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Sample records for administration protect hippocampus

  1. Protective effect of systemic L-kynurenine and probenecid administration on behavioural and morphological alterations induced by toxic soluble amyloid beta (25-35) in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Mora, Paul; Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Fortoul-van Der Goes, Teresa I; Santamaría, Abel

    2010-07-11

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide exerts different toxic effects at a cellular level, including over-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) and excitotoxicity, synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of NMDAr and alpha7 nicotinic receptors. Systemic administrations of both the immediate metabolic precursor of KYNA, L-kynurenine (L-KYN), and a proved inhibitor of KYNA's brain transport, probenecid (PROB), have shown to produce neuroprotective effects in a considerable number of experimental toxic conditions; however, this strategy has not been tested in the toxic model Abeta peptide so far. In this study we evaluated the effects of systemic administration of PROB (50 mg/kg/day for 7 days), L-KYN (75 mg/kg/day for 7 days) and their combination, on behavioural (locomotor activity and spatial memory) and morphological alterations induced by an intrahippocampal infusion of Abeta 25-35 to rats. An additional group was administered with the potent NMDAr antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801, 0.8 mg/kg/day for 7 days) for comparative purposes. A significant improvement of spatial memory was evident in Abeta-lesioned rats since post-lesion day 21 with all treatments tested and this effect was correlated with a reduction of cell damage and a decrease in reactive gliosis in hippocampal CA1 area. Neither L-KYN, nor PROB, or their combination, produced major alterations in motor function when given alone to rats. These results suggest that modulation of NMDAr activity by mean of therapeutic strategies designed to enhance KYNA in the brain may help to counteract neurodegenerative events coursing with Abeta toxicity and excitotoxic patterns. PMID:20219555

  2. Acute administration of l-tyrosine alters energetic metabolism of hippocampus and striatum of infant rats.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Andrea C; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Furlanetto, Camila B; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Schuck, Patrícia F; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-08-01

    Tyrosinemia type II is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene that encodes tyrosine aminotransferase, which leads to increased blood tyrosine levels. Considering that tyrosine levels are highly elevated in fluids of patients with tyrosinemia type II, and that previous studies demonstrated significant alterations in brain energy metabolism of young rats caused by l-tyrosine, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of acute administration of l-tyrosine on the activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III, and IV in posterior cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of infant rats. Wistar rats (10 days old) were killed 1h after a single intraperitoneal injection of tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline. The activities of energy metabolism enzymes were evaluated in brain of rats. Our results demonstrated that acute administration of l-tyrosine inhibited the activity of citrate synthase activity in striatum and increased the activities of malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in hippocampus. On the other hand, these enzymes were not affected in posterior cortex. The activities of complex I and complex II were inhibited by acute administration of l-tyrosine in striatum. On the other hand, the acute administration of l-tyrosine increased the activity of activity of complex II-III in hippocampus. Complex IV was not affected by acute administration of l-tyrosine in infant rats. Our results indicate an alteration in the energy metabolism in hippocampus and striatum of infant rats after acute administration of l-tyrosine. If the same effects occur in the brain of the patients, it is possible that energy metabolism impairment may be contribute to possible damage in memory and cognitive processes in patients with tyrosinemia type II. PMID:23602810

  3. Luteolin protects the hippocampus against neuron impairments induced by kainic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu Yu; Lu, Cheng Wei; Wang, Su Jane

    2016-07-01

    Glutamatergic excitotoxicity is crucial in the pathogenesis of numerous brain disorders. Luteolin, a flavonoid compound, inhibits glutamate release, however, its ability to affect glutamate-induced brain injury is unknown. Therefore, this study evaluated the protective effect of luteolin against brain damage induced by kainic acid (KA), a glutamate analog. Rats were treated with luteolin (10 or 50mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 30min before an intraperitoneal injection of KA (15mg/kg). Luteolin treatment reduced the KA-induced seizure score and elevations of glutamate levels in the hippocampus. A histopathological analysis showed that luteolin attenuated KA-induced neuronal death and microglial activation in the hippocampus. An immunoblotting analysis showed that luteolin restored the KA-induced reduction in Akt phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Furthermore, a Morris water maze test revealed that luteolin effectively prevented KA-induced learning and memory impairments. The results suggest that luteolin protected rat brains from KA-induced excitotoxic damage by reducing glutamate levels, mitigating inflammation, and enhancing Akt activation in the hippocampus. Therefore, luteolin may be beneficial for preventing or treating brain disorders associated with excitotoxic neuronal damage. PMID:27185356

  4. Lentiviral-mediated delivery of Bcl-2 or GDNF protects against excitotoxicity in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wong, Liang-Fong; Ralph, G Scott; Walmsley, Lucy E; Bienemann, Alison S; Parham, Stephen; Kingsman, Susan M; Uney, James B; Mazarakis, Nicholas D

    2005-01-01

    Nutrient deprivation during ischemia leads to severe insult to neurons causing widespread excitotoxic damage in specific brain regions such as the hippocampus. One possible strategy for preventing neurodegeneration is to express therapeutic proteins in the brain to protect against excitotoxicity. We investigated the utility of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-based vectors as genetic tools for delivery of therapeutic proteins in an in vivo excitotoxicity model. The efficacy of these vectors at preventing cellular loss in target brain areas following excitotoxic insult was also assessed. EIAV vectors generated to overexpress the human antiapoptotic Bcl-2 or growth factor glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) genes protected against glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons. In an in vivo excitotoxicity model, adult Wistar rats received a unilateral dose of the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate to the hippocampus that induced a large lesion in the CA1 region. Neuronal loss could not be protected by prior transduction of a control vector expressing beta-galactosidase. In contrast, EIAV-mediated expression of Bcl-2 and GDNF significantly reduced lesion size thus protecting the hippocampus from excitotoxic damage. These results demonstrate that EIAV vectors can be effectively used to deliver putative neuroprotective genes to target brain areas and prevent cellular loss in the event of a neurological insult. Therefore these lentiviral vectors provide potential therapeutic tools for use in cases of acute neurotrauma such as cerebral ischemia. PMID:15585409

  5. Melatonin administration reverses the alteration of amyloid precursor protein-cleaving secretases expression in aged mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mukda, Sujira; Panmanee, Jiraporn; Boontem, Parichart; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2016-05-16

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interestingly, Aβ is normally synthesized in the brain of healthy people; however, during advanced aging, the level of Aβ peptides increases. As a result, the aggregation of Aβ peptides leads to trafficking problems, synaptic loss, inflammation, and cell death. Melatonin, the hormone primarily synthesized and secreted from the pineal gland, is decreased with progressing age, particularly in Alzheimer's disease patients. The loss of melatonin levels and the abnormal accumulation of some proteins, such as Aβ peptides in the brains of AD patients are considered important factors in the initiation of the cognitive symptoms of dementia. A previous study in mice reported that increased brain melatonin levels remarkably diminished the potentially toxic Aβ peptide levels. The present study showed that aged mice significantly impaired spatial memory in the Morris Water Maze task. We also showed that α-, β-, and γ-secretases, which are type-I membrane protein proteases responsible for Aβ production, showed alterations in both mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus of aged mice. The long-term administration of melatonin, mice had shorter escape latencies and remained in the target quadrant longer compared to the aged group. Melatonin attenuated the reduction of α-secretase and inhibited the increase of β- and γ-secretases. Moreover, melatonin attenuated the upregulation of pNFkB and the reduction of sirtuin1 in the hippocampus of aged mice. These results suggested that melatonin protected against Aβ peptide production in aged mice. Hence, melatonin loss in aging could be recompensed through dietary supplementation as a beneficial therapeutic strategy for AD prevention and progression. PMID:27068758

  6. Energy substrates protect hippocampus against endogenous glutamate-mediated neurodegeneration in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Netzahualcoyotzi, Citlalli; Tapia, Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Excitotoxicity due to excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission is a well-studied phenomenon that has been related to the mechanisms of neuronal death occurring in some disorders of the CNS. We have previously shown that the intrahippocampal perfusion by microdialysis of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in rats stimulates endogenous glutamate release from nerve endings and this results in excitotoxic effects such as immediate seizures and delayed neuronal death, due to the overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. To study whether mitochondrial energy dysfunction and oxidative stress could be involved in this 4-AP-induced excitotoxicity, we evaluated in awake rats the protective effect of several energy substrates and antioxidant compounds, using microdialysis, electroencephalographic (EEG) recording and histological analysis. The 4-AP-induced behavioral and EEG seizures, which progressed to status epilepticus in about 30 min, were prevented by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, whereas acetoacetate, DL- and L-β-hydroxybutyrate did not protect against seizures but increased the latency to the onset of status epilepticus; pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate and glutathione ethyl ester did not show any protective effect. 4-AP also produced nearly complete loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3 regions of the ipsilateral hippocampus 24 h after the experiment. MK-801 totally prevented this neuronal death and the energy substrates tested protected by about 50%, whereas the antioxidants showed only a weak protection. We conclude that ketone bodies possess weak anticonvulsant effects and that energy metabolism impairment plays a more important role than oxidative stress in the delayed hippocampal neurodegeneration resulting from the excitotoxic action of 4-AP mediated by endogenous glutamate. PMID:24789366

  7. Modulation of axonal sprouting along rostro-caudal axis of dorsal hippocampus and no neuronal survival in parahippocampal cortices by long-term post-lesion melatonin administration in lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ganjkhani, Mahin; Ali, Rostami; Iraj, Jafari Anarkooli

    2016-01-01

    Feature outcome of hippocampus and extra-hippocampal cortices was evaluated in melatonin treated lithium-pilocarpine epileptic rats during early and chronic phases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). After status epilepticus (SE) induction, 5 and 20 mg/kg melatonin were administered for 14 days or 60 days. All animals were killed 60 days post SE induction and the histological features of the rosrto-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus, piriform and entorhinal cortices were evaluated utilizing Nissl, Timm, and synapsin I immunoflorescent staining. Melatonin (20 mg/kg) effect on CA1 and CA3 neurons showed a region-specific pattern along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus. The number of counted granular cells by melatonin (20 mg/kg) treatment increased along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus in comparison to the untreated epileptic group. The density of Timm granules in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus decreased significantly in all melatonin treated groups in comparison to the untreated epileptic animals. The increased density of synapsin I immunoreactivity in the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus of untreated epileptic rats showed a profound decrease following melatonin treatment. There was no neuronal protection in the piriform and entorhinal cortices whatever the melatonin treatment. Long-term melatonin administration as a co-adjuvant probably could reduce the post-lesion histological consequences of TLE in a region-specific pattern along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:27051565

  8. Chronic administration of resveratrol prevents morphological changes in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Monserrat Hernández-Hernández, Elizabeth; Serrano-García, Carolina; Antonio Vázquez-Roque, Rubén; Díaz, Alfonso; Monroy, Elibeth; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio; Florán, Benjamin; Flores, Gonzalo

    2016-05-01

    Resveratrol may induce its neuroprotective effects by reducing oxidative damage and chronic inflammation apart from improving vascular function and activating longevity genes, it also has the ability to promote the activity of neurotrophic factors. Morphological changes in dendrites of the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus have been reported in the brain of aging humans, or in humans with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. These changes are reflected particularly in the decrement of both the dendritic tree and spine density. Here we evaluated the effect of resveratrol on the dendrites of pyramidal neurons of the PFC (Layers 3 and 5), CA1- and CA3-dorsal hippocampus (DH) as well as CA1-ventral hippocampus, dentate gyrus (DG), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens of aged rats. 18-month-old rats were administered resveratrol (20 mg/kg, orally) daily for 60 days. Dendritic morphology was studied by the Golgi-Cox stain procedure, followed by Sholl analysis on 20-month-old rats. In all resveratrol-treated rats, a significant increase in dendritic length and spine density in pyramidal neurons of the PFC, CA1, and CA3 of DH was observed. Interestingly, the enhancement in dendritic length was close to the soma in pyramidal neurons of the PFC, whereas in neurons of the DH and DG, the increase in dendritic length was further from the soma. Our results suggest that resveratrol induces modifications of dendritic morphology in the PFC, DH, and DG. These changes may explain the therapeutic effect of resveratrol in aging and in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26789275

  9. Acute and chronic administration of the branched-chain amino acids decreases nerve growth factor in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Mello-Santos, Lis Mairá; Furlanetto, Camila B; Jeremias, Isabela C; Mina, Francielle; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Kist, Luiza W; Pereira, Talita C B; Bogo, Maurício R; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-12-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a neurometabolic disorder caused by deficiency of the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme complex branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding branched-chain α-keto acids. In this study, we examined the effects of acute and chronic administration of BCAA on protein levels and mRNA expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) considering that patients with MSUD present neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Considering previous observations, it is suggested that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of the neurological dysfunction of MSUD. We also investigated the influence of antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine) in order to verify the influence of oxidative stress in the modulation of NGF levels. Our results demonstrated decreased protein levels of NGF in the hippocampus after acute and chronic administration of BCAA. In addition, we showed a significant decrease in the expression of ngf in the hippocampus only following acute administration in 10-day-old rats. Interestingly, antioxidant treatment was able to prevent the decrease in NGF levels by increasing ngf expression. In conclusion, the results suggest that BCAA is involved in the regulation of NGF in the developing rat. Thus, it is possible that alteration of neurotrophin levels during brain maturation could be of pivotal importance in the impairment of cognition provoked by BCAA. Moreover, the decrease in NGF levels was prevented by antioxidant treatment, reinforcing that the hypothesis of oxidative stress can be an important pathophysiological mechanism underlying the brain damage observed in MSUD. PMID:23559405

  10. 15 CFR 764.6 - Protective administrative measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective administrative measures. 764.6 Section 764.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... ENFORCEMENT AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES § 764.6 Protective administrative measures. (a) License...

  11. 15 CFR 764.6 - Protective administrative measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protective administrative measures. 764.6 Section 764.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... ENFORCEMENT AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES § 764.6 Protective administrative measures. (a) License...

  12. 15 CFR 764.6 - Protective administrative measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protective administrative measures. 764.6 Section 764.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... ENFORCEMENT AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES § 764.6 Protective administrative measures. (a) License...

  13. 15 CFR 764.6 - Protective administrative measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protective administrative measures. 764.6 Section 764.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... ENFORCEMENT AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES § 764.6 Protective administrative measures. (a) License...

  14. The effects of cocaine self-administration on dendritic spine density in the rat hippocampus are dependent on genetic background.

    PubMed

    Miguéns, Miguel; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Coria, Santiago M; Selvas, Abraham; Ballesteros-Yañez, Inmaculada; DeFelipe, Javier; Ambrosio, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cocaine induces modifications to neurons in the brain regions involved in addiction. Hence, we evaluated cocaine-induced changes in the hippocampal CA1 field in Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats, 2 strains that have been widely used to study genetic predisposition to drug addiction, by combining intracellular Lucifer yellow injection with confocal microscopy reconstruction of labeled neurons. Specifically, we examined the effects of cocaine self-administration on the structure, size, and branching complexity of the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. In addition, we quantified spine density in the collaterals of the apical dendritic arbors of these neurons. We found differences between these strains in several morphological parameters. For example, CA1 apical dendrites were more branched and complex in LEW than in F344 rats, while the spine density in the collateral dendrites of the apical dendritic arbors was greater in F344 rats. Interestingly, cocaine self-administration in LEW rats augmented the spine density, an effect that was not observed in the F344 strain. These results reveal significant structural differences in CA1 pyramidal cells between these strains and indicate that cocaine self-administration has a distinct effect on neuron morphology in the hippocampus of rats with different genetic backgrounds. PMID:23966583

  15. Estrogen administration modulates hippocampal GABAergic subpopulations in the hippocampus of trimethyltin-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Valentina; Di Maria, Valentina; Marchese, Elisa; Lattanzi, Wanda; Biamonte, Filippo; Michetti, Fabrizio; Geloso, Maria Concetta

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented involvement of estrogens in the modulation of hippocampal functions in both physiological and pathological conditions, the present study investigates the effects of 17-beta estradiol (E2) administration in the rat model of hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by trimethyltin (TMT) administration (8 mg/kg), characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1, CA3/hilus hippocampal subfields, associated with astroglial and microglial activation, seizures and cognitive impairment. After TMT/saline treatment, ovariectomized animals received two doses of E2 (0.2 mg/kg intra-peritoneal) or vehicle, and were sacrificed 48 h or 7 days after TMT-treatment. Our results indicate that in TMT-treated animals E2 administration induces the early (48 h) upregulation of genes involved in neuroprotection and synaptogenesis, namely Bcl2, trkB, cadherin 2 and cyclin-dependent-kinase-5. Increased expression levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (gad) 67, neuropeptide Y (Npy), parvalbumin, Pgc-1α and Sirtuin 1 genes, the latter involved in parvalbumin (PV) synthesis, were also evident. Unbiased stereology performed on rats sacrificed 7 days after TMT treatment showed that although E2 does not significantly influence the extent of TMT-induced neuronal death, significantly enhances the TMT-induced modulation of GABAergic interneuron population size in selected hippocampal subfields. In particular, E2 administration causes, in TMT-treated rats, a significant increase in the number of GAD67-expressing interneurons in CA1 stratum oriens, CA3 pyramidal layer, hilus and dentate gyrus, accompanied by a parallel increase in NPY-expressing cells, essentially in the same regions, and of PV-positive cells in CA1 pyramidal layer. The present results add information concerning the role of in vivo E2 administration on mechanisms involved in cellular plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:26594149

  16. SCYL2 Protects CA3 Pyramidal Neurons from Excitotoxicity during Functional Maturation of the Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Sebastien; Earls, Laurie R.; Howell, Sherie; Smeyne, Richard J.; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal death caused by excessive excitatory signaling, excitotoxicity, plays a central role in neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms regulating this process, however, are still incompletely understood. Here we show that the coated vesicle-associated kinase SCYL2/CVAK104 plays a critical role for the normal functioning of the nervous system and for suppressing excitotoxicity in the developing hippocampus. Targeted disruption of Scyl2 in mice caused perinatal lethality in the vast majority of newborn mice and severe sensory-motor deficits in mice that survived to adulthood. Consistent with a neurogenic origin of these phenotypes, neuron-specific deletion of Scyl2 also caused perinatal lethality in the majority of newborn mice and severe neurological defects in adult mice. The neurological deficits in these mice were associated with the degeneration of several neuronal populations, most notably CA3 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, which we analyzed in more detail. The loss of CA3 neurons occurred during the functional maturation of the hippocampus and was the result of a BAX-dependent apoptotic process. Excessive excitatory signaling was present at the onset of degeneration, and inhibition of excitatory signaling prevented the degeneration of CA3 neurons. Biochemical fractionation reveals that Scyl2-deficient mice have an altered composition of excitatory receptors at synapses. Our findings demonstrate an essential role for SCYL2 in regulating neuronal function and survival and suggest a role for SCYL2 in regulating excitatory signaling in the developing brain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here we examine the in vivo function of SCYL2, an evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein pseudokinase thought to regulate protein trafficking along the secretory pathway, and demonstrate its importance for the normal functioning of the nervous system and for suppressing excitatory signaling in the developing brain. Together with recent studies

  17. Subchronic administration of riparin III induces antidepressive-like effects and increases BDNF levels in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Auriana S; Oliveira, Iris C M; Vidal, Laura T M; Rodrigues, Gabriel C; Gutierrez, Stanley J C; Barbosa-Filho, José M; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M M; de França Fonteles, Marta M; Gaspar, Danielle M; de Sousa, Francisca C F

    2015-08-01

    Riparin III (Rip III) is an alcamide isolated from Aniba riparia that has presented effects of antidepressant and anxiolytic activities in acute stress behavioral models. The trial's goal was to investigate the activity of Rip III in mice exposed to corticosterone-induced chronic depression model. Swiss female mice, 22-25 g, were distributed in following experimental groups: control group (vehicle1: saline containing 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide and 0.1% Tween-80, SC+ vehicle 2: distilled water emulsified with 2% Tween-80, PO); stressed group (corticosterone, 20 mg/kg, SC, + vehicle 2, orally); Rip III group (50 mg/kg, orally); and fluvoxamine (Flu) group (50 mg/kg, orally). The mice were exposed to the behavioral tests, and posteriorly, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels were assessed in hippocampal samples. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by one-way anova, followed by Newman-Keuls test. Both administrations of Rip III and Flu significantly reduced the immobility time in tail suspension and forced swimming tests after 21 days without affecting locomotor function. There was also an increase in BDNF protein levels in the mice hippocampus. These findings further support the hypothesis that Rip III could be a new pharmacological target for the treatment of mood disorders. PMID:25846646

  18. Administrator Tenure Statutes and Other Legislative Protection of Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan

    1983-01-01

    A pamphlet reviewing the employment rights of school administrators in each state, this report distinguishes between substantive and procedural rights for administrators threatened with demotion or dismissal. The author argues that principals should be aware of the kind and degree of statutory employment protection in their states, which differ in…

  19. 37 CFR 404.12 - Protection and administration of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT-OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps to protect...

  20. 37 CFR 404.12 - Protection and administration of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps to protect...

  1. 37 CFR 404.12 - Protection and administration of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps to protect...

  2. Inhibition by the adenosine analogue, (R-)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, of kainic acid neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus after systemic administration.

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, D. G.; Stone, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    1. Binding of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand, [3H]-PK 11195, to rat hippocampal membranes has been used to quantify the reactive gliosis resulting from neuronal death induced by intraperitoneally administered kainic acid. 2. Intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid (10 mg kg-1) caused a 350-500% increase in [3H]-PK 11195 binding measured in rat hippocampal P2 membranes 7 days later. Co-treatment with the adenosine derivative R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) (100, 25 or 10 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) abolished this elevation. The protective action of R-PIA could itself be abolished by co-treatment with 8-phenyltheophylline (1 mg kg-1). 3. Body temperatures were recorded in the antagonist experiments and no significant changes were recorded, suggesting that the protective action of R-PIA was not mediated by hypothermia. 4. Since systemic kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity has been claimed as a good model of neuronal death in temporal lobe epilepsy, the results suggest that the systemic administration of purines in low doses may provide protection against certain neurodegenerative insults. PMID:8358536

  3. 3'-5' cyclic-guanosine monophosphate increase in rat brain hippocampus after gamma-hydroxybutyrate administration. Prevention by valproate and naloxone

    SciTech Connect

    Vayer, P.; Gobaille, S.; Mandel, P.; Maitre, M.

    1987-08-03

    An increase (123%) of cyclic GMP (cGMP) was observed in the hippocampus of the rat killed by microwave irradiation 45 min after administration of 500 mg/kg el-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) IP. This increase is time and dose dependent. No modification in cyclic nucleotide content was observed in striatum and in cerebellum. As the role of GHB has been implicated in neurotransmission, the fact that this compound increases cyclic GMP accumulation in hippocampus in vivo may represent a mechanism by which the actions of GHB are mediated at the cellular level. Valproate (400 mg/kg) or naloxone (10 mg/kg) pretreatment completely abolish the cGMP increase due to GHB. A GABAergic and/or opiate phenomenon may be involved in the mechanism of GHB induced increase of cGMP. 34 references, 4 figures.

  4. Naringin and Sertraline Ameliorate Doxorubicin-Induced Behavioral Deficits Through Modulation of Serotonin Level and Mitochondrial Complexes Protection Pathway in Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Mohit; Jangra, Ashok; Mishra, Murli; Sharma, Yogita; Ahmed, Sahabuddin; Ghosh, Pinaki; Kumar, Vikas; Vohora, Divya; Khanam, Razia

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of naringin (NR) alone as well as its combination with sertraline (SRT) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical anomalies. DOX (15 mg/kg; i.p.) administration caused behavioral alterations, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and monoamines alteration in male Wistar rats. NR (50 and 100 mg/kg; i.p.) and SRT (5 mg/kg; i.p.) treatment significantly attenuated DOX-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior as evident from elevated plus maze (EPM) and modified forced swimming test (mFST), respectively. NR treatment significantly attenuated DOX-induced raised plasma corticosterone (CORT), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) levels in the hippocampus (HC). Furthermore, we found that combination of NR and SRT regimen ameliorated DOX-induced behavioral anomalies through modulation of the 5-HT level and mitochondrial complexes protection pathway along with alleviation of oxidative stress in the HC region. Therefore, NR treatment alone or in combination with SRT could be beneficial against DOX-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:27209303

  5. Effect of Beta-Asarone on Impairment of Spatial Working Memory and Apoptosis in the Hippocampus of Rats Exposed to Chronic Corticosterone Administration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bombi; Sur, Bongjun; Cho, Seong-Guk; Yeom, Mijung; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    β-asarone (BAS) is an active component of Acori graminei rhizoma, a traditional medicine used clinically in treating dementia and chronic stress in Korea. However, the cognitive effects of BAS and its mechanism of action have remained elusive. The purpose of this study was to examine whether BAS improved spatial cognitive impairment induced in rats following chronic corticosterone (CORT) administration. CORT administration (40 mg/kg, i.p., 21 days) resulted in cognitive impairment in the avoidance conditioning test (AAT) and the Morris water maze (MWM) test that was reversed by BAS (200 mg/kg, i.p). Additionally, as assessed by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis, the administration of BAS significantly alleviated memory-associated decreases in the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) proteins and mRNAs in the hippocampus. Also, BAS administration significantly restored the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 mRNAs in the hippocampus. Thus, BAS may be an effective therapeutic for learning and memory disturbances, and its neuroprotective effect was mediated, in part, by normalizing the CORT response, resulting in regulation of BDNF and CREB functions and anti-apoptosis in rats. PMID:26535083

  6. Effect of Beta-Asarone on Impairment of Spatial Working Memory and Apoptosis in the Hippocampus of Rats Exposed to Chronic Corticosterone Administration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bombi; Sur, Bongjun; Cho, Seong-Guk; Yeom, Mijung; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    β-asarone (BAS) is an active component of Acori graminei rhizoma, a traditional medicine used clinically in treating dementia and chronic stress in Korea. However, the cognitive effects of BAS and its mechanism of action have remained elusive. The purpose of this study was to examine whether BAS improved spatial cognitive impairment induced in rats following chronic corticosterone (CORT) administration. CORT administration (40 mg/kg, i.p., 21 days) resulted in cognitive impairment in the avoidance conditioning test (AAT) and the Morris water maze (MWM) test that was reversed by BAS (200 mg/kg, i.p). Additionally, as assessed by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis, the administration of BAS significantly alleviated memory-associated decreases in the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) proteins and mRNAs in the hippocampus. Also, BAS administration significantly restored the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 mRNAs in the hippocampus. Thus, BAS may be an effective therapeutic for learning and memory disturbances, and its neuroprotective effect was mediated, in part, by normalizing the CORT response, resulting in regulation of BDNF and CREB functions and anti-apoptosis in rats. PMID:26535083

  7. 37 CFR 404.12 - Protection and administration of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT-OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps...

  8. 37 CFR 404.12 - Protection and administration of inventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of inventions. 404.12 Section 404.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT-OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.12 Protection and administration of inventions. A Federal agency may take any suitable and necessary steps...

  9. Protective effects of perindopril on d-galactose and aluminum trichloride induced neurotoxicity via the apoptosis of mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway in the hippocampus of mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weina; Shi, Lili; Chen, Lianji; Zhang, Bingyi; Ma, Kaige; Liu, Yong; Qian, Yihua

    2014-10-01

    Perindopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, has been reported to improve learning and memory in a mouse or rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) induced by injection of beta-amyloid protein. However, the exact mechanism of perindopril on the cognitive deficits is not fully understood. Our previous data have indicated that perindopril improves learning and memory in a mouse model of AD induced by D-galactose (D-gal) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl₃) via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and oxidative stress. Whether perindopril also inhibit apoptosis to prevent cognitive decline remains unknown in mice. Therefore, the present study explored the protective effects of perindopril in the hippocampus of mice further. Perindopril (0.5 mg/kg/day) was administered intragastrically for 60 days after the mice were given a D-gal (150 mg/kg/day) and AlCl₃ (10 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 90 days. Then the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Fas, FasL, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 were analyzed by RT-PCR and western blotting in the hippocampus. Perindopril significantly decreased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, and elevated Bcl-2/Bax ratio in the hippocampus. However, the expression of Fas, FasL and caspase-8 did not change in the hippocampus whether treatment with d-gal and AlCl₃ or perindopril. Taken together, the above findings indicated that perindopril inhibited apoptosis in the hippocampus may be another mechanism by which perindopril improves learning and memory functions in d-gal and AlCl₃ treated mice. PMID:25290208

  10. 19 CFR 351.103 - Central Records Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Order and Dockets Unit. 351.103 Section 351.103 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit. (a) Import Administration's Central Records... Administration's Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit (APO/Dockets Unit) is located in Room 1870,...

  11. 19 CFR 351.103 - Central Records Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Order and Dockets Unit. 351.103 Section 351.103 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit. (a) Import Administration's Central Records... (see § 351.104). (b) Import Administration's Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit...

  12. 19 CFR 351.103 - Central Records Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Order and Dockets Unit. 351.103 Section 351.103 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit. (a) Import Administration's Central Records... (see § 351.104). (b) Import Administration's Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit...

  13. 19 CFR 351.103 - Central Records Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Order and Dockets Unit. 351.103 Section 351.103 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit. (a) Import Administration's Central Records... Administration's Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit (APO/Dockets Unit) is located in Room 1870,...

  14. Layered virus protection for the operations and administrative messaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortez, R. H.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is critical in supporting the wide variety of operating and plannedunmanned flight projects. For day-to-day operations it relies on email communication between the three Deep Space Communication Complexes (Canberra, Goldstone, Madrid) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Operations & Administrative Messaging system, based on the Microsoft Windows NTand Exchange platform, provides the infrastructure that is required for reliable, mission-critical messaging. The reliability of this system, however, is threatened by the proliferation of email viruses that continue to spread at alarming rates. A layered approach to email security has been implemented across the DSN to protect against this threat.

  15. Changes in Gene Expression in the Hippocampus Following Exposure to 56Fe Particles and Protection by Berry Diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis; Carey, Amanda; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), such as 56 Fe, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals. Behaviors affected by radiation include deficits in motor performance, spatial learning and memory behavior, amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversion learning, conditioned place preference, and operant conditioning. Berry fruit diets are high in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity, and prevent the occurrence of the neurochemical and behavioral changes that occur in aging and by exposure to 56 Fe particles. In the present study, we examined whether gene expression in the hippocampus, an area of the brain important in memory, is affected by exposure to 56 Fe particles 36 hours post-irradiation. We also evaluated whether the blueberry (BB) and strawberry (SB) diets could ameliorate irradiation-induced deficits in gene expression by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to radiation. Therefore, to measure gene expression, 4 rats/group were euthanized 36 hours post whole-body irradiation with 1.5 Gy or 2.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56 Fe particles. Alterations in gene expression profile induced by radiation were analyzed by pathway-focused microarrays on the inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in NF-κB signal transduction pathways. For the diet studies, 3 rats/group were irradiated with 2.5 Gy of 56 Fe following 8 weeks supplementation with either the 2% BB or the 2% SB diet. We found that genes that directly or indirectly interact in the regulation of growth and differentiation of neurons were changed following irradiation. Genes that regulate apoptosis were up-regulated whereas genes that modulate cellular proliferation were down-regulated, possibly to eliminate damaged cells and to stop cell proliferation to prevent

  16. Changes in gene expression in the rat hippocampus following exposure to 56 fe particles and protection by berry diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), such as 56Fe, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts behavior, including spatial learning and memory. In the present study, we examined whether gene expression in the hippocampus, an area of the b...

  17. Protection of Radial Glial-Like Cells in the Hippocampus of APP/PS1 Mice: a Novel Mechanism of Memantine in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dayu; Chen, Junhua; Bao, Xiaohang; Cai, Yulong; Zhao, Jinghui; Huang, Jing; Huang, Wei; Fan, Xiaotang; Xu, Haiwei

    2015-08-01

    The failure of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is closely correlated with memory decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Radial glial-like cells (RGLs) localized to the adult DG generate intermediate progenitor cells and immature neurons and thus contribute to adult hippocampus neurogenesis. Memantine (MEM) has been indicated to dramatically increase hippocampal neurogenesis by promoting the proliferation of RGLs. In this study, we examined the effect of MEM on the capacity for hippocampal cell proliferation and the amount of RGLs in APPswe/PS1∆E9 transgenic (APP/PS1) mice between 9 and 13 months of age. MEM could enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and increase the number of RGLs in the DG subgranular zone (DG-SGZ) of APP/PS1 mice of both ages. Moreover, MEM decreased amyloidogenesis in 13-month-old APP/PS1 mice and protected cultured radial glia cells (RGCs, L2.3 cells) from apoptosis induced by the β amyloid peptide (Aβ). Additionally, MEM inhibited microglial activation in a vertical process in DG-SGZ of APP/PS1 mice and decreased interacting with RGL processes. Reelin is involved in the proliferation of RGLs in the hippocampus, which was typically upregulated in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice by MEM and thought to be an active signaling pathway associated with the MEM-induced increase in RGLs. Our data suggest a previously uncharacterized role for MEM in treating AD. PMID:25195698

  18. Neonatal administration of N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate induces early neurodegeneration in hippocampus and alters behaviour in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Bubeníková-Valesová, Vera; Balcar, Vladimir J; Tejkalová, Hana; Langmeier, Milos; St'astný, Frantisek

    2006-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG) is a dipeptide that could be considered a sequestered form of L-glutamate. As much as 25% of L-glutamate in brain may be present in the form of NAAG. NAAG is also one of the most abundant neuroactive small molecules in the CNS: it is an agonist at Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR II) and, at higher concentrations, at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of ionotropic glutamate receptors. As such, NAAG can be either neuroprotective or neurotoxic and, in fact, both characteristics have been discussed and described in the literature. In the present studies, 250 nmol NAAG was infused into each lateral cerebral ventricle of 12-day-old rat pups and, using Nissl-stained sections, neurodegeneration in the hippocampus was evaluated 24 or 96 h after the infusion. In several experiments, the neuronal death was also visualised by Fluoro-Jade B staining and studied by TUNEL technique. Some of the NAAG-treated animals were allowed to survive until 50 days post partum and subjected to behavioural (open field) tests. The administration of NAAG to 12-day-old rats resulted in extensive death of neurons particularly in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The neurodegeneration was, in part, prevented by administration of an NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg). The nuclear DNA-fragmentation demonstrated by TUNEL technique pointed to the presence of non-specific single-strand DNA cleavage. The NAAG-associated neonatal neuronal damage may have perturbed development of synaptic circuitry during adolescence as indicated by an altered performance of the experimental animals in the open field testing (changes in grooming activity) at postnatal day 50. The results underscore the potential neurotoxicity of NAAG in neonatal rat brain and implicate neonatally induced, NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal loss in the development of abnormal behaviour in young adult rats. PMID:16540202

  19. Valerenic Acid Protects Against Physical and Psychological Stress by Reducing the Turnover of Serotonin and Norepinephrine in Mouse Hippocampus-Amygdala Region.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yoo, Dae Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2015-12-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that a Valeriana officinalis extract could attenuate increases in serum corticosterone levels in a mouse model of physical and psychological stress. In addition, our results showed that the extract could modulate serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) turnover in the hippocampus and amygdala region. In this study, we intended to investigate the effects of valerenic acid (VA), the main component of V. officinalis extract, on corticosterone levels in serum in normal mice and monoamine turnover in hippocampus-amygdala homogenates in a mouse model of physical and psychological stress. To determine the minimum dose of VA for antianxiety effect, eight-week-old ICR mice were orally administered VA (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg/0.3 mL) once daily for 3 weeks to probe for immobility time and serum corticosterone levels. At a VA dose of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, animals showed a decrease in the duration of immobility time and serum corticosterone levels. To confirm the antianxiety effect of VA, eight-week-old ICR mice received VA at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, orally, once daily for 3 weeks, before being subjected to physical or psychological stress for 3 days, in a specially designed communication box, followed by estimation of levels of monoamines and their metabolites in the hippocampus-amygdala region. In conclusion, VA administration at 0.5 mg/kg can mitigate the physical and psychological stress response by decreasing the turnover of 5-HT to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and NE to 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol sulfate in the hippocampus and amygdala. PMID:26177123

  20. 19 CFR 206.66 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.66 Section 206.66 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. In an investigation...

  1. 19 CFR 206.37 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.37 Section 206.37 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... business information under administrative protective order. Except in the case of an investigation...

  2. 19 CFR 206.66 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.66 Section 206.66 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. In an investigation...

  3. 19 CFR 206.66 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.66 Section 206.66 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. In an investigation...

  4. 19 CFR 206.37 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.37 Section 206.37 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... business information under administrative protective order. Except in the case of an investigation...

  5. Pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside Rg1 in rat medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and lateral ventricle after subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wei; Liu, Yang; Qi, Wen-Yuan; Gao, Yan; Li, Min; Shi, Ai-Xin; Li, Ke-Xin

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate pharmacokinetics of Rg1 in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus (HIP), and lateral ventricle (LV) after subcutaneous injection. For the first time, intracerebral pharmacokinetics of Rg1 was studied in freely moving rats by microdialysis technique. Rg1 concentrations in dialysates were detected by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and were revised using in vivo probe-recovery in HIP and LV. The pharmacokinetic parameters were then determined using non-compartmental models. Since the in vivo recoveries remained stable in HIP and LV during 9 h dialysis, average recoveries were used to revise dialysate concentrations. After dosing, Rg1 was soon detected in brain extracellular fluid (bECF) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The elimination of Rg1 was significantly slower in mPFC than in HIP and LV, and significantly greater AUC was obtained in mPFC than in HIP. Rg1 kinetics in bECF and CSF indicate that Rg1 can go across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), and then immediately distribute to learning and memory-related regions in brain, which may lead to rapid pharmacological onset. There may be active transport and target-mediated disposition of Rg1 in the CNS, which need to be further clarified. PMID:27324597

  6. Effects of neuregulin-1 administration on neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus, and characterization of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Ian; MacIsaac, Angus; Kim, John Junghan; Qiang, Calvin; Davoli, Maria Antonietta; Turecki, Gustavo; Mechawar, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with learning and affective behavioural regulation. Its diverse functionality is segregated along the septotemporal axis from the dorsal to ventral hippocampus. However, features distinguishing immature neurons in these regions have yet to be characterized. Additionally, although we have shown that administration of the neurotrophic factor neuregulin-1 (NRG1) selectively increases proliferation and overall neurogenesis in the mouse ventral dentate gyrus (DG), likely through ErbB3, NRG1's effects on intermediate neurogenic stages in immature neurons are unknown. We examined whether NRG1 administration increases DG ErbB3 phosphorylation. We labeled adultborn cells using BrdU, then administered NRG1 to examine in vivo neurogenic effects on immature neurons with respect to cell survival, morphology, and synaptogenesis. We also characterized features of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis. We found that neurogenic effects of NRG1 are temporally and subregionally specific to proliferation in the ventral DG. Particular morphological features differentiate immature neurons in the dorsal and ventral DG, and cytogenesis differed between these regions. Finally, we identified synaptic heterogeneity surrounding the granule cell layer. These results indicate neurogenic involvement of NRG1-induced antidepressant-like behaviour is particularly associated with increased ventral DG cell proliferation, and identify novel distinctions between dorsal and ventral hippocampal neurogenic development. PMID:27469430

  7. Effects of neuregulin-1 administration on neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus, and characterization of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis

    PubMed Central

    Mahar, Ian; MacIsaac, Angus; Kim, John Junghan; Qiang, Calvin; Davoli, Maria Antonietta; Turecki, Gustavo; Mechawar, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with learning and affective behavioural regulation. Its diverse functionality is segregated along the septotemporal axis from the dorsal to ventral hippocampus. However, features distinguishing immature neurons in these regions have yet to be characterized. Additionally, although we have shown that administration of the neurotrophic factor neuregulin-1 (NRG1) selectively increases proliferation and overall neurogenesis in the mouse ventral dentate gyrus (DG), likely through ErbB3, NRG1’s effects on intermediate neurogenic stages in immature neurons are unknown. We examined whether NRG1 administration increases DG ErbB3 phosphorylation. We labeled adultborn cells using BrdU, then administered NRG1 to examine in vivo neurogenic effects on immature neurons with respect to cell survival, morphology, and synaptogenesis. We also characterized features of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis. We found that neurogenic effects of NRG1 are temporally and subregionally specific to proliferation in the ventral DG. Particular morphological features differentiate immature neurons in the dorsal and ventral DG, and cytogenesis differed between these regions. Finally, we identified synaptic heterogeneity surrounding the granule cell layer. These results indicate neurogenic involvement of NRG1-induced antidepressant-like behaviour is particularly associated with increased ventral DG cell proliferation, and identify novel distinctions between dorsal and ventral hippocampal neurogenic development. PMID:27469430

  8. SYSTEMIC ADMINISTRATION OF KAINIC ACID INCREASES GABA LEVELS IN PERFUSATE FROM THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ventral hippocampi of male, Fischer-344 rats were implanted with microdialysis probes and the effects of systemically administered kainic acid (KA) (8 mg/kg, s.c.) on the in vivo release of amino acids were measured for four hours after administration. n order to measure GABA...

  9. Neuroprotective effect of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wangxin; Zhang, Quiling; Deng, Wen; Li, Yalu; Xing, Guoqing; Shi, Xinjun; Du, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to have both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and noticeably decreases both the infarct area and neuronal apoptosis of the ischemic cortex. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum (by intragastric administration) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Our results showed that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum for 3 and 7 days reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, diminished the content of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus and serum, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in the hippocampus, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus and serum. These results suggest that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum was protective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:25317156

  10. Pre- and Posttreatment With Edaravone Protects CA1 Hippocampus and Enhances Neurogenesis in the Subgranular Zone of Dentate Gyrus After Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shan; Li, Weisong; Gao, Ming; He, Xijing; Zheng, Juan; Li, Xu; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Junfeng; Qi, Cunfang; Lu, Haixia; Chen, Xinlin; Liu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone is clinically used for treatment of patients with acute cerebral infarction. However, the effect of double application of edaravone on neurogenesis in the hippocampus following ischemia remains unknown. In the present study, we explored whether pre- and posttreatment of edaravone had any effect on neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the subgranular zone of hippocampus in a rat model of transient global cerebral ischemia and elucidated the potential mechanism of its effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated (n = 15), control (n = 15), and edaravone-treated (n = 15) groups. Newly generated cells were labeled by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect neurogenesis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling was used to detect cell apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by 2,7-dichlorofluorescien diacetate assay in NSPCs in vitro. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and cleaved caspase-3 proteins were quantified by western blot analysis. Treatment with edaravone significantly increased the number of NSPCs and newly generated neurons in the subgranular zone (p < .05). Treatment with edaravone also decreased apoptosis of NSPCs (p < .01). Furthermore, treatment with edaravone significantly decreased ROS generation and inhibited HIF-1α and cleaved caspase-3 protein expressions. These findings indicate that pre- and posttreatment with edaravone enhances neurogenesis by protecting NSPCs from apoptosis in the hippocampus, which is probably mediated by decreasing ROS generation and inhibiting protein expressions of HIF-1α and cleaved caspase-3 after cerebral ischemia. PMID:25388889

  11. 28 CFR 541.27 - Protection case-placement in Administrative Detention status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection case-placement in Administrative Detention status. 541.27 Section 541.27 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Special Housing Units § 541.27 Protection case—placement...

  12. 19 CFR 351.103 - Central Records Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Order and Dockets Unit. 351.103 Section 351.103 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... Unit and Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit. (a) Enforcement and Compliance's Central... (see § 351.104). (b) Enforcement and Compliance's Administrative Protective Order and Dockets Unit...

  13. Effects of systemic administration of the essential oil of bergamot (BEO) on gross behaviour and EEG power spectra recorded from the rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Rombolà, Laura; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Tassorelli, Cristina; Sakurada, Shinobu; Bagetta, G; Morrone, Luigi Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) is a citrus fruit growing almost exclusively in the South of Italy. Its essential oil is obtained by cold pressing of the epicarp and, partly, of the mesocarp of the fresh fruit. Although this phytocomplex has been used for centuries, reputedly effectively, as a traditional medicine, there is very little verified scientific evidence to support this use. This paper reports original data on the systemic effects of the essential oil of bergamot (BEO) on gross behaviour and EEG activity recorded from the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of the rat. The Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) was used to analyse and quantify the energy in single frequency bands of the EEG spectrum. The results obtained indicate that systemic administration of increasing volumes of BEO produces dose-dependent increases in locomotor and exploratory activity that correlate with a predominant increase in the energy in the faster frequency bands of the EEG spectrum. These data contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological profile of BEO. PMID:19775539

  14. Estradiol and Progesterone Administration After pMCAO Stimulates the Neurological Recovery and Reduces the Detrimental Effect of Ischemia Mainly in Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Perez-Alvarez, Maria Jose; Mateos, Laura; Alonso, Alvaro; Wandosell, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested a differential response, males versus female, in stroke incidence and prognosis. These divergences in brain response after damage are based mostly on hormonal differences. To date, estradiol and progesterone administered independently have demonstrated neuroprotection after ischemia in animal models. Nonetheless, contradictory results were revealed using a combined administration. In order to evaluate the effects of combinatorial treatment administered after ischemia induction, we used two different approaches: in vivo and in vitro models. Male rats which underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion were treated with a combination of estradiol/progesterone at 6, 24 and 48 h after injury and sacrificed at 54 h post-ischemia. The rat brains were evaluated for reactive gliosis, NeuN-positive neurons, levels of synapse-associated proteins and activity levels of PI3K/Akt/GSK3/β-catenin survival pathway. Also, primary cortical neurons were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation for 17 h and returned to a normal environment in the presence of estradiol or estradiol/progesterone. Cell viability was evaluated, and activity levels of the PI3K/Akt/GSK3/β-catenin pathway. Our results indicate that some beneficial effects of estradiol were abolished in the presence of progesterone, particularly in the cerebral cortex (core). However, the combinatorial treatment showed positive effects in the hippocampus. PMID:25377795

  15. Chronic cerebrolysin administration attenuates neuronal abnormalities in the basolateral amygdala induced by neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Roque, Rubén Antonio; Ubhi, Kiren; Masliah, Eliezer; Flores, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) has emerged as a model of schizophrenia-related behavior in the rat. Our previous report demonstrated that cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neuropeptide preparation which mimics the action of endogenous neurotrophic factors on brain protection and repair, promoted recovery of dendritic and neuronal damage of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens and behavioral improvements in postpubertal nVHL rats. We recently demonstrated that nVHL animals exhibit dendritic atrophy and spine loss in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). This study aimed to determine whether Cbl treatment was capable of reducing BLA neuronal alterations observed in nVHL rats. The morphological evaluation included examination of dendrites using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in BLA. Golgi-Cox staining revealed that nVHL induced dendritic retraction and spine loss in BLA pyramidal neurons. Stereological analysis demonstrated nVHL also produced a reduction in cells in BLA. Interestingly, repeated Cbl treatment ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the BLA of the nVHL rats. Our data show that Cbl may foster recovery of BLA damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that the use of neurotrophic agents for the management of some schizophrenia-related symptoms may present an alternative therapeutic pathway in these disorders. PMID:24123373

  16. Early Administration of Carvedilol Protected against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Lung; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chai, Han-Tan; Chen, Chih-Hung; Liu, Chu-Feng; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tien-Hung; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chua, Sarah; Lu, Hung-I; Lee, Fan-Yen; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2015-12-01

    This study tested for the benefits of early administration of carvedilol as protection against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy. Thirty male, adult B6 mice were categorized into group 1 (untreated control), group 2 [DOX treatment (15 mg/every other day for 2 weeks, i.p.], and group 3 [carvedilol (15 mg/kg/d, from day 7 after DOX treatment for 28 days)], and euthanized by day 35 after DOX treatment. By day 35, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly lower in group 2 than in groups 1 and 3, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 1, whereas the left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic and LV end-systolic dimensions showed an opposite pattern to the LVEF among the three groups. The protein expressions of fibrotic (Smad3, TGF-β), apoptotic (BAX, cleaved caspase 3, PARP), DNA damage (γ-H2AX), oxidative stress (oxidized protein), mitochondrial damage (cytosolic cytochrome-C), heart failure (brain natriuretic peptide), and hypertrophic (β-MHC) biomarkers of the LV myocardium showed an opposite pattern to the LVEF among the three groups. The protein expressions of antifibrotic (BMP-2, Smad1/5), α-MHC, and phosphorylated-Akt showed an identical pattern to the LVEF among the three groups. The microscopic findings of fibrotic and collagen-deposition areas and the numbers of γ-H2AX(+) and 53BP1(+) cells in the LV myocardium exhibited an opposite pattern, whereas the numbers of endothelial cell (CD31(+), vWF(+)) markers showed an identical pattern to the LVEF among the three groups. Cardiac stem cell markers (C-kit(+) and Sca-1(+) cells) were significantly and progressively increased from group 1 to group 3. Additionally, the in vitro study showed carvedilol treatment significantly inhibited DOX-induced cardiomyoblast DNA (CD90/XRCC1(+), CD90/53BP1(+), and r-H2AX(+) cells) damage. Early carvedilol therapy protected against DOX-induced DNA damage and cardiomyopathy. PMID:26511374

  17. Levels of Neural Progenitors in the Hippocampus Predict Memory Impairment and Relapse to Drug Seeking as a Function of Excessive Methamphetamine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Recinto, Patrick; Samant, Anjali Rose H; Chavez, Gustavo; Kim, Airee; Yuan, Clara J; Soleiman, Matthew; Grant, Yanabel; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended

  18. 19 CFR 206.47 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.47 Section 206.47 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... information under administrative protective order. In an investigation under section 421(b) or (o) of...

  19. 19 CFR 206.47 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.47 Section 206.47 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... information under administrative protective order. In an investigation under section 421(b) or (o) of...

  20. 19 CFR 206.47 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.47 Section 206.47 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL... information under administrative protective order. In an investigation under section 421(b) or (o) of...

  1. Protective effect of L-Theanine against aluminium induced neurotoxicity in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of rat brain - histopathological, and biochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Shobana, Chandrasekar; Thangarajeswari, Mohan; Usha, Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    L-Theanine is an amino acid derivative primarily found in tea. It has been reported to promote relaxation and have neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress and the status of antioxidant system in the management of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced brain toxicity in various rat brain regions and further to elucidate the potential role of L-Theanine in alleviating such negative effects. Aluminium administration significantly decreased the level of reduced glutathione and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase and increased the level of lipid peroxidation and the activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in all the brain regions when compared with control rats. Pre-treatment with L-Theanine at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. significantly increased the antioxidant status and activities of membrane bound enzymes and also decreased the level of LPO and the activities of marker enzymes, when compared with aluminium induced rats. Aluminium induction also caused histopathological changes in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of rat brain which was reverted by pretreatment with L-Theanine. The present study clearly indicates the potential of L-Theanine in counteracting the damage inflicted by aluminium on rat brain regions. PMID:24654859

  2. Intracerebral Administration of BDNF Protects Rat Brain Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Ouabain in an Animal Model of Mania.

    PubMed

    Valvassori, Samira S; Arent, Camila O; Steckert, Amanda V; Varela, Roger B; Jornada, Luciano K; Tonin, Paula T; Budni, Josiane; Mariot, Edemilson; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and increased oxidative stress have a central role in bipolar disorder (BD). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ouabain (OUA) in rats alters oxidative stress parameters and decreases BDNF levels in the brain. In this context, the present study aims to investigate the effects of BDNF ICV administration on BDNF levels and oxidative stress parameters in brains of rats submitted to animal model of mania induced by OUA. Wistar rats received an ICV injection of OUA, artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), OUA plus BDNF, or ACSF plus BDNF. Locomotor activity and risk-taking behavior in the rats were measured using the open-field test. In addition, we analyzed the BDNF levels and oxidative stress parameters (TBARS, Carbonyl, CAT, SOD, GR, and GPx) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. The BDNF was unable to reverse the ouabain-induced hyperactivity and risk-taking behavior. Nevertheless, BDNF treatment increased BDNF levels, modulated the antioxidant enzymes, and protected the OUA-induced oxidative damage in the brain of rats. These results suggest that BDNF alteration observed in BD patients may be associated with oxidative damage, both seen in this disorder. PMID:25164569

  3. Neurodegeneration and inflammation in hippocampus in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced in rats by one--time administration of encephalitogenic T cells.

    PubMed

    Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, I; Swiątkiewicz, M; Zaremba, M; Cudna, A; Piechal, A; Pyrzanowska, J; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, E; Członkowska, A

    2013-09-17

    Cognitive dysfunction is relatively frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS) and it happens from the early stages of the disease. There is increasing evidence that the grey matter may be involved in autoimmune inflammation during relapses of MS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a single transfer of encephalitogenic T cells, mimicking a relapse of MS, may cause hippocampal damage and memory disturbances in rats. Lewis rats were injected with anti-MBP CD4+ T cells, that induced one-phase autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with full recovery from motor impairments at 10-15 days. The spatial learning and memory were tested by the Morris water maze test in control and EAE animals, 30 and 90 days post-induction (dpi). The neural injury and inflammation was investigated in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry and quantitative analyses. There was a marked decrease in the number of CA1 and CA4 pyramidal neurons 5 dpi. The loss of neurons then aggravated till the 90 dpi. An increase in microglial and astroglial activation and in pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression in the hippocampus, were present 30 and 90 dpi. Nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels were also significantly elevated. The water maze test, however, did not reveal memory deficits. The present data indicate that a single transfer of autoimmune T cells results in preserved inflammation and probable on-going neuronal injury in the hippocampus, long after recovery from motor disturbances. These findings suggest that any relapse of the MS may start the neurodegenerative process in the hippocampus, which is not necessarily connected with memory deficits. PMID:23806721

  4. NAP (davunetide) protects primary hippocampus culture by modulating expression profile of antioxidant genes during limiting oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Arya, A; Meena, R; Sethy, N K; Das, M; Sharma, M; Bhargava, K

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxia is a well-known threat to neuronal cells and triggers the pathophysiological syndromes in extreme environments such as high altitudes and traumatic conditions such as stroke. Among several prophylactic molecules proven suitable for ameliorating free radical damage, NAP (an octapeptide with initial amino acids: asparagine/N, alanine/A, and proline/P) can be considered superlative, primarily due to its high permeability into brain through blood-brain barrier and observed activity at femtomolar concentrations. Several mechanisms of action of NAP have been hypothesized for its protective role during hypoxia, yet any distinct mechanism is unknown. Oxidative stress is advocated as the leading event in hypoxia; we, therefore, investigated the regulation of key antioxidant genes to understand the regulatory role of NAP in providing neuroprotection. Primary neuronal culture of rat was subjected to cellular hypoxia by limiting the oxygen concentration to 0.5% for 72 h and observing the prophylactic efficacies of 15fM NAP by conventional cell death assays using flow cytometry. We performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to comprehend the regulatory mechanism. Further, we validated the significantly regulated candidates by enzyme assays and immunoblotting. In the present study, we report that NAP regulates a major clad of cellular antioxidants and there is an involvement of more than one route of action in neuroprotection during hypoxia. PMID:25727410

  5. 36 CFR 213.3 - Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., administration, and exercise of reservations. 213.3 Section 213.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... TENANT ACT BY THE FOREST SERVICE § 213.3 Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of... the rules and regulations to govern the exercise of reservations in conveyances to the United...

  6. 36 CFR 213.3 - Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., administration, and exercise of reservations. 213.3 Section 213.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... TENANT ACT BY THE FOREST SERVICE § 213.3 Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of... the rules and regulations to govern the exercise of reservations in conveyances to the United...

  7. 36 CFR 213.3 - Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., administration, and exercise of reservations. 213.3 Section 213.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... TENANT ACT BY THE FOREST SERVICE § 213.3 Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of... the rules and regulations to govern the exercise of reservations in conveyances to the United...

  8. 36 CFR 213.3 - Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., administration, and exercise of reservations. 213.3 Section 213.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... TENANT ACT BY THE FOREST SERVICE § 213.3 Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of... the rules and regulations to govern the exercise of reservations in conveyances to the United...

  9. 36 CFR 213.3 - Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., administration, and exercise of reservations. 213.3 Section 213.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... TENANT ACT BY THE FOREST SERVICE § 213.3 Protection, occupancy, use, administration, and exercise of... the rules and regulations to govern the exercise of reservations in conveyances to the United...

  10. Protective effects of chronic treatment with a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba L. in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcelo L; Moreira, Luciana M; Arçari, Demetrius P; Dos Santos, Letícia França; Marques, Antônio Cezar; Pedrazzoli, José; Cerutti, Suzete M

    2016-10-15

    This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba L. (EGb) on short-term and long-term memory as well as on anxiety-like and locomotor activity using the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT). Additionally, we evaluated the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of EGb on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) of middle-aged rats using the comet assay. Twelve-month-old male Wistar rats were administered vehicle or EGb (0.5mgkg(-1) or 1.0gkg(-1)) for 30days. Behavioural data showed that EGb treatment improved short-term memory. Neither an anti-anxiety effect nor a change in locomotor activity was observed. Twenty-four hours after the behavioural tests, the rats were decapitated, and the PFC and DH were quickly dissected out and prepared for the comet assay. The levels of DNA damage in the PFC were significantly lower in rats that were treated with 1.0gkg(-1) EGb. Both doses of EGb decreased H2O2-induced DNA breakage in cortical cells, whereas the levels of DNA damage in the EGb-treated animals were significantly lower than those in the control animals. No significant differences in the level of DNA damage in hippocampal cells were observed among the experimental groups. EGb treatment was not able to reduce H2O2-induced DNA damage in hippocampal cells. Altogether, our data provide the first demonstration that chronic EGb treatment improved the short-term memory of middle-aged rats, an effect that could be associated with a reduction in free radical production in the PFC. These data suggest that EGb treatment might increase the survival of cortical neurons and corroborate and extend the view that EGb has protective and therapeutic properties. PMID:27424157

  11. In vivo administration of interleukin-2 protects susceptible mice from Theiler's virus persistence.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson-Sciard, E L; Dethlefs, S; Brahic, M

    1997-01-01

    In vivo administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-secreting tumor cells results in complete protection against persistent infection by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in susceptible DBA/2 mice. The IL-2-mediated protection was found to depend on the inoculum size as well as the timing of IL-2 administration. IL-2-treated and TMEV-infected mice displayed a three- to fourfold relative increase in virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) precursors. Thus, we postulate that the persistence of TMEV infection in susceptible mice reflects limited numbers of relevant CTL precursors and their time course of induction and activation. PMID:8985419

  12. 19 CFR 206.47 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.47 Section 206.47 Customs Duties UNITED... Investigations for Relief From Market Disruption § 206.47 Limited disclosure of certain confidential...

  13. 19 CFR 206.66 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.66 Section 206.66 Customs Duties UNITED... Investigations For Action in Response to Trade Diversion; Reviews of Action Taken § 206.66 Limited disclosure...

  14. 19 CFR 206.37 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.37 Section 206.37 Customs Duties UNITED... Investigations Relating to Bilateral Safeguard Actions § 206.37 Limited disclosure of certain...

  15. 19 CFR 206.17 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.17 Section 206.17 Customs Duties UNITED... Investigations Relating to Global Safeguard Actions § 206.17 Limited disclosure of certain confidential business... confidential business information properly disclosed pursuant to this section for the purpose of...

  16. 19 CFR 206.17 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.17 Section 206.17 Customs Duties UNITED... Investigations Relating to Global Safeguard Actions § 206.17 Limited disclosure of certain confidential business... confidential business information properly disclosed pursuant to this section for the purpose of...

  17. 19 CFR 206.17 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.17 Section 206.17 Customs Duties UNITED... Investigations Relating to Global Safeguard Actions § 206.17 Limited disclosure of certain confidential business... confidential business information properly disclosed pursuant to this section for the purpose of...

  18. 19 CFR 206.17 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.17 Section 206.17 Customs Duties UNITED... Investigations Relating to Global Safeguard Actions § 206.17 Limited disclosure of certain confidential business... confidential business information properly disclosed pursuant to this section for the purpose of...

  19. 19 CFR 206.17 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... business information under administrative protective order. 206.17 Section 206.17 Customs Duties UNITED... Investigations Relating to Global Safeguard Actions § 206.17 Limited disclosure of certain confidential business... confidential business information properly disclosed pursuant to this section for the purpose of...

  20. 19 CFR 206.66 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.66 Section 206.66 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO...

  1. 19 CFR 206.47 - Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited disclosure of certain confidential business information under administrative protective order. 206.47 Section 206.47 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO...

  2. Cross-Generational trans Fat Consumption Favors Self-Administration of Amphetamine and Changes Molecular Expressions of BDNF, DAT, and D1/D2 Receptors in the Cortex and Hippocampus of Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Fábio Teixeira; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Roversi, Karine; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; de Freitas, Daniele Leão; Pase, Camila Simonetti; Roversi, Katiane; Veit, Juliana Cristina; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise Escobar

    2015-11-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) is an addictive psychostimulant drug whose use has been related to neurotoxicity. Experimentally, AMPH increases anxiety-like symptoms, showing addictive properties. In the last decades, the growing consumption of processed foods has provided an excess of saturated and trans fats in detriment of essential fatty acids, which may modify the lipid profile of brain membranes, thus modifying its permeability and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Here, we assessed the influence of brain incorporation of different fatty acids (FA) on AMPH self-administration. Three groups of young male rats were orally supplemented from weaning with a mixture of soybean oil (SO, rich in n-6 FA) and fish oil (FO, rich in n-3 FA), hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in trans fatty acids--TFA), or water (control group). These animals were born from dams that were supplemented with the same fat from pregnancy to lactation. Anxiety-like symptoms and locomotor index were assessed in elevated plus maze and open-field (OF), respectively, while brain molecular expressions of dopaminergic receptors, dopamine transporter (DAT), and BDNF were determined in the cortex and hippocampus. HVF increased the frequency of AMPH self-administration and was associated with reinforcement and withdrawal signs as observed by increased anxiety-like symptoms. Contrarily, SO/FO decreased these parameters. Increased BDNF protein together with decreased DAT expression was observed in the hippocampus of HVF group. Based on these findings, our study points to a harmful influence of trans fats on drug addiction and craving symptoms, whose mechanism may be related to changes in the dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:26188494

  3. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats. PMID:27069534

  4. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats. PMID:27069534

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Protects against Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hippocampus by Upregulation of BDNF-TrkB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yan; Tan, Hui-Ying; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Ping; Gu, Hong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induces hippocampal oxidative stress. H2S functions as a neuroprotectant against oxidative stress in brain. We have previously shown the upregulatory effect of H2S on BDNF protein expression in the hippocampus of rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that H2S prevents CUMS-generated oxidative stress by upregulation of BDNF-TrkB pathway. We showed that NaHS (0.03 or 0.1 mmol/kg/day) ameliorates the level of hippocampal oxidative stress, including reduced levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4-HNE), as well as increased level of glutathione (GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus of CUMS-treated rats. We also found that H2S upregulated the level of BDNF and p-TrkB protein in the hippocampus of CUMS rats. Furthermore, inhibition of BDNF signaling by K252a, an inhibitor of the BDNF receptor TrkB, blocked the antioxidant effects of H2S on CUMS-induced hippocampal oxidative stress. These results reveal the inhibitory role of H2S in CUMS-induced hippocampal oxidative stress, which is through upregulation of BDNF/TrkB pathway. PMID:27525050

  6. Administration of a synthetic TLR4 agonist protects mice from pneumonic tularemia.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Annalisa; Pelletier, Mark; Iyer, Ravi; Timko, Michele; Dudda, Jan C; West, T Eoin; Wilson, Christopher B; Hajjar, Adeline M; Skerrett, Shawn J

    2008-06-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that causes the zoonosis tularemia. Because F. tularensis LPS causes weak TLR4 activation, we hypothesized that administration of a synthetic TLR4 agonist, aminoalkyl glucosaminide phosphate (AGP), would boost the innate immune system and compensate for reduced TLR4 stimulation. Intranasal administration of AGPs induced intrapulmonary production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Mice treated with AGPs before and after inhalation of Francisella novicida exhibited augmented cytokine and inflammatory responses to infection; reduced bacterial replication in lung, liver, and spleen; and increased survival, whereas all PBS-treated control mice died within 4 days of infection, all AGP-treated mice showed prolonged time-to-death, and 30-60% of AGP-treated mice survived. The protective effect of AGP was lost in mice lacking IFN-gamma. Long-term survivors developed specific Th1 splenocyte responses and specific Abs dominated by IgG2 isotypes. Survivors were fully protected from rechallenge with aerosolized F. novicida. Thus, preventive administration of AGP successfully modulated innate immune responses to aerosolized F. novicida, leading to protective immunity to pneumonic tularemia. This is the first report of the protective effect of a TLR ligand on resistance to F. novicida-induced pneumonic tularemia. PMID:18490759

  7. Neurotransmission in the hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Frotscher, D. ); Kugler, P. ); Misgled, U. ); Zilles, K. (Anatomisches Institut der Universitat Koln, Joseph-Stelzmann-S

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: introduction; neuronal elements in the hippocampus and their synaptic connections; Membrane properties and postsynaptic responses of hippocampal neurons; The enzyme histochemistry of neurotransmitter metabolism; and Receptor autoradiography in the hippocampus of man and rat.

