    This article describes advances in photodynamic therapy for patients with Barrett’s esophagus and high-grade dysplasia—an\\u000a important, minimally invasive treatment option proven to safely and durably ablate Barrett’s dysplasia and prevent carcinoma\\u000a while preserving the gastroesophageal junction.

  10. Phototherapy, Photodynamic therapy and Photophoresis in the Treatment of Connective-Tissue Diseases: A Review.

    PubMed

    Gordon Spratt, E A; Gorcey, L V; Soter, N A; Brauer, J A

    2014-11-15

    Connective-tissue disorders, which include lupus erythematosus, morphea/scleroderma, and dermatomyositis, are characterized by cutaneous manifestations that are sometimes resistant to conventional therapy. Light treatments, which include phototherapy, photodynamic therapy, and photopheresis, are routinely utilized in the treatment of dermatologic conditions and may provide unique mechanisms of action in the treatment of these connective-tissue disorders. The objective of this study is to conduct a review of the literature that describes the use of phototherapy, photodynamic therapy and photopheresis in the treatment of lupus erythematosus, morphea/scleroderma, and dermatomyositis. A MEDLINE search was conducted to find articles that discussed treatment of connective-tissue diseases with light therapies and greater than 30 publications that discussed light therapy for these diseases were identified. These ranged in design from case reports to randomized, prospective trials. Study outcomes and details were summarized and presented within each connective-tissue disease by light therapy modality, which include phototherapy, photodynamic therapy and photopheresis. Although there is a known association between photosensitivity and connective-tissue diseases, light therapies, when used appropriately, may be legitimate therapeutic options for recalcitrant cutaneous manifestations in lupus erythematosus, morphea/scleroderma, and dermatomyositis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25400115

  11. Near-IR-triggered photothermal/photodynamic dual-modality therapy system via chitosan hybrid nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xikuan; Zheng, Xianchuang; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Xiqun

    2013-11-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNR)- and indocyanine green (ICG)-encapsulated chitosan hybrid nanospheres (CS-AuNR-ICG NSs) were successfully prepared and used for photothermal and photodynamic combined therapy with a single irradiation. These nanospheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The in vivo anticancer effects of the hybrid nanospheres were examined by photodynamic therapy (PDT), photothermal therapy (PTT), and PTT/PDT combined therapy. It was found that the hybrid nanospheres had spherical size of 180 nm and a broad adsorption from 650 nm to 900 nm. The spherical chitosan matrix could effectively load ICG and protect it from the rapid hydrolysis. In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging and biodistribution demonstrated that ICG and AuNR could be selectively delivered to the tumor site with high accumulation. With the irradiation by 808 nm laser, chitosan hybrid nanospheres were capable to simultaneously produce sufficient hyperthermia and reactive oxygen species to kill cancer cells at irradiation sites, resulting in the complete tumor disappearance in the most of tumor-bearing mice. Compared with photothermal therapy or photodynamic therapy alone, the combined therapy had a significantly synergistic effect and improved the therapeutic efficacy. PMID:23896004

  12. [Adjuvant therapies for sepsis and shock: which are more effective?].

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, A B; Beishuizen, A; Appelmelk, B J; Girbes, A R

    2001-09-01

    Adjuvant therapy for severe sepsis and shock can be divided into 4 groups. The first group comprises those compounds with proven efficacy in human studies (activated protein C and recombinant bacterial permeability-increasing protein). The second group includes compounds with potential efficacy (heparin), while the third group represents those with no demonstrated efficacy in randomised clinical trials (tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-1 antibodies and receptor antagonists). The fourth group includes those drugs which have been found to be potentially effective in animal studies, but which have not yet been evaluated in humans (i.e., tyrosine kinase inhibitors, selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, polyadenosine-diphosphate-ribose-polymerase and caspase III (apoptosis) inhibitors). Formal clinical comparisons between the various treatment options are necessary to assist the clinician in selecting the appropriate form of therapy. PMID:11572169

  13. Own Experience in Treatment of Patients with Penile Cancer Using Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Filonenko, Elena; Kaprin, Andrey; Alekseev, Boris; Urlova, Antonina

    2015-01-01

    Penile cancer is a rare pathology. For penile cancer surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and combined modality treatment are available. Because of great importance of this organ for mental condition of patient, the development of organ-preserving methods allowing to minimize impact on patient's quality of life without compromising of oncological results is desirable. In the Center of Laser and Photodynamic diagnosis and treatment of tumors in P.A. Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute the methods of photodynamic therapy in patients with penile cancer have been developed. From 2011 to 2013 the treatment was conducted in 11 patients with precancer and cancer of penile. The average age was 56.6. According to morphological diagnosis photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed using two methods. One method included topical application of agent for PDT and the second intravenous administration of photosensitizer. For topical application alasens was used and for intravenous injection we applied radachlorine. All patients had no complications. Complete regression was achieved in 9 patients, and partial regression in 2. Thus, the results showed that photodynamic therapy for penile cancer stage Tis-1N0M0 permits performing organ-preserving treatment with satisfactory oncological results and no impairment of patient's quality of life.

  14. Apoptosis triggered by pyropheophorbide-? methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy in a giant cell tumor in bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.-T.; Zhang, J.; Duan, Q.-Q.; Bi, Y.; Bai, D.-Q.; Ou, Y.-S.

    2014-06-01

    A giant cell tumor in bone is the common primary bone tumor with aggressive features, occurring mainly in young adults. Photodynamic therapy is a new therapeutic technique for tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of Pyropheophorbide-? methyl ester (MPPa)-mediated photodynamic therapy on the proliferation of giant cell tumor cells and its mechanism of action. Cell proliferation was evaluated using an MTT assay. Cellular apoptosis was detected by Hoechst nuclear staining, and flow cytometric assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential changes and cytochrome c, caspase-9, caspase-3, and Bcl-2 expression was assessed. Finally, we found that MPPa-mediated photodynamic therapy could effectively suppress the proliferation of human giant cell tumor cells and induce apoptosis. The mitochondrial pathway was involved in the MPPa-photodynamic therapy-induced apoptosis.

  15. Application of benzo[a]phenoxazinium chlorides in Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy of Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marisa; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Rama Raju, B; Gonçalves, M Sameiro T; Coutinho, Paulo J G; Henriques, Mariana; Belo, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The use of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) as a new approach to treat localized Candida infections is an emerging and promising field nowadays. The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of photodynamic therapy using two new benzo[a]phenoxazinium photosensitizers against Candida albicans biofilms: N-(5-(3-hydroxypropylamino)-10-methyl-9H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-9-ylidene)ethanaminium chloride (FSc) and N-(5-(11-hydroxyundecylamino)-10-methyl-9H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-9-ylidene)ethanaminium chloride (FSd). The photodynamic activity of dyes against C. albicans biofilms was evaluated by incubating biofilms with dyes in the range of 100-300 ?M for 3 or 18 h followed by illumination at 12 or 36 J cm(-2), using a xenon arc lamp (600 ± 2 nm). A total photoinactivation of C. albicans biofilm cells was achieved using 300 ?M of FSc with 18 h of incubation, followed by illumination at 36 J cm(-2). Contrarily, FSd had insignificant effect on biofilms inactivation by APDT. The higher uptake of FSc than FSd dye by biofilms during the dark incubation may explain the greater photodynamic effectiveness achieved with FSc. The results obtained stresses out the FSc-mediated APDT potential use to treat C. albicans infections. PMID:25463655

  16. Breast cancer as photodynamic therapy target: Enhanced therapeutic efficiency by overview of tumor complexity

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, María Julia; Vittar, Natalia Belén Rumie; Rivarola, Viviana Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a minimally invasive and clinically approved procedure for eliminating selected malignant cells with specific light activation of a photosensitizer agent. Whereas interstitial and intra-operative approaches have been investigated for the ablation of a broad range of superficial or bulky solid tumors such as breast cancer, the majority of approved photodynamic therapy protocols are for the treatment of superficial lesions of skin and luminal organs. This review article will discuss recent progress in research focused mainly on assessing the efficacies of various photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy, as well as the combinatory strategies of various therapeutic modalities for improving treatments of parenchymal and/or stromal tissues of breast cancer solid tumors. Cytotoxic agents are used in cancer treatments for their effect on rapidly proliferating cancer cells. However, such therapeutics often lack specificity, which can lead to toxicity and undesirable side effects. Many approaches are designed to target tumors. Selective therapies can be established by focusing on distinctive intracellular (receptors, apoptotic pathways, multidrug resistance system, nitric oxide-mediated stress) and environmental (glucose, pH) differences between tumor and healthy tissue. A rational design of effective combination regimens for breast cancer treatment involves a better understanding of the mechanisms and molecular interactions of cytotoxic agents that underlie drug resistance and sensitivity. PMID:25493228

  17. Breast cancer as photodynamic therapy target: Enhanced therapeutic efficiency by overview of tumor complexity.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, María Julia; Vittar, Natalia Belén Rumie; Rivarola, Viviana Alicia

    2014-12-10

    Photodynamic therapy is a minimally invasive and clinically approved procedure for eliminating selected malignant cells with specific light activation of a photosensitizer agent. Whereas interstitial and intra-operative approaches have been investigated for the ablation of a broad range of superficial or bulky solid tumors such as breast cancer, the majority of approved photodynamic therapy protocols are for the treatment of superficial lesions of skin and luminal organs. This review article will discuss recent progress in research focused mainly on assessing the efficacies of various photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy, as well as the combinatory strategies of various therapeutic modalities for improving treatments of parenchymal and/or stromal tissues of breast cancer solid tumors. Cytotoxic agents are used in cancer treatments for their effect on rapidly proliferating cancer cells. However, such therapeutics often lack specificity, which can lead to toxicity and undesirable side effects. Many approaches are designed to target tumors. Selective therapies can be established by focusing on distinctive intracellular (receptors, apoptotic pathways, multidrug resistance system, nitric oxide-mediated stress) and environmental (glucose, pH) differences between tumor and healthy tissue. A rational design of effective combination regimens for breast cancer treatment involves a better understanding of the mechanisms and molecular interactions of cytotoxic agents that underlie drug resistance and sensitivity. PMID:25493228

  18. Photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in the treatment of pathological states of the cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switka-Wieclawska, Iwona; Kecik, Tadeusz; Kwasny, Miroslaw; Graczyk, Alfreda

    2003-10-01

    Each year an increasing amount of research is published on the use of photodynamic therapy in medicine. The most recent research has focused mostly on the use of photosensitizer called vertoporphyrin (Visudyne) is the treatment of subretinal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or myopia, following a substantial amount of ophthalmology research mostly experimental on the application of the method in diagnosis and treatment of some eye tumors. In the Department of Ophthalmology of Polish Medical University in Warsaw, PDT was used as supplementary method in a selected group of patients with chronic virus ulcer of the cornea and keratopathies. During the treatment 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) was applied in ointment form as a photosensitizer activated with light wave of 633 nm. It appears, on the basis of the results obtained, that photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) may become in the future a valuable supplement to the methods being used at the present treating pathological states of the cornea.

  19. Photodynamic therapy and endoscopic metal stent placement for esophageal papillomatosis associated with squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wolfsen, H C; Hemminger, L L; Geiger, X J; Krishna, M; Woodward, T A

    2004-01-01

    Esophageal squamous papillomatosis is a rare condition associated with human papilloma virus infection and has been complicated by the development of squamous cell carcinoma. Photodynamic therapy using porfimer sodium has been used for the treatment of esophageal cancer but has not been utilized in the treatment of esophageal squamous papillomatosis. We report here the first case of papillomatosis and obstructing squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus palliated with porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy indicating successful photosensitizer uptake in papilloma-laden tissue. Extensive debulking of papilloma and tumor allowed esophageal recanalization and placement of a self-expanding metal stent for long-term dysphagia palliation. This unique case highlights the combined use of endoscopic techniques for optimal treatment results. PMID:15230738

  20. Predictive model for photodynamic therapy with gold nanoparticles as vehicle for the photosensitizer delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-García, I.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    Photodynamic Therapy offers multiple advantages to treat nonmelanoma skin cancer compared to conventional treatment techniques such as surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Among these advantages are particularly relevant its noninvasive nature, the use of non ionizing radiation and its high selectivity. However the therapeutic efficiency of the current clinical protocol is not complete in all the patients and depends on the type of pathology. Emerging strategies to overcome its current shortcomings include the use of nanostructures that can act as carriers for conventional photosensitizers and improve the treatment selectivity and provide a controlled release of the photoactive agent. In this work, a model for photodynamic therapy combined with gold nanocarriers for a photosensitizer commonly used in dermatology is presented and applied to a basal cell carcinoma in order to predict the cytotoxic agent spatial and temporal evolution.

  1. Studying Light Propagation in Bone for Treatment of Bone Cancers with Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Vincent; Gustafson, Scott; Jacques, Steven

    2008-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy makes use of light, photosensitizing agents, and oxygen as a selective means of treating cancer. The work presented is aimed at applying photodynamic therapy towards treatment of osteosarcoma in small animal clinics. To best facilitate clinical treatments, we must first understand how light propagates and how best to deliver adequate light to achieve phototoxic effects within bone. This work aims at characterizing how light propagates through bone and then applying that knowledge towards predicting light distributions in bone. Reflectance spectroscopy using an optical fiber source-collector pair is used to determine the scattering properties of bone tissues, and the absorption due to water and oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin---native absorbers at visible and near-IR wavelengths. Resulting optical characterizations are then applied to a cylindrically symmetric Monte Carlo model in order to predict and guide the delivery of light within bone in order to achieve the desired phototoxic effect.

  2. Modification by vasoactive drugs of tumour destruction by photodynamic therapy with haematoporphyrin derivative.

    PubMed Central

    Cowled, P. A.; Forbes, I. J.

    1989-01-01

    Since the vascular endothelium is a primary site of damage after photodynamic therapy (PDT), it seemed likely that drugs which affect the vasculature may modify the outcome of PDT. Noradrenaline, propranolol, hydralazine and phenoxybenzamine inhibited photodynamic damage to tumours if these drugs were administered concurrently with HPD, 2 h before irradiation. This inhibition was associated with reduced uptake of HPD into tumours. There was no inhibition if irradiation was delayed until 24 h after administration of vasoactive drug, presumably because HPD uptake continued after the drugs had ceased to affect the vasculature. Verapamil enhanced photodynamic destruction of tumours when administered concurrently with HPD and the enhancement was associated with increased uptake of HPD into tumours. Verapamil neither increased uptake of HPD nor enhanced photodynamic destruction of cells in vitro. When verapamil was administered after irradiation, regrowth of tumours was inhibited. A similar effect was previously demonstrated with glucocorticoids. Other calcium channel blocking agents diltiazem and nifedipine had no effect on uptake of HPD or inhibition of regrowth of tumours after PDT. Inhibition of capillary or stromal ingrowth into tumours seems a plausible explanation of this effect of verapamil. This commonly used drug may be useful to enhance the efficacy of PDT. PMID:2525402

  3. Adjuvant trials of aromatase inhibitors: determining the future landscape of adjuvant endocrine therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Ragaz

    2001-01-01

    This review will discuss the role of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the adjuvant setting, and will summarize major strategies behind individual adjuvant trials using aromatase inhibitors. Studies with the third generation AIs including anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane, have shown better outcome and improved therapeutic ratio over second line hormonal approaches (i.e. progestins or aminoglutethimide) and, more recently, over tamoxifen also.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of Extended Adjuvant Letrozole Therapy After 5 Years of Adjuvant Tamoxifen Therapy in Postmenopausal Women With Early-stage Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. Delea; Jonathan Karnon; Robert E. Smith

    2006-01-01

    model. Methods: Using a Markov model, we estimated the incremen- tal cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained with extended adjuvant letrozole vs no extended adjuvant therapy. Probabilities of breast cancer recurrence or new contralateral tumor adverse effects and death were estimated using data from the MA.17 study and other secondary sources. Costs (in 2004 US dollars) and quality-of- life effects

  5. Harnessing cellular differentiation to improve ALA-based photodynamic therapy in an artificial skin model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Maytin; Sanjay Anand; Nobuyuki Sato; Judith Mack; Bernhard Ortel

    2005-01-01

    During ALA-based photodynamic therapy (PDT), a pro-drug (aminolevulinic acid; ALA) is taken up by tumor cells and metabolically converted to a photosensitizing intermediate (protoporphyrin IX; PpIX). ALA-based PDT, while an emerging treatment modality, remains suboptimal for most cancers (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma of the skin). Many treatment failures may be largely due to insufficient conversion of ALA to PpIX within

  6. Photodynamic Therapy of B16F10 Murine Melanoma with Lutetium Texaphyrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn W. Woodburn; Qing Fan; David Kessel; Yu Luo; Stuart W. Young

    1998-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of pigmented melanoma has generally been unsuccessful because of insufficient light penetration in such tissues. In this study, the responsiveness of the heavily pigmented B16F10 murine melanoma to lutetium texaphyrin (PCI-0123), a water-soluble sensitizer with strong absorbance in the near infrared (700–760 nm), was examined. These studies were carried out in both normal and ApoE deficient C57BL\\/6

  7. Curative effect of photodynamic therapy for 42 cases of moderate or late stage in esophagus cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiao-Min; Shen, Guang-Rong; Chen, Weng-Ge; Guo, Tao

    1998-11-01

    34 patients with advanced esophagus cancer and 8 cases of cancer of gastric cardia were treated by photodynamic therapy. The therapeutic effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated according the criteria used in China. CR 63.2 percent SR 11.3 percent, MR 2 percent. The total effective rate was 76.5 percent. There was no significant side effect in this group except mild skin photosensitization and pigmentation and exacerbation of pain in a few cases.

  8. Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of the bronchi by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Braichotte; J.-F. Savary; T. Glanzmann; P. Monnier; G. Wagnières; H. Bergh

    1996-01-01

    Under identical conditions (drug and light dose, timing), the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of carcinomas of the bronchi with tetra(meta-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC) show large variations between patients. Before patients underwent PDT treatment, the mTHPC level was measured in the lesion, the normal surrounding tissue and the oral cavity, with an apparatus based on fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluctuations in degree of

  9. Histological findings of a surgically excised myopic choroidal neovascular membrane after photodynamic therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Scupola; L. Ventura; A. C. Tiberti; D. D’Andrea; E. Balestrazzi

    2004-01-01

    Background The authors describe a myopic choroidal neovascular membrane excised 4 months after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Methods A 68-year-old woman with classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) due to pathologic myopia underwent PDT with verteporfin in the left eye. Four months after treatment a full-thickness macular hole was diagnosed in the same eye and the patient underwent vitrectomy with submacular membranectomy. The

  10. Enhancement of the efficiency of photodynamic therapy of tumours by t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Shevchuk; Vladimir Chekulayev; Lyudmila Chekulayeva

    1998-01-01

    The effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone and in combination with 3(2)-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells have been investigated. BHA, a widely used food antioxidant, administered to the cells prior to light exposure is found to cause concentration-dependent alterations of the haematoporphyrin derivative (HpD)-based PDT. BHA (0.15 mM) causes a small (about 10%) inhibition in the rate

  11. Photosensitizer-Conjugated Silica-Coated Gold Nanoclusters for Fluorescence Imaging-Guided Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peng; Lin, Jing; Wang, Shouju; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Zhiming; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Chunlei; Yue, Xuyi; Niu, Gang; Yang, Min; Cui, Daxiang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Multifunctional theranostics have recently been intensively explored to optimize the efficacy and safety of therapeutic regimens. In this work, a photo-theranostic agent based on chlorin e6 (Ce6) photosensitizer-conjugated silica-coated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs@SiO2-Ce6) is strategically designed and prepared for fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT). The AuNCs@SiO2-Ce6 shows the following features: i) high Ce6 photosensitizer loading; ii) no non-specific release of Ce6 during its circulation; iii) significantly enhanced cellular uptake efficiency of Ce6, offering a remarkably improved photodynamic therapeutic efficacy compared to free Ce6; iv) subcellular characterization of the nanoformula via both the fluorescence of Ce6 and plasmon luminescence of AuNCs; v) fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT). This photo-theranostics owns good stability, high water dispersibility and solubility, non-cytotoxicity, and good biocompatibility, thus facilitating its biomedical applications, particularly for multi-modal optical, CT and photoacoustic (PA) imaging guided PDT or sonodynamic therapy. PMID:23523428

  12. Effective near-infrared photodynamic therapy assisted by upconversion nanoparticles conjugated with photosensitizers

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Qing Qing; Teng, Choon Peng; Ye, Enyi; Loh, Xian Jun

    2015-01-01

    A drug model photosensitizer–conjugated upconversion nanoparticles nanocomplex was explored for application in near-infrared photodynamic therapy. As near-infrared penetrates deeper into the tissue, the model is useful for the application of photodynamic therapy in deeper tissue. The nanocomplex that was synthesized had low polydispersity, and the upconversion nanoparticle was covalently conjugated with the photosensitizer. The robust bond could prevent the undesired premature release of photosensitizer and also enhance the singlet-oxygen generation. Singlet-oxygen generation rate from this nanocomplex was evaluated in solution. The photodynamic therapy effect was assessed with MCF-7 cells in two different methods, 3-(4,5-dimethylth-iazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and live/dead assay. The assay results showed that promising efficacy (>90%) can be achieved with a low concentration (50 ?g mL?1) of this nanocomplex and mild dosage (7 mW cm?2) of near-infrared laser treatment. PMID:25609954

  13. Current treatment of early breast cancer: adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Elizabeth; Lee, Hee Jin; Lulla, Amriti; Hernandez, Liz; Gokare, Prashanth; Lim, Bora

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. The latest world cancer statistics calculated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) revealed that 1,677,000 women were diagnosed with breast cancer in 2012 and 577,000 died. The TNM classification of malignant tumor (TNM) is the most commonly used staging system for breast cancer. Breast cancer is a group of very heterogeneous diseases. The molecular subtype of breast cancer carries important predictive and prognostic values, and thus has been incorporated in the basic initial process of breast cancer assessment/diagnosis. Molecular subtypes of breast cancers are divided into human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2 +), hormone receptor positive (estrogen or progesterone +), both positive, and triple negative breast cancer. By virtue of early detection via mammogram, the majority of breast cancers in developed parts of world are diagnosed in the early stage of the disease. Early stage breast cancers can be completely resected by surgery. Over time however, the disease may come back even after complete resection, which has prompted the development of an adjuvant therapy. Surgery followed by adjuvant treatment has been the gold standard for breast cancer treatment for a long time. More recently, neoadjuvant treatment has been recognized as an important strategy in biomarker and target evaluation. It is clinically indicated for patients with large tumor size, high nodal involvement, an inflammatory component, or for those wish to preserve remnant breast tissue. Here we review the most up to date conventional and developing treatments for different subtypes of early stage breast cancer. PMID:25400908

  14. Adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer in the era of aromatase inhibitors: an update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramia Mokbel; Isabella Karat; Kefah Mokbel

    2006-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that optimal adjuvant endocrine therapy for hormone sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal women should include a third generation aromatase inhibitor (AI). On current evidence, adjuvant anstrozole or letrozole should be used upfront in such patients especially in those with high risk disease (node positive and\\/or tumours > 2 cm). The sequential approach of tamoxifen for 2–3

  15. Acute phase response induced following tumor treatment by photodynamic therapy: relevance for the therapy outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush; Stott, Brandon; Cecic, Ivana; Payne, Peter; Sun, Jinghai

    2006-02-01

    Acute phase response is an effector process orchestrated by the innate immune system for the optimal mobilization of the resources of the organism distant from the local insult site needed in the execution of a host-protecting reaction. Our research has shown that mice bearing tumors treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) exhibit the three major hallmarks of acute phase response: release of acute phase reactants, neutrophilia, and pituitary/adrenal axis activation. Of particular interest in this study were acute phase proteins that have a pivotal role in the clearance of dead cells, since the occurrence of this process in PDT-treated tumors emerges as a critical event in the course of PDT-associated host response. It is shown that this type of acute phase reactants, including complement proteins (C3, C5, C9, mannose-binding lectin, and ficolin A) and related pentraxins (serum amyloid P component and PTX3), are upregulated following tumor PDT and accumulate in the targeted lesions. Based on the recently accumulated experimental evidence it is definitely established that the acute phase response is manifested in the hosts bearing PDT-treated tumors and it is becoming clear that this effector process is an important element of PDT-associated host response bearing in impact on the eventual outcome of this therapy.

  16. Tetrakis(p-Carboranylthio-Tetrafluorophenyl)Chlorin (TPFC): Application for Photodynamic Therapy and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kawabata, Shinji; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Minoru; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Hao, Erhong; Vicente, M Graça H

    2015-03-01

    Carboranyl-containing chlorins have emerged as promising dual sensitizers for use in both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), by virtue of their known tumor affinity, low cytotoxicity in dark conditions, and their strong absorptions in the red region of the optical spectrum. Tetrakis(p-carboranylthio-tetrafluorophenyl)chlorin (TPFC) is a new synthetic carboranyl-containing chlorin of high boron content (24% by weight). To evaluate TPFC's applicability as sensitizer for both PDT and BNCT, we performed an in vitro and in vivo study using F98 rat glioma cells and F98 rat glioma-bearing brain tumor models. For the in vivo BNCT study, we used boronophenylalanine (BPA), which is currently used in clinical BNCT studies, via intravenous administration (i.v.) and/or used TPFC via convection-enhanced delivery (CED), a method for local drug infusion directly into the brain. In the in vitro PDT study, the cell surviving fraction following laser irradiation (9 J/cm(2) ) was 0.035 whereas in the in vitro BNCT study, the cell surviving fraction following neutron irradiation (thermal neutron = 1.73 × 10(12) n/cm(2) ) was 0.04. In the in vivo BNCT study, the median survival time following concomitant administration of BPA (i.v.) and TPFC (CED) was 42 days (95% confidence interval; 37-43 days). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:962-970, 2015. PMID:25546823

  17. Who Benefits From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer? A Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Garg, Madhur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Aparo, Santiago; Kaubisch, Andreas [Department of Medical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Tome, Wolfgang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kennedy, Timothy J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kalnicki, Shalom; Guha, Chandan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials testing adjuvant (including neoadjuvant) RT for resectable gastric cancer. Hazard ratios describing the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether the efficacy of RT varies with chemotherapy use, RT timing, geographic region, type of nodal dissection performed, or lymph node status. Results: Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were used for this analysis. Adjuvant RT was associated with a significant improvement in both OS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86, P<.001) and DFS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63-0.80, P<.001). In the 5 studies that tested adjuvant chemoradiation therapy against adjuvant chemotherapy, similar effects were seen for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, P=.087) and DFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.91-0.65, P=.002). Available data did not reveal any subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Conclusion: In randomized trials for resectable gastric cancer, adjuvant RT provides an approximately 20% improvement in both DFS and OS. Available data do not reveal a subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Further study is required to optimize the implementation of adjuvant RT for gastric cancer with regard to patient selection and integration with systemic therapy.

  18. Baylor study finds obesity linked to worse survival outcomes in breast cancer adjuvant therapy:

    Cancer.gov

    Obesity may contribute to worse survival outcomes in early stage breast cancer patients who have received adjuvant therapy to treat their disease, said researchers from the Lester and Sue Smith Breast Center at Baylor College of Medicine.

  19. New approaches to local destruction of tumors: interstitial laser hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bown, Stephen G.

    1991-11-01

    Lasers are well established as the treatment of choice in certain types of cancer, particularly the use of carbon dioxide laser for eradication of early tumors of the cervix and for lesions of the upper airways. More recently, the high-power Nd:YAG laser has proven itself of value for endoscopic palliation of advanced obstructing tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and major airways in patients who are unsuitable for surgery. However, current techniques are only scratching the surface of the potential applications of lasers in medical and surgical practice, and this article outlines two ways in which laser therapy for cancer may develop--low power interstitial hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy.

  20. Endonyx toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: treatment with photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye for the treatment of endonyx toenail onychomycosis. Four patients with endonyx onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum were treated with 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated with light emission diode at 630 nm and an energy density of 36 J/cm2 for 6 months at 2-week intervals. The preliminary study showed the effectiveness of this therapy in the treatment of endonyx onychomycosis, and also indicated that the disease can be caused by T. rubrum. PMID:24474123

  1. Where does photodynamic therapy fit in the esophageal cancer treatment jigsaw puzzle?

    PubMed

    Moghissi, Keyvan

    2012-10-01

    Traditional treatment options for esophageal cancer have centered on the triad of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Although surgery remains the gold standard for operable disease, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a valid minimally invasive option for select patients with inoperable disease. Years of experience with PDT for esophageal cancer seem to suggest that it may be particularly useful for treatment of early unresectable lesions, palliation of locally advanced disease, and salvage therapy for stent blockage or local tumor recurrence. Further investigation into the ideal role for PDT, perhaps through a comparative study with other nonsurgical options, may help clarify where it fits in the treatment armamentarium for esophageal cancer. PMID:23055217

  2. Topical photodynamic therapy with 5-ALA in the treatment of arsenic-induced skin tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrer, Sigrid; Szeimies, Rolf-Markus; Landthaler, Michael

    1995-03-01

    A case of a 62-year-old woman suffering from psoriasis who was treated orally with arsenic 25 years ago is reported. The cumulative dose of arsenic trioxide was 800 mg. Since 10 years ago arsenic keratoses, basal cell carcinomas, Bowen's disease and invasive squamous cell carcinomas mainly on her hands and feet have developed, skin changes were clearly a sequence of arsenic therapy. Control of disease was poor, her right little finger had to be amputated. Topical photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid was performed on her right hand. Clinical and histological examinations 6 months after treatment showed an excellent cosmetic result with no signs of tumor residue.

  3. Endonyx toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: treatment with photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye*

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye for the treatment of endonyx toenail onychomycosis. Four patients with endonyx onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum were treated with 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated with light emission diode at 630 nm and an energy density of 36 J/cm2 for 6 months at 2-week intervals. The preliminary study showed the effectiveness of this therapy in the treatment of endonyx onychomycosis, and also indicated that the disease can be caused by T. rubrum. PMID:24474123

  4. Extending the benefits of adjuvant therapy in early HR+ breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Goss

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of adjuvant tamoxifen are well documented, but therapy is limited to 5 years because of reports of an unfavorable\\u000a risk: benefit profile in later years. However, the risk of relapse continues beyond the end of therapy. Before the MA.17 trial,\\u000a no agent given after the standard 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen had been shown to provide additional benefit,

  5. Vaginal Speculum For Photodynamic Therapy And Method Of Using The Same

    DOEpatents

    Tadir, Yona (Irvine, CA); Berns, Michael W. (Trabuco Canyon, CA); Monk, Brad J. (Long Beach, CA); Profeta, Glen (Rancho Santa Margarita, CA); Tromberg, Bruce J. (Irvine, CA)

    1995-10-17

    An improved vaginal speculum for photodynamic therapy of intraepithelial tissue and in particular vaginal, cervical and vulvar neoplasia utilizes a precisely and accurately positionable optic fiber through which a predetermined dose of light in the range of 620 to 700 nanometers is delivered over a controlled area which has been previously treated with photodynamic therapeutic substances. In particular, the neoplastic area has been treated with hematoporphyrin derivatives and other photosensitizers which are selectively taken into the cancerous tissue. Exposure to the appropriate wavelength laser light photoactivates the absorbed hematoporphyrins causing the release of singlet oxygen which internally oxidizes and ultimately causes cell death. The fiber optic tip from which the laser light is transmitted is precisely positioned within the body cavity at a predetermined distance from the intraepithelial neoplasia in order to obtain the appropriate spot size and location to minimize damage to healthy tissue and maximize damage to the selectively impregnated cancerous tissue.

  6. Near-infrared light triggered photodynamic therapy in combination with gene therapy using upconversion nanoparticles for effective cancer cell killing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Kai; Yang, Guangbao; Cheng, Liang; He, Lu; Liu, Yumeng; Li, Yonggang; Guo, Liang; Liu, Zhuang

    2014-07-01

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have drawn much attention in cancer imaging and therapy in recent years. Herein, we for the first time report the use of UCNPs with carefully engineered surface chemistry for combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) and gene therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged NaGdF4:Yb,Er UCNPs with multilayered polymer coatings are synthesized via a layer by layer strategy, and then loaded simultaneously with Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a photosensitizing molecule, and small interfering RNA (siRNA), which targets the Plk1 oncogene. On the one hand, under excitation by a near-infrared (NIR) light at 980 nm, which shows greatly improved tissue penetration compared with visible light, cytotoxic singlet oxygen can be generated via resonance energy transfer from UCNPs to photosensitizer Ce6, while the residual upconversion luminescence is utilized for imaging. On the other hand, the silencing of Plk1 induced by siRNA delivered with UCNPs could induce significant cancer cell apoptosis. As the result of such combined photodynamic and gene therapy, a remarkably enhanced cancer cell killing effect is realized. Our work thus highlights the promise of UCNPs for imaging guided combination therapy of cancer.Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have drawn much attention in cancer imaging and therapy in recent years. Herein, we for the first time report the use of UCNPs with carefully engineered surface chemistry for combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) and gene therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged NaGdF4:Yb,Er UCNPs with multilayered polymer coatings are synthesized via a layer by layer strategy, and then loaded simultaneously with Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a photosensitizing molecule, and small interfering RNA (siRNA), which targets the Plk1 oncogene. On the one hand, under excitation by a near-infrared (NIR) light at 980 nm, which shows greatly improved tissue penetration compared with visible light, cytotoxic singlet oxygen can be generated via resonance energy transfer from UCNPs to photosensitizer Ce6, while the residual upconversion luminescence is utilized for imaging. On the other hand, the silencing of Plk1 induced by siRNA delivered with UCNPs could induce significant cancer cell apoptosis. As the result of such combined photodynamic and gene therapy, a remarkably enhanced cancer cell killing effect is realized. Our work thus highlights the promise of UCNPs for imaging guided combination therapy of cancer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02495h

  7. Photodynamic therapy of malignant brain tumours: a complementary approach to conventional therapies.

    PubMed

    Bechet, Denise; Mordon, Serge R; Guillemin, François; Barberi-Heyob, Muriel A

    2014-03-01

    The poor outcome of primary malignant brain tumours is predominantly due to local invasion and local recurrence and their prognosis is highly dependent on the degree of resection. They have no border and, at best, a marginal zone that remains invisible to the surgeon. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) appears to be an interesting modality to fill the need for a targeted treatment that may reduce recurrence and extend survival with minimal side effects. In this review, we summarize the different technologies of brain tumour PDT employed such as interstitial PDT, and PDT-associated surgical resection, describing new light delivery devices. The role of dosimetry - one of the key factors behind successful brain tumour PDT - is discussed. This can be achieved by integrating results from in vivo studies. In this context, the development of new therapeutic photosensitizer delivery systems is also an area of significant research interest. Multifunctionality can be engineered into a single nanoplatform to provide tumour-specific detection, treatment, and follow-up. Such multitasking systems appear to be complementary to conventional technologies. PMID:22858248

  8. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia as an adjuvant cancer therapy with chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryk, Alicia Ailie

    Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (mNPH) is an emerging cancer therapy which has shown to be most effective when applied in the adjuvant setting with chemotherapy, radiation or surgery. Although mNPH employs heat as a primary therapeutic modality, conventional heat may not be the only cytotoxic effect. As such, my studies have focused on the mechanism and use of mNPH alone and in conjunction with cisplatinum chemotherapy in murine breast cancer cells and a related in vivo model. MNPH was compared to conventional microwave tumor heating, with results suggesting that mNPH (mNP directly injected into the tumor and immediately activated) and 915 MHz microwave hyperthermia, at the same thermal dose, result in similar tumor regrowth delay kinetics. However, mNPH shows significantly less peri-tumor normal tissue damage. MNPH combined with cisplatinum also demonstrated significant improvements in regrowth delay over either modality applied as a monotherapy. Additional studies demonstrated that a relatively short tumor incubation time prior to AMF exposure (less than 10 minutes) as compared to a 4-hour incubation time, resulted in faster heating rates, but similar regrowth delays when treated to the same thermal dose. The reduction of heating rate correlated well with the observed reduction in mNP concentration in the tumor observed with 4 hour incubation. The ability to effectively deliver cytotoxic mNPs to metastatic tumors is the hope and goal of systemic mNP therapy. However, delivering relevant levels of mNP is proving to be a formidable challenge. To address this issue, I assessed the ability of cisplatinum to simultaneously treat a tumor and improve the uptake of systemically delivered mNPs. Following a cisplatinum pretreatment, systemic mNPs uptake was increased by 3.1 X, in implanted murine breast tumors. Additional in vitro studies showed the necessity of a specific mNP/ Fe architecture and spatial relation for heat-based cytotoxicity in cultured cells.

  9. Polymeric micelles encapsulating photosensitizer: structure/photodynamic therapy efficiency relation.

    PubMed

    Gibot, Laure; Lemelle, Arnaud; Till, Ugo; Moukarzel, Béatrice; Mingotaud, Anne-Françoise; Pimienta, Véronique; Saint-Aguet, Pascale; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Gaucher, Mireille; Violleau, Frédéric; Chassenieux, Christophe; Vicendo, Patricia

    2014-04-14

    Various polymeric micelles were formed from amphiphilic block copolymers, namely, poly(ethyleneoxide-b-?-caprolactone), poly(ethyleneoxide-b-d,l-lactide), and poly(ethyleneoxide-b-styrene). The micelles were characterized by static and dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. They all displayed a similar size close to 20 nm. The influence of the chemical structure of the block copolymers on the stability upon dilution of the polymeric micelles was investigated to assess their relevance as carriers for nanomedicine. In the same manner, the stability upon aging was assessed by FRET experiments under various experimental conditions (alone or in the presence of blood proteins). In all cases, a good stability over 48 h for all systems was encountered, with PDLLA copolymer-based systems being the first to release their load slowly. The cytotoxicity and photocytotoxicity of the carriers were examined with or without their load. Lastly, the photodynamic activity was assessed in the presence of pheophorbide a as photosensitizer on 2D and 3D tumor cell culture models, which revealed activity differences between the 2D and 3D systems. PMID:24552313

  10. Psychosocial implications of clinical trials on patients with age-related macular degeneration and pathologic myopia as seen in the photodynamic therapy trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey Porter; Pat Nesbitt

    2001-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a combination of the systemically injected photosensitizing drug, verteporfin, and the subsequent exposure of the affected retina to a low-beam diode laser. Eligible participants in the photodynamic therapy clinical trial were those with “wet” cases of age-related macular degeneration with subfoveal, predominantly classic lesions. The expected outcome of the treatment is to preserve vision, not to restore

  11. Sustained Activation of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway Protects Cells from Photofrin-mediated Photodynamic Therapy1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhimin Tong; Gurmit Singh; Andrew J. Rainbow

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer therapy in which a photosen- sitizer selectively accumulates in tumor cells and is subsequently activated by light of a specific wavelength. The activation of the photosensitizer leads to cytotoxic photoproducts that result in tumor regression. PDT can lead to several cellular responses including cell cycle arrest, necrosis, and apoptosis, as well as trigger many

  12. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy and efficient delivery of Rose Bengal using nanostructured poly(amidoamine) dendrimers: potential application in photodynamic therapy of cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishnamoorthy Karthikeyan; Anish Babu; Sang-Jae Kim; Ramachandran Murugesan; Kadarkaraithangam Jeyasubramanian

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment methodology whereby diseased cells and tissues are destroyed by reactive\\u000a oxygen species (ROS) by using a combination of light and photosensitizers (PS). The medical application of Rose Bengal (RB),\\u000a photosensitizer with very good ROS generation capability, is limited due to its intrinsic toxicity and insufficient lipophilicity.\\u000a In this report, we evaluate the potential

  13. Concepts and Principles of Photodynamic Therapy as an Alternative Antifungal Discovery Platform

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Fuchs, Beth B.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Prates, Renato A.; Astrakas, Christos; St. Denis, Tyler G.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Hamblin, Michael R.; Tegos, George P.