  8. Social protection in Brazil: universalism and targeting in the FHC and Lula administrations.

    PubMed

    Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the organization of Brazil's social protection system after the Federal Constitution of 1998 (CF 1988). It also demonstrates that 1988 Federal Constitution favored the institutionalization of universalist public policies. This institutionalization took place amidst conflict with the stabilization goals of the Real Plan. The paper argues that such an institutionalization protected public spending in the social area of the macroeconomic management's minimalist project. It also identifies the implementation of social programs targeting the poor during the 1980's decade. Targeting is an innovation directly associated with the adjustment agenda. It reveals that under the FHC and Lula administrations there was an identical adoption of targeted social programs. The targeting of social protection did not possess power of veto over the universalist proposals arising from the democratization in the 1980's. It demonstrates that the Bolsa Família Program (Family Grant Program - PBF), the main mark of the Lula administration, is a large scale adaptation of the targeted programs of direct transfer of income in the FHC administration. The combination of universalism and targeting expanded the scope of social policy. However, the significant growth in social public spending has not been producing broad social results, although the poor in Brazil have benefited from the PBF's targeting. PMID:19547766

  9. Activation of γ-aminobutyric Acid (A) Receptor Protects Hippocampus from Intense Exercise-induced Synapses Damage and Apoptosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Xie, Lan; Chang, Cun-Qing; Chen, Zhi-Min; Ai, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our previous study has confirmed that one bout of exhaustion (Ex) can cause hippocampus neurocyte damage, excessive apoptosis, and dysfunction. Its initial reason is intracellular calcium overload in hippocampus triggered by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) over-activation. NMDAR activation can be suppressed by γ-aminobutyric acid (A) receptor (GABAAR). Whether GABAAR can prevent intense exercise-induced hippocampus apoptosis, damage, or dysfunction will be studied in this study. Methods: According to dose test, rats were randomly divided into control (Con), Ex, muscimol (MUS, 0.1 mg/kg) and bicuculline (BIC, 0.5 mg/kg) groups, then all rats underwent once swimming Ex except ones in Con group only underwent training. Intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured by Fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester; glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and synaptophysin (SYP) immunofluorescence were also performed; apoptosis were displayed by dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) stain; endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis pathway was detected by Western blotting analysis; Morris water maze was used to detect learning ability and spatial memory. Results: The appropriate dose was 0.1 mg/kg for MUS and 0.5 mg/kg for BIC. Ex group showed significantly increased [Ca2+]i and astrogliosis; TUNEL positive cells and levels of GFAP, B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3, caspase-12 cleavage, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and p-Jun amino-terminal kinase (p-JNK) in Ex group also raised significantly compared to Con group, while SYP, synapse plasticity, and Bcl-2 levels in Ex group were significantly lower than those in Con group. These indexes were back to normal in MUS group. BIC group had the highest levels of [Ca2+]i, astrogliosis, TUNEL positive cell, GFAP, Bax, caspase-3, caspase-12 cleavage, CHOP, and p-JNK, it also gained the lowest SYP, synapse plasticity, and Bcl-2 levels among all groups

  10. Neuroprotective effects of lactation against kainic acid treatment in the dorsal hippocampus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Vanoye-Carlo, América; Morales, Teresa; Ramos, Eugenia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Adriana; Cerbón, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Marked hippocampal changes in response to excitatory amino acid agonists occur during pregnancy (e.g. decreased frequency in spontaneous recurrent seizures in rats with KA lesions of the hippocampus) and lactation (e.g. reduced c-Fos expression in response to N-methyl-d,l-aspartic acid but not to kainic acid). In this study, the possibility that lactation protects against the excitotoxic damage induced by KA in hippocampal areas was explored. We compared cell damage induced 24 h after a single systemic administration of KA (5 or 7.5 mg/kg bw) in regions CA1, CA3, and CA4 of the dorsal hippocampus of rats in the final week of lactation to that in diestrus phase. To determine cellular damage in a rostro-caudal segment of the dorsal hippocampus, we used NISSL and Fluorojade staining, immunohistochemistry for active caspase-3 and TUNEL, and we observed that the KA treatment provoked a significant loss of neurons in diestrus rats, principally in the pyramidal cells of CA1 region. In contrast, in lactating rats, pyramidal neurons from CA1, CA3, and CA4 in the dorsal hippocampus were significantly protected against KA-induced neuronal damage, indicating that lactation may be a natural model of neuroprotection. PMID:17963758

  11. Abstinence from cocaine-self-administration activates the nELAV/GAP -43 pathway in the hippocampus: A stress-related effect?

    PubMed

    Pascale, Alessia; Osera, Cecilia; Moro, Federico; Di Clemente, Angelo; Giannotti, Giuseppe; Caffino, Lucia; Govoni, Stefano; Fumagalli, Fabio; Cervo, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that nELAV/GAP-43 pathway is pivotal for learning and its hippocampal expression is up-regulated by acute stress following repeated cocaine administration. We therefore hypothesized that abstinence-induced stress may sustain nELAV/GAP-43 pathway during early abstinence following 2 weeks of cocaine self-administration. We found that contingent, but not non-contingent, cocaine exposure selectively increases hippocampal nELAV, but not GAP-43, expression immediately after the last self-administration session, an effect that wanes after 24 h and that comes back 7 days later when nELAV activation becomes associated with increased expression of GAP-43, an effect again observed only in animals self-administering the psychostimulant. Such effect is specific for nELAV since the ubiquitous ELAV/HuR is unchanged. This nELAV profile suggests that its initial transient alteration is perhaps related to the daily administration of cocaine, while the increase in the nELAV/GAP-43 pathway following a week of abstinence may reflect the activation of this cascade as a target of stressful conditions associated with drug-related memories. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26850084

  12. Intravenous Administration of Lycopene, a Tomato Extract, Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Chao; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Lianlian; Zhang, Li; Yang, Xiaotao; Xu, Ping; Li, Jinjin; Delplancke, Thibaut; Zhang, Hua; Qi, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral uptake of lycopene has been shown to be beneficial for preventing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the strong first-pass metabolism of lycopene influences its bioavailability and impedes its clinic application. In this study, we determined an intravenous (IV) administration dose of lycopene protects against myocardial infarction (MI) in a mouse model, and investigated the effects of acute lycopene administration on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and related signaling pathways during myocardial I/R. Methods: In this study, we established both in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) cell model and in vivo regional myocardial I/R mouse model by ligating left anterior artery descending. TTC dual staining was used to assess I/R induced MI in the absence and presence of acute lycopene administration via tail vein injection. Results: Lycopene treatment (1 μM) before reoxygenation significantly reduced cardiomyocyte death induced by H/R. Intravenous administration of lycopene to achieve 1 μM concentration in circulating blood significantly suppressed MI, ROS production, and JNK phosphorylation in the cardiac tissue of mice during in vivo regional I/R. Conclusion: Elevating circulating lycopene to 1 μM via IV injection protects against myocardial I/R injury through inhibition of ROS accumulation and consequent inflammation in mice. PMID:26950150

  13. Predicted impact of mass drug administration on the development of protective immunity against Schistosoma haematobium.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kate M; Mutapi, Francisca; Mduluza, Takafira; Midzi, Nicholas; Savill, Nicholas J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that protective immunity against Schistosoma haematobium is primarily stimulated by antigens from dying worms. Praziquantel treatment kills adult worms, boosting antigen exposure and protective antibody levels. Current schistosomiasis control efforts use repeated mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel to reduce morbidity, and may also reduce transmission. The long-term impact of MDA upon protective immunity, and subsequent effects on infection dynamics, are not known. A stochastic individual-based model describing levels of S. haematobium worm burden, egg output and protective parasite-specific antibody, which has previously been fitted to cross-sectional and short-term post-treatment egg count and antibody patterns, was used to predict dynamics of measured egg output and antibody during and after a 5-year MDA campaign. Different treatment schedules based on current World Health Organisation recommendations as well as different assumptions about reductions in transmission were investigated. We found that antibody levels were initially boosted by MDA, but declined below pre-intervention levels during or after MDA if protective immunity was short-lived. Following cessation of MDA, our models predicted that measured egg counts could sometimes overshoot pre-intervention levels, even if MDA had had no effect on transmission. With no reduction in transmission, this overshoot occurred if protective immunity was short-lived. This implies that disease burden may temporarily increase following discontinuation of treatment, even in the absence of any reduction in the overall transmission rate. If MDA was additionally assumed to reduce transmission, a larger overshoot was seen across a wide range of parameter combinations, including those with longer-lived protective immunity. MDA may reduce population levels of immunity to urogenital schistosomiasis in the long-term (3-10 years), particularly if transmission is reduced. If MDA is stopped while

  14. Dexamethasone loaded nanoparticles exert protective effects against Cisplatin-induced hearing loss by systemic administration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changling; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Dongye; Lin, Xin; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao

    2016-04-21

    Ototoxicity is one of the most important adverse effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. As a common treatment of acute sensorineural hearing loss, systemic administration of steroids was demonstrated ineffective against cisplatin-induced hearing loss (CIHL) in published studies. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effect of dexamethasone (DEX) encapsulated in polyethyleneglycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) against cisplatin-induced hearing loss following systemic administration. DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using emulsion and evaporation technique as previously reported. DEX or DEX-NPs was administered intraperitoneally to guinea pigs 1h before cisplatin administration. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts were measured at four frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 24kHz) 1 day before and three days after cisplatin injection. Cochlear morphology was examined to evaluate inner ear injury induced by cisplatin exposure. A single dose of DEX-NPs 1h before cisplatin treatment resulted in a significant preservation of the functional and structural properties of the cochlea, which was equivalent to the effect of multidose (3 days) DEX injection. In contrast, no significant protective effect was observed by single dose injection of DEX. The results of histological examination of the cochleae were consistent with the functional measurements. In conclusion, a single dose DEX-NPs significantly attenuated cisplatin ototoxicity in guinea pigs after systemic administration at both histological and functional levels indicating the potential therapeutic benefits of these nanoparticles for enhancing the delivery of DEX in acute sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:26971701

  15. Gene Expression ‏‏‏‏Profiles of BAD and Bcl-xL in the CA1 Region of the Hippocampus Following Global Ischemic/Reperfusion and FK-506 Administration

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Ramak; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Javadi, Gholamreza; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Mahdian, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The hippocampus is a tiny nub in the mammalian brain that is involved in forming, organizing, and storing memories. Global cerebral ischemia (GCI) and reperfusion induced apoptosis lead to cell injury and death. FK-506 is a strong immunosuppressant drug that has neuroprotective effects on the hypoxic-ischemic effects of brain damage. BAD and Bcl-xL are pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively. These genes belong to The B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family. Objectives: In this study, we assessed the neurotrophic properties of FK-506 on expression of the BAD and Bcl-xL genes in the hippocampus following global ischemia and reperfusion. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, adult male Wistar rats were obtained and housed under standard conditions in the Tehran University of Medical Science in Iran. Rats were equally distributed in groups of three among the following groups: normal control, treated-1 (ischemia/reperfusion), and treated-2 (ischemia/reperfusion followed by FK-506). Global ischemia was induced for animals in the treated-1 and treated-2 groups. In treated-2, two doses of FK-506 were injected: one dose as an IV injection immediately after reperfusion and another as an intra-peritoneal (IP) injection after 48 hours. Then, the hippocampus tissue was removed after anaesthetizing the rats. RNA was isolated, cDNA was synthesized, and real-time PCR was performed. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed statistically (P value ˂ 0.05). Results: The quantitative results of real-time PCR show that the mRNA expression ratio of Bcl-xL down-regulated was 0.75 ± 0.06 in the ischemia/reperfusion group versus 1.57 ± 0.09 in the control group (P value < 0.001), whereas Bcl-xL gene expression was greater in the ischemia/reperfusion +FK506 group (1.93 ± 0.15) than in the ischemia/reperfusion group. Moreover, the mRNA expression ratio of BAD up-regulated in the ischemia/reperfusion + FK506 group was 3.65 ± 0.49 compared to Normal

  16. Stress-induced structural remodeling in hippocampus: Prevention by lithium treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Gwendolyn E.; Young, L. Trevor; Reagan, Lawrence P.; Chen, Biao; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2004-03-01

    Chronic restraint stress, psychosocial stress, as well as systemic or oral administration of the stress-hormone corticosterone induces a morphological reorganization in the rat hippocampus, in which adrenal steroids and excitatory amino acids mediate a reversible remodeling of apical dendrites on CA3 pyramidal cell neurons of the hippocampus. This stress-induced neuronal remodeling is accompanied also by behavioral changes, some of which can be prevented with selective antidepressant and anticonvulsive drug treatments. Lithium is an effective treatment for mood disorders and has neuroprotective effects, which may contribute to its therapeutic properties. Thus, we wanted to determine whether lithium treatment could prevent the effects of chronic stress on CA3 pyramidal cell neuroarchitecture and the associated molecular and behavioral measures. Chronic lithium treatment prevented the stress-induced decrease in dendritic length, as well as the stress-induced increase in glial glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) mRNA expression and the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding in the hippocampus. Lithium treatment, however, did not prevent stress effects on behavior in the open field or the plus-maze. These data demonstrate that chronic treatment with lithium can protect the hippocampus from potentially deleterious effects of chronic stress on glutamatergic activation, which may be relevant to its therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.

  17. Curcumin attenuates glutamate neurotoxicity in the hippocampus by suppression of ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a manner dependent on AMPK.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, Jia; Li, Shanshan; Li, Yi; Wang, Xiangxiang; Liu, Baolin; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shiping

    2015-07-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound in Curcuma longa with beneficial effects on neuronal protection. This study aims to investigate the action of curcumin in the hippocampus subjected to glutamate neurotoxicity. Glutamate stimulation induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to damage in the hippocampus. Curcumin treatment in the hippocampus or SH-SY5Y cells inhibited IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation with suppression of intracellular ROS production. Curcumin increased AMPK activity and knockdown of AMPKα with specific siRNA abrogated its inhibitory effects on IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation, indicating that AMPK activity was essential for the suppression of ER stress. As a result, curcumin reduced TXNIP expression and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation by downregulation of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1 induction, and thus reduced IL-1β secretion. Specific fluorescent probe and flow cytometry analysis showed that curcumin prevented mitochondrial malfunction and protected cell survival from glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, oral administration of curcumin reduced brain infarct volume and attenuated neuronal damage in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Immunohistochemistry showed that curcumin inhibited p-IRE1α, p-PERK and NLRP3 expression in hippocampus CA1 region. Together, these results showed that curcumin attenuated glutamate neurotoxicity by inhibiting ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the regulation of AMPK, and thereby protected the hippocampus from ischemic insult. PMID:25791922

  18. Systemic Administration of Proteoglycan Protects BALB/c Retired Breeder Mice from Experimental Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Larissa Lumi Watanabe; Colavite, Priscila Maria; Fraga-Silva, Thais Fernanda de Campos; Mimura, Luiza Ayumi Nishiyama; França, Thais Graziela Donegá; Zorzella-Pezavento, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Marcolino, Larissa Doddi; Marques, Camila; Ikoma, Maura Rosane Valerio; Sartori, Alexandrina

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the prophylactic potential of proteoglycan (PG) administration in experimental arthritis. Female BALB/c retired breeder mice received two (2xPG50 and 2xPG100 groups) or three (3xPG50 group) intraperitoneal doses of bovine PG (50 μg or 100 μg) every three days. A week later the animals were submitted to arthritis induction by immunization with three i.p. doses of bovine PG associated with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide adjuvant at intervals of 21 days. Disease severity was daily assessed after the third dose by score evaluation. The 3xPG50 group showed significant reduction in prevalence and clinical scores. This protective effect was associated with lower production of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increased production of IL-5 and IL-10 by spleen cells restimulated in vitro with PG. Even though previous PG administration restrained dendritic cells maturation this procedure did not alter the frequency of regulatory Foxp3+ T cells. Lower TNF-α and IL-6 levels and higher expression of ROR-γ and GATA-3 were detected in the paws of protected animals. A delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction confirmed specific tolerance induction. Taken together, these results indicate that previous PG inoculation determines a specific tolerogenic effect that is able to decrease severity of subsequently induced arthritis. PMID:27294161

  19. Erythropoietin administration protects retinal neurons from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Junk, Anna K.; Mammis, Antonios; Savitz, Sean I.; Singh, Manjeet; Roth, Steven; Malhotra, Samit; Rosenbaum, Pearl S.; Cerami, Anthony; Brines, Michael; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.

    2002-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) plays an important role in the brain's response to neuronal injury. Systemic administration of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) protects neurons from injury after middle cerebral artery occlusion, traumatic brain injury, neuroinflammation, and excitotoxicity. Protection is in part mediated by antiapoptotic mechanisms. We conducted parallel studies of rhEPO in a model of transient global retinal ischemia induced by raising intraocular pressure, which is a clinically relevant model for retinal diseases. We observed abundant expression of EPO receptor (EPO-R) throughout the ischemic retina. Neutralization of endogenous EPO with soluble EPO-R exacerbated ischemic injury, which supports a crucial role for an endogenous EPO/EPO-R system in the survival and recovery of neurons after an ischemic insult. Systemic administration of rhEPO before or immediately after retinal ischemia not only reduced histopathological damage but also promoted functional recovery as assessed by electroretinography. Exogenous EPO also significantly diminished terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP end labeling labeling of neurons in the ischemic retina, implying an antiapoptotic mechanism of action. These results further establish EPO as a neuroprotective agent in acute neuronal ischemic injury. PMID:12130665

  20. Curcumin attenuates glutamate neurotoxicity in the hippocampus by suppression of ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a manner dependent on AMPK

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying; Li, Jia; Li, Shanshan; Li, Yi; Wang, Xiangxiang; Liu, Baolin; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shiping

    2015-07-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound in Curcuma longa with beneficial effects on neuronal protection. This study aims to investigate the action of curcumin in the hippocampus subjected to glutamate neurotoxicity. Glutamate stimulation induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to damage in the hippocampus. Curcumin treatment in the hippocampus or SH-SY5Y cells inhibited IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation with suppression of intracellular ROS production. Curcumin increased AMPK activity and knockdown of AMPKα with specific siRNA abrogated its inhibitory effects on IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation, indicating that AMPK activity was essential for the suppression of ER stress. As a result, curcumin reduced TXNIP expression and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation by downregulation of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1 induction, and thus reduced IL-1β secretion. Specific fluorescent probe and flow cytometry analysis showed that curcumin prevented mitochondrial malfunction and protected cell survival from glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, oral administration of curcumin reduced brain infarct volume and attenuated neuronal damage in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Immunohistochemistry showed that curcumin inhibited p-IRE1α, p-PERK and NLRP3 expression in hippocampus CA1 region. Together, these results showed that curcumin attenuated glutamate neurotoxicity by inhibiting ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the regulation of AMPK, and thereby protected the hippocampus from ischemic insult. - Highlights: • Curcumin attenuates glutamate neurotoxicity in the hippocampus. • Curcumin suppresses ER stress in glutamate-induced hippocampus slices. • Curcumin inhibits TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation. • Regulation of AMPK by curcumin contributes to suppressing ER stress.

  1. Protective effect of liquiritigenin on depressive-like behavior in mice after lipopolysaccharide administration.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiang; Tao, Weiwei; Huang, Huang; Du, Yan; Chu, Xing; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-30

    Liquiritigenin (Liq), the main active ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine licorice, possesses anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. The current investigation was designed to explore whether liquiritigenin could relieve lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behavior in mice and the underlying mechanism. Liquiritigenin (7.5mg/kg, 15mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) were pretreated intragastrically once daily for 7 consecutive days. LPS (0.5mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to establish the depression model 30min after pretreatment on day 7. Interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in serum and hippocampus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Behavioral assessment was conduct 24h post LPS injection. The expressions of p65NF-κB, IκBα, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in hippocampus were determined by western blot. The obtained results showed that liquiritigenin effectively reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the expressions of p-p65NF-κB and p-IκBα. Furthermore, liquiritigenin preconditioning could down-regulate the immobility time in tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and up-regulate BDNF and TrkB contents in hippocampus. Thus, it is assumed that the antidepressant activity of liquiritigenin might be attributed to its anti-inflammatory property and BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway. PMID:27107388

  2. Administration of S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline protects against brain injuries after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lu, A; Wagner, K R; Broderick, J P; Clark, J F

    2014-06-13

    Although intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) increases the level of glutamate in the perihematomal area and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the ICH acute phase, it is unclear whether elevated glutamate activates neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the ICH brain and whether nNOS is an important target for ICH treatment. Here, we assessed the role of the nNOS inhibitor S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline (SMTC) in the activity of NADPH-d and ICH-induced brain injuries. An autologous blood intracerebral infusion model in male rats was used. All of the rats were sacrificed 24h after ICH. ICH increased NADPH-d activity in the striatum. Administering SMTC 3h after ICH decreased the activity of NADH-d (p<0.05 vs. the ICH group). The activation of gelatinolytic enzymes in the perihematomal region of the striatum was reduced by SMTC treatment (p<0.01, vs. the ICH group). The loss of laminin- and occludin-stained vessels was significant in perihematomal regions after 24h of ICH and was significantly attenuated by the administration of SMTC (p<0.01 for laminin, p<0.05 for occluding, compared with the ICH group). Neuronal death and neurological deficits after ICH were also decreased in SMTC treatment rats (p<0.01, vs. the ICH group). The results suggest that the administration of the nNOS inhibitor SMTC after ICH protects against ICH-induced brain injuries and improves neurological function. PMID:24726981

  3. Metabolomic analysis revealed glycylglycine accumulation in astrocytes after methionine enkephalin administration exhibiting neuron protective effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chungang; Du, Huijie; Xu, Li; Wang, Jiao; Tang, Ling; Cao, Yunfeng; Li, Chen; Wang, Qingjun; Liu, Yang; Shan, Fengping; Feng, Juan; Xu, Fang; Gao, Peng

    2015-11-10

    Owing to its unrevealed etiology, multiple sclerosis lacks specific therapies up to now. Experiential administration of methionine enkephalin (MENK) on mouse model improved disease manifestations to some extent. In order to gain more insight on the significance of MENK application, a capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) technique was employed to profile intracellular metabolite fluctuation in 5 astrocytoma cell lines challenged by MENK. The processed data were first evaluated through a bioinformatic process to ensure their compatibility with the study aims and then subjected to multivariate analysis. The results indicated that MENK administration increased intracellular tyrosine, phenylalanine, methionine and glycylglycine. Exemplified by U87 cells, glycylglycine inhibited cell proliferation as well as MENK but it also decreased cell nitric oxide excretion which could not be evoked by MENK. The neuron protective effects were also mirrored by the increased expression of some genes related to remyelination. This study demonstrated CE-MS to be a promising tool for cell metabolomic analysis and benefited the therapeutic exploring of multiple sclerosis with respect to metabolism intervention. PMID:26163404

  4. Oral Administration of Fermented Soymilk Products Protects the Skin of Hairless Mice against Ultraviolet Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kubota, Norihiro; Masuoka, Norie; Hori, Tetsuji; Miyazaki, Kouji; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu

    2016-01-01

    The protective effect of isoflavones on skin damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their bioavailability were investigated in ovariectomized hairless mice fed diets composed of fermented soymilk containing aglycone forms of isoflavones or control soymilk containing glucose-conjugated forms of isoflavones. The erythema intensity of dorsal skin was significantly higher in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated mice (p < 0.05). The erythema intensity and epidermal thickness of dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control diet group (each p < 0.05). Levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Serum and dorsal skin isoflavone concentrations were significantly higher in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the soymilk diet group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that oral administration of a fermented soymilk diet increases isoflavone concentrations in the blood and skin, effectively scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated by UV irradiation and exerting an estrogen-like activity, with a consequent protective effect on skin photodamage in hairless mice. PMID:27556484

  5. Oral Administration of Fermented Soymilk Products Protects the Skin of Hairless Mice against Ultraviolet Damage.

    PubMed

    Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kubota, Norihiro; Masuoka, Norie; Hori, Tetsuji; Miyazaki, Kouji; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu

    2016-01-01

    The protective effect of isoflavones on skin damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their bioavailability were investigated in ovariectomized hairless mice fed diets composed of fermented soymilk containing aglycone forms of isoflavones or control soymilk containing glucose-conjugated forms of isoflavones. The erythema intensity of dorsal skin was significantly higher in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated mice (p < 0.05). The erythema intensity and epidermal thickness of dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control diet group (each p < 0.05). Levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Serum and dorsal skin isoflavone concentrations were significantly higher in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the soymilk diet group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that oral administration of a fermented soymilk diet increases isoflavone concentrations in the blood and skin, effectively scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated by UV irradiation and exerting an estrogen-like activity, with a consequent protective effect on skin photodamage in hairless mice. PMID:27556484

  6. Cognition Enhancing and Neuromodulatory Propensity of Bacopa monniera Extract Against Scopolamine Induced Cognitive Impairments in Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Pandareesh, M D; Anand, T; Khanum, Farhath

    2016-05-01

    Cognition-enhancing activity of Bacopa monniera extract (BME) was evaluated against scopolamine-induced amnesic rats by novel object recognition test (NOR), elevated plus maze (EPM) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg body wt, i.p.) was used to induce amnesia in rats. Piracetam (200 mg/kg body wt, i.p.) was used as positive control. BME at three different dosages (i.e., 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body wt.) improved the impairment induced by scopolamine by increasing the discrimination index of NOR and by decreasing the transfer latency of EPM and escape latency of MWM tests. Our results further elucidate that BME administration has normalized the neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, glutamate, 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, 3,4 dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, norepinephrine) levels that were altered by scopolamine administration in hippocampus of rat brain. BME administration also ameliorated scopolamine effect by down-regulating AChE and up-regulating BDNF, muscarinic M1 receptor and CREB expression in brain hippocampus confirms the potent neuroprotective role and these results are in corroboration with the earlier in vitro studies. BME administration showed significant protection against scopolamine-induced toxicity by restoring the levels of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation. These results indicate that, cognition-enhancing and neuromodulatory propensity of BME is through modulating the expression of AChE, BDNF, MUS-1, CREB and also by altering the levels of neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rat brain. PMID:26677075

  7. Acute Administration of Natural Honey Protects Isolated Heart in Normothermic Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gharekhani, Afshin; Najafi, Moslem; Ghavimi, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    This study intended to assess the efficacy of acute administration of natural honey on cardiac arrhythmias and infarct size when it is used during the normothermic ischemia in isolated rat heart. During 30 min of regional normothermic ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion, the isolated hearts were perfused by a modified drug free Krebs-Henseleit solution (control) or the solution containing 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1% of freshly prepared natural honey (test groups), respectively. Cardiac arrhythmias were analyzed and determined through the recorded ECGs. The infarct size was measured using computerized planimetry package. At the ischemic phase, honey (0.25 and 0.5%) decreased the number and duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT), total number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs), duration and incidence of reversible ventricular fibrillation (VF) and total VF (p < 0.05 for all). During the reperfusion, concentrations of 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5% lowered the number of VT (p < 0.05), duration of reversible VF (p < 0.01) and total number of VEBs (p < 0.05). In addition, VT duration was reduced significantly with honey 0.125 and 0.25%. Moreover, the infarct size was 45.6 ± 3.4% in the control group, while the perfusion of honey (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5%) reduced it to 14.8 ± 5.1 (p < 0.001), 24.6 ± 7.3 (p < 0.01) and 31.4 ± 7.3% (p < 0.05), respectively. Regarding the results, it is concluded that the acute administration of natural honey in normothermic ischemia conditions can protect the rat heart as the reduction of infarct size and arrhythmias. Conceivably, the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, the reduction of necrotized tissue and the providence of rich energy source are more important mechanisms in cardioprotective effects of natural honey. PMID:24250562

  8. Parenteral administration of attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium ΔznuABC is protective against salmonellosis in piglets.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, J; Pesciaroli, M; Gaetarelli, B; Scaglione, F E; Pregel, P; Ammendola, S; Battistoni, A; Bollo, E; Alborali, G L; Pasquali, P

    2014-07-01

    A major cause of salmonellosis in humans is the contamination of pork products. Infection in pigs can be controlled using bio-security programs, but they are not sufficient in countries where a high level of infection is recorded. In this context, the use of vaccines can represent a valid supplementary method of control. Recently, we have demonstrated that an attenuated strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium ΔznuABC) is protective against systemic and enteric salmonellosis in mouse and pig infection models, candidating this strain as an oral attenuated vaccine. In this study, we compared the efficacy of this attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain when administered orally or parenterally. Furthermore, in order to reproduce a pseudo-natural infection model, vaccinated pigs were allocated in the same pen with animals shedding virulent Salmonella Typhimurium. Animals were monitored weekly after vaccination and contact with infected piglets. Diarrhea and ataxia were recorded and Salmonella shedding was tested individually through bacterial culture. After four weeks of cohousing, piglets were euthanized, after which lymph nodes reactivity and gross lesions of the gut sections were scored at necropsy. Organs were submitted to microbiological and histological analyses. The data reported herein show that parenterally vaccinated animals do not shed the attenuated strain, and at the same time the absence of symptoms and decrease in virulent strain shedding in feces from day 6 after challenge demonstrated protection against infection induced by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium. In conclusion, our findings suggest that this is an alternative route of Salmonella Typhimurium ΔznuABC administration, without ignoring the advantages associated with oral vaccination. PMID:24907486

  9. Protective effect of caffeine administration on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Yong; Xu, Lin; Lin, Guo-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Yan; Jiang, Xue-Jun; Wang, Tao; Lü, Jing-Jun; Zeng, Bin

    2011-09-01

    Many studies have examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, but the results remain controversial. Caffeine is one of the main biologically active compounds of coffee. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of caffeine on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the rats. We administered caffeine (25 mg/kg per day) or saline in rats for 4 weeks before myocardial ischemia/reperfusion operation. Compared with the sham group, caffeine treatment decreased ischemia-associated infarct size, serum creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase 3-h reperfusion after 30-min ischemia. Myocardial neutrophil infiltration (assessed by myeloperoxidase activity) was significantly decreased compared with the control group. Meanwhile, caffeine reduced the myocardial apoptosis and suppressed the activation of caspase 3 during myocardial I/R. Importantly, we observed a strong poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation during myocardial I/R, and caffeine administration inhibited PARP activation and attenuated the expression of PARP-related proinflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthetase, IL-6, and TNF-α, all of which may be correlated with downregulated nuclear factor κB activity. We concluded that caffeine protected against myocardial I/R injury by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:21558980

  10. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Ensure the secure sharing of PCII with appropriate authorities and individuals, as set forth in 6 CFR 29... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protected Critical Infrastructure Information... SECRETARY PROTECTED CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE INFORMATION § 29.4 Protected Critical Infrastructure...

  11. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Ensure the secure sharing of PCII with appropriate authorities and individuals, as set forth in 6 CFR 29... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protected Critical Infrastructure Information... SECRETARY PROTECTED CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE INFORMATION § 29.4 Protected Critical Infrastructure...

  12. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Ensure the secure sharing of PCII with appropriate authorities and individuals, as set forth in 6 CFR 29... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protected Critical Infrastructure Information... SECRETARY PROTECTED CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE INFORMATION § 29.4 Protected Critical Infrastructure...

  13. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Ensure the secure sharing of PCII with appropriate authorities and individuals, as set forth in 6 CFR 29... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protected Critical Infrastructure Information... SECRETARY PROTECTED CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE INFORMATION § 29.4 Protected Critical Infrastructure...

  14. 6 CFR 29.4 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information Program administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Ensure the secure sharing of PCII with appropriate authorities and individuals, as set forth in 6 CFR 29... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protected Critical Infrastructure Information... SECRETARY PROTECTED CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE INFORMATION § 29.4 Protected Critical Infrastructure...

  15. The rat brain hippocampus proteome.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Michael; Tsangaris, George T; Maris, Antony; Lubec, Gert

    2005-05-01

    The hippocampus is crucial in memory storage and retrieval and plays an important role in stress response. In humans, the CA1 area of hippocampus is one of the first brain areas to display pathology in Alzheimer's disease. A comprehensive analysis of the hippocampus proteome has not been accomplished yet. We applied proteomics technologies to construct a two-dimensional database for rat brain hippocampus proteins. Hippocampus samples from eight months old animals were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The database comprises 148 different gene products, which are in the majority enzymes, structural proteins and heat shock proteins. It also includes 39 neuron specific gene products. The database may be useful in animal model studies of neurological disorders. PMID:15797529

  16. Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection.

    PubMed

    Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2013-12-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1 : 100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFcε-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFcε-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the

  17. Mithramycin protects against dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the mouse brain after administration of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Hiroko; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2009-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of mithramycin, an inhibitor of transcription factor Specificity protein (Sp)-1, on the behavioral changes and dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the mouse striatum after administration of methamphetamine (METH). Pretreatment with mithramycin (75, 150 or 300 microg/kg) did not alter acute hyperlocomotion in mice after a single administration of METH (3 mg/kg). However, the development of behavioral sensitization in mice after repeated administration of METH (3 mg/kg/day, once daily for 5 days) was significantly blocked by pretreatment with mithramycin (300 microg/kg). Furthermore, pretreatment with mithramycin (300 microg/kg) significantly attenuated the hyperthermia in mice after repeated administration of METH (3 mg/kgx3, 3-h intervals). Moreover, the combination of pretreatment and subsequent administration of mithramycin (75, 150 or 300 microg/kg) significantly attenuated the reductions of dopamine (DA), its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and DA transporter (DAT) in the striatum after repeated administration of METH (3 mg/kgx3, 3-h intervals), and these attenuations were dose dependent. These findings suggest that mithramycin attenuates the development of behavioral sensitization and dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice after repeated administration of METH. Therefore, mithramycin could have potential for the treatment of METH abusers, particularly since this drug has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States. In the future, however, another Sp1 inhibitors with fewer side effects might be more appropriate. PMID:19748494

  18. Protection against SHIV Challenge by Subcutaneous Administration of the Plant-Derived PGT121 Broadly Neutralizing Antibody in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Yvonne J.; Montefiori, David C.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Lewis, Mark G.; Sack, Markus; Lees, Jonathan P.; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular delivery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) has shown promise for prevention and treatment of HIV infection. However, multiple IV administrations in geographic locations with poor accessibility to medical care have practical limitations. We have assessed the efficacy of plant-derived PGT121 delivered subcutaneously (SC) against pre-and post-intravaginal challenge using a rigorous SHIV-SF162P3 macaque protection model. SC administered PGT121 exhibited a longer serum half-life than IV administration and was more consistent than intramuscular delivery. A dose of 3.5mg/kg PGT121 prevented infection at a minimum ID50 neutralization titer of 1:295 while 5mg/kg protected five of six macaques when delivered immediately post-challenge. These results suggest the utility of plant-derived bnAbs delivered SC for HIV prevention. PMID:27031108

  19. Protection against cognitive deficits and markers of neurodegeneration by long-term oral administration of melatonin in a transgenic model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Olcese, James M; Cao, Chuanhai; Mori, Takashi; Mamcarz, Malgorzata B; Maxwell, Anne; Runfeldt, Melissa J; Wang, Li; Zhang, Chi; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Guixin; Arendash, Gary W

    2009-08-01

    The neurohormone melatonin has been reported to exert anti-beta-amyloid aggregation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory actions in various in vitro and animal models. To comprehensively determine the potential for long-term melatonin treatment to protect Alzheimer's transgenic mice against cognitive impairment and development of beta-amyloid (Abeta) neuropathology, we administered melatonin (100 mg/L drinking water) to APP + PS1 double transgenic (Tg) mice from 2-2.5 months of age to their killing at age 7.5 months. A comprehensive behavioral battery administered during the final 6 weeks of treatment revealed that Tg mice given melatonin were protected from cognitive impairment in a variety of tasks of working memory, spatial reference learning/memory, and basic mnemonic function; Tg control mice remained impaired in all of these cognitive tasks/domains. Immunoreactive Abeta deposition was significantly reduced in hippocampus (43%) and entorhinal cortex (37%) of melatonin-treated Tg mice. Although soluble and oligomeric forms of Abeta1-40 and 1-42 were unchanged in the hippocampus and cortex of the same melatonin-treated Tg mice, their plasma Abeta levels were elevated. These Abeta results, together with our concurrent demonstration that melatonin suppresses Abeta aggregation in brain homogenates, are consistent with a melatonin-facilitated removal of Abeta from the brain. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were decreased in hippocampus (but not plasma) of Tg+ melatonin mice. Finally, the cortical mRNA expression of three antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) was significantly reduced to non-Tg levels by long-term melatonin treatment in Tg mice. Thus, melatonin's cognitive benefits could involve its anti-Abeta aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and/or antioxidant properties. Our findings provide support for long-term melatonin therapy as a primary or complementary strategy for abating the progression of

  20. Peri-alloHCT IL-33 administration expands recipient T-regulatory cells that protect mice against acute GVHD.

    PubMed

    Matta, Benjamin M; Reichenbach, Dawn K; Zhang, Xiaoli; Mathews, Lisa; Koehn, Brent H; Dwyer, Gaelen K; Lott, Jeremy M; Uhl, Franziska M; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Feser, Colby J; Smith, Michelle J; Liu, Quan; Zeiser, Robert; Blazar, Bruce R; Turnquist, Hēth R

    2016-07-21

    During allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), nonhematopoietic cell interleukin-33 (IL-33) is augmented and released by recipient conditioning to promote type 1 alloimmunity and lethal acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Yet, IL-33 is highly pleiotropic and exhibits potent immunoregulatory properties in the absence of coincident proinflammatory stimuli. We tested whether peri-alloHCT IL-33 delivery can protect against development of GVHD by augmenting IL-33-associated regulatory mechanisms. IL-33 administration augmented the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the IL-33 receptor, suppression of tumorigenicity-2 (ST2), which persist following total body irradiation. ST2 expression is not exclusive to Tregs and IL-33 expands innate immune cells with regulatory or reparative properties. However, selective depletion of recipient Foxp3(+) cells concurrent with peri-alloHCT IL-33 administration accelerated acute GVHD lethality. IL-33-expanded Tregs protected recipients from GVHD by controlling macrophage activation and preventing accumulation of effector T cells in GVHD-target tissue. IL-33 stimulation of ST2 on Tregs activates p38 MAPK, which drives expansion of the ST2(+) Treg subset. Associated mechanistic studies revealed that proliferating Tregs exhibit IL-33-independent upregulation of ST2 and the adoptive transfer of st2(+) but not st2(-) Tregs mediated GVHD protection. In total, these data demonstrate the protective capacity of peri-alloHCT administration of IL-33 and IL-33-responsive Tregs in mouse models of acute GVHD. These findings provide strong support that the immunoregulatory relationship between IL-33 and Tregs can be harnessed therapeutically to prevent GVHD after alloHCT for treatment of malignancy or as a means for tolerance induction in solid organ transplantation. PMID:27222477

  1. Protection against Amorimia septentrionalis poisoning in goats by the continuous administration of sodium monofluoroacetate-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Layze C A; Pessoa, Danielle A N; Lopes, Jose R G; de Albuquerque, Laio G; da Silva, Leomyr S A; Garino Junior, Felicio; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2016-03-01

    The intraruminal inoculation of sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA)-degrading bacteria has been proposed as a method to prevent poisoning by MFA-containing plants. In previous experiments, MFA-degrading bacteria were inoculated intraruminally before or concurrent with plant challenge, with both strategies conferring partial protection to poisoning. To evaluate the protection to Amorimia septentrionalis poisoning provided by the continuous inoculation of MFA-degrading bacteria isolated from plants and soils, 18 goats were divided into three experimental groups of six animals each: Group 1 goats received daily doses of a mixture of Paenibacillus sp. and Cupriavidus sp., and Group 2 goats received a mixture of Ralstonia sp. and Burkholderia sp., for 40 days, while Group 3 goats were not inoculated. Ten days after initiation of bacterial inoculation in Groups 1 and 2, all goats were challenged daily with 5 g/kg body weight of green leaves from A. septentrionalis. Four goats from Group 1 consumed the leaves throughout the 30-day consumption period and showed clinical signs such as transient tachycardia and engorgement of the jugular. The two remaining animals from Group 1 showed obvious signs of intoxication, and plant administration was suspended on days 17 and 19. The goats in Group 2 consumed the leaves throughout the 30-day study without showing signs of poisoning. The goats from Group 3 (control) manifested severe clinical signs of poisoning between the 3rd and 10th days following the start of the A. septentrionalis challenge. Under the conditions of this experiment continuous intraruminal administration of Ralstonia sp. and Burkholderia sp. provided complete protection to poisoning by A. septentrionalis in goats, while continuous intraruminal administration of Paenibacillus sp. and Cupriavidus sp. provided partial protection. PMID:26747472

  2. Protection against D-galactosamine-induced acute liver injury by oral administration of extracts from Lentinus edodes mycelia.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Aiko; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Hayashi, Shinji; Kodama, Daisuke; Isoda, Katsuhiro; Kondoh, Masuo; Kawase, Masaya; Tamesada, Makoto; Yagi, Kiyohito

    2006-08-01

    The development of oral medications to help prevent liver injury is desirable, and some mushrooms contain chemicals that show promise as such a treatment. Here, we tested whether a hot-water extract (L.E.M.) of the cultured mycelia of an edible mushroom, Lentinus edodes, could protect primary cultured hepatocytes from D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced injury. GalN induced cell death in the hepatocytes, and this effect was completely suppressed by the addition of 0.5 mg/ml L.E.M. Polyphenolic compounds contained in the L.E.M. seemed to be responsible for the protective effect. We next examined the protective effect of L.E.M. in a GalN-induced liver injury model in rats. In rats that had been treated with L.E.M. given orally or intraperitoneally, GalN caused less leakage of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, markers for liver injury, and a lower decrease in serum protein content, than in non-L.E.M.-treated rats. Histological analysis of the liver also showed a protective effect of L.E.M. Our findings indicate that L.E.M. administration is a promising treatment for protecting the liver from acute injury. PMID:16880621

  3. Managing Vocational Training Systems: A Handbook for Senior Administrators. Quantitative Methods in Social Protection Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasskov, Vladimir

    This book provides state-of-the-art materials relating to the management and organization of public VET (vocational education and training) systems and suggests a framework for developing the management competence of senior administrators. The book is organized by areas of management function and consists of 6 modules with 19 learning units.…

  4. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in hippocampus: modulation of expression by seizures and anti-excitotoxic action.

    PubMed

    Opanashuk, L A; Mark, R J; Porter, J; Damm, D; Mattson, M P; Seroogy, K B

    1999-01-01

    The expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), an EGF receptor ligand, was investigated in rat forebrain under basal conditions and after kainate-induced excitotoxic seizures. In addition, a potential neuroprotective role for HB-EGF was assessed in hippocampal cultures. In situ hybridization analysis of HB-EGF mRNA in developing rat hippocampus revealed its expression in all principle cell layers of hippocampus from birth to postnatal day (P) 7, whereas from P14 through adulthood, expression decreased in the pyramidal cell layer versus the dentate gyrus granule cells. After kainate-induced excitotoxic seizures, levels of HB-EGF mRNA increased markedly in the hippocampus, as well as in several other cortical and limbic forebrain regions. In the hippocampus, HB-EGF mRNA expression increased within 3 hr after kainate treatment, continued to increase until 24 hr, and then decreased; increases occurred in the dentate gyrus granule cells, in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, and in and around hippocampal pyramidal CA3 and CA1 neurons. At 48 hr after kainate treatment, HB-EGF mRNA remained elevated in vulnerable brain regions of the hippocampus and amygdaloid complex. Western blot analysis revealed increased levels of HB-EGF protein in the hippocampus after kainate administration, with a peak at 24 hr. Pretreatment of embryonic hippocampal cell cultures with HB-EGF protected neurons against kainate toxicity. The kainate-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i in hippocampal neurons was not altered in cultures pretreated with HB-EGF, suggesting an excitoprotective mechanism different from that of previously characterized excitoprotective growth factors. Taken together, these results suggest that HB-EGF may function as an endogenous neuroprotective agent after seizure-induced neural activity/injury. PMID:9870945

  5. 97 Savvy Secrets for Protecting Self and School: A Practical Guide for Today's Teachers and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesno, Alice Healy

    A teacher's professional integrity faces numerous challenges in the classroom. To help educators safeguard against potentially career-ending incidents, numerous "survival rules" are provided in this text. It argues that teachers must safeguard themselves with self-protecting knowledge and, in some instances, must reprogram themselves with new…

  6. 28 CFR 541.27 - Protection case-placement in Administrative Detention status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... detention status as a protection case in the following circumstances. (a) Victim of inmate assault or threats. You were the victim of an inmate assault, or are being threatened by other inmates, including... sexual activity. (b) Inmate informant. Your safety is threatened because you provided, or are...

  7. [The protective activity of 2 normal immunoglobulin preparations for intravenous administration in experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection].

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Ch L; Veleva, K V; Tekelieva, R Kh; Pencheva, P I

    1991-02-01

    The antibody levels in 18 batches of the preparations of human immunoglobulin, Immunovenin and Immunovenin-Intact, for intravenous injection were determined in the enzyme immunoassay with the use of the mixture of P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide antigens of seven immunotypes. The average antibody titers in these preparations were identical. The preparations were found to have protective action against P. aeruginosa experimental infection in mice. PMID:1907793

  8. Diethanolamine alters neurogenesis and induces apoptosis in fetal mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Craciunescu, Corneliu N.; Wu, Renan; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2006-01-01

    Diethanolamine (DEA) is present in many consumer products such as shampoo. Dermal administration of DEA diminishes hepatic stores of the essential nutrient choline, and we previously reported that dietary choline deficiency during pregnancy reduces neurogenesis and increases apoptosis in the hippocampus of fetal rats and mice. Therefore, DEA could also alter brain development. Timed-pregnant C57BL/6 mice were dosed dermally from gestation day 7 through 17 with DEA at 0, 20, 80, 160, 320, and 640 mg/kg body/day. At doses of DEA > 80 mg/kg body/day, we observed decreased litter size. In fetuses (embryonic day 17) collected from dams treated dermally with 80 mg/kg body/day DEA, we observed decreased neural progenitor cell mitosis at the ventricular surface of the ventricular zone of the hippocampus [to 56±14% (SE) histone 3 (H3) phosphorylation as compared to controls; P < 0.01]. We also observed increased apoptosis in fetal hippocampus (to 170±10% of control measured using TUNEL and to 178±7% of control measured using activated caspase 3; P < 0.01). Thus, maternal exposure to DEA reduces the number of neural progenitor cells in hippocampus by two mechanisms, and this could permanently alter memory function in offspring of mothers exposed to this common ingredient of shampoos and soaps.—Craciunescu, C. N., Wu, R., Zeisel, S. H. Diethanolamine alters neurogenesis and induces apoptosis in fetal mouse hippocampus. PMID:16873886

  9. Combined administration of taurine and monoisoamyl DMSA protects arsenic induced oxidative injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Flora, Swaran J S; Chouhan, Swapnila; Kannan, Gurusamy M; Mittal, Megha; Swarnkar, Harimohan

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is ubiquitously present in the environment. High concentration of naturally occurring arsenic in drinking water is a major health problem in different parts of the world. Despite arsenic being a health hazard and a well documented carcinogen, no safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures are available. Among various recent strategies adopted, administration of an antioxidant has been reported to be the most effective. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), administered either individually or in combination with taurine post chronic arsenic exposure in rats. Arsenic exposed male rats (25 ppm, sodium arsenite in drinking water for 24 weeks) were treated with taurine (100 mg/kg, i.p., once daily), monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) (50 mg/kg, oral, once daily) either individually or in combination for 5 consecutive days. Biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress along-with arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidney were measured. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, a key enzyme involved in the heme biosynthesis and enhanced zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level. Clinical hematological variables like white blood cells (WBC), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) showed significant decrease with a significant elevation in platelet (PLT) count. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increased catalase activity. Arsenic exposure caused a significant decrease in hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH) level and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG). These biochemical changes were correlated with an increased uptake of arsenic in blood, liver and kidney. Administration of taurine significantly reduced hepatic oxidative stress however co-administration

  10. Administration of defined microbiota is protective in a murine Salmonella infection model

    PubMed Central

    Martz, Sarah-Lynn E.; McDonald, Julie A. K.; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Yong-guo; Gloor, Gregory B.; Noordhof, Curtis; He, Shu-Mei; Gerbaba, Teklu K.; Blennerhassett, Michael; Hurlbut, David J.; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Claud, Erika C.; Petrof, Elaine O.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium is a major cause of diarrhea and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and perturbations of the gut microbiota are known to increase susceptibility to enteric infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a Microbial Ecosystem Therapeutic (MET-1) consisting of 33 bacterial strains, isolated from human stool and previously used to cure patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, could also protect against S. typhimurium disease. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with streptomycin prior to receiving MET-1 or control, then gavaged with S. typhimurium. Weight loss, serum cytokine levels, and S. typhimurium splenic translocation were measured. NF-κB nuclear staining, neutrophil accumulation, and localization of tight junction proteins (claudin-1, ZO-1) were visualized by immunofluorescence. Infected mice receiving MET-1 lost less weight, had reduced serum cytokines, reduced NF-κB nuclear staining, and decreased neutrophil infiltration in the cecum. MET-1 also preserved cecum tight junction protein expression, and reduced S. typhimurium translocation to the spleen. Notably, MET-1 did not decrease CFUs of Salmonella in the intestine. MET-1 may attenuate systemic infection by preserving tight junctions, thereby inhibiting S. typhimurium from gaining access to the systemic circulation. We conclude that MET-1 may be protective against enteric infections besides C. difficile infection. PMID:26531327

  11. Delayed protection against ischaemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias and infarct size limitation by the prior administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Song, W.; Furman, B. L.; Parratt, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide derived from Escherichia coli) was injected intraperitoneally in conscious rats in doses ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 mg kg-1. At various times afterwards the animals were anaesthetized and subjected to a 30 min period of left coronary artery occlusion. 2. Under these conditions the severity of ventricular arrhythmias was markedly suppressed, in comparison with saline-injected controls, but this was particularly marked with the higher doses (1.5 and 2.5 mg kg-1); the number of ventricular premature beats was reduced from 1687 +/- 227 over the 0.5 h coronary artery occlusion period to 190 +/- 46 in those rats administered 2.5 mg kg-1 endotoxin 8 h previously (P < 0.05). The duration of ventricular tachycardia was also significantly reduced (138 +/- 26 s to 8.9 +/- 4.2 s; P < 0.01) and there was a reduction in the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (from 56% to 10%). 3. The time course of this protection was studied following the administration of a single dose of 2.5 mg kg-1 of endotoxin by anaesthetizing rats 4, 8 or 24 h later. Protection was apparent at each time but was particularly marked at 8 h. 4. No rat given the highest dose of endotoxin (32 in all) died as a result of ventricular fibrillation, or from any other cause, during an occlusion, in contrast to a 26% mortality in the controls (P < 0.01). 5. Infarct size, measured following a 30 min period of coronary artery occlusion followed by a 3 h reperfusion period, was reduced both 8 and 24 h after the administration of 2.5 mg kg-1 endotoxin (reductions of 24.3 and 23.1% respectively; P < 0.05). Endotoxin had no significant effect on the area at risk. 6. The beneficial effects of endotoxin on infarct size and on ventricular arrhythmias were markedly attenuated by the prior administration of dexamethasone, 3 mg kg-1 given 1 h prior to endotoxin administration. Dexamethasone itself reduced infarct size (P < 0.05) but had no direct effect on arrhythmia severity following

  12. Hippocampus, microcircuits and associative memory.

    PubMed

    Cutsuridis, Vassilis; Wennekers, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The hippocampus is one of the most widely studied brain region. One of its functional roles is the storage and recall of declarative memories. Recent hippocampus research has yielded a wealth of data on network architecture, cell types, the anatomy and membrane properties of pyramidal cells and interneurons, and synaptic plasticity. Understanding the functional roles of different families of hippocampal neurons in information processing, synaptic plasticity and network oscillations poses a great challenge but also promises deep insight into one of the major brain systems. Computational and mathematical models play an instrumental role in exploring such functions. In this paper, we provide an overview of abstract and biophysical models of associative memory with particular emphasis on the operations performed by the diverse (inter)neurons in encoding and retrieval of memories in the hippocampus. PMID:19647982

  13. Prophylactic administration of Amifostine protects vessel thickness in the setting of irradiated bone.

    PubMed

    Page, Erin E; Deshpande, Sagar S; Nelson, Noah S; Felice, Peter A; Donneys, Alexis; Rodriguez, Jose J; Deshpande, Samir S; Buchman, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Although often beneficial in the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), radiation therapy (XRT) leads to the depletion of vascular supply and eventually decreased perfusion of the tissue. Specifically, previous studies have demonstrated the depletion of vessel volume fraction (VVF) and vessel thickness (VT) associated with XRT. Amifostine (AMF) provides protection from the detrimental effects of radiation damage, allowing for reliable post-irradiation fracture healing in the murine mandible. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prophylactic ability of AMF to protect the vascular network in an irradiated field. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 17) were divided into 3 groups: control (C, n = 5), radiated (XRT, n = 7), and radiated mandibles treated with Amifostine (AMF XRT, n = 5). Both groups receiving radiation underwent a previously established, human equivalent dose of XRT totaling 35 Gy, equally fractionated over 5 days. The AMF XRT group received a weight dependent (0.5 mg AMF/5 g body weight) subcutaneous injection of AMF 45 min prior to XRT. Following a 56-day recovery period, mandibles were perfused, dissected, and imaged with μCT. ANOVA was used for comparisons between groups and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Stereologic analysis demonstrated a significant and quantifiable restoration of VT in AMF treated mandibles as compared to those treated with radiation alone (0.061 ± 0.011 mm versus 0.042 ± 0.004 mm, p = 0.027). Interestingly, further analysis demonstrated no significant difference in VT between control mandibles and those treated with AMF (0.067 ± 0.016 mm versus 0.061 ± 0.011 mm, p = 0.633). AMF treatment also showed an increase in VVF, however those results were not statistically significant from VVF values demonstrated by the XRT group. Our data support the contention that AMF therapy acts prophylactically to protect vessel thickness. Based on these findings, we support the continued

  14. Prophylactic Administration of Amifostine Protects Vessel Thickness in the Setting of Irradiated Bone

    PubMed Central

    Page, Erin E.; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Nelson, Noah S.; Felice, Peter A.; Donneys, Alexis; Rodriguez, Jose J.; Deshpande, Samir S.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Although often beneficial in the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), radiation therapy (XRT) leads to the depletion of vascular supply and eventually decreased perfusion of the tissue. Specifically, previous studies have demonstrated the depletion of vessel volume fraction (VVF) and vessel thickness (VT) associated with XRT. Amifostine (AMF) provides protection from the detrimental effects of radiation damage, allowing for reliable post-irradiation fracture healing in the murine mandible. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prophylactic ability of AMF to protect the vascular network in an irradiated field. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=17) were divided into 3 groups: control (C, n=5), radiated (XRT, n=7), and radiated mandibles treated with Amifostine (AMF XRT, n=5). Both groups receiving radiation underwent a previously established, human equivalent dose of XRT totaling 35 Gray, equally fractionated over 5 days. The AMF XRT group received a weight dependent (0.5mg AMF/5g body weight) subcutaneous injection of AMF 45 minutes prior to XRT. Following a 56-day recovery period, mandibles were perfused, dissected, and imaged with µCT. ANOVA was used for comparisons between groups and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Stereologic analysis demonstrated a significant and quantifiable restoration of VT in AMF treated mandibles as compared to those treated with radiation alone (0.061±.011mm versus 0.042±0.004mm, p=0.027). Interestingly, further analysis demonstrated no significant difference in VT between control mandibles and those treated with AMF (0.067±0.016mm versus 0.061±0.011mm, p=0.633). AMF treatment also showed an increase in VVF, however those results were not statistically significant from VVF values demonstrated by the XRT group. Our data support the contention that AMF therapy acts prophylactically to protect vessel thickness, as AMF-treated mandibles demonstrate VT levels that are not statistically different from controls in the

  15. Oral administration of a recombinant attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain elicits protective immunity against plague.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Sanapala, Shilpa; Rahav, Hannah; Curtiss, Roy

    2015-11-27

    A Yersinia pseudotuberculosis PB1+ (Yptb PB1+) mutant strain combined with chromosome insertion of the caf1R-caf1A-caf1M-caf1 operon and deletions of yopJ and yopK, χ10068 [pYV-ω2 (ΔyopJ315 ΔyopK108) ΔlacZ044::caf1R-caf1M-caf1A-caf1] was constructed. Results indicated that gene insertion and deletion did not affect the growth rate of χ10068 compared to wild-type Yptb cultured at 26 °C. In addition, the F1 antigen in χ10068 was synthesized and secreted on the surface of bacteria at 37 °C (mammalian body temperature), not at ambient culture temperature (26 °C). Immunization with χ10068 primed antibody responses and specific T-cell responses to F1 and YpL (Y. pestis whole cell lysate). Oral immunization with a single dose of χ10068 provided 70% protection against a subcutaneous (s.c.) challenge with ∼ 2.6 × 10(5) LD50 of Y. pestis KIM6+ (pCD1Ap) (KIM6+Ap) and 90% protection against an intranasal (i.n.) challenge with ∼ 500 LD50 of KIM6+Ap in mice. Our results suggest that χ10068 can be used as an effective precursor to make a safe vaccine to prevent plague in humans and to eliminate plague circulation among humans and animals. PMID:26514425

  16. Co-administration of Apelin and T4 Protects Inotropic and Chronotropic Changes Occurring in Hypothyroid Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhondali, Zahra; Badavi, Mohammad; Dianat, Mahin; Faraji, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the most important thyroid hormone targets is the cardiovascular system. Hemodynamic changes, such as decreased resting heart rate (HR), myocardial contractility, and cardiac output, and increased diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance, have been observed in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, in these patients, ECG changes include sinus bradycardia and low voltage complexes (P waves or QRS complexes). Objective This study aimed at evaluating the prophylactic effect of apelin on HR changes and QRS voltage that occur in propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats. Method In this study, 48 adult male Wistar rats weighing 170-235g were randomly divided into 6 groups: Control group (normal saline ip injection + tap water gavage); P group (PTU 0.05%, in drinking water); A group (apelin 200 µg.kg-1.day-1, ip); PA group [co-administration of PTU and apelin]; PT group [co-administration of PTU + T4 (0.2 mg/g per day, gavage)]; and PAT group (co-administration of PTU, apelin and T4). All experiments were performed for 28 consecutive days, and then the animals were anesthetized with an ip injection of ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (12 mg/kg). Lead II electrocardiogram was recorded to calculate HR and QRS voltage. Results Heart rate and QRS voltage increased more significantly in the hypothyroid group that consumed both apelin and T4 (201 ± 4 beat/min, 0.71 ± 0.02 mv vs. hypothyroid 145 ± 9 beat/min, 0.563 ± 0.015 mv; respectively). Conclusion The co-administration of apelin and T4 showed a protective effect on QRS voltage and HR in PTU‑induced hypothyroid rats. PMID:26247243

  17. Oral administration of patchouli alcohol isolated from Pogostemonis Herba augments protection against influenza viral infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Cui; Peng, Shao-Zhong; Chen, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Feng-Xue; Xu, Pei-Ping; Xie, Jian-Hui; He, Jing-Jin; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Su, Zi-Ren

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal influenza A infection results in considerable morbidity and mortality. The limited efficacy of available therapeutic strategies stresses the need for development and study of new molecules against influenza virus (IFV). Patchouli alcohol (PA), the major chemical constituent of Pogostemonis Herba, was previously found to strongly inhibit influenza H1N1 replication in vitro. In the present study, the in vivo anti-IFV effect of PA was investigated. In a mouse model infected with lethal levels of FM1, oral administration of PA (20 mg/kg to 80 mg/kg) for 7 d post IFV infection significantly increased the survival rate and survival time. For IFV infection at nonlethal levels, the quantity of IFV in the lungs 5 d after infection was significantly reduced after PA (20 mg/kg to 80 mg/kg) administration. Anti-IFV IgA, IgM, and IgG titers in serum on day 6 were significantly higher in the PA-treated group than the IFV-control group. Anti-IFV immune response augmentation was further confirmed by the elevated production of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell levels in blood. Furthermore, the levels of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, IL-10 and IFN-gamma in serum of mice, were regulated. Lung inflammation was reduced significantly after PA administration, and the effect may be mediated, at least in part, by regulating the lung levels of inflammatory cytokines. Thus, oral administration of PA appears to be able to augment protection against IFV infection in mice via enhancement of host immune responses, and attenuation of systemic and pulmonary inflammatory responses. PMID:22193241

  18. Betaine protects cerebellum from oxidative stress following levodopa and benserazide administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Alirezaei, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant and methyl donor effects of betaine in cerebellum following levodopa and benserazide administration in rats. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley male rats were treated with levodopa (LD), betaine (Bet), levodopa plus betaine (LD/Bet), levodopa plus benserazide (LD/Ben), levodopa plus betaine-benserazide (LD/Bet-Ben), and the controls with vehicle for 10 consecutive days, orally. Results: Treatment of rats with LD and benserazide significantly increased total homocysteine in plasma of the LD/Ben group when compared to the other groups. Lipid peroxidation of cerebellum increased significantly in LD-treated rats when compared to the other groups. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase activity and glutathione content in cerebellum were significantly higher in the betaine-treated rats when compared to the LD and LD/Ben groups. Serum dopamine concentration increased significantly in LD-treated rats in comparison with the LD/Ben group. LD/Bet-treated rats also demonstrated significantly higher dopamine levels when compared to the LD/Ben group. Conclusion: We observed valuable effects of Bet in combination with LD and benserazide, which routinely were used for Parkinson’s disease (PD) treatment, in experimentally-induced oxidative stress and hyperhomocysteinemia in rats. Therefore, it seems that Bet is a vital and promising agent regarding PD for future clinical trials in humans. PMID:26730328

  19. Continued Administration of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Protects Mice from Inflammatory Pathology in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Remington, Leah; Cognet, Isabelle; Bourbonniere, Lyne; Zehntner, Simone; Guilhot, Florence; Herman, Alexandra; Guay-Giroux, Angélique; Antel, Jack P.; Owens, Trevor; Gauchat, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to loss of myelin and oligodendrocytes and damage to axons. We show that daily administration (days 8 to 24) of murine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic factor that has been described as a survival and differentiation factor for neurons and oligodendrocytes, significantly ameliorates the clinical course of a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. In the acute phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55, treatment with CNTF did not change the peripheral immune response but did reduce the number of perivascular infiltrates and T cells and the level of diffuse microglial activation in spinal cord. Blood brain barrier permeability was significantly reduced in CNTF-treated animals. Beneficial effects of CNTF did not persist after it was withdrawn. After cessation of CNTF treatment, inflammation and symptoms returned to control levels. However, slight but significantly higher numbers of oligodendrocytes, NG2-positive cells, axons, and neurons were observed in mice that had been treated with high concentrations of CNTF. Our results show that CNTF inhibits inflammation in the spinal cord, resulting in amelioration of the clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis during time of treatment. PMID:16877358

  20. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 protects hairless mouse against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Mee; Lee, Dong Eun; Park, Soo Dong; Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Yu Jin; Jeong, Ji Woong; Jang, Sung Sik; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Chung, Dae Kyun; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2014-11-28

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation alters multiple molecular pathways in the skin, thereby inducing skin damage, including photoaging. In recent years, probiotics have gained interest due to their beneficial effects on skin health, such as inhibiting atopic dermatitis and improving skin immunity or inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of probiotics on UVBinduced photoaging. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 against UVB-induced photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice. The results showed that L. plantarum HY7714 treatment effectively rescued UVB-reduced procollagen expression through the inhibition of UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Data from a western blot showed that L. plantarum HY7714 inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase, thereby suppressing the UVB-induced phosphorylation and expression of c-Jun. Oral administration of L. plantarum HY7714 clearly inhibited the number, depth, and area of wrinkles in hairless mouse skin. Histological data showed that L. plantarum HY7714 significantly inhibited UVB-induced epidermal thickness in mice. Western blot and zymography data also revealed that L. plantarum HY7714 effectively inhibited MMP-13 expression as well as MMP-2 and -9 activities in dermal tissue. Collectively, these results provide further insight regarding the skin biological actions of L. plantarum HY7714, a potential skin anti-photoaging agent. PMID:25112318

  1. Combined administration of levetiracetam and valproic acid attenuates age-related hyperactivity of CA3 place cells, reduces place field area, and increases spatial information content in aged rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Robitsek, Jonathan; Ratner, Marcia H; Stewart, Tara; Eichenbaum, Howard; Farb, David H

    2015-12-01

    Learning and memory deficits associated with age-related mild cognitive impairment have long been attributed to impaired processing within the hippocampus. Hyperactivity within the hippocampal CA3 region that is associated with aging is mediated in part by a loss of functional inhibitory interneurons and thought to underlie impaired performance in spatial memory tasks, including the abnormal tendency in aged animals to pattern complete spatial representations. Here, we asked whether the spatial firing patterns of simultaneously recorded CA3 and CA1 neurons in young and aged rats could be manipulated pharmacologically to selectively reduce CA3 hyperactivity and thus, according to hypothesis, the associated abnormality in spatial representations. We used chronically implanted high-density tetrodes to record the spatial firing properties of CA3 and CA1 units during animal exploration for food in familiar and novel environments. Aged CA3 place cells have higher firing rates, larger place fields, less spatial information content, and respond less to a change from a familiar to a novel environment than young CA3 cells. We also find that the combination of levetiracetam (LEV) + valproic acid (VPA), previously shown to act as a cognitive enhancer in tests of spatial memory, attenuate CA3 place cell firing rates, reduce place field area, and increase spatial information content in aged but not young adult rats. This is consistent with drug enhancing the specificity of neuronal firing with respect to spatial location. Contrary to expectation, however, LEV + VPA reduces place cell discrimination between novel and familiar environments, i.e., spatial correlations increase, independent of age even though drug enhances performance in cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate that spatial information content, or the number of bits of information encoded per action potential, may be the key correlate for enhancement of spatial memory by LEV + VPA. PMID:25941121

  2. The bumps on the hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Ver Hoef, Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    The hippocampus has been the focus of more imaging research than any other subcortical structure in the human brain. However a feature that has been almost universally overlooked are the bumpy ridges on the inferior aspect of the hippocampus, which we refer to as hippocampal dentation. These bumps arise from folds in the CA1 layer of Ammon's horn. Similar to the folding of the cerebral cortex, hippocampal dentation allows for greater surface area in a confined space. However, while quantitative studies of radiologic brain images have been advancing for decades, examining numerous approaches to hippocampal segmentation and morphology analysis, virtually all published 3D renderings of the hippocampus show the under surface to be quite smooth or mildly irregular; we have rarely seen the characteristic bumpy structure in the reconstructed 3D scene, one exception being the 9.4T postmortem study. This is presumably due to the fact that, based on our experience with high resolution images, there is a dramatic degree of variability in hippocampal dentation between individuals from very smooth to highly dentated. An apparent question is, does this indicate that this specific morphological signature can only be captured using expensive ultra-high field techniques? Or, is such information buried in the data we commonly acquire, awaiting a computation technique that can extract and render it clearly? In this study, we propose a super-resolution technique that captures the fine scale morphometric features of the hippocampus based on common T1-weighted 3T MR images.

  3. Neural Representations of Location Outside the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knierim, James J.

    2006-01-01

    Place cells of the rat hippocampus are a dominant model system for understanding the role of the hippocampus in learning and memory at the level of single-unit and neural ensemble responses. A complete understanding of the information processing and computations performed by the hippocampus requires detailed knowledge about the properties of the…

  4. Role of the hippocampus in Nav1.6 (Scn8a) mediated seizure resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lamar, Tyra; Goldin, Alan L; Escayg, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    SCN1A mutations are the main cause of the epilepsy disorders Dravet syndrome (DS) and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Mutations that reduce the activity of the mouse Scn8a gene, in contrast, are found to confer seizure resistance and extend the lifespan of mouse models of DS and GEFS+. To investigate the mechanism by which reduced Scn8a expression confers seizure resistance, we induced interictal-like burst discharges in hippocampal slices of heterozygous Scn8a null mice (Scn8amed/+) with elevated extracellular potassium. Scn8amed/+ mutants exhibited reduced epileptiform burst discharge activity after P20, indicating an age-dependent increased threshold for induction of epileptiform discharges. Scn8a deficiency also reduced the occurrence of burst discharges in a GEFS+ mouse model (Scn1aR1648H/+). There was no detectable change in the expression levels of Scn1a (Nav1.1) or Scn2a (Nav1.2) in the hippocampus of adult Scn8amed/+ mutants. To determine whether the increased seizure resistance associated with reduced Scn8a expression was due to alterations that occurred during development, we examined the effect of deleting Scn8a in adult mice. Global Cre-mediated deletion of a heterozygous floxed Scn8a allele in adult mice was found to increase thresholds to chemically and electrically induced seizures. Finally, knockdown of Scn8a gene expression in the adult hippocampus via lentiviral Cre injection resulted in a reduction in the number of EEG-confirmed seizures following the administration of picrotoxin. Our results identify the hippocampus as an important structure in the mediation of Scn8a-dependent seizure protection and suggest that selective targeting of Scn8a activity might be efficacious in patients with epilepsy. PMID:24704313

  5. Systemic Administration of Oleoylethanolamide Protects from Neuroinflammation and Anhedonia Induced by LPS in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sayd, Aline; Antón, María; Alén, Francisco; Caso, Javier Rubén; Pavón, Javier; Leza, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background: The acylethanolamides oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide are endogenous lipid mediators with proposed neuroprotectant properties in central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. The precise mechanisms remain partly unknown, but growing evidence suggests an antiinflammatory/antioxidant profile. Methods: We tested whether oleoylethanolamide/palmitoylethanolamide (10mg/kg, i.p.) attenuate neuroinflammation and acute phase responses (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis stress axis activation, thermoregulation, and anhedonia) induced by lipopolysaccharide (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Results: Lipopolysaccharide increased mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6, nuclear transcription factor-κB activity, and the expression of its inhibitory protein IκBα in cytoplasm, the inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase mRNA, and proinflammatory prostaglandin E2 content in frontal cortex 150 minutes after administration. As a result, the markers of nitrosative/oxidative stress nitrites (NO2 -) and malondialdehyde were increased. Pretreatment with oleoylethanolamide/ palmitoylethanolamide reduced plasma tumor necrosis factor-α levels after lipopolysaccharide, but only oleoylethanolamide significantly reduced brain tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA. Oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB)/IκBα upregulation in nuclear and cytosolic extracts, respectively, the expression of inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase and the levels of prostaglandin E2. Additionally, both acylethanolamides reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress. Neither oleoylethanolamide nor palmitoylethanolamide modified plasma corticosterone levels after lipopolysaccharide, but both

  6. Protection against Dengue Virus Infection in Mice by Administration of Antibodies against Modified Nonstructural Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Shu-Wen; Lu, Yi-Tien; Huang, Chia-Hui; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Anderson, Robert; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Yen, Yu-Ting; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A.; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection with dengue virus (DENV) may cause life-threatening disease with thrombocytopenia and vascular leakage which are related to dysfunction of platelets and endothelial cells. We previously showed that antibodies (Abs) against DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) cross-react with human platelets and endothelial cells, leading to functional disturbances. Based on sequence homology analysis, the C-terminal region of DENV NS1 protein contains cross-reactive epitopes. For safety in vaccine development, the cross-reactive epitopes of DENV NS1 protein should be deleted or modified. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested the protective effects of Abs against full-length DENV NS1, NS1 lacking the C-terminal amino acids (a.a.) 271-352 (designated ΔC NS1), and chimeric DJ NS1 consisting of N-terminal DENV NS1 (a.a. 1-270) and C-terminal Japanese encephalitis virus NS1 (a.a. 271-352). The anti-ΔC NS1 and anti-DJ NS1 Abs showed a lower binding activity to endothelial cells and platelets than that of anti-DENV NS1 Abs. Passive immunization with anti-ΔC NS1 and anti-DJ NS1 Abs reduced DENV-induced prolonged mouse tail bleeding time. Treatment with anti-DENV NS1, anti-ΔC NS1 and anti-DJ NS1 Abs reduced local skin hemorrhage, controlled the viral load of DENV infection in vivo, synergized with complement to inhibit viral replication in vitro, as well as abolished DENV-induced macrophage infiltration to the site of skin inoculation. Moreover, active immunization with modified NS1 protein, but not with unmodified DENV NS1 protein, reduced DENV-induced prolonged bleeding time, local skin hemorrhage, and viral load. Conclusions/Significance These results support the idea that modified NS1 proteins may represent an improved strategy for safe and effective vaccine development against DENV infection. PMID:24658118

  7. Ischemic Postconditioning and Nitric Oxide Administration Failed to Confer Protective Effects in a Porcine Model of Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Psotova, Hana; Ostadal, Petr; Mlcek, Mikulas; Kruger, Andreas; Janotka, Marek; Vondrakova, Dagmar; Svoboda, Tomas; Hrachovina, Matej; Taborsky, Ludek; Dudkova, Vlasta; Strunina, Svitlana; Kittnar, Otomar; Neuzil, Petr

    2016-04-01

    The protective effects of ischemic postconditioning (IPC) and nitric oxide (NO) administration have been demonstrated in several ischemic scenarios. However, current evidence regarding the effect of IPC and NO in extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation remains lacking. Fifteen female swine (body weight 45 kg) underwent veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) implantation; cardiac arrest-ventricular fibrillation was induced by rapid ventricular pacing. After 20 min of cardiac arrest, blood flow was restored by increasing the ECMO flow rate to 4.5 L/min. The animals (five per group) were then randomly assigned to receive IPC (three cycles of 3 min ischemia and reperfusion), NO (80 ppm via oxygenator), or mild hypothermia (HT; 33.0°C). Cerebral oximetry and aortic blood pressure were monitored continuously. After 90 min of reperfusion, blood samples were drawn for the measurement of troponin I, myoglobin, creatine-phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, neuron-specific enolase, cystatin C, and reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) levels. Significantly higher blood pressure and cerebral oxygen saturation values were observed in the HT group compared with the IPC and NO groups (P < 0.05). The levels of troponin I, myoglobin, creatine phosphokinase, and alanine aminotransferase were significantly lower in the HT group (P < 0.05); levels of neuron-specific enolase, cystatin C, and ROM were not significantly different. IPC and NO were comparable in all monitored parameters. The results of the present study indicate that IPC and NO administration are not superior interventions to HT for the maintenance of blood pressure, cerebral oxygenation, organ protection, and suppression of oxidative stress following extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:26412075

  8. A computer simulation study of optimal thyroid radiation protection during investigations involving the administration of radioiodine-labelled pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Wootton, R; Hammond, B J

    1978-04-01

    The administration of iodide for thyroid blocking is now known to carry its own risks, at least in certain categories of patients. We have therefore made a theoretical study by computer simulation of the efficacy of various thyroid blocking regimes. In the case of injected 125I- or 131I-iodide, substantial thyroid protection may theoretically be achieved by a single oral dose of inorganic iodide, for example a 90% reduction in radiation dose is produced by only 20 mg iodide. Repeating the initial blocking dose is of little value. A single blocking dose, however, affords poor protection against radioiodine released from labelled plasma proteins. Both for short-lived proteins such as fibrinogen, and for the longer-lived proteins such as albumin, the optimum dosage schedule appears to be stable iodide given daily for two to three weeks. For instance, 10 mg daily for a fortnight will reduce thyroid irradiation by a factor of ten following injection of 125I-fibrinogen. PMID:647182

  9. Protective Effects of Edaravone in Adult Rats with Surgery and Lipopolysaccharide Administration-Induced Cognitive Function Impairment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peiqi; Cao, Jiangbei; Liu, Na; Ma, Li; Zhou, Xueyue; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Yongan

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by cognitive declines in patients after surgery. Previous studies have suggested that surgery contributed to such impairment. It has been proven that neuroinflammation may exacerbate surgery-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. The free radical scavenger edaravone has high blood brain barrier permeability, and was demonstrated to effectively remove free radicals from the brain and alleviate the development of POCD in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, suggesting its potential role in preventing POCD. For this reason, this study was designed to determine whether edaravone is protective against POCD through its inhibitory effects on inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. First, Sprague Dawley adult male rats were administered 3 mg/kg edaravone intraperitoneally after undergoing a unilateral nephrectomy combined with lipopolysaccharide injection. Second, behavioral parameters related to cognitive function were recorded by fear conditioning and Morris Water Maze tests. Last, superoxide dismutase activities and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the hippocampi and prefrontal cortex on postoperative days 3 and 7, and microglial (Iba1) activation, p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression, and synaptic function (synapsin 1) were also examined 3 and 7 days after surgery. Rats that underwent surgery plus lipopolysaccharide administration showed significant impairments in spatial and working memory, accompanied by significant reductions in hippocampal-dependent and independent fear responses. All impairments were attenuated by treatment with edaravone. Moreover, an abnormal decrease in superoxide dismutase activation, abnormal increase in malondialdehyde levels, significant increase in microglial reactivity, downregulation of p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression, and a statistically significant decrease in synapsin-1 were observed in the hippocampi and prefrontal cortices of

  10. [Protective effect of combined administration of active ingredients of Danhong on cerebral micro-vascular endothelial cell injured by hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui-fen; He, Yu; Zhang, Yu-yan; Yang, Jie-hong; Zhao, Tao; Fu, Wei; Zhou, Peng; Wan, Hai-tong

    2014-11-01

    To study the protective effect of combined administration of active ingredients of Danhong on cultured primary mice's brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMECs) injured by hypoxia. Primary mice's brain micro-vascular endothelial cells were cultured to establish the 4 h hypoxia model. Meanwhile, active ingredients (protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B, hydroxysafflor yellow A and tanshinol) of Danhong were administered in rBMECs. The non-toxic dosage was determined by MTT. The leakage of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), cell superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and MDA level were detected by the colorimetric method. The expressions of ICAM-1, MMP-9, P53 mRNA were detected by RT-PCR method. Changes in rBMECs cell cycle and early apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. Danhong's active ingredients and prescriptions 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 could be combined to significantly restrain LDH in hypoxic cells supernatant. Prescriptions 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 could significantly enhance SOD activity in anoxic cells; Prescriptions 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 could significantly decrease the MDA level; Prescriptions 1, 2, 6, 7, 9 could significantly inhibit the early rB-MECs apoptosis induced by hypoxia. After hypoxia, the up-regulated P53 mRNA expression could cause retardation in G, phase and promote cell apoptosis. This proved that the regulatory function of P53 gene lay in monitoring of calibration points in G, phase. Prescriptions 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 could significantly down-regulate the P53 mRNA expression; Prescriptions 1, 4, 7, 8, 9 could significantly down-regulate the ICAM-1 mRNA expression; Prescriptions 1, 3, 6, 9 could significantly down-regulate the MMP-9 mRNA expression. The combined administration of Danhong's active ingredients showed a significant protective effect on primary cultured rBMECs injury induced by hypoxia Its mechanism may be related to the enhancement of cellular antioxidant capacity and the inhibition of inflammatory response and cell apoptosis. This study could

  11. Protective Effects of Edaravone in Adult Rats with Surgery and Lipopolysaccharide Administration-Induced Cognitive Function Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Ma, Li; Zhou, Xueyue; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Yongan

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by cognitive declines in patients after surgery. Previous studies have suggested that surgery contributed to such impairment. It has been proven that neuroinflammation may exacerbate surgery-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. The free radical scavenger edaravone has high blood brain barrier permeability, and was demonstrated to effectively remove free radicals from the brain and alleviate the development of POCD in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, suggesting its potential role in preventing POCD. For this reason, this study was designed to determine whether edaravone is protective against POCD through its inhibitory effects on inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. First, Sprague Dawley adult male rats were administered 3 mg/kg edaravone intraperitoneally after undergoing a unilateral nephrectomy combined with lipopolysaccharide injection. Second, behavioral parameters related to cognitive function were recorded by fear conditioning and Morris Water Maze tests. Last, superoxide dismutase activities and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the hippocampi and prefrontal cortex on postoperative days 3 and 7, and microglial (Iba1) activation, p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression, and synaptic function (synapsin 1) were also examined 3 and 7 days after surgery. Rats that underwent surgery plus lipopolysaccharide administration showed significant impairments in spatial and working memory, accompanied by significant reductions in hippocampal-dependent and independent fear responses. All impairments were attenuated by treatment with edaravone. Moreover, an abnormal decrease in superoxide dismutase activation, abnormal increase in malondialdehyde levels, significant increase in microglial reactivity, downregulation of p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression, and a statistically significant decrease in synapsin-1 were observed in the hippocampi and prefrontal cortices of

  12. Intranasal administration of aTf protects and repairs the neonatal white matter after a cerebral hypoxic-ischemic event.

    PubMed

    Guardia Clausi, Mariano; Paez, Pablo M; Campagnoni, Anthony T; Pasquini, Laura A; Pasquini, Juana M

    2012-10-01

    Our previous studies showed that the intracerebral injection of apotransferrin (aTf) attenuates white matter damage and accelerates the remyelination process in a neonatal rat model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) injury. However, the intracerebral injection of aTf might not be practical for clinical treatments. Therefore, the development of less invasive techniques capable of delivering aTf to the central nervous system would clearly aid in its effective clinical use. In this work, we have determined whether intranasal (iN) administration of human aTf provides neuroprotection to the neonatal mouse brain following a cerebral hypoxic-ischemic event. Apotransferrin was infused into the naris of neonatal mice and the HI insult was induced by right common carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to low oxygen concentration. Our results showed that aTf was successfully delivered into the neonatal HI brain and detected in the olfactory bulb, forebrain and posterior brain 30 min after inhalation. This treatment successfully reduced white matter damage, neuronal loss and astrogliosis in different brain regions and enhanced the proliferation and survival of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) in the subventricular zone and corpus callosum (CC). Additionally, using an in vitro hypoxic model, we demonstrated that aTf prevents oligodendrocyte progenitor cell death by promoting their differentiation. In summary, these data suggest that iN administration of aTf has the potential to be used for clinical treatment to protect myelin and to induce remyelination in demyelinating hypoxic-ischemic events in the neonatal brain. PMID:22736466

  13. Co-administration of interleukins 7 and 15 with DNA vaccine improves protective immunity against Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Li, Zhong-Yuan; Petersen, Eskild; Liu, Wen-Ge; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular parasite, which can infect all warm-blooded animals including humans. Cytokines, including IL-15 and IL-7, play a critical role in the regulation of the homeostasis of naive and memory T cells. Co-administration the DNA vaccine with cytokines may improve its efficacy. IL-7 and IL-15 from splenic tissues of Kunming mice were cloned, and eukaryotic plasmid pVAX-IL-7-IL-15 was constructed. Kunming mice were administrated with DNA vaccine expressing T. gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (TgCDPK1), pVAX-CDPK1, in the presence or absence of IL-7 and IL-15 plasmids (pVAX-IL-7-IL-15), immune responses were analyzed including lymphoproliferative assay, cytokine and serum antibody measurements, flow cytometric surface markers on lymphocytes, and thus protective immunity against acute and chronic T. gondii infection was estimated. Mice injected with pVAX-CDPK1 supplemented with pVAX-IL-7-IL-15 showed higher Toxoplasma-specific IgG2a titers, Th1 responses associated with the production of IFN-γ, IL-2 as well as cell-mediated cytotoxic activity where stronger frequencies of IFN-γ secreting CD8+ and CD4+ T cells (CD8+/CD4+ IFN-γ+ T cells) compared to controls. Co-administration of pVAX-IL-7-IL-15 and pVAX-CDPK1 significantly (P < 0.05) increased survival time (18.07 ± 5.43 days) compared with pVAX-CDPK1 (14.13 ± 3.85 days) or pVAX-IL-7-IL-15 (11.73 ± 1.83 days) alone, and pVAX-IL-7-IL-15 + pVAX-CDPK1 significantly reduced the number of brain cysts (73.5%) in contrast to pVAX-CDPK1 (46.0%) or pVAX-IL-7-IL-15 alone (45.0%). Our results indicate that supplementation of DNA vaccine with IL-7 and IL-15 would facilitate specific humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by DNA vaccine against acute and chronic T. gondii infection in mice. PMID:26706605

  14. Naringenin Mitigates Iron-Induced Anxiety-Like Behavioral Impairment, Mitochondrial Dysfunctions, Ectonucleotidases and Acetylcholinesterase Alteration Activities in Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chtourou, Yassine; Slima, Ahlem Ben; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fetoui, Hamadi

    2015-08-01

    Studies demonstrated that the iron chelating antioxidant restores brain dysfunction induced by iron toxicity in animals. Earlier, we found that iron overload-induced cerebral cortex apoptosis correlated with oxidative stress could be protected by naringenin (NGEN). In this respect, the present study is focused on the mechanisms associated with the protective efficacy of NGEN, natural flavonoid compound abundant in the peels of citrus fruit, on iron induced impairment of the anxiogenic-like behaviour, purinergic and cholinergic dysfunctions with oxidative stress related disorders on mitochondrial function in the rat hippocampus. Results showed that administration of NGEN (50 mg/kg/day) by gavage significantly ameliorated anxiogenic-like behaviour impairment induced by the exposure to 50 mg of Fe-dextran/kg/day intraperitoneally for 28 days in rats, decreased iron-induced reactive oxygen species formation and restored the iron-induced decrease of the acetylcholinesterase expression level, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial complexes activities in the hippocampus of rats. Moreover, NGEN was able to restore the alteration on the activity and expression of ectonucleotidases such as adenosine triphosphate diphosphohydrolase and 5'-nucleotidase, enzymes which hydrolyze and therefore control extracellular ATP and adenosine concentrations in the synaptic cleft. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the neuroprotective role of NGEN, emphasizing the influence of including this flavonoid in the diet for human health, possibly preventing brain injury associated with iron overload. PMID:26050208

  15. NMR-based metabonomic in hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex of methamphetamine-sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Bu, Qian; Lv, Lei; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Wang, Yanli; Zhou, Jiaqing; Yang, Yanzhu; Li, Yan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2013-05-01

    (1)H NMR spectroscopy was applied to investigate the changes of cerebral metabolites in brain hippocampus, nucleus accumbens (NAC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the rats subjected to subcutaneous twice-daily injections of 2.5mg/kg methamphetamine (MAP) for 7 days. The results indicated that MAP exposure induced significant behavioral sensitization and altered cerebral metabolites in rats. The neurotransmitters glutamate, glutamine and GABA significantly decreased in hippocampus, NAC and PFC. Specifically, increased succinic acid semialdehyde, a metabolism product of GABA, was observed in hippocampus. Additionally, decreased serotonin was observed in both NAC and PFC, whereas decreased dopamine was only observed in NAC after repeated MAP treatment. Glutathione obviously decreased in above brain regions, whereas acetylcysteine declined in hippocampus and NAC, and taurine declined in NAC and PFC. Homocysteic acid was elevated in hippocampus and NAC by repeated MAP administration. Membrane ingredients like phosphocholine elevated in response to MAP administration in NAC and PFC. N-Acetyl-aspartate, a marker of neuronal viability, decreased in the three regions; however, myo-inositol, a glial cell marker, increased in hippocampus and PFC. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate products, such as α-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate and the methionine significantly decreased in above three brain regions after MAP administration; however, ADP decreased in hippocampus. These results indicate that repeated MAP treatment causes neurotransmitters disturbance, imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidants, and gliosis in hippocampus, NAC and PFC. Profound metabolic changes detected across brain regions provide the first evidence of metabonomic changes in MAP-induced sensitized rats. PMID:23462569

  16. Protective effect of hesperidin on oxidative and histological liver damage following carbon tetrachloride administration in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Çiftçi, Osman; Otlu, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the current study, the protective effect of hesperidin (HP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats was investigated. Material and methods Twenty-eight rats were divided equally into four groups. The first group was kept as a control and given only vehicle. In the second, rats were orally administered 50 mg/kg/day HP for 10 days. Carbon tetrachloride was given in a single intraperitoneal injection at the dose of 2 ml/kg in the third group. In the fourth group, the rats were treated with equal doses of CCl4 and HP. Results It was found that CCl4 induced oxidative stress via a significant increase in the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and caused a significant decline in the levels of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rats. In contrast, HP blocked these toxic effects induced by CCl4, causing an increase in GSH, CAT and SOD levels and decreased formation of TBARS (p < 0.01). In addition, histopathological damage increased with CCl4 treatment. In contrast, HP treatment eliminated the effects of CCl4 and stimulated anti-apoptotic events, as characterized by reduced caspase-3 activation. Conclusions The current study demonstrated that CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity can be prevented with HP treatment. Thus, co-administration of HP with CCl4 may be useful for attenuating the negative effects of CCl4 on the liver. PMID:27279838

  17. Systemic Hypoxia and the Depression of Synaptic Transmission in Rat Hippocampus after Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, J C; Gervitz, L M; Hamilton, M E; Walker, J A

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between step reductions in inspired oxygen and the amplitude of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) recorded from hippocampal CA1 neurons was examined in anaesthetized rats with a unilateral common carotid artery occlusion. The amplitudes of fEPSPs recorded from the hippocampus ipsilateral to the occlusion were significantly more depressed with hypoxia than were the fEPSPs recorded from the contralateral hippocampus. The adenosine A1-selective antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (8-CPT), blunted the hypoxic depression of the fEPSP. Tissue partial pressure of oxygen (Ptiss,O2) was measured in the ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus using glass Clark-style microelectrodes. Ptiss,O2 fell to similar levels as a function of inspired oxygen in the ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus, and in the ipsilateral hippocampus after administration of 8-CPT. Hippocampal blood flow (HBF) was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. A decline in HBF was associated with systemic hypoxia in both hippocampi. HBF, as a function of inspired oxygen, fell significantly more in the ipsilateral than in the contralateral hippocampus. We conclude that endogenous adenosine acting at the neuronal A1 receptor plays a major role in the depression of synaptic transmission during hypoxic ischaemia. The greater susceptibility of the fEPSP in the ipsilateral hippocampus to systemic hypoxia cannot be explained entirely by differences in Ptiss,O2 or HBF between the two hemispheres. PMID:12807994

  18. Prion Protein Does Not Confer Resistance to Hippocampus-Derived Zpl Cells against the Toxic Effects of Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Co2+ Not Supporting a General Protective Role for PrP in Transition Metal Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Cingaram, Pradeep Kumar Reddy; Nyeste, Antal; Dondapati, Divya Teja; Fodor, Elfrieda; Welker, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of transition metals with the prion protein (PrP) are well-documented and characterized, however, there is no consensus on their role in either the physiology of PrP or PrP-related neurodegenerative disorders. PrP has been reported to protect cells from the toxic stimuli of metals. By employing a cell viability assay, we examined the effects of various concentrations of Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Co2+ on Zpl (Prnp-/-) and ZW (Prnp+/+) hippocampus-derived mouse neuronal cells. Prnp-/- Zpl cells were more sensitive to all four metals than PrP-expressing Zw cells. However, when we introduced PrP or only the empty vector into Zpl cells, we could not discern any protective effect associated with the presence of PrP. This observation was further corroborated when assessing the toxic effect of metals by propidium-iodide staining and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis. Thus, our results on this mouse cell culture model do not seem to support a strong protective role for PrP against transition metal toxicity and also emphasize the necessity of extreme care when comparing cells derived from PrP knock-out and wild type mice. PMID:26426582

  19. Passive administration of purified secretory IgA from human colostrum induces protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a murine model of progressive pulmonary infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin A is the most abundant isotype in secretions from mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary tracts and in external secretions such as colostrum, breast milk, tears and saliva. The high concentration of human secretory IgA (hsIgA) in human colostrum strongly suggests that it should play an important role in the passive immune protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Materials and methods Human secretory IgA was purified from colostrum. The reactivity of hsIgA against mycobacterial antigens and its protective capacity against mycobacterial infection was evaluated. Results The passive administration of hsIgA reduces the pneumonic area before challenge with M. tuberculosis. The intratracheal administration of M. tuberculosis preincubated with hsIgA to mice greatly reduced the bacterial load in the lungs and diminished lung tissue injury. Conclusions HsIgA purified from colostrum protects against M. tuberculosis infection in an experimental mouse model. PMID:23458564

  20. Mnemonic convergence in the human hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Backus, Alexander R.; Bosch, Sander E.; Ekman, Matthias; Grabovetsky, Alejandro Vicente; Doeller, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to form associations between a multitude of events is the hallmark of episodic memory. Computational models have espoused the importance of the hippocampus as convergence zone, binding different aspects of an episode into a coherent representation, by integrating information from multiple brain regions. However, evidence for this long-held hypothesis is limited, since previous work has largely focused on representational and network properties of the hippocampus in isolation. Here we identify the hippocampus as mnemonic convergence zone, using a combination of multivariate pattern and graph-theoretical network analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data from humans performing an associative memory task. We observe overlap of conjunctive coding and hub-like network attributes in the hippocampus. These results provide evidence for mnemonic convergence in the hippocampus, underlying the integration of distributed information into episodic memory representations. PMID:27325442

  1. Mnemonic convergence in the human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Backus, Alexander R; Bosch, Sander E; Ekman, Matthias; Grabovetsky, Alejandro Vicente; Doeller, Christian F

    2016-01-01

    The ability to form associations between a multitude of events is the hallmark of episodic memory. Computational models have espoused the importance of the hippocampus as convergence zone, binding different aspects of an episode into a coherent representation, by integrating information from multiple brain regions. However, evidence for this long-held hypothesis is limited, since previous work has largely focused on representational and network properties of the hippocampus in isolation. Here we identify the hippocampus as mnemonic convergence zone, using a combination of multivariate pattern and graph-theoretical network analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data from humans performing an associative memory task. We observe overlap of conjunctive coding and hub-like network attributes in the hippocampus. These results provide evidence for mnemonic convergence in the hippocampus, underlying the integration of distributed information into episodic memory representations. PMID:27325442

  2. Mucosal administration of raccoonpox virus expressing highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza neuraminidase is highly protective against H5N1 and seasonal influenza virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Kamlangdee, Attapon; Osorio, Jorge E

    2015-09-22

    We previously generated recombinant poxviruses expressing influenza antigens and studied their efficacy as potential highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) vaccines in mice. While both modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and raccoon poxvirus (RCN) expressing hemagglutinin (HA) provided strong protection when administered by parenteral routes, only RCN-neuraminidase (NA) showed promise as a mucosal vaccine. In the present study we evaluated the efficacy of RCN-NA constructs by both intradermal (ID) and intranasal (IN) routes. Surprisingly, while RCN-NA completely protected mice when administered by the IN route, it failed to protect mice when administered by the ID route. After challenge, significantly less virus induced pathology was observed in the lungs of mice vaccinated with RCN-NA by the IN route as compared to the ID route. Furthermore, IN administration of RCN-NA elicited neutralizing antibodies detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. We also determined the role of cellular immune responses in protection elicited by RCN-NA by depleting CD4 and CD8 T cells prior to challenge. Finally, we demonstrated for the first time that antibodies against NA can block viral entry in addition to viral spread in vitro. These studies demonstrate the importance of mucosal administration of RCN viral vectors for eliciting protective immune responses against the NA antigen. PMID:26271828

  3. Efficacy of polysaccharide from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans MSA3 administration as protection against γ-radiation in female rats.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Amal I; Ghoneim, Mona A M; Mahmoud, Manal G; Asker, Mohsen M S; Mohamed, Saher S

    2016-03-01

    Damage to normal tissues is a consequence of both therapeutic and accidental exposures to ionizing radiation. A water-soluble heteropolysaccharide called AXEPS, composed of glucose, galactose, rhamnose and glucouronic acid in a molar ratio of nearly 1.0:1.6:0.4:2.3, respectively, was isolated from culture medium of strain Alcaligenes xylosoxidans MSA3 by ethanol precipitation followed by freeze-drying. Chemical analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and chromatographic studies revealed that the molecular weight was 1.6 × 10(4) g mol(-1). This study was designed to investigate the radioprotective and biological effects of AXEPS in alleviating the toxicity of ionizing radiation in female albino rats. A total of 32 female albino rats were divided into four groups. In the control group, rats were administered vehicle by tube for four weeks. The second group was administered AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for four weeks. Animals in the third group were exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy) and remained for 2 weeks without treatment. The fourth group received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for two weeks before being exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy), then 24 h post γ-rays, they received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) in a treatment continuing till the end of the experiment (15 days after the whole-body γ-irradiation). Oral administration of AXEPS (100 mg/kg) significantly reversed the oxidative stress effects of radiation, as evidenced by the decrease in DNA damage in the bone marrow. Assessment of apoptosis and cell proliferation markers revealed that caspase-3 significantly increased in the irradiated group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the hematological constituents of peripheral blood, the chemotactic index and CD8+ T cells were observed in animals in the irradiation-only group, whereas an increase in the lymphocyte index was observed in animals in that group. In contrast, AXEPS treatment prevented these alterations. From our results, we conclude that

  4. Efficacy of polysaccharide from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans MSA3 administration as protection against γ-radiation in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Amal I.; Ghoneim, Mona A. M.; Mahmoud, Manal G.; Asker, Mohsen M. S.; Mohamed, Saher S.

    2016-01-01

    Damage to normal tissues is a consequence of both therapeutic and accidental exposures to ionizing radiation. A water-soluble heteropolysaccharide called AXEPS, composed of glucose, galactose, rhamnose and glucouronic acid in a molar ratio of nearly 1.0:1.6:0.4:2.3, respectively, was isolated from culture medium of strain Alcaligenes xylosoxidans MSA3 by ethanol precipitation followed by freeze-drying. Chemical analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and chromatographic studies revealed that the molecular weight was 1.6 × 104 g mol−1. This study was designed to investigate the radioprotective and biological effects of AXEPS in alleviating the toxicity of ionizing radiation in female albino rats. A total of 32 female albino rats were divided into four groups. In the control group, rats were administered vehicle by tube for four weeks. The second group was administered AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for four weeks. Animals in the third group were exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy) and remained for 2 weeks without treatment. The fourth group received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) orally by gavage for two weeks before being exposed to whole-body γ-rays (5 Gy), then 24 h post γ-rays, they received AXEPS (100 mg/kg) in a treatment continuing till the end of the experiment (15 days after the whole–body γ-irradiation). Oral administration of AXEPS (100 mg/kg) significantly reversed the oxidative stress effects of radiation, as evidenced by the decrease in DNA damage in the bone marrow. Assessment of apoptosis and cell proliferation markers revealed that caspase-3 significantly increased in the irradiated group. Moreover, a significant decrease in the hematological constituents of peripheral blood, the chemotactic index and CD8+ T cells were observed in animals in the irradiation-only group, whereas an increase in the lymphocyte index was observed in animals in that group. In contrast, AXEPS treatment prevented these alterations. From our results, we conclude that

  5. Neuroprotection induced by N-acetylcysteine and selenium against traumatic brain injury-induced apoptosis and calcium entry in hippocampus of rat.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Senol, Nilgün; Ghazizadeh, Vahid; Yürüker, Vehbi

    2014-08-01

    Neurodegeneration associated with acute central nervous system injuries and diseases such as spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are reported to be mediated by the regulation of apoptosis and oxidative stress through Ca(2+) influx. The thiol redox system antioxidants, such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and selenium (Se), display neuroprotective activities mediated at least in part by their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, there are no reports on hippocampal apoptosis, cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS), or Ca(2+) values in rats with an induced TBI. Therefore, we tested the effects of Se and NAC administration on apoptosis, oxidative stress, and Ca(2+) influx through TRPV1 channel activations in the hippocampus of TBI-induced rats. The 32 rats were divided into four groups: control, TBI, TBI + NAC, and TBI + Se groups. Intraperitoneal administrations of NAC and Se were performed at 1, 24, 48, and 72 h after TBI induction. After 3 days, the hippocampal neurons were freshly isolated from the rats. In cytosolic-free Ca(2+) analyses, the neurons were stimulated with the TRPV1 channel agonist capsaicin, a pungent compound found in hot chili peppers. Cytosolic-free Ca(2+), apoptosis, cytosolic ROS levels, and caspase-3 and -9 activities were higher in the TBI group than control. The values in the hippocampus were decreased by Se and NAC administrations. In conclusion, we observed that NAC and Se have protective effects on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and Ca(2+) entry via TRPV1 channel activation in the hippocampus of this TBI model, but the effect of NAC appears to be much greater than that of Se. They are both interesting candidates for studying the amelioration of TBIs. PMID:24842665

  6. Co-administration of certain DNA vaccine combinations expressing different H5N1 influenza virus antigens can be beneficial or detrimental to immune protection.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ami; Gray, Michael; Li, Yan; Kobasa, Darwyn; Yao, Xiaojian; Kobinger, Gary P

    2012-01-11

    Achieving broad-spectrum immunity against emerging zoonotic viruses such as avian influenza H5N1 and other possible pandemic viruses will require generation of cross-protective immune responses. Strong antibody responses generated against the H5HA protein are protective, however, antigenic variation between diverging isolates can interfere with virus neutralization. The current study investigates co-administration of an H5 HA DNA vaccine with other variable and conserved influenza antigens (NA, NP, and M2). All antigens were derived from the A/Hanoi/30408/2005 (H5N1) virus and the contribution towards overall protection and immune activation was assessed against lethal homologous and heterologous challenges. An (HA+NA) combination afforded the best protection against homologous challenge and (HA+NP) was comparable to HA alone against heterologous A/Hong Kong/483/1997 challenge. Interestingly, combining all four H5 antigens at a single site did not improve protection against matched challenge and unexpectedly reduced survival by 30% against a heterologous challenge. Survival was also significantly decreased against heterologous challenge following combination of (HA+NP) with an unrelated antigen. Although there were no significant changes in antibody titres, significantly lower T-cell responses were detected against all antigens except HA in each combination. Co-administration of the vaccines at different injection sites restored T-cell responses but did not improve overall protection. Similar observations were also recorded following combination of HA and NP antigens using two different adenovirus-based backbones. Overall, the data suggest that co-administering certain H5N1 antigens offer better or comparable protection to HA alone, however, combining extra antigens may be unnecessary and lead to unfavourable immune responses. PMID:22119588

  7. Icariin, a major constituent from Epimedium brevicornum, attenuates ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zong, Nan; Li, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Shi, Jingshan; Jin, Feng; Gong, Qihai

    2016-10-15

    Excitotoxicity is one of the most extensively studied causes of neuronal death and plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Icariin is a flavonoid component of a traditional Chinese medicine reported to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of icariin against learning and memory impairment induced by excitotoxicity. Here, we demonstrated that rats receiving intracerebroventricular injection of excitatory neurotoxin ibotenic acid exhibited impaired learning and memory. Oral administration of icariin at doses of 20 and 40mg/kg rescued behavioral performance and protected against neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus by suppressing ibotenic acid induced pro-apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blott of hippocampal specimens revealed that icariin up-regulated the expression of calbindin-D28k protein following ibotenic acid administration. Additionally, icariin inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family phosphorylation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, implicating the MAPK signaling and NF-κB signaling pathways were involved in the mechanism underlying icariin-mediated neuroprotection against ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity. These data suggested that icariin could be a potential agent for treatment of excitotoxicity-related diseases, including AD. PMID:27368415

  8. Glycyrrhizin attenuates kainic Acid-induced neuronal cell death in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lidan; Jin, Yinchuan; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Ja-Kyeong

    2013-06-01

    Glycyrrhizin (GL), a triterpene that is present in the roots and rhizomes of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects. Recently, we demonstrated that GL produced the neuroprotective effects with the suppression of microglia activation and proinflammatory cytokine induction in the postischemic brain with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats and improved motor impairment and neurological deficits. In the present study, we investigated whether GL has a beneficial effect in kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal death model. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of 0.94 nmole (0.2 µg) of KA produced typical neuronal death in both CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In contrast, administration of GL (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before KA administration significantly suppressed the neuronal death, and this protective effect was more stronger at 50 mg/kg. Moreover, the GL-mediated neuroprotection was accompanied with the suppression of gliosis and induction of proinflammatory markers (COX-2, iNOS, and TNF-α). The anti-inflammatory and anti-excitotoxic effects of GL were verified in LPS-treated primary microglial cultures and in NMDA- or KA-treated primary cortical cultures. Together these results suggest that GL confers the neuroprotection through the mechanism of anti-inflammatory and anti-excitotoxic effects in KA-treated brain. PMID:23833559

  9. Hippocampus in health and disease: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Kuljeet Singh; Dhikav, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampus is a complex brain structure embedded deep into temporal lobe. It has a major role in learning and memory. It is a plastic and vulnerable structure that gets damaged by a variety of stimuli. Studies have shown that it also gets affected in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. In last decade or so, lot has been learnt about conditions that affect hippocampus and produce changes ranging from molecules to morphology. Progresses in radiological delineation, electrophysiology, and histochemical characterization have made it possible to study this archicerebral structure in greater detail. Present paper attempts to give an overview of hippocampus, both in health and diseases. PMID:23349586

  10. Oral Administration of Electron-Beam Inactivated Rhodococcus equi Failed to Protect Foals against Intrabronchial Infection with Live, Virulent R. equi

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Joana N.; Cohen, Noah D.; Bordin, Angela I.; Brake, Courtney N.; Giguère, Steeve; Coleman, Michelle C.; Alaniz, Robert C.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Mwangi, Waithaka; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no licensed vaccine that protects foals against Rhodococcus equi–induced pneumonia. Oral administration of live, virulent R. equi to neonatal foals has been demonstrated to protect against subsequent intrabronchial challenge with virulent R. equi. Electron beam (eBeam)-inactivated R. equi are structurally intact and have been demonstrated to be immunogenic when administered orally to neonatal foals. Thus, we investigated whether eBeam inactivated R. equi could protect foals against developing pneumonia after experimental infection with live, virulent R. equi. Foals (n = 8) were vaccinated by gavaging with eBeam-inactivated R. equi at ages 2, 7, and 14 days, or gavaged with equal volume of saline solution (n = 4), and subsequently infected intrabronchially with live, virulent R. equi at age 21 days. The proportion of vaccinated foals that developed pneumonia following challenge was similar among the vaccinated (7/8; 88%) and unvaccinated foals (3/4; 75%). This vaccination regimen did not appear to be strongly immunogenic in foals. Alternative dosing regimens or routes of administration need further investigation and may prove to be immunogenic and protective. PMID:26828865

  11. Oral Administration of Electron-Beam Inactivated Rhodococcus equi Failed to Protect Foals against Intrabronchial Infection with Live, Virulent R. equi.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joana N; Cohen, Noah D; Bordin, Angela I; Brake, Courtney N; Giguère, Steeve; Coleman, Michelle C; Alaniz, Robert C; Lawhon, Sara D; Mwangi, Waithaka; Pillai, Suresh D

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no licensed vaccine that protects foals against Rhodococcus equi-induced pneumonia. Oral administration of live, virulent R. equi to neonatal foals has been demonstrated to protect against subsequent intrabronchial challenge with virulent R. equi. Electron beam (eBeam)-inactivated R. equi are structurally intact and have been demonstrated to be immunogenic when administered orally to neonatal foals. Thus, we investigated whether eBeam inactivated R. equi could protect foals against developing pneumonia after experimental infection with live, virulent R. equi. Foals (n = 8) were vaccinated by gavaging with eBeam-inactivated R. equi at ages 2, 7, and 14 days, or gavaged with equal volume of saline solution (n = 4), and subsequently infected intrabronchially with live, virulent R. equi at age 21 days. The proportion of vaccinated foals that developed pneumonia following challenge was similar among the vaccinated (7/8; 88%) and unvaccinated foals (3/4; 75%). This vaccination regimen did not appear to be strongly immunogenic in foals. Alternative dosing regimens or routes of administration need further investigation and may prove to be immunogenic and protective. PMID:26828865

  12. Intranasal Administration of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Induces Superior Protection against Aerosol Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kolibab, Kristopher; Yang, Amy; Morris, Sheldon L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), TB remains a global epidemic. To assess whether more direct targeting of the lung mucosa by respiratory immunization would enhance the potency and longevity of BCG-induced anti-TB protective immunity, the long-term impact of intranasal (i.n.) BCG vaccination was compared to conventional subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization by using a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. Although significantly improved protection in the lung was seen at early time points (2 and 4 months postvaccination) in i.n. BCG-immunized mice, no differences in pulmonary protection were seen 8 and 10 months postvaccination. In contrast, in all of the study periods, i.n. BCG vaccination induced significantly elevated protective splenic responses relative to s.c. immunization. At five of nine time points, we observed a splenic protective response exceeding 1.9 log10 protection relative to the s.c. route. Furthermore, higher frequencies of CD4 T cells expressing gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and IFN-γ/tumor necrosis factor alpha, as well as CD8 T cells expressing IFN-γ, were detected in the spleens of i.n. vaccinated mice. Using PCR arrays, significantly elevated levels of IFN-γ, interleukin-9 (IL-9), IL-11, and IL-21 expression were also seen in the spleen at 8 months after respiratory BCG immunization. Overall, while i.n. BCG vaccination provided short-term enhancement of protection in the lung relative to s.c. immunization, potent and extremely persistent splenic protective responses were seen for at least 10 months following respiratory immunization. PMID:25143340

  13. MICROINJECTION OF DYNORPHIN INTO THE HIPPOCAMPUS IMPAIRS SPATIAL LEARNING IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of hippocampal dynorphin administration on learning and memory was examined in spatial and nonspatial tasks. ilateral infusion of dynorphin A(1-8)(DYN; 10 or 20 ug in one ul) into the dorsal hippocampus resulted in dose-related impairment of spatial working memory in a...

  14. The hippocampus: a special place for time.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, Charan; Hsieh, Liang-Tien

    2016-04-01

    Many findings have demonstrated that memories of past events are temporally organized. It is well known that the hippocampus is critical for such episodic memories, but, until recently, little was known about the temporal organization of mnemonic representations in the hippocampus. Recent developments in human and animal research have revealed important insights into the role of the hippocampus in learning and retrieving sequences of events. Here, we review these findings, including lesion and single-unit recording studies in rodents, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans, and computational models that link findings from these studies to the anatomy of the hippocampal circuit. The findings converge toward the idea that the hippocampus is essential for learning sequences of events, allowing the brain to distinguish between memories for conceptually similar but temporally distinct episodes, and to associate representations of temporally contiguous, but otherwise unrelated experiences. PMID:27082833

  15. Dissection of Different Areas from Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Faraz A.

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus modulates a number of modules including memory consolidation, spatial navigation, temporal processing and emotion. A banana-shaped structure, the hippocampus is constituted of morphologically distinct subregions including the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1 (here, we do not distinguish the “hippocampus proper” which consists only of CA1, CA3 and smaller CA2 and CA4 areas, from the “hippocampal formation,” composed of these in addition to the dentate gyrus and subiculum). Distinct cell types give rise to unique axonal fiber pathways in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1 subregions; accordingly, these areas may exhibit differential molecular profiles in response to a number of behavioral paradigms and pharmacological and genetic treatments. It is therefore in the interest of the investigator to dissect a specific subregion from the whole hippocampus. Here we outline a protocol for subregion-specific dissection from the adult mouse.

  16. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  17. Noopept stimulates the expression of NGF and BDNF in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, R U; Gudasheva, T A; Zaplina, A P; Vahitova, Ju V; Salimgareeva, M H; Jamidanov, R S; Seredenin, S B

    2008-09-01

    We studied the effect of original dipeptide preparation Noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester, GVS-111) with nootropic and neuroprotective properties on the expression of mRNA for neurotropic factors NGF and BDNF in rat hippocampus. Expression of NGF and BDNF mRNA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was studied by Northern blot analysis. Taking into account the fact that pharmacological activity of Noopept is realized after both acute and chronic treatment, we studied the effect of single and long-term treatment (28 days) with this drug. Expression of the studied neurotropic factors in the cerebral cortex was below the control after single administration of Noopept, while chronic administration caused a slight increase in BDNF expression. In the hippocampus, expression of mRNA for both neurotrophins increased after acute administration of Noopept. Chronic treatment with Noopept was not followed by the development of tolerance, but even potentiated the neurotrophic effect. These changes probably play a role in neuronal restoration. We showed that the nootropic drug increases expression of neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that neurotrophin synthesis in the hippocampus determines cognitive function, particularly in consolidation and delayed memory retrieval. Published data show that neurotrophic factor deficiency in the hippocampus is observed not only in advanced Alzheimer's disease, but also at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (pre-disease state). In light of this our findings suggest that Noopept holds much promise to prevent the development of Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Moreover, therapeutic effectiveness of Noopept should be evaluated at the initial stage of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19240853

  18. Abrogation of Attenuated Lentivirus-Induced Protection in Rhesus Macaques by Administration of Depo-Provera before Intravaginal Challenge with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus mac239

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Kristina; Rourke, Tracy; Lu, Ding; Bost, Kristen; McChesney, Michael B.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    In nonhuman primate models of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, live attenuated lentiviruses provide the most reliable protection from systemic and mucosal challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Although live attenuated lentiviruses may never be used in humans because of safety concerns, understanding the nature of the protective immune mechanisms induced by live attenuated vaccines in primate models will be useful for developing other vaccine approaches. Approximately 60% of rhesus macaques immunized with nonpathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strain 89.6 are protected from infection or clinical disease after intravaginal (IVAG) challenge with pathogenic SIVmac239. The goal of the present study was to determine whether administration of Depo-Provera before IVAG challenge with SIV decreases the protective efficacy of infection with SHIV89.6. The rate of protection after IVAG challenge with SIVmac239 was significantly lower (P < .05), and the acute postchallenge plasma viral RNA levels were significantly higher (P < .006), in Depo-Provera–treated, SHIV89.6-immunized macaques than in Depo-Provera–naive, SHIV89.6-immunized macaques. In the primate model of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, treatment with progesterone before IVAG challenge with a pathogenic virus can decrease the efficacy of a model “vaccine.” PMID:15478078

  19. Protective immunity against alpha-cobratoxin following a single administration of a genetic vaccine encoding a non-toxic cobratoxin variant.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Robert G; Dragos, Rachel; Ropper, Alexander E; Menez, André; Crystal, Ronald G

    2005-03-01

    Venomous snakebites result in almost 125,000 deaths per year worldwide. We present a new paradigm for the development of vaccines to protect against snakebite, using knowledge of the structure and action of specific toxins combined with a gene-based strategy to deliver a toxin gene modified to render it non-toxic while maintaining its three-dimensional structure and hence its ability to function as an immunogen. As a model for this approach, we developed a genetic vaccine to protect against alpha-cobratoxin (CTX), a potent, post-synaptic neurotoxin that is the major toxic component of the venom of Naja kaouthia, the monocellate cobra. To develop the vaccine, substitutions in the CTX cDNA were introduced at two residues critical for binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (Asp27 to Arg, Arg33 to Gly). The mutated CTX expression cassette was delivered in the context of a replication deficient adenovirus vector (AdmCTX). To assess whether expression of the mutated CTX in vivo leads to the development of protective immunity, BALB/c mice were challenged by IV administration of 2 microg of alpha-cobratoxin protein 21 or 63 days after administration of AdmCTX or Ad- Null (as a control; both, 10(9) particle units). Animals receiving AdmCTX but no alpha-cobratoxin challenge suffered no ill effects, but > or =80% of naive animals or those receiving the AdNull control vector died within 10 min from the alpha-cobratoxin challenge. In contrast, 100% of animals receiving a single dose of AdmCTX 21 or 63 days prior to alpha-cobratoxin challenge survived. The data demonstrates that an adenovirus-based vaccine can be developed to protect against lethal challenge with a potent snake venom. The effectiveness of this approach might serve as a basis to consider the development of a global public health program to protect those at risk for death by snakebite. PMID:15812224

  20. Oral administration of a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins protects mice against influenza A (H1N1) virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Nirmal D; Edwall, Dan; Lindmark, Lars; Kousoulas, K Gus; Iyer, Arun V; Haron, Mona H; Pasco, David S

    2015-02-15

    A growing body of research indicates that oral administration of bacteria (such as probiotics) can exhibit a protective effect against influenza A (H1N1) viral infection in mice. In the present study, we used a mouse model to examine whether oral administration of Immulina(®), a commercial extract from the cyanobacteria Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, can reduce the severity of illness resulting from influenza A (H1N1) viral infection. The main active compounds within Immulina(®) are bacterial Braun-type lipoproteins that activate innate immune cells through a toll-like receptor (TLR) 2-dependent pathway. Mice that were fed Immulina(®) for 30 days before and 21 days after infection with influenza A (H1N1) virus exhibited a statistically significant reduction in the severity of infection. Compared to the control group, Immulina(®)-fed mice exhibited less weight loss, increased appetite, decreased clinical signs of disease, and lower lung histopathology scores. The results from the present study adds to the increasing evidence that oral administration of bacterial components that activate innate immune cells, whether derived from a bacterial preparation (probiotics or cyanobacteria) or from plant material containing endophytic bacteria, can exhibit a protective effect against influenza A (H1N1) viral infection. PMID:25765832

  1. The tumor protection effect of high-frequency administration of whole tumor cell vaccine and enhanced efficacy by the protein component from Agrocybe aegerita

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Sun, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Whole tumor cell vaccines have been widely studied and elicits limited immune responses because of the poor immunogenicity. In the present study, we discovered that high-frequency administration of irradiated whole tumor cell vaccine triggered rejection of tumor cells (90% or 100% of the mice that were vaccinated with irradiated H22 cells or S180 respectively were protected), and provided cross-protection and long-term anti-tumor immunity in BALB/c mouse models. The antitumor activity required CD4+, CD8+ T cells and macrophage that was proved in the nude mice and cell depletion mouse models. The adoptive transfer experiment suggested that repeated whole tumor cell vaccination successfully stimulated the anti-tumor response by activation of the immune cells. A high immunization frequency within a short period of time and the presence of glycosylated molecules and nucleic acids on the surface of intact tumor cells were crucial for the successful prevention of tumor growth by whole tumor cell vaccines. Moreover, Yt, the protein component from fungus Agrocybe aegerita, increased whole tumor cell vaccine-mediated tumor rejection and cross-protection effect. These data indicated that the frequency of administration of whole tumor cell vaccines was of critical importance for the efficacy, which needed to be integrated into vaccine strategies for producing potential vaccines. PMID:26221228

  2. Oral administration of pyridostigmine bromide and huperzine A protects human whole blood cholinesterases from ex vivo exposure to soman.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Richard K; Haigh, Julian R; Garcia, Gregory E; Feaster, Shawn R; Riel, Michael A; Lenz, David E; Aisen, Paul S; Doctor, Bhupendra P

    2005-12-15

    maximal inhibition of AChE (26.2%) and concentration of PB (17.1 ng/mL) occurred at 2.5 h post-PB dosing. AChE activity returned to almost 100% of pre-dose values by 6 h. A dose-dependent linear correlation was found between the amount of PB measured in the blood and the inhibition of AChE. Following soman (GD) exposure, recovered AChE activity was similar to levels that were reversibly protected by the PB administration. Therefore, the WRAIR ChE WB data clearly supports the conclusion that PB is an effective pre-treatment drug for nerve agent exposure (GD). In the second FDA human study for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, the WRAIR ChE WB assay was used to determine the RBC-AChE and serum BChE profile of healthy elderly volunteers receiving Huperzine A. Huperzine A is a plant-derived reversible and selective AChE inhibitor compared to BChE, and is a more potent inhibitor of AChE than PB. Huperzine A is available as a nutraceutical, a natural supplement reported to improve memory, and has a variety of neuroprotective effects. Individuals received an increasing dose regimen of huperzine A (final dose 200 microg after 4 weeks), which produced more than 50% inhibition of RBC-AChE. Huperzine A was well tolerated by these patients at doses that sequestered more RBC-AChE than PB, and thus warrants further study as a prophylaxis for OP poisoning in addition to Alzheimer's therapy. Due to the documented use of OPs by terrorists and in warfare around the globe, Federal, State, and local authorities need a reliable, fast, inexpensive, and standard method for confirming such an assault in order to initiate appropriate containment, decontamination, and treatment measures. This assay is ideal for prescreening military personnel for atypical ChE activities that would preclude their deployment to areas of potential CWA exposure. The WRAIR WB ChE assay will fulfill the requirement for rapid and reliable monitoring of such exposure in military and civilian populations. PMID:16256090

  3. Federal Administrative Law--Privacy, Freedom of Information and Protection of Human Subjects--Affecting Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberger, JoAnn

    Since 1972, the issue of human rights protection has grown in complexity and intensity. Congress has passed four laws: Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974; Freedom of Information Act, as amended; Privacy Act of 1974; and National Research Act of 1974. From 1971-1980, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW) and then the…

  4. Methamphetamine differentially affects BDNF and cell death factors in anatomically defined regions of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Galinato, Melissa H.; Orio, Laura; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine exposure reduces hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and neurogenesis and these alterations partially contribute to hippocampal maladaptive plasticity. The potential mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-induced maladaptive plasticity were identified in the present study. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; a regulator of LTP and neurogenesis), and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) were studied in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal tissue lysates in rats that intravenously self-administered methamphetamine in a limited access (1 h/day) or extended access (6 h/day) paradigm for 17 days post baseline sessions. Extended access methamphetamine enhanced expression of BDNF with significant effects observed in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Methamphetamine-induced enhancements in BDNF expression were not associated with TrkB receptor activation as indicated by phospho (p)-TrkB-706 levels. Conversely, methamphetamine produced hypophosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B) at Tyr-1472 in the ventral hippocampus, indicating reduced receptor activation. In addition, methamphetamine enhanced expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and reduced pro-apoptotic protein Bax levels in the ventral hippocampus, suggesting a mechanism for reducing cell death. Analysis of Akt, a pro-survival kinase that suppresses apoptotic pathways and pAkt at Ser-473 demonstrated that extended access methamphetamine reduces Akt expression in the ventral hippocampus. These data reveal that alterations in Bcl-2 and Bax levels by methamphetamine were not associated with enhanced Akt expression. Given that hippocampal function and neurogenesis vary in a subregion-specific fashion, where dorsal hippocampus regulates spatial processing and has higher levels of neurogenesis, whereas ventral hippocampus regulates anxiety-related behaviors, these data suggest that methamphetamine self-administration initiates distinct allostatic changes in

  5. Administration of a probiotic associated with nasal vaccination with inactivated Lactococcus lactis-PppA induces effective protection against pneumoccocal infection in young mice

    PubMed Central

    Vintiñi, E; Villena, J; Alvarez, S; Medina, M

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious public health problem, especially in developing countries, where available vaccines are not part of the vaccination calendar. We evaluated different respiratory mucosa immunization protocols that included the nasal administration of Lactococcus lactis-pneumococcal protective protein A (PppA) live, inactivated, and in association with a probiotic (Lc) to young mice. The animals that received Lc by the oral and nasal route presented the highest levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG anti-PppA antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and IgG in serum, which no doubt contributed to the protection against infection. However, only the groups that received the live and inactivated vaccine associated with the oral administration of the probiotic were able to prevent lung colonization by S. pneumoniae serotypes 3 and 14 in a respiratory infection model. This would be related to a preferential stimulation of the T helper type 1 (Th1) cells at local and systemic levels and with a moderate Th2 and Th17 response, shown by the cytokine profile induced in BAL and by the results of the IgG1/IgG2a ratio at local and systemic levels. Nasal immunization with the inactivated recombinant strain associated with oral Lc administration was able to stimulate the specific cellular and humoral immune response and afford protection against the challenge with the two S. pneumoniae serotypes. The results obtained show the probiotic-inactivated vaccine association as a valuable alternative for application to human health, especially in at-risk populations, and are the first report of a safe and effective immunization strategy using an inactivated recombinant strain. PMID:20002449

  6. Gene expression profiling in developing human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Mei, Pinchao; Lou, Rong; Zhang, Michael Q; Wu, Guanyun; Qiang, Boqin; Zhang, Zhengguo; Shen, Yan

    2002-10-15

    The gene expression profile of developing human hippocampus is of particular interest and importance to neurobiologists devoted to development of the human brain and related diseases. To gain further molecular insight into the developmental and functional characteristics, we analyzed the expression profile of active genes in developing human hippocampus. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were selected by sequencing randomly selected clones from an original 3'-directed cDNA library of 150-day human fetal hippocampus, and a digital expression profile of 946 known genes that could be divided into 16 categories was generated. We also used for comparison 14 other expression profiles of related human neural cells/tissues, including human adult hippocampus. To yield more confidence regarding differential expression, a method was applied to attach normalized expression data to genes with a low false-positive rate (<0.05). Finally, hierarchical cluster analysis was used to exhibit related gene expression patterns. Our results are in accordance with anatomical and physiological observations made during the developmental process of the human hippocampus. Furthermore, some novel findings appeared to be unique to our results. The abundant expression of genes for cell surface components and disease-related genes drew our attention. Twenty-four genes are significantly different from adult, and 13 genes might be developing hippocampus-specific candidate genes, including wnt2b and some Alzheimer's disease-related genes. Our results could provide useful information on the ontogeny, development, and function of cells in the human hippocampus at the molecular level and underscore the utility of large-scale, parallel gene expression analyses in the study of complex biological phenomena. PMID:12271469

  7. Systemic administration of the apocarotenoid bixin protects skin against solar UV-induced damage through activation of NRF2.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shasha; Park, Sophia L; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Zhang, Donna D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a causative factor in skin photodamage and carcinogenesis, and an urgent need exists for improved molecular photoprotective strategies different from (or synergistic with) photon absorption. Recent studies suggest a photoprotective role of cutaneous gene expression orchestrated by the transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2). Here we have explored the molecular mechanism underlying carotenoid-based systemic skin photoprotection in SKH-1 mice and provide genetic evidence that photoprotection achieved by the FDA-approved apocarotenoid and food additive bixin depends on NRF2 activation. Bixin activates NRF2 through the critical Cys-151 sensor residue in KEAP1, orchestrating a broad cytoprotective response in cultured human keratinocytes as revealed by antioxidant gene expression array analysis. Following dose optimization studies for cutaneous NRF2 activation by systemic administration of bixin, feasibility of bixin-based suppression of acute cutaneous photodamage from solar UV exposure was investigated in Nrf2(+/+) versus Nrf2(-/-) SKH-1 mice. Systemic administration of bixin suppressed skin photodamage, attenuating epidermal oxidative DNA damage and inflammatory responses in Nrf2(+/+) but not in Nrf2(-/-) mice, confirming the NRF2-dependence of bixin-based cytoprotection. Taken together, these data demonstrate feasibility of achieving NRF2-dependent cutaneous photoprotection by systemic administration of the apocarotenoid bixin, a natural food additive consumed worldwide. PMID:26456052

  8. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammation in hippocampus and olfactory bulb in lithium/pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    PubMed

    González-Reyes, Susana; Santillán-Cigales, Juan Jair; Jiménez-Osorio, Angélica Saraí; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2016-10-01

    Glycyrrhizin (GL) is a triterpene present in the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra that has anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects. Recently, it was demonstrated that GL produced neuroprotective effects on the postischemic brain as well as on the kainic acid injury model in rats. In addition to this, GL also prevented excitotoxic effects on primary cultures. The aims of the present study were to evaluate GL scavenging properties and to investigate GL's effect on oxidative stress and inflammation in the lithium/pilocarpine-induced seizure model in two cerebral regions, hippocampus and olfactory bulb, at acute time intervals (3 or 24h) after status epilepticus (SE). Fluorometric methods showed that GL scavenged three reactive oxygen species: hydrogen peroxide, peroxyl radicals and superoxide anions. In contrast, GL was unable to scavenge peroxynitrite, hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen and 2,2-diphenil-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals suggesting that GL is a weak scavenger. Additionally, administration of GL (50mg/kg, i.p.) 30min before pilocarpine administration significantly suppressed oxidative stress. Moreover, malondialdehyde levels were diminished and glutathione levels were maintained at control values in both cerebral regions at 3 and 24 after SE. At 24h after SE, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activity increased in the hippocampus, while both glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity were unchanged in the olfactory bulb at that time. In addition, GL suppressed the induction of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in both cerebral regions evaluated. These results suggest that GL confers protection against pilocarpine damage via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:27490898

  9. Effect of taurine on the concentrations of glutamate, GABA, glutamine and alanine in the rat striatum and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Molchanova, Svetlana M; Oja, Simos S; Saransaari, Pirjo

    2007-01-01

    Taurine, a non-protein amino acid, acts as an osmoregulator and inhibitory neuromodulator in the brain. Here we studied the effects of intraperitoneal injections of taurine on the concentrations of glutamate and GABA, and their precursors, glutamine and alanine, in the rat striatum and hippocampus. Injections of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg taurine led to a gradual increase in taurine tissue concentrations in both hippocampus and striatum. Glutamate and GABA also increased in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum. Glutamine increased and alanine decreased markedly in both brain structures. The results corroborate the neuromodulatory role of taurine in the brain. Taurine administration results in an imbalance in inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission in the glutamatergic (hippocampus) and GABAergic (striatum) brain structures, affecting more markedly the neurotransmitter precursors. PMID:18605241

  10. Pancreatic l-Glutamine Administration Protects Pig Islets From Cold Ischemic Injury and Increases Resistance Toward Inflammatory Mediators.