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens may cause superficial or serious invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised and debilitated patients. Invasive mycoses represent an exponentially growing threat for human health due to a combination of slow diagnosis and the existence of relatively few classes of available and effective antifungal drugs. Therefore systemic fungal infections result in high attributable mortality. There is an urgent need to pursue and deploy novel and effective alternative antifungal countermeasures. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was established as a successful modality for malignancies and age-related macular degeneration but photodynamic inactivation has only recently been intensively investigated as an alternative antimicrobial discovery and development platform. The concept of photodynamic inactivation requires microbial exposure to either exogenous or endogenous photosensitizer molecules, followed by visible light energy, typically wavelengths in the red/near infrared region that cause the excitation of the photosensitizers resulting in the production of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species that react with intracellular components, and consequently produce cell inactivation and death. Antifungal PDT is an area of increasing interest, as research is advancing (i) to identify the photochemical and photophysical mechanisms involved in photoinactivation; (ii) to develop potent and clinically compatible photosensitizers; (iii) to understand how photoinactivation is affected by key microbial phenotypic elements multidrug resistance and efflux, virulence and pathogenesis determinants, and formation of biofilms; (iv) to explore novel photosensitizer delivery platforms; and (v) to identify photoinactivation applications beyond the clinical setting such as environmental disinfectants. PMID:22514547

  14. Combination of photodynamic and ultrasonic therapy for treatment of infected wounds in animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menyaev, Yulian A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2006-02-01

    One of the important problems of modern medicine is treatment of infected wounds. There are many diversified expedients of treatment, but none of them obey the modern physician completely. The aim of this study is to develop and test a new combined method of photodynamic ultrasonic therapy (PDUST) for treatment of infected wounds with focus on experimental trials. PDUST is based on a combination of two methods: photodynamic (PD) therapy (PDT) with photosensitizer and low frequency ultrasonic (US) therapy with antibiotic as tools for treatment of wounds and effectively killing bacteria. The main parameters are: US frequency - 26.5 kHz; US tip elongation - 40+/-20 ?m wavelength of light emitting diodes (LED) array - 660+/-10 nm; light intensity on biotissue surface - 1-2 mW/cm2; photosensitizer - an aluminum disulfonated phtalocyanine dissolved in a physiological solution in concentration 10 mg/l. The experiments were carried out with 70 male chinchilla rabbits divided into 7 groups, thus the dynamics of wounds healing were studied in different modes of PDUST. The PD and US methods supplement each other and in conjunction provide additive and especially synergetic effects. The experimental data demonstrated advantages of new technology in comparison with conventional methods in cases of treatment of extended suppurative inflammatory and profound wounds. The more detailed study of PDUST method's mechanism, which is based on low intensity of LED light, PD therapy and US influence is required.

  15. An irradiation system for photodynamic therapy with a fiber-optic sensor for measuring tissue oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanar, L.; Fabila, D.; Stolik, S.; de la Rosa, J. M.

    2013-11-01

    Photodynamic Therapy is a well known treatment based on the interaction of light of specific wavelength with a photosensitizing drug. In the presence of oxygen molecules, the illumination of the photosensitizer can activate the production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the death of target cells within the treated tissue. In order to obtain the best therapy response, the tissue oxygen concentration should be measured to adjust the therapy parameters before and during the treatment. In this work, an irradiation system for 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy is presented. It allows the application of visible light radiation of 630 nm using as a light source a high-brightness light emitting diode with an optical-power automatic control considering a light depth-distribution model. A module to measure the tissue oxygen saturation has been implemented into the system. It is based on two light emitting diodes of 660 nm and 940 nm as light sources, a photodiode as a detector and a new handheld fiber optic reflectance pulse oximetry sensor for estimating the blood oxygen saturation within the tissue. The pulse oximetry sensor was modeled through multilayered Monte Carlo simulations to study the behavior of the sensor with changes in skin thickness and melanin content.

  16. Conscious sedation with inhaled 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix in photodynamic therapy sessions for vulvar lichen sclerosus treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Cabete, Joana; Campos, Sara; Lestre, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been described as an effective therapeutic option in selected cases of anogenital lichen sclerosus that are refractory to first-line treatments. However, procedure-related pain is a limiting factor in patient adherence to treatment. The authors report the case of a 75-year-old woman with highly symptomatic vulvar lichen sclerosus, successfully treated with photodynamic therapy. An inhaled 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix was administered during sessions, producing a pain-relieving, anxiolytic, and sedative effect without loss of consciousness. This ready-to-use gas mixture may be a well-tolerated and accepted alternative to classical anesthetics in Photodynamic therapy, facilitating patients' adherence to illumination of pain-prone areas. PMID:25672311

  17. Effectiveness of 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa: a report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Andino Navarrete, R; Hasson Nisis, A; Parra Cares, J

    2014-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa has been described as a chronic, recurrent, and disabling inflammatory disease involving the entire hair follicle. Several treatments, including photodynamic therapy, have been used, but the results have been inconsistent and recurrence is high. In this prospective study, we evaluated disease severity, quality of life, and treatment tolerance in 5 patients with moderate to severe hidradenitis suppurativa treated with photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid and a 635-nm light source. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated using the Sartorius severity score, the Dermatology Life Quality Index, and a visual analog scale for pain and disease activity. Significant improvements were observed with all 3 instruments and the effects remained visible at 8 weeks. Our results suggest that photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid and a light wavelength of 635 nm could reduce disease severity and improve quality of life in patients with difficult-to-treat hidradenitis suppurativa. PMID:24472519

  18. How I Perform ALA-Photodynamic Therapy in My Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dore J. Gilbert

    \\u000a ALA-PDT is a safe and efficacious therapy for the treatment and rejuvenation of sun-damaged skin, AKs and actinic porokeratoses,\\u000a and acne. Clearance rates are typically very high with only several treatments. ALA-PDT does not require prolonged application\\u000a and contact time compared with chemotherapeutic agents, resulting in reduced adverse events. Further, compared with other\\u000a topical or systemic therapies, ALA-PDT is cost

  19. Postoperative adjuvant therapy for resectable thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 426 cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hailu; Wu, Zhiyong; Chen, Jiexin; Lin, Xiaorong; Zheng, Chunpeng; Fan, Yanghang; Zhang, Zechun; Yao, Xiaodong; Wu, Jianyi; Xu, Liyan; Li, Enmin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of postoperative adjuvant therapy for resectable thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in China. We retrospectively analyzed 426 eligible patients seen between October 2007 and November 2011. Specifically, we assessed clinicopathological characteristics and the disease-free and overall survival rates. Of the 426 patients, 272 cases underwent surgery alone, and 154 cases received postoperative adjuvant therapy (67 cases with radiotherapy, 57 cases with chemotherapy, and 30 cases with simultaneous chemoradiotherapy). The median follow-up time was 48.0 months (23.0-72.0 months), and the median survival time was 48.4 months (1.0-72.0 months). We found a significant difference between the surgery-alone and adjuvant therapy groups in the status of lymph node (LN) metastasis (N stage; P < 0.01), but there were no differences between the two groups with regard to other clinicopathological characteristics, including age, sex, lesion location, T stage, differentiation grades, surgery approach, or average number of LN dissections. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates of the surgery-alone and adjuvant therapy groups were 48.9 and 37.1 %, respectively (P < 0.001); no significant difference was found in 5-year overall survival (OS) rate between the two groups (P > 0.05). A stratification analysis based on N stage suggested that the 5-year DFS and OS rates were similar in N0-N3 subgroups (P > 0.05), except that patients with surgery alone had a higher 5-year DFS than those with postoperative adjuvant therapy in N0 subgroup (P = 0.013). Our data suggest that patients with resectable thoracic ESCC may not benefit from postoperative adjuvant therapy. Further prospective studies are required to elucidate the utility of postoperative adjuvant therapy and to standardize individualized treatments for resectable ESCC. PMID:25479943

  20. Photodynamic therapy with a cationic functionalized fullerene rescues mice from fatal wound infections

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zongshun; Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Liyi; Kurup, Divya B; Tegos, George P; Jahnke, Ashlee; Wharton, Tim; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Aims Fullerenes are under intensive study for potential biomedical applications. We have previously reported that a C60 fullerene functionalized with three dimethylpyrrolidinium groups (BF6) is a highly active broad-spectrum antimicrobial photosensitizer in vitro when combined with white-light illumination. We asked whether this high degree of in vitro activity would translate into an in vivo therapeutic effect in two potentially lethal mouse models of infected wounds. Materials & methods We used stable bioluminescent bacteria and a low light imaging system to follow the progress of the infection noninvasively in real time. An excisional wound on the mouse back was contaminated with one of two bioluminescent Gram-negative species, Proteus mirabilis (2.5 × 107 cells) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5 × 106 cells). A solution of BF6 was placed into the wound followed by delivery of up to 180 J/cm2 of broadband white light (400–700 nm). Results In both cases there was a light-dose-dependent reduction of bioluminescence from the wound not observed in control groups (light alone or BF6 alone). Fullerene-mediated photodynamic therapy of mice infected with P. mirabilis led to 82% survival compared with 8% survival without treatment (p < 0.001). Photodynamic therapy of mice infected with highly virulent P. aeruginosa did not lead to survival, but when photodynamic therapy was combined with a suboptimal dose of the antibiotic tobramycin (6 mg/kg for 1 day) there was a synergistic therapeutic effect with a survival of 60% compared with a survival of 20% with tobramycin alone (p < 0.01). Conclusion These data suggest that cationic fullerenes have clinical potential as an antimicrobial photosensitizer for superficial infections where red light is not needed to penetrate tissue. PMID:21143031

  1. KillerRed and miniSOG as genetically encoded photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirmanova, Marina V.; Serebrovskaya, Ekaterina O.; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Ryumina, Alina P.; Turchin, Ilya V.; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A.; Ignatova, Nadezhda I.; Klementieva, Natalia V.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Lukyanov, Sergey A.; Zagaynova, Elena V.

    2013-06-01

    Despite of the success of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cancer treatment, the problems of low selective accumulation of a photosensitizer in a tumor and skin phototoxicity have not resolved yet. The idea of encoding of a photosensitizer in genome of cancer cells is attractive, particularly because it can provide highly selective light induced cell killing. This work is aimed at the development of new approach to PDT of cancer, namely to using genetically encoded photosensitizers. A phototoxicity of red fluorescent GFP-like protein KillerRed and FMN-binding protein miniSOG was investigated on HeLa tumor xenografts in nude mice. The tumors were generated by subcutaneous injection of HeLa cells stably expressing the phototoxic proteins. The tumors were irradiated with 594 nm or 473 nm laser at 150 mW/cm2 for 20 or 30 min, repeatedly. Fluorescence intensity of the tumors was measured in vivo before and after each treatment procedure. Detailed pathomorphological analysis was performed 24 h after the therapy. On the epi-fluorescence images in vivo photobleaching of both proteins was observed indicating photodynamic reaction. Substantial pathomorphological abnormalities were found in the treated KillerRed-expressing tumor tissue, such as vacuolization of cytoplasm, cellular and nuclear membrane destruction, activation of apoptosis. In contrast, miniSOG-expressing tumors displayed no reaction to PDT, presumably due to the lack of FMN cofactor needed for fluorescence recovery of the flavoprotein. The results are of interest for photodynamic therapy as a proof of possibility to induce photodamages in cancer cells in vivo using genetically encoded photosensitizers.

  2. Alteration of photosensitizer content and parameters of free radical reactions in a patient's blood under photodynamic therapy of malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubchenko, G. N.; Chichuk, Tatyana V.; Stranadko, Eugeny P.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in concentrations of the two Russian photosensitizers in blood plasma of patients under Photodynamic therapy. In this work were used two sensitizers of domestic production: Photohem (hematoporphyrin derivative) and Photosense (sulfonated aluminium phtalocyanine). It was found that one month after injection the concentrations of the photosensitizers in blood plasma remained high enough. Was shown alteration of level of apo-(beta) -lipoproteins oxidation and antioxidant activity of blood plasma under the influence of Photodynamic therapy.

  3. Oleic Acid as Optimizer of the Skin Delivery of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in Photodynamic Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Bernadete Riemma Pierre; Eduardo Ricci Jr; Antonio Cláudio Tedesco; Maria Vitória Lopes Badra Bentley

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Purpose  In photodynamic therapy (PDT), topically applied aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is converted to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which\\u000a upon light excitation induces tumor destruction. To optimize 5-ALA-PDT via improving the highly hydrophilic 5-ALA limited\\u000a penetration into the skin, we propose the use of the known skin penetration enhancer, oleic acid (OA).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In vitro skin penetration and retention of 5-ALA (1% w\\/w) were measured

  4. Photodynamic Therapy in Bowen Disease of the First Web Space of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Soo-Eun; Kim, Sue Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Bowen disease (BD), or intraepithelial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), may progress to an invasive SCC. Although surgery is preferred because of the low recurrence rate, it can result in hypertrophic scarringor contracture, particularly in lesions on the hands. We report a case of BD in the first web space of the hand, which was treated with ablative fractional laser-assisted photodynamic therapy (AFXL-assisted PDT). After multiple AFXL-assisted PDT sessions, the lesion showed no clinical or pathological abnormalities. Thus, we believe that PDT can be an alternative treatment for BD occurring in the web space of the hand. PMID:25673936

  5. The pilot experience of immunotherapy-combined photodynamic therapy for advanced gastric cancer in elderly patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Yanai; Yasuyuki Kuroiwa; Norio Shimizu; Yoshitaka Matsubara; Takeshi Okamoto; Atsuyoshi Hirano; Youhei Nakamura; Kiwamu Okita; Teruaki Sekine

    2002-01-01

    Background. Therapeutic efficacy of endoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) for advanced gastric cancer is limited. Recent animal studies\\u000a have clarified the very important role of host immune cells in PDT. We expected a potential cooperative effect of PDT and\\u000a immunotherapy, and developed immunotherapy-combined PDT (I-PDT) for advanced gastric cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Materials. We applied I-PDT for two elderly patients with complicated

  6. Toluidine blue-mediated photodynamic therapy of oral wound infections in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lin; L. J. Bi; Z. G. Zhang; Y. M. Fu; T. T. Dong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of toluidine blue (TB)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on oral wound\\u000a infections in rats. The study called for a combination treatment of a 1mg\\/ml solution of TB with a red light at three intensity\\u000a settings of 12 J\\/cm2, 24 J\\/cm2 and 48 J\\/cm2. In the group that was given the highest light dose of

  7. 808 nm driven Nd3+-sensitized upconversion nanostructures for photodynamic therapy and simultaneous fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Xue, Bin; Kong, Xianggui; Tu, Langping; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Youlin; Chang, Yulei; Luo, Yongshi; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Hong

    2014-11-01

    The in vivo biological applications of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) prefer excitation at 700-850 nm, instead of 980 nm, due to the absorption of water. Recent approaches in constructing robust Nd3+ doped UCNPs with 808 nm excitation properties rely on a thick Nd3+ sensitized shell. However, for the very important and popular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based applications, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) or switchable biosensors, this type of structure has restrictions resulting in a poor energy transfer. In this work, we have designed a NaYF4:Yb/Ho@NaYF4:Nd@NaYF4 core-shell-shell nanostructure. We have proven that this optimal structure balances the robustness of the upconversion emission and the FRET efficiency for FRET-based bioapplications. A proof of the concept was demonstrated for photodynamic therapy and simultaneous fluorescence imaging of HeLa cells triggered by 808 nm light, where low heating and a high PDT efficacy were achieved.The in vivo biological applications of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) prefer excitation at 700-850 nm, instead of 980 nm, due to the absorption of water. Recent approaches in constructing robust Nd3+ doped UCNPs with 808 nm excitation properties rely on a thick Nd3+ sensitized shell. However, for the very important and popular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based applications, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) or switchable biosensors, this type of structure has restrictions resulting in a poor energy transfer. In this work, we have designed a NaYF4:Yb/Ho@NaYF4:Nd@NaYF4 core-shell-shell nanostructure. We have proven that this optimal structure balances the robustness of the upconversion emission and the FRET efficiency for FRET-based bioapplications. A proof of the concept was demonstrated for photodynamic therapy and simultaneous fluorescence imaging of HeLa cells triggered by 808 nm light, where low heating and a high PDT efficacy were achieved. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images, XRD patterns and NIR emission spectra of UCNPs. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04953e

  8. Aromatase Inhibitors as Adjuvant Therapy for Postmenopausal Patients With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragini Kudchadkar; Ruth M. O'regan

    ABSTRACT Endocrine therapy of hormone,receptor-positive breast tumors,is widely used as palliative therapy for metastatic breast cancer,and,as adjuvant,therapy for early stage breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the definitive standard,of hormonal,therapies for the last 30 years because,of its documented,efficacy and,reasonable,safety profile. Based on encouraging results from trials utilizing the selective, third generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in metastatic breast cancer, a number of

  9. New distributors for homogeneous and monitorable light delivery in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeret, Jerome C.; Thielen, P.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Bays, Roland; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe; van den Bergh, Hubert

    1995-01-01

    Novel light distributors for interstitial and esophageal photodynamic therapy are presented. A cylindrical light diffuser has been developed mainly for medical applications like interstitial photodynamic therapy, treatment of the bronchi and arterisclerosis. It can be made with a diameter as small as 1 mm or even less. For interstitial therapy, it can be introduced via a hypodermic needle. The main property of this light diffuser is the homogeneity of the light intensity emitted along its whole length which can be 100 mm or more, as well as its excellent radial homogeneity (360 degree(s)) and flexibility. Furthermore, its optical properties are hardly dependent on wavelength used for treatment (500 - 700 nm). Light distributors for esophageal treatment with homogeneity better than +/- 10% have been built and successfully used clinically. A measuring optical fiber allows the control of the dosimetry during the irradiation. Some other properties like the photosensitizer uptake in the tissue or the photobleaching can also be measured in situ and in real time during the treatment.

  10. Potential of microneedles in enhancing delivery of photosensitising agents for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Mary-Carmel; Brown, Sarah; McCrudden, Maelíosa T C; Brady, Aaron J; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2014-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy can be used in the treatment of pre-malignant and malignant diseases. It offers advantages over other therapies currently used in the treatment of skin lesions including avoidance of damage to surrounding tissue and minimal or no scarring. Unfortunately, systemic delivery of photosensitising agents can result in adverse effects, such as prolonged cutaneous photosensitivity; while topical administration lacks efficacy in the clearance of deeper skin lesions and those with a thick overlying keratotic layer. Therefore, enhancement of conventional photosensitiser delivery is desired. However, the physicochemical properties of photosensitising agents, such as extreme hydrophilicity or lipophilicity and large molecular weights make this challenging. This paper reviews the potential of microneedles as a viable method to overcome these delivery-limiting physicochemical characteristics and discusses the current benefits and limitations of solid, dissolving and hydrogel-forming microneedles. Clinical studies in which microneedles have successfully improved photodynamic therapy are also discussed, along with benefits which microneedles offer, such as precise photosensitiser localisation, painless application and reduction in waiting times between photosensitiser administration and irradiation highlighted. PMID:25291556

  11. Lobular carcinoma of the breast metastatic to the uterus in a patient under adjuvant anastrozole therapy.

    PubMed

    Erkanli, Serkan; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Kuscu, Esra; Bolat, Filiz; Sakalli, Hakan; Haberal, Ali

    2006-08-01

    This is the first report of breast carcinoma metastatic to the endometrium in a patient on adjuvant anastrozole therapy. We report a case of metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast in a 63-year-old patient on adjuvant anastrozole therapy for 8 months. She was asymptomatic and metastatic endometrium was diagnosed after transvaginal ultrasound revealed suspicious findings along with elevated Ca 15-3 levels. As further work up showed no other metastatic sites her uterus was taken out along with her ovaries and pelvic lymph nodes. Uterine metastases should be kept in mind in asymptomatic patients on anastrozole therapy. PMID:16311034

  12. Comparative effects of adjuvant cimetidine and omeprazole during pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Bruno; E. A. J. Rauws; F. J. Hoek; G. N. J. Tytgat

    1994-01-01

    In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, the hypotheses were tested that more powerful inhibition of gastric acid secretion by adjuvant omeprazole further improves the efficacy of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy compared to adjuvant cimetidine and that excluding the influence of pH-related factors, by virtually complete inhibition of gastric acid secretion with 60 mg omeprazole daily, does not lead to total

  13. In vivo selective cancer-tracking gadolinium eradicator as new-generation photodynamic therapy agent

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Lan, Rongfeng; Chan, Chi-Fai; Law, Ga-Lai; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a modality of photodynamic therapy (PDT) through the design of our truly dual-functional—PDT and imaging—gadolinium complex (Gd-N), which can target cancer cells specifically. In the light of our design, the PDT drug can specifically localize on the anionic cell membrane of cancer cells in which its laser-excited photoemission signal can be monitored without triggering the phototoxic generation of reactive oxygen species—singlet oxygen—before due excitation. Comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies had been conducted for the substantiation of the effectiveness of Gd-N as such a tumor-selective PDT photosensitizer. This treatment modality does initiate a new direction in the development of “precision medicine” in line with stem cell and gene therapies as tools in cancer therapy. PMID:25453097

  14. Combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy using graphene oxide as drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Zhou, Lin; Wei, Shaohua; Ge, Xuefeng; Zhou, Jiahong; Jiang, Huijun; Li, Fuyou; Shen, Jian

    2014-06-01

    Previous research indicated that graphene oxide (GO) can be used to deliver photosensitive anticancer drug, Hypocrellin A (HA), in photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the anticancer activity of HA was obviously decreased after been loaded on GO. To solve this problem, a chemotherapy drug, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), was co-loaded on the HA loaded GO (HA/SN-38/GO) as a multimodal carrier for the synergistic combination of PDT and chemotherapy for cancer. In vitro results showed that the combination therapy exhibited a synergistic antiproliferative effect compared with PDT and chemotherapy alone. Therefore, HA/SN-38/GO delivery system has the potential to offer dual therapies for the synergistic combination of PDT and chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer. PMID:24792568

  15. Combining magnetic hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy for tumor ablation with photoresponsive magnetic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Di Corato, Riccardo; Béalle, Gaëlle; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Espinosa, Ana; Clément, Olivier; Silva, Amanda K A; Ménager, Christine; Wilhelm, Claire

    2015-03-24

    The ongoing nanotech revolution has the potential to transform diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Stimuli-triggered nanotherapies based on remotely activated agents have become attractive alternatives to conventional chemotherapy. Herein, we designed an optimized smart nanoplatform based on dually loaded hybrid liposomes to achieve enhanced tumor therapy. The aqueous core was highly loaded with iron oxide nanoparticles, while the lipid bilayer was supplied with a photosensitizer payload. The double cargo translated into double functionality: generation of singlet oxygen under laser excitation and heat production under alternating magnetic field stimulation, coupling photodynamic therapy (PDT) to magnetic hyperthermia (MHT). These liposomes address both therapeutic agents within tumor cells, and the combined PDT/MHT therapy resulted in complete cancer cell death in vitro while total solid-tumor ablation was achieved in an in vivo rodent model. PMID:25695371

  16. Radiation therapy quality control in a clinical trial of adjuvant postoperative treatment for rectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Martenson; Rodolfo Urias; Stephen R. Smalley; Lawrence R. Coia; Joel E. Tepper; Marvin Rotman; Tyvin A. Rich; Michael J. O'Connell

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Deviations from protocol can detract from the reliability of results obtained in prospective clinical trials. In an effort to decrease the number of deviations in a prospective trial of adjuvant treatment for rectal cancer, we undertook pretreatment review of the irradiated fields.Methods and Materials: Before initiation of radiation therapy, patients' radiation therapy fields were simulated by their radiation oncologists

  17. Adjuvant physical therapy versus occupational therapy in patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy\\/complex regional pain syndrome type I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Margreet Oerlemans; Rob A. B. Oostendorp; Theo de Boo; Lyckle van der Laan; Johan L. Severens; R. Jan A. Goris

    2000-01-01

    Oerlemans HM, Oostendorp RAB, de Boo T, van der Laan L, Severens JL, Goris RJA. Adjuvant physical therapy versus occupational therapy in patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy\\/complex regional pain syndrome type I. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:49-56. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness and cost of physical therapy (PT) or occupational therapy (OT) in patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). Design:

  18. Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

    1995-03-01

    Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

  19. Quantitative approach to skin field cancerization using a nanoencapsulated photodynamic therapy agent: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Simone K; de Souza, Paulo EN; Soares, Priscila KP; Eid, Danglades RM; Primo, Fernando L; Tedesco, Antonio Cláudio; Lacava, Zulmira GM; Morais, Paulo C

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper introduces a new nanoformulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (nano-ALA) as well as a novel quantitative approach towards evaluating field cancerization for actinic keratosis and/or skin photodamage. In this pilot study, we evaluated field cancerization using nano-ALA and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL), the latter being commercialized as Metvix®. Methods and results Photodynamic therapy was used for the treatment of patients with selected skin lesions, whereas the fluorescence of the corresponding photosensitizer was used to evaluate the time evolution of field cancerization in a quantitative way. Field cancerization was quantified using newly developed color image segmentation software. Using photodynamic therapy as the precancer skin treatment and the approach introduced herein for evaluation of fluorescent area, we found that the half-life of field cancerization reduction was 43.3 days and 34.3 days for nano-ALA and MAL, respectively. We also found that nano-ALA targeted about 45% more skin lesion areas than MAL. Further, we found the mean reduction in area of skin field cancerization was about 10% greater for nano-ALA than for MAL. Conclusion Although preliminary, our findings indicate that the efficacy of nano-ALA in treating skin field cancerization is higher than that of MAL. PMID:23450821

  20. Applications of natural compounds in the photodynamic therapy of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, M; Menichini, G; Provenzano, E; Conforti, F

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant advances in early diagnosis and treatment, skin cancer is one of the leading causes of death. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new therapeutic modality that is emerging as an important resource against malignant tumors. This strategy is based on the action of photosensitizers, i.e. of molecules which may accumulate preferentially inside tumor cells where they exert a cytotoxic effect after excitation by light at appropriate wavelengths. Some forms of skin cancers and also some non-tumor pathologies are now treated with PDT. Several compounds with photosensitizing activity have been identified, and some of these molecules are commercially available. Many photoactive principles are natural compounds. Numerous reviews in the last decade have focused on photodynamic therapy, its effects and applications, but less attention has been paid to plant extracts or molecules of natural origin studied for their phototoxic activity to date.This review critically examines the potential role of various plant extracts and naturally occurring compounds in the treatment of skin cancer. Both in vitro and in vivo effects of these agents, together with their known related cellular and molecular mechanisms, are presented and discussed. PMID:23531223

  1. Cell-Penetrating Peptide Enhanced Intracellular Raman Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fales, Andrew M.; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2013-01-01

    We present the application of a theranostic system combining Raman imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect. The theranostic nanoplatform was created by loading the photosensitizer, Protoporphyrin IX, onto a Raman-labeled gold nanostar. A cell-penetrating peptide, TAT, enhanced intracellular accumulation of the nanoparticles in order to improve their delivery and efficacy. The plasmonic gold nanostar platform was designed to increase the Raman signal via the surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) effect. Theranostic SERS imaging and photodynamic therapy using this construct were demonstrated on BT-549 breast cancer cells. The TAT peptide allowed for effective Raman imaging and photosensitization with the nanoparticle construct after a 1-hour incubation period. In the absence of the TAT peptide, nanoparticle accumulation in the cells was not sufficient to be observed by Raman imaging, or to produce any photosensitization effect after this short incubation period. There was no cytotoxic effect observed after nanoparticle incubation, prior to light-activation of the photosensitizer. This report shows the first application of combined SERS imaging and photosensitization from a theranostic nanoparticle construct. PMID:23659475

  2. Photodynamic therapy of experimental sarcoma M-1 with boronated chlorine as a photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M A; Ol'shevskaya, V A; Osipchuk, Yu S; Nikitina, R G; Kalinin, V N

    2014-05-01

    Using rat model of experimental sarcoma M-1 we studied the efficacy of photodynamic therapy with boronated chlorine as a photosensitizer in doses of 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/ kg body weight. Laser irradiation was performed at energy densities of 150, 300 J/cm(2) and power density of 0.25 and 0.42 W/cm(2). Treatment efficacy was evaluated by the percentage of animals with complete tumor regression, percentage of tumor recurrence and, in cases of its growth, by tumor growth coefficient. The efficacy of photodynamic therapy depended on the dose of boronated chlorine and parameters of the laser irradiation. Optimal conditions were the dose of 2.5 mg/kg at laser energy density of 300 J/cm(2) and power density of 0.42 W/cm(2) and a dose of 5.0 mg/kg at 150 J/cm(2) and 0.25 W/cm(2). PMID:24909720

  3. Meso-tetraphenylporphyrin in liposomes as a suitable photosenzitizer for photodynamic therapy of tumors.

    PubMed

    Lovcinský, M; Borecký, J; Kubát, P; Jezek, P

    1999-06-01

    The suitability of a liposomal form of hydrophobic nonsulfonated meso-tetraphenyl porphyrin (TPP) for the photodynamic therapy of tumors was investigated. TPP was solubilized in small unilamellar lipid vesicles prepared by extrusion on a LIPOSOFAST apparatus. These samples were studied by laser-excited time resolved luminescence and triplet-triplet absorption spectroscopy. In this lipid environment TPP was still an efficient singlet oxygen producer, as indicated by the characteristic singlet oxygen phosphorescence at 1270 nm in D2O, when excited with a 28 ns laser pulse at 412 nm. Moreover, unlike with sulfonated TPP (TPPS4), liposomal TPP showed the reduced decay rates of TPP triplet-states with the increasing time of pre-illumination by a Xenon lamp. This was shown in an indirect way, based upon the appearance of a second component of the luminescence decay at 1270 nm in D2O; and by direct TPP triplet state monitoring, detecting triplet-triplet absorption at 440 nm in H2O. The deactivation of higher triplet states was delayed upon pre-illumination. This reflects an irreversible interaction of singlet oxygen with membrane lipids, thus demonstrating the potential of the liposomal form of TPP to efficiently disintegrate tumor cell membranes and to be a suitable preparation for the photodynamic therapy. PMID:10517287

  4. Low-dose angiostatic tyrosine kinase inhibitors improve photodynamic therapy for cancer: lack of vascular normalization

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Andrea; van Beijnum, Judy R; Bonvin, Debora; Jichlinski, Patrice; Dyson, Paul J; Griffioen, Arjan W; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective clinical treatment for a number of different cancers. PDT can induce hypoxia and inflammation, pro-angiogenic side effects, which may counteract its angio-occlusive mechanism. The combination of PDT with anti-angiogenic drugs offers a possibility for improved anti-tumour outcome. We used two tumour models to test the effects of the clinically approved angiostatic tyrosine kinase inhibitors sunitinib, sorafenib and axitinib in combination with PDT, and compared these results with the effects of bevacizumab, the anti-VEGF antibody, for the improvement of PDT. Best results were obtained from the combination of PDT and low-dose axitinib or sorafenib. Molecular analysis by PCR revealed that PDT in combination with axitinib suppressed VEGFR-2 expression in tumour vasculature. Treatment with bevacizumab, although effective as monotherapy, did not improve PDT outcome. In order to test for tumour vessel normalization effects, axitinib was also applied prior to PDT. The absence of improved PDT outcome in these experiments, as well as the lack of increased oxygenation in axitinib-treated tumours, suggests that vascular normalization did not occur. The current data imply that there is a future for certain anti-angiogenic agents to further improve the efficacy of photodynamic anti-cancer therapy. PMID:24450440

  5. 808 nm driven Nd3+-sensitized upconversion nanostructures for photodynamic therapy and simultaneous fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Xue, Bin; Kong, Xianggui; Tu, Langping; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Youlin; Chang, Yulei; Luo, Yongshi; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo biological applications of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) prefer excitation at 700-850 nm, instead of 980 nm, due to the absorption of water. Recent approaches in constructing robust Nd(3+) doped UCNPs with 808 nm excitation properties rely on a thick Nd(3+) sensitized shell. However, for the very important and popular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based applications, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) or switchable biosensors, this type of structure has restrictions resulting in a poor energy transfer. In this work, we have designed a NaYF4:Yb/Ho@NaYF4:Nd@NaYF4 core-shell-shell nanostructure. We have proven that this optimal structure balances the robustness of the upconversion emission and the FRET efficiency for FRET-based bioapplications. A proof of the concept was demonstrated for photodynamic therapy and simultaneous fluorescence imaging of HeLa cells triggered by 808 nm light, where low heating and a high PDT efficacy were achieved. PMID:25406514

  6. Gold nanomaterials conjugated with indocyanine green for dual-modality photodynamic and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wen-Shuo; Chang, Yi-Ting; Cho, Keng-Chi; Chiu, Kuo-Chih; Lien, Chi-Hsiang; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2012-04-01

    Light-exposure-mediated higher temperatures that markedly accelerate the degradation of indocyanine green (ICG) in aqueous solutions by thermal decomposition have been a serious medical problem. In this work, we present the example of using gold nanorods (Au NRs) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) simultaneously serving as photodynamic and photothermal agents to destroy malignant cells. Au NRs and Au NPs were successfully conjugated with hydrophilic photosensitizer, indocyanine green (ICG), to achieve photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT). We also demonstrated that Au NRs and Au NPs conjugated with ICG displayed high chemical stability and acted as a promising diagnostic probe. Moreover, the photochemical destruction ability would have a gradually increase depending on different sizes of Au NPs. Due to its stability even via higher temperatures mediated by laser irradiation, the combination of PTT and PDT proved to be efficiently killing cancer cells as compared to PTT or PDT treatment alone and enhanced the effectiveness of photodestruction and was demonstrated to enhance its photostability. As a result, the preparation of Au-based nanomaterials conjugated with ICG as well as their use in biomedical applications is valuable developments in multifunctional nanomaterials. PMID:22289264

  7. Enhancing Targeted Tumor Treatment by Near IR Light-Activatable Photodynamic–Photothermal Synergistic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, cancer has been one of the most life-threatening diseases. For enhancing anticancer efficiency with minimum side effects, combination therapy is envisioned. The current manuscript reports for the first time the development of a methylene blue (MB) bound nanoplatform, which is capable of delivering targeted diagnostic and combined synergistic photothermal and photodynamic treatment of cancer. Experimental data found that, once the nanoparticle binds with the target cell surface, it can detect LNCaP human prostate cancer cell selectively using fluorescence imaging. Our result shows that the therapeutic actions can be controlled with external NIR light. No cytotoxicity was observed in the absence of NIR light. Targeted photodynamic and photothermal treatment using 785 nm NIR light indicates that the multimodal treatment enhances the possibility of destroying LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vitro dramatically. We discuss the operating principle for the targeted imaging and possible mechanisms for combined therapeutic actions. Our experimental data show that NIR light activated combined therapy for cancer may become a highly effective treatment procedure in clinical settings. PMID:24568338

  8. Determination of the optical properties of vascular tissues: potential applications in vascular-targeting photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yongbin; Chen, Ping; Lin, Lie; Huang, Zheng; Tang, Guoqing; Xu, Heping

    2007-11-01

    It has been proven that photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective in treating various malignant and non-malignant diseases. In the treatment of certain non-malignant vascular diseases, such as wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and port wine stains (PWS), unlike in the treatment of malignant solid tumors, light irradiation usually starts immediately after the intravenous (IV) injection of photosensitizers while the photosensitizers is mainly circulating inside blood vessels. Under such vascular-targeting action mode, photoreactions between photosensitizers and light can selectively destruct the vascular tissues. Light distribution is complex so that it is important to understand the optical properties of targeted vessels and surrounding tissues. To better determine the optical properties of vascular tissues, we developed a tissue-simulating phantom and adopted frequency-domain measurement of phase difference. Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients in blood vessels were estimated and light distribution was simulated by the Monte Carlo method. These determinations are essential for the implication of better light dosimetry models in clinical photodynamic therapy and vascular-targeting PDT, in particular.

  9. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer and for Infections: What Is the Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sulbha K.; Mroz, Pawel; Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; St. Denis, Tyler G.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered over one hundred years ago when it was observed that certain dyes could kill microorganisms when exposed to light in the presence of oxygen. Since those early days, PDT has mainly been developed as a cancer therapy and as a way to destroy proliferating blood vessels. However, recently it has become apparent that PDT may also be used as an effective antimicrobial modality and a potential treatment for localized infections. This review discusses the similarities and differences between the application of PDT for the treatment of microbial infections and for cancer lesions. Type I and type II photodynamic processes are described, and the structure-function relationships of optimal anticancer and antimicrobial photosensitizers are outlined. The different targeting strategies, intracellular photosensitizer localization, and pharmacokinetic properties of photosensitizers required for these two different PDT applications are compared and contrasted. Finally, the ability of PDT to stimulate an adaptive or innate immune response against pathogens and tumors is also covered. PMID:23248387

  10. Comparison of light emitting diodes and semiconductor laser inducing photodynamic therapy of cancer cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macecek, Jaroslav; Kolarova, Hana; Bajgar, Robert; Strnad, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    The goal of anticancer therapy is achievement of balance between destruction of tumour cells and tissues and conservation of physiological functions of noncancer cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of novel alternative treatment modality of malignant neoplasms. This method is based on cytotoxic action of excited sensitizers in the oxygen-rich environment. Sensitizers bound to cells and are excited by light source identical to absorption maximum of sensitizer. Photodynamic reactions lead to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause necrosis or apoptosis of cancer cells. The objective of our work was to analyse of phototoxicity in the sense of DNA damage in cancer cells after PDT by single cell gell electrophoresis (SCGE, comet assay) using ZnTPPS4 (zinc(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulphonatophenyl) porphyrine and disulfonated chloraluminium phthalocyanine ClAlPcS II as sensitizers. Violet light emitting diodes (LEDs; 1.5 mJ.cm -2.s -1; 418 nm) and semiconductor laser (50mW; 675 nm) were used as sources of radiation. Level of DNA fragmentation was detected after application of different light doses.