    PubMed

    Brandhorst, Heide; Theisinger, Bastian; Guenther, Bernhard; Johnson, Paul R; Brandhorst, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The isolation and transplantation of porcine islets represent a future option for the treatment of type 1 diabetic patients. Stringent product release criteria and limited availability of transgenic and specific pathogen-free pigs will essentially require processing of explanted pig pancreata in specialized, possibly remote isolation facilities, whereby pancreata are exposed to cold ischemia due to prolonged tissue transit time. In the present study we investigated whether pancreas oxygenation can be efficiently combined with an antioxidant strategy utilizing intraductal l-glutamine administration. Pig pancreata were intraductally perfused after retrieval and after cold storage in oxygen-precharged perfluorohexyloctane utilizing University of Wisconsin solution supplemented with (n = 16) or without (n = 14) 5 mmol/L l-glutamine. After isolation purified islets were subjected to extensive quality assessment. Islet recovery postpurification was significantly higher in glutamine-treated pancreata (77.0 ± 3.3% vs. 60.3 ± 6.0%, p < 0.05). Glutamine administration increased intraislet content of reduced glutathione (117.8 ± 16.5 vs. 15.9 ± 2.8 ng/ng protein, p < 0.001) associated with increased islet recovery after culture (65.8 ± 12.1% vs. 40.3 ± 11.7%, p < 0.05), enhanced glucose stimulation index (1.82 ± 0.16 vs. 1.38 ± 0.10, p < 0.05), and improved posttransplant function in diabetic nude mice (p < 0.05). Furthermore, intraductally administered glutamine increased pig islet resistance toward reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and high-dose proinflammatory cytokines. The present study demonstrates that quality and function of pig islets exposed to warm and cold ischemia can significantly be improved using intraductal l-glutamine administration. As the efficiency of the intraductal route may be inferior compared to intravascular administration further studies should aim on assessment of l

  11. Acute Coronary Syndromes, Gastrointestinal Protection, and Recommendations Regarding Concomitant Administration of Proton-Pump Inhibitors (Omeprazol/Esomeprazole) and Clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Iñigo; Sanchez-Insa, Esther; de Leiras, Sergio Rodríguez; Carrillo, Pilar; Ruiz-Quevedo, Valeriano; Pinar, Eduardo; Gopar-Gopar, Silvia; Bayon, Jeremías; Mañas, Pilar; Lasa, Garikoitz; CruzGonzalez, Ignacio; Hernandez, Felipe; Fernandez-Portales, Javier; Fernandez-Fernandez, Javier; Pérez-Serradilla, Ana; de la Torre Hernandez, José M; Gomez-Jaume, Alfredo

    2016-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency sent a warning in 2010 discouraging the concomitant use of clopidogrel with omeprazole or esomeprazole. The purpose is to know the gastroprotective approach in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the level of follow-up of the alert. In 17 hospitals with catheterization laboratory in Spain, 1 per region, we studied 25 consecutive patients per hospital whose diagnosis of discharge since October 1, 2013, had been any type of ACS. We analyzed their baseline clinical profile, the gatroprotective agents at admission and discharge and the antiplatelet therapy at discharge. The number of patients included was 425: age 67.2 ± 12.5 years, women 29.8%, diabetes 36.5%. The patients presented unstable angina in 21.6%, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 35.3% and ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 43.1%. Conservative approach was chosen in 17.9%, bare-metal stents 32.2%, ≥ 1 drug-eluting stent 48.5%, and surgery 1.4%. Aspirin was indicated in 1.9%, aspirin + clopidogrel 73.6%, aspirin + prasugrel 17.6%, and aspririn + ticagrelor 6.8%. Gastroprotective agents were present in 40.2% patients at admission and this percentage increased to 93.7% at discharge. Of the 313 (73.6%) on clopidogrel in 96 (30.6%) was combined with omeprazole and 3 (0.95%) with esomeprazole, whereas the most commonly used was pantoprazole with 190 patients (44.7%). In conclusion, almost the totality of the patients with an ACS receive gastroprotective agents at the moment of discharge, most of them with proton-pump inhibitors. In one every 3 cases of the patients who are on clopidogrel, the recommendation of the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency is not followed. PMID:26708640

  12. Oral Administration of a Prodrug of the Influenza Virus Neuraminidase Inhibitor GS 4071 Protects Mice and Ferrets against Influenza Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Dirk B.; Tai, Chun Y.; Escarpe, Paul A.; Li, Weixing; Sidwell, Robert W.; Huffman, John H.; Sweet, Clive; Jakeman, Kenneth J.; Merson, James; Lacy, Steven A.; Lew, Willard; Williams, Matthew A.; Zhang, Lijun; Chen, Ming S.; Bischofberger, Norbert; Kim, Choung U.

    1998-01-01

    We have recently described GS 4071, a carbocyclic transition-state analog inhibitor of the influenza virus neuraminidase, which has potent inhibitory activity comparable to that of 4-guanidino-Neu5Ac2en (GG167; zanamivir) when tested against influenza A virus replication and neuraminidase activity in vitro. We now report that GS 4071 is active against several strains of influenza A and B viruses in vitro and that oral GS 4104, an ethyl ester prodrug which is converted to GS 4071 in vivo, is active in the mouse and ferret models of influenza virus infection. Oral administration of 10 mg of GS 4104 per kg of body weight per day caused a 100-fold reduction in lung homogenate viral titers and enhanced survival in mice infected with influenza A or B viruses. In ferrets, a 25-mg/kg dose of GS 4104 given twice daily reduced peak viral titers in nasal washings and eliminated constitutional responses to influenza virus infection including fever, increased nasal signs (sneezing, nasal discharge, mouth breathing), and decreased activity. Consistent with our demonstration that the parent compound is highly specific for influenza virus neuraminidases, no significant drug-related toxicity was observed after the administration of oral dosages of GS 4104 of up to 800 mg/kg/day for 14 days in nonclinical toxicology studies with rats. These results indicate that GS 4104 is a novel, orally active antiviral agent with the potential to be used for the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. PMID:9517945

  13. How does the hippocampus shape decisions?

    PubMed

    Palombo, Daniela J; Keane, Margaret M; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-11-01

    Making optimal decisions depends on an appreciation of the value of choices. An important source of information about value comes from memory for prior experience. Such value-based learning has historically been considered the domain of a striatal memory system. However, recent developments suggest that memorial representations supported by the hippocampus may also contribute to decision making. Unlike striatal representations, hippocampal ones are flexible; they can be modified and updated as new information is acquired. In this paper we argue that the hippocampus plays a pivotal role in value-based decision making via three flexible learning mechanisms: (1) updating, (2) generalization, and (3) construction. PMID:26297967

  14. Protective effect of maternal prenatal melatonin administration on rat pups born to mothers submitted to constant light during gestation.

    PubMed

    Cisternas, C D; Compagnucci, M V; Conti, N R; Ponce, R H; Vermouth, N T

    2010-09-01

    We studied the effects of adverse conditions such as constant light (LL) on the circadian rhythm of malate (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) and lactate (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) dehydrogenase activities of the testes of male Wistar rats on postnatal day 28 (PN28), anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test) at PN60 and sexual behavior at PN120. The rats were assigned to mother groups on day 10 of pregnancy: control (12-h light/dark), LL (light from day 10 to 21 of pregnancy), and LL+Mel (LL and sc injection to the mothers of a daily dose of melatonin, 1 mg/kg body weight at circadian time 12, from day 17 to 21 of pregnancy). LL offspring did not show circadian rhythms of MDH (N = 62) and LDH (N = 63) activities (cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher). They presented a 44.7% decrease in open-arm entries and a 67.9% decrease in time (plus-maze test, N = 15, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test), an increase in mounting (94.4%), intromission (94.5%) and ejaculation (56.6%) latencies (N = 12, P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test) and lower numbers of these events (61, 59 and 73%, respectively; P < 0.01, N = 12) compared to controls. The offspring of the LL+Mel group presented MDH and LDH circadian rhythms (P < 0.05, N = 50, cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher), anxiety-like and sexual behaviors similar to control. These findings supported the importance of the melatonin signal and provide evidence for the protective effects of hormones on maternal programming during gestation. This protective action of melatonin is probably related to its entrainment capacity, favoring internal coupling of the fetal multioscillatory system. PMID:20802971

  15. Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Basak, Chandramallika; Szabo, Amanda; Chaddock, Laura; Kim, Jennifer S; Heo, Susie; Alves, Heloisa; White, Siobhan M; Wojcicki, Thomas R; Mailey, Emily; Vieira, Victoria J; Martin, Stephen A; Pence, Brandt D; Woods, Jeffrey A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2011-02-15

    The hippocampus shrinks in late adulthood, leading to impaired memory and increased risk for dementia. Hippocampal and medial temporal lobe volumes are larger in higher-fit adults, and physical activity training increases hippocampal perfusion, but the extent to which aerobic exercise training can modify hippocampal volume in late adulthood remains unknown. Here we show, in a randomized controlled trial with 120 older adults, that aerobic exercise training increases the size of the anterior hippocampus, leading to improvements in spatial memory. Exercise training increased hippocampal volume by 2%, effectively reversing age-related loss in volume by 1 to 2 y. We also demonstrate that increased hippocampal volume is associated with greater serum levels of BDNF, a mediator of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Hippocampal volume declined in the control group, but higher preintervention fitness partially attenuated the decline, suggesting that fitness protects against volume loss. Caudate nucleus and thalamus volumes were unaffected by the intervention. These theoretically important findings indicate that aerobic exercise training is effective at reversing hippocampal volume loss in late adulthood, which is accompanied by improved memory function. PMID:21282661

  16. Administration of low dose estrogen attenuates gliosis and protects neurons in acute spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Samantaray, Supriti; Das, Arabinda; Matzelle, Denise C; Yu, Shan P; Wei, Ling; Varma, Abhay; Ray, Swapan K; Banik, Naren L

    2016-03-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition with neurological deficits and loss of motor function that, depending on the severity, may lead to paralysis. The only treatment currently available is methylprednisolone, which is widely used and renders limited efficacy in SCI. Therefore, other therapeutic agents must be developed. The neuroprotective efficacy of estrogen in SCI was studied with a pre-clinical and pro-translational perspective. Acute SCI was induced in rats that were treated with low doses of estrogen (1, 5, 10, or 100 μg/kg) and compared with vehicle-treated injured rats or laminectomy control (sham) rats at 48 h post-SCI. Changes in gliosis and other pro-inflammatory responses, expression and activity of proteolytic enzymes (e.g., calpain, caspase-3), apoptosis of neurons in SCI, and cell death were monitored via Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Negligible pro-inflammatory responses or proteolytic events and very low levels of neuronal death were found in sham rats. In contrast, vehicle-treated SCI rats showed profound pro-inflammatory responses with reactive gliosis, elevated expression and activity of calpain and caspase-3, elevated Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, and high levels of neuronal death in lesion and caudal regions of the injured spinal cord. Estrogen treatment at each dose reduced pro-inflammatory and proteolytic activities and protected neurons in the caudal penumbra in acute SCI. Estrogen treatment at 10 μg was found to be as effective as 100 μg in ameliorating the above parameters in injured animals. Results from this investigation indicated that estrogen at a low dose could be a promising therapeutic agent for treating acute SCI. Experimental studies with low dose estrogen therapy in acute spinal cord injury (SCI) demonstrated the potential for multi-active beneficial outcomes. Estrogen has been found to ameliorate several degenerative pathways following SCI. Thus, such early protective effects may even lead to functional

  17. Coordinated network activity in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Draguhn, Andreas; Keller, Martin; Reichinnek, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus expresses a variety of highly organized network states which bind its individual neurons into collective modes of activity. These patterns go along with characteristic oscillations of extracellular potential known as theta, gamma, and ripple oscillations. Such network oscillations share some important features throughout the entire central nervous system of higher animals: they are restricted to a defined behavioral state, they are mostly generated by subthreshold synaptic activity, and they entrain active neurons to fire action potentials at strictly defined phases of the oscillation cycle, thereby providing a unifying 'zeitgeber' for coordinated multineuronal activity. Recent work from the hippocampus of rodents and humans has revealed how the resulting spatiotemporal patterns support the formation of neuronal assemblies which, in our present understanding, form the neuronal correlate of spatial, declarative, or episodic memories. In this review, we introduce the major types of spatiotemporal activity patterns in the hippocampus, describe the underlying neuronal mechanisms, and illustrate the concept of memory formation within oscillating networks. Research on hippocampus-dependent memory has become a key model system at the interface between cellular and cognitive neurosciences. The next step will be to translate our increasing insight into the mechanisms and systemic functions of neuronal networks into urgently needed new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24777128

  18. Andrographolide Stimulates Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Arredondo, Sebastian B.; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Hancke, Juan; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected. PMID:26798521

  19. Andrographolide Stimulates Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Arredondo, Sebastian B; Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Hancke, Juan; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO) is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected. PMID:26798521

  20. Unconscious relational encoding depends on hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Duss, Simone B.; Reber, Thomas P.; Hänggi, Jürgen; Schwab, Simon; Wiest, Roland; Müri, René M.; Brugger, Peter; Gutbrod, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Textbooks divide between human memory systems based on consciousness. Hippocampus is thought to support only conscious encoding, while neocortex supports both conscious and unconscious encoding. We tested whether processing modes, not consciousness, divide between memory systems in three neuroimaging experiments with 11 amnesic patients (mean age = 45.55 years, standard deviation = 8.74, range = 23–60) and 11 matched healthy control subjects. Examined processing modes were single item versus relational encoding with only relational encoding hypothesized to depend on hippocampus. Participants encoded and later retrieved either single words or new relations between words. Consciousness of encoding was excluded by subliminal (invisible) word presentation. Amnesic patients and controls performed equally well on the single item task activating prefrontal cortex. But only the controls succeeded on the relational task activating the hippocampus, while amnesic patients failed as a group. Hence, unconscious relational encoding, but not unconscious single item encoding, depended on hippocampus. Yet, three patients performed normally on unconscious relational encoding in spite of amnesia capitalizing on spared hippocampal tissue and connections to language cortex. This pattern of results suggests that processing modes divide between memory systems, while consciousness divides between levels of function within a memory system. PMID:25273998

  1. Protection against bovine tuberculosis induced by oral vaccination of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis BCG is not enhanced by co-administration of mycobacterial protein vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wedlock, D Neil; Aldwell, Frank E; Vordermeier, H Martin; Hewinson, R Glyn; Buddle, Bryce M

    2011-12-15

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) delivered to calves by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce protection against bovine tuberculosis. A study was conducted in cattle to determine if a combination of a low dose of oral BCG and a protein vaccine could induce protective immunity to tuberculosis while not sensitising animals to tuberculin. Groups of calves (10 per group) were vaccinated by administering 2 × 10(7)colony forming units (CFU) of BCG orally or a combination of 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG and a protein vaccine comprised of M. bovis culture filtrate proteins (CFP) formulated with the adjuvants Chitin and Gel 01 and delivered by the intranasal route, or CFP formulated with Emulsigen and the TLR2 agonist Pam(3)CSK(4) and administered by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route. Two further groups were vaccinated with the CFP/Chitin/Gel 01 or CFP/Emulsigen/Pam(3)CSK(4) vaccines alone. Positive control groups were given 10(8)CFU oral BCG or 10(6)CFU s.c. BCG while a negative control group was non-vaccinated. All animals were challenged with M. bovis 15 weeks after vaccination and euthanized and necropsied at 16 weeks following challenge. Groups of cattle vaccinated with s.c. BCG, 10(8)CFU or 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG showed significant reductions in seven, three and four pathological or microbiological disease parameters, respectively, compared to the results for the non-vaccinated group. There was no evidence of protection in calves vaccinated with the combination of oral BCG and CFP/Emulsigen/Pam(3)CSK(4) or oral BCG and CFP/Chitin/Gel 01 or vaccinated with the protein vaccines alone. Positive responses in the comparative cervical skin test at 12 weeks after vaccination were only observed in animals vaccinated with s.c. BCG, 10(8)CFU oral BCG or a combination of 2 × 10(7)CFU oral BCG and CFP/Chitin/Gel 01. In conclusion, co-administration of a protein vaccine, administered by either systemic or mucosal routes with oral

  2. Traveling Theta Waves in the Human Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honghui; Jacobs, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    The hippocampal theta oscillation is strongly correlated with behaviors such as memory and spatial navigation, but we do not understand its specific functional role. One hint of theta's function came from the discovery in rodents that theta oscillations are traveling waves that allow parts of the hippocampus to simultaneously exhibit separate oscillatory phases. Because hippocampal theta oscillations in humans have different properties compared with rodents, we examined these signals directly using multielectrode recordings from neurosurgical patients. Our findings confirm that human hippocampal theta oscillations are traveling waves, but also show that these oscillations appear at a broader range of frequencies compared with rodents. Human traveling waves showed a distinctive pattern of spatial propagation such that there is a consistent phase spread across the hippocampus regardless of the oscillations' frequency. This suggests that traveling theta oscillations are important functionally in humans because they coordinate phase coding throughout the hippocampus in a consistent manner. Significance statement: We show for the first time in humans that hippocampal theta oscillations are traveling waves, moving along the length of the hippocampus in a posterior-anterior direction. The existence of these traveling theta waves is important for understanding hippocampal neural coding because they cause neurons at separate positions in the hippocampus to experience different theta phases simultaneously. The theta phase that a neuron measures is a key factor in how that cell represents behavioral information. Therefore, the existence of traveling theta waves indicates that, to fully understand how a hippocampal neuron represents information, it is vital to also account for that cell's location in addition to conventional measures of neural activity. PMID:26354915

  3. Upregulation of p‑Akt by glial cell line‑derived neurotrophic factor ameliorates cell apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with streptozotocin‑induced diabetic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weigang; Zhang, Yinghua; Lu, Derong; Ren, Mingxin; Yuan, Guoyan

    2016-01-01

    The loss of neurotrophic factor support has been shown to contribute to the development of the central nervous system. Glial cell line‑derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a potent neurotrophic factor, is closely associated with apoptosis and exerts neuroprotective effects on numerous populations of cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of these protective effects remain unknown. In the present study, a significant increase in Bax levels and DNA fragmentation was observed in the hippocampus obtained from the brains of diabetic rats 60 days after diabetes had been induced. The apoptotic changes were correlated with the loss of GDNF/Akt signaling. GDNF administration was found to reverse the diabetes‑induced Bax and DNA fragmentation changes. This was associated with an improvement in the level of p‑Akt/Akt. In addition, combination of GDNF with a specific inhibitor of the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, Wortmannin, significantly abrogated the effects of GDNF on the levels of p‑Akt/Akt, Bax and DNA fragmentation. However, a p38 mitogen‑activated proten kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, SB203580, had no effect on the expression of p‑Akt/Akt, Bax or DNA fragmentation. These results demonstrate the pivotal role of GDNF as well as the PI3K/Akt pathway, but not the MAPK pathway, in the prevention of diabetes‑induced neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus. PMID:26549420

  4. Hibiscus sabdariffa ethanolic extract protects against dyslipidemia and oxidative stress induced by chronic cholesterol administration in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ekor, M; Adesanoye, O A; Udo, I E; Adegoke, O A; Raji, J; Farombi, E O

    2010-12-01

    Excessive intake of cholesterol (CHOL) and induction of free radical production play a critical role in the pathophysiology of several human diseases. Dietary therapy with plant products rich in flavonoids has been shown to provide benefits without the adverse effects of agents used in clinical practice. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has been used for various purposes due to myriads of flavonoids present in it. In this study, the chemopreventive property of HS ethanolic extract (HSE) was investigated in dyslipidemia and oxidant stress associated with prolonged CHOL administration in rabbits. Twenty-five (25) adult male rabbits weighing between 1.5 and 1.7 kg were used and randomly divided into five groups of five rabbits per group. The CHOL-fed rabbits received 1 g/kg/day of CHOL suspended in 1 ml of corn oil for 8 weeks. Group 1 received 1 ml of corn oil and served as control. Group 2 was fed with CHOL only while groups 3, 4 and 5 received daily doses ofcholestyramine (questran, 260 mg/kg), HSE 200 mg/kg and HSE 300 mg/kg respectively along with CHOL. Animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation 24-hours after last dose. Enzymic and non-enzymic markers of oxidative stress and lipid profile were analysed in serum, liver, kidney and heart of rabbits. HSE significantly attenuated the alteration in lipid levels and antioxidant status induced by high CHOL intake in rabbits in this study. Both serum and tissue levels of low density lipoprotein-CHOL, triglycerides, phospholipids, and total CHOL decreased with increase in high density lipoprotein-CHOL except in the heart, following treatment with HSE in CHOL-fed rabbits when compared with the untreated group (p<0.05). Similarly, HSE prevented CHOL-induced depletion of enzymic (superoxide dismutase, catalase) and non-enzymic (reduced glutathione, vitamin C) antioxidants with the attendant increases in lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in these animals. The effectiveness of HSE in this condition was comparable

  5. Role of amphotericin B upon enhancement of protective immunity elicited by oral administration with liposome-encapsulated-Japanese encephalitis virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsung-Shun; Chuang, Chuan-Chang; Hsu, Hui-Ling; Liu, Yu-Tien; Lin, Wen-Po; Liang, Chung-Chih; Liu, Wen-Tssann

    2010-09-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is an antifungal antibiotic the activity of which has been associated with modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in cultured cells. Herein we reveal that co-administration with AmB enhances the immunogenicity of oral Lip-JENS1 vaccine which derived from liposomes functionalized with DSPC (distearoylphosphatidylcholine) and cholesterol (2:1, molar ratio)-bearing JE virus NS1 protein (600 microg ml(-1)). Oral single dose of Lip-JENS1 elicited a detectable serum NS1-specific IgG antibody response from a mouse model. Remarkably, the addition of AmB (125 microg per mouse), particularly, 2 h prior to, but not simultaneously with, the administration of Lip-JENS1 significantly enhanced the systemic antigen-specific antibody response, providing superior protection against lethal JEV challenges. Further, we observed AmB-induced the transcription of cytokine expression and translocation of transcriptional factor NF-kappaB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus for the murine macrophage J774A.1. Moreover, Peyer's-patch lymphocytes (PPL) from AmB-treated mice produced high levels of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha expression compared to the corresponding control of cells from non-treated mice. Taken together, the results suggest that AmB exerts a profound influence upon mucosal vaccination with Lip-JENS1, possibly playing an adjuvant-augmented role to "fine-tune" humoral as well as cellular immune response, thus conferring enhanced protective immunity for immunising individuals against JE infection. PMID:20412849

  6. Neuroprotective effects of various doses of topiramate against methylphenidate induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rat isolated hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Shabab, Behnaz

    2016-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) abuse causes neurodegeneration. The neuroprotective effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported but its putative mechanism remains unclear. The current study evaluates the role of various doses of TPM on protection of rat hippocampal cells from MPH-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in vivo. Seventy adult male rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 received normal saline (0.7 mL/rat) and group 2 was injected with MPH (10 mg/kg) for 21 days. Groups 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 concurrently were treated by MPH (10 mg/kg) and TPM (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), respectively for 21 days. After drug administration, the open field test (OFT) was used to investigate motor activity. Oxidative, antioxidant and inflammatory factors were measured in isolated hippocampus. Also, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level was measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Cresyl violet staining of Dentate Gyrus (DG) and CA1 cell layers of the hippocampus were also performed. MPH significantly disturbs motor activity in OFT and TPM (70 and 100 mg/kg) decreased this disturbance. Also MPH significantly increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial reduced state of glutathione (GSH) level, interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and BDNF level in isolated hippocampal cells. Also superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity significantly decreased. Various doses of TPM attenuated these effects and significantly decreased MPH-induced oxidative damage, inflammation and hippocampal cell loss and increased BDNF level. This study suggests that TPM has the potential to be used as a neuroprotective agent against oxidative stress and neuroinflammation induced by frequent use of MPH. PMID:26718459

  7. Dietary flavonoid fisetin regulates aluminium chloride-induced neuronal apoptosis in cortex and hippocampus of mice brain.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Dharmalingam; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2015-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been suggested to promote brain health by protecting brain parenchymal cells. Recently, understanding the possible mechanism underlying neuroprotective efficacy of flavonoids is of great interest. Given that fisetin exerts neuroprotection, we have examined the mechanisms underlying fisetin in regulating Aβ aggregation and neuronal apoptosis induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl3) administration in vivo. Male Swiss albino mice were induced orally with AlCl3 (200 mg/kg. b.wt./day/8 weeks). Fisetin (15 mg/Kg. b.wt. orally) was administered for 4 weeks before AlCl3-induction and administered simultaneously for 8 weeks during AlCl3-induction. We found aggregation of Amyloid beta (Aβ 40-42), elevated expressions of Apoptosis stimulating kinase (ASK-1), p-JNK (c-Jun N-terminal Kinase), p53, cytochrome c, caspases-9 and 3, with altered Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in favour of apoptosis in cortex and hippocampus of AlCl3-administered mice. Furthermore, TUNEL and fluoro-jade C staining demonstrate neurodegeneration in cortex and hippocampus. Notably, treatment with fisetin significantly (P<0.05) reduced Aβ aggregation, ASK-1, p-JNK, p53, cytochrome c, caspase-9 and 3 protein expressions and modulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. TUNEL-positive and fluoro-jade C stained cells were also significantly reduced upon fisetin treatment. We have identified the involvement of fisetin in regulating ASK-1 and p-JNK as possible mediator of Aβ aggregation and subsequent neuronal apoptosis during AlCl3-induced neurodegeneration. These findings define the possibility that fisetin may slow or prevent neurodegneration and can be utilised as neuroprotective agent against Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. PMID:26411262

  8. Vinpocetine prevent ischemic cell damage in rat hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, D.; Rischke, R.; Beck, T.; Roeberg, C.; Mennel, H.D.; Bielenberg, G.W.; Krieglstein, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of vinpocetine on hippocampal cell damage and local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) were measured in a rat model of forebrain ischemia. Duration of ischemia was 10 min. LCBF was determined after 2 min of recirculation using the /sup 14/C-iodoantipyrine technique. Hippocampal cell loss was quantified histologically 7 days post-ischemia. Intraperitoneal application of vinpocetine 15 min prior to ischemia significantly reduced neuronal cell loss in hippocampal CA 1 sector from 60% to 28%. The drug led to a marked increase in blood flow in cortical areas, whereas LCBF remained unchanged in hippocampus and all other structures measured. It is suggested that the protective effect of vinpocetine does not depend on increased postischemic blood flow.

  9. Are The Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus functionally distinct structures?

    PubMed Central

    Fanselow, Michael S.; Dong, Hong-Wei

    2009-01-01

    One literature treats the hippocampus as a purely cognitive structure involved in memory; another treats it as a regulator of emotion whose dysfunction leads to psychopathology. We review behavioral, anatomical, and gene expression studies that together support a functional segmentation into 3 hippocampal compartments dorsal, intermediate and ventral. The dorsal hippocampus, which corresponds to the posterior hippocampus in primates, performs primarily cognitive functions. The ventral (anterior in primates) relates to stress, emotion and affect. Strikingly, gene expression in the dorsal hippocampus correlates with cortical regions involved in information processing, while genes expressed in the ventral hippocampus correlate with regions involved in emotion and stress (amygdala and hypothalamus). PMID:20152109

  10. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum strain AYA enhances IgA secretion and provides survival protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yosuke; Kunitoh-Asari, Ayami; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Imai, Shinjiro; Kasuya, Kenji; Abe, Kimio; Adachi, Yu; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogenic microbacteria and viruses. This defense system, to a large extent, is mediated by the actions of secretory IgA. In this study, we screened 140 strains of lactic acid bacteria for induction of IgA production by murine Peyer's patch cells. We selected one strain and named it Lactobacillus plantarum AYA. We found that L. plantarum AYA-induced production of IL-6 in Peyer's patch dendritic cells, with this production promoting IgA(+) B cells to differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells. We also observed that oral administration of L. plantarum AYA in mice caused an increase in IgA production in the small intestine and lung. This production of IgA correlated strongly with protective ability, with the treated mice surviving longer than the control mice after lethal influenza virus infection. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the L. plantarum AYA strain which enhances mucosal IgA production and provides protection against respiratory influenza virus infection. PMID:24466081

  11. Concomitant turkey herpesvirus-infectious bursal disease vector vaccine and oil-adjuvanted inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine administration: consequences for vaccine intake and protection.

    PubMed

    Lemiere, Stephane; Fernández, Rafael; Pritchard, Nikki; Cruz-Coy, Julio; Rojo, Francisco; Wong, Siam Yit; Saint-Gerand, Anne-Lise; Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Perozo, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    Hatchery vaccination protocols in day-old chicks are designed to provide early priming and protection against several poultry diseases including, but not limited to, Marek's disease (MD), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and Newcastle disease (ND). The constraint of concomitant administration of live MD and IBD vaccines plus ND inactivated oil-adjuvanted vaccines (IOAVs) requires improvements in vaccine technology. Single-needle concomitant subcutaneous (SC) application of IBD/MDV and killed NDV vaccine and the use of viral vectors for expression of immunogenic proteins are a current trend in the industry. The objective of this work was to assess the compatibility of a turkey herpesvirus (HVT)-infectious bursal disease (vHVT-IBD) vector vaccine applied simultaneously with IOAV and to evaluate the consequences for vaccine intake, the need for additional immunizations with the respective vaccines, and protection. Five separate trials were performed using double- and/or single-needle injectors. The levels and persistence of vaccine intake, serologic response, vHVT-IBD virus combination with the MD Rispens strain, and/or live NDV vaccination were also assessed. Histopathology and PCR at injection sites showed adequate vaccine intake detected up to 44 days postvaccination. Serologic evidence of vaccine priming was observed, and all vaccinated groups differed (P < 0.05) from the control at different time points. MD, NDV, and IBD protection results after concomitant double-shot single-needle vaccination were near 85%, 95%, and 100%, respectively. Taken together the results indicate no deleterious effects on the efficacy of the vHVT-IBD vaccine monitored by vaccine intake, serologic and challenge results, and combinations after concomitant live/killed vaccination, suggesting the suitability of its use in hatchery vaccination. All types of injectors used as well as injection techniques, vaccines injected separately or together, gave the same results. PMID:22312985

  12. Enhanced protective immune response to PCV2 subunit vaccine by co-administration of recombinant porcine IFN-γ in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Dan; Guo, Long-Jun; Tang, Qing-Hai; Wei, Yan-Wu; Wu, Hong-Li; Liu, Jian-Bo; Li, Sheng-Bin; Huang, Li-Ping; Liu, Chang-Ming

    2013-01-21

    The capsid (Cap) protein of PCV2 is the major immunogenic protein that is crucial to induce PCV2-specific neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity; thus, it is a suitable target antigen for the research and development of genetically engineered vaccines against PCV2 infection. IFN-γ has exhibited potential efficacy as an immune adjuvant that enhances the immunogenicity of certain vaccines in experimental animal models. In this study, three recombinant proteins: PCV2-Cap protein, porcine IFN-γ (PoIFN-γ), and the fusion protein (Cap-PoIFN-γ) of PCV2-Cap protein and PoIFN-γ were respectively expressed in the baculovirus system, and analyzed by Western blot and indirect ELISA. Additionally, we evaluated the enhancement of the protective immune response to the Cap protein-based PCV2 subunit vaccine elicited by co-administration of PoIFN-γ in mice. Vaccination of mice with the PCV2-Cap+PoIFN-γ vaccine elicited significantly higher levels of PCV2-specific IPMA antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and lymphocyte proliferative responses compared to the Cap-PoIFN-γ vaccine, the PCV2-Cap vaccine, and LG-strain. Following virulent PCV2 challenge, no viraemia was detected in all immunized groups, and the viral loads in lungs of the PCV2-Cap+PoIFN-γ group were significantly lower compared to the Cap-PoIFN-γ group, the LG-strain group, and the mock group, but slightly lower compared to the PCV2-Cap group. These findings suggested that PoIFN-γ substantially enhanced the protective immune response to the Cap protein-based PCV2 subunit vaccine, and that the PCV2-Cap+PoIFN-γ subunit vaccine potentially serves as an attractive candidate vaccine for the prevention and control of PCV2-associated diseases. PMID:23219694

  13. First records of Hippocampus algiricus in the Canary Islands (north-east Atlantic Ocean) with an observation of hybridization with Hippocampus hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Otero-Ferrer, F; Herrera, R; López, A; Socorro, J; Molina, L; Bouza, C

    2015-10-01

    Morphometric and genetic analyses confirmed the first records of the West African seahorse Hippocampus algiricus at Gran Canaria Island (north-east Atlantic Ocean), and also the first evidence of interspecific hybridization in seahorses. These results provide additional data on the distribution of H. algiricus that may help to establish future conservation strategies, and uncover a new potential sympatric scenario between H. algiricus and Hippocampus hippocampus. PMID:26365616

  14. 5-HT loss in rat brain following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), p-chloroamphetamine and fenfluramine administration and effects of chlormethiazole and dizocilpine.

    PubMed Central

    Colado, M. I.; Murray, T. K.; Green, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    1. The present study has investigated whether the neurotoxic effects of the relatively selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurotoxins, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'Ecstasy'), p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and fenfluramine on hippocampal and cortical 5-HT terminals in rat brain could be prevented by administration of either chlormethiazole or dizocilpine. 2. Administration of MDMA (20 mg kg-1, i.p.) resulted in an approximate 30% loss of cortical and hippocampal 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content 4 days later. Injection of chlormethiazole (50 mg kg-1) 5 min before and 55 min after the MDMA provided complete protection in both regions, while dizocilpine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) protected only the hippocampus. 3. Administration of a single dose of chlormethiazole (100 mg kg-1) 20 min after the MDMA also provided complete protection to the hippocampus but not the cortex. This regime also attenuated the sustained hyperthermia (approx +2.5 degrees C) induced by the MDMA injection. 4. Injection of PCA (5 mg kg-1, i.p.) resulted in a 70% loss of 5-HT and 5-HIAA content in hippocampus and cortex 4 days later. Injection of chlormethiazole (100 mg kg-1, i.p.) or dizocilpine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) 5 min before and 55 min after the PCA failed to protect against the neurotoxicity, nor was protection afforded by chlormethiazole when a lower dose of PCA (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) was given which produced only a 30% loss of 5-HT content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7682129

  15. APOE2 Is Associated with Spatial Navigational Strategies and Increased Gray Matter in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Kyoko; Bhat, Venkat; Banner, Harrison; Poirier, Judes; Joober, Ridha; Bohbot, Véronique D

    2016-01-01

    The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene has a strong association with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ε4 allele is a well-documented genetic risk factor of AD. In contrast, the ε2 allele of the APOE gene is known to be protective against AD. Much of the focus on the APOE gene has been on the ε4 allele in both young and older adults and few studies have looked into the cognitive and brain structure correlates of the ε2 allele, especially in young adults. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between APOE genotype, navigation behavior, and hippocampal gray matter in healthy young adults. One-hundred and twenty-four healthy young adults were genotyped and tested on the 4on8 virtual maze, a task that allows for the assessment of navigation strategy. The task assesses the spontaneous use of either a hippocampus-dependent spatial strategy or a caudate nucleus-dependent response strategy. Of the 124 participants, 37 underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We found that ε2 carriers use a hippocampus-dependent spatial strategy to a greater extent than ε3 homozygous individuals and ε4 carriers. We also found that APOE ε2 allele carriers have more gray matter in the hippocampus compared to ε3 homozygous individuals and ε4 carriers. Our findings suggest that the protective effects of the ε2 allele may, in part, be expressed through increased hippocampus gray matter and increased use of hippocampus-dependent spatial strategies. The current article demonstrates the relationship between brain structure, navigation behavior, and APOE genotypes in healthy young adults. PMID:27468260

  16. APOE2 Is Associated with Spatial Navigational Strategies and Increased Gray Matter in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Kyoko; Bhat, Venkat; Banner, Harrison; Poirier, Judes; Joober, Ridha; Bohbot, Véronique D.

    2016-01-01

    The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene has a strong association with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The ε4 allele is a well-documented genetic risk factor of AD. In contrast, the ε2 allele of the APOE gene is known to be protective against AD. Much of the focus on the APOE gene has been on the ε4 allele in both young and older adults and few studies have looked into the cognitive and brain structure correlates of the ε2 allele, especially in young adults. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between APOE genotype, navigation behavior, and hippocampal gray matter in healthy young adults. One-hundred and twenty-four healthy young adults were genotyped and tested on the 4on8 virtual maze, a task that allows for the assessment of navigation strategy. The task assesses the spontaneous use of either a hippocampus-dependent spatial strategy or a caudate nucleus-dependent response strategy. Of the 124 participants, 37 underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We found that ε2 carriers use a hippocampus-dependent spatial strategy to a greater extent than ε3 homozygous individuals and ε4 carriers. We also found that APOE ε2 allele carriers have more gray matter in the hippocampus compared to ε3 homozygous individuals and ε4 carriers. Our findings suggest that the protective effects of the ε2 allele may, in part, be expressed through increased hippocampus gray matter and increased use of hippocampus-dependent spatial strategies. The current article demonstrates the relationship between brain structure, navigation behavior, and APOE genotypes in healthy young adults. PMID:27468260

  17. Administration of the inverse benzodiazepine agonist MRK-016 rescues acquisition and memory consolidation following peripheral administration of bacterial endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Eimerbrink, M J; White, J D; Pendry, R J; Hodges, S L; Sadler, L N; Wiles, J D; Weintraub, M K; Chumley, M J; Boehm, G W

    2015-07-15

    Recent evidence suggests that inflammation-induced decrements in cognitive function can be mitigated via manipulation of excitatory or inhibitory transmission. We tested the ability of the inverse benzodiazepine agonist, MRK-016 (MRK) to protect against LPS-induced deficits in memory acquisition and consolidation, using a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) paradigm. In Experiment One, mice received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or MRK injections prior to CFC training, and were then tested 24h after training. In Experiment Two, animals received similar treatment injections immediately after training, and were tested 24h later. Additionally, hippocampal samples were collected 4h after LPS injections and immediately after testing, to evaluate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mRNA expression. Results indicate that MRK can protect against LPS-induced learning/memory decrements in both paradigms. We also found, in both paradigms, that animals treated with LPS/Saline expressed significantly less BDNF mRNA when compared to Saline/Saline-treated animals 4h after LPS administration, but that MRK did not restore BDNF expression levels. Further, treatment administrations had no effect on IGF-1 mRNA expression at any collection time-point. In summary, MRK-016 can protect against LPS-induced deficits in memory acquisition and consolidation, in this hippocampus-dependent paradigm, though this protection occurs independently of recovery of BDNF expression. PMID:25823763

  18. Diazoxide enhances excitotoxicity-induced neurogenesis and attenuates neurodegeneration in the rat non-neurogenic hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, M; Batlle, M; Ortega, F J; Gimeno-Bayón, J; Andrade, C; Mahy, N; Rodríguez, M J

    2016-10-01

    Diazoxide, a well-known mitochondrial KATP channel opener with neuroprotective effects, has been proposed for the effective and safe treatment of neuroinflammation. To test whether diazoxide affects the neurogenesis associated with excitotoxicity in brain injury, we induced lesions by injecting excitotoxic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) into the rat hippocampus and analyzed the effects of a daily oral administration of diazoxide on the induced lesion. Specific glial and neuronal staining showed that NMDA elicited a strong glial reaction associated with progressive neuronal loss in the whole hippocampal formation. Doublecortin immunohistochemistry and bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-NeuN double immunohistochemistry revealed that NMDA also induced cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the lesioned non-neurogenic hippocampus. Furthermore, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells in the injured hippocampus expressed transcription factor Sp8 indicating that the excitotoxic lesion elicited the migration of progenitors from the subventricular zone and/or the reprograming of reactive astrocytes. Diazoxide treatment attenuated the NMDA-induced hippocampal injury in rats, as demonstrated by decreases in the size of the lesion, neuronal loss and microglial reaction. Diazoxide also increased the number of BrdU/NeuN double-stained cells and elevated the number of Sp8-positive cells in the lesioned hippocampus. These results indicate a role for KATP channel activation in regulating excitotoxicity-induced neurogenesis in brain injury. PMID:27471195

  19. Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Praag, Henriette; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Christie, Brian R.; Toni, Nicolas; Palmer, Theo D.; Gage, Fred H.

    2002-02-01

    There is extensive evidence indicating that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain that is important for learning and memory. However, it is not known whether these new neurons become functional, as the methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited to fixed tissue. We use here a retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein that only labels dividing cells, and that can be visualized in live hippocampal slices. We report that newly generated cells in the adult mouse hippocampus have neuronal morphology and can display passive membrane properties, action potentials and functional synaptic inputs similar to those found in mature dentate granule cells. Our findings demonstrate that newly generated cells mature into functional neurons in the adult mammalian brain.

  20. Copper sensitivity in dorsal hippocampus slices.

    PubMed

    Leiva, J; Palestini, M; Tetas, M; López, J

    2000-04-01

    The action of copper on the pyramidal neurons in CA1 of the hippocampus is little understood. Our main aim was to study the possible interaction of copper on the synaptic network in CA1 pyramidal neurons. We used Wistar rats hippocampus slices in a recording chamber. The population response ("population of spikes") collected by an extracellular micropipette under baseline conditions served as control. Copper, GABA, bicuculline and picrotoxin were delivered in different experimental conditions to the slice. One, 10 and 100 microM of copper concentration decreased significantly the amplitude and duration of the population spikes in relation to the control response. This effect did not show concentration dependency. Copper in bicuculline medium decreased significantly the duration response in relation to the control response and in relation to copper effect in a free bicuculline medium. This phenomenon emphasizes the copper action on the GABA (B) and (C) receptors. Copper in a picrotoxin medium increased significantly the excitability of the response. This new effect suggests that copper acts on non-GABA receptors, an effect that could be detected when the GABA receptors were inactivated. As a result of these findings it appears that, under our experimental conditions, copper generated transient sensitivity changes in pyramidal neurons of CA1 dorsal hippocampus. PMID:10782257

  1. Hippocampus responds to auditory change in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ruusuvirta, T; Astikainen, P; Wikgren, J; Nokia, M

    2010-09-29

    Any change or novelty in the auditory environment is potentially important for survival. The cortex has been implicated in the detection of auditory change whereas the hippocampus has been associated with the detection of auditory novelty. Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the CA1 area of the hippocampus in waking rabbits. In the oddball condition, a rare tone of one frequency (deviant) randomly replaced a repeated tone of another frequency (standard). In the equal-probability condition, the standard was replaced by a set of tones of nine different frequencies in order to remove the repetitive auditory background of the deviant (now labelled as control-deviant) while preserving its temporal probability. In the oddball condition, evoked potentials at 36-80 ms post-stimulus were found to have greater amplitude towards negative polarity for the deviant relative to the standard. No significant differences in response amplitudes were observed between the control-deviant and the standard. These findings suggest that the hippocampus plays a role in auditory change detection. PMID:20600633

  2. Attention Stabilizes Representations in the Human Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Aly, Mariam; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2016-02-01

    Attention and memory are intricately linked, but how attention modulates brain areas that subserve memory, such as the hippocampus, is unknown. We hypothesized that attention may stabilize patterns of activity in human hippocampus, resulting in distinct but reliable activity patterns for different attentional states. To test this prediction, we utilized high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging and a novel "art gallery" task. On each trial, participants viewed a room containing a painting, and searched a stream of rooms for a painting from the same artist (art state) or a room with the same layout (room state). Bottom-up stimulation was the same in both tasks, enabling the isolation of neural effects related to top-down attention. Multivariate analyses revealed greater pattern similarity in all hippocampal subfields for trials from the same, compared with different, attentional state. This stability was greater for the room than art state, was unrelated to univariate activity, and, in CA2/CA3/DG, was correlated with behavior. Attention therefore induces representational stability in the human hippocampus, resulting in distinct activity patterns for different attentional states. Modulation of hippocampal representational stability highlights the far-reaching influence of attention outside of sensory systems. PMID:25766839

  3. Interlamellar CA1 network in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sunggu; Yang, Sungchil; Moreira, Thais; Hoffman, Gloria; Carlson, Greg C.; Bender, Kevin J.; Alger, Bradley E.; Tang, Cha-Min

    2014-01-01

    To understand the cellular basis of learning and memory, the neurophysiology of the hippocampus has been largely examined in thin transverse slice preparations. However, the synaptic architecture along the longitudinal septo-temporal axis perpendicular to the transverse projections in CA1 is largely unknown, despite its potential significance for understanding the information processing carried out by the hippocampus. Here, using a battery of powerful techniques, including 3D digital holography and focal glutamate uncaging, voltage-sensitive dye, two-photon imaging, electrophysiology, and immunohistochemistry, we show that CA1 pyramidal neurons are connected to one another in an associational and well-organized fashion along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. Such CA1 longitudinal connections mediate reliable signal transfer among the pyramidal cells and express significant synaptic plasticity. These results illustrate a need to reconceptualize hippocampal CA1 network function to include not only processing in the transverse plane, but also operations made possible by the longitudinal network. Our data will thus provide an essential basis for future computational modeling studies on information processing operations carried out in the full 3D hippocampal network that underlies its complex cognitive functions. PMID:25139992

  4. Proteome map of the human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Edgar, P F; Douglas, J E; Knight, C; Cooper, G J; Faull, R L; Kydd, R

    1999-01-01

    The proteins expressed by a genome have been termed the proteome. By comparing the proteome of a disease-affected tissue with the proteome of an unaffected tissue it is possible to identify proteins that play a role in a disease process. The hippocampus is involved in the processing of short-term memory and is affected in Alzheimer's disease. Any comparative proteome analysis that can identify proteins important in a disease affecting the hippocampus requires the characterization of the normal hippocampal proteome. Therefore, we homogenised normal hippocampal tissue and separated the proteins by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE). Seventy-two unique protein spots were collected from Coomassie blue-stained 2DE gels and subjected to in-gel digestion with trypsin, reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography peptide separation, and N-terminal protein sequencing. Sufficient protein sequence was obtained to successfully characterize 66 of the 72 protein spots chosen (92%). Three of the 66 proteins were not present in any database (4.5%). The characterized proteins comprised two dominant functional groups, i.e., enzymes involved in intermediary cellular metabolism (40%), and proteins associated with the cytoskeleton (15%). The identity, molecular mass, isoelectric point, and relative concentration of the characterized proteins are described and constitute a partial proteome map of the normal human hippocampus. PMID:10641757

  5. Contributions of the hippocampus to feedback learning.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Kathryn C; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2015-12-01

    Humans learn about the world in a variety of manners, including by observation, by associating cues in the environment, and via feedback. Across species, two brain structures have been predominantly involved in these learning processes: the hippocampus--supporting learning via observation and paired association--and the striatum--critical for feedback learning. This simple dichotomy, however, has recently been challenged by reports of hippocampal engagement in feedback learning, although the role of the hippocampus is not fully understood. The purpose of this experiment was to characterize the hippocampal response during feedback learning by manipulating varying levels of memory interference. Consistent with prior reports, feedback learning recruited the striatum and midbrain. Notably, feedback learning also engaged the hippocampus. The level of activity in these regions was modulated by the degree of memory interference, such that the greatest activation occurred during the highest level of memory interference. Importantly, the accuracy of information learned via feedback correlated with hippocampal activation and was reduced by the presence of high memory interference. Taken together, these findings provide evidence of hippocampal involvement in feedback learning by demonstrating both its relevance for the accuracy of information learned via feedback and its susceptibility to interference. PMID:26055632

  6. Interlamellar CA1 network in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sunggu; Yang, Sungchil; Moreira, Thais; Hoffman, Gloria; Carlson, Greg C; Bender, Kevin J; Alger, Bradley E; Tang, Cha-Min

    2014-09-01

    To understand the cellular basis of learning and memory, the neurophysiology of the hippocampus has been largely examined in thin transverse slice preparations. However, the synaptic architecture along the longitudinal septo-temporal axis perpendicular to the transverse projections in CA1 is largely unknown, despite its potential significance for understanding the information processing carried out by the hippocampus. Here, using a battery of powerful techniques, including 3D digital holography and focal glutamate uncaging, voltage-sensitive dye, two-photon imaging, electrophysiology, and immunohistochemistry, we show that CA1 pyramidal neurons are connected to one another in an associational and well-organized fashion along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. Such CA1 longitudinal connections mediate reliable signal transfer among the pyramidal cells and express significant synaptic plasticity. These results illustrate a need to reconceptualize hippocampal CA1 network function to include not only processing in the transverse plane, but also operations made possible by the longitudinal network. Our data will thus provide an essential basis for future computational modeling studies on information processing operations carried out in the full 3D hippocampal network that underlies its complex cognitive functions. PMID:25139992

  7. Piperine Augments the Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurobehavioral and Neurochemical Deficits in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jangra, Ashok; Kwatra, Mohit; Singh, Tavleen; Pant, Rajat; Kushwah, Pawan; Sharma, Yogita; Saroha, Babita; Datusalia, Ashok Kumar; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of curcumin alone and in combination with piperine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits in the mice hippocampus. Mice were treated with curcumin (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days followed by LPS (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Animals exhibited anxiety and depressive-like phenotype after 3 and 24 h of LPS exposure, respectively. LPS administration increased the oxido-nitrosative stress as evident by elevated levels of malondialdehyde, nitrite, and depletion of glutathione level in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we found raised level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice. Pretreatment with curcumin alleviated LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits. Furthermore, co-administration of curcumin with piperine significantly potentiated the neuroprotective effect of curcumin. These results demonstrate that piperine enhanced the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits. PMID:26970969

  8. Protective effects of tryptophan on neuro-inflammation in rats after administering lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Del Angel-Meza, A R; Dávalos-Marín, A J; Ontiveros-Martinez, L L; Ortiz, G G; Beas-Zarate, C; Chaparro-Huerta, V; Torres-Mendoza, B M; Bitzer-Quintero, O K

    2011-06-01

    Tryptophan (TRP), which plays an important role in immune system regulation, protein synthesis, serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin production, is a potent endogenous free radical scavenger and antioxidant. The aim of this work was to determine the efficacy of TRP in neuro-inflammation induced by systemic administration of lipopolysacharide (LPS, 20mg/kg) which promotes the synthesis of free radical (LPO: MDA and 4-HDA), and pro-inflammatory cytokine Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in different brain regions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) of rats. Experiments were performed on adult female, pregnant and lactating rats fed with a diet of TRP content (0.5mg/100g protein), cerebral cortex and hippocampus were evaluated for lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, nitrites, nitrates and plasmatic concentration of IFN-γ. LPO levels in LPS+TRP groups were significantly decreased than that obtained in the LPS group. However, there were no observed differences in plasmatic levels of nitrites and nitrates as well as IFN-γ, neither in the cerebral cortex or hippocampus. The TRP has protective effect in the oxidative damage in a model of endotoxic shock in the breading nurslings induced by the systemic administration of LPS, acting as a scavenger of free radicals. So, it can be proposed as an innocuous protector agent in the endotoxic shock process. PMID:21616633

  9. Calorie restriction improves cognitive decline via up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor: tropomyosin-related kinase B in hippocampus ofobesity-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Takuya; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Nagayama, Tomomi; Isegawa, Kengo; Katsuki, Masato; Takesue, Ko; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    In metabolic syndrome (MetS), previous studies have suggested that cognitive decline is worsened. Among the factors associated with cognition, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus causes cognitive decline. We previously reported that exercise training with calorie restriction yielded protection against cognitive decline via BDNF in the hippocampus of hypertensive rats. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not calorie restriction results in protection against cognitive decline via BDNF and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in the hippocampus of MetS model rats. We divided dietary-induced obesity-prone and hypertensive rats (OP), as metabolic syndrome model rats, into three groups, fed with a high fat diet (HF), treated with calorie restriction (CR) plus vehicle, and treated with CR and ANA-12 (a TrkB antagonist) (CR+A). After treatment for 28 days, body weight, insulin, fasting blood glucose, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure, and oxidative stress in the hippocampus were significantly lower, and BDNF expression in the hippocampus was significantly higher in CR and CR+A than in HF. Cognitive performance determined by the Morris water maze test was significantly higher in CR than in HF, whereas the benefit was attenuated in CR+A. In conclusion, calorie restriction protects against cognitive decline via up-regulation of BDNF/TrkB through an antioxidant effect in the hippocampus of dietary-induced obesity rats. PMID:25503654

  10. Gastrointestinal protective efficacy of Kolaviron (a bi-flavonoid from Garcinia kola) following a single administration of sodium arsenite in rats: Biochemical and histopathological studies

    PubMed Central

    Akinrinde, Akinleye S.; Olowu, Ebunoluwa; Oyagbemi, Ademola A.; Omobowale, Olutayo T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arsenic intoxication is known to produce symptoms including diarrhea and vomiting, which are indications of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Objective: We investigated whether Kolaviron (KV) administration protected against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)-induced damage to gastric and intestinal epithelium in rats. Materials and Methods: Control rats (Group I) were given a daily oral dose of corn oil. Rats in other groups were given a single dose of NaAsO2 (100 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) alone (Group II) or after pretreatment for 7 days with KV at 100 mg/kg (Group III) and 200 mg/kg (Group IV). Rats were sacrificed afterward and portions of the stomach, small intestine and colon were processed for histopathological examination. Hydrogen peroxide, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the remaining portions of the different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments. Results: NaAsO2 caused significant increases (P < 0.05) in MDA levels and MPO activity, with significant reductions (P < 0.05) in GST, GPX, CAT and SOD activities in the stomach and intestines. KV significantly reversed the changes (P < 0.05) in a largely dose-dependent manner. The different segments had marked inflammatory cellular infiltration, with hyperplasia of the crypts, which occurred to much lesser degrees with KV administration. Conclusion: The present findings showed that KV might be a potent product for mitigating NaAsO2 toxicity in the GIT. PMID:26130939

  11. Phenylpropanoids and their metabolites are the major compounds responsible for blood-cell protection against oxidative stress after administration of Lippia citriodora in rats.

    PubMed

    Quirantes-Piné, R; Herranz-López, M; Funes, L; Borrás-Linares, I; Micol, V; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2013-09-15

    Lippia citriodora (lemon verbena) has been widely used in folk medicine for its pharmacological properties. Verbascoside, the most abundant compound in this plant, has protective effects associated mostly with its strong antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of L. citriodora extract intake on the antioxidant response of blood cells and to correlate this response with the phenolic metabolites found in plasma. For this purpose, firstly the L. citriodora extract was characterized and its radical scavenging activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Then, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRed) activities were determined in lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and neutrophils isolated from rats after acute intake of L. citriodora. Phenolic metabolites were analyzed in the same plasma samples by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in neutrophils, which has been proposed as a marker for inflammatory vascular damage, was also determined. After L. citriodora administration, the antioxidant enzymes activities significantly accelerated (p<0.05) while MPO activity subsided, indicating that the extract protects blood cells against oxidative damage and shows potential anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic activities. The main compounds found in plasma were verbascoside and isoverbascoside at a concentration of 80±10 and 57±4 ng/ml, respectively. Five other metabolites derived from verbascoside and isoverbascoside were also found in plasma, namely hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, ferulic acid glucuronide, and homoprotocatechuic acid, together with another eight phenolic compounds. Therefore, the phenylpropanoids verbascoside and isoverbascoside, as well as their metabolites, seem to be the responsible for the above-mentioned effects, although the post-transcriptional activation mechanism of blood-cell antioxidant enzymes by these compounds needs further investigation

  12. Protective Immunity against Murine Hepatitis Virus (MHV) Induced by Intranasal or Subcutaneous Administration of Hybrids of Tobacco Mosaic Virus That Carries an MHV Epitope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Moses; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Lettieri, Gerard A.; Paoletti, Alyssa D.; Lane, Thomas E.; Fitchen, John H.; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Beachy, Roger N.

    1999-07-01

    Hybrids of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were constructed with the use of fusion to the coat protein peptides of 10 or 15 amino acids, containing the 5B19 epitope from the spike protein of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and giving rise to TMV-5B19 and TMV-5B19L, respectively. The TMV hybrids were propagated in tobacco plants, and the virus particles were purified. Immunogold labeling, with the use of the monoclonal MAb5B19 antibody, showed specific decoration of hybrid TMV particles, confirming the expression and display of the MHV epitope on the surface of the TMV. Mice were immunized with purified hybrid viruses after several regimens of immunization. Mice that received TMV-5B19L intranasally developed serum IgG and IgA specific for the 5B19 epitope and for the TMV coat protein. Hybrid TMV-5B19, administered by subcutaneous injections, elicited high titers of serum IgG that was specific for the 5B19 epitope and for coat protein, but IgA that was specific against 5B19 was not observed. Mice that were immunized with hybrid virus by subcutaneous or intranasal routes of administration survived challenge with a lethal dose (10 × LD50) of MHV strain JHM, whereas mice administered wild-type TMV died 10 d post challenge. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the dose of administered immunogen and protection against MHV infection. These studies show that TMV can be an effective vaccine delivery vehicle for parenteral and mucosal immunization and for protection from challenge with viral infection.

  13. Co-administration of the broad-spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (CMX001), with smallpox vaccine does not compromise vaccine protection in mice challenged with ectromelia virus.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott; Crump, Ryan; Foster, Scott; Hartzler, Hollyce; Hembrador, Ed; Lanier, E Randall; Painter, George; Schriewer, Jill; Trost, Lawrence C; Buller, R Mark

    2014-11-01

    Natural orthopoxvirus outbreaks such as vaccinia, cowpox, cattlepox and buffalopox continue to cause morbidity in the human population. Monkeypox virus remains a significant agent of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Furthermore, monkeypox virus's broad host-range and expanding environs make it of particular concern as an emerging human pathogen. Monkeypox virus and variola virus (the etiological agent of smallpox) are both potential agents of bioterrorism. The first line response to orthopoxvirus disease is through vaccination with first-generation and second-generation vaccines, such as Dryvax and ACAM2000. Although these vaccines provide excellent protection, their widespread use is impeded by the high level of adverse events associated with vaccination using live, attenuated virus. It is possible that vaccines could be used in combination with antiviral drugs to reduce the incidence and severity of vaccine-associated adverse events, or as a preventive in individuals with uncertain exposure status or contraindication to vaccination. We have used the intranasal mousepox (ectromelia) model to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination with Dryvax or ACAM2000 in conjunction with treatment using the broad spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001). We found that co-treatment with BCV reduced the severity of vaccination-associated lesion development. Although the immune response to vaccination was quantifiably attenuated, vaccination combined with BCV treatment did not alter the development of full protective immunity, even when administered two days following ectromelia challenge. Studies with a non-replicating vaccine, ACAM3000 (MVA), confirmed that BCV's mechanism of attenuating the immune response following vaccination with live virus was, as expected, by limiting viral replication and not through inhibition of the immune system. These studies suggest that, in the setting of post-exposure prophylaxis, co-administration of BCV with vaccination should be considered

  14. Proteome Analysis of Rat Hippocampus Following Morphine-induced Amnesia and State-dependent Learning

    PubMed Central

    Jafarinejad-Farsangi, Saeideh; Farazmand, Ali; Rezayof, Ameneh; Darbandi, Niloufar

    2015-01-01

    Morphine’s effects on learning and memory processes are well known to depend on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Whereas the role of the hippocampus in morphine-induced amnesia and state-dependent learning is established, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. The present study intended to investigate whether administration of morphine can change the expression level of rat hippocampal proteins during learning of a passive avoidance task. A step-through type passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. To identify the complex pattern of protein expression induced by morphine, we compared rat hippocampal proteome either in morphine-induced amnesia or in state-dependent learning by two-dimensional gel electerophoresis and combined mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS). Post-training administration of morphine decreased step-through latency. Pre-test administration of morphine induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under post-training morphine influence. In the hippocampus, a total of 18 proteins were identified whose MASCOT (Modular Approach to Software Construction Operation and Test) scores were inside 95% confidence level. Of these, five hippocampal proteins altered in morphine-induced amnesia and ten proteins were found to change in the hippocampus of animals that had received post-training and pre-test morphine. These proteins show known functions in cytoskeletal architecture, cell metabolism, neurotransmitter secretion and neuroprotection. The findings indicate that the effect of morphine on memory formation in passive avoidance learning has a morphological correlate on the hippocampal proteome level. In addition, our proteomicscreensuggests that morphine induces memory impairment and state-dependent learning through modulating neuronal plasticity. PMID:25901168

  15. Structure-function associations in hippocampus in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Chepenik, Lara G; Wang, Fei; Spencer, Linda; Spann, Marisa; Kalmar, Jessica H; Womer, Fay; Kale Edmiston, E; Pittman, Brian; Blumberg, Hilary P

    2012-04-01

    Hippocampus volume decreases and verbal memory deficits have been reported in bipolar disorder (BD) as independent observations. We investigated potential associations between these deficits in subjects with BD. Hippocampus volumes were measured on magnetic resonance images of 31 subjects with BD and 32 healthy comparison (HC) subjects. The California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT) assessed verbal memory function in these subjects. Compared to the HC group, the BD group showed both significantly smaller hippocampus volumes and impaired performance on CVLT tests of immediate, short delay and long delay cued and free recall. Further, smaller hippocampus volume correlated with impaired performance in BD. Post hoc analyses revealed a trend towards improved memory in BD subjects taking antidepressant medications. These results support associations between morphological changes in hippocampus structure in BD and verbal memory impairment. They provide preliminary evidence pharmacotherapy may reverse hippocampus-related memory deficits. PMID:22342942

  16. Analysis of U.S. Food and Drug Administration food allergen recalls after implementation of the food allergen labeling and consumer protection act.

    PubMed

    Gendel, Steven M; Zhu, Jianmei

    2013-11-01

    To avoid potentially life-threatening reactions, food allergic consumers rely on information on food labels to help them avoid exposure to a food or ingredient that could trigger a reaction. To help consumers in the United States obtain the information that they need, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 defined a major food allergen as being one of eight foods or food groups and any ingredient that contains protein from one of these foods or food groups. A food that contains an undeclared major food allergen is misbranded under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and is subject to recall. Food allergen labeling problems are the most common cause of recalls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated food products. To help understand why food allergen recalls continue to occur at a high rate, information on each food allergen recall that occurred in fiscal years 2007 through 2012 was obtained from the FDA recall database. This information was analyzed to identify the food, allergen, root cause, and mode of discovery for each food allergen recall. Bakery products were the most frequently recalled food type, and milk was the most frequently undeclared major food allergen. Use of the wrong package or label was the most frequent problem leading to food allergen recalls. These data are the first reported that indicate the importance of label and package controls as public health measures. PMID:24215698

  17. Electrophysiological and neurochemical changes in the rat hippocampus after in vitro and in vivo treatments with cocaine

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo effects of cocaine in the noradrenergic pathway in the rat hippocampus were examined. Although the blockade of (/sup 3/H)-norepinephrine-uptake by cocaine has been well-characterized in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, investigations characterizing the electrophysiological effects of cocaine in the central nervous system have been limited. The first part of this thesis examines the relationship between the ability of cocaine to potentiate the electrophysiological response to norepinephrine (NE) and the ability of cocaine to block noradrenergic high affinity uptake in rat hippocampal slices. The second part of this thesis examines the effects of the repeated administration of cocaine on noradrenergic pre- and postsynaptic function and receptors of the rat hippocampus. These studies demonstrate that after repeated administration of cocaine (10 mg/kg/day) for 8 and 14 days there is a 50% decrease in NE high affinity uptake in the rat hippocampus. This was accompanied by a 40% increase in a binding site for NE uptake inhibitors at 14 days. In contrast to these effects, there was no effect on ..beta..-adrenergic receptor number or the isoproterenol induced electrophysiological responsiveness in the rat hippocampus. The conclusion of these studies is that the repeated administration of cocaine has a greater effect on presynaptic targets in the noradrenergic system than on postsynaptic neurons.

  18. 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-Heptamethoxyflavone, a citrus flavonoid, on protection against memory impairment and neuronal cell death in a global cerebral ischemia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Morita, Mayu; Miyoshi, Kazuhiro; Nishigawa, Yuki; Kaji, Miki; Sawamoto, Atsushi; Terugo, Tsukasa; Toyoda, Nobuki; Makihata, Nahomi; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2014-05-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of treatment with the citrus flavonoid, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF) on protection against memory impairment and neuronal death in a global cerebral ischemia mouse model. The results showed that HMF, administrated for three days immediately after ischemic surgery, protected against ischemia-induced memory dysfunction, rescued neuronal cell death in the CA1 cell layer, increased the production of BDNF, stimulated the autophosphorylation of CaMK II and suppressed microglial activation in the hippocampus. These results suggest that HMF has a neuroprotective effect after brain ischemia by inducing BDNF production and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24657445

  19. Effects of chronic stress and corticosterone on sialidase activity in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wielgat, Przemyslaw; Walesiuk, Anna; Braszko, Jan J

    2011-09-23

    Sialidases are acid exoglycosidases that catalyse the removal of sialic acid from non-reducing end of sialoglucoconjugated substrates. Synaptic plasticity depends on sialylation state of proteins and lipids mediated by sialic acid-metabolizing enzymes. Since chronic stress causes both, hippocampal atrophy and impairment of learning, it is reasonable to investigate whether sialidase is implicated in these processes. In this study, we tested effects of chronic stress (immobilization, 2h daily, 21 days) or chronic corticosterone administration (5 mg/kg, sc, daily) on sialidase activity and sialylated NCAMs expression in rat hippocampus. The results showed that chronic stress affects hippocampus-depended spatial learning in the Barnes maze. Both, stress (p > 0.05) and corticosterone (p < 0.001), increased latencies to enter the escape tunnel of the maze in comparison to control animals. Similar but not significant differences between control and other experimental groups were observed in the numbers of errors. Chronic stress (p > 0.05) and corticosterone (p < 0.05) decreased sialidase activity in the brain homogenates and synaptosomes (p < 0.05, both). In the stressed animals, these changes were related to significantly higher expression of polysialic acid. These results indicate that changes in sialidase activity caused by stress and chronic corticosterone administration reflect disturbances of polysialylated glycoconjugates known to be related to synaptic plasticity in hippocampus. PMID:21501633

  20. Coordinating different representations in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Eduard; Fenton, André A

    2016-03-01

    The processes that organize different thoughts and memories, allowing the separation of currently relevant and irrelevant information, are collectively known as cognitive control. The neuronal mechanisms of these processes can be investigated by place cell ensemble recordings during behaviors and environmental manipulations that present cognitive control challenges to selectively represent one of multiple possible alternative estimates of location. We review place cell studies that investigate responses to manipulations that dissociate the environment into two or more spatial frames of locations, often times to test notions of pattern separation. Manipulations, such as continuously rotating the recording chamber reveal that the ensemble discharge in hippocampus self-organizes into multiple, transiently-organized representations of space, each defined by the subset of coactive cells. Ensemble discharge in the hippocampus alternates between separate representations of frame-specific positions on timescales from 25ms to several seconds. The dynamic, functional grouping of discharge into transiently co-active subsets of cells is predicted by the animal's changing behavioral needs. In addition to identifying neural correlates of cognitive control in hippocampus, these observations demonstrate that the separation of neuronal activity into distinctive representations depends on ongoing cognitive demands and that what can appear as noise, deviations from receptive field tuning, can substantially be the result of these internal knowledge-guided fluctuations. These findings inspire a new perspective that should be taken into account when investigating pattern separation - a perspective that emphasizes changes in hippocampal neural discharge that are happening on a short timescale and does not assume that patterns of neural discharge are steady and stationary across the several minutes of the recordings. PMID:26748023

  1. LTP enhances synaptogenesis in the developing hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Watson, Deborah J; Ostroff, Linnaea; Cao, Guan; Parker, Patrick H; Smith, Heather; Harris, Kristen M

    2016-05-01

    In adult hippocampus, long-term potentiation (LTP) produces synapse enlargement while preventing the formation of new small dendritic spines. Here, we tested how LTP affects structural synaptic plasticity in hippocampal area CA1 of Long-Evans rats at postnatal day 15 (P15). P15 is an age of robust synaptogenesis when less than 35% of dendritic spines have formed. We hypothesized that LTP might therefore have a different effect on synapse structure than in adults. Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) was used to induce LTP at one site and control stimulation was delivered at an independent site, both within s. radiatum of the same hippocampal slice. Slices were rapidly fixed at 5, 30, and 120 min after TBS, and processed for analysis by three-dimensional reconstruction from serial section electron microscopy (3DEM). All findings were compared to hippocampus that was perfusion-fixed (PF) in vivo at P15. Excitatory and inhibitory synapses on dendritic spines and shafts were distinguished from synaptic precursors, including filopodia and surface specializations. The potentiated response plateaued between 5 and 30 min and remained potentiated prior to fixation. TBS resulted in more small spines relative to PF by 30 min. This TBS-related spine increase lasted 120 min, hence, there were substantially more small spines with LTP than in the control or PF conditions. In contrast, control test pulses resulted in spine loss relative to PF by 120 min, but not earlier. The findings provide accurate new measurements of spine and synapse densities and sizes. The added or lost spines had small synapses, took time to form or disappear, and did not result in elevated potentiation or depression at 120 min. Thus, at P15 the spines formed following TBS, or lost with control stimulation, appear to be functionally silent. With TBS, existing synapses were awakened and then new spines formed as potential substrates for subsequent plasticity. © 2015 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley

  2. The microstructural effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola (Linn) on the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Sunday A; Ofusori, David A; Ojo, Gideon B; Ayoka, Oladele A; Abayomi, Taiwo A; Tijani, Adekilekun A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola on neurotoxin administered malnourished mice adopting histological procedure. Methods The study was carried out using thirty-two adult malnourished mice which were randomly assigned into four groups (n=8): A, B, C and D. Group A served as control, while the other groups served as the experimental groups. Animals in group A were fed malnourished diet ad libitum and given water liberally. Animals in group B were administered with 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) (neurotoxin) only at 20 mg/kg body weight, group C were given only Garcinia kola extracts, and group D were pre-treated with Garcinia kola extracts at 200 mg/kg for seven days prior to administration of neurotoxin at 20 mg/kg body weight. After three days of neurotoxins administration in the relevant groups, the brains were excised and fixed in formal calcium for histological processing. Results The study showed that hippocampal and cerebellar neurons of animals in group B exhibited some cellular degeneration and blood vessel blockage, which were not seen in groups A, C and D. Cresyl violet staining was least intense in group B than in groups A, C and D. Despite the fact that animals in group D has equal administration of 3-Nitropropionic acid concentration, there were no traces of neural degeneration as it was evidenced in group B. Conclusions It is concluded that Garcinia kola has protective effects on the neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice. PMID:23569771

  3. Neurochemical effects of buspirone in rat hippocampus: evidence for selective activation of 5HT neurons.

    PubMed

    Mennini, T; Gobbi, M; Ponzio, F; Garattini, S

    1986-01-01

    The effect of buspirone on neurotransmitter systems in rat hippocampus has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro buspirone does not affect the specific binding of 3H-flunitrazepam, 3H-GABA, 3H-dexetimide, but displaces 3H-5HT binding with nanomolar affinity. Oral administration of buspirone does not modify the hippocampal concentrations of GABA, acetylcholine, choline and of 3H-flunitrazepam specifically bound in vivo, but results in a dose-dependent reduction of 5HIAA and noradrenaline concentrations. While the effect on noradrenaline is also obtained in striatum of buspirone-treated animals, the effect on 5HIAA shows a regional specificity. The in vitro and in vivo data suggest that buspirone specifically activates 5HT neurons in hippocampus, and are compared with those obtained with diazepam. PMID:2421657

  4. Glycosaminoglycans from aged human hippocampus have altered capacities to regulate trophic factors activities but not Aβ42 peptide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Minh Bao; Villares, Joao; Díaz, Julia Elisa Sepúlveda; Christiaans, Stephy; Carpentier, Gilles; Ouidja, Mohand Ouidir; Sissoeff, Ludmilla; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Papy-Garcia, Dulce

    2012-05-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are major extracellular matrix components known to tightly regulate cell behavior by interacting with tissue effectors as trophic factors and other heparin binding proteins. Alterations of GAGs structures might thus modify the nature and extent of these interactions and alter tissue integrity. Here, we studied levels and composition of GAGs isolated from adult and aged human hippocampus and investigated if their changes can influence the function of important trophic factors and the Aβ42 peptide toxicity. Biochemical analyses showed that heparan sulfates are increased in the aged hippocampus. Moreover, GAGs from aged hippocampus showed altered capacities to regulate trophic factor activities without changing their capacities to protect cells from Aβ42 toxicity, compared to adult hippocampus GAGs. Structural alterations in GAGs from elderly were suggested by differential transcripts levels of key biosynthetic enzymes. C5-epimerase and 2-OST expressions were decreased while NDST-2 and 3-OST-4 were increased; in contrast, heparanase expression was unchanged. Results suggest that alteration of GAGs in hippocampus of aged subjects could participate to tissue impairment during aging. PMID:22035591

  5. Pleiotrophin as a central nervous system neuromodulator, evidences from the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    González-Castillo, Celia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel; Guzmán-Brambila, Carolina; Pallàs, Mercè; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia Esperanza

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted growth factor, and also a cytokine, associated with the extracellular matrix, which has recently starting to attract attention as a significant neuromodulator with multiple neuronal functions during development. PTN is expressed in several tissues, where its signals are generally related with cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation by acting through different receptors. In Central Nervous System (CNS), PTN exerts post-developmental neurotrophic and -protective effects, and additionally has been involved in neurodegenerative diseases and neural disorders. Studies in Drosophila shed light on some aspects of the different levels of regulatory control of PTN invertebrate homologs. Specifically in hippocampus, recent evidence from PTN Knock-out (KO) mice involves PTN functioning in learning and memory. In this paper, we summarize, discuss, and contrast the most recent advances and results that lead to proposing a PTN as a neuromodulatory molecule in the CNS, particularly in hippocampus. PMID:25620911

  6. Experience Modulates the Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Gene and Protein Expression in the Hippocampus: Impaired Plasticity in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sewal, Angila S.; Patzke, Holger; Perez, Evelyn J.; Park, Pul; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Fletcher, Bonnie R.; Long, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) treatment has attracted considerable attention in the emerging area of cognitive neuroepigenetics. The possibility that ongoing cognitive experience importantly regulates the cell biological effects of HDACi administration, however, has not been systematically examined. In an initial experiment addressing this issue, we tested whether water maze training influences the gene expression response to acute systemic HDACi administration in the young adult rat hippocampus. Training powerfully modulated the response to HDACi treatment, increasing the total number of genes regulated to nearly 3000, including many not typically linked to neural plasticity, compared with <300 following HDACi administration alone. Although water maze training itself also regulated nearly 1800 genes, the specific mRNAs, gene networks, and biological pathways involved were largely distinct when the same experience was provided together with HDACi administration. Next, we tested whether the synaptic protein response to HDACi treatment is similarly dependent on recent cognitive experience, and whether this plasticity is altered in aged rats with memory impairment. Whereas synaptic protein labeling in the young hippocampus was selectively increased when HDACi administration was provided in conjunction with water maze training, combined treatment had no effect on synaptic proteins in the aged hippocampus. Our findings indicate that ongoing experience potently regulates the molecular consequences of HDACi treatment and that the interaction of recent cognitive experience with histone acetylation dynamics is disrupted in the aged hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The possibility that interventions targeting epigenetic regulation could be effective in treating a range of neurodegenerative disorders has attracted considerable interest. Here we demonstrate in the rat hippocampus that ongoing experience powerfully modifies the molecular

  7. Oxytocin Protects Hippocampal Memory and Plasticity from Uncontrollable Stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Park, Seong-Hae; Chung, ChiHye; Kim, Jeansok J; Choi, Se-Young; Han, Jung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus is vulnerable to uncontrollable stress and is enriched with oxytocin receptors, but their interactive influences on hippocampal functioning are unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on stress-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity and spatial memory in male rats. While vehicle-administered stressed rats showed impairment in long-term potentiation, enhancement in long-term depression, and weakened spatial memory, these changes were not observed in oxytocin-administered stressed rats. To reveal the potential signaling mechanism mediating these effects, levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (pERK) in the hippocampus was examined. Western blotting showed that oxytocin treatment blocked stress-induced alterations of pERK. Additionally, the oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899 inhibited the oxytocin's protective effects on hippocampal memory to stress. Thus, intranasal administration of oxytocin reduced stress effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory in rats via acting on oxytocin receptors and regulating ERK activity. This study suggests that exogenous oxytocin may be a therapeutically effective means to counter the detrimental neurocognitive effects of stress. PMID:26688325

  8. Oxytocin Protects Hippocampal Memory and Plasticity from Uncontrollable Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Young; Park, Seong-Hae; Chung, ChiHye; Kim, Jeansok J.; Choi, Se-Young; Han, Jung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus is vulnerable to uncontrollable stress and is enriched with oxytocin receptors, but their interactive influences on hippocampal functioning are unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on stress-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity and spatial memory in male rats. While vehicle-administered stressed rats showed impairment in long-term potentiation, enhancement in long-term depression, and weakened spatial memory, these changes were not observed in oxytocin-administered stressed rats. To reveal the potential signaling mechanism mediating these effects, levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (pERK) in the hippocampus was examined. Western blotting showed that oxytocin treatment blocked stress-induced alterations of pERK. Additionally, the oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899 inhibited the oxytocin’s protective effects on hippocampal memory to stress. Thus, intranasal administration of oxytocin reduced stress effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory in rats via acting on oxytocin receptors and regulating ERK activity. This study suggests that exogenous oxytocin may be a therapeutically effective means to counter the detrimental neurocognitive effects of stress. PMID:26688325

  9. Pattern Separation Deficits Following Damage to the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwan, C. Brock; Hartshorn, Andrew; Stark, Shauna M.; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2012-01-01

    Computational models of hippocampal function propose that the hippocampus is capable of rapidly storing distinct representations through a process known as pattern separation. This prediction is supported by electrophysiological data from rodents and neuroimaging data from humans. Here, we test the prediction that damage to the hippocampus would…

  10. Role of the Dorsal Hippocampus in Object Memory Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannino, Sara; Russo, Fabio; Torromino, Giulia; Pendolino, Valentina; Calabresi, Paolo; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal hippocampus is crucial for mammalian spatial memory, but its exact role in item memory is still hotly debated. Recent evidence in humans suggested that the hippocampus might be selectively involved in item short-term memory to deal with an increasing memory load. In this study, we sought to test this hypothesis. To this aim we developed…

  11. National Telecommunications and Information Administration Authorization. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on HR 5497, a Bill to Authorize Appropriations for the National Telecommunications and Information Administration for Fiscal Years of 1985 and 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This report on a hearing on legislation to authorize an increased appropriation for the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) for fiscal years 1985 and 1986 contains an introductory statement by Timothy E. Wirth, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance; the text of the bill;…

  12. Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in patients with vaginismus

    PubMed Central

    Atmaca, Murad; Baykara, Sema; Ozer, Omer; Korkmaz, Sevda; Akaslan, Unsal; Yildirim, Hanefi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare hippocampus and amygdala volumes of patients with vaginismus with those of healthy control subjects. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on ten patients with vaginismus and ten control subjects matched for age and gender. Volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala were blindly measured. RESULTS: We found that the mean right amygdala volume of patients with vaginismus were smaller than that of the healthy controls. With regard to hippocampus volumes, the mean left and right hippocampus volumes were smaller than those of the healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Our present findings suggest that there have been hippocampus and amygdala structural abnormalities in patients with vaginismus. These changes provide the notion that vaginismus may be a fear-related condition. PMID:27354964

  13. Association between Income and the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Chandra, Amitabh; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2011-01-01

    Facets of the post-natal environment including the type and complexity of environmental stimuli, the quality of parenting behaviors, and the amount and type of stress experienced by a child affects brain and behavioral functioning. Poverty is a type of pervasive experience that is likely to influence biobehavioral processes because children developing in such environments often encounter high levels of stress and reduced environmental stimulation. This study explores the association between socioeconomic status and the hippocampus, a brain region involved in learning and memory that is known to be affected by stress. We employ a voxel-based morphometry analytic framework with region of interest drawing for structural brain images acquired from participants across the socioeconomic spectrum (n = 317). Children from lower income backgrounds had lower hippocampal gray matter density, a measure of volume. This finding is discussed in terms of disparities in education and health that are observed across the socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:21573231

  14. Effects of lesions to the dorsal and ventral hippocampus on defensive behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Pentkowski, Nathan S; Blanchard, D Caroline; Lever, Colin; Litvin, Yoav; Blanchard, Robert J

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated the role of the hippocampus in both unconditioned and conditioned defensive behaviors by examining the effects of pretraining ibotenic acid lesions to the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in male Long-Evans hooded rats exposed to three types of threat stimuli: cat-odor, a live cat and footshock. Defensive behaviors were assessed during exposure to cat-odor and a live cat, and immediately following the presentation of footshock. Conditioned defensive behaviors were also assessed in each context 24 h after initial threat exposure. During both unconditioned and conditioned trials, dorsal hippocampal lesions failed to significantly alter any behavioral measure in each test of defense. In contrast, ventral hippocampal lesions significantly reduced unconditioned defensive behaviors during exposure to cat-odor without producing any observable effects during cat exposure. Furthermore, ventral lesions significantly attenuated conditioned defensive behaviors following the administration of footshock and during re-exposure to each context. These results suggest a specific role for the ventral, not dorsal, hippocampus in modulating anxiety-like behaviors in certain animal models of defense. PMID:16630065

  15. The Protective Role of Carnosic Acid against Beta-Amyloid Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rasoolijazi, H.; Azad, N.; Joghataei, M. T.; Kerdari, M.; Nikbakht, F.; Soleimani, M.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the pathological mechanisms responsible for the beta- amyloid cascade associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have demonstrated the role of carnosic acid (CA), an effective antioxidant, in combating oxidative stress. A progressive cognitive decline is one of the hallmarks of AD. Thus, we attempted to determine whether the administration of CA protects against memory deficit caused by beta-amyloid toxicity in rats. Beta-amyloid (1–40) was injected by stereotaxic surgery into the Ca1 region of the hippocampus of rats in the Amyloid beta (Aβ) groups. CA was delivered intraperitoneally, before and after surgery in animals in the CA groups. Passive avoidance learning and spontaneous alternation behavior were evaluated using the shuttle box and the Y-maze, respectively. The degenerating hippocampal neurons were detected by fluoro-jade b staining. We observed that beta-amyloid (1–40) can induce neurodegeneration in the Ca1 region of the hippocampus by using fluoro-jade b staining. Also, the behavioral tests revealed that CA may recover the passive avoidance learning and spontaneous alternation behavior scores in the Aβ + CA group, in comparison with the Aβ group. We found that CA may ameliorate the spatial and learning memory deficits induced by the toxicity of beta-amyloid in the rat hippocampus. PMID:24363627

  16. Rapid Antidepressant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis Is Associated with Upregulation of BDNF Expression in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hailou; Xue, Wenda; Wu, Runjie; Gong, Tong; Tao, Weiwei; Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Nan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Chang; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol extract of Yueju pill, a Traditional Chinese Medicine herbal formula widely used to treat mood disorders, demonstrates rapid antidepressant effects similar to ketamine, likely via instant enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. Here we investigated ethanol extracts of the constituent herbs of Yueju responsible for rapid antidepressant effects. Screening with tail suspension test in Kunming mice at 24 hours after a single administration of five individual constituent herbs of Yueju, we found that only Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJ) showed a significant effect. The antidepressant response started at 2 hours after GJ administration. Similar to Yueju and ketamine, a single administration of GJ significantly reduced the number of escape failures in the learned helplessness test. Furthermore, GJ decreased latency of food consumption in the novelty suppressed-feeding test. Additionally, starting from 2 hours and continuing for over 20 hours after GJ administration, BDNF expression in the hippocampus was upregulated, temporally linked with the antidepressant response. These findings suggest that GJ has rapid antidepressant effects, which are associated with the elevated expression of BDNF in the hippocampus. In Yueju formula, Yue represents GJ, as thus our study demonstrates the primary role of GJ in rapid antidepressant efficacy of Yueju. PMID:25878718

  17. Rapid Antidepressant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis Is Associated with Upregulation of BDNF Expression in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailou; Xue, Wenda; Wu, Runjie; Gong, Tong; Tao, Weiwei; Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Nan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Chang; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol extract of Yueju pill, a Traditional Chinese Medicine herbal formula widely used to treat mood disorders, demonstrates rapid antidepressant effects similar to ketamine, likely via instant enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. Here we investigated ethanol extracts of the constituent herbs of Yueju responsible for rapid antidepressant effects. Screening with tail suspension test in Kunming mice at 24 hours after a single administration of five individual constituent herbs of Yueju, we found that only Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJ) showed a significant effect. The antidepressant response started at 2 hours after GJ administration. Similar to Yueju and ketamine, a single administration of GJ significantly reduced the number of escape failures in the learned helplessness test. Furthermore, GJ decreased latency of food consumption in the novelty suppressed-feeding test. Additionally, starting from 2 hours and continuing for over 20 hours after GJ administration, BDNF expression in the hippocampus was upregulated, temporally linked with the antidepressant response. These findings suggest that GJ has rapid antidepressant effects, which are associated with the elevated expression of BDNF in the hippocampus. In Yueju formula, Yue represents GJ, as thus our study demonstrates the primary role of GJ in rapid antidepressant efficacy of Yueju. PMID:25878718

  18. Naringin Attenuates Autophagic Stress and Neuroinflammation in Kainic Acid-Treated Hippocampus In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) is well known as a chemical compound to study epileptic seizures and neuronal excitotoxicity. KA-induced excitotoxicity causes neuronal death by induction of autophagic stress and microglia-derived neuroinflammation, suggesting that the control of KA-induced effects may be important to inhibit epileptic seizures with neuroprotection. Naringin, a flavonoid in grapefruit and citrus fruits, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities, resulting in neuroprotection in animal models from neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we examined its beneficial effects involved in antiautophagic stress and antineuroinflammation in the KA-treated hippocampus. Our results showed that naringin treatment delayed the onset of KA-induced seizures and decreased the occurrence of chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) in KA-treated mice. Moreover, naringin treatment protected hippocampal CA1 neurons in the KA-treated hippocampus, ameliorated KA-induced autophagic stress, confirmed by the expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), and attenuated an increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in activated microglia. These results suggest that naringin may have beneficial effects of preventing epileptic events and neuronal death through antiautophagic stress and antineuroinflammation in the hippocampus in vivo. PMID:26124853

  19. A role for dorsal and ventral hippocampus in response learning.

    PubMed

    Fidalgo, C; Conejo, N M; González-Pardo, H; Lazo, P S; Arias, J L

    2012-07-01

    The hippocampus and the striatum have been traditionally considered as part of different and independent memory systems despite growing evidence supporting that both brain regions may even compete for behavioral control in particular learning tasks. In this regard, it has been reported that the hippocampus could be necessary for the use of idiothetic cues in several types of spatial learning tasks. Accordingly, the ventral striatum receives strong anatomical projections from the hippocampus, suggesting a participation of both regions in goal-directed behavior. Our work examined the role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus on a response learning task. Cytochrome c oxidase (C.O.) quantitative histochemistry was used as an index of brain oxidative metabolism. In addition, determination of C.O. subunit I levels in the hippocampus by western blot analysis was performed to assess the contribution of this subunit to overall C.O. activity. Increased brain oxidative metabolism was found in most of the studied hippocampal subregions when experimental group was compared with a swim control group. However, no differences were found in the amount of C.O. subunit I expressed in the hippocampus by western blot analysis. Our results support that both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus are associated with the use of response strategies during response learning. PMID:22507525

  20. Overactivation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors through entorhinal-hippocampal connection initiates accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in rat hippocampus after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Shi; Liu, An-Chun; Chen, Juan; Pan, Zhi-Yong; Wan, Qi; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Ze-Fen

    2015-08-01

    Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induces secondary damages in the hippocampus that is remote from primary ischemic regions. Tau hyperphosphorylation is an important risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Increased tau phosphorylation has been identified in ischemic cortex, but little is known regarding the changes in the hippocampus. We showed that unilateral transient MCAO induced accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and concurrent dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β at Ser 9 in the ipsilateral hippocampus. These MCAO-induced changes were not reproduced when glutamatergic inputs from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus were transected; however, the changes were mimicked by intrahippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) administration. Inhibition of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunit NR2B, but not NR2A activity in the hippocampus attenuated the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and spatial cognitive impairment in MCAO rats. Together, our data suggest that overactivation of NR2B-containing NMDARs through entorhinal-hippocampal connection plays an important role in the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampus following MCAO. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β is an important protein kinase involved in NMDARs-mediated tau hyperphosphorylation. This study indicates that early inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDARs may represent a potential strategy to prevent or delay the occurrence of post-stroke dementia. Middle cerebral artery occlusion induces secondary damage in the hippocampus that is remote from primary ischemic regions. We propose that excessive activation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors through entorhinal-hippocampal connection initiated the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampus, which subsequently induced cognitive deficit. This study provides new insights into the prospects of NR2B inhibition in stoke therapy. PMID:25903928

  1. ADMINISTRATION OF A SUBSTITUTED ADAMANTLY-UREA INHIBITOR OF THE SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE PROTECTS THE KIDNEY FROM DAMAGE IN HYPERTENSIVE GOTO-KAKIZAKI RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypertension and type II diabetes are co-morbid diseases that lead to the development of nephropathy. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are reported to provide protection from renal injury. We hypothesized that the sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid (AUDA) protects ...

  2. Subchronic phencyclidine treatment in adult mice increases GABAergic transmission and LTP threshold in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Toshihiro; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Fernandes, Herman B; Remmers, Christine L; Xu, Jian; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Contractor, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Repeated administration of non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) to rodents causes long-lasting deficits in cognition and memory, and has effects on behaviors that have been suggested to be models of the cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). Despite this being a widely studied animal model, little is known about the long lasting changes in synapses and circuits that underlie the altered behaviors. Here we examined synaptic transmission ex-vivo in the hippocampus of mice after a subchronic PCP (scPCP) administration regime. We found that after at least one week of drug free washout period when mice have impaired cognitive function, the threshold for long-term potentiation (LTP) of CA1 excitatory synapses was elevated. This elevated LTP threshold was directly related to increased inhibitory input to CA1 pyramidal cells through increased activity of GABAergic neurons. These results suggest repeated PCP administration causes a long-lasting metaplastic change in the inhibitory circuits in the hippocampus that results in impaired LTP, and could contribute to the deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory in PCP-treated mice. Changes in GABA signaling have been described in patients with schizophrenia, therefore our results support using scPCP as a model of CIAS. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Synaptopathy--from Biology to Therapy'. PMID:25937215

  3. Houttuyniae Herba Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Neurotoxicity via Calcium Response Modulation in the Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Jeong, Hyun Uk; Hong, Sung In; Oh, Myung Sook

    2015-12-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological disorder characterized by the repeated occurrence of electrical activity known as seizures. This activity induces increased intracellular calcium, which ultimately leads to neuronal damage. Houttuyniae Herba, the aerial part of Houttuynia cordata, has various pharmacological effects and is widely used as a traditional herb. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of Houttuyniae Herba water extract on kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity. Kainic acid directly acts on calcium release, resulting in seizure behavior, neuronal damage, and cognitive impairment. In a rat primary hippocampal culture system, Houttuyniae Herba water extract significantly protected neuronal cells from kainic acid toxicity. In a seizure model where mice received intracerebellar kainic acid injections, Houttuyniae Herba water extract treatment resulted in a lower seizure stage score, ameliorated cognitive impairment, protected neuronal cells against kainic acid-induced toxicity, and suppressed neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus. In addition, Houttuyniae Herba water extract regulated increases in the intracellular calcium level, its related downstream pathways (reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial dysfunction), and calcium/calmodulin complex kinase type II immunoreactivity in the mouse hippocampus, which resulted from calcium influx stimulation induced by kainic acid. These results demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of Houttuyniae Herba water extract through inhibition of calcium generation in a kainic acid-induced epileptic model. PMID:26366753

  4. Protective effects of myricetin on chronic stress-induced cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi-Min; Wang, Gui-Lin; Ma, Ze-Gang

    2016-06-15

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects of chronic administration of myricetin, a natural flavonoid, on chronic stress-induced learning and memory deficits in mice. The mice were restrained daily 4 h/day for 21 days in well-ventilated plexiglass tubes without access to food and water. These animals were injected with myricetin or vehicle 40 min before each restraint stress over a period of 21 days. Then, spatial learning and memory of the mice were evaluated by the Morris water maze task. We did not observe a significant difference in the escape latency in mice subjected to repeated restraint stress, which indicates that learning ability was not affected by restraint stress. However, the spatial memory ability was significantly impaired in the repeatedly restrained mice. Myricetin administration specifically increased the time spent in the target quadrant in mice exposed to chronic stress in the probe trial as tested in the Morris water maze task. Further studies showed that myricetin treatment decreased plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels of those mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. The effect of myricetin on the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus was also investigated. The result showed that myricetin normalized the decreased BDNF levels in mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. These findings provide more evidence that chronic administration of myricetin improves spatial memory in repeatedly restrained mice and BDNF signaling in the hippocampus may be involved in the protective effects of myricetin. PMID:27171032

  5. [Interhemisphere asymmetry of hippocampus and neocortex in correlates of active and passive behavioural strategy in negative emotional situations].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, I V; Rysakova, M P; Ziablintseva, E A

    2010-12-01

    The interhemisphere interaction of neurons in bilateral derivations from parietal and sensomotor areas of neocortex and the area CA1 of hippocampus were studied in rabbits with active and passive behavioural strategy in the open field by plotting histograms of crosscorrelation. In passive animals, there was asymmetry in bilateral neuronal interaction: with right-sided dominance in the neocortex and with left-sided that--in the hippocampus. On the contrary, in active rabbits, the left-sided dominance was observed in the neocortex, and the lateralization was not revealed in the hippocampus. The brain laterality was reflected in motor asymmetry of animals in preferring left or right turns in the open field. Passive rabbits made relatively more left turns, and the active animals--right turns. Systemic administration of agonist GABA(B) receptors phenibut decreased behavioural responses to emotional stimuli and eliminated interhemisphere asymmetry observed usually in negative emotional situations. Thus the interhemisphere asymmetry of the neocortex and hippocampus is correlated with individual typological characteristics of animals and reflects the readiness to preferential forms of behavioural responses in active and passive rabbits. PMID:21473104

  6. Prostaglandins are necessary and sufficient to induce contextual fear learning impairments after interleukin-1 beta injections into the dorsal hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Hein, A.M.; Stutzman, D.L.; Bland, S.T.; Barrientos, R.M.; Watkins, L.R.; Rudy, J.W.; Maier, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    The intra-hippocampal administration of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as well as the induction of elevated but physiological levels of IL-1β within the hippocampus interferes with the formation of long-term memory. There is evidence suggesting that the induction of prostaglandin (PG) formation by IL-1β is involved in impairments in working and spatial memory following IL-1β. The present experiments extend these findings by showing that PGs are responsible for memory deficits in contextual fear conditioning that occur following IL-1β injection into the dorsal hippocampus. Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition blocked the disruption in contextual fear conditioning produced by IL-1β and COX inhibition alone also disrupted contextual memory, suggesting an inverted U-shaped relationship between PG levels and memory. In addition to demonstrating the necessity of PGs in IL-1β mediated memory deficits, we also show that PGs injected directly into the dorsal hippocampus are sufficient to impair context memory and significantly reduce post-conditioning levels of BDNF within the hippocampus, suggesting a possible mechanism for the memory-impairing effects of PGs. PMID:18035502

  7. COMPENSATORY CHANGES IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS FOLLOWING INTRADENTATE INFUSION OF COLCHICINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct infusion of colchicine into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus kills granule cells and elicits compensatory behavioral, neurochemical and neuroanatomical changes. olchicine-treated rats are less sensitive to the behavioral effects of cholinergic muscarinic receptor antag...

  8. Statistical learning of temporal community structure in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Schapiro, Anna C.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Botvinick, Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus is involved in the learning and representation of temporal statistics, but little is understood about the kinds of statistics it can uncover. Prior studies have tested various forms of structure that can be learned by tracking the strength of transition probabilities between adjacent items in a sequence. We test whether the hippocampus can learn higher-order structure using sequences that have no variance in transition probability and instead exhibit temporal community structure. We find that the hippocampus is indeed sensitive to this form of structure, as revealed by its representations, activity dynamics, and connectivity with other regions. These findings suggest that the hippocampus is a sophisticated learner of environmental regularities, able to uncover higher-order structure that requires sensitivity to overlapping associations. PMID:26332666

  9. A quantitative transcriptome reference map of the normal human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Caracausi, Maria; Rigon, Vania; Piovesan, Allison; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara

    2016-01-01

    We performed an innovative systematic meta-analysis of 41 gene expression profiles of normal human hippocampus to provide a quantitative transcriptome reference map of it, i.e. a reference typical value of expression for each of the 30,739 known mapped and the 16,258 uncharacterized (unmapped) transcripts. For this aim, we used the software called TRAM (Transcriptome Mapper), which is able to generate transcriptome maps based on gene expression data from multiple sources. We also analyzed differential expression by comparing the hippocampus with the whole brain transcriptome map to identify a typical expression pattern of this subregion compared with the whole organ. Finally, due to the fact that the hippocampus is one of the main brain region to be severely affected in trisomy 21 (the best known genetic cause of intellectual disability), a particular attention was paid to the expression of chromosome 21 (chr21) genes. Data were downloaded from microarray databases, processed, and analyzed using TRAM software. Among the main findings, the most over-expressed loci in the hippocampus are the expressed sequence tag cluster Hs.732685 and the member of the calmodulin gene family CALM2. The tubulin folding cofactor B (TBCB) gene is the best gene at behaving like a housekeeping gene. The hippocampus vs. the whole brain differential transcriptome map shows the over-expression of LINC00114, a long non-coding RNA mapped on chr21. The hippocampus transcriptome map was validated in vitro by assaying gene expression through several magnitude orders by "Real-Time" reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The highly significant agreement between in silico and experimental data suggested that our transcriptome map may be a useful quantitative reference benchmark for gene expression studies related to human hippocampus. Furthermore, our analysis yielded biological insights about those genes that have an intrinsic over-/under-expression in the hippocampus. PMID

  10. M1 muscarinic receptor signaling in mouse hippocampus and cortex.

    PubMed

    Porter, Amy C; Bymaster, Frank P; DeLapp, Neil W; Yamada, Masahisa; Wess, Jürgen; Hamilton, Susan E; Nathanson, Neil M; Felder, Christian C

    2002-07-19

    The five subtypes (M1-M5) of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors signal through G(alpha)(q) or G(alpha)(i)/G(alpha)(o). M1, M3 and M5 receptors couple through G(alpha)(q) and function predominantly as postsynaptic receptors in the central nervous system. M1 and M3 receptors are localized to brain regions involved in cognition, such as hippocampus and cortex, but their relative contribution to function has been difficult to ascertain due to the lack of subtype specific ligands. A functional and genetic approach was used to identify the predominant muscarinic receptor subtype(s) mediating responses in mouse hippocampus and cortex, as well as the relative degree of spare muscarinic receptors in hippocampus. The nonselective muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M stimulated G(alpha)(q)/11-specific GTP-gamma-35S binding in a concentration dependent manner with a Hill slope near unity in wild type mouse hippocampus and cortex. Muscarinic receptor stimulated G(alpha)(q)/11-specific GTP-gamma-35S binding was virtually abolished in both the hippocampus and cortex of M1 receptor knockout (KO) mice. In contrast, there was no loss of signaling in M3 receptor KO mice in either brain region. Muscarinic receptor reserve in wildtype mouse hippocampus was measured by Furchgott analysis after partial receptor alkylation with propylbenzylcholine mustard. Occupation of just 15% of the M1 receptors in mouse hippocampus was required for maximal efficacy of oxotremorine-M-stimulated GTP-gamma-35S binding indicating a substantial level of spare receptors. These findings support a role for the M1 receptor subtype as the primary G(alpha)(q)/11-coupled muscarinic receptor in mouse hippocampus and cortex. PMID:12106668

  11. The functional organization of human epileptic hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Klimes, Petr; Duque, Juliano J; Brinkmann, Ben; Van Gompel, Jamie; Stead, Matt; St Louis, Erik K; Halamek, Josef; Jurak, Pavel; Worrell, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    The function and connectivity of human brain is disrupted in epilepsy. We previously reported that the region of epileptic brain generating focal seizures, i.e., the seizure onset zone (SOZ), is functionally isolated from surrounding brain regions in focal neocortical epilepsy. The modulatory effect of behavioral state on the spatial and spectral scales over which the reduced functional connectivity occurs, however, is unclear. Here we use simultaneous sleep staging from scalp EEG with intracranial EEG recordings from medial temporal lobe to investigate how behavioral state modulates the spatial and spectral scales of local field potential synchrony in focal epileptic hippocampus. The local field spectral power and linear correlation between adjacent electrodes provide measures of neuronal population synchrony at different spatial scales, ∼1 and 10 mm, respectively. Our results show increased connectivity inside the SOZ and low connectivity between electrodes in SOZ and outside the SOZ. During slow-wave sleep, we observed decreased connectivity for ripple and fast ripple frequency bands within the SOZ at the 10 mm spatial scale, while the local synchrony remained high at the 1 mm spatial scale. Further study of these phenomena may prove useful for SOZ localization and help understand seizure generation, and the functional deficits seen in epileptic eloquent cortex. PMID:27030735

  12. Ketamine alters oscillatory coupling in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Caixeta, Fábio V.; Cornélio, Alianda M.; Scheffer-Teixeira, Robson; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Tort, Adriano B. L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show that higher order oscillatory interactions such as cross-frequency coupling are important for brain functions that are impaired in schizophrenia, including perception, attention and memory. Here we investigated the dynamics of oscillatory coupling in the hippocampus of awake rats upon NMDA receptor blockade by ketamine, a pharmacological model of schizophrenia. Ketamine (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg i.p.) increased gamma and high-frequency oscillations (HFO) in all depths of the CA1-dentate axis, while theta power changes depended on anatomical location and were independent of a transient increase of delta oscillations. Phase coherence of gamma and HFO increased across hippocampal layers. Phase-amplitude coupling between theta and fast oscillations was markedly altered in a dose-dependent manner: ketamine increased hippocampal theta-HFO coupling at all doses, while theta-gamma coupling increased at the lowest dose and was disrupted at the highest dose. Our results demonstrate that ketamine alters network interactions that underlie cognitively relevant theta-gamma coupling. PMID:23907109

  13. Knowledge-based localization of hippocampus in human brain MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Siadat, Mohammad-Reza

    1999-05-01

    Hippocampus is an important structure of the human brain limbic system. The variations in the volume and architecture of this structure have been related to certain neurological diseases such as schizophrenia and epilepsy. This paper presents a two-stage method for localizing hippocampus in human brain MRI automatically. The first stage utilizes image processing techniques such as nonlinear filtering and histogram analysis to extract information from MRI. This stage generates binary images, locates lateral and third ventricles, and the inferior limit of Sylvian Fissure. The second stage uses a shell of expert system named VP-EXPERT to analyze the information extracted in the first stage. This stage utilizes absolute and relative spatial rules and spatial symmetry rules to locate the hippocampus. The system has been tested using MRI studies of six epilepsy patients. MRI data consisted of a total of 128 images. The system correctly identified all of the slices without hippocampus, and correctly localized hippocampus is about n 78% of the slices with hippocampus.

  14. Musical Training Induces Functional Plasticity in Human Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Fabrizio; di Salle, Francesco; Boller, Christian; Hilti, Caroline C.; Habermeyer, Benedikt; Scheffler, Klaus; Wetzel, Stephan; Seifritz, Erich; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Training can change the functional and structural organization of the brain, and animal models demonstrate that the hippocampus formation is particularly susceptible to training-related neuroplasticity. In humans, however, direct evidence for functional plasticity of the adult hippocampus induced by training is still missing. Here, we used musicians' brains as a model to test for plastic capabilities of the adult human hippocampus. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging optimized for the investigation of auditory processing, we examined brain responses induced by temporal novelty in otherwise isochronous sound patterns in musicians and musical laypersons, since the hippocampus has been suggested previously to be crucially involved in various forms of novelty detection. In the first cross-sectional experiment, we identified enhanced neural responses to temporal novelty in the anterior left hippocampus of professional musicians, pointing to expertise-related differences in hippocampal processing. In the second experiment, we evaluated neural responses to acoustic temporal novelty in a longitudinal approach to disentangle training-related changes from predispositional factors. For this purpose, we examined an independent sample of music academy students before and after two semesters of intensive aural skills training. After this training period, hippocampal responses to temporal novelty in sounds were enhanced in musical students, and statistical interaction analysis of brain activity changes over time suggests training rather than predisposition effects. Thus, our results provide direct evidence for functional changes of the adult hippocampus in humans related to musical training. PMID:20107063

  15. Neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion changes nuclear restricted protein/brain (NRP/B) expression in hippocampus, cortex and striatum in developmental periods of rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Y; Yang, J; Lei, Y; Zhang, Z; Dai, Z; Chen, X; Lui, F; Zhang, J; Ling, S

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia is conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental disorder in which developmental alterations in immature brain systems are not clear. Rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHL) can exhibit schizophrenia-like behaviors, and these rats have been widely used to study the developmental mechanisms of schizophrenia. The nuclear restricted protein/brain (NRP/B) is a nuclear matrix protein that is critical for the normal development of the neuronal system. This study assessed the effect of NVHL induced by the administration of ibotenic acid on the protein expression of NRP/B in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum in pre- and post-pubertal rats. The expressions of NeuN in various developmental periods were assessed accordingly. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were administered ibotenic acid at postnatal day (PD) 7. Western blotting and an immunofluorescence staining analysis showed that the expression of NRP/B was significantly decreased in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum of the NVHL rats at PD14, 28 and 42. The expressions of NeuN were decreased accordingly. In vitro experiment showed the NRP/B knockdown can decrease the Tuj1 expression in cultured cortical neurons. The data suggest that NVHL induces a change in NRP/B expression that affects neurons in the developmental period. PMID:26812035

  16. 40 CFR 72.63 - Administrative record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative record. 72.63 Section 72.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.63 Administrative record. (a) Contents of the Administrative Record....

  17. 40 CFR 30.47 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract administration. 30.47 Section 30.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... administration. A system for contract administration shall be maintained to ensure contractor conformance...

  18. Combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine enhances immune functions and protects against influenza virus infection in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yasuhiro; Kurihara, Shigekazu; Higashi, Natsumi; Morikawa, Saeko; Kase, Tetsuo; Maeda, Akiko; Arisaka, Harumi; Shibahara, Susumu; Akiyama, Yukio

    2010-02-01

    Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses are attenuated with aging. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels also decrease with aging. Previously, we have reported that combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine enhances antigen-specific IgG production, partly through augmentation of GSH levels and T helper 2-mediated responses in 12-week-old mice. These findings suggest that combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine to aged mice improves immune responses via increase of GSH synthesis. Here, we examined the effects of combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine on antigen-specific antibody production and influenza virus infection in aged mice. Combined administration of these amino acids for 14 days before primary immunization significantly enhanced the serum antigen-specific IgM and IgG levels in 24-month-old mice. Furthermore, 13-month-old mice co-treated with these amino acids orally for 10 days had significantly lower lung viral titers than controls at 6 days after influenza virus infection. In addition, this co-treatment also significantly prevented the weight loss associated with infection. Enhancement of anti-influenza-virus IgG antibodies by combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine was seen 10 days after infection. The significantly elevated serum interleukin-10/interferon-gamma ratio and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase mRNA expression, which is the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis, in the spleen 3 days after infection may have contributed to the observed beneficial effects. These results suggest that combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine enhances immune function and GSH synthesis which are compromised with advanced age, and may become a useful strategy in healthy aging. PMID:19940390

  19. Caffeine and modafinil given during 48 h sleep deprivation modulate object recognition memory and synaptic proteins in the hippocampus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, M; Sahu, S; Kumari, P; Kauser, H; Ray, K; Panjwani, U

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of caffeine/modafinil on sleep deprivation (SD) induced alterations in recognition memory and synaptic proteins. The data revealed a beneficial effect of caffeine/modafinil against deficit in the familiar object retrieval performance and object exploration ratio after 48 h SD. Caffeine treatment prevented the SD induced down-regulation of synaptophysin and synapsin I proteins with no change in PSD-95 protein in hippocampus. However, modafinil administration improved the down-regulation of synaptophysin, synapsin I and PSD-95 proteins in hippocampus. Hence, caffeine/modafinil can serve as counter measures in amelioration of SD induced consequences at behavioural and protein levels. PMID:26255702

  20. NASA Fire Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on fire protection operations and administration at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The presentation also lists innovative practices and recent improvements.

  1. The hippocampus and executive functions in depression

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Ryali, VSSR; Bhat, Pookala Shivaram; Prakash, Jyoti; Srivastava, Kalpana; Khanam, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between depression, hippocampus (HC), and executive dysfunctions seems complex and has been the focus of research. Recent evidence indicates a possible role of HC in executive dysfunction seen in depression. No such studies on Indian population have been done. Aim: To look for changes in HC and executive functions in depression. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional analytical controlled study. Sample size 50 (controls 50). Materials and Methods: Hippocampal volume and executive dysfunction was measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), respectively. Findings on these two parameters were compared between depressives and healthy matched controls as well as between first episode (FE) and recurrent depressives and across the severity of depression (mild, moderate, and severe). Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 was used for analysis. Normally distributed continuous variables were analyzed with independent t-tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple comparisons. Categorical data were compared with χ2 or Fisher's exact test. Clinical correlations were conducted using Pearson correlations. Result: Depressed patients had a smaller left (Lt) hippocampal volume as well as poor performance on several measures of executive functions. Smaller hippocampal volume was found even in FE. Those who had a past burden of depressive illness had an even smaller hippocampal volume. No direct correlation was found between the HC volume and cognitive dysfunction. Conclusion: Depressive illness appears to be toxic to the HC. The relationship between HC and executive dysfunction in depression may be indirect through its functional connections. PMID:26257478

  2. Hippocampus and epilepsy: findings from human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Huberfeld, Gilles; Blauwblomme, Thomas; Miles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Surgical removal of the epileptogenic zone provides an effective therapy for several epileptic syndromes. This surgery offers the opportunity to study pathological activity in living human tissue for pharmacoresistant partial epilepsy syndromes including (1) temporal lobe epilepsies with hippocampal sclerosis, (2) cortical dysplasias, (3) epilepsies associated with tumors and (4) developmental malformations. Slices of tissue from patient with these syndromes retain functional neuronal networks and may generate epileptic activities. The properties of cells in this tissue may not be greatly changed, but excitatory synaptic transmission is often enhanced and GABAergic inhibition is preserved. Typically epileptic activity is not generated spontaneously by the neocortex, whether dysplastic or not, but can be induced by convulsants. The initiation of ictal discharges in neocortex depends on both GABAergic signaling and increased extracellular potassium. In contrast, a spontaneous interictal-like activity is generated by tissues from patients with temporal lobe epilepsies associated with hippocampal sclerosis. This activity is initiated, not in the hippocampus but in the subiculum an output region which projects to the entorhinal cortex. Interictal events seem to be triggered by GABAergic cells which paradoxically excite about 20% of subicular pyramidal cells while simultaneously inhibiting the majority. Interictal discharges thus depend on both GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling. The depolarizing effects of GABA depend on a pathological elevation in levels of chloride in some subicular cells, similar to those of developmentally immature cells. Such defect is caused by a perturbed expression of the cotransporters regulating intracellular chloride concentration, the importer NKCC1 and the extruder KCC2. Blockade of NKCC1 actions by the diuretic bumetanide, restores intracellular chloride and thus hyperpolarizing GABAergic actions so suppressing interictal activity. PMID

  3. Hippocampus and epilepsy: Findings from human tissues.

    PubMed

    Huberfeld, G; Blauwblomme, T; Miles, R

    2015-03-01

    Surgical removal of the epileptogenic zone provides an effective therapy for several focal epileptic syndromes. This surgery offers the opportunity to study pathological activity in living human tissue for pharmacoresistant partial epilepsy syndromes including temporal lobe epilepsies with hippocampal sclerosis, cortical dysplasias, epilepsies associated with tumors and developmental malformations. Slices of tissue from patients with these syndromes retain functional neuronal networks and may generate epileptic activities. The properties of cells in this tissue may not be greatly changed, but excitatory synaptic transmission is often enhanced and GABAergic inhibition is preserved. Typically epileptic activity is not generated spontaneously by the neocortex, whether dysplastic or not, but can be induced by convulsants. The initiation of ictal discharges in the neocortex depends on both GABAergic signaling and increased extracellular potassium. In contrast, a spontaneous interictal-like activity is generated by tissues from patients with temporal lobe epilepsies associated with hippocampal sclerosis. This activity is initiated, not in the hippocampus but in the subiculum, an output region, which projects to the entorhinal cortex. Interictal events seem to be triggered by GABAergic cells, which paradoxically excite about 20% of subicular pyramidal cells while simultaneously inhibiting the majority. Interictal discharges thus depend on both GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling. The depolarizing effects of GABA depend on a pathological elevation in levels of chloride in some subicular cells, similar to those of developmentally immature cells. Such defect is caused by a perturbed expression of the cotransporters regulating intracellular chloride concentration, the importer NKCC1 and the extruder KCC2. Blockade of NKCC1 actions by the diuretic bumetanide restores intracellular chloride and thus hyperpolarizing GABAergic actions and consequently suppressing interictal

  4. Sub-chronic iron overload triggers oxidative stress development in rat brain: implications for cell protection.

    PubMed

    Piloni, Natacha E; Perazzo, Juan C; Fernandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Puntarulo, Susana

    2016-02-01

    This work was aimed to test the hypothesis that sub-chronic administration of iron-dextran (Fe-dextran) (six doses of 50 mg Fe-dextran/kg) to rats triggers a transient oxidative stress in brain and mechanisms of cellular antioxidant defence. After 2 h of administration of the 6th dose, a significant increase of total Fe, the labile Fe pool (LIP), the lipid radical (LR(•))/α-tocopherol (α-T) content ratio were observed, as compared to values in control brain homogenates. The ascorbyl radical (A(•))/ascorbate (AH(-)) content ratio and the oxidation rate of 2',7'-dichlorodihidrofluorescein (DCFH-DA) were significantly higher in Fe-dextran treated rats, as compared to values in brain from control rats after 4 h treatment. An increase in both catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was observed at 8 and 1-2 h, respectively. No significant changes were detected in the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) levels in nuclear extracts from rat brains after 1-8 h of Fe-dextran administration. After 2 h of Fe administration Fe concentration in cortex, striatum and hippocampus was significantly increased as compared to the same areas from control animals. Both, CAT and SOD activities were significantly increased in cortex after Fe administration over control values, without changes in striatum and hippocampus. Taken as a whole, sub-chronic Fe administration enhances the steady state concentration of Fe in the brain LIP that favors the settlement of an initial oxidative stress condition, both at hydrophilic and lipophilic compartments, resulting in cellular protection evidenced by antioxidant enzyme upregulation. PMID:26677163

  5. Investigating the functions of subregions within anterior hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zeidman, Peter; Lutti, Antoine; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous functional MRI (fMRI) studies have associated anterior hippocampus with imagining and recalling scenes, imagining the future, recalling autobiographical memories and visual scene perception. We have observed that this typically involves the medial rather than the lateral portion of the anterior hippocampus. Here, we investigated which specific structures of the hippocampus underpin this observation. We had participants imagine novel scenes during fMRI scanning, as well as recall previously learned scenes from two different time periods (one week and 30 min prior to scanning), with analogous single object conditions as baselines. Using an extended segmentation protocol focussing on anterior hippocampus, we first investigated which substructures of the hippocampus respond to scenes, and found both imagination and recall of scenes to be associated with activity in presubiculum/parasubiculum, a region associated with spatial representation in rodents. Next, we compared imagining novel scenes to recall from one week or 30 min before scanning. We expected a strong response to imagining novel scenes and 1-week recall, as both involve constructing scene representations from elements stored across cortex. By contrast, we expected a weaker response to 30-min recall, as representations of these scenes had already been constructed but not yet consolidated. Both imagination and 1-week recall of scenes engaged anterior hippocampal structures (anterior subiculum and uncus respectively), indicating possible roles in scene construction. By contrast, 30-min recall of scenes elicited significantly less activation of anterior hippocampus but did engage posterior CA3. Together, these results elucidate the functions of different parts of the anterior hippocampus, a key brain area about which little is definitely known. PMID:26478961

  6. Evolution of the hippocampus in reptiles and birds.

    PubMed

    Striedter, Georg F

    2016-02-15

    Although the hippocampus is structurally quite different among reptiles, birds, and mammals, its function in spatial memory is said to be highly conserved. This is surprising, given that structural differences generally reflect functional differences. Here I review this enigma in some detail, identifying several evolutionary changes in hippocampal cytoarchitecture and connectivity. I recognize a lepidosaurid pattern of hippocampal organization (in lizards, snakes, and the tuatara Sphenodon) that differs substantially from the pattern of organization observed in the turtle/archosaur lineage, which includes crocodilians and birds. Although individual subdivisions of the hippocampus are difficult to homologize between these two patterns, both lack a clear homolog of the mammalian dentate gyrus. The strictly trilaminar organization of the ancestral amniote hippocampus was gradually lost in the lineage leading to birds, and birds expanded the system of intrahippocampal axon collaterals, relative to turtles and lizards. These expanded collateral axon branches resemble the extensive collaterals in CA3 of the mammalian hippocampus but probably evolved independently of them. Additional examples of convergent evolution between birds and mammals are the loss of direct inputs to the hippocampus from the primary olfactory cortex and the general expansion of telencephalic regions that communicate reciprocally with the hippocampus. Given this structural convergence, it seems likely that some similarities in the function of the hippocampus between birds and mammals, notably its role in the ability to remember many different locations without extensive training, likewise evolved convergently. The currently available data do not allow for a strong test of this hypothesis, but the hypothesis itself suggests some promising new research directions. PMID:25982694

  7. Controlled Administration of Penicillamine Reduces Radiation Exposure in Critical Organs during 64Cu-ATSM Internal Radiotherapy: A Novel Strategy for Liver Protection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshii, Yukie; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Furukawa, Takako; Morokoshi, Yukie; Sogawa, Chizuru; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Yoshii, Hiroshi; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose 64Cu-diacetyl-bis (N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (64Cu-ATSM) is a promising theranostic agent that targets hypoxic regions in tumors related to malignant characteristics. Its diagnostic usefulness has been recognized in clinical studies. Internal radiotherapy (IRT) with 64Cu-ATSM is reportedly effective in preclinical studies; however, for clinical applications, improvements to reduce radiation exposure in non-target organs, particularly the liver, are required. We developed a strategy to reduce radiation doses to critical organs while preserving tumor radiation doses by controlled administration of copper chelator penicillamine during 64Cu-ATSM IRT. Methods Biodistribution was evaluated in HT-29 tumor-bearing mice injected with 64Cu-ATSM (185 kBq) with or without oral penicillamine administration. The appropriate injection interval between 64Cu-ATSM and penicillamine was determined. Then, the optimal penicillamine administration schedule was selected from single (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg) and fractionated doses (100 mg/kg×3 at 1- or 2-h intervals from 1 h after 64Cu-ATSM injection). PET imaging was performed to confirm the effect of penicillamine with a therapeutic 64Cu-ATSM dose (37 MBq). Dosimetry analysis was performed to estimate human absorbed doses. Results Penicillamine reduced 64Cu accumulation in the liver and small intestine. Tumor uptake was not affected by penicillamine administration at 1 h after 64Cu-ATSM injection, when radioactivity was almost cleared from the blood and tumor uptake had plateaued. Of the single doses, 300 mg/kg was most effective. Fractionated administration at 2-h intervals further decreased liver accumulation at later time points. PET indicated that penicillamine acts similarly with the therapeutic 64Cu-ATSM dose. Dosimetry demonstrated that appropriately scheduled penicillamine administration reduced radiation doses to critical organs (liver, ovaries, and red marrow) below tolerance levels. Laxatives reduced radiation

  8. Two waves of proteasome-dependent protein degradation in the hippocampus are required for recognition memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Luciana S; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Petry, Fernanda S; Falavigna, Lucio; Dargél, Vinicius A; Köbe, Luiza M; Aguzzoli, Cristiano; Roesler, Rafael; Schröder, Nadja

    2015-04-01

    Healthy neuronal function and synaptic modification require a concert of synthesis and degradation of proteins. Increasing evidence indicates that protein turnover mediated by proteasome activity is involved in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory. However, its role in different phases of memory remains debated, and previous studies have not examined the possible requirement of protein degradation in recognition memory. Here, we show that the proteasome inhibitor, lactacystin (LAC), infused into the CA1 area of the hippocampus at two specific time points during consolidation, impairs 24-retention of memory for object recognition in rats. Administration of LAC after retrieval did not affect retention. These findings provide the first evidence for a requirement of proteasome activity in recognition memory, indicate that protein degradation in the hippocampus is necessary during selective time windows of memory consolidation, and further our understanding of the role of protein turnover in memory formation. PMID:25687693

  9. Contextual learning requires synaptic AMPA receptor delivery in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Mitsushima, Dai; Ishihara, Kouji; Sano, Akane; Kessels, Helmut W.; Takahashi, Takuya

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a central role in learning and memory. Although synaptic delivery of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) contributes to experience-dependent synaptic strengthening, its role in hippocampus-dependent learning remains elusive. By combining viral-mediated in vivo gene delivery with in vitro patch-clamp recordings, we found that the inhibitory avoidance task, a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear-learning paradigm, delivered GluR1-containing AMPARs into CA3-CA1 synapses of the dorsal hippocampus. To block the synaptic delivery of endogenous AMPARs, we expressed a fragment of the GluR1-cytoplasmic tail (the 14-aa GluR1 membrane-proximal region with two serines mutated to phospho-mimicking aspartates: MPR-DD). MPR-DD prevented learning-driven synaptic AMPAR delivery in CA1 neurons. Bilateral expression of MPR-DD in the CA1 region of the rat impaired inhibitory avoidance learning, indicating that synaptic GluR1 trafficking in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is required for encoding contextual fear memories. The fraction of CA1 neurons that underwent synaptic strengthening positively correlated with the performance in the inhibitory avoidance fear memory task. These data suggest that the robustness of a contextual memory depends on the number of hippocampal neurons that participate in the encoding of a memory trace. PMID:21746893