  11. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer and for Infections: What Is the Difference?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sulbha K; Mroz, Pawel; Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; St Denis, Tyler G; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered over one hundred years ago when it was observed that certain dyes could kill microorganisms when exposed to light in the presence of oxygen. Since those early days, PDT has mainly been developed as a cancer therapy and as a way to destroy proliferating blood vessels. However, recently it has become apparent that PDT may also be used as an effective antimicrobial modality and a potential treatment for localized infections. This review discusses the similarities and differences between the application of PDT for the treatment of microbial infections and for cancer lesions. Type I and type II photodynamic processes are described, and the structure-function relationships of optimal anticancer and antimicrobial photosensitizers are outlined. The different targeting strategies, intracellular photosensitizer localization, and pharmacokinetic properties of photosensitizers required for these two different PDT applications are compared and contrasted. Finally, the ability of PDT to stimulate an adaptive or innate immune response against pathogens and tumors is also covered. PMID:23248387

  12. Nanostructures of an amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine polymer conjugate for photodynamic therapy of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiguang; Zhang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Baolei; Kang, Hongxiang; Du, Lina; Li, Miao

    2015-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting 2-5% of the population worldwide and it severely affects patient quality of life. In this study, an amphiphilic zinc phthalocyanine polymer conjugate (ZPB) was synthesized, in which zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was conjugated with the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain of Brij 58. ZPB showed two maximum UV-vis absorption wavelengths, 348nm and 678nm. A monomolecular micelle of ZPB formed in water with a mean size of 25nm and zeta potential of -15mV. The nanostructures aggregated into cloudy precipitates, which were easily dispersed. The nanostructure showed the shell-core structure with the ZnPc segments as the core and the PEG chains as the shell. The anti-psoriasis effect of the ZPB nanostructure was explored using a guinea pig psoriasis model. After comparing the anti-psoriasis effects of saline, light alone, ZPB alone, and the combination of light and ZPB, the combination of light and ZPB showed the best photodynamic therapy of psoriasis based on the light excitation of the photosensitizer ZPB and the psoriasis was nearly cured according to the histopathological investigation. The ZPB nanostructure is a promising anti-psoriasis nanomedicine based on photodynamic therapy. PMID:25766924

  13. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with two photosensitizers on two oral streptococci: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahabi, S.; Fekrazad, R.; Ayremlou, S.; Taheri, S.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Kalhori, K. A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Periodontal diseases are caused by infection of tissues supporting the teeth due to complex aggregate of bacteria known as biofilm and firstly colonized by streptococci. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of Radachlorin® and Toluidine Blue O (TBO)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the viability of two oral streptococci. Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis were subjected to either TBO or Radachlorin®, Then exposed to two different diode laser light at energy densities of 3, 6 J/cm2 at 633 nm and 6, 12 J/cm2 at 662 nm, respectively. The control groups were subjected to laser light alone, photosensitizer alone or received neither photosensitizer nor light exposure. The suspensions were then spread over specific agar mediums and viable microorganisms were counted after overnight incubation aerobically at 37°C, 5% CO2 and then reported as colony forming unit. The results indicated that photosensitization by the energy density of 6 J/cm2 with Radachlorin® and both 3 and 6 J/cm2 with TBO caused significant reduction in bacterial colony formation ( p < 0.05). Radachlorin® and TBO-mediated photodynamic therapy seem to show excellent potential in significantly killing of two oral streptococci in vitro.

  14. Changes in cell migration due to the combined effects of sonodynamic therapy and photodynamic therapy on MDA-MB-231 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong

    2015-03-01

    Sono-photodynamic therapy is an emerging method with an increasing amount of research having demonstrated its anti-cancer efficacy. However, the impacts of cell migration ability after sono-photodynamic therapy have seldom been reported. In this study, we identified cell migration by wound healing and transwell assays. Significant inability of cell migration was observed in combined groups accompanied by the decline of cell adhesion. Cells in combined treatment groups showed serious microfilament network collapse as well as decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9. These results suggested that sono-photodynamic therapy could inhibit MDA-MB-231 cell migration and that the microfilament and matrix metalloproteinases-9 disorder might be involved.

  15. Postsurgical adjuvant tumor therapy by combining anti-angiopoietin-2 and metronomic chemotherapy limits metastatic growth.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Kshitij; Hu, Junhao; Korn, Claudia; Savant, Soniya; Teichert, Martin; Kapel, Stephanie S; Jugold, Manfred; Besemfelder, Eva; Thomas, Markus; Pasparakis, Manolis; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2014-12-01

    Antiangiogenic tumor therapy has failed in the adjuvant setting. Here we show that inhibition of the Tie2 ligand angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) effectively blocks metastatic growth in preclinical mouse models of postsurgical adjuvant therapy. Ang2 antibody treatment combines well with low-dose metronomic chemotherapy (LDMC) in settings in which maximum-dose chemotherapy does not prove effective. Mechanistically, Ang2 blockade could be linked to quenching the inflammatory and angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs) in the metastatic niche. Reduced EC adhesion molecule and chemokine expression inhibits the recruitment of tumor-promoting CCR2(+)Tie2(-) metastasis-associated macrophages. Moreover, LDMC contributes to therapeutic efficacy by inhibiting the recruitment of protumorigenic bone marrow-derived myeloid cells. Collectively, these data provide a rationale for mechanism-guided adjuvant tumor therapies. PMID:25490450

  16. Bax is essential for mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis but not for cell death caused by photodynamic therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S-M Chiu; L-Y Xue; J Usuda; K Azizuddin; N L Oleinick

    2003-01-01

    The role of Bax in the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and the induction of apoptosis has been demonstrated in many systems. Using immunocytochemical staining, we observed that photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the photosensitiser Pc 4 induced Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria, and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria as early signalling for the intrinsic pathway

  17. Adjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy After Pancreaticoduodenectomy in Elderly Patients With Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, David P.; Hsu, Charles C.; Wang Jingya [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Makary, Martin A.; Winter, Jordan M.; Robinson, Ray; Schulick, Richard D.; Cameron, John L.; Pawlik, Timothy M. [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Herman, Joseph M., E-mail: jherma15@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients {>=}75 years of age. Methods: The study group of 655 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the Johns Hopkins Hospital over a 12-year period (8/30/1993 to 2/28/2005). Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, intraoperative data, pathology data, and patient outcomes were collected and analyzed by adjuvant treatment status and age {>=}75 years. Cox proportional hazards analysis determined clinical predictors of mortality and morbidity. Results: We identified 166 of 655 (25.3%) patients were {>=}75 years of age and 489 of 655 patients (74.7%) were <75 years of age. Forty-nine patients in the elderly group (29.5%) received adjuvant CRT. For elderly patients, node-positive metastases (p = 0.008), poor/anaplastic differentiation (p = 0.012), and undergoing a total pancreatectomy (p = 0.010) predicted poor survival. The 2-year survival for elderly patients receiving adjuvant therapy was improved compared with surgery alone (49.0% vs. 31.6%, p = 0.013); however, 5-year survival was similar (11.7% vs. 19.8%, respectively, p = 0.310). After adjusting for major confounders, adjuvant therapy in elderly patients had a protective effect with respect to 2-year survival (relative risk [RR] 0.58, p = 0.044), but not 5-year survival (RR 0.80, p = 0.258). Among the nonelderly, CRT was significantly associated with 2-year survival (RR 0.60, p < 0.001) and 5-year survival (RR 0.69, p < 0.001), after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions: Adjuvant therapy after PD is significantly associated with increased 2-year but not 5-year survival in elderly patients. Additional studies are needed to select which elderly patients are likely to benefit from adjuvant CRT.

  18. Safety profiles of tamoxifen and the aromatase inhibitors in adjuvant therapy of hormone-responsive early breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Perez

    2007-01-01

    Adjuvant endocrine therapy plays an important role in the management of hormone-receptor-positive early breast cancer, and has increased life expectancy for millions of women. Many patients receive adjuvant treatment for at least 5 years following tumor resection, hence good long-term safety is important for endocrine agents to gain widespread acceptance. Tamoxifen has been used as adjuvant therapy for early breast

  19. Radiation Therapy Is Associated With Improved Survival in the Adjuvant and Definitive Treatment of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Eric T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: Shinohara@xrt.upenn.edu; Mitra, Nandita; Guo Mengye [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Metz, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHC) are rare tumors for which large randomized studies regarding the use of radiation are not available. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of adjuvant and definitive radiation therapy in the treatment of IHC in a large group of patients. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective analysis of 3,839 patients with IHC collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Results: Patients received either surgery alone (25%), radiation therapy alone (10%), surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy (7%) or no treatment (58%). The median age of the patient population was 73 years (range, 22-102 years); 52% of patients were male and 81% were Caucasian. Median OS was 11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9-13), 6 (95% CI, 5-6), 7 (95% CI, 6-8), and 3 months for surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy, sugery alone, radiation therapy alone, and no treatment, respectively. The OS was significantly different between surgery alone and surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy (p = 0.014) and radiation therapy alone and no treatment (p < 0.0001). Use of surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy conferred the greatest benefit on OS (HR = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.34-0.47), followed by surgery alone (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95% CI, 0.44-0.54) and radiation therapy alone (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59-0.77) compared with no treatment, on multivariate analysis. Propensity score adjusted hazard ratios (controlling for age, race/ethnicity, stage, and year of diagnosis) were also significant (surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy vs. surgery alone (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96); radiation therapy alone vs. no treatment (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58-0.76)). Conclusions: The study results suggest that adjuvant and definitive radiation treatment prolong survival, although cure rates remain low. Future studies should evaluate the addition of chemotherapy and biologics to the treatment of IHC.

  20. A graphene quantum dot photodynamic therapy agent with high singlet oxygen generation

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jiechao; Lan, Minhuan; Zhou, Bingjiang; Liu, Weimin; Guo, Liang; Wang, Hui; Jia, Qingyan; Niu, Guangle; Huang, Xing; Zhou, Hangyue; Meng, Xiangmin; Wang, Pengfei; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun; Han, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Clinical applications of current photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents are often limited by their low singlet oxygen (1O2) quantum yields, as well as by photobleaching and poor biocompatibility. Here we present a new PDT agent based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) that can produce 1O2 via a multistate sensitization process, resulting in a quantum yield of ~1.3, the highest reported for PDT agents. The GQDs also exhibit a broad absorption band spanning the UV region and the entire visible region and a strong deep-red emission. Through in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrate that GQDs can be used as PDT agents, simultaneously allowing imaging and providing a highly efficient cancer therapy. The present work may lead to a new generation of carbon-based nanomaterial PDT agents with overall performance superior to conventional agents in terms of 1O2 quantum yield, water dispersibility, photo- and pH-stability, and biocompatibility. PMID:25105845

  1. 9-Nitroanthracene derivative as a precursor of anthraquinone for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Kiyoshi; Oikawa, Shinji; Hakoda, Nana; Sakai, Yasunori; Hiraku, Yusuke; Shoda, Takuji; Saito, Shinichi; Miyata, Naoki; Kawanishi, Shosuke; Okuda, Haruhiro

    2007-06-01

    Anthraquinones are typical photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, systemic toxicity is a major problem for anthraquinones due to their ability not only to bind DNA but also to cause oxidative stress even without photoirradiation. To avoid such disadvantages in cancer therapy, we designed and synthesized a novel 9-nitroanthracene derivative (1) as a precursor of anthraquinone. Under photoirradiation, 1 is converted into anthraquinone via generation of nitric oxide as confirmed by ESR. Strong DNA cleavage specifically at guanine under photoirradiation was also observed, characteristic of DNA-cleaving reactions by photoirradiated anthraquinones. We propose development of 1 as an alternative approach toward PDT that reduces the systemic toxicity of anthraquinone. PMID:17400461

  2. Regression of drusen after combined treatment using photodynamic therapy with verteporfin and ranibizumab.

    PubMed

    Novais, Eduardo Amorim; Badaró, Emmerson; Regatieri, Caio Vinicius Saito; Duker, Jay; de Oliveira Bonomo, Pedro Paulo

    2015-02-01

    Drusen are the clinical hallmark of age-related macular degeneration. The regression of these deposits in patients treated with argon, krypton, or diode laser photocoagulation has been reported previously. However, previous protocols with conventional laser for drusen may result in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) damage and unwanted scotomas. The authors report a case of complete regression of soft drusen in a 65-year-old man with central visual loss and metamorphopsia due to a drusenoid RPE detachment and soft drusen who underwent reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT) and three monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab. Reduced-fluence PDT combined with anti-VEGF therapy may reduce drusen without inducing RPE cell damage. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2015;46:275-278.]. PMID:25707058

  3. Regulation of miRNA Expression by Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)

    PubMed Central

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Okawa, Shinpei; Ishihara, Miya

    2013-01-01

    Applications of laser therapy, including low-level laser therapy (LLLT), phototherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), have been proven to be beneficial and relatively less invasive therapeutic modalities for numerous diseases and disease conditions. Using specific types of laser irradiation, specific cellular activities can be induced. Because multiple cellular signaling cascades are simultaneously activated in cells exposed to lasers, understanding the molecular responses within cells will aid in the development of laser therapies. In order to understand in detail the molecular mechanisms of LLLT and PDT-related responses, it will be useful to characterize the specific expression of miRNAs and proteins. Such analyses will provide an important source for new applications of laser therapy, as well as for the development of individualized treatments. Although several miRNAs should be up- or down-regulated upon stimulation by LLLT, phototherapy and PDT, very few published studies address the effect of laser therapy on miRNA expression. In this review, we focus on LLLT, phototherapy and PDT as representative laser therapies and discuss the effects of these therapies on miRNA expression. PMID:23807510

  4. Advances in adjuvant systemic therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leong, David; Rai, Rajat; Nguyen, Brandon; Lee, Andrew; Yip, Desmond

    2014-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer remains a leading cause of death around the world. For most cases, the only chance of cure comes from resection for localised disease, however relapse rates remain high following surgery. Data has emerged over recent years regarding the utility of adjuvant chemotherapy for improving disease-free and overall survival of patients following curative resection. This paper reviews the clinical trials that have been conducted in this area along with the studies integrating radiation therapy in the adjuvant setting. The role of prognostic gene signatures are reviewed as well as ongoing clinical trials including those incorporating biological or targeted therapies. PMID:25302167

  5. Effects of chlorin e6-mediated photodynamic therapy on human colon cancer SW480 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuhua; Yu, Yalu; Kang, Ling; Lu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study is to investigate the antitumor effects and possible mechanisms of chlorin e6-mediated photodynamic therapy (Ce6-PDT) on human colon cancer SW480 cells. Methods: SW480 cells were treated with Ce6, followed by photodynamic irradiation. Subcellular localization of Ce6 in SW480 cells was observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSCM). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were monitored with fluorescence microscopy. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by the MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Scratch test and colony formation assay were employed to analyze the cell migration ability and colony formation ability. Results: LSCM showed that, in SW480 cells, Ce6 was evenly distributed within the ER and lysosomes, with nearly no distribution in the mitochondria and nuclei. When SW480 cells were subjected to Ce6-PDT, the ROS levels would be elevated, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, Ce6-PDT treatment could inhibit the cell proliferation and enhance the apoptotic process, in SW480 cells. However, Ce6 treatment alone without photodynamic irradiation could not induce any significant differences in the cell proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, the migration ability and colony formation ability of SW480 cells were decreased by Ce6-PDT treatment at appropriate dosages. Conclusion: Ce6-PDT treatment could enhance ROS production and apoptosis, inhibit cell proliferation, decrease migration ability and colony formation ability, in SW480 cells, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings might provide experimental evidence for the application of Ce6-PDT in clinical treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:25663983

  6. Cardiac effects of adjuvant therapy for early breastcancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Theodoulou; Andrew D Seidman

    2003-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is an established standard of care for most patients diagnosed with early breast cancer, and its popularity is gaining worldwide. The systemic armamentarium presently includes anthracyclines and taxanes, alkylating agents, fluoropyrimidines, and antimetabolites; in the future, it may include platinum compounds and the recombinant humanized anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, as well. Anti-estrogens continue to play an important role

  7. Anti-tumor immune response after photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, Pawel; Castano, Ana P.; Wu, Mei X.; Kung, Andrew L.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-06-01

    Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due a number of factors including: the acute inflammatory response caused by PDT, release of antigens from PDT-damaged tumor cells, priming of the adaptive immune system to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAA), and induction of heat-shock proteins. The induction of specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte cells that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes of TAAs is a highly desirable goal in cancer therapy as it would allow the treatment of tumors that may have already metastasized. The PDT killed tumor cells may be phagocytosed by dendritic cells (DC) that then migrate to draining lymph nodes and prime naÃve T-cells that recognize TAA epitopes. We have carried out in vivo PDT with a BPD-mediated vascular regimen using a pair of BALB/c mouse colon carcinomas: CT26 wild type expressing the naturally occurring retroviral antigen gp70 and CT26.CL25 additionally expressing beta-galactosidase (b-gal) as a model tumor rejection antigen. PDT of CT26.CL25 cured 100% of tumors but none of the CT26WT tumors (all recurred). Cured CT26.CL25 mice were resistant to rechallenge. Moreover mice with two bilateral CT26.CL25 tumors that had only one treated with PDT demonstrated spontaneous regression of 70% of untreated contralateral tumors. T-lymphocytes were isolated from lymph nodes of PDT cured mice that recognized a particular peptide specific to b-gal antigen. T-lymphocytes from LN were able to kill CT26.CL25 target cells in vitro but not CT26WT cells as shown by a chromium release assay. CT26.CL25 tumors treated with PDT and removed five days later had higher levels of Th1 cytokines than CT26 WT tumors showing a higher level of immune response. When mice bearing CT26WT tumors were treated with a regimen of low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) 2 days before, PDT led to 100% of cures (versus 0% without CY) and resistance to rechallenge. Low dose CY is thought to deplete regulatory T-cells (Treg, CD4+CD25+foxp3+) and potentiate immune response after PDT in the case of tumors that express self-antigens. These data suggest that PDT alone will stimulate a strong immune response when tumors express a robust antigen, and in cases where tumors express a self-antigen, T-reg depletion can unmask the immune response after PDT.

  8. Laser surgery and medicine including photodynamic therapy in China today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junheng

    2000-10-01

    The development of laser medicine in China is correlated with the development of laser science in China. After the first Chinese laser, ruby laser came into being in 1961, Chinese medical scientists began to do the studies about laser medicine in the middle 1960s. For example, ruby laser was adopted for the retina coagulation experiment in 1965. Since 1970s, through the free choice of utilizing Co2, He-Ne, Nd:YAG argon, ruby lasers, laser surgery and medicine has been widely applied to the treatment for diseases of the eyes, ENT, dermatology, surgery, gynecology, tumors and diseases suitable to physical therapy or acupuncture with satisfactory effects. In June 1977, a nation-wide laser medicine symposium was held at Wuhan, Hubei Province with 200 participants including medical doctors and laser technologies from 23 provinces and municipal towns. Till the end of seventies, utilization of lasers has been extended to Nd glass laser, N laser and tunable dye lasers. The scope covered most of the clinical sections. After Dr. Thomas J. Dougherty developed the PDT for cancers in Roswell Park Memorial Institute in Buffalo in late 1970s and Professor Yoshihiro Hayata successfully applied the PDT in clinical treatment for lung cancer in 1980, Chinese pharmacists successfully produced the Chinese HpD and the first case of PDT, a lower eyelid basal cell carcinoma patient was treated with the Chinese laser equipment in 1981 in Beijing. Its success brought attention establishing a research group supported by the government in 1982. The members of the group consisted the experts on preclinical and clinical research, pharmaceutical chemistry, laser physicists and technologists. A systemic research on PDT was then carried out and obvious result was achieved. The step taken for PDT also accelerated the researchers on other kinds of laser medicine and surgery because the medical doctors had begun to master the knowledge about laser science. The prosperous situation of rapid development of laser science, bio-medical lasers, laser medicine and surgery as well as PDT was prolonged in the whole nineteen eighties.

  9. Effect of photodynamic therapy using benzoporphyrin derivative on the cutaneous immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simkin, Guillermo O.; Obochi, Modestus; Hunt, David W. C.; Chan, Agnes H.; Levy, Julia G.

    1995-05-01

    In this study, the effect of transdermal photodynamic therapy (PDT) using benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) on the development of the immunologically mediated contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response against the hapten dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and on the duration of skin allograft acceptance has been evaluated. In the CHS model it was found that the treatment of hairless strain mice with whole-body transdermal PDT using BPD (1 mg/kg) and LED light (15 J/cm2) resulted in a profound suppression of the CHS reaction if treatment was applied either 48 or 24 hours prior or up to 72 hours after sensitization of abdominal skin with DNFB. Less inhibition of the CHS response was observed if PDT was given one day before the ear challenge with DNFB which was applied 5 days following the initial DNFB sensitization. However, DNFB-exposed, PDT-treated mice retained the capacity to respond maximally to the unrelated contact sensitizer oxazolone. These results are consistent with other models of experimentally induced immune tolerance. allogeneic skin graft studies demonstrated that pretreatment of skin with BPD and light, at levels that did not cause significant tissue damage, significantly enhanced the length of engraftment. Using a separate protocol, photodynamic treatment of recipient mice at various times after transplant had no significant effect on allograft acceptance. Irradiation of skin in the presence of BPD may significantly inhibit the initiation of certain immunological responses within these tissues.

  10. Pheophorbide a mediated photodynamic therapy against human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Li, Wen-Tyng

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the death mechanism of human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431) triggered by photodynamic therapy (PDT) with pheophorbide a. First of all, significant inhibition on the survival of A431 cells (< 20 %) was observed when an irradiation dose of 5.1 J/cm2 combined with 125 ng/ml of pheophorbide a was applied. Survival rate of human keratinocyte cells was over 70 % under the same PDT parameters, suggesting that pheophorbide a killed cancer cells selectively. Mitochondria were the main target sites where pheophorbide a accumulated. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected after PDT. Addition of antioxidant N-Acetyl cysteine prevented ROS production and increased cell survival thereafter. The decrease in cellular ATP level was also observed at 6 hrs after PDT. Typical apoptotic cellular morphology and a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential occurred after PDT. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential led to the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, followed by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. The activation of caspase-3 resulted in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in A431 cells, followed by DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that pheophorbide a possessed photodynamic action against A431 cells, mainly through apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial intrinsic pathway triggered by ROS.

  11. Topical delivery of a preformed photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of cutaneous lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinick, Nancy L.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Lam, Minh; McCormick, Thomas; Cooper, Kevin D.; Baron, Elma D.

    2012-02-01

    Photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) are most commonly delivered to patients or experimental animals via intravenous injection. After initial distribution throughout the body, there can be some preferential accumulation within tumors or other abnormal tissue in comparison to the surrounding normal tissue. In contrast, the photosensitizer precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or one of its esters, is routinely administered topically, and more specifically, to target skin lesions. Following metabolic conversion to protoporphyrin IX, the target area is photoilluminated, limiting peripheral damage and targeting the effective agent to the desired region. However, not all skin lesions are responsive to ALA-PDT. Topical administration of fully formed photosensitizers is less common but is receiving increased attention, and some notable advances with selected approved and experimental photosensitizers have been published. Our team has examined topical administration of the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 to mammalian (human, mouse, pig) skin. Pc 4 in a desired formulation and concentration was applied to the skin surface at a rate of 5-10 ?L/cm2 and kept under occlusion. After various times, skin biopsies were examined by confocal microscopy, and fluorescence within regions of interest was quantified. Early after application, images show the majority of the Pc 4 fluorescence within the stratum corneum and upper epidermis. As a function of time and concentration, penetration of Pc 4 across the stratum corneum and into the epidermis and dermis was observed. The data indicate that Pc 4 can be delivered to skin for photodynamic activation and treatment of skin pathologies.

  12. Delivery of lipophilic porphyrin by liposome vehicles: preparation and photodynamic therapy activity against cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Temizel, Emine; Sagir, Tugba; Ayan, Esra; Isik, Sevim; Ozturk, Ramazan

    2014-12-01

    Porphyrin photosensitizers are mostly used components in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The poor solubility of porphyrins in aqueous medium is the problem to be solved for the in vivo applications. The delivery of photosensitizers to the tumor cells using liposome vehicles can help to overcome this problem. In this work, we have first functionalized the protoporphyrin IX with lipophilic oleylamine arms and encapsulated it into 1,2 dioleyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) liposomes. The appropriate sizes of liposomes are about 140 nm and have the characteristic Soret and Q band absorptions at 405 nm (Soret), 507 nm, 541 nm, 577 nm and 631 nm (Q bands), respectively. In the photodynamic activity studies, the liposomal porphyrins were irradiated with light (375 nm, 10 mW) in the presence of cancer cell lines, HeLa and AGS. We have found that both liposomal porphyrins and oleylamine conjugated porphyrins are much more effective than PpIX. This result can be attributed to the drug delivery characteristic of the liposomes which plays effective role in endocytosis. We also found that, in AGS cells, liposomal PpIX-Ole induced apoptosis more than HeLa cells under light conditions. PMID:25107838

  13. Hetergeneous tumour response to photodynamic therapy assessed by in vivo localised 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ceckler, T. L.; Gibson, S. L.; Kennedy, S. D.; Hill, R.; Bryant, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is efficacious in the treatment of small malignant lesions when all cells in the tumour receive sufficient drug, oxygen and light to induce a photodynamic effect capable of complete cytotoxicity. In large tumours, only partial effectiveness is observed presumably because of insufficient light penetration into the tissue. The heterogeneity of the metabolic response in mammary tumours following PDT has been followed in vivo using localised phosphorus NMR spectroscopy. Alterations in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and pH within localised regions of the tumour were monitored over 24-48 h following PDT irradiation of the tumour. Reduction of NTP and increases in Pi were observed at 4-6 h after PDT irradiation in all regions of treated tumours. The uppermost regions of the tumours (those nearest the skin surface and exposed to the greatest light fluence) displayed the greatest and most prolonged reduction of NTP and concomitant increase in Pi resulting in necrosis. The metabolite concentrations in tumour regions located towards the base of the tumour returned a near pre-treatment levels by 24-48 h after irradiation. The ability to follow heterogeneous metabolic responses in situ provides one means to assess the degree of metabolic inhibition which subsequently leads to tumour necrosis. Images Figure 4 PMID:1829953

  14. Two combined photosensitizers: a goal for more effective photodynamic therapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Acedo, P; Stockert, J C; Cañete, M; Villanueva, A

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved therapeutic modality for the treatment of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation, mainly cancer. It involves the selective uptake of a photosensitizer (PS) by neoplastic tissue, which is able to produce reactive oxygen species upon irradiation with light, leading to tumor regression. Here a synergistic cell photoinactivation is reported based on the simultaneous administration of two PSs, zinc(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and the cationic porphyrin meso-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine (TMPyP) in three cell lines (HeLa, HaCaT and MCF-7), using very low doses of PDT. We detected changes from predominant apoptosis (without cell detachment) to predominant necrosis, depending on the light dose used (2.4 and 3.6?J/cm2, respectively). Analysis of changes in cytoskeleton components (microtubules and F-actin), FAK protein, as well as time-lapse video microscopy evidenced that HeLa cells were induced to undergo apoptosis, without losing adhesion to the substrate. Moreover, 24?h after intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice, ZnPc and TMPyP were preferentially accumulated in the tumor area. PDT with combined treatment produced significant retardation of tumor growth. We believe that this combined and highly efficient strategy (two PSs) may provide synergistic curative rates regarding conventional photodynamic treatments (with one PS alone). PMID:24625981

  15. Polyion complex micelles entrapping cationic dendrimer porphyrin: effective photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Dong; Harada, Atsushi; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Jiang, Dong-Lin; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Aida, Takuzo; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2003-12-01

    Photosensitizers play a crucial role in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. In this study, a third-generation aryl ether dendrimer porphyrin with 32 primary amine groups on the periphery, [NH2CH2CH2NHCO]32DPZn, and pH-sensitive, polyion complex micelles (PIC) composed of the porphyrin dendrimer and PEG-b-poly(aspartic acid), were evaluated as new photosensitizers (PSs) for PDT in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) cell line. The preliminary photophysical characteristics of [NH2CH2CH2NHCO]32DPZn and the corresponding micelles were investigated. Electrostatic assembly resulted in a red-shift of the Soret peak of the porphyrin core and the enhanced fluorescence. Compared to the dendrimer porphyrin [NH2CH2CH2NHCO]32DPZn, relatively low cellular uptake of dendrimer porphyrin [NH2CH2CH2NHCO]32DPZn incorporated in the PIC micelle was observed, yet the latter exhibited enhanced photodynamic efficacy on the LLC cell line. Importantly, the use of PIC micelles as a delivery system reduced the dark toxicity of the cationic dendrimer porphyrin, probably due to the biocompatible PEG shell of the micelles. PMID:14636720

  16. Near-infrared Au nanorods in photodynamic therapy, hyperthermia agents, and near-infrared optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Wen-Shuo; Chang, Chich-Neng; Chang, Yi-Ting; Yang, Meng-Heng; Chien, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Shean-Jen; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    The development of multifunctional nanomaterials is currently a topic of interest in the field of nanotechnology. Integrated systems that incorporate therapeutics, molecular targeting, and diagnostic imaging capabilities are considered to be the next generation of multifunctional nanomedicine. In this work, we present the first example of using Au nanorods simultaneously serving not only as photodynamic and photothermal agents to destroy A549 malignant cells but also as optical contrast agents simultaneously to monitor cellular image. Au nanorods were successfully conjugated with hydrophilic photosensitizer, indocyanine green (ICG), to achieve photodynamic therapy (PDT) and hyperthermia. With the combination of PDT and hyperthermia proved to be efficiently killing cancer cells as compared to PDT or hyperthermia treatment alone and enhanced the effectiveness of photodestruction. Moreover, Au nanorods conjugated with ICG displayed high chemical stability and simultaneously acted as a promising cellular image probe. As a result, the preparation of Au nanorods conjugated with photosensitizers as well as their use in biomedical applications is valuable developments in multifunctional nanomaterials.

  17. Fiber optic probes for tissue illumination in photodynamic diagnosis and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Reinhold; Beyer, Wolfgang; Friedsam, G.; Jocham, Dieter; Noack, Axel; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert G.; Unsoeld, Eberhard

    1992-08-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and therapy (PDT) require light application devices which enable homogeneous illumination of tissue in hollow organs. Three techniques based on modification of the aperture of single fibers are presented mainly for use in urology and pneumology in combination with rigid and flexible endoscopes. All illumination systems allow for nearly entire illumination of the endoscope's viewing field. A microlens system is used for fluorescence diagnostic purposes in the lung. The system, consisting of two plano convex lenses in a condenser configuration, is attached directly to the fiber. The beam profile is optimized by ray tracing calculations. For fluorescence excitation of the tumormarker Photofrin II in the urinary bladder a 500 micrometers plastic fiber is used. The tip of the fiber is polished to a double cone with angles of 12 degree(s) and 7 degree(s). With this modification the aperture is increased by a factor of two. Photodynamic treatment of confined superficial tumors in the lung was successfully performed with a fused silica fiber coupled to the endoscope in a special adaptive device. In this procedure laserlight at 630 nm is guided through the optics channel of rigid endoscopes. A homogeneous circular illumination pattern is obtained following exactly the deflection angle of the endoscope.

  18. 5-aminolaevulinic acid for fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy of bronchial cancer: a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamarra, Fernando; Baumgartner, Reinhold; Stepp, Herbert G.; Rick, Kai; Leberig, A.; Huber, Rudolf M.

    1995-03-01

    Five-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) was applied orally and by aerosol inhalation to one patient in order to check the feasibility of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodynamic fluorescence diagnosis (PDD) of lung cancer. For PDD, ALA was given by inhalation using a conventional jet nebulizer. Protoporphyrin IX (PP IX)-fluorescence in the bronchial mucosa and the tumor was assessed visually and by spectroscopy using an optical multichannel analyzer. At a second session ALA was given orally and PDD as well as PDT were performed. The therapeutic effect on the tumor was controlled by bronchoscopy 5 and 12 weeks after PDT. Inhalative and oral application of ALA were both well tolerated. No adverse effects were observed. PP IX- fluorescence could be easily detected 3 h after ALA administered by inhalation or 5 h after ALA orally. Fluorescence ratio between tumor and normal tissues was better after the oral administration of ALA. Five and twelve weeks after PDT, marked reduction of tumor volume and recanalization of the left upper lobe were found.

  19. 18 years long-term results of facial port-wine stain (PWS) after photodynamic therapy (PDT) - A case report.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenxin; Ma, Gang; Qiu, Yajing; Chen, Hui; Jin, Yunbo; Yang, Xi; Hu, Xiaojie; Chang, Lei; Wang, Tianyou; Zhou, Henghua; Li, Wei; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2015-03-01

    Port-wine stain (PWS) is still a challenging condition for clinician to treat, because in the majority of cases, the stains are not lifted fully by treatment with laser therapy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was considered recently as a promising alternative treatment for PWS. We report here long-term follow-up measures 18 years on PWS lesion treated with PDT and the histological data of residual PWS. PMID:25461965

  20. Is photodynamic therapy a selective treatment? Analysis of local complications after endoscopic photodynamic therapy of early stage tumors of gastrointestinal, tracheobronchial, and urinary tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Dal Fante, Marco; Mancini, Andrea

    1995-03-01

    Selectivity is the most emphasized advantage of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, at drug and light doses used for clinical applications, response from normal tissue surrounding the tumor reduces the real selectivity of the drug-light system and increases the surface of the area responding to the treatment. It is now evident that light irradiation of a sensitized patient produces damage at a various degree not only in the tumor but also in non-neoplastic tissues included in the field of irradiation. We report our experience in endoscopic PDT of early stage tumors in tracheobronchial, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, describing early and late local complications caused by the damage of normal tissues adjacent to the tumors and included in the field of light irradiation. Among 44 patients treated, local complications, attributable to a poor selectivity of the modality, occurred in 6 patients (14%). In particular, the rate of local complications was 9% in patients treated for esophageal tumors, 14% in patients with gastric tumors, 9% in patients with tracheobronchial tumors, and 67% in bladder cancer patients. Clinical pictures as well as endoscopic findings at various intervals from treatment showed that mucositis is a common event following endoscopic PDT. It causes exudation and significant tissue inflammatory response, whose consequences are different in the various organs treated. Photoradiation must be, as much as possible, limited to the malignant area.

  1. Photosensitizer-incorporated G-quadruplex DNA-functionalized magnetofluorescent nanoparticles for targeted magnetic resonance/fluorescence multimodal imaging and subsequent photodynamic therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Meili; Li, Zhenhua; Liu, Zhen; Ren, Jinsong; Yang, Xinjian; Qu, Xiaogang

    2012-07-01

    A smart heteronanostructure has been constructed for targeted photodynamic therapy and magnetic fluorescent imaging of cancer cells using photosensitizer-incorporated G-quadruplex DNA functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. PMID:22622597

  2. Effectiveness of adjuvant occupational therapy in employees with depression: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiske L Hees; Maarten WJ Koeter; Gabe de Vries; Wendy Ooteman; Aart H Schene

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is among the medical conditions with the highest negative impact on work outcome. However, little is known regarding evidence-based interventions targeting the improvement of work outcomes in depressed employees. In this paper, the design of a randomized controlled trial is presented in order to evaluate the effectiveness of adjuvant occupational therapy in employees with depression. This

  3. Positive effect of tamoxifen as part of adjuvant chemo-endocrine therapy for breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Uchino; N Samejima; T Tanabe; H Hayasaka; M Mito; Y Hata; K Asaishi

    1994-01-01

    A prospective randomised multicentre clinical study was undertaken for 2 years and 3 months from November 1982, with the aim of examining the significance of using a combination of ftorafur (FT) and tamoxifen (TAM) for post-operative adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. Patients had either stage II or stage IIIa disease, were age 75 or below and had undergone radical mastectomy.

  4. The application of hyaluronic acid-derivatized carbon nanotubes in hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-based photodynamic therapy for in vivo and in vitro cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinjin; Ma, Rourou; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ruiyuan; Li, Lulu; Liu, Yan; Hou, Lin; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great potential in both photothermal therapy and drug delivery. In this study, a CNT derivative, hyaluronic acid-derivatized CNTs (HA-CNTs) with high aqueous solubility, neutral pH, and tumor-targeting activity, were synthesized and characterized, and then a new photodynamic therapy agent, hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), was adsorbed onto the functionalized CNTs to develop HMME-HA-CNTs. Tumor growth inhibition was investigated both in vivo and in vitro by a combination of photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy using HMME-HA-CNTs. The ability of HMME-HA-CNT nanoparticles to combine local specific photodynamic therapy with external near-infrared photothermal therapy significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatment. Compared with photodynamic therapy or photothermal therapy alone, the combined treatment demonstrated a synergistic effect, resulting in higher therapeutic efficacy without obvious toxic effects to normal organs. Overall, it was demonstrated that HMME-HA-CNTs could be successfully applied to photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy simultaneously in future tumor therapy. PMID:23843694

  5. The application of hyaluronic acid-derivatized carbon nanotubes in hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-based photodynamic therapy for in vivo and in vitro cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinjin; Ma, Rourou; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ruiyuan; Li, Lulu; Liu, Yan; Hou, Lin; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great potential in both photothermal therapy and drug delivery. In this study, a CNT derivative, hyaluronic acid-derivatized CNTs (HA-CNTs) with high aqueous solubility, neutral pH, and tumor-targeting activity, were synthesized and characterized, and then a new photodynamic therapy agent, hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), was adsorbed onto the functionalized CNTs to develop HMME-HA-CNTs. Tumor growth inhibition was investigated both in vivo and in vitro by a combination of photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy using HMME-HA-CNTs. The ability of HMME-HA-CNT nanoparticles to combine local specific photodynamic therapy with external near-infrared photothermal therapy significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatment. Compared with photodynamic therapy or photothermal therapy alone, the combined treatment demonstrated a synergistic effect, resulting in higher therapeutic efficacy without obvious toxic effects to normal organs. Overall, it was demonstrated that HMME-HA-CNTs could be successfully applied to photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy simultaneously in future tumor therapy. PMID:23843694

  6. Physician Beliefs and Practices for Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Timothy N., E-mail: timothy.showalter@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ohri, Nitin; Teti, Kristopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Foley, Kathleen A. [Strategic Consulting, Thomson Reuters Healthcare, Cambridge, MA (United States); Keith, Scott W. [Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Trabulsi, Edouard J.; Lallas, Costas D. [Department of Urology, Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman-Censits, Jean [Department of Medical Oncology, Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pizzi, Laura T. [School of Pharmacy, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gomella, Leonard G. [Department of Urology, Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Despite results of randomized trials that support adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer with adverse pathologic features (APF), many clinicians favor selective use of salvage RT. This survey was conducted to evaluate the beliefs and practices of radiation oncologists (RO) and urologists (U) regarding RT after RP. Methods and Materials: We designed a Web-based survey of post-RP RT beliefs and policies. Survey invitations were e-mailed to a list of 926 RO and 591 U. APF were defined as extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, or positive surgical margin. Differences between U and RO in adjuvant RT recommendations were evaluated by comparative statistics. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate factors predictive of adjuvant RT recommendation. Results: Analyzable surveys were completed by 218 RO and 92 U (overallresponse rate, 20%). Adjuvant RT was recommended based on APF by 68% of respondents (78% RO, 44% U, p <0.001). U were less likely than RO to agree that adjuvant RT improves survival and/or biochemical control (p < 0.0001). PSA thresholds for salvage RT were higher among U than RO (p < 0.001). Predicted rates of erectile dysfunction due to RT were higher among U than RO (p <0.001). On multivariate analysis, respondent specialty was the only predictor of adjuvant RT recommendations. Conclusions: U are less likely than RO to recommend adjuvant RT. Future research efforts should focus on defining the toxicities of post-RP RT and on identifying the subgroups of patients who will benefit from adjuvant vs. selective salvage RT.