  10. The hippocampus in aging and disease: From plasticity to vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, T; Wulff, P

    2015-11-19

    The hippocampus has a pivotal role in learning and in the formation and consolidation of memory and is critically involved in the regulation of emotion, fear, anxiety, and stress. Studies of the hippocampus have been central to the study of memory in humans and in recent years, the regional specialization and organization of hippocampal functions have been elucidated in experimental models and in human neurological and psychiatric diseases. The hippocampus has long been considered a classic model for the study of neuroplasticity as many examples of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation and -depression have been identified and demonstrated in hippocampal circuits. Neuroplasticity is the ability to adapt and reorganize the structure or function to internal or external stimuli and occurs at the cellular, population, network or behavioral level and is reflected in the cytological and network architecture as well as in intrinsic properties of hippocampal neurons and circuits. The high degree of hippocampal neuroplasticity might, however, be also negatively reflected in the pronounced vulnerability of the hippocampus to deleterious conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy, chronic stress, neurodegeneration and aging targeting hippocampal structure and function and leading to cognitive deficits. Considering this framework of plasticity and vulnerability, we here review basic principles of hippocampal anatomy and neuroplasticity on various levels as well as recent findings regarding the functional organization of the hippocampus in light of the regional vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease, ischemia, epilepsy, neuroinflammation and aging. PMID:26241337

  11. Multiple repressive mechanisms in the hippocampus during memory formation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jun; Yu, Nam-Kyung; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Sim, Su-Eon; Kang, SukJae Joshua; Kwak, Chuljung; Lee, Seung-Woo; Kim, Ji-il; Choi, Dong Il; Kim, V Narry; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2015-10-01

    Memory stabilization after learning requires translational and transcriptional regulations in the brain, yet the temporal molecular changes that occur after learning have not been explored at the genomic scale. We used ribosome profiling and RNA sequencing to quantify the translational status and transcript levels in the mouse hippocampus after contextual fear conditioning. We revealed three types of repressive regulations: translational suppression of ribosomal protein-coding genes in the hippocampus, learning-induced early translational repression of specific genes, and late persistent suppression of a subset of genes via inhibition of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1/ERα) signaling. In behavioral analyses, overexpressing Nrsn1, one of the newly identified genes undergoing rapid translational repression, or activating ESR1 in the hippocampus impaired memory formation. Collectively, this study unveils the yet-unappreciated importance of gene repression mechanisms for memory formation. PMID:26430118

  12. Firing rate dynamics in the hippocampus induced by trajectory learning.

    PubMed

    Ji, Daoyun; Wilson, Matthew A

    2008-04-30

    The hippocampus is essential for spatial navigation, which may involve sequential learning. However, how the hippocampus encodes new sequences in familiar environments is unknown. To study the impact of novel spatial sequences on the activity of hippocampal neurons, we monitored hippocampal ensembles while rats learned to switch from two familiar trajectories to a new one in a familiar environment. Here, we show that this novel spatial experience induces two types of changes in firing rates, but not locations of hippocampal place cells. First, place-cell firing rates on the two familiar trajectories start to change before the actual behavioral switch to the new trajectory. Second, repeated exposure on the new trajectory is associated with an increased dependence of place-cell firing rates on immediate past locations. The result suggests that sequence encoding in the hippocampus may involve integration of information about the recent past into current state. PMID:18448645

  13. PPARα Signaling in the Hippocampus: Crosstalk Between Fat and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Major functions of the hippocampus are to generate, organize and store memory. This is a complex process, which is orchestrated by a group of molecules, called plasticity-related molecules. To control these various plasticity-related molecules at the transcriptional level, we have been endowed with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), also known as a master regulator of memory. Interestingly, we have seen that this master regulator is regulated at the transcriptional level in the hippocampus by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a nuclear hormone receptor family transcription factor that is known to control the metabolism of fatty acids in the liver, underlying a possible crosstalk between fat and memory. Although liver PPARα does not directly control hippocampal CREB, this opens up an important possibility to improve hippocampal functions and to be resistant to memory loss by PPARα ligands and maintaining normal levels of PPARα in the hippocampus. PMID:25575492

  14. Centrophenoxine activates acetylcholinesterase activity in hippocampus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D; Singh, R

    1995-05-01

    Age-related changes in the acetylcholinesterase activity were measured in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum of rats (aged 4, 8, 16 and 24 months). The age-dependent decrease in the enzyme activity first appeared in the hippocampus; the brain stem was affected later while the cerebellum remained unaffected. Centrophenoxine, usually considered as an ageing reversal drug and also regarded as a neuroenergeticum in human therapy, increased the acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus of aged rats, the activity was also elevated in the brain stem but no in the cerebellum. The acetylcholinesterase-stimulating influence of the drug is likely to be implicated in the pharmacological reversal of the age related decline of the cholinergic system. This effect of the drug may also mediate its effects on cognitive and neuronal synaptic functions. PMID:7558197

  15. Interplay of hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in memory

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Alison R.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have considerably advanced our understanding of the distinct roles of these brain areas in the encoding and retrieval of memories, and of how they interact in the prolonged process by which new memories are consolidated into our permanent storehouse of knowledge. These studies have led to a new model of how the hippocampus forms and replays memories and how the prefrontal cortex engages representations of the meaningful contexts in which related memories occur, as well as how these areas interact during memory retrieval. Furthermore, they have provided new insights into how interactions between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex support the assimilation of new memories into pre-existing networks of knowledge, called schemas, and how schemas are modified in this process as the foundation of memory consolidation. PMID:24028960

  16. The protective effects of intranasal administration of IL-12 given before influenza virus infection and the negative effects of IL-12 treatment given after viral infection.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hiroki; Ino, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiraku; Fukui, Toshie; Kohda, Chikara; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    To investigate whether the administration of IL-12 is effective against influenza virus infection, mice were intranasally administered IL-12 for three consecutive days and then infected with a non-lethal dose of the influenza virus. The IL-12-treated mice were more resistant to the virus than control mice with respect to the remission of body weight loss, virus burden, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lungs. The number of NK cells and the level of NK cell cytotoxicity significantly increased in the lungs of the mice treated with IL-12 before infection compared to that observed in control mice, leading to promptly eliminate the viral-infected cells. Unexpectedly, all of mice that received IL-12 treatment after being infected with a non-lethal dose of the virus died as a result of their high virus burden and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the lungs. One possibility of the mechanisms was considered to be activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC), which has immune suppressive function, in the lungs. Thus, IL-12 treatment has opposite effects depending on whether it is administered before or after infection. These results demonstrate the potential risks of immune modulating therapies such as administration of exogenous cytokine or neutralization of cytokine. J. Med. Virol. 88:1487-1496, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26864280

  17. Protection against Rift Valley fever virus infection in mice upon administration of interferon-inducing RNA transcripts from the FMDV genome.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Gema; Rodríguez-Pulido, Miguel; López-Gil, Elena; Sobrino, Francisco; Borrego, Belén; Sáiz, Margarita; Brun, Alejandro

    2014-09-01

    In this work we have addressed the effect of synthetic, non-infectious, RNA transcripts, mimicking structural domains of the non-coding regions (NCRs) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome on the infection of mice with Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Groups of 5 mice were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 200 μg of synthetic RNA resembling the 5'-terminal S region, the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) or the 3'-NCR of the FMDV genome. RNA inoculation was performed 24h before (-24 h), 24 h after (+24 h) or simultaneously to the challenge with a lethal dose of RVFV. Administration of the IRES RNA afforded higher survival rates than administration of S or 3'NCR transcripts either at -24h or +24h after challenge. In contrast, when RNA inoculation and viral challenge were performed simultaneously, all mice survived in both IRES- and 3'NCR-inoculated groups, with an 80% survival in mice receiving the S RNA. Among survivors, a complete correlation between significant anti-RVFV circulating antibody titers and resistance to a second lethal challenge with the virus was observed, supporting a limited viral replication in the RNA-inoculated animals upon the first challenge. All three RNA transcripts were able to induce the production of systemic antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These data show that triggering of intracellular pathogen sensing pathways constitutes a promising approach towards development of novel RVF preventive or therapeutic strategies. PMID:24973761

  18. Hippocampus is place of interaction between unconscious and conscious memories.

    PubMed

    Züst, Marc Alain; Colella, Patrizio; Reber, Thomas Peter; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Hauf, Martinus; Ruch, Simon; Henke, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that humans can form and later retrieve new semantic relations unconsciously by way of hippocampus-the key structure also recruited for conscious relational (episodic) memory. If the hippocampus subserves both conscious and unconscious relational encoding/retrieval, one would expect the hippocampus to be place of unconscious-conscious interactions during memory retrieval. We tested this hypothesis in an fMRI experiment probing the interaction between the unconscious and conscious retrieval of face-associated information. For the establishment of unconscious relational memories, we presented subliminal (masked) combinations of unfamiliar faces and written occupations ("actor" or "politician"). At test, we presented the former subliminal faces, but now supraliminally, as cues for the reactivation of the unconsciously associated occupations. We hypothesized that unconscious reactivation of the associated occupation-actor or politician-would facilitate or inhibit the subsequent conscious retrieval of a celebrity's occupation, which was also actor or politician. Depending on whether the reactivated unconscious occupation was congruent or incongruent to the celebrity's occupation, we expected either quicker or delayed conscious retrieval process. Conscious retrieval was quicker in the congruent relative to a neutral baseline condition but not delayed in the incongruent condition. fMRI data collected during subliminal face-occupation encoding confirmed previous evidence that the hippocampus was interacting with neocortical storage sites of semantic knowledge to support relational encoding. fMRI data collected at test revealed that the facilitated conscious retrieval was paralleled by deactivations in the hippocampus and neocortical storage sites of semantic knowledge. We assume that the unconscious reactivation has pre-activated overlapping relational representations in the hippocampus reducing the neural effort for conscious retrieval. This

  19. Therapeutic Administration of KM+ Lectin Protects Mice Against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection via Interleukin-12 Production in a Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Coltri, Kely C.; Oliveira, Leandro L.; Pinzan, Camila F.; Vendruscolo, Patrícia E.; Martinez, Roberto; Goldman, Maria Helena; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2008-01-01

    KM+ is a mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia that induces interleukin (IL)-12 production by macrophages and protective T helper 1 immune response against Leishmania major infection. In this study, we performed experiments to evaluate the therapeutic activity of jackfruit KM+ (jfKM+) and its recombinant counterpart (rKM+) in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. To this end, jfKM+ or rKM+ was administered to BALB/c mice 10 days after infection with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis. Thirty days postinfection, lungs from the KM+-treated mice contained significantly fewer colony-forming units and little to no organized granulomas compared to the controls. In addition, lung homogenates from the KM+-treated mice presented higher levels of nitric oxide, IL-12, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α, whereas higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were detected in the control group. With mice deficient in IL-12, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, or TLR adaptor molecule MyD88, we demonstrated that KM+ led to protection against P. brasiliensis infection through IL-12 production, which was dependent on TLR2. These results demonstrated a beneficial effect of KM+ on the severity of P. brasiliensis infection and may expand its potential use as a novel immunotherapeutic molecule. PMID:18599609

  20. Co-administration of plasmid expressing IL-12 with 14-kDa Schistosoma mansoni fatty acid-binding protein cDNA alters immune response profiles and fails to enhance protection induced by Sm14 DNA vaccine alone.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Cristina T; Pacífico, Lucila G G; Barsante, Michele M; Rassi, Tatiana; Cassali, Geovanni D; Oliveira, Sérgio C

    2006-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease that affects 200 million people worldwide. DNA-based vaccine is a promising strategy to induce protective immunity against schistosomiasis, since both humoral and cellular immune responses are involved in parasite elimination. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Sm14 cDNA alone or in association with a plasmid expressing murine interleukin (IL)-12 to induce protection against challenge infection. Mice were immunized with four doses of the DNA vaccine and the levels of protection were determined by worm burden recovery after challenge infection. Specific antibody production to rSm14 was determined by ELISA, and cytokine production was measured in splenocyte culture supernatants stimulated with rSm14 and in bronchoalveolar lavage of vaccinated mice after challenge infection. DNA immunization with pCI/Sm14 alone induced 40.5% of worm reduction. However, the use of pCI/IL-12 as adjuvant to pCI/Sm14 immunization failed to enhance protection against challenge infection. Protection induced by pCI/Sm14 immunization correlates with specific IgG antibody production against Sm14, Th1 type of immune response with high levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma and low levels of IL-4 in splenocyte culture supernatants and in bronchoalveolar lavage after challenge infection. IL-12 co-administration with pCI/Sm14 induced a significant production of nitric oxide in splenocyte culture supernatants and also lymphocyte suppression, with reduced percentage of T cells producing IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. PMID:16914349

  1. Lack of protective effect of local administration of triamcinolone or systemic treatment with methylprednisolone against damages caused by optic nerve crush in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu Lun; Chang, Chung Hsing; Lin, Kung Hung; Sheu, Min Muh; Tsai, Rong Kung

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of administrations of triamcinolone acetonide and systemic methylprednisolone sodium succinate on optic nerves (ON) and retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in a rat model of optic nerve crush. The treated groups either received triamcinolone immediately in the form of two pieces of soaked-gelform surrounding retrobulbar optic nerves (0.5 mg/per gelform) or methylprednisolone via peritoneal injection, and control group received intra-peritoneal injection with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) after crush experiments. RGC density was counted by retrograde labeling with Fluorogold, and visual function was assessed by flash visual-evoked potentials. Terminal transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assays, Western blot analysis of serine/threonine kinase (p-Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) and immunohistochemistry of ED1, marker of macrophage/microglia in the optic nerve were conducted. Two and four weeks after optic nerve crush experiments, neither triamcinolone nor methylprednisolone treatment rescued the RGC from death in the central and mid-peripheral retinas compared with those of the corresponding optic nerve-crushed and PBS-treated rats. Visual-evoked potentials measurements showed a prolonged latency of the P(1) wave in all treated groups (triamcinolone-treated: 123 ± 23 ms, methylprednisolone-treated: 133 ± 25 ms and PBS-treated: 151 ± 55 ms) after two weeks. TUNEL assays showed that there was no decrease in apoptotic cells in the RGC layers of both triamcinolone treated and methylprednisolone-treated retinas. Western blot analysis showed that p-AKT, p-ERK and p-Stat3 were not up-regulated in either retina of the triamcinolone or methylprednisolone treated rats. In addition, the number of ED1-positive cells was not attenuated at the lesion sites of the ON in either treatment group. Based upon these results

  2. Possible nitric oxide modulation in protective effect of FK-506 against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced behavioral, oxidative, neurochemical, and mitochondrial alterations in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Puneet; Kalonia, Harikesh; Kumar, Anil

    2010-10-01

    FK-506 is an immunosuppressant being widely used for allograft rejection cases in the present clinical scenario. Recently, the neuroprotective effect of FK-506 has also been reported against a number of neurodegenerative diseases in rodents. This study was designed to explore the possible protective effect of FK-506 and its interaction with nitric-oxide modulators against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical, and mitochondrial alterations in striatum, cortex, and hippocampus regions of the brain. Systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid produces Huntington-like symptoms in rats. 3-NP (10 mg/kg) treatment for 14 days impaired locomotor activity, grip strength, and body weight. 3-NP treatment significantly raised malondialdehyde, nitrite concentration, depleted antioxidant enzymes (SOD and catalase), and levels of bioamines (dopamine and norepinephrine) in striatum, cortex, and hippocampus areas of rat brain. Significant alterations in mitochondrial enzyme complexes (I, II, and IV) activities and mitochondrial redox activity have also been altered significantly by 3-NP. Pretreatment with FK-506 (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) significantly reversed these behavioral, biochemical, and cellular alterations. L-arginine treatment with a subeffective dose FK-506 (1 mg/kg) reversed the protective effect of FK-506. However, L-NAME pretreatment with FK-506 (1 mg/kg) potentiated the protective effect of FK-506. The present study shows that FK-506 attenuates 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity and nitric-oxide modulation might be involved in its protective action. PMID:20550427

  3. The effect of lead exposure on expression of SIRT1 in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chang; Gu, Junwang; Zhou, Fankun; Li, Jiaoyang; Zhu, Gaochun; Guan, Linfu; Liu, Haizhen; Du, Guihua; Feng, Jiangao; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Shuyun; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-06-01

    Based on how the silent information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) regulates the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), which is the molecular switch of long-term memory that maintains cognitive function, it is postulated that the impact of lead (Pb) on SIRT1 is one of the mechanisms leading to Pb-induced cognitive and learning deficits. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on the expression of SIRT1, and the reversion effect of resveratrol, which is an activator of SIRT1. We examined the effects of maternal rat ingestion of Pb in drinking water during gestation and lactation on the expression of SIRT1 and CREB in the hippocampus of their offspring at postnatal week 3 (PNW3) and 52 (PNW52), and then reexamined these effects in offspring after intragastric administration of resveratrol for 4 weeks. Pb exposure decreased SIRT1 and CREB phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner in the rat hippocampus at both PNW3 and 52, and resveratrol reversed those losses. These results indicated that SIRT1 might be a novel target to prevent Pb neurotoxicity. PMID:27131751

  4. Methyl-donor deficiency in adolescence affects memory and epigenetic status in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, H; Matsuzawa, D; Ishii, D; Matsuda, S; Kawai, K; Mashimo, Y; Sutoh, C; Shimizu, E

    2015-03-01

    DNA methylation is one of the essential factors in the control of gene expression. Alteration of the DNA methylation pattern has been linked to various neurological, behavioral and neurocognitive dysfunctions. Recent studies have pointed out the importance of epigenetics in brain development and functions including learning and memory. Nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism are known to play important roles in the maintenance of genomic DNA methylation. Previous studies have shown that the long-term administration of a diet lacking essential one-carbon nutrients such as methionine, choline and folic acid (methyl donors) caused global DNA hypermethylation in the brain. Therefore, the long-term feeding of a methyl-donor-deficient diet may cause abnormal brain development including learning and memory. To confirm this hypothesis, 3-week-old mice were maintained on a folate-, methionine- and choline-deficient (FMCD) or control (CON) diet for 3 weeks. We found that the methyl-donor deficiency impaired both novel object recognition and fear extinction after 3 weeks of treatment. The FMCD group showed spontaneous recovery of fear that differed from that in CON. In addition, we found decreased Gria1 gene expression and specific CpG hypermethylation of the Gria1 promoter region in the FMCD hippocampus. Our data suggest that a chronic dietary lack of methyl donors in the developmental period affects learning, memory and gene expressions in the hippocampus. PMID:25704122

  5. Greater Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation in Hippocampus of Aged Rats Sensitizes Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Ruth M.; Thompson, Vanessa M.; Kitt, Meagan M.; Amat, Jose; Hale, Matthew W.; Frank, Matthew G.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Stamper, Christopher E.; Hennessey, Patrick A.; Watkins, Linda R.; Spencer, Robert L.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Maier, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy aging individuals are more likely to suffer profound memory impairments following an immune challenge than are younger adults. These challenges produce a brain inflammatory response that is exaggerated with age. Sensitized microglia found in the normal aging brain are responsible for this amplified response, which in turn interferes with processes involved in memory formation. Here, we examine factors that may lead aging to sensitize microglia. Aged rats exhibited higher CORT levels in the hippocampus, but not in plasma, throughout the daytime (diurnal inactive phase). These elevated hippocampal CORT levels were associated with increased hippocampal 11β-HSD1 protein expression, the enzyme that catalyzes glucocorticoid formation, and greater hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Intracisternal administration of mifepristone, a GR antagonist, effectively reduced immune-activated proinflammatory responses, specifically from hippocampal microglia, and prevented E. coli-induced memory impairments in aged rats. Voluntary exercise as a therapeutic intervention significantly reduced total hippocampal GR expression. These data strongly suggest that increased GR activation in the aged hippocampus plays a critical role in sensitizing microglia. PMID:25559333

  6. Glucocorticoids increase excitotoxic injury and inflammation in the hippocampus of adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sorrells, Shawn F.; Munhoz, Carolina D.; Manley, Nathan C.; Yen, Sandra; Sapolsky, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Stress exacerbates neuron loss in many CNS injuries via the actions of adrenal glucocorticoid (GC) hormones. For some injuries, this GC-endangerment of neurons is accompanied by greater immune cell activation in the CNS, a surprising outcome given the potent immunosuppressive properties of GCs. Methods To determine whether the effects of GCs on inflammation contribute to neuron death or result from it, we tested whether non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could protect neurons from GCs during kainic acid excitotoxicity in adrenalectomized male rats. We next measured GC effects on (i) chemokine production (CCL2, CINC-1), (ii) signals that suppress immune activation (CX3CL1, CD22, CD200, and TGF-b), and (iii) NF-kB activity. Results Concurrent treatment with minocycline but not indomethacin prevented GC-endangerment. GCs did not substantially affect CCL2, CINC-1, or baseline NF-kB activity, but they did suppress CX3CL1, CX3CR1, and CD22 expression in the hippocampus, factors that normally restrain inflammatory responses. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that cellular inflammation is not necessarily suppressed by GCs in the injured hippocampus; instead, GCs may worsen hippocampal neuron death, at least in part, by increasing the neurotoxicity of CNS inflammation. PMID:25228100

  7. Chronic cortisol exposure promotes the development of a GABAergic phenotype in the primate hippocampus.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Pamela J; Wilkinson, Charles W; Greenup, Lynne; Raskind, Murray A; Peskind, Elaine R; Leverenz, James B

    2004-11-01

    Glucocorticoids regulate plasticity and survival of hippocampal neurons. Aberrant exposure to this steroid hormone can result in neurodegeneration, perhaps secondary to disruption of calcium homeostasis. Calbindin, a calcium-binding protein that buffers excess calcium, may protect against neurodegeneration resulting from overabundance of intracellular calcium. In this study, we examined whether chronic treatment (1 year) with cortisol enhances hippocampal calbindin expression in primates. Calbindin is a marker for inhibitory neurons and the dentate gyrus is known to adopt an inhibitory phenotype in response to extreme conditions such as seizures. Thus, we hypothesized that chronic cortisol exposure may also promote a GABAergic phenotype. Therefore, we examined the expression of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is responsive to glucocorticoids, was also examined. Our results demonstrate significant increases in calbindin, glutamic acid decarboxylase and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in several regions of the primate hippocampus, including the dentate gyrus and CA3, in response to chronic cortisol exposure. These results suggest that chronic cortisol exposure may shift the balance towards a GABAergic phenotype, perhaps as part of a compensatory feedback mechanism to dampen the initial excitatory effects of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus. PMID:15525338

  8. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  9. Histopathological, Ultrastructural, and Immunohistochemical Assessment of Hippocampus Structures of Rats Exposed to TCDD and High Doses of Tocopherol and Acetylsalicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Rosińczuk, Joanna; Całkosiński, Ireneusz

    2015-01-01

    The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on central nervous system consists of changing expression of estrogen receptors, whereas the result of chronic inflammatory reaction caused by dioxin is occurrence of destructive changes in various organs connected with disturbed metabolism of connective tissue and damage of cells. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dioxins on function, ultrastructure, and cytological and histological structure of hippocampus, particularly on expression of estrogen receptors in central nervous system as well as to define protective influence of tocopherol (TCP) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on the decrease in activity of proinflammatory effects in central nervous system. It was shown that TCDD contributes to destructive and inflammatory changes along with demyelization of myelin sheaths and atrophy of estrogen receptors in hippocampus. Dioxin contributes to atrophy of estrogen receptors in hippocampus, in which also destructive and inflammatory changes were found along with demyelination of myelin sheaths. Histopathological and ultrastructural image of hippocampus areas in rats, in which both TCP and ASA were used, is characterized by poorly expressed degenerative changes and smaller inflammatory reactivity. Using both TCP and ASA has a protective effect on functions of central nervous system. PMID:25879034

  10. Histopathological, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical assessment of hippocampus structures of rats exposed to TCDD and high doses of tocopherol and acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Rosińczuk, Joanna; Dymarek, Robert; Całkosiński, Ireneusz

    2015-01-01

    The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on central nervous system consists of changing expression of estrogen receptors, whereas the result of chronic inflammatory reaction caused by dioxin is occurrence of destructive changes in various organs connected with disturbed metabolism of connective tissue and damage of cells. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dioxins on function, ultrastructure, and cytological and histological structure of hippocampus, particularly on expression of estrogen receptors in central nervous system as well as to define protective influence of tocopherol (TCP) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on the decrease in activity of proinflammatory effects in central nervous system. It was shown that TCDD contributes to destructive and inflammatory changes along with demyelization of myelin sheaths and atrophy of estrogen receptors in hippocampus. Dioxin contributes to atrophy of estrogen receptors in hippocampus, in which also destructive and inflammatory changes were found along with demyelination of myelin sheaths. Histopathological and ultrastructural image of hippocampus areas in rats, in which both TCP and ASA were used, is characterized by poorly expressed degenerative changes and smaller inflammatory reactivity. Using both TCP and ASA has a protective effect on functions of central nervous system. PMID:25879034

  11. The protective effect of Borago Officinalis extract on amyloid β (25-35)-induced long term potentiation disruption in the dentate gyrus of male rats.

    PubMed

    Zargooshnia, Somayeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Ghahremanitamadon, Fatemeh; Nikkhah, Ali; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Soleimani Asl, Sara

    2015-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins with impairment in synaptic functions before developing into later neurodegeneration and neural loss. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago Officinalis (borage) extract on amyloid β (Aβ)--Induced long term potentiation (LTP) disruption in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the Aβ (25-35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). LTP in perforant path- DG synapses was assessed using electrophysiology method and field excitatory post- synaptic potential (fEPSP) slope and population spike (PS) amplitude were measured by 400 Hz tetanization. Finally, the total thiol content of hippocampus was measured using colorimetric reaction based on the Ellman's method. The results showed that Aβ (25-35) significantly decreased fEPSP slope and SP amplitude comparing with the control and sham group, whereas borage extract administration increased these parameters compared to the Aβ group. Aβ induced a remarkable decrease in total thiol content of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal total sulfhydryl (SH) groups. This data suggest that Aβ (25-35) can effectively inhibit LTP in the granular cells of the DG in hippocampus, and borage supplementation reverse the synaptic plasticity in DG following Aβ treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25060965

  12. Cooperation between the Hippocampus and the Striatum during Episodic Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeh, Talya; Shohamy, Daphna; Levy, Dana Rubi; Reggev, Niv; Maril, Anat

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus and the striatum are thought to play distinct roles in learning and memory, each supporting an independent memory system. A fundamental question is whether, and how, these systems interact to jointly contribute to learning and memory. In particular, it remains unknown whether the striatum contributes selectively to implicit,…

  13. Proteogenomics of the human hippocampus: The road ahead.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myoung-Goo; Byun, Kyunghee; Kim, Jae Ho; Park, Nam Hyun; Heinsen, Helmut; Ravid, Rivka; Steinbusch, Harry W; Lee, Bonghee; Park, Young Mok

    2015-07-01

    The hippocampus is one of the most essential components of the human brain and plays an important role in learning and memory. The hippocampus has drawn great attention from scientists and clinicians due to its clinical importance in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), non-AD dementia, and epilepsy. Understanding the function of the hippocampus and related disease mechanisms requires comprehensive knowledge of the orchestration of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. The past decade has seen remarkable advances in the high-throughput sequencing techniques that are collectively called next generation sequencing (NGS). NGS enables the precise analysis of gene expression profiles in cells and tissues, allowing powerful and more feasible integration of expression data from the gene level to the protein level, even allowing "-omic" level assessment of PTMs. In addition, improved bioinformatics algorithms coupled with NGS technology are finally opening a new era for scientists to discover previously unidentified and elusive proteins. In the present review, we will focus mainly on the proteomics of the human hippocampus with an emphasis on the integrated analysis of genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. Finally, we will discuss our perspectives on the potential and future of proteomics in the field of hippocampal biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroproteomics: Applications in Neuroscience and Neurology. PMID:25770686

  14. Stress Effects on the Hippocampus: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Joo; Pellman, Blake; Kim, Jeansok J.

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrollable stress has been recognized to influence the hippocampus at various levels of analysis. Behaviorally, human and animal studies have found that stress generally impairs various hippocampal-dependent memory tasks. Neurally, animal studies have revealed that stress alters ensuing synaptic plasticity and firing properties of hippocampal…

  15. Early network activity propagates bidirectionally between hippocampus and cortex.

    PubMed

    Barger, Zeke; Easton, Curtis R; Neuzil, Kevin E; Moody, William J

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous activity in the developing brain helps refine neuronal connections before the arrival of sensory-driven neuronal activity. In mouse neocortex during the first postnatal week, waves of spontaneous activity originating from pacemaker regions in the septal nucleus and piriform cortex propagate through the neocortex. Using high-speed Ca(2+) imaging to resolve the spatiotemporal dynamics of wave propagation in parasagittal mouse brain slices, we show that the hippocampus can act as an additional source of neocortical waves. Some waves that originate in the hippocampus remain restricted to that structure, while others pause at the hippocampus-neocortex boundary and then propagate into the neocortex. Blocking GABAergic neurotransmission decreases the likelihood of wave propagation into neocortex, whereas blocking glutamatergic neurotransmission eliminates spontaneous and evoked hippocampal waves. A subset of hippocampal and cortical waves trigger Ca(2+) waves in astrocytic networks after a brief delay. Hippocampal waves accompanied by Ca(2+) elevation in astrocytes are more likely to propagate into the neocortex. Finally, we show that two structures in our preparation that initiate waves-the hippocampus and the piriform cortex-can be electrically stimulated to initiate propagating waves at lower thresholds than the neocortex, indicating that the intrinsic circuit properties of those regions are responsible for their pacemaker function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 661-672, 2016. PMID:26385616

  16. CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS. ME Gilbert1, ME Kelly2, S. Salant3, T Shafer1, J Goodman3 1Neurotoxicology Div, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711, 2Children's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, 3Helen Hayes Hospital, Haverstraw, NY, 10993.
    ...

  17. Behavioral Functions of the CA3 Subregion of the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Raymond P.

    2007-01-01

    From a behavioral perspective, the CA3a,b subregion of the hippocampus plays an important role in the encoding of new spatial information within short-term memory with a duration of seconds and minutes. This can easily be observed in tasks that require rapid encoding, novelty detection, one-trial short-term or working memory, and one-trial cued…

  18. A Cognitive Map for Object Memory in the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manns, Joseph R.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The hippocampus has been proposed to support a cognitive map, a mental representation of the spatial layout of an environment as well as the nonspatial items encountered in that environment. In the present study, we recorded simultaneously from 43 to 61 hippocampal pyramidal cells as rats performed an object recognition memory task in which novel…

  19. Clitoria ternatea root extract enhances acetylcholine content in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Nalini, K; Rao, M S; Srinivasan, K K

    2002-12-01

    Treatment with 100 mg/kg of Clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract (CTR), for 30 days in neonatal and young adult age groups of rat, significantly increased acetylcholine (ACh) content in their hippocampi as compared to age matched controls. Increase in ACh content in their hippocampus may be the neurochemical basis for their improved learning and memory. PMID:12490229

  20. Decoding individual episodic memory traces in the human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Martin J; Hassabis, Demis; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2010-03-23

    In recent years, multivariate pattern analyses have been performed on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, permitting prediction of mental states from local patterns of blood oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal across voxels. We previously demonstrated that it is possible to predict the position of individuals in a virtual-reality environment from the pattern of activity across voxels in the hippocampus. Although this shows that spatial memories can be decoded, substantially more challenging, and arguably only possible to investigate in humans, is whether it is feasible to predict which complex everyday experience, or episodic memory, a person is recalling. Here we document for the first time that traces of individual rich episodic memories are detectable and distinguishable solely from the pattern of fMRI BOLD signals across voxels in the human hippocampus. In so doing, we uncovered a possible functional topography in the hippocampus, with preferential episodic processing by some hippocampal regions over others. Moreover, our results imply that the neuronal traces of episodic memories are stable (and thus predictable) even over many re-activations. Finally, our data provide further evidence for functional differentiation within the medial temporal lobe, in that we show the hippocampus contains significantly more episodic information than adjacent structures. PMID:20226665

  1. Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Hippocampus: Why the Dentate Gyrus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Liam J.; Fusi, Stefano; Hen, René

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, newly generated neurons are continuously incorporated into two networks: interneurons born in the subventricular zone migrate to the olfactory bulb, whereas the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus integrates locally born principal neurons. That the rest of the mammalian brain loses significant neurogenic capacity…

  2. Prolactin Stimulates Precursor Cells in the Adult Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Tara L.; Vukovic, Jana; Koudijs, Margaretha M.; Blackmore, Daniel G.; Mackay, Eirinn W.; Sykes, Alex M.; Overall, Rupert W.; Hamlin, Adam S.; Bartlett, Perry F.

    2012-01-01

    In the search for ways to combat degenerative neurological disorders, neurogenesis-stimulating factors are proving to be a promising area of research. In this study, we show that the hormonal factor prolactin (PRL) can activate a pool of latent precursor cells in the adult mouse hippocampus. Using an in vitro neurosphere assay, we found that the addition of exogenous PRL to primary adult hippocampal cells resulted in an approximate 50% increase in neurosphere number. In addition, direct infusion of PRL into the adult dentate gyrus also resulted in a significant increase in neurosphere number. Together these data indicate that exogenous PRL can increase hippocampal precursor numbers both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, PRL null mice showed a significant reduction (approximately 80%) in the number of hippocampal-derived neurospheres. Interestingly, no deficit in precursor proliferation was observed in vivo, indicating that in this situation other niche factors can compensate for a loss in PRL. The PRL loss resulted in learning and memory deficits in the PRL null mice, as indicated by significant deficits in the standard behavioral tests requiring input from the hippocampus. This behavioral deficit was rescued by direct infusion of recombinant PRL into the hippocampus, indicating that a lack of PRL in the adult mouse hippocampus can be correlated with impaired learning and memory. PMID:22973440

  3. Neonatal Amphetamine Exposure and Hippocampus-Mediated Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Chen, Wei-Jung A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies linking amphetamine use during pregnancy to changes in the behavioral development of affected infants have greatly increased society’s level of concern regarding amphetamine use by women of reproductive age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to d-amphetamine sulfate during the brain growth spurt, the most dynamic period of brain development, alters hippocampus-mediated behaviors during both pre-adolescence and young adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were intragastrically administered a milk formula containing 0, 5, 15 or 25 mg/kg/day of amphetamine from postnatal day (PD) 4–9. Following weaning, the effects of neonatal amphetamine exposure on hippocampus-mediated behaviors were assessed using the open-field, the water maze, and the conditioned taste aversion behavioral tasks. Results from these behavioral tests revealed that while amphetamine exposure during the brain growth spurt alters behaviors in open-field testing, it does not interfere with performance in either the water maze or the conditioned taste aversion paradigm. These results offer speculation that the effects of neonatal amphetamine exposure on hippocampus-mediated behaviors may be related to interactions between the “temporal” (time of drug exposure) and “regional” (different regions of the hippocampus) vulnerability issues. PMID:19146964

  4. Distinct representations and theta dynamics in dorsal and ventral hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Sébastien; Sirota, Anton; Patel, Jagdish; Buzsáki, György

    2010-01-01

    Although anatomical, lesion and imaging studies of the hippocampus indicate qualitatively different information processing along its septo-temporal axis, physiological mechanisms supporting such distinction are missing. We found fundamental differences between the dorsal (dCA3) and the ventral-most parts (vCA3) of the hippocampus in both environmental representation and temporal dynamics. Discrete place fields of dCA3 neurons evenly covered all parts of the testing environments. In contrast, vCA3 neurons i) rarely showed continuous two-dimensional place fields, ii) differentiated open and closed arms of a radial maze, and iii) discharged similar firing patterns with respect to the goals, both on multiple arms of a radial maze and during opposite journeys in a zig-zag maze. In addition, theta power and the fraction of theta-rhythmic neurons were substantially reduced in the ventral as compared to dorsal hippocampus. We hypothesize that the spatial representation in the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus is progressively decreased. This change is paralleled with a reduction of theta rhythm and an increased representation of non-spatial information. PMID:20130187

  5. Amygdala and Hippocampus Enlargement during Adolescence in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Wouter; Teluij, Michelle; Buitelaar, Jan; Tendolkar, Indira

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The amygdala and hippocampus are key components of the neural system mediating emotion perception and regulation and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism. Although some studies in children with autism suggest that there is an enlargement of amygdala and hippocampal volume, findings in adolescence are sparse.…

  6. Developing an Animal Model of Human Amnesia: The Role of the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Raymond P.; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.

    2010-01-01

    This review summarizes a series of experiments aimed at answering the question whether the hippocampus in rats can serve as an animal model of amnesia. It is recognized that a comparison of the functions of the rat hippocampus with human hippocampus is difficult, because of differences in methodology, differences in complexity of life experiences,…

  7. Oral administration of a live attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain expressing the VapA protein induces protection against infection by Rhodococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Aline F; Ferraz, Luciana C; Brocchi, Marcelo; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2007-03-01

    Rhodococcus equi remains one of the most important pathogens of foals and vaccination strategies to prevent rhodococcosis are under increasing investigation. Attenuated Salmonella strains carrying heterologous antigens offer an advantageous alternative to conventional vaccines, especially because they induce mucosal and systemic immunity. In this work, we expressed the VapA antigen from R. equi in a Salmonella enterica Typhimurium strain, which was able to colonize and persist in the lymphoid tissue of BALB/c mice. Two days after being challenged, oral immunized mice presented a 3- to 7-fold increase in R. equi clearance. This was progressively enhanced during infection and, on the 10th day, a CFU value 50-fold lower than that recovered from non-immunized mice was attained. The number of hepatic granulomas was 2 times lower, and leukocyte infiltration was transiently detected in immunized mice, contrasting with the severe inflammation and necrosis presented by non-immunized mice. Infection with 1 x 10(7)R. equi CFU caused 100% mortality in the control groups, while all immunized mice survived. This protection was associated with the detection of high levels of anti-VapA IgG in the serum of the vaccinated mice, predominantly the IgG2a isotype. Our results suggest that attenuated Salmonella encoding VapA may be used in foals to prevent rhodococcosis. PMID:17307012

  8. Protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Guinea Pigs via Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Expressing VP1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Pan, Li; Zhou, Peng; Lv, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhongwang; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Yongguang

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination is an effective strategy for generating antigen-specific immune responses against mucosal infections of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum strains NC8 and WCFS1 were used as oral delivery vehicles containing a pSIP411-VP1 recombinant plasmid to initiate mucosal and systemic immune responses in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were orally vaccinated (three doses) with NC8-pSIP411, NC8-pSIP411-VP1, WCFS1-pSIP411, WCFS1-pSIP411-VP1 or milk. Animals immunized with NC8-pSIP411-VP1 and WCFS1-pSIP411-VP1 developed high levels of antigen-specific serum IgG, IgA, IgM, mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) and neutralizing antibodies, and revealed stronger cell-mediated immune responses and enhanced protection against FMDV challenge compared with control groups. The recombinant pSIP411-VP1 effectively improved immunoprotection against FMDV in guinea pigs. PMID:26629822

  9. 40 CFR 108.7 - Hearing before Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing before Administrator. 108.7 Section 108.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.7 Hearing before Administrator. At his option, the Administrator...

  10. 40 CFR 108.7 - Hearing before Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hearing before Administrator. 108.7 Section 108.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.7 Hearing before Administrator. At his option, the Administrator...

  11. 40 CFR 108.7 - Hearing before Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hearing before Administrator. 108.7 Section 108.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.7 Hearing before Administrator. At his option, the Administrator...

  12. 40 CFR 108.7 - Hearing before Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Hearing before Administrator. 108.7 Section 108.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.7 Hearing before Administrator. At his option, the Administrator...

  13. 40 CFR 108.7 - Hearing before Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hearing before Administrator. 108.7 Section 108.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.7 Hearing before Administrator. At his option, the Administrator...

  14. 40 CFR 72.12 - Administrative appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures...

  15. 40 CFR 72.12 - Administrative appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures...

  16. 40 CFR 72.12 - Administrative appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures...

  17. 40 CFR 72.12 - Administrative appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures for appeals of decisions of the...

  18. 40 CFR 72.12 - Administrative appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative appeals. 72.12 Section 72.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Program General Provisions § 72.12 Administrative appeals. The procedures...

  19. 40 CFR 179.130 - Administrative record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative record. 179.130 Section 179.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS FORMAL EVIDENTIARY PUBLIC HEARING Judicial Review § 179.130 Administrative record. (a) For purposes of judicial review, the record of a hearing...

  20. Protective effects of vitamins (C and E) and melatonin co-administration on hematological and hepatic functions and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Feriani, Anouer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Alimi, Hichem; Murat, Jean Claud; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential effects of vitamins (C and E)/melatonin co-administration on the hematologic and hepatic functions and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg b.w. for 2 days) induced a significant increase of blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) associated with serious hematologic disorders (P < 0.01) evidenced by the decrease in the levels of red blood cell count (RBC) (-18%), hematocrit (Ht) (-18%), hemoglobin content (Hb) (-36%), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) (-17%), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (-16%). The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the plasmatic levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride contents of diabetic rats were, however, noted to undergo significant increases by 42% (P < 0.01), 134% (P < 0.001), 27.5% (P < 0.01), 147% (P < 0.001), and 67% (P < 0.01), respectively, as compared to the control animals. Furthermore, a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were observed in the plasma and hepatic tissues of diabetic rats when compared to the controls. Interestingly, the treatment with vitamins (C, E) in combination with melatonin was noted to reduce the plasma levels of glucose, lower the MDA levels, and restore the hematologic parameters and biochemical and antioxidant levels of diabetic rats back to normal values, alleviating diabetes metabolic disorders in rats. PMID:24919717

  1. Walnut consumption protects rats against cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Mohammad; Nazeri, Masoud; Parsania, Shahrnaz; Razavinasab, Moazamehosadat; Zangiabadi, Nasser; Esmaeilpour, Khadije; Abareghi, Fatemeh

    2012-10-01

    Walnut is extensively used in traditional medicine for treatment of various ailments. It is described as an anticancer, anti-inflammatory, blood purifier and antioxidant agent. In this study, we investigated whether or not Walnut could protect neurons against cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Dietary walnut (6%) was assessed for its neuroprotective effects through the alteration in performance of hippocampus- and cerebellum-related behaviors following chronic cisplatin treatment (5 mg/kg/week for 5 consecutive weeks) in male rats. We also evaluated the effect of cisplatin and walnut administration on nociception. We showed that exposure of adolescent rats to cisplatin resulted in significant decrease in explorative behaviors and memory retention. Walnut consumption improved memory and motor abilities in cisplatin treated rats, while walnut alone did not show any significant changes in these abilities compared to saline. Cisplatin increased latency of response to nociception, and walnut reversed this effect of cisplatin. We conclude that walnuts in the diet following anticancer drugs such as cisplatin might have a protective effect against cisplatin-induced disruptions in motor and cognitive function. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanisms of this protective effect of walnut and to explore underlying mechanisms. PMID:22935099

  2. The hippocampus participates in the control of locomotion speed.

    PubMed

    López Ruiz, J R; Osuna Carrasco, L P; López Valenzuela, C L; Franco Rodríguez, N E; de la Torre Valdovinos, B; Jiménez Estrada, I; Dueñas Jiménez, J M; Dueñas Jiménez, S H

    2015-12-17

    The hippocampus role in sensory-motor integration remains unclear. In these experiments we study its function in the locomotor control. To establish the connection between the hippocampus and the locomotor system, electrical stimulation in the CA1 region was applied and EMG recordings were obtained. We also evaluated the hindlimbs and forelimbs kinematic patterns in rats with a penetrating injury (PI) in the hippocampus as well as in a cortex-injured group (CI), which served as control. After the PI, tamoxifen a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that has been described as a neuroprotector and antiinflammatory drug, or vehicle was administered. Electrical stimulation in the hippocampus produces muscle contractions in the contralateral triceps, when 6 Hz or 8 Hz pulse trains were applied. The penetrating injury in the hippocampus reduced the EMG amplitude after the electrical stimulation. At 7 DPI (days post-injury) we observed an increase in the strides speed in all four limbs of the non-treated group, decreasing the correlation percentage of the studied joints. After 15 DPI the strides speed in the non-treated returned to normal. These changes did not occur in the tamoxifen group nor in cortex-injured group. After 30 days, the nontreated group presented a reduction in the number of pyramidal cell layer neurons at the injury site, in comparison to the tam-treated group. The loss of neurons, may cause the interruption of the trisynaptic circuit and changes in the locomotion speed. Tamoxifen preserves the pyramidal neurons after the injury, probably resulting in the strides speed recovery. PMID:26597762

  3. Comparison of automated and manual segmentation of hippocampus MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, John W.; Christensen, Gary E.; Miller, Michael I.; Joshi, Sarang C.; Gado, Mokhtar; Csernansky, John G.; Vannier, Michael W.

    1995-05-01

    The precision and accuracy of area estimates from magnetic resonance (MR) brain images and using manual and automated segmentation methods are determined. Areas of the human hippocampus were measured to compare a new automatic method of segmentation with regions of interest drawn by an expert. MR images of nine normal subjects and nine schizophrenic patients were acquired with a 1.5-T unit (Siemens Medical Systems, Inc., Iselin, New Jersey). From each individual MPRAGE 3D volume image a single comparable 2-D slice (matrix equals 256 X 256) was chosen which corresponds to the same coronal slice of the hippocampus. The hippocampus was first manually segmented, then segmented using high dimensional transformations of a digital brain atlas to individual brain MR images. The repeatability of a trained rater was assessed by comparing two measurements from each individual subject. Variability was also compared within and between subject groups of schizophrenics and normal subjects. Finally, the precision and accuracy of automated segmentation of hippocampal areas were determined by comparing automated measurements to manual segmentation measurements made by the trained rater on MR and brain slice images. The results demonstrate the high repeatability of area measurement from MR images of the human hippocampus. Automated segmentation using high dimensional transformations from a digital brain atlas provides repeatability superior to that of manual segmentation. Furthermore, the validity of automated measurements was demonstrated by a high correlation with manual segmentation measurements made by a trained rater. Quantitative morphometry of brain substructures (e.g. hippocampus) is feasible by use of a high dimensional transformation of a digital brain atlas to an individual MR image. This method automates the search for neuromorphological correlates of schizophrenia by a new mathematically robust method with unprecedented sensitivity to small local and regional differences.

  4. Acute stress enhances the expression of neuroprotection- and neurogenesis-associated genes in the hippocampus of a mouse restraint model

    PubMed Central

    Sannino, Giuseppina; Pasqualini, Lorenza; Ricciardelli, Eugenia; Montilla, Patricia; Soverchia, Laura; Ruggeri, Barbara; Falcinelli, Silvia; Renzi, Alessandra; Ludka, Colleen; Kirchner, Thomas; Grünewald, Thomas G. P.; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Massimo; Hardiman, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Stress arises from an external demand placed on an organism that triggers physiological, cognitive and behavioural responses in order to cope with that request. It is thus an adaptive response useful for the survival of an organism. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize global changes in gene expression in the hippocampus in response to acute stress stimuli, by employing a mouse model of short-term restraint stress. In our experimental design mice were subjected to a one time exposure of restraint stress and the regulation of gene expression in the hippocampus was examined 3, 12 and 24 hours thereafter. Microarray analysis revealed that mice which had undergone acute restraint stress differed from non-stressed controls in global hippocampal transcriptional responses. An up-regulation of transcripts contributing directly or indirectly to neurogenesis and neuronal protection including, Ttr, Rab6, Gh, Prl, Ndufb9 and Ndufa6, was observed. Systems level analyses revealed a significant enrichment for neurogenesis, neuron morphogenesis- and cognitive functions-related biological process terms and pathways. This work further supports the hypothesis that acute stress mediates a positive action on the hippocampus favouring the formation and the preservation of neurons, which will be discussed in the context of current data from the literature. PMID:26863456

  5. Co-administration of rIpaB domain of Shigella with rGroEL of S. Typhi enhances the immune responses and protective efficacy against Shigella infection.

    PubMed

    Chitradevi, Sekar Tamil Selvi; Kaur, Gurpreet; Uppalapati, Sivaramakrishna; Yadav, Anandprakash; Singh, Dependrapratap; Bansal, Anju

    2015-11-01

    Shigella species cause severe bacillary dysentery in humans and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Invasion plasmid antigen (IpaB) protein, which is conserved across all Shigella spp., induces macrophage cell death and is required to invade host cells. The present study evaluates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant (r) domain region of IpaB (rIpaB) of S. flexneri. rIpaB was administered either alone or was co-administered with the rGroEL (heat shock protein 60) protein from S. Typhi as an adjuvant in a mouse model of intranasal immunization. The IpaB domain region (37 kDa) of S. flexneri was amplified from an invasion plasmid, cloned, expressed in BL21 Escherichia coli cells and purified. Immunization with the rIpaB domain alone stimulated both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, robust antibody (IgG, IgA) and T-cell responses were induced when the rIpaB domain was co-administered with rGroEL. Antibody isotyping revealed higher IgG1 and IgG2a antibody titers and increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion in the co-administered group. Immunization of mice with the rIpaB domain alone protected 60%-70% of the mice from lethal infection by S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei, whereas co-administration with rGroEL increased the protective efficacy to 80%-85%. Organ burden and histopathological studies also revealed a significant reduction in lung infection in the co-immunized mice compared with mice immunized with the rIpaB domain alone. This study emphasizes that the co-administration of the rIpaB domain and rGroEL protein improves immune responses in mice and increases protective efficacy against Shigella infection. This is also the first report to evaluate the potential of the GroEL (Hsp 60) protein of S. Typhi as an adjuvant molecule, thereby overcoming the need for commercial adjuvants. PMID:25640657

  6. Alteration of neurotrophins in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of young rats exposed to chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Angela M; Filipov, Nikolay M; Carr, Russell L

    2007-12-01

    Exposure to either chlorpyrifos (CPS) or methyl parathion (MPS) results in the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and leads to altered neuronal activity which normally regulates critical genes such as the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The effects of postnatal exposure to CPS and MPS on the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels for NGF and BDNF were investigated in the frontal cerebral cortex (cortex) and hippocampus of rats. Oral administration of CPS (4.0 or 6.0 mg/kg), MPS (0.6 or 0.9 mg/kg), or the safflower oil vehicle was performed daily from postnatal day 10 (PND10) through PND20. Exposure induced significant effects on growth and cholinesterase activity. Increased NGF protein levels were observed in the hippocampus but not the cortex on PND20 with some reduction occurring on PND28 in both regions. These changes did not correlate with the changes in NGF mRNA. BDNF mRNA was increased in both regions on PND20 and PND28, whereas BDNF protein levels were increased on PND20. On PND12, c-fos mRNA, a marker of neuronal activation, was increased in both regions. Total BDNF protein was increased in the hippocampus but decreased in the cortex. No changes in NGF protein were observed. These results indicate that repeated developmental OP exposure during the postnatal period alters NGF and BDNF in the cortex and the hippocampus and the patterns of these alterations differ between regions. PMID:17893397

  7. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Kit-built airplanes are more affordable because they are assembled by the owner and do not require Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. The Glasair III, is an advanced technology homebuilt, constructed of a fiberglass and graphite fiber composite material, and equipped with digital instruments. Both technologies make the airplane more susceptible to lightning effects. When Glasair manufacturer, Stoddard-Hamilton, decided that lightning protection would enable more extensive instrument flight and make the plane more marketable, they proposed a joint development program to NASA Langley Research Center (LAR). Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Langley contractors designed and tested a lightning protection system, and the Glasair III-LP became the first kit-built composite aircraft to be lightning tested and protection-verified under FAA guidelines for general aviation aircraft.

  8. Trimethyltin Modulates Reelin Expression and Endogenous Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Developing Rats.

    PubMed

    Toesca, Amelia; Geloso, Maria Concetta; Mongiovì, Adriana Maria; Furno, Alfredo; Schiattarella, Arcangelo; Michetti, Fabrizio; Corvino, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    Reelin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and essential for the proper radial migration of cortical neurons during development and for the integration and positioning of dentate granular cell progenitors; its expression is down-regulated as brain maturation is completed. Trimethyltin (TMT) is a potent neurotoxicant which causes selective neuronal death mainly localised in the CA1-CA3/hilus hippocampal regions. In the present study we analysed the expression of reelin and the modulation of endogenous neurogenesis in the postnatal rat hippocampus during TMT-induced neurodegeneration (TMT 6 mg/kg). Our results show that TMT administration induces changes in the physiological postnatal decrease of reelin expression in the hippocampus of developing rats. In particular, quantitative analysis of reelin-positive cells evidenced, in TMT-treated animals, a persistent reelin expression in the stratum lacunosum moleculare of Cornu Ammonis and in the molecular layer of Dentate Gyrus. In addition, a significant decrease in the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled newly-generated cells was also detectable in the subgranular zone of P21 TMT-treated rats compared with P21 control animals; no differences between P28 TMT-treated rats and age-matched control group were observed. In addition the neuronal commitment of BrdU-positive cells appeared reduced in P21 TMT-treated rats compared with P28 TMT-treated animals. Thus TMT treatment, administrated during development, induces an early reduction of endogenous neurogenesis and influences the hippocampal pattern of reelin expression in a temporally and regionally specific manner, altering the physiological decrease of this protein. PMID:26915108

  9. Antioxidation Effect of Simvastatin in Aorta and Hippocampus: A Rabbit Model Fed High-Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangyin; Li, Ming; Xu, Yinzhi; Peng, Li; Yang, Cui; Zhou, Yanan; Zhang, Junping

    2016-01-01

    We show that hypercholesterolemia contributes to oxidative stress injury progression in brain and simvastatin counteracts the cholesterol-induced peroxidation injury in rabbit hippocampus, and we demonstrate for the first time that the simvastatin is a critical role in brain protection and identify HO-1 and other related antioxidant enzymes as molecular target for active redox compounds. Second, our experiments have pointed out an association between statin treatment and a decrease in the risk of having peroxidation damage of brain. The balance effects of simvastatin to ROS and antioxidants enzymes network are most probably due to improved SOD functional activity, increase in GSH-Px, increase in HO-1 expression, and decrease of MDA generation. PMID:26798426

  10. Dietary resveratrol supplementation normalizes gene expression in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jency; Garg, Manohar Lal; Smith, Doug William

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes is associated with cognitive impairment and brain aging, with alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity implicated in these changes. As the prevalence of diabetes continues to rise, readily implemented strategies are increasingly needed in order to protect the brain's cognitive functions. One possibility is resveratrol (RES) (3,5,4- trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenol of the phytoalexin family that has been shown to be protective in a number of neuropathology paradigms. In the present study, we sought to determine whether dietary supplementation with RES has potential for the protection of cognitive functions in diabetes. Diabetes was induced using streptozotocin, and once stable, animals received AIN93G rodent diet supplemented with RES for 6 weeks. Genome-wide expression analysis was conducted on the hippocampus and genes of interest were confirmed by quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of the hippocampus revealed that RES supplementation of the diabetic group resulted in 481 differentially expressed genes compared to non-supplemented diabetic mice. Intriguingly, gene expression that was previously found significantly altered in the hippocampus of diabetic mice, and that is implicated in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity (Hdac4, Hat1, Wnt7a, ApoE), was normalized following RES supplementation. In addition, pathway analysis revealed Jak-Stat signaling was the most significantly enriched pathway. The Jak-Stat pathway induces a pro-inflammatory signaling cascade, and we found most genes involved in this cascade (e.g. Il15, Il22, Socs2, Socs5) had significantly lower expression following RES supplementation. These data indicate RES could be neuroprotective and beneficial for the maintenance of cognitive function in diabetes. PMID:24456733

  11. Modernizing Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Vincent L.; Hildebrand, Verna

    1981-01-01

    Suggests assignment of research duties and rotation of teaching and management roles for college administrators, to increase their effectiveness and diminish the negative effects of declining enrollments. (JD)

  12. Major diencephalic inputs to the hippocampus: supramammillary nucleus and nucleus reuniens. Circuitry and function

    PubMed Central

    Vertes, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus receives two major external inputs from the diencephalon, that is, from the supramammillary nucleus (SUM) and nucleus reuniens (RE) of the midline thalamus. These two afferents systems project to separate, nonoverlapping, regions of the hippocampus. Specifically, the SUM distributes to the dentate gyrus (DG) and to CA2 of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, whereas RE projects to CA1 of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and to the subiculum. SUM and RE fibers to the hippocampus participate in common as well as in separate functions. Both systems would appear to amplify signals from other sources to their respective hippocampal targets. SUM amplifies signals from the entorhinal cortex (EC) to DG, whereas RE may amplify them from CA3 (and EC) to CA1 of the hippocampus. This “amplification” may serve to promote the transfer, encoding, and possibly storage of information from EC to DG and from CA3 and EC to CA1. Regarding their unique actions on the hippocampus, the SUM is a vital part of an ascending brainstem to hippocampal system generating the theta rhythm of the hippocampus, whereas RE importantly routes information from the medial prefrontal cortex to the hippocampus to thereby mediate functions involving both structures. In summary, although, to date, SUM and RE afferents to the hippocampus have not been extensively explored, the SUM and RE exert a profound influence on the hippocampus in processes of learning and memory. PMID:26072237

  13. Differences in Relative Hippocampus Volume and Number of Hippocampus Neurons among Five Corvid Species

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Kristy L.; Gilbertson, Karl E.; Seyfer, Abigail L.; Brantner, Rose M.; Hrvol, Andrew J.; Kamil, Alan C.; Nelson, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    The relative size of the avian hippocampus (Hp) has been shown to be related to spatial memory and food storing in two avian families, the parids and corvids. Basil et al. [Brain Behav Evol 1996;47: 156-164] examined North American food-storing birds in the corvid family and found that Clark's nutcrackers had a larger relative Hp than pinyon jays and Western scrub jays. These results correlated with the nutcracker's better performance on most spatial memory tasks and their strong reliance on stored food in the wild. However, Pravosudov and de Kort [Brain Behav Evol 67 (2006), 1-9] raised questions about the methodology used in the 1996 study, specifically the use of paraffin as an embedding material and recalculation for shrinkage. Therefore, we measured relative Hp volume using gelatin as the embedding material in four North American species of food-storing corvids (Clark's nutcrackers, pinyon jays, Western scrub jays and blue jays) and one Eurasian corvid that stores little to no food (azure-winged magpies). Although there was a significant overall effect of species on relative Hp volume among the five species, subsequent tests found only one pairwise difference, blue jays having a larger Hp than the azure-winged magpies. We also examined the relative size of the septum in the five species. Although Shiflett et al. [J Neurobiol 51 (2002), 215-222] found a difference in relative septum volume amongst three species of parids that correlated with storing food, we did not find significant differences amongst the five species in relative septum. Finally, we calculated the number of neurons in the Hp relative to body mass in the five species and found statistically significant differences, some of which are in accord with the adaptive specialization hypothesis and some are not. PMID:23364270

  14. Sub-chronic exposure to the insecticide dimethoate induces a proinflammatory status and enhances the neuroinflammatory response to bacterial lypopolysaccharide in the hippocampus and striatum of male mice

    SciTech Connect

    Astiz, Mariana Diz-Chaves, Yolanda Garcia-Segura, Luis M.

    2013-10-15

    Dimethoate is an organophosphorus insecticide extensively used in horticulture. Previous studies have shown that the administration of dimethoate to male rats, at a very low dose and during a sub-chronic period, increases the oxidation of lipids and proteins, reduces the levels of antioxidants and impairs mitochondrial function in various brain regions. In this study, we have assessed in C57Bl/6 adult male mice, whether sub-chronic (5 weeks) intoxication with a low dose of dimethoate (1.4 mg/kg) affects the expression of inflammatory molecules and the reactivity of microglia in the hippocampus and striatum under basal conditions and after an immune challenge caused by the systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide. Dimethoate increased mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin (IL) 6 in the hippocampus, and increased the proportion of Iba1 immunoreactive cells with reactive phenotype in dentate gyrus and striatum. Lipopolysaccharide caused a significant increase in the mRNA levels of IL1β, TNFα, IL6 and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10, and a significant increase in the proportion of microglia with reactive phenotype in the hippocampus and the striatum. Some of the effects of lipopolysaccharide (proportion of Iba1 immunoreactive cells with reactive phenotype and IL6 mRNA levels) were amplified in the animals treated with dimethoate, but only in the striatum. These findings indicate that a sub-chronic period of administration of a low dose of dimethoate, comparable to the levels of the pesticide present as residues in food, causes a proinflammatory status in the brain and enhances the neuroinflammatory response to the lipopolysaccharide challenge with regional specificity. - Highlights: • The dose of pesticide used was comparable to the levels of residues found in food. • Dimethoate administration increased cytokine expression and microglia reactivity. • Hippocampus and striatum were differentially affected by the treatment.

  15. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  16. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  17. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  18. 40 CFR 142.24 - Administrator's rescission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrator's rescission. 142.24... Exemptions § 142.24 Administrator's rescission. If, upon notification of a finding by the Administrator under... revised schedule, the Administrator shall rescind the application of his finding to that...

  19. 21 CFR 800.55 - Administrative detention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative detention. 800.55 Section 800.55...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Administrative Practices and Procedures § 800.55 Administrative detention. (a... believed to be adulterated or misbranded. Administrative detention is intended to protect the public...

  20. 40 CFR 142.24 - Administrator's rescission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrator's rescission. 142.24... Exemptions § 142.24 Administrator's rescission. If, upon notification of a finding by the Administrator under... revised schedule, the Administrator shall rescind the application of his finding to that...

  1. 40 CFR 142.24 - Administrator's rescission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrator's rescission. 142.24... Exemptions § 142.24 Administrator's rescission. If, upon notification of a finding by the Administrator under... revised schedule, the Administrator shall rescind the application of his finding to that...