  7. Role of Adjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy in Adenocarcinomas of the Ampulla of Vater

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: skrishnan@mdanderson.org; Rana, Vishal [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Evans, Douglas B. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Varadhachary, Gauri [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Das, Prajnan; Bhatia, Sumita; Delclos, Marc E.; Janjan, Nora A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wolff, Robert A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pisters, Peter W. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: The role of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in the treatment of ampullary cancers remains undefined. We retrospectively compared treatment outcomes in patients treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy alone versus those who received additional adjuvant CRT. Methods and Materials: Between May 1990 and January 2006, 54 of 96 patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma who underwent potentially curative pancreaticoduodenectomy also received adjuvant CRT. The median preoperative radiation dose was 45 Gy (range, 30-50.4 Gy) and median postoperative dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45-55.8 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy included primarily 5-fluorouracil (52%) and capecitabine (43%). Median follow-up was 31 months. Univariate and multivariate statistical methodologies were used to determine significant prognostic factors for local control (LC), distant control (DC), and overall survival (OS). Results: Actuarial 5-year LC, DC, and OS were 77%, 69%, and 64%, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, gender, race/ethnicity, tumor grade, use of adjuvant treatment, and sequencing of adjuvant therapy were not significantly associated with LC, DC, or OS. However, on univariate analysis, T3/T4 tumor stage was prognostic for poorer LC and OS (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively); node-positive disease was prognostic for poorer LC (p = 0.03). On multivariate analysis, T3/T4 tumor stage was independently prognostic for decreased OS (p = 0.002). Among these patients (n = 34), those who received adjuvant CRT had a trend toward improved OS (median, 35.2 vs. 16.5 months; p = 0.06). Conclusions: Ampullary cancers have a distinctly better treatment outcome than pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Higher primary tumor stage (T3/T4), an independent adverse risk factor for poorer treatment outcomes, may warrant the addition of adjuvant CRT to pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  8. A Case of Advanced Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Treatment with Chemotherapy and Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jae-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive, treatment-resistant, and generally fatal disease. A 68-year-old male who was diagnosed with MPM at another hospital came to our hospital with dyspnea. We advised him to take combination chemotherapy but he refused to take the treatment. That was because he had already received chemotherapy with supportive care at another hospital but his condition worsened. Thus, we recommended photodynamic therapy (PDT) to deal with the dyspnea and MPM. After PDT, the dyspnea improved and the patient then decided to take the combination chemotherapy. Our patient received chemotherapy using pemetrexed/cisplatin. Afterwards, he received a single PDT treatment and then later took chemotherapy using gemcitabine/cisplatin. The patient showed a survival time of 27 months, which is longer than median survival time in advanced MPM patients. Further research and clinical trials are needed to demonstrate any synergistic effect between the combination chemotherapy and PDT. PMID:25653696

  9. Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization: current clinical status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Stuart L.; Golub, Allyn L.; Shulman, D. Geoffrey

    1995-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization (ALA PDT) via endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesis has been reported as efficacious, using topical formulations, in the treatment of a variety of dermatologic diseases including superficial basal cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and actinic (solar) keratoses. Application of ALA PDT to the detection and treatment of both malignant and non-malignant diseases of internal organs has recently been reported. Local internal application of ALA has been used for the detection, via PpIX fluorescence, of pathological conditions of the human urinary bladder and for selective endometrial ablation in animal model systems. Systemic, oral administration of ALA has been used for ALA PDT of superficial head and neck cancer and of colorectal cancer. This paper reviews the current clinical status of ALA PDT.

  10. Photodynamic therapy of spread-skin malignancies with scanning electron beam-pumped semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Shental, Victor V.; Ulasyuk, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using quantoscope (scanning electron-beam pumped semiconductor laser, (lambda) equals 670 +/- 2 nm, P equals 10 W) and Phthalocyanine Al as photosensitizer (PS) have been provided in nine patients (27 tumor sites) with spread skin malignancies (basal cell, squamous cell cancer, melanoma, metastases of breast cancer) and cancer of lip T1 - T2 N0 M0. During PDT power density has been from 200 to 450 mW/cm2, light doses ranging from 150 to 700 J/cm2. We have fulfilled diagnostic of tumor after injection of PS and have controlled treatment using Spectral-Fluorescent Video Complex. In five patients (23 sites) we had complete clinical response and in four patients (4 sites) partial response after PDT. Results of our study show that using of scanning electron- beam pumped semiconductor laser is perspective in treating of spread skin malignancies.

  11. Photodynamic therapy of spread skin malignancies with scanning electron-beam-pumped semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Shental, Victor V.; Ulasyuk, V. N.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using quantoscope (scanning electron-beam pumped semiconductor laser, (lambda) equals 670 plus or minus 2 nm, P equals 10 W) and Phtalocyanine Al as photosensitizer (PS) have been provided in nine patients (27 tumor sites) with spread skin malignancies (basal cell, squamous cell cancer, melanoma, metastases of breast cancer) and cancer of the lip T2 N0 M0. During PDT power density has been from 200 to 450 mW/cm2, light doses ranging from 150 to 700 J/cm2. We have fulfilled diagnostic of tumor after injection of PS and have controlled treatment using spectral- fluorescent video complex. In five patients (23 sites) we had complete clinical response and in four patients (4 sites) partial response after PDT. Results of our study show that use of scanning electron-beam-pumped semiconductor laser is promising in the treatment of spread skin malignancies.

  12. Current Status of Photodynamic Therapy in Digestive Tract Carcinoma in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nanashima, Atsushi; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective local treatment modality as a cancer-specific laser ablation in malignancy of some organs including digestive tracts or bile duct. In Japan, PDT has been applied at the early period after the first clinical induction in 1980’s. Although the useful efficacy was clarified, PDT has not been fully applied because of the phototoxicity of the porfimer sodium. The next generated talaporfin-sodium was used for PDT, in which phototoxicity was reduced and, however, the clinical efficacy for digestive tract malignancy has not yet been clarified. By proceeding the experimental and clinical trials, it is necessary to clarify the evidence of efficacy as a local powerful treatment with the conventional surgery, brachiotherapy and chemotherapy in the future step. PMID:25690028

  13. Serum levels of hematoporphyrin derivatives in the photodynamic therapy of malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, H. K.; Low, K. S.; Haji Baba, A. S.; Arimbalam, S.; Yip, C. H.; Chang, K. W.; Baskaran, G.; Lo, Y. L.; Jayalakshmi, P.; Looi, L. M.; Tan, N. H.

    1995-03-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), red light is administered 24 - 72 hours post intravenous (i.v.) injection of hematoporphyrin derivatives (HpD). In an earlier animal model study, more effective therapeutic response was obtained when red light irradiation was carried out 15 mins after the injection of HpD. The effectiveness of this immediate PDT protocol has been correlated to the high serum level of HpD immediately after administration and the destruction of the microcirculation system as the dominant tumor destruction mechanism. This study examines the pharmacokinetics and the serum levels of HpD in rats and also in human patients. Such data can assist in defining the optimum time delay for light irradiation in the PDT of cancer.

  14. The simulation of light distribution in photodynamic therapy for port wine stains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shi-Yu; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Ya

    2014-11-01

    Photodynamic Therapy is regarded as the best treatment for port wine stains, which has the main adverse effect of various degrees of pain (mild to moderate) during the illumination. Though the cooling and cold water have been used to reduce such pain, there is still no scientific evidence for these relief. In this paper, a realistic skin model is built to simulate the distribution of light under treatment, which helps control the light dose and temperature, and improve the clinical results. Comparing with the general parallel skin model, a curving stratum basale layer is used in this paper, and various blood vessel configurations such as single and multiple vessels with horizontally and vertically oriented, curve vessels, various vessel diameter and various radius of curvature of stratum basale layer are simulated. The results shows a more realistic modeling for the thermal damage and help to relief the pain in the treatment.

  15. Optical Doppler tomography for monitoring vascularization during photodynamic therapy of skin cancer lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, J.; Bendsøe, N.; Svanberg, K.; Andersson-Engels, S.; Jørgensen, T. M.; Thrane, L.; Larsen, H. E.; Pedersen, F.; Andersen, P. E.

    2008-04-01

    We investigate vascular changes during Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of skin tumors using optical Doppler tomography (ODT). The effect of vascular shut down on tumor destruction is currently not known, and to optimize treatment it is relevant to investigate this issue further. Optical Doppler tomography is capable of measuring blood flow in biological tissue down to 1-2 mm with sub-mm/s velocity sensitivity and micrometer spatial resolution making it suitable for blood flow measurements in the skin. We demonstrate the ability of detecting blood flow in the human skin using non-interstitial ODT to preserve the non-invasiveness. In general a very limited blood flow activity was observed in normal skin and around skin tumors making monitoring of changes difficult. We suggest solutions to a number of practical issues such as sampling errors and natural fluctuations in flow activity for future work.

  16. Treatment of actinic cheilitis by photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid and blue light activation.

    PubMed

    Zaiac, Martin; Clement, Annabelle

    2011-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC), a common disorder of the lower lip, should be treated early to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) activated by blue light for the treatment of AC. Fifteen patients with clinically evident or biopsy-proven AC received two treatments with ALA PDT with blue light activation. Treatments were spaced three to five weeks apart. Most patients achieved 65% to 75% clearance three to five weeks after the first treatment and all achieved more than 75% clearance one month after the second treatment. Three patients achieved complete clearance. Pain and burning during irradiation were absent or mild. All patients said they would repeat the procedure. ALA PDT with 417 nm blue light is a promising option for the treatment of AC of the lower lip. PMID:22052302

  17. Cutaneous Sporotrichosis Treated with Photodynamic Therapy: An in Vitro and in Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Aspiroz, Carmen; Alejandre, M. Carmen; Andres-Ciriano, Elena; Fortuño, Blanca; Charlez, Luis; Revillo, Maria Jose; Hamblin, Michael R.; Rezusta, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii complex, usually restricted to the skin, subcutaneous cellular tissue, and adjacent lymphatic vessels. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) could be a good alternative to manage localized, superficial infections. Case report: A 65-year-old African woman was diagnosed with a fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis on her left arm, treated with itraconazol and oral terbinafine with partial improvement. Topical 16% methyl aminolevulinate (MAL, Metvix®)-PDT was used without success. Methods: An in vitro photoinactivation test with the isolated microorganism revealed phenothiazinium salts to be more effective than MAL. Conclusions: PDT with intralesional 1% methylene blue (MB) in combination with intermittent low doses of itraconazole obtained complete microbiological and clinical response. PMID:24328608

  18. Vessel constriction correlated with local singlet oxygen generation during vascular targeted photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lisheng; Li, Yirong; Zhang, Jinde; Tan, Zou; Chen, Defu; Xie, Shusen; Gu, Ying; Li, Buhong

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the vessel constriction was measured as a biological indicator of acute vascular response after vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT). During V-PDT treatment, the near-infrared (NIR) singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence at 1270 nm generated in blood vessels in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model in vivo was directly monitored using a custom built high-sensitive NIR imaging system. In order to compare the acute vascular response, various irradiances with the same light dose were utilized for treatments. The obtained results show that the complete arteriole constriction occurred frequently, while some of the larger veins were constricted partially. For the vessels that have significant constriction after V-PDT, our preliminary data suggest that the vasoconstriction in the selected ROIs are roughly correlated with the local cumulative 1O2 luminescence intensities. This study implies that the 1O2 luminescence dosimetry maybe also effective for evaluating V-PDT efficiency.

  19. A case of advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma treatment with chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae-Wook; Kim, Youn Seup

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive, treatment-resistant, and generally fatal disease. A 68-year-old male who was diagnosed with MPM at another hospital came to our hospital with dyspnea. We advised him to take combination chemotherapy but he refused to take the treatment. That was because he had already received chemotherapy with supportive care at another hospital but his condition worsened. Thus, we recommended photodynamic therapy (PDT) to deal with the dyspnea and MPM. After PDT, the dyspnea improved and the patient then decided to take the combination chemotherapy. Our patient received chemotherapy using pemetrexed/cisplatin. Afterwards, he received a single PDT treatment and then later took chemotherapy using gemcitabine/cisplatin. The patient showed a survival time of 27 months, which is longer than median survival time in advanced MPM patients. Further research and clinical trials are needed to demonstrate any synergistic effect between the combination chemotherapy and PDT. PMID:25653696

  20. Nanocarriers with ultrahigh chromophore loading for fluorescence bio-imaging and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Julien R G; Lerouge, Frédéric; Cepraga, Cristina; Micouin, Guillaume; Favier, Arnaud; Chateau, Denis; Charreyre, Marie-Thérèse; Lanoë, Pierre-Henri; Monnereau, Cyrille; Chaput, Frédéric; Marotte, Sophie; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline; Kamada, Kenji; Andraud, Chantal; Baldeck, Patrice L; Parola, Stephane

    2013-11-01

    We describe the design of original nanocarriers that allows for ultrahigh chromophore loading while maintaining the photo-activity of each individual molecule. They consist in shells of charged biocompatible polymers grafted on gold nanospheres. The self-organization of extended polymer chains results from repulsive charges and steric interactions that are optimized by tuning the surface curvature of nanoparticles. This type of nano-scaffolds can be used as light-activated theranostic agents for fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy. We demonstrate that, labeled with a fluorescent photosensitizer, it can localize therapeutic molecules before triggering the cell death of B16-F10 melanoma with an efficiency that is similar to the efficiency of the polymer conjugate alone, and with the advantage of extremely high local loading of photosensitizers (object concentration in the picomolar range). PMID:23915950

  1. Photodynamic therapy as a new treatment modality for inflammatory and infectious conditions.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Aurélie; Sandborn, William J; Melhem, Hassan; Bolotine, Lina; Chamaillard, Mathias; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is currently used as a minimally invasive therapeutic modality for cancer. Whereas antitumor treatment regimens require lethal doses of photosensitizer and light, sublethal doses may have immunomodulatory effects, antibacterial action and/or regenerative properties. A growing body of evidence now indicates that non-lethal PDT doses can alleviate inflammation or treat established soft-tissue infections in various murine models of arthritis, experimental encephalomyelitis, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic skin ulcers. Furthermore, PDT is already used in clinical application and clinical trial for the treatment of psoriasis, chronic wounds and periodontitis in humans. Sublethal PDT should be regarded as a new viable option for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. PMID:25837708

  2. Fluorescence tissue distribution of methylene blue used for photodynamic therapy of Helicobacter Pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millson, Charles E.; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Mlkvy, Peter; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with a wide range of pathologies in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Current treatments employing antibiotics are disappointing, and an endoscopic PDT might offer a better alternative. Methylene blue is a widely known histological dye and has been in use for photodynamic therapy experimentally for some years. A prospective application of MB is photosensitization of Helicobacter pylori, but little is known about its effect with light on normal mucosa of the stomach. We studied the fluorescence microscopy of the stomachs of 3 ferrets which had been sensitized by oral route with three different concentrations of MB 1 hour prior to sacrifice. MB at all doses was seen to concentrate on the surface of the mucosa and shows little deeper penetration. As Helicobacter lie on the superficial mucosa, this study suggests that oral dosing with MB should sensitize these bacteria. These findings are an important preliminary to an in vivo trial of PDT for the treatment of H pylori.

  3. An alternative model for photodynamic therapy of cancers: Hot-band absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Jiyao

    2013-12-01

    The sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS), a photosensitizer for photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT), has an absorption tail in the near-infrared region (700-900 nm) which is so-called hot band absorption (HBA). With the HBA of 800 nm, the up-conversion excitation of AlPcS was achieved followed by the anti-Stocks emission (688 nm band) and singlet oxygen production. The HBA PDT of AlPcS seriously damaged the KB and HeLa cancer cells, with a typical light dose dependent mode. Particularly, the in vitro experiments with the AlPcS shielding solutions further showed that the HBA PDT can overcome a self-shielding effect benefiting the PDT applications.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of adjuvant physical or occupational therapy for patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan L. Severens; H. Margreet Oerlemans; Antonius J. P. G. Weegels; Martin A. van't Hof; Rob A. B. Oostendorp; R. Jan A. Goris

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study from a societal viewpoint the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant treatment for patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) of one upper extremity.Design: A two-center randomized clinical trial comparing pairwise physical therapy (PT), occupational therapy (OT), and control treatment (CT).Patients: One hundred thirty-five patients with RSD for less than 1 year participated.Interventions: PT and OT were given according to protocols.

  5. Interleukin-6 trans signalling enhances photodynamic therapy by modulating cell cycling

    PubMed Central

    Wei, L-H; Baumann, H; Tracy, E; Wang, Y; Hutson, A; Rose-John, S; Henderson, B W

    2007-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of solid tumours causes tissue damage that elicits local and systemic inflammation with major involvement of interleukin-6 (IL-6). We have previously reported that PDT-treated cells lose responsiveness to IL-6 cytokines. Therefore, it is unclear whether PDT surviving tumour cells are subject to regulation by IL-6 and whether this regulation could contribute to tumour control by PDT. We demonstrate in epithelial tumour cells that while the action of IL-6 cytokines through their membrane receptors is attenuated, regulation by IL-6 via trans-signalling is established. Soluble interleukin-6 receptor-? (IL-6R?) (sIL-6R?) and IL-6 were released by leucocytes in the presence of conditioned medium from PDT-treated tumour cells. Cells that had lost their membrane receptor IL-6R? due to PDT responded to treatment with the IL-6R–IL-6 complex (Hyper-IL-6) with activation of signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT3) and ERK. Photodynamic therapy-treated cells, which were maintained during post-PDT recovery in presence of IL-6 or Hyper-IL-6, showed an enhanced suppression of proliferation. Cytokine-dependent inhibition of proliferation correlated with a decrease in cyclin E, CDK2 and Cdc25A, and enhancement of p27kip1 and hypophosphorylated Rb. The IL-6 trans-signalling-mediated attenuation of cell proliferation was also effective in vivo detectable by an improved Colon26 tumour cure by PDT combined with Hyper-IL-6 treatment. Prevention of IL-6 trans-signalling using soluble gp130 reduced curability. The data suggest that the post-PDT tumour milieu contains the necessary components to establish effective IL-6 trans-signalling, thus providing a means for more effective tumour control. PMID:17987036

  6. Endoscopic photodynamic therapy with hematoporphyrin derivative in the treatment of malignant tumors: report of 120 cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Mao-en; Liu, Fa-wen; Qian, Jia-ping; Ji, Qing; Feng, Yun-qiu

    1993-03-01

    One-hundred-twenty cases of malignant tumors treated by endoscopic photodynamic therapy with hematoporphyrin derivative from August 1982 - July 1990 are reported. Of the 120 cases, including 97 males and 23 females ages varying from 39 to 77 years old, 40 cases were primary tumors and 80 cases were local residual or recurrent after surgery or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. All cases were confirmed in pathological biopsy, including 58 squamous cell carcinoma, 28 various adenocarcinoma, and 34 transitional cell carcinoma. Twenty-four, 48 and/or 72 hours after intravenous injection of HpD 2.0 - 3.0 mg/kg, or DHE 1.5 - 2.0 mg/kg, or Y-HpD 5.0 mg/kg, the tumor was irradiated with 630 nm wavelength of argon dye laser via a quartz light fiber inserted through the forceps channel of the endoscope. Of the 120 cases treated, CR was obtained in 38 cases, PR in 25 cases, MR in 52 cases, and NR in 5 cases. Total response rate was 95.8%; significant response rate 52.5%; and tumor eradicated rate 31.7%. The 38 cases included: 14 cases of early esophageal carcinoma, 3 cases of early cardiac carcinoma, 1 case of early lung cancer, 1 case of early gastric carcinoma, 15 cases of superficial bladder carcinoma, 3 cases of local residual recurrent micro lung cancer, and 1 case of cardiac carcinoma. The longest cancer-free survival was over eight years. Endoscopic photodynamic therapy is, therefore, curative effective in the treatment of early and superficial carcinoma, and palliative effective in the treatment of advanced carcinoma. Standardized and controlled trials are required to assess its place in combined treatment of malignant tumors.

  7. Changes in esophageal motility after porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy for Barrett's dysplasia and mucosal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, A K; Wolfsen, H C; Hemminger, L L; Shah, A A; DeVault, K R

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal dysmotility is common in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Previously we have reported deterioration of esophageal motility after photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a heterogeneous group of patients with esophageal carcinoma. This prospective study in consecutive patients describes changes in motility noted after endoscopic ablation. Forty-seven patients referred to our institution for endoscopic ablation for Barrett's high grade dysplasia or mucosal carcinoma between August 2001 and May 2003 were prospectively evaluated with esophageal manometry before and after porfimer sodium PDT. Six patients did not complete the study. Manometry results were classified as normal, diffuse esophageal spasm, ineffective esophageal motility, or aperistalsis. Abnormal esophageal motility was found in 14 of 47 (30%) patients at study entry ([diffuse esophageal spasm] DES-3, [ineffective esophageal motility] IEM-7, Aperistalsis-4). After PDT, 11 of 41 patients with paired studies experienced a change in manometric diagnosis. Three patients had an improvement in motility, seven a worsening and one changed diagnosis, but did not particularly worsen or improve. No patient developed new aperistalsis. Therefore, abnormal motility was present in 19 of 41 (46%) patients after PDT (DES-2, IEM-14, Aperistalsis-3). There was a statistically significant (P = 0.016) relationship with longer segment Barrett's esophagus and deterioration of function. Baseline abnormalities in motility can occur in patients with Barrett's high-grade dysplasia or mucosal carcinoma. Changes in esophageal function also may occur following photodynamic therapy, but usually are not clinically significant. Worsening in function was more likely to occur in patients with longer segment Barrett's esophagus. PMID:16984528

  8. Single particle and ensemble spectroscopy of conjugated polymer nanoparticles and their development for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimland, Jennifer L.

    Energy transport in conjugated polymers is the combination of energy transfer and exciton diffusion. There is considerable ongoing research in this field, converging to develop better organic photovoltaics, polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic solar cells, to name a few. One way these phenomena can be explored is by doing solution dependent studies on conjugated polymer nanoparticles. With experiments on CP dots in an aqueous solution and the addition of a water miscible organic solvent in varying concentrations, dynamics occurring in the folding process can be better understood, and also exciton and fluorescence quenching properties can be extracted as a function of nanoparticle collapse. Steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements were taken for two types of CP dots in bulk solution under varying solvent environments, including quantum yield, photobleaching and reversible photobleaching. The time-domain technique of time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) was used to determine excited state lifetimes and fluorescent decay traces. Simulating the TCSPC data provides insight on the relative number of quenchers that are observed by the polymer in each environment. In addition, single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy measurements were done on CP dots under varying solvent vapor atmospheres. Using the phenomenon of energy transfer, we have proven that doping the singlet oxygen photosensitizer tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) into our conjugated polymer nanoparticles acts as an efficient and powerful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy. The nanoparticles exhibit highly efficient collection of excitation light due to the large excitation cross-section of the polymer. A quantum efficiency of 0.5 was determined. Extraordinarily large cross-sections for two-photon absorption were found which is promising for near infrared multiphoton photodynamic therapy, and gel electrophoresis of DNA after irradiation in the presence of CP dots indicated extensive purine base and backbone DNA damage.

  9. The impact of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on Streptococcus mutans in an artificial biofilm model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Martin; Kirfel, Gregor; Krause, Felix; Berthold, Michael; Brede, Olivier; Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of laser induced antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on the viability of Streptococcus mutans cells employing an aritificial biofilm model. Employing sterile chambered coverglasses, a salivary pellicle layer formation was induced in 19 chambers. Streptococcus mutans cells were inoculated in a sterile culture medium. Using a live/dead bacterial viability kit, bacteria with intact cell membranes stain fluorescent green. Test chambers containing each the pellicle layer and 0.5 ml of the bacterial culture were analyzed using a confocal laser scan microscope within a layer of 10 ?m at intervals of 1 ?m from the pellicle layer. A photosensitizer was added to the test chambers and irradiated with a diode laser (wavelength: 660 nm, output power: 100 mW, Helbo) for 2 min each. Comparing the baseline fluorescence (median: 13.8 [U], min: 3.7, max: 26.2) with the values after adding the photosensitizer (median: 3.7, min: 1.1, max: 9), a dilution caused decrease of fluorescence could be observed (p<0.05). After irradiation of the samples with a diode laser, an additional 48 percent decrease of fluorescence became evident (median: 2.2, min: 0.4, max: 3.4) (p<0.05). Comparing the samples with added photosensitizer but without laser irradiation at different times, no decrease of fluorescence could be measured (p>0.05). The present study indicates that antimicrobial photodynamic therapy can reduce living bacteria within a layer of 10 ?m in an artificial biofilm model. Further studies have to evaluate the maximum biofilm thickness that still allows a toxic effect on microorganisms.

  10. Re-endothelialization following balloon injury and photodynamic therapy of the rabbit aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Thomas C.; Sobeh, Mohammed S.; Ham, Robert J.; Cross, Frank W.; Greenwald, Stephen E.

    1997-05-01

    De-endothelialization is the main stimulus of intimal hyperplasia following vascular injury. In this study we investigated the time course of re-endothelialization in balloon injured and photodynamic therapy (PDT) treated aortas of New Zealand white rabbits. Twenty rabbits underwent balloon denudation of the abdominal aorta and were then sacrificed in groups of 4 animals 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks later. Twenty more rabbits underwent similar balloon denudation and were treated immediately afterwards with photodynamic therapy using the photosensitizer metatetrahydroxy phenyl-chlorin and endovascular illumination with 652 nm light. PDT treated rabbits were also sacrificed in groups of 4 animals at the same time intervals. A further 4 rabbits were sacrificed without any treatment to act as normal controls. The vasculature was perfusion fixed at 100 mmHg with 10% formal saline. The abdominal aortas were retrieved and five sections were cut from each aorta at 1 cm intervals, embedded in wax, sectioned and stained for endothelial cells using the Avidin Biotin complex/horseradish peroxidase technique for use with the monoclonal primary antibody CD31 from the clone JC70. Endothelial covering was measured using a light microscope and Magiscan image analysis system. Normal arteries showed a near full (92.1% plus or minus 3.0, mean plus or minus SEM) endothelial covering. Endothelium was removed completely after both balloon injury and PDT. In balloon injury alone there was progressive endothelial regrowth with (54.1 plus or minus 7.2) covering at 8 weeks. In contrast, endothelial regrowth was retarded in the aortas treated with balloon injury and PDT, with only (7.1 plus or minus 2.9) of covering at 8 weeks. The slow pace of re-endothelialisation is consistent with greater production of intimal hyperplasia in PDT treated vessels.

  11. Aromatase inhibitor adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer results in cancer therapy induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Renee Z

    2013-03-01

    Aromatase Inhibitors are anti-estrogen agents that have proven efficacy for adjuvant therapy of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer primarily in post menopausal women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer but increase the risk of cancer therapy induced bone loss (CTIBL). Recent studies have shown the potential benefit of bisphosphonate therapy to play a dual role in the management of breast cancer. These studies provide evidence that bisphosphonate therapy in conjunction with aromatase inhibitors (AI), not only decreases the risk of osteoporosis but, in addition, may improve survival from breast cancer. PMID:23408144

  12. A comprehensive mathematical model of microscopic dose deposition in photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kang-Hsin Wang, Ken; Mitra, Soumya; Foster, Thomas H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642 (United States); Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642 (United States); Department of Imaging Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 648, Rochester, New York 14642 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    We have developed a comprehensive theoretical model for rigorously describing the spatial and temporal dynamics of oxygen ({sup 3}O{sub 2}) consumption and transport and microscopic photodynamic dose deposition during photodynamic therapy (PDT) in vivo. Previously published models have been improved by considering perfused vessels as a time-dependent {sup 3}O{sub 2} source and linking the {sup 3}O{sub 2} concentration in the vessel to that within the tissue through the Hill equation. The time-dependent photochemical {sup 3}O{sub 2} consumption rate incorporates sensitizer photobleaching effects and an experimentally determined initially nonuniform photosensitizer distribution. The axial transport of {sup 3}O{sub 2} is provided for in the capillaries and in the surrounding tissue. A self-sensitized singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2})-mediated bleaching mechanism and the measured, initially nonuniform distribution of meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin at 3 h after intravascular administration were used to demonstrate the capabilities of the model. Time-evolved distributions of {sup 3}O{sub 2} concentration were obtained by numerically solving two-dimensional diffusion-with-reaction equations both in the capillary and the adjacent tissue. Using experimentally established physiological and photophysical parameters, the mathematical model allows computation of the dynamic variation of hemoglobin-{sup 3}O{sub 2} saturation (SO{sub 2}) within the vessels, irreversible sensitizer degradation due to photobleaching, and the microscopic distributions of {sup 3}O{sub 2}, sensitizer concentration, and {sup 1}O{sub 2} dose deposition under various irradiation conditions. The simulations reveal severe axial gradients in {sup 3}O{sub 2} and in photodynamic dose deposition in response to a wide range of clinically relevant treatment parameters. Thus, unlike former Krogh cylinder-based models, which assume a constant {sup 3}O{sub 2} concentration at the vessel, this new model identifies conditions in which {sup 3}O{sub 2} depletion and minimal deposition of reacting {sup 1}O{sub 2} exist near the end of axial segments of vessels and shows that treatment-limiting {sup 3}O{sub 2} depletion is induced at fluence rates as low as 10 mW cm{sup -2}. These calculations also demonstrate that intercapillary heterogeneity of photosensitizer contributes significantly to the distribution of photodynamic dose. This more rigorous mathematical model enables comparison with experimentally observable, volume-averaged quantities such as SO{sub 2} and the loss of sensitizer fluorescence through bleaching that have not been included in previous analyses. Further, it establishes some of the intrinsic limitations of such measurements. Specifically, our simulations demonstrate that tissue measurements of SO{sub 2} and of photobleaching are necessarily insensitive to microscopic heterogeneity of photodynamic dose deposition and are sensitive to intercapillary spacing. Because prior knowledge of intercapillary distances in tumors is generally unavailable, these measurements must be interpreted with caution. We anticipate that this model will make useful dosimetry predictions that should inform optimal treatment conditions and improve current clinical protocols.

  13. Radiofrequency hyperthermia as adjuvant therapy following surgical resection of an experimental malignant neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Dalfen, R; Calhoun, K; Gilas, T; Mathews, T; Falk, M; Moffat, F L; Makowka, L; Rotstein, L E; Langer, J C; Venturi, D

    1985-06-01

    Local recurrence after radical surgery is a major problem with many primary solid cancers. The use of radiofrequency hyperthermia (RFHT) as adjuvant therapy to surgery was explored in the Fischer bladder carcinoma (FBCa)/F344 rat tumor system. After subcutaneous innoculation of 34 rats with 10(6) FBCa cells in suspension, RFHT was administered to 17 animals on days 1, 5, 8, and 12. The development of palpable tumors was delayed but not prevented, and tumor growth was retarded in RFHT-treated animals. In another experiment 40 rats were innoculated by subcutaneous trocar injection with a 1 mm3 piece of FBCa. After tumor excision on day 17, adjuvant therapy (untreated control, mitomycin C, RFHT, or RFHT plus mitomycin C) was started on day 20 (10 rats/treatment). The 20 RFHT-treated rats had only 1 incisional recurrence as compared to 9 recurrences in sham-heated rats (P less than 0.005). The authors conclude that RFHT has considerable value as adjuvant therapy to surgery in these tumors. Additional studies of RFHT as adjuvant treatment after surgical excision of tumors are planned. PMID:3995484

  14. Use of Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Postmenopausal Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer at German Breast Cancer Centers and University Hospitals - Results of an Enquiry (Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy Enquiry)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kolben; Susanne Engelmann; Susanne Maurer; Martin Kolben

    2012-01-01

    SummaryBackground: Many studies about the adjuvant endocrine therapy of postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer have shown significant superiority of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) compared to tamoxifen only. Within these studies, different AIs (anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane) and treatment strategies (upfront, switch, extended adjuvant) were applied. Material and Methods: The intention of our enquiry was to evaluate the implementation of the

  15. Assessment of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Disinfection of Deeper Dentinal Tubules in a Root Canal System: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Dara John; Agali, Chandan R; Punia, Himanshu; Gupta, Vipul; Singh, Vikas; Kadtane, Safalya; Chandra, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Context: The success of endodontic treatment therapy depends on how well we eliminate pathogenic microflora from the root canal system as micro organism as the major cause of root canal infection. Conventional root canal treatment can fail if microorganisms cannot be removed sufficiently by thorough cleaning, shaping of root canal. Newer modalities such as photodynamic therapy are being tried now a days for disinfection of root canals. Aim & Objectives: The basic aim of this study was assessment of the antimicrobial efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy in deeper dentinal tubules for effective disinfection of root canals using microbiological and scanning electron microscopic examination in vitro. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College & Research Centre. The teeth required for study was collected from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Only freshly extracted 20 intact, non carious single rooted teeth which were indicated for orthodontic treatment were taken for this study. Statistical analysis was done using Student’s Unpaired t-test were at (p<0.001) was found to be highly significant. Microbiological examination of samples were done and colony forming units were counted to assess the disinfection potential of photodynamic therapy. Scanning electron microscopic examination of samples was done to check penetration of bacteria’s into deeper dentinal tubules. Results: On examination, there was a marked reduction in microbial growth after use of photodynamic therapy. On scanning electron microscopic examination, it was observed that there were less number of bacteria’s in deeper dentinal tubules in case of PDT group as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that PDT can be effectively used during antimicrobial procedures along with conventional disinfection procedure for sterilization of root canals. PMID:25584321

  16. Cardiovascular toxicity associated with adjuvant trastuzumab therapy: prevalence, patient characteristics, and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Jessica M.; Stankowski, Rachel V.

    2014-01-01

    Before the advent of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, HER2-positive breast cancers were difficult to treat and had a poor prognosis. Adjuvant trastuzumab is now an important part of the treatment regimen for many women with HER2-positive breast cancer and has undoubtedly resulted in a significant improvement in prognosis, but it is associated with a risk for cardiotoxicity. In this review, we describe the prevalence, patient characteristics, and risk factors for cardiotoxicity associated with use of adjuvant trastuzumab. Understanding risk factors for trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity and appropriate patient monitoring during trastuzumab treatment allows for safe and effective use of this important adjuvant therapy. PMID:25083270

  17. Immune response after photodynamic therapy increases anti-cancer and anti-bacterial effects

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, Eleonora; Wolf, Peter; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved procedure for treatment of cancer and infections. PDT involves systemic or topical administration of a photosensitizer (PS), followed by irradiation of the diseased area with light of a wavelength corresponding to an absorbance band of the PS. In the presence of oxygen, a photochemical reaction is initiated, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species and cell death. Besides causing direct cytotoxic effects on illuminated tumor cells, PDT is known to cause damage to the tumor vasculature and induce the release of pro-inflammatory molecules. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that PDT is capable of affecting both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Immune stimulatory properties of PDT may increase its beneficial effects giving the therapy wider potential to become more extensively used in clinical practice. Be sides stimulating tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cells capable to destroy distant untreated tumor cells, PDT leads to development of anti-tumor memory immunity that can potentially prevent the recurrence of cancer. The immunological effects of PDT make the therapy more effective also when used for treatment of bacterial infections, due to an augmented infiltration of neutrophils into the infected regions that seems to potentiate the outcome of the treatment. PMID:25364655

  18. Immunotherapy regimens for combination with photodynamic therapy aimed at eradication of solid cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen

    2000-06-01

    Due to inflammatory/immune responses elicited by photodynamic therapy (PDT), this modality is particularly suitable in combination with various forms of immunotherapy for an improved therapeutic gain. A wide variety of approaches that may be applicable in this context include those focusing on amplifying the activity of particular immune cell types (neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, helper or cytotoxic T lymphocytes). Another type of approach is to focus on a specific phase of immune response development, which comprises the activation of non-specific inflammatory immune effectors, immune recognition, immune memory, immune rejection, or blocking of immune suppression. These different strategies call for a variety of immunotherapeutic protocols to be employed in combination with PDT. These include treatments such as: (1) non-specific immunoactivators (e.g. bacterial vaccines), (2) specific immune agents (cytokines, or other activating factors), (3) adoptive immunotherapy treatments (transfer of dendritic cells, tumor-sensitized T lymphocytes or natural killer cells), or (4) their combinations. Techniques of gene therapy employed in some of these protocols offer novel opportunities for securing a potent and persistent immune activity. Using PDT and immunotherapy represents an attractive combination for cancer therapy that is capable of eradicating both localized and disseminated malignant lesions.

  19. WSTO9 (TOOKAD) mediated photodynamic therapy as an alternative modality in the treatment of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Huang, Zheng; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Scherz, Avigdor; Salomon, Yoram; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2002-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes optical energy to activate a pre-administered photosensitizer drug to achieve a localized tumor control. In the presented study, PDT mediated with a second-generation photosensitizer, WST09 (TOOKAD, Steba Biotech, The Netherlands), is investigated as an alternative therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. In vivo canine prostate is used as the animal model. PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates both superficially and interstitially with a diode laser (763 nm) to activate the intra-operatively i.v. infused photosensitizer. During light irradiation, tissue optical properties, and temperature were monitored. During the one-week to 3-month period post PDT treatment, the dogs recovered well with little or no complications. The prostates were harvested and subjected to histopathological evaluations. Maximum lesion size of over 3 cm in dimension could be achieved with a single treatment, suggesting the therapy is extremely effective in destroying prostatic tissue. Although we found there was loss of epithelial lining in prostatic urethra, there was no evidence it had caused urinary tract side effects as reported in those studies utilizing transurethral irradiation. In conclusion, we found second generation photosensitizer WST09 mediated PDT may provide an excellent alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  20. Angiostatic treatment prior to chemo- or photodynamic therapy improves anti-tumor efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Andrea; Bonvin, Débora; Berndsen, Robert H.; Scherrer, Edoardo; Wong, Tse J.; Dyson, Paul J.; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja

    2015-01-01

    Tumor vasculature is known to be poorly organized leading to increased leakage of molecules to the extravascular space. This process can potentially increase interstitial fluid pressure impairing intra-tumoral blood flow and oxygen supply, and can affect drug uptake. Anti-angiogenic therapies are believed to reduce vascular permeability, potentially reducing interstitial fluid pressure and improving the extravasation of small molecule-based chemotherapeutics. Here we show that pretreatment of human ovarian carcinoma tumors with sub-optimal doses of the VEGFR targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor axitinib, but not the EGFR targeting kinase inhibitor erlotinib, induces a transient period of increased tumor oxygenation. Doxorubicin administered within this window was found to enter the extravascular tumor space more rapidly compared to doxorubicin when applied alone or outside this time window. Treatment with the chemotherapeutics, doxorubicin and RAPTA-C, as well as applying photodynamic therapy during this period of elevated oxygenation led to enhanced tumor growth inhibition. Improvement of therapy was not observed when applied outside the window of increased oxygenation. Taken together, these findings further confirm the hypothesis of angiostasis-induced vascular normalization and also help to understand the interactions between anti-angiogenesis and other anti-cancer strategies. PMID:25758612

  1. Quantum dots and nanoparticles for photodynamic and radiation therapies of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Juzenas, Petras; Chen, Wei; Sun, Ya-Ping; Coelho, Manuel Alvaro Neto; Generalov, Roman; Generalova, Natalia; Christensen, Ingeborg Lie

    2009-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots and nanoparticles composed of metals, lipids or polymers have emerged with promising applications for early detection and therapy of cancer. Quantum dots with unique optical properties are commonly composed of cadmium contained semiconductors. Cadmium is potentially hazardous, and toxicity of such quantum dots to living cells, and humans, is not yet systematically investigated. Therefore, search for less toxic materials with similar targeting and optical properties is of further interest. Whereas, the investigation of luminescence nanoparticles as light sources for cancer therapy is very interesting. Despite advances in neurosurgery and radiotherapy the prognosis for patients with malignant gliomas has changed little for the last decades. Cancer treatment requires high accuracy in delivering ionizing radiation to reduce toxicity to surrounding tissues. Recently some research has been focused in developing photosensitizing quantum dots for production of radicals upon absorption of visible light. In spite of the fact that visible light is safe, this approach is suitable to treat only superficial tumours. Ionizing radiation (X-rays and gamma rays) penetrate much deeper thus offering a big advantage in treating patients with tumours in internal organs. Such concept of using quantum dots and nanoparticles to yield electrons and radicals in photodynamic and radiation therapies as well their combination is reviewed in this article. PMID:18840487

  2. Theranostic nanocells for simultaneous imaging and photodynamic therapy of pancreatic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spring, Bryan; Mai, Zhiming; Rai, Prakash; Chang, Sung; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2010-02-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to deliver multiple imaging and therapeutic agents to the "right place at the right time". This could dramatically improve treatment responses in cancer which have been so far, dismal as well as allow us to monitor this response online. Pancreatic cancer (PanCa) has a poor prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of only 5% and there is a desperate need for effective treatments. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown promising results in treating PanCa. Mechanism-based combinations with PDT have enhanced treatment outcome. Agents tested with PDT include Avastin, an antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which is approved for treating various cancers. Here, we investigate the effect of neutralizing intracellular VEGF using nanotechnology for the delivery of Avastin in combination with PDT. For this we used a construct called "nanocells" in which the photosensitizer was trapped inside polymer nanoparticles and these, with Avastin, were then encapsulated inside liposomes. Simultaneous delivery of drugs in nano-constructs could improve the treatment response of mechanism based combination therapies against cancer. Our studies demonstrate significant enhancement in treatment outcomes when nanocell-based PDT is combined with Avastin in orthotopic PanCa mouse models. We propose a new paradigm for Avastin-based therapy by combining intracellular delivery of the antibody and PDT using nanotechnology for treating PanCa.

  3. Adjuvant Therapy in Lymph Node–Positive Vulvar Cancer: The AGO-CaRE-1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Jueckstock, Julia; Hilpert, Felix; Neuser, Petra; Harter, Philipp; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Hasenburg, Annette; Sehouli, Jalid; Habermann, Annika; Hillemanns, Peter; Fuerst, Sophie; Strauss, Hans-Georg; Baumann, Klaus; Thiel, Falk; Mustea, Alexander; Meier, Werner; du Bois, Andreas; Griebel, Lis-Femke; Woelber, Linn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women with node-positive vulvar cancer have a high risk for disease recurrence. Indication criteria for adjuvant radiotherapy are controversial. This study was designed to further understand the role of adjuvant therapy in node-positive disease. Methods: Patients with primary squamous-cell vulvar cancer treated at 29 gynecologic cancer centers in Germany from 1998 through 2008 were included in this retrospective exploratory multicenter cohort study. Of 1618 documented patients, 1249 had surgical groin staging and known lymph node status and were further analyzed. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Four hundred forty-seven of 1249 patients (35.8%) had lymph node metastases (N+). The majority of N+ patients had one (172 [38.5%]) or two (102 [22.8%]) positive nodes. The three-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate of N+ patients was 35.2%, and the overall survival (OS) rate 56.2% compared with 75.2% and 90.2% in node-negative patients (N-). Two hundred forty-four (54.6%) N+ patients had adjuvant therapy, of which 183 (40.9%) had radiotherapy directed at the groins (+/-other fields). Three-year PFS and OS rates in these patients were better compared with N+ patients without adjuvant treatment (PFS: 39.6% vs 25.9%, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI[= 0.51 to 0.88, P = .004; OS: 57.7% vs 51.4%, HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.56 to 1.11, P = .17). This effect was statistically significant in multivariable analysis adjusted for age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Union internationale contre le cancer stage, grade, invasion depth, and number of positive nodes (PFS: HR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.78, P < .001; OS: HR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.91, P = .01). Conclusion: This large multicenter study in vulvar cancer observed that adjuvant radiotherapy was associated with improved prognosis in node-positive patients and will hopefully help to overcome concerns regarding adjuvant treatment. However, outcome after adjuvant radiotherapy remains poor compared with node-negative patients. Adjuvant chemoradiation could be a possible strategy to improve therapy because it is superior to radiotherapy alone in other squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:25618900

  4. In vivo measurement of fluorescence emission in the human prostate during photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Stripp, Diana; Malkowicz, S. B.; Whittington, Richard; Miles, Jeremy; Glatstein, Eli; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2005-04-01

    Among the challenges to the clinical implementation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the delivery of a uniform photodynamic dose to induce uniform damage to the target tissue. As the photodynamic dose depends on both the local sensitizer concentration and the local fluence rate of treatment light, knowledge of both of these factors is essential to the delivery of uniform dose. In this paper, we investigate the distribution and kinetics of the photosensitizer motexafin lutetium (MLu, Lutrin) as revealed by its fluorescence emission. Our current prostate treatment protocol involves interstitial illumination of the organ via cylindrical diffusing fibers (CDF"s) inserted into the prostate though clear catheters. For planning and treatment purposes, the prostate is divided into 4 quadrants. We use one catheter in each quadrant to place an optical fiber-based fluorescence probe into the prostate. This fiber is terminated in a beveled tip, allowing it to deliver and collect light perpendicular to the fiber axis. Excitation light is provided by a 465 nm light emitting diode (LED) source coupled to a dichroic beamsplitter, which passes the collected fluorescence emission to a CCD spectrograph. Spectra are obtained before and after PDT treatment in each quadrant of the prostate and are analyzed via a linear fitting algorithm to separate the MLu fluorescence from the background fluorescence originating in the plastic catheter. A computer-controlled step motor allows the excitation/detection fiber to be moved along the catheter, building up a linear profile of the fluorescence emission spectrum of the tissue as a function of position. We have analyzed spectral fluorescence profiles obtained in 4 patients before and after MLu-mediated PDT. We find significant variation both within individual prostates and among patients. Within a single quadrant, we have observed the fluorescence signal to change by as much as a factor of 3 over a distance of 2 cm. Comparisons of pre- and post-PDT spectra allow a quantification treatment-induced photobleaching. Like the drug distribution, the extent of photobleaching varies widely among patients. In two cases, we observed bleaching of approximately 50% of the drug, while others exhibited negligible photobleaching.

  5. Efficacy of Chlorin e6-Mediated Sono-Photodynamic Therapy on 4T1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Haiping; Feng, Xiaolan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the antitumor effect and possible mechanisms of chlorin e6 (Ce6)-mediated sono-photodynamic therapy (Ce6-SPDT) on murine 4T1 mammary cancer cells in vitro. Materials: Cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of Ce6 in 4T1 cells were detected by flow cytometry and confocal microscope. Cells after loading with 1??g/mL Ce6 were exposed to ultrasound at 1.0?MHz for up to 1 minute with an intensity of 0.36?W/cm2 and laser light with total radiation dose of 1.2?J/cm2. Cell viability and clonogenicity were determined by MTT assay and colony formation assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by DAPI staining, Western blots were used to detect the activity of Caspase-3. DNA damage, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) of 4T1 cells were also evaluated by flow cytometry. FD500 was employed to detect changes of membrane permeability after ultrasound. Results: Ce6 rapidly entered 4T1 cells within 4 hours after it has been added and displayed a mitochondria-localization pattern. Compared with sonodynamic therapy (SDT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone, the combined SPDT treatment further enhanced cell viability loss, DNA damage, and clonogenicity inhibition. DAPI staining and western blots analysis reflected that cells with apoptotic morphological characteristics and the activity of Caspase-3 were apparently increased in the combined group. Besides, SPDT caused obvious MMP loss and intracellular ROS generation at early 1 hour post treatment. Interestingly, the SPDT induced cell viability loss and cell apoptosis was greatly inhibited by pre-treatment with ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine and Caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. FD500 detection showed that ultrasound enhanced cell membrane permeability, implying much higher uptake of Ce6 might be involved in PDT therapy by pre-ultrasound treatment. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated that Ce6-mediated SPDT enhanced the antitumor efficacy on 4T1 cells compared with SDT and PDT alone, a Caspase-dependent apoptosis and loss of MMP, generation of ROS may be involved. PMID:24206161

  6. Initial evaluation of whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy after intravesical ALA sensitization for carcinoma in situ of the bladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hallewin, Marie-Ange; Star, Willem M.; Baert, Luc

    1997-12-01

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder is a treacherous entity, that will develop into invasive cancer. Early treatment is mandatory in order to prevent progression. When conservative measures, such as Bacillus Calmette Querin (BCG) instillations have failed, radical cystectomy and urinary diversion is recommended. Whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Photofrin II has been shown to be effective in eradicating carcinoma in situ, but often resulted in bladder shrinking. We wanted to evaluate the effects of PDT after aminolevulinic acid (ALA) sensitization. Six patients with refractory carcinoma in situ of the bladder were treated with whole bladder wall photodynamic therapy, after intravesical sensitization with aminolevulinic acid. The total light dose (scattered plus non scattered) was 75 J/cm2. No skin sensitization occurred, nor loss of bladder capacity. One patient did not respond and was successfully treated with BCG. Another patient developed distant metastases. Carcinoma in situ was completely absent after 3 months in four patients (66%).

  7. Photodynamic therapy effect of zinc monoamino phthalocyanine-folic acid conjugate adsorbed on single walled carbon nanotubes on melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ogbodu, Racheal O; Ndhundhuma, Ivy; Karsten, Aletta; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-02-25

    This work reports on the photodynamic therapy effect of zinc monoamino phthalocyanine linked to folic acid represented as ZnMAPc-FA, which was further immobilized onto single walled carbon nanotube represented as ZnMAPc-FA-SWCNT on melanoma A375 cell line, the effect of SWCNT-FA (without ZnMAPc) was also examined. All the compounds were non-toxic to the melanoma A375 cell line in the absence of light. Upon irradiation of the melanoma A375 cell line with a 676 nm diode laser at a power density of 98 mW/cm(2) at 5 J/cm(2) about 60% and 63% cell death was observed in the presence of ZnMAPc-FA and ZnMAPc-FA-SWCNT respectively. SWCNT-FA had no significant photodynamic therapy or photothermal effect to the cell, only 23% of cell death was observed after irradiation. PMID:25305603

  8. Photodynamic therapy effect of zinc monoamino phthalocyanine-folic acid conjugate adsorbed on single walled carbon nanotubes on melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogbodu, Racheal O.; Ndhundhuma, Ivy; Karsten, Aletta; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-02-01

    This work reports on the photodynamic therapy effect of zinc monoamino phthalocyanine linked to folic acid represented as ZnMAPc-FA, which was further immobilized onto single walled carbon nanotube represented as ZnMAPc-FA-SWCNT on melanoma A375 cell line, the effect of SWCNT-FA (without ZnMAPc) was also examined. All the compounds were non-toxic to the melanoma A375 cell line in the absence of light. Upon irradiation of the melanoma A375 cell line with a 676 nm diode laser at a power density of 98 mW/cm2 at 5 J/cm2 about 60% and 63% cell death was observed in the presence of ZnMAPc-FA and ZnMAPc-FA-SWCNT respectively. SWCNT-FA had no significant photodynamic therapy or photothermal effect to the cell, only 23% of cell death was observed after irradiation.

  9. Interlesion differences in the local photodynamic therapy response of oral cavity lesions assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Daniel J; Rigual, Nestor; Tracy, Erin; Kowalczewski, Andrew; Keymel, Kenneth L; Cooper, Michele T; Mo, Weirong; Baumann, Heinz; Henderson, Barbara W; Sunar, Ulas

    2012-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy depends on the local dose deposited in the lesion as well as oxygen availability in the lesion. We report significant interlesion differences between two patients with oral lesions treated with the same drug dose and similar light dose of 2-1[hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinylpyropheophorbide-a (HPPH)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT). Pre-PDT and PDT-induced changes in hemodynamic parameters and HPPH photosensitizer content, quantified by diffuse optical methods, demonstrated substantial differences between the two lesions. The differences in PDT action determined by the oxidative cross-linking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a molecular measure of accumulated local PDT photoreaction, also showed >100-fold difference between the lesions, greatly exceeding what would be expected from the slight difference in light dose. Our results suggest diffuse optical spectroscopies can provide in vivo metrics that are indicative of local PDT dose in oral lesions. PMID:23024908

  10. Photodynamic therapy for inactivating endodontic bacterial biofilms and effect of tissue inhibitors on antibacterial efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Annie; Kishen, Anil

    Complex nature of bacterial cell membrane and structure of biofilm has challenged the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) to achieve effective disinfection of infected root canals. In addition, tissue-inhibitors present inside the root canals are known to affect APDT activity. This study was aimed to assess the effect of APDT on bacterial biofilms and evaluate the effect of tissue-inhibitors on the APDT. Rose-bengal (RB) and methylene-blue (MB) were tested on Enterococcus faecalis (gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram-negative) biofilms. In vitro 7- day old biofilms were sensitized with RB and MB, and photodynamically activated with 20-60 J/cm2. Photosensitizers were pre-treated with different tissue-inhibitors (dentin, dentin-matrix, pulp tissue, bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and bovine serum albumin (BSA)) and tested for antibacterial effect of APDT. Microbiological culture based analysis was used to analyze the cell viability, while Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) was used to examine the structure of biofilm. Photoactivation resulted in significant reduction of bacterial biofilms with RB and MB. The structure of biofilm under LSCM was found to be disrupted with reduced biofilm thickness. Complete biofilm elimination could not be achieved with both tested photosensitizers. APDT effect using MB and RB was inhibited in a decreasing order by dentin-matrix, BSA, pulp, dentin and LPS (P< 0.05). Both strains of bacterial biofilms resisted complete elimination after APDT and the tissue inhibitors existing within the root canal reduced the antibacterial activity at varying degrees. Further research is required to enhance the antibacterial efficacy of APDT in an endodontic environment.

  11. Efficacy of gallium phthalocyanine as a photosensitizing agent in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduray, Kaminee; Odhav, Bharti

    2012-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a revolutionary treatment aimed at treating cancers without surgery or chemotherapy. It is based on the discovery that certain chemicals known as photosensitizing agents (e.g. porphyrins, phthalocyanines, etc.) can kill cancerous cells when exposed to low level laser light at a specific wavelength. The present study investigates the cellular uptake and photodynamic effect of gallium (III) phthalocyanine chloride (GaPcCl) on Caco-2 cancer cells. Caco-2 cells were treated with different concentrations of GaPcCl for 2 h before treatment with a diode laser (? = 661 nm, laser power = 90 mW) delivering a light dose of 2.5 J/cm2, 4.5 J/cm2 or 8.5 J/cm2. After 24 h, the cell viability of post-irradiated cells was measured using the MTT assay. Cellular uptake studies were performed by photosensitizing cells with GaPcCl for 30 min, 2 h, 10 h, 12 h, 18 h and 24 h before lysing the treated cells into solution to measure the GaPcCl fluorescence emission at an excitation wavelength of 600 nm. Results showed an increase in fluorescence intensity of emission peaks at longer incubation times, indicating a greater cellular uptake of GaPcCl by Caco-2 cells at 24 h in comparison to 30 min. GaPcCl at a concentration of 100 ?g/ml activated with a laser light dose of 8.5 J/cm2 reduced the cell viability of Caco-2 cells to 27%. This concludes that GaPcCl activated with low level laser light can be used as a photosensitizing agent for the in vitro PDT treatment of colon cancer.

  12. Preliminary study of verteporfin photodynamic therapy in a canine prostate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng; Hetzel, Fred; Dole, Ken; Luck, David; Beckers, Jill; Maul, Don

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with verteporfin was investigated as an alternative modality for the treatment of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Vertoporfin-mediated photodynamic effects on the prostate and its adjacent structures (underlying colon and bladder) were evaluated in a healthy canine model. Interstitial prostate PDT was performed by irradiating individual lobes with a diode laser (689 nm) and 1-cm cylindrical diffuser fibers at various light doses and drug-light intervals (DLI) to activate the IV administrated photosensitizer (0.5 or 2 mg/kg). The sensitivity of the adjacent tissues to Vertoporfin-PDT was determined by superficially irradiating the serosal surface of the bladder and colon with a microlens fiber. The prostate and adjacent tissues were harvested one-week after the treatment and subjected to histopathological examination. Results: Histopathological examinations confirmed that verteporfin PDT could destroy a clinically significant volume of prostatic tissue in the animal model. At the drug dose of 0.5 mg/kg, the light irradiation of 100 J/cm could induce a lesion diameter of 2 cm at DLI of 15 min and 1.2 cm at DLI of 3 hrs, respectively. This implies a strong influence of DLI on the lesion volume. The shorter DLI might produce stronger vascular effect and therefore more severe tissue damage. The colon was more sensitive to verteporfin PDT than the bladder. At the possible light dose level caused by light scattering during intra-prostate irradiation, the damage to the bladder and colon were superficial and minimal. Conclusions: The preliminary results clearly demonstrate that verteporfin PDT could be an effective means to destroy prostate gland and its usefulness for the treatment of prostate cancer is worth further investigation.

  13. Sensitization of cerebral tissue in nude mice with photodynamic therapy induces ADAM17\\/TACE and promotes glioma cell invasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuguang Zheng; Feng Jiang; Mark Katakowski; Xuepeng Zhang; Hao Jiang; Zheng Gang Zhang; Michael Chopp

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a mild cerebral tissue injury promotes subsequent glioma invasion via activation of the ADAM17-EGFR-PI3K-Akt pathway. Mild injury was induced by photodynamic therapy (PDT), which employs tissue-penetrating laser light exposure following systemic administration of a tumor-localizing photosensitizer. Athymic nude mice were treated with sublethal PDT (80J\\/cm2 with 2mg\\/kg Photofrin). Hypoxic stress and

  14. Light parameters influence cell viability in antifungal photodynamic therapy in a fluence and rate fluence-dependent manner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato A. Prates; Eriques G. da Silva; Aécio M. Yamada; Luis C. Suzuki; Claudete R. Paula; Martha S. Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of light parameters on yeast cells. It has been proposed for many years\\u000a that photodynamic therapy (PDT) can inactivate microbial cells. A number of photosensitizer and light sources were reported\\u000a in different light parameters and in a range of dye concentrations. However, much more knowledge concerning the importance\\u000a of fluence,

  15. Clinical results of photodynamic therapy for superficial skin malignancies or actinic keratosis using topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. N. Meijnders; W. M. Star; R. S. Bruijn; A. D. Treurniet-Donker; M. J. M. Mierlo; S. J. M. Wijthoff; B. Naafs; H. Beerman; P. C. Levendag

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA, 20% w\\/w) was used to treat superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC, 16 patients), Morbus Bowen (one patient), basal cell naevus syndrome (BCNS, three patients), actinic keratosis (AK, two patients), chronic inflammation (CI, one patient), and metastasized BCC (one patient). The interval between ALA application and illumination was 3–6 h. The

  16. Stability enhanced polyelectrolyte-coated gold nanorod-photosensitizer complexes for high/low power density photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenzhi; Ren, Wenzhi; Gong, An; Zhao, Xinmei; Zou, Yuehong; Brown, Eric Michael Bratsolias; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Aiguo

    2014-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for cancer and other malignant diseases, however safety and efficacy improvements are required before it reaches its full potential and wider clinical use. Herein, we investigated a highly efficient and safe photodynamic therapy procedure by developing a high/low power density photodynamic therapy mode (high/low PDT mode) using methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) thiol (mPEG-SH) modified gold nanorod (GNR)-AlPcS4 photosensitizer complexes. mPEG-SH conjugated to the surface of simple polyelectrolyte-coated GNRs was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; this improved stability, reduced cytotoxicity, and increased the encapsulation and loading efficiency of the nanoparticle dispersions. The GNR-photosensitizer complexes were exposed to the high/low PDT mode (high light dose = 80 mW/cm(2) for 0.5 min; low light dose = 25 mW/cm(2) for 1.5 min), and a high PDT efficacy leads to approximately 90% tumor cell killing. Due to synergistic plasmonic photothermal properties of the complexes, the high/low PDT mode demonstrated improved efficacy over using single wavelength continuous laser irradiation. Additionally, no significant loss in viability was observed in cells exposed to free AlPcS4 photosensitizer under the same irradiation conditions. Consequently, free AlPcS4 released from GNRs prior to cellular entry did not contribute to cytotoxicity of normal cells or impose limitations on the use of the high power density laser. This high/low PDT mode may effectively lead to a safer and more efficient photodynamic therapy for superficial tumors. PMID:24855961

  17. Interstitial photodynamic therapy in subcutaneously implanted urologic tumors in rats after intravenous administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengwen Xiao; Yahya Tamimi; Kevin Brown; John Tulip; Ronald Moore

    2002-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may be an attractive option for treatment of early stage prostate cancer. Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) acts as a pro-drug leading to a selective accumulation of a photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), in epithelial cells. We investigated the efficacy of ALA-mediated PDT for rat R3327-H prostate cancer, compared with the AY-27 bladder tumor. Rats bearing either AY-27 or R3327-H

  18. In Vitro Efficacy and Mechanistic Role of Indocyanine Green as a Photodynamic Therapy Agent for Human Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mamoon, A.; Gamal-Eldeen, A; Ruppel, M; Smith, R; Tsang, T; Miller, L

    2009-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for superficial cancer. However, poor therapeutic results have been reported for melanoma, due to the high melanin content. Indocyanine green (ICG) has near infrared absorption (700-800nm) and melanins do not absorb strongly in this area. This study explores the efficiency of ICG as a PDT agent for human melanoma, and its mechanistic role in the cell death pathway.

  19. Combined Concurrent Photodynamic and Gold Nanoshell Loaded Macrophage-Mediated Photothermal Therapies: An In Vitro Study on Squamous Cell Head and Neck Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Anthony J.; Hong, Seok Jin; Peng, Qian; Madsen, Steen J.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Treatment modalities, such as hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been used in the treatment of a variety of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), either alone or as an adjuvant therapy. Macrophages loaded with gold nanoshells, which convert near-infrared light to heat, can be used as transport vectors for photothermal hyperthermia of tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined macrophage mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) and PDT on HNSCC cells. Study Design/Materials and Methods Gold nanoshell loaded rat macrophages either alone or combined with human FaDu squamous cells in hybrid monolayers were subjected to PTT, PDT, or a simultaneous combination of the two light treatments. Therapies were given concurrently employing two laser light sources of ? = 670 nm (PDT) and ? = 810 nm (PTT), respectively. Results Significant uptake of gold nanospheres (AuNS) by rat alveolar macrophages was observed thus providing the rationale for their use as delivery vectors. Viability of the AuNS-loaded Ma was reduced to 35 and 12% of control values at an irradiance of 14 or 28 W/cm2 administered over a 5 minute period respectively. No significant cytotoxicity was observed for empty Ma for similar PTT exposure. AlPcS2a mediated PDT at a fluence level of 0.25 J/cm2 and PTT at 14 W/cm2 irradiance had little effect on cell viability for the FaDu/Ma (ratio 2:1) hybrid monolayers. In contrast, combined treatment reduced the cell viability to less than 40% at these same laser power settings. Conclusions The results of this study provide proof of concept for the use of macrophages as a delivery vector of AuNS for photothermal enhancement of the effects of PDT on squamous cell carcinoma. A significant synergy was demonstrated with combined PDT and PTT compared to each modality applied separately. PMID:24648368

  20. Studies on Preparation of Photosensitizer Loaded Magnetic Silica Nanoparticles and Their Anti-Tumor Effects for Targeting Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-Long; Sun, Yun; Huang, Peng; Yang, Xiao-Xia; Zhou, Xing-Ping

    2009-05-01

    As a fast developing alternative of traditional therapeutics, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective, noninvasive, nontoxic therapeutics for cancer, senile macular degeneration, and so on. But the efficacy of PDT was compromised by insufficient selectivity and low solubility. In this study, novel multifunctional silica-based magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) were strategically designed and prepared as targeting drug delivery system to achieve higher specificity and better solubility. 2,7,12,18-Tetramethyl-3,8-di-(1-propoxyethyl)-13,17-bis-(3-hydroxypropyl) porphyrin, shorted as PHPP, was used as photosensitizer, which was first synthesized by our lab with good PDT effects. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) and PHPP were incorporated into silica nanoparticles by microemulsion and sol-gel methods. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were approximately spherical with 20-30 nm diameter. Intense fluorescence of PHPP was monitored in the cytoplasm of SW480 cells. The nanoparticles possessed good biocompatibility and could generate singlet oxygen to cause remarkable photodynamic anti-tumor effects. These suggested that PHPP-SMNPs had great potential as effective drug delivery system in targeting photodynamic therapy, diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia therapy.

  1. Photodynamic therapy for Barrett's esophagus using a 20-mm diameter light-delivery balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.; Phan, Mary N.; Haydek, John M.; Robinson, Amy R.

    2002-06-01

    Background and Objective: Patients with high grade dysplasia (HGD) in Barrett's esophagus are at a high risk for developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. Esophagectomy is the standard treatment for such patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using an improved light delivery balloon for ablation of Barrett's esophagus with high grade dysplasia and/or early cancer. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with HGD or early cancer (19 with HGD, 1 with T1 cancer) received 2 mg/kg of porfimer sodium, intravenously. Two to three days after the injection, laser light was delivered using a cylindrical diffuser inserted inside a 20-mm diameter reflective esophageal PDT balloon. Initially, the balloon was inflated to a pressure of 80 mm Hg. The balloon pressure was gradually reduced to 30 mm Hg. A KTP/dye laser at 630 nm was used as the light source. Light dose of 115 J/cm was delivered at an intensity of 270 mw/cm. Nodules were pre- treated with an extra 50 J/cm using a short diffuser inserted through the scope. Patients were maintained on PPI therapy to keep the gastric pH higher than 4. Eighteen patients required one treatment, while two patients were treated twice. Follow-up consisted of endoscopy with four quadrant biopsies at every 2 cm of the treated area. Thermal ablation was used to treat small residual islands on the follow-ups. The follow-up endoscopies ranged from 6 to 17 months. Results: On follow-up endoscopy, 12 patients had complete replacement of their Barrett's mucosa with neosquamous mucosa. Five patients had residual non-dysplastic Barrett's mucosa, one had indefinite dysplasia, two had low grad dysplasia. There were no residual HGD or cancers. The average length of Barrett's was reduced from 5.4 cm to 1.2 cm. High balloon pressure resulted in wide variation in PDT response among patients. Lower balloon pressures resulted in more consistent destruction of Barrett's mucosa among patients. Five patients developed strictures which responded well to dilations. One patient developed atrial fibrillation which responded to medications. Conclusions: Photodynamic therapy using a 20 mm diameter balloon was effective for ablation of high grade dysplasia and early cancer in Barrett's esophagus. Low balloon inflation pressure was a critical parameter in producing consistent tissue destruction.

  2. Studies of vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad for the photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Blanc, Dominique; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2005-01-01

    In this pre-clinical study, photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (palladium-bacteriopheophorbide) is investigated as an alternative treatment modality for the ablation of prostate cancer. Canine prostate was used as the animal model. PDT was performed by interstitially irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm) to activate the IV infused photosensitizer. The effects of drug dose, drug-light interval, and light fluence rate on PDT efficacy were evaluated. The prostates and adjacent tissues were harvested at one-week post PDT and subjected to histopathological examination. The dogs recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Urinalysis showed trace blood. Histological examination showed minimal damage to the prostatic urethra. These indicated that the urethra was well preserved. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis with a clear demarcation. Maximum lesion volume of ~3 cm3 could be achieved with a single 1-cm diffuser fiber at a dose level of 1 mg/kg and 200 J/cm, suggesting the therapy is very effective in ablating prostatic tissue. PDT induced lesion could reach the capsule layers but adjacent tissues were well preserved. The novel photosensitizer is a vascular drug and cleared rapidly from the circulation. Light irradiation can be performed during drug infusion thereby eliminating waiting time. The novel vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad-mediated PDT could provide an effective alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  3. Doppler optical coherence tomography to monitor the effect of photodynamic therapy on tissue morphology and perfusion.

    PubMed

    Aalders, Maurice C G; Triesscheijn, Martijn; Ruevekamp, Marjan; de Bruin, Martijn; Baas, Paul; Faber, Dirk J; Stewart, Fiona A

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for noninvasive real-time visualization of the vascular effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in normal and tumor tissue in mice. Perfusion control measurements were initially performed after administrating vaso-active drugs or clamping of the subcutaneous tumors. Subsequent measurements were made on tumor-bearing mice before and after PDT using the photosensitizer meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC). Tumors were illuminated using either a short drug light interval (D-L, 3 h), when mTHPC is primarily located in the tumor vasculature or a long D-L interval (48 h), when the drug is distributed throughout the whole tumor. OCT enabled visualization of the different layers of tumor, and overlying skin with a maximal penetration of < or =0.5-1 mm. PDT with a short D-L interval resulted in a significant decrease of perfusion in the tumor periphery, to 20% of pre-treatment values at 160 min, whereas perfusion in the skin initially increased by 10% (at 25 min) and subsequently decreased to 60% of pre-treatment values (at 200 min). PDT with a long D-L interval did not induce significant changes in perfusion. The concept of using noninvasive OCT measurements for monitoring early, treatment-related changes in morphology and perfusion may have applications in evaluating effects of anti-angiogenic or antivascular (cancer) therapy. PMID:16965168

  4. Photodynamic therapy for recurrent and residual malignant tumors of the oropharyngeal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Garbusov, Max I.; Markitchev, Nikolai A.; Riabov, Michail V.

    1999-12-01

    The frequency of tumor recurrences, according to the modern literature, remains high even in early stages of cancer (15% to 35%), the efficacy of conventional therapy for recurrent tumors is insufficient. In the State Research Center for Laser Medicine in 1992-97 photodynamic therapy with russian photosensitizers Photoheme ((lambda) equals 630 nm) and Photosense ((lambda) equals 670 nm) has been applied to 42 patients with recurrent and/or residual tumors (size corresponding to T1 - T4 symbols) of oropharyngeal area. We used laser irradiation for 3 - 30 minutes, power density used was from 0.05 to 1.0 W/cm2, energy density - 300 J/cm2. Therapeutic effect in term from 3 to 45 months was achieved in 39 (92.9%) patients. Complete resorption of tumors took place in 23 (54.8%) cases, partial resorption - in 16 (38.1%); in 3 cases (7.1%) the results of PDT were assessed as no response (tumor size decrease by less than 50%). Absolute resistance to PDT has not been noticed. The data obtained shows that PDT is a promising treatment modality for managing recurrent and residual tumors of oropharyngeal area.

  5. Imaging Tumor Variation in Response to Photodynamic Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Models

    SciTech Connect

    Samkoe, Kimberley S., E-mail: samkoe@dartmouth.ed [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Chen, Alina [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Rizvi, Imran [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); O'Hara, Julia A. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Hoopes, P. Jack [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Department of Surgery, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States); Pereira, Stephen P. [Institute of Hepatology, University College London Medical School, London (United Kingdom); Hasan, Tayyaba [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Pogue, Brian W. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Surgery, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: A treatment monitoring study investigated the differential effects of orthotopic pancreatic cancer models in response to interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT), and the validity of using magnetic resonance imaging as a surrogate measure of response was assessed. Methods and Materials: Different orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenograft models (AsPC-1 and Panc-1) were used to represent the range of pathophysiology observed in human beings. Identical dose escalation studies (10, 20, and 40J/cm) using interstitial verteporfin PDT were performed, and magnetic resonance imaging with T2-weighted and T1-weighted contrast were used to monitor the total tumor volume and the vascular perfusion volume, respectively. Results: There was a significant amount of necrosis in the slower-growing Panc-1 tumor using high light dose, although complete necrosis was not observed. Lower doses were required for the same level of tumor kill in the faster-growing AsPC-1 cell line. Conclusions: The tumor growth rate and vascular pattern of the tumor affect the optimal PDT treatment regimen, with faster-growing tumors being relatively easier to treat. This highlights the fact that therapy in human beings shows a heterogeneous range of outcomes, and suggests a need for careful individualized treatment outcomes assessment in clinical work.

  6. Evaluation of the Photodynamic Therapy effect using a tumor model in Chorioallantoic Membrane with Melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzá, Hilde H.; Pires, Layla; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a type of cancer treatment that is based on the interaction of light (with specific wavelength), a photosensitizing agent and molecular oxygen. The photosensitizer (PS) is activated by light and reacts with oxygen resulting in the production of singlet oxygen that is highly reactive and responsible for the cell death. The Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) model is a transparent membrane that allows visualization and evaluation of blood vessels and structural changes, where a tumor model was developed. Two induction tumor models were investigated: tumor biopsy or cell culture. It was used a murine melanoma cell B16F10 in culture and a biopsy from a xenograft tumor in hairless mouse. Two PS were tested: Photodithazine® and Photogem®, a chlorine and porphyrin compounds, respectively. Using intravenous administration, the light-drug interval was of 30 minutes, 1 and 3 hours. Illumination was performed at 630 nm and 660 nm, and the vascular and tumor response was monitored and analyzed. The PS distribution was checked with confocal microscopy. This model can be useful to study several parameters of PDT and the effect of this therapy in the cancer treatment since it allows direct visualization of its effects.

  7. Techniques for fluorescence detection of protoporphyrin IX in skin cancers associated with photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rollakanti, Kishore R.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Davis, Scott C.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that uses a specific photosensitizing agent, molecular oxygen, and light of a particular wavelength to kill cells targeted by the therapy. Topically administered aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is widely used to effectively treat cancerous and precancerous skin lesions, resulting in targeted tissue damage and little to no scarring. The targeting aspect of the treatment arises from the fact that ALA is preferentially converted into protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in neoplastic cells. To monitor the amount of PpIX in tissues, techniques have been developed to measure PpIX-specific fluorescence, which provides information useful for monitoring the abundance and location of the photosensitizer before and during the illumination phase of PDT. This review summarizes the current state of these fluorescence detection techniques. Non-invasive devices are available for point measurements, or for wide-field optical imaging, to enable monitoring of PpIX in superficial tissues. To gain access to information at greater tissue depths, multi-modal techniques are being developed which combine fluorescent measurements with ultrasound or optical coherence tomography, or with microscopic techniques such as confocal or multiphoton approaches. The tools available at present, and newer devices under development, offer the promise of better enabling clinicians to inform and guide PDT treatment planning, thereby optimizing therapeutic outcomes for patients. PMID:25599015

  8. Susceptibility of Candida albicans to photodynamic therapy using methylene blue and toluidine blue as photosensitizing dyes.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Yasmine M; Gomes, Giovana M; Santos, Elizabete B; Chaves, Luzia; Michel, Milton D; Kozlowski, Vitoldo A; Gomes, Osnara M M; Gomes, Joãdo Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The increased resistance of Candida albicans to antibiotic therapy indicates the need for alternative treatments for oral candidiasis. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been researched as an alternative tool to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. It uses a combination of a photosensitizer and a visible light source. This study evaluated the susceptibility of C. albicans to PDT and compared the efficacy of 100 microg/mL methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue (TB) as photosensitizers. The light source was Indium-Gallium-Aluminum Phosphide (InGaAIP) laser at 53 J/cm2. Suspensions of 108 cells/mL of C. albicans were subject to PDT for 5 minutes in 96-well plates, then decimal dilutions were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose agar After 48h incubation at 37 degreesC, the number of CFU/mL were obtained and submitted to statistical analysis using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA (p<0.0001) and Tukey tests. The results showed that MB or laser irradiation alone did not have statistically significant antifungal activity compared to the positive control group (p> 0. 05). Conversely, the number of viable C. albicans cells was reduced significantly after PDT using MB or mainly TB associated to diode laser irradiation. The data proved the efficacy of PDT against C. albicans cells, regardless of the photosensitizer used. PMID:22165318

  9. Photodynamic therapy for port wine stains assisted by a novel robotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Naiyan; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Ying; Bian, Guibin; Duan, Xingguang; Liu, Weifeng; Tang, Xiaoying; Wang, Xingtao; Cui, Shihu; Zhang, Chunyu; Gu, Ying

    2010-11-01

    Port wine stains (PWS) is a vascular malformation consisting of dilated capillaries in the superficial dermis. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective approach in the treatment of PWS. However, the procedure of treatment is a low efficient and hard work, as the doctor need to hold laser fiber to irradiate for 20 min to 50 min per lesion. So an assisted novel robotic system was developed to instead part of doctor's work. The robotic system consisted of 7 degrees of freedom, in which there were 5 passive joints and 2 active joints. Binocular surveillance system was used as guidance for the robot. Clinical trial compared 20 patients (38 lesions) treated by the robotic system with another 20 patients (38 lesions) treated by a doctor. The patients in both groups were injected intravenously with photosensitizer (PSD-007, 4-5mg/kg) and irradiated with 532 nm laser (100mW/cm2, 120-300J/cm2) immediately. Both groups had same good therapeutic results. The robotic system is helpful in the PWS-PDT and hopefully would become a part of PWS therapy machine in the future.