  2. Effect of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure on nitric oxide synthase I and III proteins in the hippocampus of the near-term fetal guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K A; Chiu, J; Reynolds, J N; Brien, J F

    1999-01-01

    Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure suppresses nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymatic activity, in the hippocampus of the near-term fetal guinea pig at gestational day (GD) 62. The objective of this study was to determine if this decrease in NOS activity is the result of decreased NOS I and NOS III protein expression. Pregnant guinea pigs received oral administration of 4 g ethanol/kg maternal body weight/day (n = 8), isocaloric-sucrose/pair feeding (n = 8), or water (n = 8) from GD 2 to GD 61. The NOS I and NOS III protein expression and localization in the hippocampus were determined using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The chronic ethanol regimen produced fetal body, brain, and hippocampal growth restriction compared with the isocaloric-sucrose/pair fed and water groups but did not affect the expression or localization of NOS I and NOS III proteins in the hippocampus. The decrease in NOS enzymatic activity induced by chronic prenatal ethanol exposure may be the result of posttranslational modification of NOS I and/or NOS III protein in the hippocampus of the near-term fetal guinea pig. PMID:10386828

  3. Amyloid-β peptide absence in short term effects on kinase activity of energy metabolism in mice hippocampus and cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Ianiski, Francine R; Rech, Virginia C; Nishihira, Vivian S K; Alves, Catiane B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Luchese, Cristiane

    2016-07-11

    Considering that Alzheimer's disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease worldwide, we investigated the activities of three key kinases: creatine kinase, pyruvate kinase and adenylate kinase in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease model. Male adult Swiss mice received amyloid-β or saline. One day after, mice were treated with blank nanocapsules (17 ml/kg) or meloxicam-loaded nanocapsules (5 mg/kg) or free meloxicam (5 mg/kg). Treatments were performed on alternating days, until the end of the experimental protocol. In the fourteenth day, kinases activities were performed. Amyloid-β did not change the kinases activity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of mice. However, free meloxicam decrease the creatine kinase activity in mitochondrial-rich fraction in the group induced by amyloid-β, but for the cytosolic fraction, it has raised in the activity of pyruvate kinase activity in cerebral cortex. Further, meloxicam-loaded nanocapsules administration reduced adenylate kinase activity in the hippocampus of mice injected by amyloid-β. In conclusion we observed absence in short-term effects in kinases activities of energy metabolism in mice hippocampus and cerebral cortex using amyloid-β peptide model. These findings established the foundation to further study the kinases in phosphoryltransfer network changes observed in the brains of patients post-mortem with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27411072

  4. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus following Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Bruno P.; Santos, Daniela F.; Santos, Ana I.; Carvalho, Caetana M.; Araújo, Inês M.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is changed by brain injury. When neuroinflammation accompanies injury, activation of resident microglial cells promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species like nitric oxide (NO). In these conditions, NO promotes proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in the hippocampus. However, little is known about the role of NO in the survival and differentiation of newborn cells in the injured dentate gyrus. Here we investigated the role of NO following seizures in the regulation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of NSC in the hippocampus using the kainic acid (KA) induced seizure mouse model. We show that NO increased the proliferation of NSC and the number of neuroblasts following seizures but was detrimental to the survival of newborn neurons. NO was also required for the maintenance of long-term neuroinflammation. Taken together, our data show that NO positively contributes to the initial stages of neurogenesis following seizures but compromises survival of newborn neurons. PMID:26587180

  5. Prospective representation of navigational goals in the human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Brown, Thackery I; Carr, Valerie A; LaRocque, Karen F; Favila, Serra E; Gordon, Alan M; Bowles, Ben; Bailenson, Jeremy N; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-06-10

    Mental representation of the future is a fundamental component of goal-directed behavior. Computational and animal models highlight prospective spatial coding in the hippocampus, mediated by interactions with the prefrontal cortex, as a putative mechanism for simulating future events. Using whole-brain high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging and multi-voxel pattern classification, we tested whether the human hippocampus and interrelated cortical structures support prospective representation of navigational goals. Results demonstrated that hippocampal activity patterns code for future goals to which participants subsequently navigate, as well as for intervening locations along the route, consistent with trajectory-specific simulation. The strength of hippocampal goal representations covaried with goal-related coding in the prefrontal, medial temporal, and medial parietal cortex. Collectively, these data indicate that a hippocampal-cortical network supports prospective simulation of navigational events during goal-directed planning. PMID:27284194

  6. Spatial learning with a minislab in the dorsal hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, M B; Moser, E I; Forrest, E; Andersen, P; Morris, R G

    1995-01-01

    We have determined the volume and location of hippocampal tissue required for normal acquisition of a spatial memory task. Ibotenic acid was used to make bilateral symmetric lesions of 20-100% of hippocampal volume. Even a small transverse block (minislab) of the hippocampus (down to 26% of the total) could support spatial learning in a water maze, provided it was at the septal (dorsal) pole of the hippocampus. Lesions of the septal pole, leaving 60% of the hippocampi intact, caused a learning deficit, although normal electrophysiological responses, synaptic plasticity, and preserved acetylcholinesterase staining argue for adequate function of the remaining tissue. Thus, with an otherwise normal brain, hippocampal-dependent spatial learning only requires a minislab of dorsal hippocampal tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7568200

  7. RISC activity in hippocampus is essential for contextual memory.

    PubMed

    Batassa, Enrico Maria; Costanzi, Marco; Saraulli, Daniele; Scardigli, Raffaella; Barbato, Christian; Cogoni, Carlo; Cestari, Vincenzo

    2010-03-01

    RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) mediates post-transcriptional control of gene expression and contains Argonaute 2 (AGO2) protein as a central effector of cleavage or inhibition of mRNA translation. In the brain, the RISC pathway is involved in neuronal functions, such as synaptic development and local protein synthesis, which are potentially critical for memory. In this study, we examined the role of RISC in memory formation in rodents, by silencing AGO2 expression in dorsal hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice and submitting animals to hippocampus-related tasks. One week after surgery, AGO2 downregulation impaired both short-term and long-term contextual fear memories. Conversely, no long-lasting effects were observed three weeks after surgery, when AGO2 levels were re-established. These results show that altered RISC activity severely affects learning and memory processes in rodents. PMID:20109527

  8. Early-Life Stress and Neurometabolites of the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Coplan, Jeremy D.; Mathew, Sanjay J.; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Mao, Xiangling; Kral, John G.; Smith, Eric L. P.; Rosenblum, Leonard A.; Perera, Tarique D.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shungu, Dikoma C.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that early life stress would persistently compromise neuronal viability of the hippocampus of the grown nonhuman primate. Neuronal viability was assessed through ascertainment of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) – an amino acid considered reflective of neuronal density/functional integrity – using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). The subjects reported herein represent a re-analysis of a sample of nineteen adult male bonnet macaques that had been reared in infancy under induced stress by maternal variable foraging demand (VFD) (N = 10) or control rearing conditions (N = 9). The MRSI spectral readings were recorded using a GE 1.5 Tesla machine under anesthesia. Relative NAA values were derived using NAA as numerator and both choline (Cho) or creatine (Cr) as denominators. Left medial temporal lobe (MTL) NAA/Cho but not NAA/Cr was decreased in VFD subjects versus controls. An MTL NAA/Cho ratio deficit remained significant when controlling for multiple confounding variables. Regression analyses suggested that the NAA/Choline finding was due to independently low left NAA and high left choline. Right MTL showed no rearing effects for NAA, but right NAA was positively related to body mass, irrespective of denominator. The current data indicate that decreased left MTL NAA/Cho may reflect low neuronal viability of the hippocampus following early life stress in VFD-reared versus normally-reared subjects. Given the importance of the hippocampus in stress-mediated toxicity, validation of these data using absolute quantification is suggested and correlative neurohistological studies of hippocampus are warranted. PMID:20713023

  9. Memory modulates journey-dependent coding in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Ferbinteanu, J.; Shirvalkar, P.; Shapiro, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Neurons in the rat hippocampus signal current location by firing in restricted areas called place fields. During goal-directed tasks in mazes, place fields can also encode past and future positions through journey-dependent activity, which could guide hippocampus-dependent behavior and underlie other temporally extended memories, such as autobiographical recollections. The relevance of journey-dependent activity for hippocampal-dependent memory, however, is not well understood. To further investigate the relationship between hippocampal journey-dependent activity and memory we compared neural firing in rats performing two mnemonically distinct but behaviorally identical tasks in the plus maze: a hippocampus-dependent spatial navigation task, and a hippocampus-independent cue response task. While place, prospective, and retrospective coding reflected temporally extended behavioral episodes in both tasks, memory strategy altered coding differently before and after the choice point. Before the choice point, when discriminative selection of memory strategy was critical, a switch between the tasks elicited a change in a field’s coding category, so that a field that signaled current location in one task coded pending journeys in the other task. After the choice point, however, when memory strategy became irrelevant, the fields preserved coding categories across tasks, so that the same field consistently signaled either current location or the recent journeys. Additionally, on the start arm firing rates were affected at comparable levels by task and journey, while on the goal arm firing rates predominantly encoded journey. The data demonstrate a direct link between journey-dependent coding and memory, and suggest that episodes are encoded by both population and firing rate coding. PMID:21697365

  10. Maternal dietary choline deficiency alters angiogenesis in fetal mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mehedint, Mihai G; Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-07-20

    We examined whether maternal dietary choline modulates angiogenesis in fetal brain. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were fed either a choline-deficient (CD), control (CT), or choline-supplemented diet (CS) from days 12 to 17 (E12-17) of pregnancy and then fetal brains were studied. In CD fetal hippocampus, proliferation of endothelial cells (EC) was decreased by 32% (p < 0.01 vs. CT or CS) while differentiated EC clusters (expressing factor VIII related antigen (RA)) increased by 25% (p < 0.01 vs. CT or CS). These changes were associated with > 25% decrease in the number of blood vessels in CD fetal hippocampus (p < 0.01 vs. CT and CS), with no change in total cross-sectional area of these blood vessels. Expression of genes for the angiogenic signals derived from both endothelial and neuronal progenitor cells (NPC) was increased in CD fetal hippocampus VEGF C (Vegfc), 2.0-fold, p < 0.01 vs. CT and angiopoietin 2 (Angpt2), 2.1-fold, (p < 0.01 vs. CT)). Similar increased expression was observed in NPC isolated from E14 fetal mouse brains and exposed to low (5 microM), CT (70 microM), or high choline (280 microM) media for 72 h (low choline caused a 9.7-fold increase in relative gene expression of Vegfc (p < 0.001 vs. CT and high) and a 3.4-fold increase in expression of Angpt2, (p < 0.05 vs. CT and high). ANGPT2 protein was increased 42.2% (p < 0.01). Cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide islands in the proximity of the promoter areas of Vegfc and Angpt2 were hypomethylated in low choline NPC compared to CT NPC (p < 0.01). We conclude that maternal dietary choline intake alters angiogenesis in the developing fetal hippocampus. PMID:20624989

  11. Allergy Enhances Neurogenesis and Modulates Microglial Activation in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara; Mrowetz, Heike; Thalhamer, Josef; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Weiss, Richard; Aigner, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Allergies and their characteristic TH2-polarized inflammatory reactions affect a substantial part of the population. Since there is increasing evidence that the immune system modulates plasticity and function of the central nervous system (CNS), we investigated the effects of allergic lung inflammation on the hippocampus—a region of cellular plasticity in the adult brain. The focus of the present study was on microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, and on hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e., the generation of new neurons. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized with a clinically relevant allergen derived from timothy grass pollen (Phl p 5). As expected, allergic sensitization induced high serum levels of allergen-specific immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgE) and of TH2 cytokines (IL-5 and IL-13). Surprisingly, fewer Iba1+ microglia were found in the granular layer (GL) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and also the number of Iba1+MHCII+ cells was lower, indicating a reduced microglial surveillance and activation in the hippocampus of allergic mice. Neurogenesis was analyzed by labeling of proliferating cells with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and determining their fate 4 weeks later, and by quantitative analysis of young immature neurons, i.e., cells expressing doublecortin (DCX). The number of DCX+ cells was clearly increased in the allergy animals. Moreover, there were more BrdU+ cells present in the hippocampus of allergic mice, and these newly born cells had differentiated into neurons as indicated by a higher number of BrdU+NeuN+ cells. In summary, allergy led to a reduced microglia presence and activity and to an elevated level of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This effect was apparently specific to the hippocampus, as we did not observe these alterations in the subventricular zone (SVZ)/olfactory bulb (OB) system, also a region of high cellular plasticity and adult neurogenesis. PMID:27445696

  12. Neonatal Amygdala or Hippocampus Lesions Influence Responsiveness to Objects

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Toscano, Jessica E.; Bauman, Melissa; Mason, William A.; Amaral, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe brain structures, such as the amygdala, play an important role in the normal perception and generation of emotional behavior. Little research, however, has assessed the role of such structures across the neurodevelopmental trajectory. We assessed emotional behavioral responses of rhesus macaques that received bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus at two weeks of age and sham-operated controls. At 9 and 18 months of age, animals interacted with novel objects that varied in visual complexity as a means of varying emotional salience. All animals behaved differently in the presence of visually simple, as compared to complex, objects, suggesting that they were sensitive to variation in emotional salience. Across both experiments, amygdala-lesioned animals appeared to be less behaviorally inhibited insofar as they explored all objects most readily. Interestingly, hippocampus-lesioned animals’ propensity for exploration mirrored that of control animals in some contexts but amygdala-lesioned animals in other contexts. At 18 months of age, both amygdala-lesioned and hippocampus-lesioned animals were judged to be less fearful than controls during the testing procedure. Implications for understanding the neurobiology of emotional behavior are discussed. PMID:20583145

  13. Anorexia Reduces GFAP+ Cell Density in the Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Labrada-Moncada, Francisco Emmanuel; Varman, Durairaj Ragu; Krüger, Janina; Morales, Teresa; Miledi, Ricardo; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder observed primarily in young women. The neurobiology of the disorder is unknown but recently magnetic resonance imaging showed a volume reduction of the hippocampus in anorexic patients. Dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA) is a murine model that mimics core features of this disorder, including severe weight loss due to voluntary reduction in food intake. The energy supply to the brain is mediated by astrocytes, but whether their density is compromised by anorexia is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate GFAP+ cell density in the main regions of the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus) in the DIA model. Our results showed that GFAP+ cell density was significantly reduced (~20%) in all regions of the hippocampus, except in CA1. Interestingly, DIA significantly reduced the GFAP+ cells/nuclei ratio in CA2 (−23%) and dentate gyrus (−48%). The reduction of GFAP+ cell density was in agreement with a lower expression of GFAP protein. Additionally, anorexia increased the expression of the intermediate filaments vimentin and nestin. Accordingly, anorexia increased the number of reactive astrocytes in CA2 and dentate gyrus more than twofold. We conclude that anorexia reduces the hippocampal GFAP+ cell density and increases vimentin and nestin expression. PMID:27579183

  14. The role of the hippocampus in memory and mental construction.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Signy; Levine, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Much has been learned about the processes that support the remembrance of past autobiographical episodes and their importance for a number of cognitive tasks. This work has focused on hippocampal contributions to constructing coherent mental representations of scenarios for these tasks, which has opened up new questions about the underlying hippocampal mechanisms. We propose a new framework to answer these questions, which incorporates task demands that prompt hippocampal contributions to mental construction, the online formation of such mental representations, and how these demands relate to the functional organization of the hippocampus. Synthesizing findings from autobiographical memory research, our framework suggests that the interaction of two task characteristics influences the recruitment of the hippocampus: (1) the degree of task open-endedness (quantified by the presence/absence of a retrieval framework) and (2) the degree to which the integration of perceptual details is required. These characteristics inform the relative weighting of anterior and posterior hippocampal involvement, following an organizational model in which the anterior and posterior hippocampus support constructions on the basis of conceptual and perceptual representations, respectively. The anticipated outcome of our framework is a refined understanding of hippocampal contributions to memory and to the host of related cognitive functions. PMID:26849289

  15. Anorexia Reduces GFAP+ Cell Density in the Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Haro, Daniel; Labrada-Moncada, Francisco Emmanuel; Varman, Durairaj Ragu; Krüger, Janina; Morales, Teresa; Miledi, Ricardo; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder observed primarily in young women. The neurobiology of the disorder is unknown but recently magnetic resonance imaging showed a volume reduction of the hippocampus in anorexic patients. Dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA) is a murine model that mimics core features of this disorder, including severe weight loss due to voluntary reduction in food intake. The energy supply to the brain is mediated by astrocytes, but whether their density is compromised by anorexia is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate GFAP+ cell density in the main regions of the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus) in the DIA model. Our results showed that GFAP+ cell density was significantly reduced (~20%) in all regions of the hippocampus, except in CA1. Interestingly, DIA significantly reduced the GFAP+ cells/nuclei ratio in CA2 (-23%) and dentate gyrus (-48%). The reduction of GFAP+ cell density was in agreement with a lower expression of GFAP protein. Additionally, anorexia increased the expression of the intermediate filaments vimentin and nestin. Accordingly, anorexia increased the number of reactive astrocytes in CA2 and dentate gyrus more than twofold. We conclude that anorexia reduces the hippocampal GFAP+ cell density and increases vimentin and nestin expression. PMID:27579183

  16. The hippocampus and memory for orderly stimulus relations.

    PubMed

    Dusek, J A; Eichenbaum, H

    1997-06-24

    Human declarative memory involves a systematic organization of information that supports generalizations and inferences from acquired knowledge. This kind of memory depends on the hippocampal region in humans, but the extent to which animals also have declarative memory, and whether inferential expression of memory depends on the hippocampus in animals, remains a major challenge in cognitive neuroscience. To examine these issues, we used a test of transitive inference pioneered by Piaget to assess capacities for systematic organization of knowledge and logical inference in children. In our adaptation of the test, rats were trained on a set of four overlapping odor discrimination problems that could be encoded either separately or as a single representation of orderly relations among the odor stimuli. Normal rats learned the problems and demonstrated the relational memory organization through appropriate transitive inferences about items not presented together during training. By contrast, after disconnection of the hippocampus from either its cortical or subcortical pathway, rats succeeded in acquiring the separate discrimination problems but did not demonstrate transitive inference, indicating that they had failed to develop or could not inferentially express the orderly organization of the stimulus elements. These findings strongly support the view that the hippocampus mediates a general declarative memory capacity in animals, as it does in humans. PMID:9192700

  17. Molecules involved in reactive sprouting in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Savaskan, N E; Nitsch, R

    2001-01-01

    Denervation of the hippocampus triggers reactive responses in neurons and glial cells in their affected strata in a temporally ordered fashion. Many of these responses have been studied extensively, focusing on the one hand on glial initiation and clearing responses during the degeneration phase and, on the other, on transneuronal reorganization and the newly adjusted physiological balance. We used the entorhinal cortex lesion (ECL) as a model system to study the cues that underlie the layer-specific sprouting response. This lesion destroys the perforant path, which is a massive excitatory projection to the dentate gyrus and hippocampus proper. In the deafferented zones of the hippocampus, sprouting of the remaining unlesioned fibers occurs, which replaces the lost afferences of the perforant path. We focus on candidate molecules which govern the layer-specific sprouting of the remaining axons and, in particular, on membrane-bound cues. The fact that layer-specific sprouting occurs even in the adult central nervous system (CNS) provides a valuable model for understanding the mechanisms of reactive neuronal growth and reorganization in the adult CNS. Isolation and analysis of the molecules involved in these mechanisms are important steps in understanding the potential and limitations of regeneration in the CNS. PMID:11560368

  18. Hippocampus minor, calcar avis, and the Huxley-Owen debate.

    PubMed

    Owen, Christopher M; Howard, Allyson; Binder, Devin K

    2009-12-01

    On the bicentennial of Darwin's birth, we describe the origin of the calcar avis and summarize the debate around this structure, which played a central role in the evolution debate in the mid-19th century. We performed a comprehensive review of relevant neuroanatomic literature, bibliographic sources, and 19th century primary sources. Once known as the hippocampus minor, the structure now known as the calcar avis is an involution of the ventricular wall produced by the calcarine fissure. A heated debate raged between 2 prominent scientific theorists, Sir Richard Owen and Thomas Henry Huxley, over the presence of the hippocampus minor in apes versus humans. Owen put forward the lack of an identifiable hippocampus minor in humans as part of an attempt to debunk evolution. A bitter personal and academic rivalry ensued, as Huxley conducted his own dissections to refute Owen's claims. Huxley ultimately dismantled Owen's premises, securing the epithet "Darwin's bulldog" for his defense of the theory of evolution. Thus, this relatively obscure neuroanatomic landmark served as a pivotal point of contention in the most popularized and acrimonious evolutionary debate of the 19th century. PMID:19934969

  19. Dopamine regulates stimulus generalization in the human hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Kahnt, Thorsten; Tobler, Philippe N

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generalize previously learned information to novel situations is fundamental for adaptive behavior. However, too wide or too narrow generalization is linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. Previous research suggests that interactions between the dopaminergic system and the hippocampus may play a role in generalization, but whether and how the degree of generalization can be modulated via these pathways is currently unknown. Here, we addressed this question in humans using pharmacology, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and computational modeling. Blocking dopamine D2-receptors (D2R) altered generalization behavior as revealed by an increased kurtosis of the generalization gradient, and a decreased width of model-derived generalization parameters. Moreover, D2R-blockade modulated similarity-based responses in the hippocampus and decreased midbrain-hippocampal connectivity, which in turn correlated with individual differences in generalization. These results suggest that dopaminergic activity in the hippocampus may relate to the degree of generalization and highlight a potential target for treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12678.001 PMID:26830462

  20. Hippocampus segmentation using locally weighted prior based level set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achuthan, Anusha; Rajeswari, Mandava

    2015-12-01

    Segmentation of hippocampus in the brain is one of a major challenge in medical image segmentation due to its' imaging characteristics, with almost similar intensity between another adjacent gray matter structure, such as amygdala. The intensity similarity has causes the hippocampus to have weak or fuzzy boundaries. With this main challenge being demonstrated by hippocampus, a segmentation method that relies on image information alone may not produce accurate segmentation results. Therefore, it is needed an assimilation of prior information such as shape and spatial information into existing segmentation method to produce the expected segmentation. Previous studies has widely integrated prior information into segmentation methods. However, the prior information has been utilized through a global manner integration, and this does not reflect the real scenario during clinical delineation. Therefore, in this paper, a locally integrated prior information into a level set model is presented. This work utilizes a mean shape model to provide automatic initialization for level set evolution, and has been integrated as prior information into the level set model. The local integration of edge based information and prior information has been implemented through an edge weighting map that decides at voxel level which information need to be observed during a level set evolution. The edge weighting map shows which corresponding voxels having sufficient edge information. Experiments shows that the proposed integration of prior information locally into a conventional edge-based level set model, known as geodesic active contour has shown improvement of 9% in averaged Dice coefficient.

  1. Cellular Changes in the Postmortem Hippocampus in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Stockmeier, Craig A.; Mahajan, Gouri J.; Konick, Lisa C.; Overholser, James C.; Jurjus, George J.; Meltzer, Herbert Y.; Uylings, Harry B.M.; Friedman, Lee; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    Background Imaging studies report that hippocampal volume is decreased in major depressive disorder (MDD). A cellular basis for reduced hippocampal volume in MDD has not been identified. Methods Sections of right hippocampus were collected in 19 subjects with MDD and 21 normal control subjects. The density of pyramidal neurons, dentate granule cell neurons, glia, and the size of the neuronal somal area were measured in systematic, randomly placed three-dimensional optical disector counting boxes. Results In MDD, cryostat-cut hippocampal sections shrink in depth a significant 18% greater amount than in control subjects. The density of granule cells and glia in the dentate gyrus and pyramidal neurons and glia in all cornv ammonis (CA)/hippocampal subfields is significantly increased by 30% –35% in MDD. The average soma size of pyramidal neurons is significantly decreased in MDD. Conclusion In MDD, the packing density of glia, pyramidal neurons, and granule cell neurons is significantly increased in all hippocampal subfields and the dentate gyrus, and pyramidal neuron soma size is significantly decreased as well. It is suggested that a significant reduction in neuropil in MDD may account for decreased hippocampal volume detected by neuroimaging. In addition, differential shrinkage of frozen sections of the hippocampus suggests differential water content in hippocampus in MDD. PMID:15522247

  2. A Review and Update of Mechanisms of Estrogen in the Hippocampus and Amygdala for Anxiety and Depression Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Walf, Alicia A; Frye, Cheryl A

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen (E2) has many effects in the central nervous system, including effects on anxiety and depression behavior. This review will address effects of E2 on behaviors related to anxiety and depression in women and animal models and include recent findings from our laboratory related to this topic. E2’s antianxiety and antidepressant-like effects may depend upon many factors, including the regimen of E2 utilized and interactions with the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Brain targets for E2’s effects on anxiety and depression include the hippocampus and amygdala. Administration of E2, compared to vehicle, subcutaneously or to the hippocampus or amygdala of ovariectomized rats decreases anxiety and depressive behavior. Intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs) may be important for E2’s anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. Administration of an ER antagonist to the hippocampus, but not amygdala, increases anxiety and depression behavior of naturally receptive female rats. Studies utilizing ER knockout mice or selective ER modulators suggest that ER-mediated effects of E2 on anxiety and depressive behavior may require ERβ. In addition, the behavioral effects of E2 may involve membrane actions and/or changes in cell cycle processes involved in energy expenditure. Elucidating the mechanisms by which E2 affects anxiety and depression is important in order to enhance its therapeutic potential. It is particularly important to investigate the putative receptor mechanisms and brain targets for E2 to determine whether mood-enhancing effects of E2 can occur without deleterious proliferative effects in reproductive tissues. PMID:16554740

  3. 40 CFR 71.11 - Administrative record, public participation, and administrative review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative record, public participation, and administrative review. 71.11 Section 71.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... application. (3) If the permitting authority initially decides to deny the permit application, it shall...

  4. Effects of HZE irradiation on chemical neurotransmission in rodent hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Mayumi

    Space radiation represents a significant risk to the CNS (central nervous system) during space missions. Most harmful are the HZE (high mass, highly charged (Z), high energy) particles, e.g. 56Fe, which possess high ionizing ability, dense energy deposition pattern, and high penetrance. Accumulating evidence suggests that radiation has significant impact on cognitive functions. In ground-base experiments, HZE radiation induces pronounced deficits in hippocampus dependent learning and memory in rodents. However, the mechanisms underlying these impairments are mostly unknown. Exposure to HZE radiation elevates the level of oxidation, resulting in cell loss, tissue damage and functional deficits through direct ionization and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). When hippocampal slices were exposed to ROS, neuronal excitability was reduced. My preliminary results showed enhanced radio-vulnerability of the hippocampus and reduction in basal and depolarization-evoked [3H]-norepinephrine release after HZE exposure. These results raised the possibility that HZE radiation deteriorates cognitive function through radiation-induced impairments in hippocampal chemical neurotransmission, the hypothesis of this dissertation. In Aim 1 I have focused on the effects of HZE radiation on release of major neurotransmitter systems in the hippocampus. I have further extended my research on the levels of receptors of these systems in Aim 2. In Aim 3, I have studied the level of oxidation in membranes of my samples. My research reveals that HZE radiation significantly reduces hyperosmotic sucrose evoked [3H]-glutamate and [14C]-GABA release both three and six months post irradiation. The same radiation regimen also significantly enhances oxidative stress as indicated by increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus, suggesting that increased levels of lipid peroxidation may play a role in reduction of neurotransmitter release. HZE radiation also significantly reduces

  5. Radiation Protection Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

  6. Decreased Fast Ripples in the Hippocampus of Rats with Spontaneous Recurrent Seizures Treated with Carbenoxolone and Quinine

    PubMed Central

    Ventura-Mejía, Consuelo

    2014-01-01

    Background. In models of temporal lobe epilepsy and in patients with this pathology, high frequency oscillations called fast ripples (FRs, 250–600 Hz) can be observed. FRs are considered potential biomarkers for epilepsy and, in the light of many in vitro and in silico studies, we thought that electrical synapses mediated by gap junctions might possibly modulate FRs in vivo. Methods. Animals with spontaneous recurrent seizures induced by pilocarpine administration were implanted with movable microelectrodes in the right anterior and posterior hippocampus to evaluate the effects of gap junction blockers administered in the entorhinal cortex. The effects of carbenoxolone (50 nmoles) and quinine (35 pmoles) on the mean number of spontaneous FR events (occurrence of FRs), as well as on the mean number of oscillation cycles per FR event and their frequency, were assessed using a specific algorithm to analyze FRs in intracranial EEG recordings. Results. We found that these gap junction blockers decreased the mean number of FRs and the mean number of oscillation cycles per FR event in the hippocampus, both during and at different times after carbenoxolone and quinine administration. Conclusion. These data suggest that FRs may be modulated by gap junctions, although additional experiments in vivo will be necessary to determine the precise role of gap junctions in this pathological activity associated with epileptogenesis. PMID:25276773

  7. AMPK Signaling in the Dorsal Hippocampus Negatively Regulates Contextual Fear Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Luo, Yixiao; Sun, Jia; Ding, Zengbo; Liu, Jianfeng; Yan, Wei; Jian, Min; Xue, Yanxue; Shi, Jie; Wang, Ji-Shi; Lu, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Both the formation of long-term memory (LTM) and dendritic spine growth that serves as a physical basis for the long-term storage of information require de novo protein synthesis. Memory formation also critically depends on transcription. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a transcriptional regulator that has emerged as a major energy sensor that maintains cellular energy homeostasis. However, still unknown is its role in memory formation. In the present study, we found that AMPK is primarily expressed in neurons in the hippocampus, and then we demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in AMPK activity and increase in mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity after contextual fear conditioning in the CA1 but not CA3 area of the dorsal hippocampus. Using pharmacological methods and adenovirus gene transfer to bidirectionally regulate AMPK activity, we found that increasing AMPK activity in the CA1 impaired the formation of long-term fear memory, and decreasing AMPK activity enhanced fear memory formation. These findings were associated with changes in the phosphorylation of AMPK and p70s6 kinase (p70s6k) and expression of BDNF and membrane GluR1 and GluR2 in the CA1. Furthermore, the prior administration of an mTORC1 inhibitor blocked the enhancing effect of AMPK inhibition on fear memory formation, suggesting that this negative regulation of contextual fear memory by AMPK in the CA1 depends on the mTORC1 signaling pathway. Finally, we found that AMPK activity regulated hippocampal spine growth associated with memory formation. In summary, our results indicate that AMPK is a key negative regulator of plasticity and fear memory formation. PMID:26647974

  8. Action of L-acetylcarnitine on different cerebral mitochondrial populations from hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Villa, R F; Gorini, A; Zanada, F; Benzi, G

    1986-02-01

    The maximal rate (Vmax) of some mitochondrial enzymatic activities related to the energy transduction (citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, NADH cytochrome c reductase as total, cytochrome oxidase) and amino acid metabolism (glutamate dehydrogenase) were evaluated in non-synaptic (free) and synaptic mitochondria from rat brain hippocampus. Three types of mitochondria were isolated from rats subjected to single i.m. treatment with L-acetylcarnitine (308 mg X kg-1) or to sub-chronic i.m. treatment with L-acetylcarnitine at three different dose levels (38; 154; 614 mg X kg-1, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks). With respect to the enzymatic pattern of three types of non-synaptic and synaptic mitochondria, in hippocampus a different maximal rate of both total NADH-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome oxidase was observed, these activities being lower in "synaptic heavy" mitochondrial subfraction rather than that in both "free" and "synaptic light" ones. This confirms that in various types of brain mitochondria a different metabolic machinery exists. Acute treatment with L-acetylcarnitine decreased citrate synthase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities only in mitochondria obtained from synaptosomes. The sub-chronic treatment with L-acetylcarnitine decreased the activity of citrate synthase and total NADH-cytochrome c reductase activities only in the same type of mitochondria, i.e. synaptic mitochondria. Therefore in vivo administration of L-acetylcarnitine mainly affects some specific enzyme activities (suggesting a specific molecular trigger mode of action) of the intrasynaptic mitochondria (suggesting a specific subcellular trigger site of action). PMID:3963936

  9. Neuroprotective effects of Withania coagulans root extract on CA1 hippocampus following cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarbishegi, Maryam; Heidari, Zahra; Mahmoudzadeh- Sagheb, Hamidreza; Valizadeh, Moharram; Doostkami, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxygen free radicals may be implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion damage. The beneficial effects of antioxidant nutrients, as well as complex plant extracts, on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries are well known. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydro-alcoholic root extract of Withania coagulans on CA1 hippocampus oxidative damages following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rat. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in five groups: control, sham operated, Ischemia/ Reperfiusion (IR), and Withania Coagulans Extract (WCE) 500 and 1000mg/kg + I/R groups. Ischemia was induced by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min after 30 days of WCE administration. Three days after, the animals were sacrificed, their brains were fixed for histological analysis (NISSL and TUNEL staining) and some samples were prepared for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in hippocampus. Results: WCE showed neuroprotective activity by significant decrease in MDA level and increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activity in pretreated groups as compared to I/R groups (p<0.001). The number of intact neurons was increased while the number of TUNEL positive neurons in CA1 hippocampal region in pretreated groups were decreased as compared to I/R group (p<0.001). Conclusion: WCE showed potent neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress-induced injuries caused by global cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion in rats probably by radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. PMID:27516980

  10. Polygalasaponin F induces long-term potentiation in adult rat hippocampus via NMDA receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feng; Sun, Jian-dong; Han, Ning; Li, Chuang-jun; Yuan, Yu-he; Zhang, Dong-ming; Chen, Nai-hong

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of polygalasaponin F (PGSF), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Polygala japonica, on long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG) of anesthetized rats. Methods: Population spike (PS) of hippocampal DG was recorded in anesthetized male Wistar rats. PGSF, the NMDAR inhibitor MK801 and the CaMKII inhibitor KN93 were intracerebroventricularly administered. Western blotting analysis was used to examine the phosphorylation expressions of NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Results: Intracerebroventricular administration of PGSF (1 and 10 μmol/L) produced long-lasting increase of PS amplitude in hippocampal DG in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-injection of MK801 (100 μmol/L) or KN93 (100 μmol/L) completely blocked PGSF-induced LTP. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of NR2B, CaMKII, ERK, and CREB in hippocampus was significantly increased 5–60 min after LTP induction. The up-regulation of p-CaMKII expression could be completely abolished by pre-injection of MK801. The up-regulation of p-ERK and p-CREB expressions could be partially blocked by pre-injection of KN93. Conclusion: PGSF could induce LTP in hippocampal DG in anesthetized rats via NMDAR activation mediated by CaMKII, ERK and CREB signaling pathway. PMID:22286914

  11. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors contribute to learning-induced metaplasticity in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Becker, Benjamin; Klein, Eva M; Striepens, Nadine; Mihov, Yoan; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Reul, Juergen; Goossens, Liesbet; Schruers, Koen; Kendrick, Keith M; Hurlemann, René

    2013-07-01

    Hippocampal learning is thought to induce metaplasticity, which can facilitate subsequent learning. Administered at single low doses, the N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor antagonist memantine predominantly blocks α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs). Placebo-controlled administration of a single low dose of memantine in a pharmaco-fMRI experiment may thus help characterize the role of α7 nAChRs in hippocampal metaplasticity. We hypothesized that if α7 nAChRs contribute to learning-induced metaplasticity in the hippocampus, blockade of these receptors with low-dose memantine would selectively interfere with a facilitation of subsequent learning without impairing hippocampal learning per se. To specifically test this hypothesis, we devised a randomized controlled trial in which healthy volunteers were administered a 20-mg single oral dose of memantine or placebo and scanned on three subsequent runs of a hippocampal learning task. Our results indicate no discrepancies in behavioral learning between low-dose memantine- and placebo-treated participants in the first and second run of this task. In the third run, however, only the placebo-treated group showed facilitated behavioral learning, an effect paralleled by decreased neural responses in the hippocampal cornu ammonis region. Our findings suggest that blockade of α7 nAChRs selectively interfered with a learning-induced facilitation of subsequent learning while leaving unimpaired hippocampal learning per se. Taken together, our results provide support for a relevant contribution of α7 nAChRs to learning-associated metaplasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:23469888

  12. An MDCK Cell Culture-Derived Formalin-Inactivated Influenza Virus Whole-Virion Vaccine from an Influenza Virus Library Confers Cross-Protective Immunity by Intranasal Administration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Haredy, Ahmad M.; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Omasa, Takeshi; Ohtake, Hisao; Mori, Yasuko; Kida, Hiroshi; Yamanishi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    It is currently impossible to predict the next pandemic influenza virus strain. We have thus established a library of influenza viruses of all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes and their genes. In this article, we examine the applicability of a rapid production model for the preparation of vaccines against emerging pandemic influenza viruses. This procedure utilizes the influenza virus library, cell culture-based vaccine production, and intranasal administration to induce a cross-protective immune response. First, an influenza virus reassortant from the library, A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (H5N1), was passaged 22 times (P22) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The P22 virus had a titer of >2 ×108 PFU/ml, which was 40 times that of the original strain, with 4 point mutations, which altered amino acids in the deduced protein sequences encoded by the PB2 and PA genes. We then produced a formalin-inactivated whole-virion vaccine from the MDCK cell-cultured A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (H5N1) P22 virus. Intranasal immunization of mice with this vaccine protected them against challenges with lethal influenza viruses of homologous and heterologous subtypes. We further demonstrated that intranasal immunization with the vaccine induced cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses against the homotypic H5N1 influenza virus and its antigenic variants and cross-reactive cell-mediated immune responses to the homologous virus, its variants within a subtype, and even an influenza virus of a different subtype. These results indicate that a rapid model for emergency vaccine production may be effective for producing the next generation of pandemic influenza virus vaccines. PMID:23637045

  13. 40 CFR 121.21 - When Administrator certifies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When Administrator certifies. 121.21 Section 121.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE CERTIFICATION OF ACTIVITIES REQUIRING A FEDERAL LICENSE OR PERMIT Certification by the Administrator § 121.21 When Administrator...

  14. 40 CFR 108.4 - Investigation by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator. 108.4 Section 108.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.4 Investigation by Regional Administrator. Upon receipt of any request meeting the requirements of § 108.3, the Regional Administrator shall conduct a full...

  15. 40 CFR 108.4 - Investigation by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Administrator. 108.4 Section 108.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.4 Investigation by Regional Administrator. Upon receipt of any request meeting the requirements of § 108.3, the Regional Administrator shall conduct a full...

  16. 40 CFR 108.4 - Investigation by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administrator. 108.4 Section 108.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.4 Investigation by Regional Administrator. Upon receipt of any request meeting the requirements of § 108.3, the Regional Administrator shall conduct a full...

  17. The Effects of L-arginine on the Hippocampus of Male Rat Fetuses under Maternal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Reza; Enant, Elham; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Rad, Parastou; Roozbehi, Amrollah; Jafari Barmak, Mehrzad; Azizi, Arsalan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prenatal stress has deleterious effects on the development of the brain and is associated with behavioral and psychosocial problems in childhood and adulthood. This study aimed to determine the protective effect of L-arginine on fetal brain under maternal stress. Methods: Twenty pregnant Wistar rats (weighting 200–230 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=5 for each group). The first nonstress and stress groups received 2 mL of normal saline and the other nonstress and stress two groups received L-arginine (200 mg/kg, IP) from their 5th to 20th days of pregnancy. The pregnant rats were killed on 20th day and the brain fetuses removed and prefrontal cortical thickness, total neurons in the prefrontal cortex and in the areas of CA1, CA2, and CA3 of the hippocampus were measured and counted. Nitrite levels in the brain were measured as an indicator for nitric oxide (NO) level. Results: There was a significant decrease of mean number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 in prenatal stress group compared to nonstress and nonstress plus arginine groups. The NO level in brain tissue increased significantly in the stress plus arginine (3.8±0.4 nmol/mg) and in nonstress rats (2.9±0.3 nmol/mg) compared to the stress group (1.8±0.1 nmol/mg). Prefrontal cortical thickness decreased significantly in stress rats (1.2±0.09 mm) compared to the nonstress plus arginine (1.7±0.15 mm) and nonstress (1.6±0.13 mm) groups. Discussion: Results indicated that prenatal stress could lead to neurodegeneration of hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of rat fetuses. L-arginine as a precursor of NO synthesis had neuroprotective effect during prenatal stress and could be used an effective treatment for stress. PMID:27303594

  18. Vigabatrin and carbamazepine have different efficacies in the prevention of status epilepticus induced neuronal damage in the hippocampus and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, A; Tuunanen, J; Halonen, T

    1996-05-01

    The present study compares the efficacy of carbamazepine (20 mg/kg/day) and vigabatrin (250 mg/kg/day) in preventing hippocampal and amygdaloid damage in the perforant pathway stimulation model of status epilepticus in the rat. One group of rats received a combination of the drugs. Drug treatments were started one week before the stimulation and continued for two weeks thereafter. Gallyas silver impregnation and somatostatin immunohistochemistry were used to detect neuronal damage. All drug treatments were equally effective in decreasing the number and severity of seizures during electrical stimulation. In the vigabatrin group, the damage to the hilar somatostatin-immunoreactive (SOM-ir) neurons and hippocampal CA3c pyramidal cells was less severe than in the vehicle (SOM-ir, P < 0.01; CA3c, P < 0.05) and carbamazepine (SOM-ir, P < 0.01; CA3c, P < 0.05) groups. In the carbamazepine and combination groups, the severity of neuronal damage in the hippocampus did not differ from that in vehicle-treated animals. The amygdaloid neurons were not protected by any of the treatments. Our results show that even though vigabatrin and carbamazepine treatments had similar anticonvulsant efficacy during the perforant pathway stimulation, only vigabatrin but not carbamazepine decreased seizure-induced neuronal damage. Vigabatrin decreased neuronal damage in the hippocampus but not in the amygdala. These results demonstrate that different brain regions and neuronal networks may be protected unequally by different anticonvulsants. PMID:8800633

  19. Effect of ethanol on the development and maturation of synapses in the rat hippocampus: A quantitative electron-microscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Kuge, Takashi; Asayama, Tohru; Kakuta, Sachiko; Murakami, Kunio; Ishikawa, Yohichi; Kuroda, Masaru; Imai, Tsunehiko; Seki, Kumiko; Omoto, Miyako; Kishi, Kiyoshi )

    1993-07-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol administration on the development and maturation of synapses in the strata radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare of CA1 in the hippocampus were quantitatively examined in rates exposed to ethanol for the entire period of fetal life as well as the whole period of postnatal life. Synapse densities in the strata radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare of the ethanol-treated group were significantly lower than those of the control group at 2, 14, 21, and 70 days of age. However, the rates of density reduction did not change between either of the strata that receive different groups of afferent fibers. The ratio of axospinous to axoshaftic synapses also did not change between control and ethanol-treated groups. These data suggest that chronic administration of ethanol reduces the density of synapses in this area and that this effect is not specific to neither the type of afferent fibers nor the type of synapses. 35 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Activation of matrix metalloproteinase in dorsal hippocampus drives improvement in spatial working memory after intra-VTA nicotine infusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hui; Zheng, Guo-qing; Wang, Xiaona; Sun, Yanyun; Liu, Yushan; Weaver, John Michael; Shen, Xianzhi; Liu, Wenlan; Jin, Xinchun

    2015-10-01

    The hippocampus receives dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra. These inputs appear to provide a modulatory signal that influences hippocampus-dependent behaviors. Enhancements in working memory performance have been previously reported following acute smoking/nicotine exposure. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of nicotine on spatial working memory (SWM) and the mechanisms involved. Delayed alternation T-maze task was used to assess SWM. In situ and gel gelatin zymography were used to detect matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in SWM. Systemic or local (intra-VTA) administration of nicotine significantly improves SWM, which was accompanied by increased MMP-9 activity in dorsal hippocampus (dHPC). Intra-dHPC administration of MMP inhibitor FN-439 abolished the memory enhancement induced by intra-VTA nicotine infusion. FN-439 had no effect on locomotor behavior. Our data suggest that intra-VTA nicotine infusion activates MMP-9 in dHPC to improve SWM in rats. PMID:26263395

  1. Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization decreases the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Eduardo; Galeano, Pablo; Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco J; Rivera, Patricia; Serrano, Antonia; Alen, Francisco; Rubio, Leticia; Vargas, Antonio; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Decara, Juan; Bilbao, Ainhoa; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Suárez, Juan

    2016-03-01

    In the reward mesocorticolimbic circuits, the glutamatergic and endocannabinoid systems are implicated in neurobiological mechanisms underlying cocaine addiction. However, the involvement of both systems in the hippocampus, a critical region to process relational information relevant for encoding drug-associated memories, in cocaine-related behaviors remains unknown. In the present work, we studied whether the hippocampal gene/protein expression of relevant glutamate signaling components, including glutamate-synthesizing enzymes and metabotropic and ionotropic receptors, and the hippocampal gene/protein expression of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes were altered following acute and/or repeated cocaine administration resulting in conditioned locomotion and locomotor sensitization. Results showed that acute cocaine administration induced an overall down-regulation of glutamate-related gene expression and, specifically, a low phosphorylation level of GluA1. In contrast, locomotor sensitization to cocaine produced an up-regulation of several glutamate receptor-related genes and, specifically, an increased protein expression of the GluN1 receptor subunit. Regarding the endocannabinoid system, acute and repeated cocaine administration were associated with an increased gene/protein expression of CB1 receptors and a decreased gene/protein expression of the endocannabinoid-synthesis enzymes N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine D (NAPE-PLD) and diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα). These changes resulted in an overall decrease in endocannabinoid synthesis/degradation ratios, especially NAPE-PLD/fatty acid amide hydrolase and DAGLα/monoacylglycerol lipase, suggesting a reduced endocannabinoid production associated with a compensatory up-regulation of CB1 receptor. Overall, these findings suggest that repeated cocaine administration resulting in locomotor sensitization induces a down-regulation of the endocannabinoid signaling that could

  2. Regulation of hippocampus-dependent memory by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Ted; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus is crucial for the consolidation of new declarative long-term memories. Genetic and behavioral experimentation have revealed that several protein kinases are critical for the formation of hippocampus-dependent long-term memories. Cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) is a serine–threonine kinase that has been strongly implicated in the expression of specific forms of hippocampus-dependent memory. We review evidence that PKA is required for hippocampus-dependent memory in mammals, and we highlight some of the proteins that have been implicated as targets of PKA. Future directions and open questions regarding the role of PKA in memory storage are also described. PMID:18394470

  3. Over the river, through the woods: cognitive maps in the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wikenheiser, Andrew M; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2016-08-01

    The hippocampus and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) both have important roles in cognitive processes such as learning, memory and decision making. Nevertheless, research on the OFC and hippocampus has proceeded largely independently, and little consideration has been given to the importance of interactions between these structures. Here, evidence is reviewed that the hippocampus and OFC encode parallel, but interactive, cognitive 'maps' that capture complex relationships between cues, actions, outcomes and other features of the environment. A better understanding of the interactions between the OFC and hippocampus is important for understanding the neural bases of flexible, goal-directed decision making. PMID:27256552

  4. MDMA administration decreases serotonin but not N-acetylaspartate in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, Shane A.; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Michaels, Mark S.; Hyde, Elisabeth M.; Kuhn, Donald M.; Galloway, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    In animals, repeated administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) reduces markers of serotonergic activity and studies show similar serotonergic deficits in human MDMA users. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 11.7 Tesla, we measured the metabolic neurochemical profile in intact, discrete tissue punches taken from prefrontal cortex, anterior striatum, and hippocampus of rats administered MDMA (5 mg/kg IP, 4× q 2 h) or saline and euthanized 7 days after the last injection. Monoamine content was measured with HPLC in contralateral punches from striatum and hippocampus to compare the MDMA-induced loss of 5HT innervation with constituents in the 1H-MRS profile. When assessed 7 days after the last MDMA injection, levels of hippocampal and striatal serotonin (5HT) were significantly reduced, consistent with published animal studies. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were significantly increased in prefrontal cortex and not affected in anterior striatum or hippocampus; myo-inositol (INS) levels were increased in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus but not anterior striatum. Glutamate levels were increased in prefrontal cortex and decreased in hippocampus, while GABA levels were decreased only in hippocampus. The data suggest that NAA may not reliably reflect MDMA-induced 5HT neurotoxicity. However, the collective pattern of changes in 5HT, INS, glutamate and GABA is consistent with persistent hippocampal neuroadaptations caused by MDMA. PMID:20800616

  5. 40 CFR 108.4 - Investigation by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Investigation by Regional Administrator. 108.4 Section 108.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.4 Investigation by Regional Administrator. Upon receipt of...

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury Upregulates Phosphodiesterase Expression in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nicole M.; Titus, David J.; Oliva, Anthony A.; Furones, Concepcion; Atkins, Coleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in significant impairments in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. A molecule critically involved in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, is downregulated in the hippocampus after TBI, but the mechanism that underlies this decrease is unknown. To address this question, we determined whether phosphodiesterase (PDE) expression in the hippocampus is altered by TBI. Young adult male Sprague Dawley rats received sham surgery or moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury. Animals were analyzed by western blotting for changes in PDE expression levels in the hippocampus. We found that PDE1A levels were significantly increased at 30 min, 1 h and 6 h after TBI. PDE4B2 and 4D2 were also significantly increased at 1, 6, and 24 h after TBI. Additionally, phosphorylation of PDE4A was significantly increased at 6 and 24 h after TBI. No significant changes were observed in levels of PDE1B, 1C, 3A, 8A, or 8B between 30 min to 7 days after TBI. To determine the spatial profile of these increases, we used immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry at 24 h after TBI. PDE1A and phospho-PDE4A localized to neuronal cell bodies. PDE4B2 was expressed in neuronal dendrites, microglia and infiltrating CD11b+ immune cells. PDE4D was predominantly found in microglia and infiltrating CD11b+ immune cells. To determine if inhibition of PDE4 would improve hippocampal synaptic plasticity deficits after TBI, we treated hippocampal slices with rolipram, a pan-PDE4 inhibitor. Rolipram partially rescued the depression in basal synaptic transmission and converted a decaying form of long-term potentiation (LTP) into long-lasting LTP. Overall, these results identify several possible PDE targets for reducing hippocampal synaptic plasticity deficits and improving cognitive function acutely after TBI. PMID:26903822

  7. Navigating the auditory scene: an expert role for the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Stewart, Lauren; Lyness, C Rebecca; Moore, Brian C J; Capleton, Brian; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-08-29

    Over a typical career piano tuners spend tens of thousands of hours exploring a specialized acoustic environment. Tuning requires accurate perception and adjustment of beats in two-note chords that serve as a navigational device to move between points in previously learned acoustic scenes. It is a two-stage process that depends on the following: first, selective listening to beats within frequency windows, and, second, the subsequent use of those beats to navigate through a complex soundscape. The neuroanatomical substrates underlying brain specialization for such fundamental organization of sound scenes are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that professional piano tuners are significantly better than controls matched for age and musical ability on a psychophysical task simulating active listening to beats within frequency windows that is based on amplitude modulation rate discrimination. Tuners show a categorical increase in gray matter volume in the right frontal operculum and right superior temporal lobe. Tuners also show a striking enhancement of gray matter volume in the anterior hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, and an increase in white matter volume in the posterior hippocampus as a function of years of tuning experience. The relationship with gray matter volume is sensitive to years of tuning experience and starting age but not actual age or level of musicality. Our findings support a role for a core set of regions in the hippocampus and superior temporal cortex in skilled exploration of complex sound scenes in which precise sound "templates" are encoded and consolidated into memory over time in an experience-dependent manner. PMID:22933806

  8. Intracranial EEG correlates of implicit relational inference within the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Reber, T P; Do Lam, A T A; Axmacher, N; Elger, C E; Helmstaedter, C; Henke, K; Fell, J

    2016-01-01

    Drawing inferences from past experiences enables adaptive behavior in future situations. Inference has been shown to depend on hippocampal processes. Usually, inference is considered a deliberate and effortful mental act which happens during retrieval, and requires the focus of our awareness. Recent fMRI studies hint at the possibility that some forms of hippocampus-dependent inference can also occur during encoding and possibly also outside of awareness. Here, we sought to further explore the feasibility of hippocampal implicit inference, and specifically address the temporal evolution of implicit inference using intracranial EEG. Presurgical epilepsy patients with hippocampal depth electrodes viewed a sequence of word pairs, and judged the semantic fit between two words in each pair. Some of the word pairs entailed a common word (e.g., "winter-red," "red-cat") such that an indirect relation was established in following word pairs (e.g., "winter-cat"). The behavioral results suggested that drawing inference implicitly from past experience is feasible because indirect relations seemed to foster "fit" judgments while the absence of indirect relations fostered "do not fit" judgments, even though the participants were unaware of the indirect relations. A event-related potential (ERP) difference emerging 400 ms post-stimulus was evident in the hippocampus during encoding, suggesting that indirect relations were already established automatically during encoding of the overlapping word pairs. Further ERP differences emerged later post-stimulus (1,500 ms), were modulated by the participants' responses and were evident during encoding and test. Furthermore, response-locked ERP effects were evident at test. These ERP effects could hence be a correlate of the interaction of implicit memory with decision-making. Together, the data map out a time-course in which the hippocampus automatically integrates memories from discrete but related episodes to implicitly influence future

  9. Intrinsic Cholinergic Neurons in the Hippocampus: Fact or Artifact?

    PubMed Central

    Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Rinnofner, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) is synthesized and released exclusively from the terminals of the long-axon afferents whose cell bodies reside in the medial septum and diagonal band. The search for intrinsic cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus has a long history; however evidence for the existence of these neurons has been inconsistent, with most investigators failing to detect them using in situ hybridization or immunohistochemical staining of the cholinergic markers, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Advances in the use of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice expressing a reporter protein under the control of the genomic elements of the Chat gene (Chat-BAC mice) have facilitated studies of cholinergic neurons. Such mice show robust and faithful expression of the reporter proteins in all known cholinergic cell populations. The availability of the Chat-BAC mice re-ignited interest in hippocampal cholinergic interneurons, because a small number of such reporter-expressing cells is frequently observed in the hippocampus of these mice. However, to date, attempts to confirm that these neurons co-express the endogenous cholinergic marker ChAT, or release ACh, have been unsuccessful. Without such confirmatory evidence it is best to conclude that there are no cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus. Similar considerations apply to other BAC transgenic lines, whose utility as a discovery tool for cell populations heretofore not known to express the genes of interest encoded by the BACs, must be validated by methods that detect expression of the endogenous genes. PMID:27014052

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury Upregulates Phosphodiesterase Expression in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicole M; Titus, David J; Oliva, Anthony A; Furones, Concepcion; Atkins, Coleen M

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in significant impairments in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. A molecule critically involved in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, is downregulated in the hippocampus after TBI, but the mechanism that underlies this decrease is unknown. To address this question, we determined whether phosphodiesterase (PDE) expression in the hippocampus is altered by TBI. Young adult male Sprague Dawley rats received sham surgery or moderate parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury. Animals were analyzed by western blotting for changes in PDE expression levels in the hippocampus. We found that PDE1A levels were significantly increased at 30 min, 1 h and 6 h after TBI. PDE4B2 and 4D2 were also significantly increased at 1, 6, and 24 h after TBI. Additionally, phosphorylation of PDE4A was significantly increased at 6 and 24 h after TBI. No significant changes were observed in levels of PDE1B, 1C, 3A, 8A, or 8B between 30 min to 7 days after TBI. To determine the spatial profile of these increases, we used immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry at 24 h after TBI. PDE1A and phospho-PDE4A localized to neuronal cell bodies. PDE4B2 was expressed in neuronal dendrites, microglia and infiltrating CD11b(+) immune cells. PDE4D was predominantly found in microglia and infiltrating CD11b(+) immune cells. To determine if inhibition of PDE4 would improve hippocampal synaptic plasticity deficits after TBI, we treated hippocampal slices with rolipram, a pan-PDE4 inhibitor. Rolipram partially rescued the depression in basal synaptic transmission and converted a decaying form of long-term potentiation (LTP) into long-lasting LTP. Overall, these results identify several possible PDE targets for reducing hippocampal synaptic plasticity deficits and improving cognitive function acutely after TBI. PMID:26903822

  11. Conscious Experience and Episodic Memory: Hippocampus at the Crossroads

    PubMed Central

    Behrendt, Ralf-Peter

    2013-01-01

    If an instance of conscious experience of the seemingly objective world around us could be regarded as a newly formed event memory, much as an instance of mental imagery has the content of a retrieved event memory, and if, therefore, the stream of conscious experience could be seen as evidence for ongoing formation of event memories that are linked into episodic memory sequences, then unitary conscious experience could be defined as a symbolic representation of the pattern of hippocampal neuronal firing that encodes an event memory – a theoretical stance that may shed light into the mind-body and binding problems in consciousness research. Exceedingly detailed symbols that describe patterns of activity rapidly self-organizing, at each cycle of the θ rhythm, in the hippocampus are instances of unitary conscious experience that jointly constitute the stream of consciousness. Integrating object information (derived from the ventral visual stream and orbitofrontal cortex) with contextual emotional information (from the anterior insula) and spatial environmental information (from the dorsal visual stream), the hippocampus rapidly forms event codes that have the informational content of objects embedded in an emotional and spatiotemporally extending context. Event codes, formed in the CA3-dentate network for the purpose of their memorization, are not only contextualized but also allocentric representations, similarly to conscious experiences of events and objects situated in a seemingly objective and observer-independent framework of phenomenal space and time. Conscious perception, creating the spatially and temporally extending world that we perceive around us, is likely to be evolutionarily related to more fleeting and seemingly internal forms of conscious experience, such as autobiographical memory recall, mental imagery, including goal anticipation, and to other forms of externalized conscious experience, namely dreaming and hallucinations; and evidence pointing

  12. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  13. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  14. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  15. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 112 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency A Appendix A to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 112 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency A Appendix A to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 112 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency A Appendix A to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 112 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency A Appendix A to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL... Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency section...

  20. Involvement of AMPA/kainate and GABAA receptors in topiramate neuroprotective effects against methylphenidate abuse sequels involving oxidative stress and inflammation in rat isolated hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh

    2016-08-01

    Abuses of methylphenidate (MPH) as psychostimulant cause neural damage of brain cells. Neuroprotective properties of topiramate (TPM) have been indicated in several studies but its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. The current study evaluates protective role of various doses of TPM and its mechanism of action in MPH induced oxidative stress and inflammation. The neuroprotective effects of various doses of TPM against MPH induced oxidative stress and inflammation were evaluated and then the action of TPM was studied in presence of domoic acid (DOM), as AMPA/kainate receptor agonist and bicuculline (BIC) as GABAA receptor antagonist, in isolated rat hippocampus. Open Field Test (OFT) was used to investigate motor activity changes. Oxidative, antioxidant and inflammatory factors were measured in isolated hippocampus. TPM (70 and 100mg/kg) decreased MPH induced motor activity disturbances and inhibit MPH induced oxidative stress and inflammation. On the other hand pretreatment of animals with DOM or BIC, inhibit this effect of TPM and potentiate MPH induced motor activity disturbances and increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG) level, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in isolated hippocampal cells and decreased reduced form of glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity. It seems that TPM can protect cells of hippocampus from oxidative stress and neuroinflammation and it could be partly by activation of GABAA receptor and inhibition of AMPA/kainite receptor. PMID:27105819

  1. Enhance, delete, incept: Manipulating hippocampus-dependent memories☆

    PubMed Central

    Spiers, Hugo J.; Bendor, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Here we provide a brief overview of recent research on memory manipulation. We focus primarily on memories for which the hippocampus is thought to be required due to its central importance in the study of memory. The repertoire of methods employed is expanding and includes optogenetics, transcranial stimulation, deep brain stimulation, cued reactivation during sleep and the use of pharmacological agents. In addition, the possible mechanisms underlying these memory changes have been investigated using techniques such as single unit recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Memory enhancement’. PMID:24397964

  2. Enhance, delete, incept: manipulating hippocampus-dependent memories.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Hugo J; Bendor, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Here we provide a brief overview of recent research on memory manipulation. We focus primarily on memories for which the hippocampus is thought to be required due to its central importance in the study of memory. The repertoire of methods employed is expanding and includes optogenetics, transcranial stimulation, deep brain stimulation, cued reactivation during sleep and the use of pharmacological agents. In addition, the possible mechanisms underlying these memory changes have been investigated using techniques such as single unit recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Memory enhancement'. PMID:24397964

  3. The hippocampus and exploration: dynamically evolving behavior and neural representations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Adam; Varberg, Zachary; Benhardus, James; Maahs, Anthony; Schrater, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We develop a normative statistical approach to exploratory behavior called information foraging. Information foraging highlights the specific processes that contribute to active, rather than passive, exploration and learning. We hypothesize that the hippocampus plays a critical role in active exploration through directed information foraging by supporting a set of processes that allow an individual to determine where to sample. By examining these processes, we show how information directed information foraging provides a formal theoretical explanation for the common hippocampal substrates of constructive memory, vicarious trial and error behavior, schema-based facilitation of memory performance, and memory consolidation. PMID:22848196

  4. The stressed hippocampus, synaptic plasticity and lost memories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeansok J; Diamond, David M

    2002-06-01

    Stress is a biologically significant factor that, by altering brain cell properties, can disturb cognitive processes such as learning and memory, and consequently limit the quality of human life. Extensive rodent and human research has shown that the hippocampus is not only crucially involved in memory formation, but is also highly sensitive to stress. So, the study of stress-induced cognitive and neurobiological sequelae in animal models might provide valuable insight into the mnemonic mechanisms that are vulnerable to stress. Here, we provide an overview of the neurobiology of stress memory interactions, and present a neural endocrine model to explain how stress modifies hippocampal functioning. PMID:12042880

  5. Enriched environment induces beneficial effects on memory deficits and microglial activation in the hippocampus of type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Francele Valente; Segabinazi, Ethiane; Centenaro, Lígia Aline; do Nascimento, Patrícia Severo; Achaval, Matilde; Marcuzzo, Simone

    2014-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been associated with long-term complications in the central nervous system, causing brain cellular dysfunctions and cognitive deficits. On the other hand, enriched environment (EE) induces experience-dependent plasticity, especially in the hippocampus, improving the performance of animals in learning and memory tasks. Thus, our objective was to investigate the influence of the EE on memory deficits, locomotion, corticosterone levels, synaptophysin (SYP) protein immunoreactivity, cell survival and microglial activation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of T1DM rat hippocampus. Male Wistar rats (21-day-old) were exposed to EE or maintained in standard housing (controls, C) for 3 months. At adulthood, the C and EE animals were randomly divided and diabetes was induced in half of them. All the animals received 4 doses of BrdU, 24 h apart. Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, general locomotion and serum corticosterone levels were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The animals were transcardially perfused 30 days post-BrdU administration. Our results showed that EE was able to prevent/delay the development of memory deficits caused by diabetes in rats, however it did not revert the motor impairment observed in the diabetic group. SYP immunoreactivity was increased in the enriched healthy group. The EE decreased the serum corticosterone levels in diabetic adult rats and attenuated the injurious microglial activation, though without altering the decrease of the survival cell. Thus, EE was shown to help to ameliorate cognitive comorbidities associated with T1DM, possibly by reducing hyperactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and microglial activation in diabetic animals. PMID:24318482

  6. Post-seizure α-tocopherol treatment decreases neuroinflammation and neuronal degeneration induced by status epilepticus in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ambrogini, Patrizia; Minelli, Andrea; Galati, Claudia; Betti, Michele; Lattanzi, Davide; Ciffolilli, Silvia; Piroddi, Marta; Galli, Francesco; Cuppini, Riccardo

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin E (as α-tocopherol, α-T) was shown to have beneficial effects in epilepsy, mainly ascribed to its antioxidant properties. Besides radical-induced neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation is also involved in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, since neuroglial activation and cytokine production exacerbate seizure-induced neurotoxicity and contribute to epileptogenesis. We previously showed that α-T oral supplementation before inducing status epilepticus, markedly reduces astrocytic and microglial activation, neuronal cell death and oxidative stress in the hippocampus, as observed 4 days after seizure. In order to evaluate the possibility that such a neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effect may also provide a strategy for an acute intervention in epilepsy, in this study, seizures were induced by single intaperitoneal injection of kainic acid and, starting from 3 h after status epilepticus, rats were treated with an intraperitoneal bolus of α-T (250 mg/kg b.w.; once a day) for 4 days, that was the time after which morphological and biochemical analyses were performed on hippocampus. Post-seizure α-T administration significantly reduced astrocytosis and microglia activation, and decreased neuron degeneration and spine loss; these effects were associated with the presence of a lowered lipid peroxidation in hippocampus. These results confirm and further emphasize the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective role of α-T in kainic acid-induced epilepsy. Moreover, the findings show that post-seizure treatment with α-T provides an effective secondary prevention against post-seizure inflammation-induced brain damages and possibly against their epileptogenic effects. PMID:24488645

  7. Dose Response Effects of Dermally applied Diethanolamine on Neurogenesis in Fetal Mouse Hippocampus and Potential Exposure of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Craciunescu, Corneliu N.; Niculescu, Mihai D.; Guo, Zhong; Johnson, Amy R.; Fischer, Leslie; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    Diethanolamine (DEA) is a common ingredient of personal care products. Dermal administration of DEA diminishes hepatic stores of the essential nutrient choline and alters brain development. We previously reported that 80 mg/kg/day of DEA during pregnancy in mice reduced neurogenesis and increased apoptosis in the fetal hippocampus. This study was designed to establish the dose-response relationships for this effect of DEA. Timed-pregnant C57BL/6 mouse dams were dosed dermally from gestation day 7–17 with DEA at 0 (controls), 5, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg body/day. Fetuses (embryonic day 17 [E17]) from dams treated dermally with 80 mg/kg body/day DEA had decreased neural progenitor cell mitosis at the ventricular surface of the ventricular zone (hippocampus, 54.1 ± 5.5%; cortex, 58.9 ± 6.8%; compared to controls; p < 0.01). Also, this dose of DEA to dams increased rates of apoptosis in E17 fetal hippocampus (to 177.2 ± 21.5% of control; measured using activated caspase-3; p < 0.01). This dose of DEA resulted in accumulation of DEA and its metabolites in liver and in plasma. At doses of DEA less than 80 mg/kg body/day to dams, there were no differences between treated and control groups. In a small group of human subjects, dermal treatment for 1 month with a commercially available skin lotion containing 1.8 mg DEA per gram resulted in detectable plasma concentrations of DEA and dimethyldiethanolamine, but these were far below those concentrations associated with perturbed brain development in the mouse. PMID:18948303

  8. Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced inhibition of neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Singhakumar, Rachen; Boontem, Parichart; Ekthuwapranee, Kasima; Sotthibundhu, Areechun; Mukda, Sujira; Chetsawang, Banthit; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2015-10-01

    Methamphetamine (METH), a highly addictive psychostimulant drug, is known to exert neurotoxic effects to the dopaminergic neural system. Long-term METH administration impairs brain functions such as cognition, learning and memory. Newly born neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus play an important role in spatial learning and memory. Previous in vitro studies have shown that METH inhibits cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. On the other hand, melatonin, a major indole secreted by the pineal gland, enhances neurogenesis in both the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus. In this study, adult C57BL/6 mice were used to study the beneficial effects of melatonin on METH-induced alterations in neurogenesis and post-synaptic proteins related to learning and memory functions in the hippocampus. The results showed that METH caused a decrease in neuronal phenotypes as determined by the expressions of nestin, doublecortin (DCX) and beta-III tubulin while causing an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Moreover, METH inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling activity and altered expression of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B as well as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). These effects could be attenuated by melatonin pretreatment. In conclusion, melatonin prevented the METH-induced reduction in neurogenesis, increase in astrogliogenesis and alteration of NMDA receptor subunit expression. These findings may indicate the beneficial effects of melatonin on the impairment of learning and memory caused by METH. PMID:26366944

  9. Newly generated neurons at 2 months post-status epilepticus are functionally integrated into neuronal circuitry in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming; Zhu, Kun; Chen, Xin-Lin; Zhang, Yao-Jie; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Xiao, Xin-Li; Liu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Emerging evidence has linked chronic temporal lobe epilepsy to dramatically reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. However, the profile of different components of neurogenesis in the chronically epileptic hippocampus is still unclear, especially the incorporation of newly generated cells. To address the issue, newly generated cells in the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus were labeled by the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) or retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. The newly generated neurons that extended axons to CA3 area or integrated into memory circuits were visualized by cholera toxin B subunit retrograde tracing, and detecting activation of BrdU(+) cells following a recall of spatial memory test at the chronic stage of TLE. We found that the microenvironment was still able to sustain significant neuronal differentiation of newly generated cells at 2 months post-status epilepticus time-point, and newly added neurons into granular cell layer were still able to integrate into neuronal circuitry, both anatomically and functionally. Quantified analyses of BrdU(+) or Ki-67(+) cells demonstrated that there was a reduced proliferation of progenitor cells and diminished survival of newly generated cells in the epileptic hippocampus. Both decreased levels of neurotrophic factors in the surrounding milieu and cell loss in the CA3 area might contribute the decreased production of new cells and their survival following chronic epilepsy. These results suggest that decreased neurogenesis in the chronically epileptic hippocampus 2 months post status epilepticus is not associated with altered integration of newly generated neurons, and that developing strategies to augment hippocampal neurogenesis in chronic epilepsy might be protective. PMID:26384773

  10. 5 CFR 1215.28 - Administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1215.28 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.28 Administrative offset. (a) The MSPB may collect debts owed by administrative offset if: (1) The debt is certain in amount; (2) Efforts to obtain direct payment have been,...