  10. Recent advances in the prevention and treatment of skin cancer using photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baozhong; He, Yu-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive procedure that involves a photosensitizing drug and its subsequent activation by light to produce reactive oxygen species that specifically destroy target cells. Recently, PDT has been widely used in treating non-melanoma skin malignancies, the most common cancer in the USA, with superior cosmetic outcomes compared with conventional therapies. The topical ‘photosensitizers’ commonly used are 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its esterified derivative methyl 5-aminolevulinate, which are precursors of the endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX. After treatment with ALA or methyl 5-aminolevulinate, protoporphyrin IX preferentially accumulates in the lesion area of various skin diseases, which allows not only PDT treatment but also fluorescence diagnosis with ALA-induced porphyrins. Susceptible lesions include various forms of non-melanoma skin cancer such as actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The most recent and promising developments in PDT include the discovery of new photosensitizers, the exploitation of new drug delivery systems and the combination of other modalities, which will all contribute to increasing PDT therapeutic efficacy and improving outcome. This article summarizes the main principles of PDT and its current clinical use in the management of non-melanoma skin cancers, as well as recent developments and possible future research directions. PMID:21080805

  11. The Effect of Iron Ion on the Specificity of Photodynamic Therapy with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Maiko; Fukuhara, Hideo; Inoue, Keiji; Shuin, Taro; Hagiya, Yuichiro; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Ogura, Shun-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Recently, photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) has been widely used in cancer therapy. ALA administration results in tumor-selective accumulation of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) via the heme biosynthetic pathway. Although ALA-PDT has selectivity for tumor cells, PpIX is accumulated into cultured normal cells to a small extent, causing side effects. The mechanism of tumor-selective PpIX accumulation is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to identify the mechanism of tumor-selective PpIX accumulation after ALA administration. We focused on mitochondrial labile iron ion, which is the substrate for metabolism of PpIX to heme. We investigated differences in iron metabolism between tumor cells and normal cells and found that the amount of mitochondrial labile iron ion in cancer was lower than that in normal cells. This finding could be because of the lower expression of mitoferrins, which are the mitochondrial iron transporters. Accordingly, we added sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) with ALA as a source of iron. As a result, we observed the accumulation of PpIX only in tumor cells, and only these cells showed sensitivity to ALA-PDT. Taken together, these results suggest that the uptake abilities of iron ion into mitochondria play a key role in tumor-selective PpIX accumulation. Using SFC as a source of iron might thus increase the specificity of ALA-PDT effects. PMID:25822972

  12. Hydrophobic IR780 encapsulated in biodegradable human serum albumin nanoparticles for photothermal and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chenxiao; Cheng, Hao; Yuan, Ahu; Tang, Xiaolei; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2015-03-01

    It has been reported that IR780 iodide, a near-infrared dye, can be applied for cancer imaging, photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT). However, the hydrophobicity and toxicity of IR780 severely limit its further clinical applications. In this study, human serum albumin was used to load IR780 to form nanoparticles (HSA-IR780 NPs) by protein self-assembly. Compared to free IR-780, the solubility of HSA-IR780 NPs was greatly increased (1000-fold) while the toxicity was decreased (from 2.5mgkg(-1) to 25mgkg(-1)). Moreover, both PTT and PDT could be observed in HSA-IR780 NPs, as determined by increased temperature and enhanced generation of singlet oxygen after laser irradiation at a wavelength of 808nm. In vivo studies also showed a great tumor inhibition by the injection of HSA-IR780 NPs into tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, HSA-IR780 NPs may serve as a promising substitute for IR780 in further clinical PDT and PTT. PMID:25463484

  13. Combination approaches to potentiate immune response after photodynamic therapy for cancer†

    PubMed Central

    St Denis, Tyler G.; Aziz, Kanza; Waheed, Anam A.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as a cancer therapy for forty years but has not advanced to a mainstream cancer treatment. Although it has been shown to be an efficient way to destroy local tumors by a combination of non-toxic dyes and harmless visible light, it is its additional effects in mediating the stimulation of the host immune system that gives PDT great potential to become more widely used. Although the stimulation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cells that can destroy distant tumor deposits after PDT has been reported in some animal models, it remains the exception rather than the rule. This realization has prompted several investigators to test various combination approaches that could potentiate the immune recognition of tumor antigens that have been released after PDT. This review will cover these combination approaches using immunostimulants including various microbial preparations that activate Toll-like receptors and other receptors for pathogen-associated molecular patterns, cytokines growth factors, and approaches that target regulatory T-cells. We believe that by understanding the methods employed by tumors to evade immune response and neutralizing them, more precise ways of potentiating PDT-induced immunity can be devised. PMID:21479313

  14. Effect of GFP expression on the sensitivity of glioma cell lines to photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatami, S.; Rendon, A.; Yoshimitsu, M.; Medin, J.; Lilge, L.

    2005-09-01

    Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing cells are customarily used in a variety of in vitro and in vivo studies and assays to ease visualization and localization. Nonetheless, the effects of EGFP expression on cellular responsivity to Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a combination therapy combining a photoactive drug and light, have yet to be characterized. To address this effect, rat astrocytoma cells (CNS-1), a lentivirus-transduced EGFP variant (CNS-1 GFP), human glioblastoma (U-87), and the transfected EGFP variant (U-87 GFP) are analyzed in terms of cell survival following PDT mediated by two different photoactive drugs. Cell survival is quantified via colony forming assays and Alamar blue assays, as a function of light dose, using the photosensitizers Photofrin (1ug ml-1 for 24h) and ALA (200ug ml-1 for 5h). Furthermore, effect of GFP expression on the responsivity to Cisplatin, a DNA-binding chemotherapeutic agent is determined for these cell lines. Our results show that EGFP expression does not affect the responsivity of Photofrin-PDT in comparison to parental cell lines (non GFP expressing cells), but does alter that of ALA-PDT. No change in responsivity is observed for Cisplatin treatment for either cell line. These results can be explained by oxidative stress induced by EGFP expression. This work will establish under which circumstances it is appropriate to use EGFP-expressing cell lines in the context of PDT preclinical research in vivo and in vitro.

  15. Limitations in Adjuvant Breast Cancer Therapy: The Predictive Potential of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Thurner, Patrick; Nanoff, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Summary Adjuvant therapy improves survival in breast cancer patients. However, both antihormonal agents and cytostatic chemotherapy meet with variable success. We have searched the literature for biological causes of variability in drug response. Evidence suggests that additional markers may be introduced because of their potentially predictive value in adjuvant therapy: i) overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor is likely inversely correlated to the sensitivity to estrogen antagonists; ii) presence of the GAB2 adaptor protein and of the ABCC3 and mdr-1 efflux pumps modulates taxane sensitivity in HER2-positive breast cancer; and iii) CYP2D6 genotyping should be a routine measure to avoid failure of tamox-ifen treatment. In contrast, there is little in the way of genetic evidence for differences in the pharmacokinetics of other antihormonal or cytostatic drugs. Nevertheless, genotypes may affect efficacy and toxicity of cytostatic drugs (e.g. doxorubicin), but this evidence has to be confirmed by prospective trials. PMID:21048911

  16. Limitations in Adjuvant Breast Cancer Therapy: The Predictive Potential of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Thurner, Patrick; Nanoff, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Adjuvant therapy improves survival in breast cancer patients. However, both antihormonal agents and cytostatic chemotherapy meet with variable success. We have searched the literature for biological causes of variability in drug response. Evidence suggests that additional markers may be introduced because of their potentially predictive value in adjuvant therapy: i) overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor is likely inversely correlated to the sensitivity to estrogen antagonists; ii) presence of the GAB2 adaptor protein and of the ABCC3 and mdr-1 efflux pumps modulates taxane sensitivity in HER2-positive breast cancer; and iii) CYP2D6 genotyping should be a routine measure to avoid failure of tamox-ifen treatment. In contrast, there is little in the way of genetic evidence for differences in the pharmacokinetics of other antihormonal or cytostatic drugs. Nevertheless, genotypes may affect efficacy and toxicity of cytostatic drugs (e.g. doxorubicin), but this evidence has to be confirmed by prospective trials. PMID:21048911

  17. Heat shock protein 70 is acute phase reactant: response elicited by tumor treatment with photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Soroush; Korbelik, Mladen

    2011-03-01

    Oxidative stress in photodynamic therapy (PDT)-treated tumor cells is known to instigate a strong upregulation of the expression of heat shock proteins. However, the treatment of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells with Photofrin™ PDT resulted in the upregulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) gene not only in these cells but also in co-incubated untreated Hepa 1-6 cells. To investigate whether this phenomenon extends in vivo, LLC tumors growing in C57BL/6 mice were treated with Photofrin™ PDT. The tumors and the livers from the mice were collected at 4, 8, or 24 h after therapy for quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-based analysis of Hsp70 gene expression. Increased Hsp70 gene expression was detected in both the tumor and liver tissues and was most pronounced at 4 h after PDT. This effect was inhibited by treatment of host mice with glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor metyrapone. Hsp70 protein levels in the livers of mice bearing PDT-treated tumors gradually decreased after therapy while serum levels increased at 4 h after therapy and then continually decreased. The exposure of in vitro PDT-treated LLC cells to Hsp70 and subsequent flow cytometry analysis revealed binding of this protein to cells that was dependent on PDT dose and more pronounced with dying than viable cells. Thus, following the induction of tumor injury by PDT, Hsp70 can be produced in the liver and spleen as acute phase reactant and released into circulation, from where it can be rapidly sequestered to damaged tumor tissue to facilitate the disposal of dying cells. PMID:20865355

  18. Fluorescence image-guided photodynamic therapy of cancer cells using a scanning fiber endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldetensae, Mikias H.; Kirshenbaum, Mark R.; Kramer, Greg M.; Zhang, Liang; Seibel, Eric J.

    2013-03-01

    A scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) and the cancer biomarker 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) were used to fluorescently detect and destroy superficial cancerous lesions, while experimenting with different dosimetry levels for concurrent or sequential imaging and laser therapy. The 1.6-mm diameter SFE was used to fluorescently image a confluent monolayer of A549 human lung cancer cells from culture, previously administered with 5 mM solution of 5-ALA for 4 hours. Twenty hours after therapy, cell cultures were stained to distinguish between living and dead cells using a laser scanning confocal microscope. To determine relative dosimetry for photodynamic therapy (PDT), 405-nm laser illumination was varied from 1 to 5 minutes with power varying from 5 to 18 mW, chosen to compare equal amounts of energy delivered to the cell culture. The SFE produced 500-line images of fluorescence at 15 Hz using the red detection channel centered at 635 nm. The results show that PDT of A549 cancer cell monolayers using 405nm light for imaging and 5-ALAinduced PpIX therapy was possible using the same SFE system. Increased duration and power of laser illumination produced an increased area of cell death upon live/dead staining. The ultrathin and flexible SFE was able to direct PDT using wide-field fluorescence imaging of a monolayer of cultured cancer cells after uptaking 5-ALA. The correlation between light intensity and duration of PDT was measured. Increased length of exposure and decreased light intensity yields larger areas of cell death than decreased length of exposure with increased light intensity.

  19. Coronary Heart Disease Mortality and Adjuvant Tamoxifen Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph P. Costantino; Lewis H. Kuller; Diane G. Ives; Bernard Fisher; James Dignam

    Background and Purpose: Data from randomized clinical tri- als in Scotland and Sweden testing the efficacy of tamoxifen therapy in patients with breast cancer have suggested that the drug may also reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. In view of these findings, we examined mortality from coro- nary heart disease among patients with early stage breast cancer who were

  20. The role of ovarian ablation in the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sing-Huang Tan; Antonio C. Wolff

    2008-01-01

    Increasing interest has emerged in the role of ovarian function suppression, which has shown equivalence to adjuvant CMF (cyclophosphamide,\\u000a methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil), whether achieved by surgery or irradiation, in breast cancer patients. Studies have suggested\\u000a temporary amenorrhea can confer benefit in early breast cancer, giving luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists\\u000a an advantage over oophorectomy or radiation. Compared with no therapy, LH-RH

  1. Combining vascular and cellular targeting regimens enhances the efficacy of photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Bin [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Pogue, Brian W. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States) and Wellman Laboratories of Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States) and Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: pogue@dartmouth.edu; Hoopes, P. Jack [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Department of Surgery, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States); Hasan, Tayyaba [Wellman Laboratories of Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be designed to target either tumor vasculature or tumor cells by varying the drug-light interval. Photodynamic therapy treatments with different drug-light intervals can be combined to increase tumor response by targeting both tumor vasculature and tumor cells. The sequence of photosensitizer and light delivery can influence the effect of combined treatments. Methods and materials: The R3327-MatLyLu rat prostate tumor model was used in this study. Photosensitizer verteporfin distribution was quantified by fluorescence microscopy. Tumor blood flow changes were monitored by laser-Doppler system and tumor hypoxia was quantified by the immunohistochemical staining for the hypoxic marker EF5. The therapeutic effects of PDT treatments were evaluated by the histologic examination and tumor regrowth assay. Results: Fluorescence microscopic studies indicated that tumor localization of verteporfin changed from predominantly within the tumor vasculature at 15 min after injection, to being throughout the tumor parenchyma at 3 h after injection. Light treatment (50 J/cm{sup 2}) at 15 min after verteporfin injection (0.25 mg/kg, i.v.) induced significant tumor vascular damage, as manifested by tumor blood flow reduction and increase in the tumor hypoxic fraction. In contrast, the vascular effect observed after the same light dose (50 J/cm{sup 2}) delivered 3 h after administration of verteporfin (1 mg/kg, i.v.) was an initial acute decrease in blood flow, followed by recovery to the level of control. The EF5 staining revealed no significant increase in hypoxic fraction at 1 h after PDT using 3 h drug-light interval. The combination of 3-h interval PDT and 15-min interval PDT was more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than each individual PDT treatment. However, it was found that the combined treatment with the sequence of 3-h interval PDT before 15-min interval PDT led to a superior antitumor effect than the other combinative PDT treatments. Histologic studies confirmed that this combined treatment led to damage to both tumor vasculature and tumor cells. Importantly, the combined PDT treatment did not increase normal tissue damage and tissue recovered well at 60 days after treatment. Conclusions: Our results suggest that targeting both tumor vascular and cellular compartments by combining a long-interval PDT with a short-interval PDT can be an effective and safe way to enhance PDT damage to tumor tissue.

  2. Adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer in the era of aromatase inhibitors: an update.

    PubMed

    Mokbel, Ramia; Karat, Isabella; Mokbel, Kefah

    2006-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that optimal adjuvant endocrine therapy for hormone sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal women should include a third generation aromatase inhibitor (AI). On current evidence, adjuvant anstrozole or letrozole should be used upfront in such patients especially in those with high risk disease (node positive and/or tumours > 2 cm). The sequential approach of tamoxifen for 2-3 years followed by exemestane or anastrozole for 2-3 years is a reasonable alternative to 5 years of AI monotherapy in patients with low risk disease (node negative and tumour smaller than 2 cm) especially if the tumour is positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors.Node-positive patients completing 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen should be offered letrozole for up 48 months. Further research is required to establish the long-term cardiovascular safety of AIs especially that of letrozole and exmestane, the optimal AI to use, duration of AI therapy and whether monotherapy with an AI for 5 years is superior to sequencing an AI after 2-3 years of tamoxifen. The bone mineral density (BMD) should be measured at baseline and monitored during therapy in women being treated with AIs. Anti-osteoporosis agents should such as bisphosphonates should be considered in patients at high risk of bone fractures. PMID:16981992

  3. Adjuvant therapy in gastric cancer: what is the optimal approach?

    PubMed

    Taketa, Takashi; Sudo, Kazuki; Wadhawa, Roopma; Blum, Mariela M; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2013-04-01

    Gastric cancer confers a poor prognosis even when diagnosed as localized disease. Multimodality therapy improves the cure rate of patients with localized cancer. However, adjunctive therapeutic approaches differ in different regions of the world. This review focuses on the current standards and unresolved issues based on updated literature on therapy for localized gastric cancer. In the USA, the Intergroup 0116 trial established the use of postoperative chemoradiotherapy as a standard for patients who have surgery first for treatment of gastric cancer. In Europe, the MAGIC trial investigating perioperative chemotherapy demonstrated a survival benefit for gastric cancer patients. Finally, in Asia, the ACTS-GC and CLASSIC trials investigating postoperative chemotherapy established this as the standard of care after primary surgery that included D2 dissection. It is clear, however, that surgery alone is insufficient to achieve the highest possible cure rates. PMID:23355076

  4. Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Pre and Postmenopausal Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Jackisch; Andreas Schneeweiss

    2006-01-01

    The treatment rationale in endocrine responsive breast cancer, based on the individual risk of relapse, consists either of endocrine therapy alone or a chemoendocrine treatment. Tamoxifen as an antiestrogen given for 5 years is still the mainstay in premenopausal women. In women with ovarian function the use of GnRHa for 2-3 years is recommended. Monotherapy either with GnRHa or aromatase

  5. Adjuvant and/or neoadjuvant therapy for gastric cancer? A perspective review

    PubMed Central

    Schirren, Rebekka; Reim, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is still the only curative therapy for locoregional gastric cancer. Hereby it is important to achieve negative margins (R0 resection) and to perform an adequate lymph-node dissection (D2 lymphadenectomy). Unfortunately most cases of gastric cancer are diagnosed in a locally advanced tumor stage. The poor prognosis of patients with these tumors is due to the frequent recurrences after primary resection in curative intent. This observation led to the development of (neo)adjuvant treatment concepts. Beginning with the end of the 1980s, more and more patients with locally advanced tumors were subjected to a preoperative, perioperative, or postoperative treatment in order to improve the prognosis after curative resection. However, in different regions of the world, different regiments are preferred. While adjuvant chemotherapy is the established treatment in Asia, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is favored in the USA and perioperative chemotherapy is considered the treatment of choice in Europe. However, recently a certain convergence of the different philosophies is to be observed. This article covers the relevant studies dealing with neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment concepts and gives an overview on the latest developments in this field. PMID:25553082

  6. Chlorin e6–ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots based system as reagent for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, I. V.; Kuznetsova, V. A.; Orlova, ? O.; Kanaev, P. A.; Maslov, V. G.; Loudon, A.; Zaharov, V.; Parfenov, P.; Gun’ko, Yu K.; Baranov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    Stable water-soluble complexes of Cd-free ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and chlorin e6 complexes have been prepared. These complexes have shown approximately 50% intracomplex fluorescence resonance energy transfer from QDs to chlorin e6. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) test of the complexes against the Erlich acsite carcinoma cell culture demonstrated a two-fold enhancement of the cancer cell photodynamic destruction as compared to that of free chlorin e6 molecules. It was shown that the PDT effect was significantly increased due to two factors: the efficient QD–chlorin e6 photoexcitation energy transfer and the improvement of cellular uptake of the photosensitizer in the presence of ZnSe/ZnS QDs.

  7. Photodynamic therapy can induce non-specific protective immunity against a bacterial infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masamitsu; Mroz, Pawel; Dai, Tianhong; Kinoshita, Manabu; Morimoto, Yuji; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer is known to induce an immune response against the tumor, in addition to its well-known direct cell-killing and vascular destructive effects. PDT is becoming increasingly used as a therapy for localized infections. However there has not to date been a convincing report of an immune response being generated against a microbial pathogen after PDT in an animal model. We have studied PDT as a therapy for bacterial arthritis caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection in the mouse knee. We had previously found that PDT of an infection caused by injection of MRSA (5X107 CFU) into the mouse knee followed 3 days later by 1 ?g of Photofrin and 635- nm diode laser illumination with a range of fluences within 5 minutes, gave a biphasic dose response. The greatest reduction of MRSA CFU was seen with a fluence of 20 J/cm2, whereas lower antibacterial efficacy was observed with fluences that were either lower or higher. We then tested the hypothesis that the host immune response mediated by neutrophils was responsible for most of the beneficial antibacterial effect. We used bioluminescence imaging of luciferase expressing bacteria to follow the progress of the infection in real time. We found similar results using intra-articular methylene blue and red light, and more importantly, that carrying out PDT of the noninfected joint and subsequently injecting bacteria after PDT led to a significant protection from infection. Taken together with substantial data from studies using blocking antibodies we believe that the pre-conditioning PDT regimen recruits and stimulates neutrophils into the infected joint which can then destroy bacteria that are subsequently injected and prevent infection.

  8. Cerebral Edema Following Photodynamic Therapy Using Endogenous and Exogenous Photosensitizers in Normal Brain

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Marlon S.; Chighvinadze, David; Gach, H. Michael; Uzal, Francisco A.; Madsen, Steen J.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Failure of treatment for high-grade gliomas is usually due to local recurrence at the site of surgical resection indicating that a more aggressive form of local therapy such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) could be of benefit. The increase in brain edema following PDT using endogenous and exogenous photosensitizers was compared in terms of animal survival, MR imaging, and histopathological changes in normal brain. Materials and Methods Fischer rats were exposed to increasing laser light treatment following intraperitoneal injection of either the photosensitizers 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or aluminum phthalocyanine disulfonate (AlPcS2a). Light treatment was applied either via an optical fiber inserted directly into the brain parenchyma or through a fiber applied to the surface of the intact skull. Edema development was followed by T2-weighted MR imaging. Results ALA and AlPcS2a PDT resulted in a fluence dependent increase in cerebral edema and mortality. AlPcS2a PDT showed significant edema and mortality even at low fluences following interstitial light delivery, which was reduced with surface illumination. The mechanism of edema was determined to be vasogenic by response to steroid therapy and confirmed on histological images. Conclusions T2 and contrast enhanced T1 MRI scanning proved to be a highly effective and noninvasive modality in following the development of the edema reaction and the degree and time course of blood–brain barrier dysfunction thus allowing the use of fewer animals. ALA mediated PDT induced a lower edema reaction than that observed with the photosensitizer AlPcS2a. PMID:22006731

  9. Stage III Melanoma in the Axilla: Patterns of Regional Recurrence After Surgery With and Without Adjuvant Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkham, Mark B., E-mail: mark.pinkham@health.qld.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Foote, Matthew C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Queensland Melanoma Project, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Diamantina Institute, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Burmeister, Elizabeth [Nursing Practice Development Unit, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia) [Nursing Practice Development Unit, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Research Centre for Clinical and Community Practice, Griffith University, Brisbane (Australia); Thomas, Janine [Queensland Melanoma Project, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia)] [Queensland Melanoma Project, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Meakin, Janelle [Clinical Trials Research Unit, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia)] [Clinical Trials Research Unit, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Smithers, B. Mark [Queensland Melanoma Project, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia) [Queensland Melanoma Project, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Burmeister, Bryan H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Queensland Melanoma Project, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To describe the anatomic distribution of regionally recurrent disease in patients with stage III melanoma in the axilla after curative-intent surgery with and without adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A single-institution, retrospective analysis of a prospective database of 277 patients undergoing curative-intent treatment for stage III melanoma in the axilla between 1992 and 2012 was completed. For patients who received radiation therapy and those who did not, patterns of regional recurrence were analyzed, and univariate analyses were performed to assess for potential factors associated with location of recurrence. Results: There were 121 patients who received adjuvant radiation therapy because their clinicopathologic features conferred a greater risk of regional recurrence. There were 156 patients who received no radiation therapy. The overall axillary control rate was 87%. There were 37 patients with regional recurrence; 17 patients had received adjuvant radiation therapy (14%), and 20 patients (13%) had not. The likelihood of in-field nodal recurrence was significantly less in the adjuvant radiation therapy group (P=.01) and significantly greater in sites adjacent to the axilla (P=.02). Patients with high-risk clinicopathologic features who did not receive adjuvant radiation therapy also tended to experience in-field failure rather than adjacent-field failure. Conclusions: Patients who received adjuvant radiation therapy were more likely to experience recurrence in the adjacent-field regions rather than in the in-field regions. This may not simply reflect higher-risk pathology. Using this data, it may be possible to improve outcomes by reducing the number of adjacent-field recurrences after adjuvant radiation therapy.

  10. Adjuvant TNF-? therapy to electrochemotherapy with intravenous cisplatin in murine sarcoma exerts synergistic antitumor effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Cemazar, Maja; Todorovic, Vesna; Scancar, Janez; Lampreht, Ursa; Stimac, Monika; Kamensek, Urska; Kranjc, Simona; Coer, Andrej; Sersa, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrochemotherapy is a tumour ablation modality, based on electroporation of the cell membrane, allowing non-permeant anticancer drugs to enter the cell, thus augmenting their cytotoxicity by orders of magnitude. In preclinical studies, bleomycin and cisplatin proved to be the most suitable for clinical use. Intravenous administration of cisplatin for electrochemotherapy is still not widely accepted in the clinics, presumably due to its lower antitumor effectiveness, but adjuvant therapy by immunomodulatory or vascular-targeting agents could provide a way for its potentiation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to explore the possibility of adjuvant tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) therapy to potentiate antitumor effectiveness of electrochemotherapy with intravenous cisplatin administration in murine sarcoma. Materials and methods In vivo study was designed to evaluate the effect of TNF-? applied before or after the electrochemotherapy and to evaluate the effect of adjuvant TNF-? on electrochemotherapy with different cisplatin doses. Results A synergistic interaction between TNF-? and electrochemotherapy was observed. Administration of TNF-? before the electrochemotherapy resulted in longer tumour growth delay and increased tumour curability, and was significantly more effective than TNF-? administration after the electrochemotherapy. Tumour analysis revealed increased platinum content in tumours, TNF-? induced blood vessel damage and increased tumour necrosis after combination of TNF-? and electrochemotherapy, indicating an anti-vascular action of TNF-?. In addition, immunomodulatory effect might have contributed to curability rate of the tumours. Conclusion Adjuvant intratumoural TNF-? therapy synergistically contributes to electrochemotherapy with intravenous cisplatin administration. Due to its potentiation at all doses of cisplatin, the combined treatment is predicted to be effective also in tumours, where the drug concentration is suboptimal or in bigger tumours, where electrochemotherapy with intravenous cisplatin is not expected to be sufficiently effective. PMID:25810699

  11. Combining information from cancer registry and medical records data to improve analyses of adjuvant cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    He, Yulei; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2009-09-01

    Cancer registry records contain valuable data on provision of adjuvant therapies for cancer patients. Previous studies, however, have shown that these therapies are underreported in registry systems. Hence direct use of the registry data may lead to invalid analysis results. We propose first to impute correct treatment status, borrowing information from an additional source such as medical records data collected in a validation sample, and then to analyze the multiply imputed data, as in Yucel and Zaslavsky (2005, Journal of the American Statistical Association 100, 1123-1132). We extend their models to multiple therapies using multivariate probit models with random effects. Our model takes into account the associations among different therapies in both administration and probability of reporting, as well as the multilevel structure (patients clustered within hospitals) of registry data. We use Gibbs sampling to estimate model parameters and impute treatment status. The proposed methodology is applied to the data from the Quality of Cancer Care project, in which stage II or III colorectal cancer patients were eligible to receive adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. PMID:19210743

  12. Adjuvant psychological therapy for patients with cancer: a prospective randomised trial.

    PubMed Central

    Greer, S.; Moorey, S.; Baruch, J. D.; Watson, M.; Robertson, B. M.; Mason, A.; Rowden, L.; Law, M. G.; Bliss, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the effect of adjuvant psychological therapy on the quality of life of patients with cancer. DESIGN--Prospective randomised controlled trial comparing the quality of life of patients receiving psychological therapy with that of patients receiving no therapy, measured before therapy, at eight weeks, and at four months of follow up. SETTING--CRC Psychological Medicine Group of Royal Marsden Hospital. PATIENTS--174 patients aged 18-74 attending hospital with a confirmed diagnosis of malignant disease, a life expectancy of at least 12 months, or scores on various measures of psychological morbidity above previously defined cut off points. INTERVENTION--Adjuvant psychological therapy, a brief, problem focused, cognitive-behavioural treatment programme specifically designed for the needs of individual cancer patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Hospital anxiety and depression scale, mental adjustment to cancer scale, Rotterdam symptom checklist, psychosocial adjustment to illness scale. RESULTS--156 (90%) patients completed the eight week trial; follow up data at four months were obtained for 137 patients (79%). At eight weeks, patients receiving therapy had significantly higher scores than control patients on fighting spirit and significantly lower scores on helplessness, anxious preoccupation, and fatalism; anxiety; psychological symptoms; and on orientation towards health care. These differences indicated improvement in each case. At four months, patients receiving therapy had significantly lower scores than controls on anxiety; psychological symptoms; and psychological distress. Clinically, the proportion of severely anxious patients dropped from 46% at baseline to 20% at eight weeks and 20% at four months in the therapy group and from 48% to 41% and to 43% respectively among controls. The proportion of patients with depression was 40% at baseline, 13% at eight weeks, and 18% at four months in the therapy group and 30%, 29%, and 23% respectively in controls. CONCLUSIONS--Adjuvant psychological therapy produces significant improvement in various measures of psychological distress among cancer patients. The effect of therapy observed at eight weeks persists in some but not all measures at four month follow up. PMID:1472184

  13. A Medical Manipulator System with Lasers in Photodynamic Therapy of Port Wine Stains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingtao; Tian, Chunlai; Duan, Xingguang; Gu, Ying; Huang, Naiyan

    2014-01-01

    Port wine stains (PWS) are a congenital malformation and dilation of the superficial dermal capillary. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with lasers is an effective treatment of PWS with good results. However, because the laser density is uneven and nonuniform, the treatment is carried out manually by a doctor thus providing little accuracy. Additionally, since the treatment of a single lesion can take between 30 and 60 minutes, the doctor can become fatigued after only a few applications. To assist the medical staff with this treatment method, a medical manipulator system (MMS) was built to operate the lasers. The manipulator holds the laser fiber and, using a combination of active and passive joints, the fiber can be operated automatically. In addition to the control input from the doctor over a human-computer interface, information from a binocular vision system is used to guide and supervise the operation. Clinical results are compared in nonparametric values between treatments with and without the use of the MMS. The MMS, which can significantly reduce the workload of doctors and improve the uniformity of laser irradiation, was safely and helpfully applied in PDT treatment of PWS with good therapeutic results. PMID:25302297

  14. Photodynamic therapy of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (VERTPAC study): final clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggett, M. T.; Jermyn, M.; Gillams, A.; Mosse, S.; Kent, E.; Bown, S. G.; Hasan, T.; Pogue, B. W.; Pereira, S. P.

    2013-03-01

    We undertook a phase I dose-escalation study of verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) in 15 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Needle placement and laser delivery were technically successful in all patients. Thirteen patients were treated with a single laser fibre. Three treatments were carried out each at 5, 10 and 20 J/cm2; and 5 treatments (4 patients) at 40 J/cm2. A further 2 patients were treated with 2 or 3 laser fibres at 40 J/cm2. Tumour necrosis was measured on CT (computed tomography) by two radiologists 5 days after treatment. There was a clear dosedependent increase in necrosis with a median area of 20 x 16 mm (range 18 x 16 to 35 x 30 mm) at 40 J/cm2. In the 2 patients treated with multiple fibres, necrosis was 40 x 36 mm and 30 x 28 mm, respectively. There were no early complications in patients treated with a single fibre. Both patients treated with multiple fibres had evidence on CT of inflammatory change occurring anterior to the pancreas but without clinical deterioration. These results suggest that single fibre verteporfin PDT is safe in a clinical setting up to 40J/cm2 and produces a dose-dependent area of pancreatic necrosis.

  15. CT contrast predicts pancreatic cancer treatment response to verteporfin-based photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermyn, Michael; Davis, Scott C.; Dehghani, Hamid; Huggett, Matthew T.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pereira, Stephen P.; Bown, Stephen G.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine dominant factors affecting treatment response in pancreatic cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), based on clinically available information in the VERTPAC-01 trial. This trial investigated the safety and efficacy of verteporfin PDT in 15 patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. CT scans before and after contrast enhancement from the 15 patients in the VERTPAC-01 trial were used to determine venous-phase blood contrast enhancement and this was correlated with necrotic volume determined from post-treatment CT scans, along with estimation of optical absorption in the pancreas for use in light modeling of the PDT treatment. Energy threshold contours yielded estimates for necrotic volume based on this light modeling. Both contrast-derived venous blood content and necrotic volume from light modeling yielded strong correlations with observed necrotic volume (R2 = 0.85 and 0.91, respectively). These correlations were much stronger than those obtained by correlating energy delivered versus necrotic volume in the VERTPAC-01 study and in retrospective analysis from a prior clinical study. This demonstrates that contrast CT can provide key surrogate dosimetry information to assess treatment response. It also implies that light attenuation is likely the dominant factor in the VERTPAC treatment response, as opposed to other factors such as drug distribution. This study is the first to show that contrast CT provides needed surrogate dosimetry information to predict treatment response in a manner which uses standard-of-care clinical images, rather than invasive dosimetry methods.

  16. Photodynamic therapy and fluorescence diagnostics of breast cancer metastases with photosense and alasense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Shental, Victor V.; Letyagin, Victor P.; Brjezovsky, Vitaly J.; Oumnova, L. V.; Vorozhtsov, Georgy N.; Philinov, V.; Stranadko, Eugeny P.

    2002-06-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and fluorescent diagnostics (FD) using photosensitizers Photosense (Aluminium Phtalocyanine, (NIOPIC, Russia)(PS) and Alasense have been provided in 101 patients with breast cancer as a multicenter study. All patients had recurrences of breast cancer (skin metastases) after combined treatment, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. FD of tumor with detecting of subclinical sites, accumulation of PS in tumor, adjacent tissue, skin before and during PDT was fulfilled. Multiple surface irradiations were carried on with interval 24-72 hours (semiconductive laser - (lambda) =672+2nm) in light does 100J/cm2 and total light does 300-900 J/cm2. 2 months after PDT we had overall response rate of 86,87% with complete response (CR) in 51,48% and partial response in 35,39%. During year after PDT in 52 patients with CR we had CR in 36,6% local recurrences in 23,1%, progression (distant (lung or bone) metastasis) in 40,4% of cases. Our experience show pronounced efficacy of PDT for skin metastases of breast cancer.

  17. Illumination devices for uniform delivery of light to the oral cavity for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavesi, Cristina; Cassarly, William J.; Foster, Thomas H.; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2011-10-01

    To date, the lack of light delivery mechanisms to the oral cavity remains a barrier to the treatment of oral cancer with photodynamic therapy (PDT). The greatest impediment to medical practitioners is the current need to shield the normal tissues of the oral cavity, a costly and time-consuming procedure. In this research, we present the design of illumination devices to deliver light to the oral cavity for PDT, which will facilitate administration of PDT in the clinic. The goal for such an illumination device, as indicated by our clinical collaborators at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, is to limit exposure of healthy tissue and produce an average irradiance of 100 mW/cm2 over the treatment field, with spatial non-uniformities below 10%. Furthermore, the size of the device must be compact to allow use in the oral cavity. Our research led to the design and fabrication of two devices producing spatial non-uniformities below 6% over a treatment area of 0.25 cm2 by design. One device consisted of an appropriately-sized reflector, inspired by solar concentrators, illuminated by a cylindrical diffusing fiber optimally located within the reflector; another was a solid lightpipe with a combination of optimized tapered and straight components.

  18. Signaling from lysosomes enhances mitochondria-mediated photodynamic therapy in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiogue, Geraldine; Saggu, Shalini; Hung, Hsin-I.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Lemasters, John J.; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa

    2009-06-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), visible light activates a photosensitizing drug added to a tissue, resulting in singlet oxygen formation and cell death. Assessed by confocal microscopy, the photosensitizer phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4) localizes primarily to mitochondrial membranes in cancer cells, resulting in mitochondria-mediated cell death. A Pc 4 derivative, Pc 181, accumulates into lysosomes. In comparison to Pc 4, Pc 181 was a more effective photosensitizer promoting killing cancer cells after PDT. The mode of cell death after Pc 181-PDT is predominantly apoptosis, and pancaspase and caspase-3 inhibitors prevent onset of the cell death. To assess further how lysosomes contribute to PDT, we monitored cell killing of A431cells after PDT in the presence and absence of bafilomycin, an inhibitor of the acidic vacuolar proton pump that collapses the pH gradient of the lysosomal/endosomal compartment. Bafilomycin by itself did not induce toxicity but greatly enhanced Pc 4-PDT-induced cell killing. In comparison to Pc 4, less enhancement of cell killing by bafilomycin occurred after Pc 181-PDT at photosensitizer doses producing equivalent cell killing in the absence of bafilomycin. These results indicate that lysosomal disruption can augment PDT with Pc 4, which targets predominantly mitochondria, but less so after PDT with Pc 181, since Pc 181 already targets lysosomes.

  19. Molecular Electronic Tuning of Photosensitizers to Enhance Photodynamic Therapy: Synthetic Dicyanobacteriochlorins as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eunkyung; Diers, James R.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R.; Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Bocian, David F.; Holten, Dewey

    2012-01-01

    Photophysical, photostability, electrochemical, and molecular-orbital characteristics are analyzed for a set of stable dicyanobacteriochlorins that are promising photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The bacteriochlorins are the parent compound (BC), dicyano derivative (NC)2BC and corresponding zinc (NC)2BC-Zn and palladium chelate (NC)2BC-Pd. The order of PDT activity against HeLa human cancer cells in vitro is (NC)2BC-Pd > (NC)2BC > (NC)2BC-Zn ? BC. The near-infrared absorption feature of each dicyanobacteriochlorin is bathochromically shifted 35–50 nm (748–763 nm) from that for BC (713 nm). Intersystem crossing to the PDT-active triplet excited state is essentially quantitative for (NC)2BC-Pd. Phosphorescence from (NC)2BC-Pd occurs at 1122 nm (1.1 eV). This value and the measured ground-state redox potentials fix the triplet excited-state redox properties, which underpin PDT activity via Type-1 (electron-transfer) pathways. A perhaps counterintuitive (but readily explicable) result is that of the three dicyanobacteriochlorins, the photosensitizer with the shortest triplet lifetime (7 ?s), (NC)2BC-Pd, has the highest activity. Photostabilities of the dicyanobacteriochlorins and other bacteriochlorins studied recently are investigated and discussed in terms of four phenomena: aggregation, reduction, oxidation, and chemical reaction. Collectively, the results and analysis provide fundamental insights concerning the molecular design of PDT agents. PMID:23163632

  20. Molecular electronic tuning of photosensitizers to enhance photodynamic therapy: synthetic dicyanobacteriochlorins as a case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eunkyung; Diers, James R; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R; Lindsey, Jonathan S; Bocian, David F; Holten, Dewey

    2013-01-01

    Photophysical, photostability, electrochemical and molecular-orbital characteristics are analyzed for a set of stable dicyanobacteriochlorins that are promising photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The bacteriochlorins are the parent compound (BC), dicyano derivative (NC)2BC and corresponding zinc (NC)2BC-Zn and palladium chelate (NC)2BC-Pd. The order of PDT activity against HeLa human cancer cells in vitro is (NC)2BC-Pd > (NC)2BC > (NC)2BC-Zn ? BC. The near-infrared absorption feature of each dicyanobacteriochlorin is bathochromically shifted 35-50 nm (748-763 nm) from that for BC (713 nm). Intersystem crossing to the PDT-active triplet excited state is essentially quantitative for (NC)2BC-Pd. Phosphorescence from (NC)2BC-Pd occurs at 1122 nm (1.1 eV). This value and the measured ground-state redox potentials fix the triplet excited-state redox properties, which underpin PDT activity via Type-1 (electron transfer) pathways. A perhaps counterintuitive (but readily explicable) result is that of the three dicyanobacteriochlorins, the photosensitizer with the shortest triplet lifetime (7 ?s), (NC)2BC-Pd has the highest activity. Photostabilities of the dicyanobacteriochlorins and other bacteriochlorins studied recently are investigated and discussed in terms of four phenomena: aggregation, reduction, oxidation and chemical reaction. Collectively, the results and analysis provide fundamental insights concerning the molecular design of PDT agents. PMID:23163632

  1. Photodynamic therapy of atherosclerosis and restenosis: a potentially exciting new treatment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, G. Michael

    1994-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the result of an interaction between light and a photoactive drug. The interaction produces cytotoxic oxygen radicals and radicals and microvascular collapse, resulting in tissue death. A number of photoactive drugs have been shown to accumulate in greater concentration in atherosclerotic plaque than in normal arterial wall and are potentially useful for PDT. The newer generation agents are safe and have brief skin phototoxicity as the only significant side effect. PDT in several animal models of atherosclerosis has shown plaque removal without damage to the artery wall if appropriate light energy is used, with no perforation, and no distal embolization or obstruction. In one such study we found that PDT using Photofrin and 630 nm laser light reduced the mean percent stenosis of 12 stenoses in 8 pigs from 63% to 40%, and in 7/12 of the segments from 63% to 16%, whereas in 2 untreated control lesions the mean stenosis progressed from 60% to 85%. PDT requires several days for tissue destruction, and immediate luminal enlargement by an adjunct angioplasty intervention may be appropriate. Animal studies suggest that PDT also inhibits the intimal hyperplasia process which follows vascular injury, and PDT may inhibit restenosis following clinical coronary angioplasty. The enthusiasm for PDT of atherosclerosis, therefore, stems from three important potential advantages of the technique: the apparent selectivity and safety of the process, the potential for effective debulking of plaque and the possibility of reduction or inhibition or restenosis.

  2. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with fulleropyrrolidine: photoinactivation mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Grinholc, Mariusz; Nakonieczna, Joanna; Fila, Grzegorz; Taraszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Kawiak, Anna; Szewczyk, Grzegorz; Sarna, Tadeusz; Lilge, Lothar; Bielawski, Krzysztof P

    2015-05-01

    A family of N-methylpyrrolidinium fullerene iodide salts has been intensively studied to determine their applicability in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT). This study examined in vitro the efficacy of a C60 fullerene functionalized with one methylpyrrolidinium group to kill upon irradiation with white light gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, as well as fungal cells, and the corresponding mechanism of the fullerene bactericidal action. The in vitro studies revealed that the high antistaphylococcal efficacy of functionalized fullerene could be linked to their ability to photogenerate singlet oxygen and superoxide anion. Following Staphylococcus aureus photoinactivation, no modifications of its genomic DNA were detected. In contrast, photodamage of the cell envelope seemed to be a dominant mechanism of bactericidal action. In in vivo studies, a 2 log10 reduction in the average bioluminescent radiance between treated and non-treated mice was reached. One day post APDT treatment, moist and abundant growth of bacteria could be observed on wounds of non-fulleropyrrolidine and dark control mice. APDT-treated wounds stayed visibly clear up to the third day. Moreover, cytotoxicity test on human dermal keratinocytes revealed great safety of using the sensitizer toward eukaryotic cells. These data indicate potential application of functionalized fullerene as antistaphylococcal sensitizer for superficial infections. PMID:25820601

  3. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cells by photodynamic therapy is effective and depends on intracellular Photofrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobeh, Mohammed S.; Chan, Philip; Ham, Robert J.; Cross, Frank W.

    1994-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for vascular restenosis. Determining the site of the photosensitiser responsible for cytotoxicity during PDT is essential for planning treatment strategies. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultured from 6 individuals using substrate attached explant techniques and transferred into microtitire plates at 50,000 cells/well. Cells were arranged in 3 groups; the first group was incubated with 2 (mu) gml-1 of Photofrin for 48 hours, followed by polychromatic light illumination of 3 Jcm-2. In the second group the extracellular Photofrin was removed by washing cells just prior to illumination, and in the third group Photofrin was only added immediately prior to illumination. Results are expressed as mean percentage cell survival+/- SEM. Cells were minimally affected by extracellular Photofrin alone (91.9+/- 10.7). Photofrin in the intracellular and (intra+extracellular) compartments reduced VSMCs survival to (7.3+/- 4.9) and (8.8+/- 2.6). The mechanism of ablation appears to be due to activation of the intracellular rather than residual Photofrin in the extracellular medium

  4. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for inactivation of biofilms formed by oral key pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Cieplik, Fabian; Tabenski, Laura; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Maisch, Tim

    2014-01-01

    With increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant pathogens all over the world there is a pressing need for strategies that are capable of inactivating biofilm-state pathogens with less potential of developing resistances in pathogens. Antimicrobial strategies of that kind are especially needed in dentistry in order to avoid the usage of antibiotics for treatment of periodontal, endodontic or mucosal topical infections caused by bacterial or yeast biofilms. One possible option could be the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), whereby the lethal effect of aPDT is based on the principle that visible light activates a photosensitizer (PS), leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species, e.g., singlet oxygen, which induce phototoxicity immediately during illumination. Many compounds have been described as potential PS for aPDT against bacterial and yeast biofilms so far, but conflicting results have been reported. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to outline the actual state of the art regarding the potential of aPDT for inactivation of biofilms formed in vitro with a main focus on those formed by oral key pathogens and structured regarding the distinct types of PS. PMID:25161649

  5. Antimicrobial strategies centered around reactive oxygen species - bactericidal antibiotics, photodynamic therapy and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; de Melo, Wanessa C.M.A.; Avci, Pinar; Vecchio, Daniela; Sadasivam, Magesh; Gupta, Asheesh; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Karimi, Mahdi; Parizotto, Nivaldo A; Yin, Rui; Tegos, George P; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can attack a diverse range of targets to exert antimicrobial activity, which accounts for their versatility in mediating host defense against a broad range of pathogens. Most ROS are formed by the partial reduction of molecular oxygen. Four major ROS are recognized comprising: superoxide (O2•?), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and singlet oxygen (1O2), but they display very different kinetics and levels of activity. The effects of O2•? and H2O2 are less acute than those of •OH and 1O2, since the former are much less reactive and can be detoxified by endogenous antioxidants (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic) that are induced by oxidative stress. In contrast, no enzyme can detoxify •OH or 1O2, making them extremely toxic and acutely lethal. The present review will highlight the various methods of ROS formation and their mechanism of action. Antioxidant defenses against ROS in microbial cells and the use of ROS by antimicrobial host defense systems are covered. Antimicrobial approaches primarily utilizing ROS comprise both bactericidal antibiotics, and non-pharmacological methods such as photodynamic therapy, titanium dioxide photocatalysis, cold plasma and medicinal honey. A brief final section covers, reactive nitrogen species, and related therapeutics, such as acidified nitrite and nitric oxide releasing nanoparticles. PMID:23802986

  6. Targeted PDT agent eradicates TrkC expressing tumors via photodynamic therapy (PDT).

    PubMed

    Kue, Chin Siang; Kamkaew, Anyanee; Lee, Hong Boon; Chung, Lip Yong; Kiew, Lik Voon; Burgess, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This contribution features a small molecule that binds TrkC (tropomyosin receptor kinase C) receptor that tends to be overexpressed in metastatic breast cancer cells but not in other breast cancer cells. A sensitizer for (1)O2 production conjugated to this structure gives 1-PDT for photodynamic therapy. Isomeric 2-PDT does not bind TrkC and was used as a control throughout; similarly, TrkC- cancer cells were used to calibrate enhanced killing of TrkC+ cells. Ex vivo, 1- and 2-PDT where only cytotoxic when illuminated, and 1-PDT, gave higher cell death for TrkC+ breast cancer cells. A 1 h administration-to-illumination delay gave optimal TrkC+/TrkC--photocytotoxicity, and distribution studies showed the same delay was appropriate in vivo. In Balb/c mice, a maximum tolerated dose of 20 mg/kg was determined for 1-PDT. 1- and 2-PDT (single, 2 or 10 mg/kg doses and one illumination, throughout) had similar effects on implanted TrkC- tumors, and like those of 2-PDT on TrkC+ tumors. In contrast, 1-PDT caused dramatic TrkC+ tumor volume reduction (96% from initial) relative to the TrkC- tumors or 2-PDT in TrkC+ models. Moreover, 71% of the mice treated with 10 mg/kg 1-PDT (n = 7) showed full tumor remission and survived until 90 days with no metastasis to key organs. PMID:25487316

  7. Photodynamic therapy for treatment of solid tumors--potential and technical challenges.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheng; Xu, Heping; Meyers, Arlen D; Musani, Ali I; Wang, Luowei; Tagg, Randall; Barqawi, Al B; Chen, Yang K

    2008-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the administration of photosensitizer followed by local illumination with visible light of specific wavelength(s). In the presence of oxygen molecules, the light illumination of photosensitizer can lead to a series of photochemical reactions and consequently the generation of cytotoxic species. The quantity and location of PDT-induced cytotoxic species determine the nature and consequence of PDT. Much progress has been seen in both basic research and clinical application in recent years. Although the majority of approved PDT clinical protocols have primarily been used for the treatment of superficial lesions of both malignant and non-malignant diseases, interstitial PDT for the ablation of deep-seated solid tumors are now being investigated worldwide. The complexity of the geometry and non-homogeneity of solid tumor pose a great challenge on the implementation of minimally invasive interstitial PDT and the estimation of PDT dosimetry. This review will discuss the recent progress and technical challenges of various forms of interstitial PDT for the treatment of parenchymal and/or stromal tissues of solid tumors. PMID:18642969

  8. Water-soluble cationic gallium(III) and indium(III) phthalocyanines for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Durmu?, Mahmut; Ahsen, Vefa

    2010-03-01

    The new tetra-non-peripheral and peripheral 2-mercaptopyridine substituted gallium(III) and indium(III) phthalocyanine complexes (np-GaPc, p-GaPc, np-InPc and p-InPc) and their quaternized derivatives (Qnp-GaPc, Qp-GaPc, Qnp-InPc and Qp-InPc) have been synthesized and characterized. The quaternized complexes show excellent solubility in water, which makes them potential photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Photophysical and photochemical properties of these phthalocyanines were investigated. General trends are described for quantum yields of photodegradation, fluorescence and fluorescence lifetimes as well as singlet oxygen quantum yields of these compounds. In this study, the effects of the position of the substituents, the nature of the metal ion and quaternization of the substituents on the photophysical and photochemical parameters of the gallium(III) and indium(III) phthalocyanines are also reported. This study also presented the ionic gallium(III) and indium(III) phthalocyanines strongly bind to bovine serum albumin (BSA). PMID:20083308

  9. PEGylated silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles as novel photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy against Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Nadhman, Akhtar; Nazir, Samina; Khan, Malik Ihsanullah; Arooj, Syeda; Bakhtiar, Muhammad; Shahnaz, Gul; Yasinzai, Masoom

    2014-12-01

    We describe daylight responsive silver (Ag) doped semiconductor nanoparticles of zinc oxide (DSNs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) against Leishmania. The developed materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and band-gap analysis. The Ag doped semiconductor nanoparticles of zinc oxide were PEGylated to enhance their biocompatibility. The DSNs demonstrated effective daylight response in the PDT of Leishmania protozoans, through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a quantum yield of 0.13 by nondoped zinc oxide nanoparticles (NDSN) whereas 0.28 by DSNs. None of the nanoparticles have shown any antileishmanial activity in dark, confirming that only ROS produced in the daylight were involved in the killing of leishmanial cells. Furthermore, the synthesized nanoparticles were found biocompatible. Using reactive oxygen species scavengers, cell death was attributable mainly to 77-83% singlet oxygen and 18-27% hydroxyl radical. The nanoparticles caused permeability of the cell membrane, leading to the death of parasites. Further, the uptake of nanoparticles by Leishmania cells was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). We believe that these DSNs are widely applicable for the PDT of leishmaniasis, cancers, and other infections due to daylight response. PMID:25266330

  10. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in the non-surgical treatment of aggressive periodontitis: microbiological profile.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Arthur B; Schwartz-Filho, Humberto O; de Oliveira, Rafael R; Feres, Magda; Sato, Sandra; Figueiredo, Luciene C

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate changes occurring in the subgingival microbiological composition of subjects with aggressive periodontitis, treated with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), in a single episode, or scaling and root planing (SRP), in a split-mouth design on -7, 0, and +90 days. Ten patients were randomly assigned to either aPDT using a laser source in conjunction with a photosensitizer or SRP with hand instruments. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the counts of 40 subgingival species were determined using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. The data were analyzed using the method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) to test the associations between treatments, evaluated parameters, and experimental times (? = .05). The results indicated that aPDT and SRP affects different bacterial species, with aPDT being effective in reducing numbers of A. actinomycetemcomitans than SRP. On the other hand, SRP was more efficient than aPDT in reducing the presence of periodontal pathogens of the Red Complex. Additionally, a recolonization in the sites treated by aPDT was observed, especially for T. forsythia and P. gingivalis. Under our experimental conditions, this trial demonstrates that aPDT and SRP affected different groups of bacteria, suggesting that their association may be beneficial for the non-surgical treatment of aggressive periodontitis. PMID:21399951

  11. The evaluation and planning of light dose in photodynamic therapy for port wine stains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng-juan; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Qi-shen

    2014-11-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the best available treatment for dermatology, especially for port wine stains (PWS), in which the efficacy is associated with the light dose, the photosensitizer concentration, the oxygen concentration and so on. Accurate control of the light dose will help doctors develop more effective treatment protocols, and reduce the treatment cost. Considering the characters of PWS, a binocular vision system composed of a camera, a digital projector and a computing unit is designed. An accurate 3D modeling of patients was achieved using a gray coding structured light, and then the lesions were segmented based on HSV space. Subsequently, each 3D point is fit on the surface by a nearest neighbor algorithm and the surface normal can be obtained. Three dimensional localization of lesion provide digital objective basis for automatic control of light device. The irradiance on the surface at a given angle can be assessed, and the optimum angle for the treatment can be solved and optimized by the doctor to improve irradiation areas.

  12. Results and survival after photodynamic therapy in early-stage esophageal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Mancini, Andrea; Dal Fante, Marco; Meroni, Emmanuele; Jasinskas, Algirdas

    1996-01-01

    From January 1985 to December 1994, 23 early stage carcinomas of the esophagus were treated by photodynamic therapy in 21 patients. The stage of the tumors was assessed by esophagoscopy with multiple biopsies, CT scan and, from June 1991, also by endoscopic ultrasonography: 7 lesions were classified as carcinoma in situ (Tis) and 16 as invasive (T1). The photosensitizers used for PDT were hematoporphyrin derivative 3 mg/kg in 4 patients and dihematoporphyrin ether 2 mg/kg in 17. Light irradiation was performed using an Argon-dye laser system at a wavelength of 630 nm with an average energy of 50 J/cm2 and 70 J/cm2 for the treatment of Tis and T1, respectively. A complete response was achieved in 17/23 (74%) tumors, 15/21 (71%) patients. In the follow-up period from 6 to 78 months (median 36 months) 3 recurrences occurred 6, 12, and 14 months after PDT, respectively. Seven patients died due to concomitant diseases, not related to tumor progression. The actuarial survival rate was 95%, 75% and 37% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Complications included 1 case of sunburn and 2 cases of esophageal stenosis at the treatment site, that gradually responded to endoscopic bougienage.

  13. Differential vascular response and relationship to tumor response with photodynamic therapy using WST-09 (TOOKAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbo, Greta M.; Kik, Peter K.; Harrison, Linda T.; Brun, Pierre H.; Blanc, Dominique; Paulin, Pamela S.; Wieman, Thomas J.; Fingar, Victor H.

    2004-06-01

    Bacteriopheophorbide molecules are second-generation photosensitizers with promise for PHotodynamic Therapy applications due largely to their absorption peaks in the near-Infrared region. Palladium bcteriopheophorbide, also called TOOKAD, has been successfully evaluated in several pre-clinical animal models. In this study the effect on tumor and normal vasculature was evaluated using an intravital vascular model on mouse cremaster muscle implanted with the RIF tumor. For tumor response studies, the same RIF tumor was implanted intradermally on the right flank and regression was evaluated for 42 days or until the tumor reached a 12 mm diameter. A light dose 300 J/cm2 were delivered at 763 nm with power density of 100 mW/cm2. Photosensitizer dose was 4 mg/kg body weight. Mice were treated immediately, 10 minutes, 30 minutes, or 24 hours after injection. Only the higher light dose (300 J/cm2) delivered 10 minutes after injection produced a reproducible and complete vascular and tumor response after PDT in these animals. In the cremaster-tumor model, arterioles and venules partially shutdown as early as 40 minutes after the beginning of treatment, while tumor neovasculature was irreversibly closed within 20 minutes of treatment. Tumor response studies demonstrated that the magnitude of vascular stasis correlates with tumor regression studies. Further studies using this photosensitizer are warranted, given its short clearance time and its near-Infrared activation wavelength.

  14. Ratio of the spherical and flat detectors at tissue surfaces during pleural photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Dimofte, Andrea; Miles, Jeremy D.; Metz, James M.; Glatstein, Eli; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2002-06-01

    An isotropic-detector-based system was compared with a flat-photodiode-based system in patients undergoing Pleural photodynamic therapy. Isotropic and flat detectors were placed side by side in the chest cavity, for simultaneous in vivo dosimetry at surface locations for twelve patients. The treatment used 630nm laser to a total light irradiance of 30 J/cm2 (measured with the flat photodiodes) with photofrin IV as the photosensitizer. Since the flat detectors were calibrated at 532nm, wavelength correction factors (WCF) were used to convert the calibration to 630nm (WCF between 0.542 and 0.703). The mean ratio between isotropic and flat detectors for all sites was linear to the accumulated fluence and was 3.4+/- 0.6 or 2.1+/- 0.4, with or without the wavelength correction for the flat detectors, respectively. The micrometers eff of the tissues was estimated to vary between 0.5 to 4.3 cm-1 for four sites (Apex, Posterior Sulcus, Anterior Chest Wall, and Posterior Mediastinum) assuming microsecond(s) ' = 7 cm-1. Insufficient information was available to estimate micrometers eff directly for three other sites (Anterior Sulcus, Posterior Chest Wall, and Pericardium) primarily due to limited sample size, although one may assume the optical penetration in all sites to vary in the same range (0.5 to 4.3 cm-1).

  15. Fluorescence of Pc 4 in U87 cells following photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghai, Davood; Azizuddin, Kashif; Ahmad, Yusra; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: Given the length of procedures and the brightness of operating room lights, there is concern that photosensitizers used to locate brain tumors and treat them with photodynamic therapy (PDT) may photobleach before they can be fully utilized. The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 is resistant to photobleaching. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure of Pc 4-loaded glioma cells to photoactivating light will result in continuing fluorescence of Pc 4. Methods: U87 human glioma cells were cultured in MEM with 5% penicillin/streptomycin, 5% sodium pyruvate, 10% fetal bovine serum, and 25 mM HEPES. These cultures were given 0 or 125 nM Pc 4, followed 2 hours later by three separate exposures of 200 J/cm2 of red light (? max = 675 nm). Confocal fluorescence images were collected before and after each exposure. Results: Pc 4 fluorescence was localized to cytoplasmic membranes of the U87 glioma cells, as previously seen in other types of cells. After exposure to PDT, Pc 4 fluorescence was not reduced and even increased. Discussion: Pc 4 may be useful for the intra-operative detection of glioma by fluorescence and for PDT, since neither Pc 4 level nor its fluorescence is likely to decrease during exposure to operating room lights.

  16. Light based anti-infectives: ultraviolet C irradiation, photodynamic therapy, blue light, and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Rui; Dai, Tianhong; Avci, Pinar; Jorge, Ana Elisa Serafim; de Melo, Wanessa CMA; Vecchio, Daniela; Huang, Ying-Ying; Gupta, Asheesh; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance, researchers are investigating alternative anti-infective strategies to which it is supposed microorganisms will be unable to develop resistance. Prominent among these strategies, is a group of approaches which rely on light to deliver the killing blow. As is well known, ultraviolet light, particularly UVC (200–280nm), is germicidal, but it has not been much developed as an anti-infective approach until recently, when it was realized that the possible adverse effects to host tissue were relatively minor compared to its high activity in killing pathogens. Photodynamic therapy is the combination of non-toxic photosensitizing dyes with harmless visible light that together produce abundant destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Certain cationic dyes or photosensitizers have good specificity for binding to microbial cells while sparing host mammalian cells and can be used for treating many localized infections, both superficial and even deep-seated by using fiber optic delivered light. Many microbial cells are highly sensitive to killing by blue light (400–470 nm) due to accumulation of naturally occurring photosensitizers such as porphyrins and flavins. Near infrared light has also been shown to have antimicrobial effects against certain species. Clinical applications of these technologies include skin, dental, wound, stomach, nasal, toenail and other infections which are amenable to effective light delivery. PMID:24060701

  17. Multifunctional Peptide-conjugated hybrid silica nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy and MRI.

    PubMed

    Benachour, Hamanou; Sève, Aymeric; Bastogne, Thierry; Frochot, Céline; Vanderesse, Régis; Jasniewski, Jordane; Miladi, Imen; Billotey, Claire; Tillement, Olivier; Lux, François; Barberi-Heyob, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging theranostic modality for various cancer as well as non-cancer diseases. Its efficiency is mainly based on a selective accumulation of PDT and imaging agents in tumor tissue. The vascular effect is widely accepted to play a major role in tumor eradication by PDT. To promote this vascular effect, we previously demonstrated the interest of using an active- targeting strategy targeting neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), mainly over-expressed by tumor angiogenic vessels. For an integrated vascular-targeted PDT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cancer, we developed multifunctional gadolinium-based nanoparticles consisting of a surface-localized tumor vasculature targeting NRP-1 peptide and polysiloxane nanoparticles with gadolinium chelated by DOTA derivatives on the surface and a chlorin as photosensitizer. The nanoparticles were surface-functionalized with hydrophilic DOTA chelates and also used as a scaffold for the targeting peptide grafting. In vitro investigations demonstrated the ability of multifunctional nanoparticles to preserve the photophysical properties of the encapsulated photosensitizer and to confer photosensitivity to MDA-MB-231 cancer cells related to photosensitizer concentration and light dose. Using binding test, we revealed the ability of peptide-functionalized nanoparticles to target NRP-1 recombinant protein. Importantly, after intravenous injection of the multifunctional nanoparticles in rats bearing intracranial U87 glioblastoma, a positive MRI contrast enhancement was specifically observed in tumor tissue. Real-time MRI analysis revealed the ability of the targeting peptide to confer specific intratumoral retention of the multifunctional nanoparticles. PMID:23082101

  18. Electroporation enhances antimicrobial photodynamic therapy mediated by the hydrophobic photosensitizer, hypericin.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Wanessa de Cássia Martins Antunes; Lee, Alexander N; Perussi, Janice Rodrigues; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    The effective transport of photosensitizers (PS) across the membrane and the intracellular accumulation of PS are the most crucial elements in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). However, due to the morphological complexity of Gram-negative bacteria the penetration of PS is limited, especially hydrophobic PS. Electroporation (EP) could increase the effectiveness of aPDT, by promoting the formation of transient pores that enhance the permeability of the bacterial membrane to PS. In this study we evaluated the combination of aPDT mediated by the hydrophobic PS, hypericin and EP (aPDT/EP) against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. These bacteria were exposed to light (590 nm) in the presence of hypericin (4 ?M), following electroporation. The results showed that aPDT/EP inactivated 3.67 logs more E. coli and 2.65 logs more S. aureus than aPDT alone. Based on these results we suggest that EP can potentiate the aPDT effect. PMID:24284122

  19. Transurethral photodynamic therapy in benign prostatic hyperplasia : a canine pilot study using benzoporphyrin derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Sugandh D.; Peabody, James O.; Beck, Elsa R.; Cerny, Joseph C.; Amin, Mahul B.; Richter, Anna M.

    1999-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) principles were evaluated in management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a canine model. Five dogs were injected with benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD) and samples of prostate, bladder, urethra and rectum were taken at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours and analyzed for BPD. Next, 16 dogs were treated with 100 Joules at 690 nm light form argon dye laser 1 hour after administration of BPD at 0.5 mg/kg using cylindrical diffuser tip fiber passed transurethrally. The prostates were harvested weekly up to 4 weeks and the size of the lesion was measured and the prostates were examined. Prostate had the highest BPD levels. Hemorrhagic lesion of 2.5 cm in diameter was noted at 1 week after PDT. At 3 and 4 weeks there were changes of glandular atrophy in the periurethral region. Minimally invasive technique of transurethral PDT causes glandular and stromal changes in the periurethral zone and has potential in the treatment of BPH.

  20. Photodynamic Therapy: Occupational Hazards and Preventative Recommendations for Clinical Administration by Healthcare Providers

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Steven E.; Vesper, Benjamin J.; Paradise, William A.; Radosevich, James A.; Colvard, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a medical treatment for cancers is an increasing practice in clinical settings, as new photosensitizing chemicals and light source technologies are developed and applied. PDT involves dosing patients with photosensitizing drugs, and then exposing them to light using a directed energy device in order to manifest a therapeutic effect. Healthcare professionals providing PDT should be aware of potential occupational health and safety hazards posed by these treatment devices and photosensitizing agents administered to patients. Materials and methods: Here we outline and identify pertinent health and safety considerations to be taken by healthcare staff during PDT procedures. Results: Physical hazards (for example, non-ionizing radiation generated by the light-emitting device, with potential for skin and eye exposure) and chemical hazards (including the photosensitizing agents administered to patients that have the potential for exposure via skin, subcutaneous, ingestion, or inhalation routes) must be considered for safe use of PDT by the healthcare professional. Conclusions: Engineering, administrative, and personal protective equipment controls are recommendations for the safe use and handling of PDT agents and light-emitting technologies. PMID:23859750

  1. Delmopinol-induced matrix removal facilitates photodynamic therapy and chlorhexidine methods for disinfecting mixed oral biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Stephen Christopher

    It is often observed that the slimy matrixes of various bacterial-formed biofilms can limit their disinfection. This investigation demonstrated that disinfection effectiveness by either photodynamic therapy (PDT) or chlorhexidine irrigation is significantly improved by collapse of that matrix using the non-bactericidal reagent delmopinol as part of the treatment sequence. Cyclic shear-producing conditions were used to grow 4-day, whole salivary and growth media biofilms on glow-discharge-treated polystyrene (N=46) and mini-germanium internal reflection prisms to serve in a periodontal crypt model of disinfection by either methylene-blue-mediated PDT or by chlorhexidine irrigation. Assays for bacterial viability, with and without treatments, were performed by alamarBlueRTM fluorescent methods, statistically applied (ANOVA, Tukey's HSD). Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection Infrared (MAIR-IR) assays confirmed selective removal of the predominantly polysaccharide matrix materials by the delmopinol treatment, but not by equivalent water or chlorhexidine methods. Confocal-IR microscopy showed that the delmopinol reagent, alone, caused about one-third of each wet biofilm to be removed, while bacterial re-growth was confirmed by alamarBlueRTM assay. Chlorhexidine and PDT suppression of bacterial activity without regrowth was significantly improved with the added delmopinol treatment, and is likely to provide similarly beneficial results in the effective disinfection of diverse biofilms in many settings.

  2. Enhanced photodynamic therapy efficacy of methylene blue-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Seong, Da-Young; Kim, Young-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Although methylene blue (MB) is the most inexpensive photosensitizer with promising applications in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) for its high quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation, the clinical use of MB has been limited by its rapid enzymatic reduction in the biological environment. To enhance PDT efficacy of MB by preventing the enzymatic reduction, we have developed a new mineralization method to produce highly biocompatible MB-loaded calcium phosphate (CaP-MB) nanoparticles in the presence of polymer templates. The resulting CaP-MB nanoparticles exhibited spherical shape with a size of under 50nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and zeta-potential analyses confirmed the insertion of MB into the CaP-MB nanoparticles. The encapsulation of MB in CaP nanoparticles could effectively protect MB from the enzymatic reduction. In addition, the CaP-MB nanoparticles exhibited a good biocompatibility in the dark condition and significantly enhanced PDT efficacy due to apoptotic cell death against human breast cancer cells as compared with free MB, implying that CaP-MB nanoparticle system might be potentially applicable in PDT. PMID:25794464

  3. Antibacterial photodynamic therapy with 808-nm laser and indocyanine green on abrasion wound models.

    PubMed

    Topaloglu, Nermin; Güney, Melike; Yuksel, Sahru; Gülsoy, Murat

    2015-02-01

    Infections with pathogens could cause serious health problems, such as septicemia and subsequent death. Some of these deaths are caused by nosocomial, chronic, or burn-related wound infections. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be useful for the treatment of these infections. Our aim was to investigate the antibacterial effect of indocyanine green (ICG) and 808-nm laser on a rat abrasion wound model infected with the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain. Abrasion wounds were infected with a multidrug resistant clinical isolate of S. aureus. ICG concentrations of 500, 1000, and 2000 ?g?ml were applied with a 450 J?cm2 energy dose. Temperature change was monitored by a thermocouple system. The remaining bacterial burden was determined by the serial dilution method after each application. Wounds were observed for 11 days posttreatment. The recovery process was assessed macroscopically. Tissue samples were also examined histologically by hematoxylin–eosin staining. Around a 90% reduction in bacterial burden was observed after applications. In positive control groups (ICG-only and laser-only groups), there was no significant reduction. The applied energy dose did not cause any thermal damage to the target tissue or host environment. Results showed that ICG together with a 808-nm laser might be a promising antibacterial method to eliminate infections in animals and accelerate the wound-healing process. PMID:25692539

  4. Photodynamic Therapy with Ablative Carbon Dioxide Fractional Laser for Treating Bowen Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sue Kyung; Park, Ji-Youn; Song, Hyo Sang; Kim, You-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Background Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been increasingly used to treat malignant skin tumors including the Bowen disease. However, patients could be displeased with the long incubation time required for conventional PDT. Objective We evaluated the efficacy and safety of PDT with a short incubation time of ablative CO2 fractional laser pretreatment for treating Bowen disease. Methods Ten patients were included. Just before applying the topical photosensitizer, all lesions were treated with ablative CO2 fractional laser, following the application of methyl aminolevulinate and irradiation with red light (Aktilite CL 128). Histological confirmation, rebiopsy, and clinical assessments were performed. Adverse events were also recorded. Results Five of the ten (50%) lesions showed a complete response (CR) within three PDT sessions. After four treatment sessions, all lesions except one penile shaft lesion (90%) achieved clinical and histological CR or clinical CR only. The average number of treatments to CR was 3.70±1.70. The treatments showed favorable cosmetic outcomes and no serious adverse events. Conclusion The results suggest that pretreatment with an ablative fractional CO2 laser before PDT has similar treatment efficacy and requires a shorter photosensitizer incubation time compared with the conventional PDT method. PMID:24003277

  5. Design of a protocol for combined laser hyperthermia-photodynamic therapy in the esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    London, R A; Eichler, J; Liebetrudt, J; Ziegenhagen, L

    2000-02-01

    Photodynamic laser therapy (PDT) for esophageal cancer has recently been studied in animal and clinical trials. In several animal experiments a synergetic effect was found by simultaneously applying PDT and hyperthermia (HT). In this paper an optical fiber system is described which can be used in the esophagus for combined PDT with a 1 W dye laser and HT with a 15--40 W Nd-YAG laser. Phantoms were developed to simulate the geometry of the esophagus using cow muscle. The spatial-temporal temperature field during HT was measured. The results were compared with calculations using a coupled Monte Carlo laser transport/finite difference heat transport model using the LATIS computer program. Measurements and calculations yield a realistic description of the temperature distribution during HT under various experimental conditions. The LATIS program allows the prediction of the effects of blood perfusion for in-vivo situations. The results show that the perfusion has considerable influence on the temperature field, which must be considered for in-vivo applications.

  6. Sustained and efficient porphyrin generation in vivo using dendrimer conjugates of 5-ALA for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Casas, Adriana; Battah, Sinan; Di Venosa, Gabriela; Dobbin, Paul; Rodriguez, Lorena; Fukuda, Haydée; Batlle, Alcira; MacRobert, Alexander J

    2009-04-17

    The use of endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) has led to many applications in photodynamic therapy (PDT). However the efficacy of ALA-PDT is sub-optimal for thicker tumours and improved ALA delivery and therapeutic response are required. We have investigated the conjugation of ALA to a second-generation dxcendrimer for enhancing porphyrin synthesis in vitro and in vivo in a murine tumour model using systemic i.p. administration. In vitro, the dendrimer was more efficient than ALA for porphyrin synthesis at low concentrations in good correlation with higher cellular ALA dendrimer accumulation. In vivo, the porphyrin kinetics from ALA exhibited an early peak between 3 and 4 h in most tissues, whereas the dendrimer induced sustained porphyrin production for over 24 h and basal values were not reached until 48 h after administration. Integrated porphyrin accumulation from the dendrimer and ALA, at equivalent molar ratios, was comparable showing that the majority of ALA residues were liberated from the dendrimer. The porphyrin kinetics appear to be governed by the rate of enzymatic cleavage of ALA from the dendrimer, which is consistent with in vitro results. ALA dendrimers may be useful for metronomic PDT, and multiple low-dose ALA-PDT treatments. PMID:19168101

  7. ROS-Responsive Activatable Photosensitizing Agent for Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy of Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Youngmi; Kim, In-Hoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Choi, Yongdoo

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of macrophage-targeted theranostic nanoparticles (MacTNP) prepared from a Chlorin e6 (Ce6)-hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugate can be activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in macrophage cells. MacTNP are nonfluorescent and nonphototoxic in their native state. However, when treated with ROS, especially peroxynitrite, they become highly fluorescent and phototoxic. In vitro cell studies show that MacTNP emit near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence inside activated macrophages. The NIR fluorescence is quenched in the extracellular environment. MacTNP are nontoxic in macrophages up to a Ce6 concentration of 10 ?M in the absence of light. However, MacTNP become phototoxic upon illumination in a light dose-dependent manner. In particular, significantly higher phototoxic effect is observed in the activated macrophage cells compared to human dermal fibroblasts and non-activated macrophages. The ROS-responsive MacTNP, with their high target-to-background ratio, may have a significant potential in selective NIR fluorescence imaging and in subsequent photodynamic therapy of atherosclerosis with minimum side effects. PMID:24396511

  8. Phthalocyanine Derivatives Possessing 2-(Morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy Groups As Potential Agents for Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kucinska, Malgorzata; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Szczolko, Wojciech; Sobotta, Lukasz; Sciepura, Mateusz; Tykarska, Ewa; Wierzchowski, Marcin; Teubert, Anna; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Wyszko, Eliza; Gdaniec, Maria; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Goslinski, Tomasz; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Murias, Marek

    2015-03-12

    Three 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy substituted phthalocyanines were synthesized and characterized. Phthalocyanine derivatives revealed moderate to high quantum yields of singlet oxygen production depending on the solvent applied (e.g., in DMF ranging from 0.25 to 0.53). Their photosensitizing potential for photodynamic therapy was investigated in an in vitro model using cancer cell lines. Biological test results were found particularly encouraging for the zinc(II) phthalocyanine derivative possessing two 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethoxy substituents in nonperipheral positions. Cells irradiated for 20 min at 2 mW/cm(2) revealed the lowest IC50 value at 0.25 ?M for prostate cell line (PC3), whereas 1.47 ?M was observed for human malignant melanoma (A375) cells. The cytotoxic activity in nonirradiated cells of novel phthalocyanine was found to be very low. Moreover, the cellular uptake, localization, cell cycle, apoptosis through an ELISA assay, and immunochemistry method were investigated in LNCaP cells. Our results showed that the tested photosensitizer possesses very interesting biological activity, depending on experimental conditions. PMID:25700089

  9. Defensive mechanism in cholangiocarcinoma cells against oxidative stress induced by chlorin e6-based photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Myeong; Chung, Chung-Wook; Kim, Cy Hyun; Kim, Do Hyung; Kwak, Tae Won; Jeong, Young-Il; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of chlorin e6-based photodynamic therapy (Ce6-PDT) was investigated in human intrahepatic (HuCC-T1) and extrahepatic (SNU1196) cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. The amount of intracellular Ce6 increased with increasing Ce6 concentration administered, or with incubation time, in both cell lines. The ability to take up Ce6 and generate reactive oxygen species after irradiation at 1.0 J/cm2 did not significantly differ between the two CCA cell types. However, after irradiation, marked differences were observed for photodamage and apoptotic/necrotic signals. HuCC-T1 cells are more sensitive to Ce6-PDT than SNU1196 cells. Total glutathione (GSH) levels, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in SNU1196 cells were significantly higher than in HuCC-T1 cells. With inhibition of enzyme activity or addition of GSH, the phototoxic effect could be controlled in CCA cells. The intracellular level of GSH is the most important determining factor in the curative action of Ce6-PDT against tumor cells. PMID:25258513

  10. Choosing optimal wavelength for photodynamic therapy of port wine stains by mathematic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Gu, Ying; Zuo, Zhaohui; Huang, Naiyan

    2011-09-01

    Many laser wavelengths have been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for port wine stains (PWS). However, how these wavelengths result in different PDT outcomes has not been clearly illuminated. This study is designed to analyze which wavelengths would be the most advantageous for use in PDT for PWS. The singlet oxygen yield in PDT-treated PWS skin under different wavelengths at the same photosensitizer dosage was simulated and the following three situations were simulated and compared: 1. PDT efficiency of 488, 532, 510, 578, and 630 nm laser irradiation at clinical dosage (100 mW/cm2, 40 min); 2. PDT efficiency of different wavelength for PWS with hyperpigmentation after previous PDT; 3. PDT efficiency of different wavelengths for PWS, in which only deeply located ectatic vessels remained. The results showed that singlet oxygen yield is the highest at 510 nm, it is similar at 532 nm and 488 nm, and very low at 578 nm and 630 nm. This result is identical to the state in clinic. According to this theoretical study, the optimal wavelength for PDT in the treatment of PWS should near the absorption peaks of photosensitizer and where absorption from native chromophores (haemoglobin and melanin) is diminished.

  11. New optional photodynamic therapy laser wavelength for infantile port wine stains: 457 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Zuo, Zhaohui; Gu, Ying; Huang, Naiyan; Chen, Rong; Li, Buhong; Qiu, Haixia; Zeng, Jing; Zhu, Jianguo; Liang, Jie

    2012-06-01

    To expand the optional laser wavelengths of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for port wine stain (PWS), the feasibility of applying a 457 nm laser to the PDT for infantile PWS was analyzed by mathematical simulation and was validated by clinical experiment. Singlet oxygen yield of 457 nm PDT or 532 nm PDT in an infantile PWS model and an adult PWS model was theoretically simulated. Fifteen PWS patients (14 infants and 1 adult) with 40 spots were treated with 457 nm (20 spots) and 532 nm (20 spots), respectively, in two PDT courses. Simulation results showed that under the same power density and irradiation time, singlet oxygen yield of 457 nm PDT and 532 nm PDT are similar in infantile PWS vessels. Yet, in adult PWS vessels, singlet oxygen yield of 457 nm PDT is lower than 532 nm PDT. Clinical outcomes showed that no statistic difference existed between 457 nm PDT and 532 nm PDT for infantile PWS. The result of this study suggested that 457 nm wavelength laser has the potential to be applied in PDT for infantile PWS.

  12. Gold nanocage-photosensitizer conjugates for dual-modal image-guided enhanced photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Srivatsan, Avinash; Jenkins, Samir V; Jeon, Mansik; Wu, Zhijin; Kim, Chulhong; Chen, Jingyi; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that gold nanocage-photosensitizer conjugates can enable dual image-guided delivery of photosensitizer and significantly improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy in a murine model. The photosensitizer, 3-devinyl-3-(1'-hexyloxyethyl)pyropheophorbide (HPPH), was noncovalently entrapped in the poly(ethylene glycol) monolayer coated on the surface of gold nanocages. The conjugate is stable in saline solutions, while incubation in protein rich solutions leads to gradual unloading of the HPPH, which can be monitored optically by fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. The slow nature of the release in turn results in an increase in accumulation of the drug within implanted tumors due to the passive delivery of gold nanocages. Furthermore, the conjugate is found to generate more therapeutic singlet oxygen and have a lower IC50 value than the free drug alone. Thus the conjugate shows significant suppression of tumor growth as compared to the free drug in vivo. Short-term study showed neither toxicity nor phenotypical changes in mice at therapeutic dose of the conjugates or even at 100-fold higher than therapeutic dose of gold nanocages. PMID:24465274

  13. Photodynamic therapy using nanoparticle loaded with indocyanine green for experimental peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Hironori; Morimoto, Yuji; Takahata, Risa; Nomura, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Horiguchi, Hiroyuki; Hiraki, Shuichi; Ono, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Hiromi; Saito, Daizo; Hara, Isao; Ozeki, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    Although there have been multiple advances in the development of novel anticancer agents and operative procedures, prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer remains poor, especially in patients with peritoneal metastasis. In this study, we established nanoparticles loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) derivatives: ICG loaded lactosomes (ICGm) and investigated the diagnostic and therapeutic value of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using ICGm for experimental peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. Experimental peritoneal disseminated xenografts of human gastric cancer were established in nude mice. Three weeks after intraperitoneal injection of the cancer cells, either ICGm (ICGm-treated mice) or ICG solution (ICG-treated mice) was injected through the tail vein. Forty-eight hours after injection of the photosensitizer, in vivo and ex vivo imaging was carried out. For PDT, 48 h after injection of the photosensitizer, other mice were irradiated through the abdominal wall, and the body weight and survival rate were monitored. In vivo imaging revealed that peritoneal tumors were visualized through the abdominal wall in ICGm-treated mice, whereas only non-specific fluorescence was observed in ICG-treated mice. The PDT reduced the total weight of the disseminated nodules and significantly improved weight loss and survival rate in ICGm-treated mice. In conclusion, ICGm can be used as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic nanodevice in peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. PMID:25287817

  14. In vitro efficiency and mechanistic role of indocyanine green as photodynamic therapy agent for human melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mamoon, A.M.; Miller, L.; Gamal-Eldeen, A. M.; Ruppel, M. E.; Smith, R. J.; Tsang, T.; Miller, L. M.

    2009-05-02

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for superficial cancer. However, poor therapeutic results have been reported for melanoma, due to the high melanin content. Indocyanine green (ICG) has near infrared absorption (700-800 nm) and melanins do not absorb strongly in this area. This study explores the efficiency of ICG as a PDT agent for human melanoma, and its mechanistic role in the cell death pathway. Human skin melanoma cells (Sk-Mel-28) were incubated with ICG and exposed to a low power Ti:Sapphire laser. Synchrotron-assisted Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to assess the cell damage and changes in lipid, protein, and nucleic acids. The cell death pathway was determined by analysis of cell viability and apoptosis and necrosis markers. In the cell death pathway, {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation evoked rapid multiple consequences that trigger apoptosis after laser exposure for only 15min including the release of cytochrome c, the activation of total caspases, caspase-3, and caspase-9, the inhibition of NF-{Kappa}B P65, and the enhancement of DNA fragmentation, and histone acetylation. ICG/PDT can efficiently and rapidly induce apoptosis in human melanoma cells and it can be considered as a new therapeutic approach for topical treatment of melanoma.

  15. [Leukemia SH-1 cells purged by ZnPcH(1)-based photodynamic therapy].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Lan; Huang, Hui-Fang; Chen, Wan-Zi

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a novel Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcH(1)) based photodynamic therapy (PDT) on acute monocytic leukemia cell lines SHI-1 and its mechanism, so as to provide theory basis for bone marrow purging in vitro for patients with leukemia. The killing effect of ZnPcH(1)-PDT on SHI-1 cells were assessed by MTT method; the SHI-1 cell death patterns were analyzed by AO/EB fluorescence staining, TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), DNA ploidy analysis, and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining.Cell mixture was established by integrating SHI-1 cells with normal bone marrow MNC (by 1:100-1:10 000). Purging effect of ZnPcH(1)-PDT against SHI-1 mixed into normal MNC was assessed by analyzing the expression of fusion gene MLL/AF6 mRNA using nested RT-PCR. The results showed that ZnPcH(1)-PDT could effectively inhibit SHI-1 cell proliferation in dose-dependent manner, and ZnPcH(1)-PDT could induce cell apoptosis in time-dependent manner. 0.5 µmol/L ZnPcH(1)-PDT could completely photoinactivated kill SHI-1 cells in the simulated remission bone marrow. It concluded that ZnPcH(1)-PDT may be a effective and convenient promising purging technique for leukemia. PMID:22931639

  16. Pulsed light imaging for wide-field dosimetry of photodynamic therapy in the skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Scott C.; Sexton, Kristian; Chapman, Michael Shane; Maytin, Edward; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy using aminoluvelinic acid (ALA) is an FDA-approved treatment for actinic keratoses, pre-cancerous skin lesions which pose a significant risk for immunocompromised individuals, such as organ transplant recipients. While PDT is generally effective, response rates vary, largely due to variations in the accumulation of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after ALA application. The ability to quantify PpIX production before treatment could facilitate the use of additional interventions to improve outcomes. While many groups have demonstrated the ability to image PpIX in the clinic, these systems generally require darkening the room lights during imaging, which is unpopular with clinicians. We have developed a novel wide-field imaging system based on pulsed excitation and gated acquisition to image photosensitizer activity in the skin. The tissue is illuminated using four pulsed LED's to excite PpIX, and the remitted light acquired with a synchronized ICCD. This approach facilitates real-time background subtraction of ambient light, precluding the need to darken the exam room. Delivering light in short bursts also allows the use of elevated excitation intensity while remaining under the maximum permissible exposure limits, making the modality more sensitive to photosensitizer fluorescence than standard approaches. Images of tissue phantoms indicate system sensitivity down to 250nM PpIX and images of animals demonstrate detection of PpIX fluorescence in vivo under normal room light conditions.

  17. Immunogenic Cell Death: Can It Be Exploited in PhotoDynamic Therapy for Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Elisa; Inguscio, Valentina; Dini, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    Immunogenic Cell Death (ICD) could represent the keystone in cancer management since tumor cell death induction is crucial as well as the control of cancer cells revival after neoplastic treatment. In this context, the immune system plays a fundamental role. The concept of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) has been proposed to explain the immunogenic potential of stressed or dying/dead cells. ICD relies on DAMPs released by or exposed on dying cells. Once released, DAMPs are sensed by immune cells, in particular Dendritic Cells (DCs), acting as activators of Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs), that in turn stimulate both innate and adaptive immunity. On the other hand, by exposing DAMPs, dying cancer cells change their surface composition, recently indicated as vital for the stimulation of the host immune system and the control of residual ill cells. It is well established that PhotoDynamic Therapy (PDT) for cancer treatment ignites the immune system to elicit a specific antitumor immunity, probably linked to its ability in inducing exposure/release of certain DAMPs, as recently suggested. In the present paper, we discuss the DAMPs associated with PDT and their role in the crossroad between cancer cell death and immunogenicity in PDT. PMID:23509727

  18. Anticancer efficacy of photodynamic therapy with hematoporphyrin-modified, doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ji-Eun; Yoon, In-Soo; Sun, Ping-Li; Yi, Eunjue; Jheon, Sanghoon; Shim, Chang-Koo

    2014-11-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) in combination with chemotherapy has great potential for cancer treatment. However, there have been very few attempts to developing cancer-targeted co-delivered systems of photosensitizers and anticancer drugs. We developed hematoporphyrin (HP)-modified doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded nanoparticles (HP-NPs) to improve the therapeutic effect of PDT in treating liver cancer. HP is not only a ligand for low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on the hepatoma cells but also a well-known photosensitizer for PDT. In vitro phototoxicity in HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cells and in vivo anticancer efficacy in HepG2 tumor-bearing mice of free HP and HP-NPs were evaluated. The in vitro phototoxicity in HepG2 cells determined by MTT assay, annexin V-FITC staining and FACS analysis was enhanced in HP-NPs compared with free HP. Furthermore, compared with free HP-based PDT, in vivo anticancer efficacy in HepG2 tumor-bearing mice was markedly improved by HP-NPs-based PDT. Moreover, in both cases, the therapeutic effect was increased according to the irradiation time and number of PDT sessions. In conclusion, the HP-NPs prepared in this study represent a potentially effective co-delivery system of photosensitizer (HP) and anticancer drug (DOX) which improved the effects of PDT in liver cancer. PMID:25090224

  19. A medical manipulator system with lasers in photodynamic therapy of port wine stains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingtao; Tian, Chunlai; Duan, Xingguang; Gu, Ying; Huang, Naiyan

    2014-01-01

    Port wine stains (PWS) are a congenital malformation and dilation of the superficial dermal capillary. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with lasers is an effective treatment of PWS with good results. However, because the laser density is uneven and nonuniform, the treatment is carried out manually by a doctor thus providing little accuracy. Additionally, since the treatment of a single lesion can take between 30 and 60 minutes, the doctor can become fatigued after only a few applications. To assist the medical staff with this treatment method, a medical manipulator system (MMS) was built to operate the lasers. The manipulator holds the laser fiber and, using a combination of active and passive joints, the fiber can be operated automatically. In addition to the control input from the doctor over a human-computer interface, information from a binocular vision system is used to guide and supervise the operation. Clinical results are compared in nonparametric values between treatments with and without the use of the MMS. The MMS, which can significantly reduce the workload of doctors and improve the uniformity of laser irradiation, was safely and helpfully applied in PDT treatment of PWS with good therapeutic results. PMID:25302297

  20. mTHPC-photodynamic therapy induced apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yow, Christine M. N.; Leung, Albert W. N.; Huang, Zheng

    2007-11-01

    In this study, the early apoptotic events of mTHPC-medicated photodynamic therapy (PDT) was explored in two human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines - NPC/HK1 cells and NPC/CNE2 cells. Cells (5 x 10 3) were incubated with mTHPC (0.8 ?g/ml) in chamber slides for 20 h and subjected to light irradiation at 2 J/cm2 (LD 80). Morphologic changes of treated cells were examined at 0- 4 h after the light irradiation by a light microscopy. The early stage of apoptosis was detected by fluorescein-conjugated Annexin V (Annexin V-FITC) assay. Mitochondrial membrane damage and cytochrome c release were determined by flowcytometric analysis. The Bcl-2 expression was measured by Western blot analysis. One hour after mTHPC-mediated PDT, membrane blebbing and cell shrinkage appeared in both HK1 and CNE2 cells. Annexin V-FITC assay showed that a considerable number of HK1 and CNE2 cells became apoptotic at 1 h after PDT. Flowcytometric analysis showed that the cytochrome c was released at 1 h after PDT. The Bcl-2 expression also declined significantly in both cell lines compared to the control groups. mTHPC-mediated PDT can effectively induce apoptotic responses in NPC cells which might be modulated by mitochondrial damage and Bcl-2 inhibition.

  1. Photodynamic therapy affects the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollnick, Sandra O.; Musser, David A.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    1998-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which can effectively destroy malignant tissue, also induces a complex immune response which potentiates anti-tumor immunity, but also inhibits skin contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and prolongs skin graft survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, but are likely to involve meditation by cytokines. We demonstrate in a BALB/c mouse model that PDT delivered to normal and tumor tissue in vivo causes marked changes in the expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. IL-6 mRNA and protein are rapidly and strongly enhanced in the PDT treated EMT6 tumor. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral injection of IL- 6 or transduction of the IL-6 gene into tumor cells can enhance tumor immunogenicity and inhibit tumor growth in experimental murine tumor systems. Thus, PDT may enhance local anti-tumor immunity by up-regulating IL-6. PDT also results in an increase in IL-10 mRNA and protein in the skin. The same PDT regime which enhances IL-10 production in the skin has been shown to strongly inhibit the CHS response. The kinetics of IL-10 expression coincide with the known kinetics of PDT induced CHS suppression and we propose that the enhanced IL-10 expression plays a role in the observed suppression of cell mediated responses seen following PDT.

  2. The photodynamic therapy on Streptococcus mutans biofilms using erythrosine and dental halogen curing unit

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Ho; Park, Ho-Won; Lee, Ju-Hyun; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Si-Young

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT), using erythrosine as a photosensitizing agent and a dental halogen curing unit as a light source, on Streptococcus mutans in a biofilm phase. The S. mutans biofilms were formed in a 24-well cell culture cluster. Test groups consisted of biofilms divided into four groups: group 1: no photosensitizer or light irradiation treatment (control group); group 2: photosensitizer treatment alone; group 3: light irradiation alone; group 4: photosensitizer treatment and light irradiation. After treatments, the numbers of colony-forming unit (CFU) were counted and samples were examined by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (CLSM). Only group 4 (combined treatment) resulted in significant increases in cell death, with rates of 75% and 55% after 8 h of incubation, and 74% and 42% at 12 h, for biofilms formed in brain–heart infusion (BHI) broth supplemented with 0% or 0.1% sucrose, respectively. Therefore, PDT of S. mutans biofilms using a combination of erythrosine and a dental halogen curing unit, both widely used in dental clinics, resulted in a significant increase in cell death. The PDT effects are decreased in biofilms that form in the presence of sucrose. PMID:23222991

  3. Efficacy of localized phototherapy and photodynamic therapy for psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Almutawa, Fahad; Thalib, Lukman; Hekman, Daniel; Sun, Qing; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Lim, Henry W

    2015-01-01

    Localized phototherapy including topical psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) and targeted ultraviolet B (UVB), and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been increasingly used in the treatment of localized psoriasis. Yet, there are no systematic reviews or meta-analyses that scientifically evaluated the pooled efficacy of these treatments in psoriasis. We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases during the period of January 1980 to June 2012. Our systematic search resulted in 765 studies, 23 of them were included in the review. The primary outcome was 75% reduction in severity score from baseline. A meta-analysis using random effect model found topical PUVA to be more effective than non-laser targeted UVB [odds ratio: 3.48 (95% confidence interval 0.56-21.84), P?=?0.183]. The pooled effect estimate of the efficacy (75% reduction in severity score) of topical PUVA, targeted UVB, and PDT were as follows: 77% (topical PUVA), 61% (targeted UVB), and 22% (PDT). Topical PUVA and targeted UVB phototherapy are very effective in the treatment of localized psoriasis. Topical PUVA seems more effective than non-laser targeted UVB phototherapy. On the other hand, PDT has low efficacy and high percentage of side effects in treating localized psoriasis. PMID:24283358

  4. Photodynamic therapy provides local control of cholangiocarcinoma in patients awaiting liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, N D; Al-Osaimi, A M; Sanoff, H K; Morris, M M; Read, P W; Cox, D G; Mann, J A; Argo, C K; Berg, C L; Pelletier, S J; Maluf, D G; Wang, A Y

    2014-02-01

    Many transplant centers use endoscopically directed brachytherapy to provide locoregional control in patients with otherwise incurable cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) who are awaiting liver transplantation (LT). The use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-directed photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an alternative to brachytherapy for providing locoregional control in this patient population has not been studied. The aim of this study was to report on our initial experience using ERCP-directed PDT to provide local control in patients with unresectable CCA who were awaiting LT. Patients with unresectable CCA who underwent protocol-driven neoadjuvant chemoradiation and ERCP-directed PDT with the intent of undergoing LT were reviewed. Four patients with confirmed or suspected CCA met the inclusion criteria for protocol LT. All four patients (100%) successfully underwent ERCP-directed PDT. All patients had chemoradiation dose delays, and two patients had recurrent cholangitis despite PDT. None of these patients had progressive locoregional disease or distant metastasis following PDT. All four patients (100%) underwent LT. Intention-to-treat disease-free survival was 75% at mean follow-up of 28.1 months. In summary, ERCP-directed PDT is a reasonably well tolerated and safe procedure that may have benefit by maintaining locoregional tumor control in patients with CCA who are awaiting LT. PMID:24373228

  5. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) to treat a chronic skin wound in a dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Raduan; Plapler, Hélio; Bitar, Renata A.

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an emerging and promising therapeutic modality for treatment of a wide variety of malignant and nononcologic tumors, as well as in the treatment of infected skin ulcers. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the PDT to treat a chronic skin wound that had been already subjected to several clinical and surgical type treatments in a dog. The animal with an infected chronic skin wound with 8 cm diameter in the left leg received an injection of an aqueous solution of 1% methylene blue (MB) with 2% lidocaine into the lesion. After MB injection the wound was irradiated using a LED (LED-VET MMOptics(r)) with a wavelength between 600 and 700 nm, 2 cm diameter circular light beam, of 150 mW of power, light dose of 50 J/cm2. After 3 and 6 weeks PDT was repeated and the wound was re-evaluated. Complete healing was achieved 10 weeks after the first procedure.

  6. Vaccination with photodynamic therapy-treated macrophages induces highly suppressive T-regulatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Akilov, Oleg E.; Wu, Mei X.; Jin, Yongzhu; Zhou, Zhuoyan; Geskin, Larisa J.; Falo, Louis D.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background/purpose The present study explores whether photodynamic therapy (PDT)-induced apoptosis can increase the number of tolerogenic regulatory T cells (Treg) and limit collateral tissue damage. Methods BALB/c mice were vaccinated subcutaneously three times with PDT-induced apoptotic or thaw-frozen, necrotic non-infected autologous macrophages (M?). Two weeks after the last vaccination, mice were infected intradermally with 106 promastigotes of Leishmania major. Results Mice that received PDT-induced apoptotic M? had fewer parasites and higher numbers of Treg than mice vaccinated with thaw-frozen necrotic M? or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 were significantly suppressed, while IL-10 was increased in mice that received the PDT-induced apoptotic M?. The role of Treg in this process was confirmed through Treg transfer from vaccinated to naïve mice. Mice receiving CD4+CD25+ cells from mice vaccinated with PDT-induced apoptotic M? showed smaller lesions 3 weeks after infection and lower parasitic burdens than mice that received Tregs from mice of thaw-frozen necrotic M? or PBS groups. These changes were mediated by the depletion of CD3+CD8+ and NKT cells and increased levels of IL-12p70 and interferon-?, IL-10, and TGF-? in the cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions. Conclusion Vaccination with apoptotic M?-induced tolerogenic Treg cells that limited collateral tissue damage and diminished parasitic burden. PMID:21392113

  7. Antibacterial photodynamic therapy with 808-nm laser and indocyanine green on abrasion wound models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaloglu, Nermin; Güney, Melike; Yuksel, Sahru; Gülsoy, Murat

    2015-02-01

    Infections with pathogens could cause serious health problems, such as septicemia and subsequent death. Some of these deaths are caused by nosocomial, chronic, or burn-related wound infections. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be useful for the treatment of these infections. Our aim was to investigate the antibacterial effect of indocyanine green (ICG) and 808-nm laser on a rat abrasion wound model infected with the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain. Abrasion wounds were infected with a multidrug resistant clinical isolate of S. aureus. ICG concentrations of 500, 1000, and 2000 ?g/ml were applied with a 450 J/cm2 energy dose. Temperature change was monitored by a thermocouple system. The remaining bacterial burden was determined by the serial dilution method after each application. Wounds were observed for 11 days posttreatment. The recovery process was assessed macroscopically. Tissue samples were also examined histologically by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Around a 90% reduction in bacterial burden was observed after PDT applications. In positive control groups (ICG-only and laser-only groups), there was no significant reduction. The applied energy dose did not cause any thermal damage to the target tissue or host environment. Results showed that ICG together with a 808-nm laser might be a promising antibacterial method to eliminate infections in animals and accelerate the wound-healing process.

  8. Photodynamic therapy downregulates the function of regulatory T cells in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Reginato, Eleonora; Lindenmann, Jörg; Langner, Cord; Schweintzger, Nina; Bambach, Isabella; Smolle-Jüttner, Freyja; Wolf, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) by selective photosensitization of cancer cells and subsequent laser application results in local tumor necrosis. However, the effects of PDT on immune function, which may depend on the type of immune response, are controversial. We investigated the immunological changes induced by PDT and the effect of PDT on level and function of regulatory T cells (Treg) in patients with invasive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We analyzed patient's blood samples before and after PDT. Blood CD4+CD25+CD127-FoxP3+ Treg levels were quantified by FACS, and Treg function was evaluated by coculture proliferation assays with T effector (Teff) cells. We found that PDT abrogated the suppressive capacity of peripheral Treg (Days 7 and 14, p = 0.016) but had no effect on Treg levels. The effect of PDT on Treg function at Day 7 was accompanied by slight but statistically significant increases in peripheral neutrophil granulocytes (p = 0.035) and monocytes (p = 0.013) and a statistically significant increase (approximately 18-fold) in serum IL-6 levels (p = 0.008). In conclusion, PDT abolished Treg function, possibly due to increased IL-6 levels in treated ESCC patients. This may be crucial for an improved therapeutic outcome. PMID:25005268

  9. Preliminary study of cytotoxic effects of photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy on human pancreatic cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luowei; Liu, Bolin; Chen, Yang K.; Li, Zhaoshen; Hetzel, Fred W.; Huang, Zheng

    2009-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the western world. The disease is very resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. One reason for that is the resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to apoptosis. Among the current investigational approaches, targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-1/EGFR) and interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) show promises. When used alone or together, these new approaches might provide an alternative modality to treat pancreatic cancer. This study examined and compared cytotoxic effects of antibody C225 (an anti-HER-1/EGFR monoclonal antibody) and Photofrin-mediated PDT on two human pancreatic cancer cell lines (BxPc-3, HPAF-II). Preliminary in vitro data indicated that these treatments could block various proliferation pathways of pancreatic cancer cells through different mechanisms. For instance, PDT could induce early apoptosis. C225 could induce G1 arrest. These findings might help to design new strategies such as the combination of PDT and immunotherapy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  10. Preliminary study of transurethral photodynamic therapy mediated with Tookad in a canine prostate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng; Hetzel, Fred W.; Chen, Qun; Dole, Kenneth C.

    2008-02-01

    Background: photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (pd-bacteriopheophorbide) was investigated as an alternative modality for treating prostate cancer. Our previous studies show that Tookad PDT can induce marked prostatic tissue lesion but minimal urethral lesion. In this study a transurethral procedure was used to evaluate the response of the prostatic urethra to direct urethral irradiation. Materials and Methods: Tookad solution (2.5 mg/ml) was administered (1 mg/kg) through IV catheter by an infusion pump over 10 min. A diffuser fiber (1 cm active length) was inserted into the prostatic urethra. The light irradiation (50 or 100 J/cm) started at 4 min after the onset of drug infusion. Urinalysis was performed for 24 - 48 h post PDT. One week after PDT, prostates (n = 4) were removed at necropsy and subjected to histopathological examination. Results: The cross section of prostates showed severe hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions on the right lobe. The diameter of the lesion, measured from urethra to capsule, was >13 mm for 50 J/cm treatment and >18 mm for 100 J/cm, respectively. Although underlying periurethral lesion was visible, the urethral surface was intact and prostatic urethra was open. Conclusions: The joint point of the diffuser tip and the guide fiber might be bent while passing through the sharp turn at the Ischial Arch, which could affect the light distribution and cause the asymmetric lesion. Nonetheless, the transurethral direct irradiation can induce marked prostatic tissue lesion but minimal urethral lesion.

  11. In vitro photodynamic therapy of MG-63 osteosarcoma cells mediated by aminolevulinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Vincent M.; White, Bradley M.; Newton, Mariko J.; Jacques, Steven L.; Baugher, Paige J.

    2011-02-01

    This is an in vitro study of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the MG-63 line of human osteosarcoma cells, as mediated by aminolevulinic acid (ALA). The primary goal of this work is to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of treating osteosarcoma through PDT. In addition, this work is aimed at determining whether the resulting cell death occurs through apoptosis or cellular necrosis. The MG-63 cells are treated with increasing concentrations of ALA from 0.1-10 mM ALA, leading to the accumulation of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) within the cells. After incubation periods of 4 and 24 hours in ALA, the cells are illuminated by 0-10 J/cm2 of 636 nm light in order to activate the PpIX and induce oxidative damage to the cells. Light is administered by an 8x12 array of LED's, which are controlled by an Arduino Duemilanove microcontroller board in order to assure ease of use along with accurate levels of exposure. Controls for this experiment include 0 J/cm2 of light exposure for all experimental concentrations of ALA, as well as illuminating cells that have not been incubated in ALA at all experimental levels of illumination. MG-63 cells are analyzed through fluorimetry and MTT assays in order to determine the effectiveness of ALA mediated PDT of osteosarcoma.

  12. Targeting cytochrome C oxidase in mitochondria with Pt(II)-porphyrins for Photodynamic Therapy

    E-print Network

    Boersch, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are the power house of living cells, where the synthesis of the chemical "energy currency" adenosine triphosphate (ATP) occurs. Oxidative phosphorylation by a series of membrane protein complexes I to IV, that is, the electron transport chain, is the source of the electrochemical potential difference or proton motive force (PMF) of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The PMF is required for ATP production by complex V of the electron transport chain, i.e. by FoF1-ATP synthase. Destroying cytochrome C oxidase (COX; complex IV) in Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is achieved by the cationic photosensitizer Pt(II)-TMPyP. Electron microscopy revealed the disruption of the mitochondrial christae as a primary step of PDT. Time resolved phosphorescence measurements identified COX as the binding site for Pt(II)-TMPyP in living HeLa cells. As this photosensitizer competed with cytochrome C in binding to COX, destruction of COX might not only disturb ATP synthesis but could expedite the release of c...

  13. Adjuvant Therapies and Patient and Tumor Characteristics Associated With Survival of Adult Patients With Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Sabolch, Aaron; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Hammer, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignant endocrine neoplasia. Studies regarding outcome and prognostic factors rely on fairly small studies. Here we summarize the experience with patients with a diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma from a large tertiary referral center. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify prognostic factors in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma and evaluate adjuvant treatment strategies. Design: Patient data were collected in a retrospective single-center study. Epidemiological, patient, and tumor characteristics were analyzed for prognostic factors regarding overall and recurrence-free survival in Cox regression models (multivariable and univariable). Results: Three hundred ninety-one adult patients with the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma were identified. Median overall survival was 35.2 months. Cortisol production [hazard ratio (HR) 1.4, HR 1.5], tumor stage (HR stage 3 of 2.1 and 2.1, HR stage 4 of 4.8), and tumor grade (HR 2.4 and 2.0) were identified as negative prognostic factors (HR for death, HR for recurrence). Mitotane therapy increases recurrence-free survival, an effect that was significantly further improved by adjuvant radiation therapy but did not impact overall survival. Patients with open adrenalectomy had improved overall survival. Conclusions: This study increases the evidence for adverse risk factors (cortisol production, high tumor stage, and high tumor grade) and suggests the following therapy approach: adrenocortical carcinoma patients should be treated with open adrenalectomy. Adjuvant therapy, particularly mitotane therapy in conjunction with radiation, should be considered to delay tumor recurrence. PMID:24302750

  14. Microgel-Encapsulated Methylene Blue for the Treatment of Breast Cancer Cells by Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Anil; Bui, Minh-Phuong Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is gaining increasing recognition for breast cancer treatment because it offers local selectivity and reduced toxic side effects compared to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In PDT, photosensitizer drugs are loaded in different nanomaterials and used in combination with light exposure. However, the most representative issue with PDT is the difficulty of nanomaterials to encapsulate anticancer drugs at high doses, which results in low efficacy of the PDT treatment. Here, we proposed the development of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel for the encapsulation of methylene blue, an anticancer drug, for its use as breast cancer treatment in MCF-7 cell line. Methods We developed biocompatible microgels based on nonfunctionalized PNIPAM and its corresponding anionically functionalized PNIPAM and polyacrylic acid (PNIPAM-co-PAA) microgel. Methylene blue was used as the photosensitizer drug because of its ability to generate toxic reactive oxygen species upon exposure to light at 664 nm. Core PNIPAM and core/shell PNIPAM-co-PAA microgels were synthesized and characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The effect of methylene blue was evaluated using the MCF-7 cell line. Results Loading of methylene blue in core PNIPAM microgel was higher than that in the core/shell PNIPAM-co-PAA microgel, indicating that electrostatic interactions did not play an important role in loading a cationic drug. This behavior is probably due to the skin layer inhibiting the high uptake of drugs in the PNIPAM-co-PAA microgel. Core PNIPAM microgel effectively retained the cationic drug (i.e., methylene blue) for several hours compared to core/shell PNIPAM-co-PAA and enhanced its photodynamic efficacy in vitro more than that of free methylene blue. Conclusion Our results showed that the employment of core PNIPAM and core/shell PNIPAM-co-PAA microgels enhanced the encapsulation of methylene blue. Core PNIPAM microgel released the drug more slowly than did core/shell PNIPAM-co-PAA, and it effectively inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells. PMID:24744793

  15. Stratum corneum lipids liposomes for the topical delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid in photodynamic therapy of skin cancer: preparation and in vitro permeation study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Pierre; Antônio C Tedesco; Juliana M Marchetti; M Vitória LB Bentley

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a skin cancer therapy that still has limitations due to the low penetration of this drug into the skin. We have proposed in this work a delivery system for 5-ALA based on liposomes having lipid composition similar to the mammalian stratum corneum (SCLLs) in order to optimize its skin delivery in

  16. Circumvention of resistance to photodynamic therapy in doxorubicin-resistant sarcoma by photochemical internalization of gelonin.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Cathrine Elisabeth; Berg, Kristian; Selbo, Pål Kristian; Weyergang, Anette

    2013-12-01

    A wide range of anti-cancer therapies have been shown to induce resistance upon repetitive treatment and such adapted resistance may also cause cross-resistance to other treatment modalities. We here show that MES-SA/Dx5 cells with adapted resistance to doxorubicin (DOX) are cross-resistant to photodynamic therapy (PDT). A DOX-induced increased expression of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging proteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx) 1 and GPx4 in MES-SA/Dx5 cells was indicated as the mechanism of resistance to PDT in line with the reduction in PDT-generated ROS observed in this cell line. ROS-induced p38 activation was, in addition, shown to be reduced to one-third of the signal of the parental MES-SA cells 2h after PDT, and addition of the p38 inhibitor SB203580 confirmed p38 activation as a death signal after PDT in the MES-SA cells. The MES-SA/Dx5 cells were also cross-resistant to ionizing radiation in agreement with the increased GPx1 and GPx4 expression. Surprisingly, PDT-induced endo/lysosomal release of the ribosome-inactivating protein gelonin (photochemical internalization (PCI)) was more effective in the PDT-resistant MES-SA/Dx5 cells, as measured by synergy calculations in both cell lines. Analysis of death-inducing signaling indicated a low activation of caspase-3 and a strong PARP I cleavage after PDT and PCI in both cell lines. The PARP I activation was, however, stronger after PCI than after PDT in the MES-SA cells, but not in the MES-SA/Dx5 cells, and therefore cannot explain the strong PCI effect in the MES-SA/Dx5 cells. In conclusion PCI of recombinant gelonin circumvents ROS resistance in an apoptosis-independent manner. PMID:24076428

  17. ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy of experimental malignant glioma in the BD-IX rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Angell-Petersen, Even; Peng, Qian; Sun, Chung-Ho; Sorensen, Dag R.; Carper, Steven W.; Madsen, Steen J.

    2005-04-01

    Introduction: Failure of treatment for high grade gliomas is usually due to local recurrence at the site of surgical resec-tion indicating that a more aggressive form of local therapy could be of benefit. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a local form of treatment involving the administration of a tumor-localizing photosensitizing drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength The results of in vitro experiments indicated that PDT, given at low fluence rates was substantially more effective at inhibiting glioma spheroid growth than short term high fluence rate regimes. This prompted the initia-tion of in vivo studies of low fluence rate 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) PDT in a rat glioma model. Methods:BT4C cell line tumors were established in the brains of inbred BD- IX rats. Eighteen days following tumor induction the animals were injected with 125 mg/kg ALA ip. and four hours later light treatment at various fluences and fluence rates were given after the introduction of an optical fiber. Tumor histology and animal survival were examined. Results: In vitro experiments verified that the cell line was sensitive to ALA PDT. Microfluorometry of frozen tissue sections showed that PpIX is produced with a greater than 20:1 tumor to normal tissue selectivity ratio four hours after ALA injection. Histological examination demonstrated neutrophil infiltration and tumor central necrosis in low fluence rate treated tumors. Conclusions: Low fluence rate long term ALA mediated PDT had a more pronounced effect on tumor histology than single shot short duration treatments at similar total fluence levels.

  18. Imiquimod immunotherapy and ALA photodynamic therapy combination for the treatment of genital bowenoid papulosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Hong-Wei; Guo, Ming-Xia; Huang, Zheng

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the feasibility and efficacy of combination of imiquimod immunotherapy and 5- aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) for the treatment of genital bowenoid papulosis (BP). A total of twenty seven BP patients were randomized into two groups: (I) fifteen patients (12 male and 3 female, age 22-56 years old) were treated with topical application of 5% imiquimod cream (three times a week) and ALA-PDT (100 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2, once a week) for 1-4 times in one week interval. (II) Twelve patients (6 male and 6 female, age 29-58 years old) were treated with CO II laser vaporization as a control. Patients were followed up for 3 to 12 months. Results: In combined therapy group, 60% (9/15) patients showed complete remission and only one recurred (11.1%) during follow up. Local side effects included mild erythema, edema, erosion and burning and/or stinging sensation. No systemic side effect was found. In CO II laser vaporization group, 83.3% (10/12) patients showed complete remission. However, recurrence occurred in 6 patients (60.0%). Local side effects included mild to moderate edema, erosion, ulceration, delayed healing, prolonged pain and scarring. The difference of recurrence rate between two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Topical application of imiquimod cream and ALA-PDT is safe, effective and associated with low recurrence and less side effect. Its true clinical value needs to be further investigated by a long-term follow-up of large scale trial.

  19. Surface Layer-Preserving Photodynamic Therapy (SPPDT) in a Subcutaneous Mouse Model of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kawakubo, Masayoshi; Eguchi, Keisuke; Arai, Tsunenori; Kobayashi, Koichi; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may be a less invasive treatment for lung cancer. Our newly developed surface layer-preserving PDT (SPPDT) technique enables us to irradiate deep tumor while preserving the overlying tissue. The aim of this basic study was to verify that the SPPDT technique might be applied to lung cancer. Study Design/Materials and Methods PDT with talaporfin sodium was performed using a pulsed laser with different pulse dose rates (PDRs, 2.5–20.0 mJ/cm2/ pulse) in a mouse model of subcutaneous tumor. To mimic the tracheal wall structure and a thoracic tumor in the tracheobronchus, we also made a mouse model in which a piece of swine cartilage was placed between the dermis and the tumor, and PDT was carried out 2 weeks after implantation. In both experiments, the tissue samples were collected 48 hours after PDT and evaluated microscopically. Results SPPDT using a high-PDR laser damaged the underlying tissue but left the superficial tissue intact in the mouse subcutaneous tumor model. In SPPDT, a higher PDR produced a thicker layer of intact superficial tissue than a lower PDR, while a lower PDR produced a deeper layer of damaged tissue than a higher PDR. SPPDT was also able to preserve the superficial tissue and to damage the tumor tissue beneath the cartilage implant. Conclusion SPPDT was able to damage tumor beneath the superficial normal tissue layer, which included tracheal cartilage in the mouse model. The thickness control of SPPDT was provided by controlling laser pulse intensity. SPPDT is a new technology, whose future potential is unknown. The initial clinical application of this technology could be endoscopic treatment (e.g., palliative therapy of thoracic malignancies via bronchoscopy). PMID:22752880

  20. Enhanced singlet oxygen production by photodynamic therapy and a novel method for its intracellular measurement.

    PubMed

    Pena Luengas, Sandra L; Marin, Gustavo Horacio; Aviles, Kevin; Cruz Acuña, Ricardo; Roque, Gustavo; Rodríguez Nieto, Felipe; Sanchez, Francisco; Tarditi, Adrián; Rivera, Luis; Mansilla, Eduardo

    2014-12-01

    The generation of singlet oxygen (SO) in the presence of specific photosensitizers (PSs) or semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and its application in photodynamic therapy (PDT) is of great interest to develop cancer therapies with no need of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. This work was focused on the identification of the main factors leading to the enhancement of SO production using Rose Bengal (RB), and Methylene Blue (MB) as PS species in organic and aqueous mediums. Subsequently, the capacity of zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and ZnO/ZnS core-shell QDs as well as manganese (Mn(+2)) doped ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) as potential PS was also investigated. Many variable parameters such as type of quencher, PSs, NPs, as well as its different concentrations, light source, excitation wavelength, reaction time, distance from light source, and nature of solvent were used. The degradation kinetics of the quenchers generated by SO species and the corresponding quantum yields were determined by monitoring the photo-oxidation of the chemical quencher and measuring its disappearance by fluorometry and spectrophotometry in the presence of NPs. Small intracellular changes of SO induced by these metal Zn (zinc) NPs and PDT could execute and accelerate deadly programs in these leukemic cells, providing in this way an innovative modality of treatment. In order to perform further more specific in vitro cytotoxic studies on B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells exposed to Zn NPs and PDT, we needed first to measure and ascertain those possible intracellular SO variations generated by this type of treatment; for this purpose, we have also developed and tested a novel method first described by us. PMID:25490599