  11. 40 CFR 13.36 - Administrative charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative charges. 13.36 Section... Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 13.36 Administrative charges. In accordance with § 13.11, all administrative charges incurred in connection with the referral of a debt to the IRS shall...

  12. 40 CFR 13.36 - Administrative charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative charges. 13.36 Section... Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 13.36 Administrative charges. In accordance with § 13.11, all administrative charges incurred in connection with the referral of a debt to the IRS shall...

  13. Donor/recipient enhancement of memory in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Sweatt, Andrew J.; Song, Dong; Chan, Rosa H. M.; Opris, Ioan; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Hampson, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The critical role of the mammalian hippocampus in the formation, translation and retrieval of memory has been documented over many decades. There are many theories of how the hippocampus operates to encode events and a precise mechanism was recently identified in rats performing a short-term memory task which demonstrated that successful information encoding was promoted via specific patterns of activity generated within ensembles of hippocampal neurons. In the study presented here, these “representations” were extracted via a customized non-linear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) mathematical model which allowed prediction of successful performance on specific trials within the testing session. A unique feature of this characterization was demonstrated when successful information encoding patterns were derived online from well-trained “donor” animals during difficult long-delay trials and delivered via online electrical stimulation to synchronously tested naïve “recipient” animals never before exposed to the delay feature of the task. By transferring such model-derived trained (donor) animal hippocampal firing patterns via stimulation to coupled naïve recipient animals, their task performance was facilitated in a direct “donor-recipient” manner. This provides the basis for utilizing extracted appropriate neural information from one brain to induce, recover, or enhance memory related processing in the brain of another subject. PMID:24421759

  14. Supervised segmentation methods for the hippocampus in MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Stralen, Marijn; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Vincken, Koen L.; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2011-03-01

    This study compares three different types of fully automated supervised methods for segmentation of the hippocampus in MR images. Many of such methods, trained using example data, have been presented for various medical imaging applications, but comparison of the methods is obscured because of optimization for, and evaluation on, different data. We compare three methods based on different methodological bases: atlas-based segmentation (ABS), active appearance model segmentation (AAM) and k-nearest neighbor voxel classification (KNN). All three methods are trained on 100 T1-weighted images with manual segmentations of the right hippocampus, and applied to 103 different images from the same study. Straightforward implementation of each of the three methods resulted in competitive segmentations, both mutually, as compared with methods currently reported in literature. AAM and KNN are favorable in terms of computational costs, requiring only a fraction of the time needed for ABS. The high accuracy and low computational cost make KNN the most favorable method based on this study. AAM achieves similar results as ABS in significantly less computation time. Further improvements might be achieved by fusion of the presented techniques, either methodologically or by direct fusion of the segmentation results.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Rat Hippocampus under Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Li, Yujuan; Zhang, Yongqian; Liu, Yahui; Deng, Yulin

    It has been found that microgravity may lead to impairments in cognitive functions performed by CNS. However, the exact mechanism of effects of microgravity on the learning and memory function in animal nervous system is not elucidated yet. Brain function is mainly mediated by membrane proteins and their dysfunction causes degeneration of the learning and memory. To induce simulated microgravity, the rat tail suspension model was established. Comparative O (18) labeling quantitative proteomic strategy was applied to detect the differentially expressed proteins in rat brain hippocampus. The proteins in membrane fraction from rat hippocampus were digested by trypsin and then the peptides were separated by off-gel for the first dimension with 24 wells device encompassing the pH range of 3 - 10. An off-gel fraction was subjected into LC-ESI-QTOF in triplicate. Preliminary results showed that nearly 77% of the peptides identified were specific to one fraction. 676 proteins were identified among which 108 proteins were found differentially expressed under simulated microgravity. Using the KOBAS server, many enriched pathways, such as metabolic pathway, synaptic vesicle cycle, endocytosis, calcium signaling pathway, and SNAREs pathway were identified. Furthermore, it has been found that neurotransmitter released by Ca (2+) -triggered synaptic vesicles fusion may play key role in neural function. Rab 3A might inhibit the membrane fusion and neurotransmitter release. The protein alteration of the synaptic vesicle cycle may further explain the effects of microgravity on learning and memory function in rats. Key words: Microgravity; proteomics; synaptic vesicle; O (18) ({}) -labeling

  16. Neuromodulatory signaling in hippocampus-dependent memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    Considerable advances have been made toward understanding the molecular signaling events that underlie memory acquisition and consolidation. In contrast, less is known about memory retrieval, despite its necessity for utilizing learned information. This review focuses on neuromodulatory and intracellular signaling events that underlie memory retrieval mediated by the hippocampus, for which the most information is currently available. Among neuromodulators, adrenergic signaling is required for the retrieval of various types of hippocampus-dependent memory. Although they contribute to acquisition and/or consolidation, cholinergic and dopaminergic signaling are generally not required for retrieval. Interestingly, while not required for retrieval, serotonergic and opioid signaling may actually constrain memory retrieval. Roles for histamine and non-opioid neuropeptides are currently unclear but possible. A critical effector of adrenergic signaling in retrieval is reduction of the slow afterhyperpolarization mediated by β1 receptors, cyclic AMP, protein kinase A, Epac, and possibly ERK. In contrast, stress and glucocorticoids impair retrieval by decreasing cyclic AMP, mediated in part by the activation of β2 -adrenergic receptors. Clinically, alterations in neuromodulatory signaling and in memory retrieval occur in Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, and recent evidence has begun to link changes in neuromodulatory signaling with effects on memory retrieval. PMID:25475876

  17. Ethanol Tolerance Affects Endogenous Adenosine Signaling in Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dali; Xiong, Wei; Jackson, Michael F; Parkinson, Fiona E

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol has many pharmacological effects, including increases in endogenous adenosine levels and adenosine receptor activity in brain. Ethanol consumption is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes, but tolerance to the behavioral effects of ethanol can lead to increased consumption, which increases the risk of negative health outcomes. The present study was performed to test whether a 7-day treatment with ethanol is linked to reduced adenosine signaling and whether this is a consequence of reduced ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. Wild-type (CD73(+/+)) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase-deficient (CD73(-/-)) mice were treated with ethanol (2 g/kg) or saline for 7 days. In CD73(+/+) mice, repeated ethanol treatment reduced the hypothermic and ataxic effects of acute ethanol, indicating the development of tolerance to the acute effects of ethanol. In CD73(+/+) mice, this 7-day ethanol treatment led to increased hippocampal synaptic activity and reduced adenosine A1 receptor activity under both basal and low Mg(2+) conditions. These effects of ethanol tolerance were associated with an 18% decrease in activity of ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity in hippocampal cell membranes. In contrast, ethanol treatment was not associated with changes in synaptic activity or adenosine signaling in hippocampus from CD73(-/-) mice. These data indicate that ethanol treatment is associated with a reduction in adenosine signaling through adenosine A1 receptors in hippocampus, mediated, at least in part, via reduced ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. PMID:27189965

  18. Tyrosine depletion lowers in vivo DOPA synthesis in ventral hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Rodolfo; Kyser, Abby N; Jaskiw, George E

    2012-12-01

    In vivo dopamine synthesis in the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat is sensitive to the availability of tyrosine. Whether other limbic cortical dopamine terminal regions are similarly tyrosine-dependent is not known. In this study we examined the effects of tyrosine depletion on dopamine synthesis and catecholamine levels in the ventral hippocampus. A tyrosine- and phenylalanine-free neutral amino acid mixture was used to lower brain tyrosine levels in rats undergoing in vivo microdialysis. In one group, NSD-1015 was included in perfusate to permit measurement of DOPA levels. In a second group, NSD-1015 was not included in perfusate so that catecholamine levels could be assayed. Tyrosine depletion significantly lowered DOPA levels in the NSD-1015 treated group and lowered DOPAC but not dopamine or noradrenaline levels in the group not exposed to NSD-1015. We conclude that while catecholamine synthesis in the ventral hippocampus declines when tyrosine availability is lowered, under basal conditions, compensatory mechanisms are able to maintain stable extracellular catecholamine levels. PMID:23022716

  19. Groupwise shape analysis of the hippocampus using spectral matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Mahsa; Lombaert, Hervé; Lippé, Sarah; Kadoury, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    The hippocampus is a prominent subcortical feature of interest in many neuroscience studies. Its subtle morphological changes often predicate illnesses, including Alzheimer's, schizophrenia or epilepsy. The precise location of structural differences requires a reliable correspondence between shapes across a population. In this paper, we propose an automated method for groupwise hippocampal shape analysis based on a spectral decomposition of a group of shapes to solve the correspondence problem between sets of meshes. The framework generates diffeomorphic correspondence maps across a population, which enables us to create a mean shape. Morphological changes are then located between two groups of subjects. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on a dataset of 42 hippocampus shapes and compared with a state-of-the-art structural shape analysis approach, using spherical harmonics. Difference maps between mean shapes of two test groups demonstrates that the two approaches showed results with insignificant differences, while Gaussian curvature measures calculated between matched vertices showed a better fit and reduced variability with spectral matching.

  20. AMPA receptor regulation during synaptic plasticity in hippocampus and neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hey-Kyoung; Kirkwood, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus of the rabbit hippocampus by Bliss and Lømo opened up a whole new field to study activity-dependent long-term synaptic modifications in the brain. Since then hippocampal synapses have been a key model system to study the mechanisms of different forms of synaptic plasticity. At least for the postsynaptic forms of LTP and long-term depression (LTD), regulation of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) has emerged as a key mechanism. While many of the synaptic plasticity mechanisms uncovered in at the hippocampal synapses apply to synapses across diverse brain regions, there are differences in the mechanisms that often reveal the specific functional requirements of the brain area under study. Here we will review AMPAR regulation underlying synaptic plasticity in hippocampus and neocortex. The main focus of this review will be placed on postsynaptic forms of synaptic plasticity that impinge on the regulation of AMPARs using hippocampal CA1 and primary sensory cortices as examples. And through the comparison, we will highlight the key similarities and functional differences between the two synapses. PMID:21856433

  1. The hippocampus and the flexible use and processing of language

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Melissa C.; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental to all human languages is an unlimited expressive capacity and creative flexibility that allow speakers to rapidly generate novel and complex utterances. In turn, listeners interpret language “on-line,” incrementally integrating multiple sources of information as words unfold over time. A challenge for theories of language processing has been to understand how speakers and listeners generate, gather, integrate, and maintain representations in service of language processing. We propose that many of the processes by which we use language place high demands on and receive contributions from the hippocampal declarative memory system. The hippocampal declarative memory system is long known to support relational binding and representational flexibility. Recent findings demonstrate that these same functions are engaged during the real-time processes that support behavior in-the-moment. Such findings point to the hippocampus as a potentially key contributor to cognitive functions that require on-line integration of multiple sources of information, such as on-line language processing. Evidence supporting this view comes from findings that individuals with hippocampal amnesia show deficits in the use of language flexibly and on-line. We conclude that the relational binding and representational flexibility afforded by the hippocampal declarative memory system positions the hippocampus as a key contributor to language use and processing. PMID:22493573

  2. Cell proliferation is reduced in the hippocampus in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Katherine M; Fung, Samantha J; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The molecular and cellular basis of structural and functional abnormalities of the hippocampus found in schizophrenia is currently unclear. Postnatal neurogenesis contributes to hippocampal function in animal models and is correlated with hippocampal volume in primates. Reduced hippocampal cell proliferation has been previously reported in schizophrenia, which may contribute to hippocampal dysfunction. Method: We measured the cell proliferation marker, Ki67, in post-mortem hippocampal tissue from patients with schizophrenia (n = 10) and matched controls (n = 16). Ki67-labelled cells were counted within the dentate gyrus and hilus on sections taken from the anterior hippocampus. Results: We replicated the finding of a significant reduction in Ki67+ cells/mm2 in schizophrenia cases compared to controls (t24 = 2.1, p = 0.023). In our relatively small sample, we did not find a relationship between Ki67+ cells and age overall, or between Ki67 + cells and duration of illness or antipsychotic treatment in people with schizophrenia. Conclusion: Our results confirm that reduced hippocampal cell proliferation may be present in schizophrenia. Restoring hippocampal neurogenesis may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of hippocampal dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:26113745

  3. Mild cardiopulmonary arrest promotes synaptic dysfunction in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Dave, Kunjan R; Raval, Ami P; Prado, Ricardo; Katz, Laurence M; Sick, Thomas J; Ginsberg, Myron D; Busto, Raul; Pérez-Pinzón, Miguel A

    2004-10-22

    Cardiac arrest (CA) patients exhibit learning and memory disabilities. These deficits suggest that synaptic dysfunction may underlie such disabilities. The hypothesis of the present study was that synaptic dysfunction occurs following CA and that this precedes cell death. To test this hypothesis, we used histopathological and electrophysiological markers in the hippocampus of rats subjected to CA. Evoked potentials (EP) were determined in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices harvested from animals subjected to CA or sham-operated rats by stimulating the Schaffer collaterals and recording in the CA1 pyramidal region. EP amplitudes were significantly attenuated by approximately 60% in hippocampal slices harvested from animals subjected to CA. Hippocampal slices harvested from sham rats exhibited normal long-term potentiation (LTP). In contrast, hippocampal slices harvested 24 h after CA exhibited no LTP response, even when no histopathological abnormalities were observed. These data suggest that synaptic dysfunction occurs before and without overt histopathology. We suggest that the synaptic dysfunction precedes and may be an early marker for delayed neuronal cell death in the hippocampus after CA. PMID:15451369

  4. Stress effects on the hippocampus: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Joo; Pellman, Blake

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrollable stress has been recognized to influence the hippocampus at various levels of analysis. Behaviorally, human and animal studies have found that stress generally impairs various hippocampal-dependent memory tasks. Neurally, animal studies have revealed that stress alters ensuing synaptic plasticity and firing properties of hippocampal neurons. Structurally, human and animal studies have shown that stress changes neuronal morphology, suppresses neuronal proliferation, and reduces hippocampal volume. Since the inception of stress research nearly 80 years ago, much focus has been on the varying levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neuroendocrine hormones, namely glucocorticoids, as mediators of the myriad stress effects on the hippocampus and as contributing factors to stress-associated psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, reports of glucocorticoid-produced alterations in hippocampal functioning vary widely across studies. This review provides a brief history of stress research, examines how the glucocorticoid hypothesis emerged and guides contemporary stress research, and considers alternative approaches to understanding the mechanisms underlying stress effects on hippocampal functioning. PMID:26286651

  5. Boundary and medial shape analysis of the hippocampus in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Styner, Martin; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Gerig, Guido

    2004-09-01

    Statistical shape analysis has become of increasing interest to the neuroimaging community due to its potential to precisely locate morphological changes and thus potentially discriminate between healthy and pathological structures. This paper describes a combined boundary and medial shape analysis based on two different shape descriptions applied to a study of the hippocampus shape abnormalities in schizophrenia. The first shape description is the sampled boundary implied by the spherical harmonic SPHARM description. The second one is the medial shape description called M-rep. Both descriptions are sampled descriptions with inherent point correspondence. Their shape analysis is based on computing differences from an average template structure analyzed using standard group mean difference tests. The results of the global and local shape analysis in the presented hippocampus study exhibit the same patterns for the boundary and the medial analysis. The results strongly suggest that the normalized hippocampal shape of the schizophrenic group is different from the control group, most significantly as a deformation difference in the tail region. PMID:15450215

  6. Ethanol Tolerance Affects Endogenous Adenosine Signaling in Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dali; Xiong, Wei; Jackson, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol has many pharmacological effects, including increases in endogenous adenosine levels and adenosine receptor activity in brain. Ethanol consumption is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes, but tolerance to the behavioral effects of ethanol can lead to increased consumption, which increases the risk of negative health outcomes. The present study was performed to test whether a 7-day treatment with ethanol is linked to reduced adenosine signaling and whether this is a consequence of reduced ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity. Wild-type (CD73+/+) and ecto-5′-nucleotidase-deficient (CD73−/−) mice were treated with ethanol (2 g/kg) or saline for 7 days. In CD73+/+ mice, repeated ethanol treatment reduced the hypothermic and ataxic effects of acute ethanol, indicating the development of tolerance to the acute effects of ethanol. In CD73+/+ mice, this 7-day ethanol treatment led to increased hippocampal synaptic activity and reduced adenosine A1 receptor activity under both basal and low Mg2+ conditions. These effects of ethanol tolerance were associated with an 18% decrease in activity of ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity in hippocampal cell membranes. In contrast, ethanol treatment was not associated with changes in synaptic activity or adenosine signaling in hippocampus from CD73−/− mice. These data indicate that ethanol treatment is associated with a reduction in adenosine signaling through adenosine A1 receptors in hippocampus, mediated, at least in part, via reduced ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity. PMID:27189965

  7. Environmental enrichment modulates 5-hydroxymethylcytosine dynamics in hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Irier, Hasan; Street, R. Craig; Dave, Ronak; Lin, Li; Cai, Catherine; Davis, Timothy Hayden; Yao, Bing; Cheng, Ying; Jin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions mediated at the epigenetic level may provide an initial step in delivering an appropriate response to environmental changes. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a DNA base derived from 5-methylcytosine (5mC), accounts for ~40% of modified cytosine in brain and has been implicated in DNA methylation-related plasticity. To identify the role of 5hmC in gene-environment interactions, we exposed both young (6-week-old) and aged (18-month-old) mice to both an enriched environment and a standard environment. Exposure to EE significantly improves learning and memory in aged mice and reduces 5hmC abundance in mouse hippocampus. Furthermore, we mapped the genome-wide distribution of 5hmC and found that the alteration of 5hmC modification occurred mainly at gene bodies. In particular, genes involved in axon guidance are enriched among the genes with altered 5hmC modification. These results together suggest that environmental enrichment could modulate the dynamics of 5hmC in hippocampus, which could potentially contribute to improved learning and memory in aged animals. PMID:25205305

  8. Distinct contributions of the amygdala and hippocampus to fear expression

    PubMed Central

    Chudasama, Yogita; Izquierdo, Alicia; Murray, Elisabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study attempted to distinguish the independent contributions of the amygdala and hippocampus to fear expression. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with bilateral excitotoxic amygdala lesions (n=4), bilateral excitotoxic hippocampal lesions (n=8), and unoperated controls (n=9) were allowed to reach over a neutral junk object or fear-provoking stimulus (i.e., a rubber snake or a jumping rubber spider) to retrieve a food reward. Monkeys were exposed to each stimulus for 30 seconds. On each trial we recorded the monkey's latency to retrieve the food reward and scored monkeys' whole-body reactions to the object. Confirming previous work we found that, relative to controls, both operated groups showed shorter food-retrieval latencies and exhibited fewer defensive and more approach behaviors when exposed to the fear-provoking stimuli. However, only monkeys with amygdala lesions showed an abnormal, excessive visual interest in the snake and spider. By contrast, monkeys with hippocampal lesions displayed behaviors that were unrelated to the presence of the fear stimuli, thereby indicating a lack of interest in, and emotional reactivity towards, the snake and spider. These data show that the hippocampus and amygdala contribute independently to the overall expression of defensive responses. PMID:20092575

  9. Blockade of intracellular actions of calcium may protect against ischaemic damage to the gerbil brain.

    PubMed Central

    Asano, T.; Ikegaki, I.; Satoh, S.; Mochizuki, D.; Hidaka, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Shibuya, M.; Sugita, K.

    1991-01-01

    1. The brain cytoprotective effects of a putative calcium-associated protein kinase inhibitor, HA1077, as well as a calcium entry blocker nicardipine were evaluated in models of cerebral ischaemia in Mongolian gerbils. Morphological changes characterizing delayed neuronal death of selectively vulnerable CA1 pyramidal neurones in the hippocampus of the Mongolian gerbil brain occurred 7 days after transient bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries. 2. A single injection of HA1077 (1 and 3 mg kg-1, i.p.) 5 min after the occlusion led to a dose-dependent protection of the CA1 neurones. Repeated administrations of HA1077 (1 and 3 mg kg-1, i.p., twice daily for 7 days post-ischaemia) revealed an increase in the number of normal cells, compared to findings with a single administration. 3. In contrast to HA1077, nicardipine (0.3 and 1 mg kg-1, i.p.) did not reduce neuronal degeneration. 4. HA1077 did not interact with the ion channel within which MK-801 binds, as determined by receptor binding. 5. The calcium ionophore, A23187, caused a tonic contraction in canine cerebral arterial strips. HA1077, but not nicardipine, relaxed the A23187-induced contraction, concentration-dependently. 6. These results suggest that blockade of the intracellular actions of calcium may provide protection against ischaemic damage in the brain. Images Figure 1 PMID:1912980

  10. 40 CFR 35.6815 - Administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative requirements. 35.6815 Section 35.6815 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Requirements for...

  11. Ginger improves cognitive function via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation in the hippocampus of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soonmin; Moon, Minho; Oh, Hyein; Kim, Hyo Geun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-10-01

    Ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been used worldwide for many centuries in cooking and for treatment of several diseases. The main pharmacological properties of ginger include anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antiarthritic, antiemetic and neuroprotective actions. Recent studies demonstrated that ginger significantly enhances cognitive function in various cognitive disorders as well as in healthy brain. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying the ginger-mediated enhancement of cognition have not yet been studied in normal or diseased brain. In the present study, we assessed the memory-enhancing effects of dried ginger extract (GE) in a model of scopolamine-induced memory deficits and in normal animals by performing a novel object recognition test. We found that GE administration significantly improved the ability of mice to recognize novel objects, indicating improvements in learning and memory. Furthermore, to elucidate the mechanisms of GE-mediated cognitive enhancement, we focused on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced signaling pathways. NGF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis revealed that GE administration led to elevated NGF levels in both the mouse hippocampus and rat glioma C6 cells. GE administration also resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), as revealed by Western blotting analysis. Neutralization of NGF with a specific NGF antibody inhibited GE-triggered activation of ERK and CREB in the hippocampus. Also, GE treatment significantly increased pre- and postsynaptic markers, synaptophysin and PSD-95, which are related to synapse formation in the brain. These data suggest that GE has a synaptogenic effect via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation, resulting in memory enhancement. PMID:25049196

  12. Acetylcholine Release in the Hippocampus and Striatum during Place and Response Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pych, Jason C.; Chang, Qing; Colon-Rivera, Cynthia; Haag, Renee; Gold, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    These experiments examined the release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus and striatum when rats were trained, within single sessions, on place or response versions of food-rewarded mazes. Microdialysis samples of extra-cellular fluid were collected from the hippocampus and striatum at 5-min increments before, during, and after training. These…

  13. Recognition Memory and the Hippocampus: A Test of the Hippocampal Contribution to Recollection and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeneson, Annette; Kirwan, C. Brock; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Wixted, John T.; Squire, Larry R.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the hippocampus selectively supports recollection and that adjacent cortex in the medial temporal lobe can support familiarity. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the hippocampus supports both recollection and familiarity. We tested these suggestions by assessing the performance of patients with hippocampal…

  14. Dopaminergic Modulation of the Persistence of One-Trial Hippocampus-Dependent Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Carroll, Colin M.; Martin, Stephen J.; Sandin, Johan; Frenguelli, Bruno; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2006-01-01

    The persistence of new memory traces in the hippocampus, encoded following appropriate activation of glutamatergic receptors and the induction of synaptic plasticity, can be influenced by heterosynaptic activation of neuromodulatory brain systems. We therefore investigated the effects of a hippocampus-specific blockade of dopamine D1/D5 receptors…

  15. Contributions of Volumetrics of the Hippocampus and Thalamus to Verbal Memory in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Christopher C.; Griffith, H. Randall; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Martin, Roy C.; Knowlton, Robert K.; Richardson, Elizabeth J.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Seidenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Recent theories have posited that the hippocampus and thalamus serve distinct, yet related, roles in episodic memory. Whereas the hippocampus has been implicated in long-term memory encoding and storage, the thalamus, as a whole, has been implicated in the selection of items for subsequent encoding and the use of retrieval strategies. However,…

  16. Evidence for Hippocampus-Dependent Contextual Learning at Postnatal Day 17 in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Jennifer A.; Burman, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term memory for fear of an environment (contextual fear conditioning) emerges later in development (postnatal day; PD 23) than long-term memory for fear of discrete stimuli (PD 17). As contextual, but not explicit cue, fear conditioning relies on the hippocampus; this has been interpreted as evidence that the hippocampus is not fully…

  17. The Hippocampus Supports Encoding of Between-Domain Associations within Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piekema, Carinne; Kessel, Roy P. C.; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernandez, Guillen

    2009-01-01

    It has been established that the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, is crucial for associative memory. The aim of the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to investigate whether the hippocampus is differentially activated for associations between items processed in the same neocortical region (within-domain)…

  18. Post-Training Reversible Inactivation of the Hippocampus Enhances Novel Object Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Hawk, Joshua D.; Abel, Ted; Havekes, Robbert

    2010-01-01

    Research on the role of the hippocampus in object recognition memory has produced conflicting results. Previous studies have used permanent hippocampal lesions to assess the requirement for the hippocampus in the object recognition task. However, permanent hippocampal lesions may impact performance through effects on processes besides memory…

  19. Role of Amygdala and Hippocampus in the Neural Circuit Subserving Conditioned Defeat in Syrian Hamsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Chris M.; Taylor, Stacie L.; Huhman, Kim L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the roles of the amygdala and hippocampus in the formation of emotionally relevant memories using an ethological model of conditioned fear termed conditioned defeat (CD). Temporary inactivation of the ventral, but not dorsal hippocampus (VH, DH, respectively) using muscimol disrupted the acquisition of CD, whereas pretraining VH…

  20. Correlates of Intellectual Ability with Morphology of the Hippocampus and Amygdala in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amat, Jose A.; Bansal, Ravi; Whiteman, Ronald; Haggerty, Rita; Royal, Jason; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Several prior imaging studies of healthy adults have correlated volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala with measures of general intelligence (IQ), with variable results. In this study, we assessed correlations between volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala and full-scale IQ scores (FSIQ) using a method of image analysis that permits detailed…

  1. Decreased proliferation in the adult rat hippocampus after exposure to the Morris water maze and its reversal by fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Námestková, Katerina; Simonová, Zuzana; Syková, Eva

    2005-08-30

    Granular cell proliferation in the adult hippocampus decreases during aging and after chronic stress, while it can be increased by physical activity or treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine. We investigated whether the physical and cognitive stimulation accompanied by stress in the commonly used Morris water maze affects the rate of proliferation and whether the induced changes can be influenced by antidepressant treatment with fluoxetine. Proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus were labeled by three injections of BrdU during the 24h preceding sacrifice. Early differentiation to neuronal progeny was studied by immunohistochemical staining for doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule binding protein expressed in newborn neurons. Acquisition learning in the water maze for 15 days caused a significant decrease in granular cell proliferation in the granular cell layer of the hippocampus. The decrease in the number of BrdU- and DCX-positive cells was reversed to control levels by the use of fluoxetine during the water maze training. Fluoxetine treatment alone increased the number of BrdU-positive cells, but did not increase the number of DCX-positive cells. We conclude that the exposure of adult male rats to water maze acquisition trials is a stressful experience that significantly suppresses the production of new granular cells and that this stressful effect can be blocked by the concomitant administration of the antidepressant fluoxetine. PMID:15941600

  2. Elevation of Brain Magnesium Potentiates Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in the Hippocampus of Young and Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shanshan; Liu, Yunpeng; Shi, Yang; Ma, Yihe; Hu, Yixin; Wang, Meiyan; Li, Xue

    2016-09-01

    In the adult brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) can self-renew and generate all neural lineage types, and they persist in the sub-granular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the cortex. Here, we show that dietary-supplemented - magnesium-L-threonate (MgT), a novel magnesium compound designed to elevate brain magnesium regulates the NSC pool in the adult hippocampus. We found that administration of both short- and long-term regimens of MgT, increased the number of hippocampal NSCs. We demonstrated that in young mice, dietary supplementation with MgT significantly enhanced NSC proliferation in the SGZ. Importantly, in aged mice that underwent long-term (12-month) supplementation with MgT, MgT did not deplete the hippocampal NSC reservoir but rather curtailed the age-associated decline in NSC proliferation. We further established an association between extracellular magnesium concentrations and NSC self-renewal in vitro by demonstrating that elevated Mg(2+) concentrations can maintain or increase the number of cultured hippocampal NSCs. Our study also suggests that key signaling pathways for cell growth and proliferation may be candidate targets for Mg(2+) 's effects on NSC self-renewal. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1903-1912, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26754806

  3. 40 CFR 86.604-84 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 86.604... Testing by the Administrator. (a) The Administrator may require by test order that vehicles of a specified...) Whenever the Administrator conducts a test on a test vehicle or the Administrator and manufacturer...

  4. Adult Onset-hypothyroidism has Minimal Effects on Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus of Rats Independent of Hypothermia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Thyroid hormones (TH) influence central nervous system (CNS) function during development and in adulthood. The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory is sensitive to TH insufficiency. Synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is impaired following...

  5. Coordinated memory replay in the visual cortex and hippocampus during sleep.

    PubMed

    Ji, Daoyun; Wilson, Matthew A

    2007-01-01

    Sleep replay of awake experience in the cortex and hippocampus has been proposed to be involved in memory consolidation. However, whether temporally structured replay occurs in the cortex and whether the replay events in the two areas are related are unknown. Here we studied multicell spiking patterns in both the visual cortex and hippocampus during slow-wave sleep in rats. We found that spiking patterns not only in the cortex but also in the hippocampus were organized into frames, defined as periods of stepwise increase in neuronal population activity. The multicell firing sequences evoked by awake experience were replayed during these frames in both regions. Furthermore, replay events in the sensory cortex and hippocampus were coordinated to reflect the same experience. These results imply simultaneous reactivation of coherent memory traces in the cortex and hippocampus during sleep that may contribute to or reflect the result of the memory consolidation process. PMID:17173043

  6. Transient phonemic paraphasia by bilateral hippocampus lesion in a case of limbic encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Masahiko; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Ogata, Takeshi; Ogawa, Emina

    2010-01-01

    Although the hippocampus has not typically been identified as part of the language and aphasia circuit, recent evidence suggests that the hippocampus is closely related to naming, word priming, and anomic aphasia. A 59-year old woman with limbic encephalitis of possible autoimmune etiology, after recovery of consciousness, presented with severe memory impairment in both anterograde and retrograde modalities, episodes of fear, hallucination and convulsion, and transient fluent, phonemic paraphasia, together with small sharp waves diffusely by EEG. Brain MRI revealed bilateral symmetric, discrete lesions in the body to the infundibulum of the hippocampus. The transient phonemic paraphasia noted in our patient may have been a result of primary damage in the hippocampus and its fiber connection to the Wernicke's area or secondary partial status epilepticus that might have originated in the hippocampus. PMID:21577344

  7. Initialisation of 3D level set for hippocampus segmentation from volumetric brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajiesmaeili, Maryam; Dehmeshki, Jamshid; Bagheri Nakhjavanlo, Bashir; Ellis, Tim

    2014-04-01

    Shrinkage of the hippocampus is a primary biomarker for Alzheimer's disease and can be measured through accurate segmentation of brain MR images. The paper will describe the problem of initialisation of a 3D level set algorithm for hippocampus segmentation that must cope with the some challenging characteristics, such as small size, wide range of intensities, narrow width, and shape variation. In addition, MR images require bias correction, to account for additional inhomogeneity associated with the scanner technology. Due to these inhomogeneities, using a single initialisation seed region inside the hippocampus is prone to failure. Alternative initialisation strategies are explored, such as using multiple initialisations in different sections (such as the head, body and tail) of the hippocampus. The Dice metric is used to validate our segmentation results with respect to ground truth for a dataset of 25 MR images. Experimental results indicate significant improvement in segmentation performance using the multiple initialisations techniques, yielding more accurate segmentation results for the hippocampus.

  8. Distinct lineage-dependent structural and functional organization of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hua-Tai; Han, Zhi; Gao, Peng; He, Shuijin; Li, Zhizhong; Shi, Wei; Kodish, Oren; Shao, Wei; Brown, Keith N.; Huang, Kun; Shi, Song-Hai

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The hippocampus, as part of the cerebral cortex, is essential for memory formation and spatial navigation. Although it has been extensively studied, especially as a model system for neurophysiology, the cellular processes involved in constructing and organizing the hippocampus remain largely unclear. Here, we show that clonally related excitatory neurons in the developing hippocampus are progressively organized into discrete horizontal, but not vertical, clusters in the stratum pyramidale, as revealed by both cell type-specific retroviral labeling and mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM). Moreover, distinct from those in the neocortex, sister excitatory neurons in Cornu Ammonis 1 region of the hippocampus rarely develop electrical or chemical synapses with each other. Instead, they preferentially receive common synaptic input from nearby fast-spiking (FS), but not non-FS, interneurons and exhibit synchronous synaptic activity. These results suggest that shared inhibitory input may specify horizontally clustered sister excitatory neurons as functional units in the hippocampus. PMID:24949968

  9. Hippocampus NMDA receptors selectively mediate latent extinction of place learning.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jarid; Gabriele, Amanda; Packard, Mark G

    2016-09-01

    Extinction of maze learning may be achieved with or without the animal performing the previously acquired response. In typical "response extinction," animals are given the opportunity to make the previously acquired approach response toward the goal location of the maze without reinforcement. In "latent extinction," animals are not given the opportunity to make the previously acquired response and instead are confined to the previous goal location without reinforcement. Previous evidence indicates that the effectiveness of these protocols may depend on the type of memory being extinguished. Thus, one aim of the present study was to further examine the effectiveness of response and latent extinction protocols across dorsolateral striatum (DLS)-dependent response learning and hippocampus-dependent place learning tasks. In addition, previous neural inactivation experiments indicate a selective role for the hippocampus in latent extinction, but have not investigated the precise neurotransmitter mechanisms involved. Thus, the present study also examined whether latent extinction of place learning might depend on NMDA receptor activity in the hippocampus. In experiment 1, adult male Long-Evans rats were trained in a response learning task in a water plus-maze, in which animals were reinforced to make a consistent body-turn response to reach an invisible escape platform. Results indicated that response extinction, but not latent extinction, was effective at extinguishing memory in the response learning task. In experiment 2, rats were trained in a place learning task, in which animals were reinforced to approach a consistent spatial location containing the hidden escape platform. In experiment 2, animals also received intra-hippocampal infusions of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP5; 5.0 or 7.5 ug/0.5 µg) or saline vehicle immediately before response or latent extinction training. Results indicated that both extinction protocols were

  10. Effects of Methyl Mercury Chloride on Rat Hippocampus Structure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingwei; Cheng, Guangyuan; Lu, Zhiyan; Wang, Mingyue; Tian, Jianying; Bi, Yongyi

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of Methyl Mercury Chloride (MMC) on cognitive functions and ultrastructural changes of hippocampus in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Thirty healthy 20-day-old male SD rats weighing 30-40 g were randomly divided into three groups to receive daily injections. Two different dose levels were used: 4 mg/kg as high dose (H-MMC) and 2 mg/kg as low dose (L-MMC).The control group received 4 mg/kg saline solution (N-NaCl). After daily subcutaneous injection for 50 days, 6-day Morris water maze tests were used to assess the learning and memory functions of the rats. After a 5-day continuous training, spatial probe tests were conducted of times and paths crossing to the target quadrant on the 6th day. After the rats were euthanized, their hippocampus sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed under bothoptical microscope and electron microscope. The time H-MMC group spent in finding platform was significantly longer as compared toN-NaCl group on day 2 to day 5 and L-MMC group on day 4 to day 5. The number of crossing times of H-MMC group to the target quadrant was 0.63 ± 0.74, which is much lower than C-NaCl group (3.13 ± 1.56) with P value <0.05. No statistically significant difference in crossing times was found between L-MMC and C-NaCl groups. For H-MMC group, decreasing number of neurons and disorganized nerve cells were examined under light microscope. Swelling and dissolution of Golgi complex were examined under electron microscope, along with endoplasmic reticulum expansion and cytoplasmic edema. Mild cytoplasmic edema was found in L-MMC group. MMC can cause cognitive impairment in terms of learning and memory in SD rats. Additionally, it can also cause changes in the ultrastructure of neurons and morphological changes in the hippocampus, causing significant damage. PMID:26358766

  11. Retrieval flexibility and reinstatement in the developing hippocampus.

    PubMed

    DeMaster, Dana; Coughlin, Christine; Ghetti, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Episodic memory improves during childhood and this improvement has been associated with age differences in hippocampal function, but previous research has not manipulated the possible underlying mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that age-related differences in hippocampal activation may reflect changes in retrieval flexibility. We expected these activation differences to be observed most prominently in the anterior hippocampus. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from children ages 8 and 10, and adults (N = 63) during an associative recognition task that required participants to recognize pairs of pictures which either appeared in the same location as during encoding (Same location), or in a flipped location, such that each picture switched their location with the other member of the pair (Flipped location). Recognition of same-location pairs placed lower demands on flexible retrieval compared to recognition of flipped-location pairs. Behaviorally, 8-year-olds exhibited the strongest correct recognition gains for same-location compared to flipped-location pairs, and females unexpectedly outperformed males across all ages. When we examined correct recognition, adults recruited the hippocampal head more strongly for flipped- versus same-location pairs compared to both groups of children; in contrast both adults and 10-year-olds recruited the hippocampal tail more strongly for flipped- versus same-location pairs compared to 8-year-olds. This pattern was stronger in the left hippocampus and for females. Moreover hippocampal discrimination between recognized and forgotten items in the same-location condition was stronger in 8-year-olds compared to adults, and was stronger in the flipped-location condition in adults compared to 8-year-olds; this pattern was stronger in the left hippocampus. Individual differences in this discrimination contrast for flipped-location trials in the head and body predicted performance on an index of

  12. The synthetic thyroid hormone, levothyroxine, protects cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus of naturally aged mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ailing; Zhou, Rumei; Xu, Xingran

    2014-04-15

    The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine and thyroxine, play important roles in cognitive function during the mammalian lifespan. However, thyroid hormones have not yet been used as a therapeutic agent for normal age-related cognitive deficits. In this study, CD-1 mice (aged 24 months) were intraperitoneally injected with levothyroxine (L-T4; 1.6 μg/kg per day) for 3 consecutive months. Our findings revealed a significant improvement in hippocampal cytoskeletal rearrangement of actin and an increase in serum hormone levels of L-T4-treated aged mice. Furthermore, the survival rate of these mice was dramatically increased from 60% to 93.3%. The Morris water maze task indicated that L-T4 restored impaired spatial memory in aged mice. Furthermore, level of choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholine, and superoxide dismutase were increased in these mice, thus suggesting that a possible mechanism by which L-T4 reversed cognitive impairment was caused by increased activity of these markers. Overall, supplement of low-dosage L-T4 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for normal age-related cognitive deficits. PMID:25206902

  13. Corticosterone regulates fear memory via Rac1 activity in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ping; Ding, Ze-Yang; Gan, Cheng; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Heng; Xu, Lin; Zhou, Qi-Xin

    2016-09-01

    Stressful events can generate enduring memories, which may induce certain psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms in these processes remain unclear. In this study, we examined whether the active form of the small G protein Rac1, Rac1-GTP, is involved in fear memory. Firstly, we detected the time course changes of Rac1-GTP after foot shocks (a strong stressor) and exogenous corticosterone (CORT) treatment. The data showed that stress and CORT induced the downregulation of Rac1-GTP in the hippocampus. Changes in the serum CORT level were negatively correlated with the level of Rac1-GTP. Additionally, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU38486, not only recovered the expression of Rac1-GTP but also impaired fear memory. Furthermore, systemic administration of NSC23766, an inhibitor of Rac1-GTP, improved fear memory at 1.5 and 24h. Therefore, Rac1 activity plays a critical role in stress-related cognition and may be a potential target in stress-related disorders. PMID:27249795

  14. Recent memory for socially transmitted food preferences in rats does not depend on the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Rajat; Sparks, Fraser T; Hanif, Wahab; Gulbrandsen, Tine; Sutherland, Robert J

    2014-10-01

    The standard model of systems consolidation holds that the hippocampus (HPC) is involved only in the initial storage and retrieval of a memory. With time hippocampal-neocortical interactions slowly strengthen the neocortical memory, ultimately enabling retrieval of the memory without the HPC. Key support for this idea comes from experiments measuring memory recall in the socially-transmitted food preference (STFP) task in rats. HPC damage within a day or two of STFP learning can abolish recall, but similar damage five or more days after learning has no effect. We hypothesize that disruption of cellular consolidation outside the HPC could contribute to the amnesia with recent memories, perhaps playing a more important role than the loss of HPC. This view predicts that intraHPC infusion of Tetrodotoxin (TTX), which can block conduction of action potentials from the lesion sites, will block the retrograde amnesia in the STFP task. Here we confirm the previously reported retrograde amnesia with neurotoxic HPC damage within the first day after learning, but show that co-administration of TTX with the neurotoxin blocks the retrograde amnesia despite very extensive HPC damage. These results indicate that HPC damage disrupts cellular consolidation of the recent memory elsewhere; STFP memory may not ever depend on the HPC. PMID:24862355

  15. The 5-HT7 receptor in learning and memory. Importance of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Amanda J.; Hedlund, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor is a more recently discovered G-protein-coupled receptor for serotonin. The functions and possible clinical relevance of this receptor are not yet fully understood. The present paper reviews to what extent the use of animal models of learning and memory and other techniques have implicated the 5-HT7 receptor in such processes. The studies have used a combination of pharmacological and genetic tools targeting the receptor to evaluate effects on behavior and cellular mechanisms. In tests such as the Barnes maze, contextual fear conditioning and novel location recognition that involve spatial learning and memory there is a considerable amount of evidence supporting an involvement of the 5-HT7 receptor. Supporting evidence has also been obtained in studies of mRNA expression and cellular signaling as well as in electrophysiological experiments. Especially interesting are the subtle but distinct effects observed in hippocampus-dependent models of place learning where impairments have been described in mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor or after administration of a selective antagonist. While more work is required, it appears that 5-HT7 receptors are particularly important in allocentric representation processes. In instrumental learning tasks both procognitive effects and impairments in memory have been observed using pharmacological tools targeting the 5-HT7 receptor. In conclusion, the use of pharmacological and genetic tools in animal studies of learning and memory suggest a potentially important role for the 5-HT7 receptor in cognitive processes. PMID:21484935

  16. Insulin improves memory and reduces chronic neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of young but not aged brains.

    PubMed

    Adzovic, Linda; Lynn, Ashley E; D'Angelo, Heather M; Crockett, Alexis M; Kaercher, Roxanne M; Royer, Sarah E; Hopp, Sarah C; Wenk, Gary L

    2015-01-01

    The role of insulin in the brain is still not completely understood. In the periphery, insulin can decrease inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS); however, whether insulin can reduce inflammation within the brain is unknown. Experiments administrating intranasal insulin to young and aged adults have shown that insulin improves memory. In our animal model of chronic neuroinflammation, we administered insulin and/or LPS directly into the brain via the fourth ventricle for 4 weeks in young rats; we then analyzed their spatial memory and neuroinflammatory response. Additionally, we administered insulin or artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF), in the same manner, to aged rats and then analyzed their spatial memory and neuroinflammatory response. Response to chronic neuroinflammation in young rats was analyzed in the presence or absence of insulin supplementation. Here, we show for the first time that insulin infused (i.c.v.) to young rats significantly attenuated the effects of LPS by decreasing the expression of neuroinflammatory markers in the hippocampus and by improving performance in the Morris water pool task. In young rats, insulin infusion alone significantly improved their performance as compared to all other groups. Unexpectedly, in aged rats, the responsiveness to insulin was completely absent, that is, spatial memory was still impaired suggesting that an age-dependent insulin resistance may contribute to the cognitive impairment observed in neurodegenerative diseases. Our data suggest a novel therapeutic effect of insulin on neuroinflammation in the young but not the aged brain. PMID:25889938

  17. A phosphodiesterase 4-controlled switch between memory extinction and strengthening in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Roesler, Rafael; Reolon, Gustavo K; Maurmann, Natasha; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Schröder, Nadja; Amaral, Olavo B; Valvassori, Samira; Quevedo, João

    2014-01-01

    Established fear-related memories can undergo phenomena such as extinction or reconsolidation when recalled. Extinction probably involves the creation of a new, competing memory trace that decreases fear expression, whereas reconsolidation can mediate memory maintenance, updating, or strengthening. The factors determining whether retrieval will initiate extinction, reconsolidation, or neither of these two processes include training intensity, duration of the retrieval session, and age of the memory. However, previous studies have not shown that the same behavioral protocol can be used to induce either extinction or reconsolidation and strengthening, depending on the pharmacological intervention used. Here we show that, within an experiment that leads to extinction in control rats, memory can be strengthened if rolipram, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), is administered into the dorsal hippocampus immediately after retrieval. The memory-enhancing effect of rolipram lasted for at least 1 week, was blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, and did not occur when drug administration was not paired with retrieval. These findings indicate that the behavioral outcome of memory retrieval can be pharmacologically switched from extinction to strengthening. The cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway might be a crucial mechanism determining the fate of memories after recall. PMID:24672454

  18. Selective metabolic activation of the hippocampus during lidocaine-induced pre-seizure activity.

    PubMed

    Ingvar, M; Shapiro, H M

    1981-01-01

    Neurophysiologic studies indicate that local anesthetic-induced seizures are generated in subcortical brain structures. The authors utilized a quantitative autoradiographic technique to measure cerebral metabolism during lidocaine-induced seizure activity in rats anesthetized with nitrous oxide. Local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (l-CMRg) was determined when lidocaine infusion resulted in sustained electroencephalographic patterns consisting of approximately 100--125-mu volt discharges with a frequency of about 9 Hz, lasting 1-2 sec, and superimposed upon almost isoelectric periods lasting 1-3 sec. Significant reductions in 1-CMRg (30-70 per cent decreases) occurred in 19 of 26 regions surveyed. All areas of cerebral cortex had decreased glucose uptake following lidocaine administration. The hippocampus developed a striking increase in 1-CMRg of 237 per cent, while the amygdala and other related nuclei sustained metabolic rates similar to those present before lidocaine was given. This study demonstrates a coupling of metabolic activity with functional activity in subcortical structures recognized to be involved in the generation of local anesthetic seizure activity. Additionally, it reveals a heterogeneous response of cerebral metabolism to lidocaine infusion in the presence of subcortically localized seizures. PMID:7457980

  19. Brain-Derived Estrogen Exerts Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotective Actions in the Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan-Guang; Wang, Ruimin; Tang, Hui; Dong, Yan; Chan, Alice; Sareddy, Gangadhara Reddy; Vadlamudi, Ratna K.; Brann, Darrell W.

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) has been implicated to play a critical role in neuroprotection, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function. Classically, the role of gonadal-derived E2 in these events is well established, but the role of brain-derived E2 is less clear. To address this issue, we investigated the expression, localization, and modulation of aromatase and local E2 levels in the hippocampus following global cerebral ischemia (GCI) in adult ovariectomized rats. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that the hippocampal regions CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) exhibited high levels of immunoreactive aromatase staining, with aromatase being co-localized primarily in neurons in non-ischemic animals. Following GCI, aromatase became highly expressed in GFAP-positive astrocytes in the hippocampal CA1 region at 2–3 days post GCI reperfusion. An ELISA for E2 and IHC for E2 confirmed the GCI-induced elevation of local E2 in the CA1 region and that the increase in local E2 occurred in astrocytes. Furthermore, central administration of aromatase antisense (AS) oligonucleotides, but not missense (MS) oligonucleotides, blocked the increase in aromatase and local E2 in astrocytes after GCI, and resulted in a significant increase in GCI-induced hippocampal CA1 region neuronal cell death and neuroinflammation. As a whole, these results suggest that brain-derived E2 exerts important neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions in the hippocampal CA1 region following GCI. PMID:24508637

  20. The hippocampus as a stable memory allocator for cortex.

    PubMed

    Valiant, Leslie G

    2012-11-01

    It is suggested here that mammalian hippocampus serves as an allocator of neurons in cortex for memorizing new items. A construction of a shallow feedforward network with biologically plausible parameters is given that possesses the characteristics needed for such an allocator. In particular, the construction is stabilizing in that for inputs within a range of activity levels spanning more than an order of magnitude, the output will have activity levels differing as little as 1%. It is also noise tolerant in that pairs of input patterns that differ little will generate output patterns that differ little. Further, pairs of inputs that differ by much will be mapped to outputs that also differ sufficiently that they can be treated by cortex as distinct. PMID:22920849

  1. Chinese Traditional Medicine and Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Endong; Shen, Jiangang; So, Kwok Fai

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is an important therapeutic target in treating neurological disorders. Adult neurogenesis takes place in two regions of the brain: Subventricular zone and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The progressive understanding on hippocampal neurogenesis in aging and mood disorders increases the demand to explore powerful and subtle interventions on hippocampal neurogenesis. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine provides an abundant pharmaceutical platform for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis. Recent progress in exploring the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and the related mechanisms opens a new direction for regeneration therapy. The current review gives a thorough summary of the research progress made in traditional Chinese herbal formulas, and the effective compounds in Chinese herbs which are beneficial on hippocampal neurogenesis and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:24860729

  2. Spatially Distributed Local Fields in the Hippocampus Encode Rat Position

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Gautam; Stevenson, Ian H.; Berényi, Antal; Mizuseki, Kenji; Buzsáki, György; Sommer, Friedrich T.

    2016-01-01

    Although neuronal spikes can be readily detected from extracellular recordings, synaptic and subthreshold activity remains undifferentiated within the local field potential (LFP). In the hippocampus, neurons discharge selectively when the rat is at certain locations, while LFPs at single anatomical sites exhibit no such place-tuning. Nonetheless, because the representation of position is sparse and distributed, we hypothesized that spatial information can be recovered from multiple-site LFP recordings. Using high-density sampling of LFP and computational methods, we show that the spatiotemporal structure of the theta rhythm can encode position as robustly as neuronal spiking populations. Because our approach exploits the rhythmicity and sparse structure of neural activity, features found in many brain regions, it is useful as a general tool for discovering distributed LFP codes. PMID:24812401

  3. A cognitive map for object memory in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Manns, Joseph R.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The hippocampus has been proposed to support a cognitive map, a mental representation of the spatial layout of an environment as well as the nonspatial items encountered in that environment. In the present study, we recorded simultaneously from 43 to 61 hippocampal pyramidal cells as rats performed an object recognition memory task in which novel and repeated objects were encountered in different locations on a circular track. Multivariate analyses of the neural data indicated that information about object identity was represented secondarily to the primary information dimension of object location. In addition, the neural data related to performance on the recognition memory task. The results suggested that objects were represented as points of interest on the hippocampal cognitive map and that this map was useful in remembering encounters with particular objects in specific locations. PMID:19794187

  4. Acute nicotine enhances spontaneous recovery of contextual fear and changes c-fos early gene expression in infralimbic cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir G; Tumolo, Jessica M; Holliday, Erica; Garrett, Brendan; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    Exposure therapy, which focuses on extinguishing fear-triggering cues and contexts, is widely used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yet, PTSD patients who received successful exposure therapy are vulnerable to relapse of fear response after a period of time, a phenomenon known as spontaneous recovery (SR). Increasing evidence suggests ventral hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, and infralimbic cortex may be involved in SR. PTSD patients also show high rates of comorbidity with nicotine dependence. While the comorbidity between smoking and PTSD might suggest nicotine may alter SR, the effects of nicotine on SR of contextual fear are unknown. In the present study, we tested the effects of acute nicotine administration on SR of extinguished contextual fear memories and c-fos immediate early gene immunohistochemistry in mice. Our results demonstrated that acute nicotine enhanced SR of extinguished fear whereas acute nicotine did not affect retrieval of unextinguished contextual memories. This suggests that the effect of acute nicotine on SR is specific for memories that have undergone extinction treatment. C-fos immunoreactive (IR) cells in the ventral hippocampus and basolateral amygdala were increased in the nicotine-treated mice following testing for SR, whereas the number of IR cells in the infralimbic cortex was decreased in the same group. Overall, this study suggests that nicotine may adversely affect context-specific relapse of fear memories and this effect is potentially mediated by the suppression of cortical regions and increased activity in the ventral hippocampus and amygdala. PMID:27421892

  5. Quantitative profiling of neurotransmitter abnormalities in the hippocampus of rats treated with lipopolysaccharide: Focusing on kynurenine pathway and implications for depression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yujin; Cai, Hualin; Chen, Lei; Liang, Donglou; Yang, Ranyao; Dang, Ruili; Jiang, Pei

    2016-06-15

    Peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce the rodents to a depression-like state accompanied with remarkable changes of neurotransmitter systems. In this study, the effect of an intraperitoneal LPS injection (3mg/kg) on the concentrations of neurotransmitters was investigated by in vivo microdialysis in rat hippocampus. To further explore dysregulation pattern of the neurotransmitters following continuous inflammatory process, we then analyzed the neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of rats after 2-week LPS exposure (500μg/kg every other day). Acute treatment of LPS quickly enhanced glutamate release and increased the extracellular levels of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites. Elevated glutamate status was also found in the chronic inflamed hippocampus, whereas dopamine and serotonin was decreased following prolonged LPS exposure. Interestingly, both acute and chronic treatment of LPS significantly elevated hippocampal kynurenine concentrations and altered the balance between the serotonin and kynurenine branches of tryptophan metabolism-increasing kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, but decreasing serotonin/tryptophan ratio. Additionally, kynurenic acid, the endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist, and the ratio of kynurenic acid/kynurenine were significantly decreased by acute treatment of LPS, which may further strengthen NMDA receptor activation. Since that NMDA activation can exacerbate inflammatory and neurodegenerative process, the enhanced glutamate release and dysregulated kynurenine pathway might constitute a vicious cycle playing a pivotal role in the neuropsychiatric disorders associated with inflammation, such as depression. PMID:27235347

  6. Clasmatodendrosis and β-amyloidosis in aging hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mercatelli, Raffaella; Lana, Daniele; Bucciantini, Monica; Giovannini, Maria Grazia; Cerbai, Francesca; Quercioli, Franco; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra; Delfino, Giovanni; Wenk, Gary L; Nosi, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    Alterations of the tightly interwoven neuron/astrocyte interactions are frequent traits of aging, but also favor neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD). These alterations reflect impairments of the innate responses to inflammation-related processes, such as β-amyloid (Aβ) burdening. Multidisciplinary studies, spanning from the tissue to the molecular level, are needed to assess how neuron/astrocyte interactions are influenced by aging. Our study addressed this requirement by joining fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy/phasor multiphoton analysis with confocal microscopy, implemented with a novel method to separate spectrally overlapped immunofluorescence and Aβ autofluorescence. By comparing data from young control rats, chronically inflamed rats, and old rats, we identified age-specific alterations of neuron/astrocyte interactions in the hippocampus. We found a correlation between Aβ aggregation (+300 and +800% of aggregated Aβ peptide in chronically inflamed and oldvs.control rats, respectively) and fragmentation (clasmatodendrosis) of astrocyte projections (APJs) (+250 and +1300% of APJ fragments in chronically inflamed and oldvs.control rats, respectively). Clasmatodendrosis, in aged rats, associates with impairment of astrocyte-mediated Aβ clearance (-45% of Aβ deposits on APJs, and +33% of Aβ deposits on neurons in oldvs.chronically inflamed rats). Furthermore, APJ fragments colocalize with Aβ deposits and are involved in novel Aβ-mediated adhesions between neurons. These data define the effects of Aβ deposition on astrocyte/neuron interactions as a key topic in AD biology.-Mercatelli, R., Lana, D., Bucciantini, M., Giovannini, M. G., Cerbai, F., Quercioli, F., Zecchi-Orlandini, S., Delfino, G., Wenk, G. L., Nos, D. Clasmatodendrosis and β-amyloidosis in aging hippocampus. PMID:26722005

  7. Properties of carbachol-induced oscillatory activity in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Williams, J H; Kauer, J A

    1997-11-01

    Properties of carbachol-induced oscillatory activity in rat hippocampus. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 2631-2640, 1997. The recent resurgence of interest in carbachol oscillations as an in vitro model of theta rhythm in the hippocampus prompted us to evaluate the circuit mechanisms involved. In extracellular recordings, a regularly spaced bursting pattern of field potentials was observed in both CA3 and CA1 subfields in the presence of carbachol. Removal of the CA3 region abolished oscillatory activity observed in CA1, suggesting that the oscillatory generator is located in CA3. An alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), blocked carbachol oscillations, indicating that AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic currents are necessary for the population oscillation. Moreover, the spread of oscillatory activity into CA1 required intact N-methyl--aspartate receptors. These data are more consistent with epileptiform bursting than with theta rhythm described in vivo. In the presence of carbachol, individual CA3 pyramidal cells exhibited a slow, rhythmic intrinsic oscillation that was not blocked by DNQX and that was enhanced by membrane hyperpolarization. We hypothesize that this slower oscillation is the fundamental oscillator that participates in triggering the population oscillation by exciting multiple synaptically connected CA3 neurons. gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors are not necessary for carbachol to elicit synchronous CA3 field events but are essential to the bursting pattern observed. Neither GABAB nor metabotropic glutamate receptors appear to be necessary for carbachol oscillations. However, both nicotinic and M1 and M3 muscarinic cholinergic receptors contribute to the generation of this activity. These results establish the local circuit elements and neurotransmitter receptors that contribute to carbachol-induced oscillations and indicate that carbachol-induced oscillations are

  8. Facilitated neurogenesis in the developing hippocampus after intake of theanine, an amino acid in tea leaves, and object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Inui, Naoto; Suh, Sang Won; Won, Seok-Joon; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2011-10-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. In this study, cognitive function and the related mechanism were examined in theanine-administered young rats. Newborn rats were fed theanine through dams, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine, and then fed water containing 0.3% theanine after weaning. Theanine level in the brain was under the detectable limit 6 weeks after the start of theanine administration. Theanine administration did not influence locomotor activity in the open-field test. However, rearing behavior was significantly increased in theanine-administered rats, suggesting that exploratory activity is increased by theanine intake. Furthermore, object recognition memory was enhanced in theanine-administered rats. The increase in exploratory activity in the open-field test seems to be associated with the enhanced object recognition memory after theanine administration. On the other hand, long-term potentiation (LTP) induction at the perforant path-granule cell synapse was not changed by theanine administration. To check hippocampal neurogenesis, BrdU was injected into rats 3 weeks after the start of theanine administration, and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) level was significantly increased at this time. Theanine intake significantly increased the number of BrdU-, Ki67-, and DCX-labeled cells in the granule cell layer 6 weeks after the start of theanine administration. This study indicates that 0.3% theanine administration facilitates neurogenesis in the developing hippocampus followed by enhanced recognition memory. Theanine intake may be of benefit to the postnatal development of hippocampal function. PMID:21604187

  9. The effect of mitochondrial calcium uniporter on mitochondrial fission in hippocampus cells ischemia/reperfusion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lantao; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Shilei Yu, Ning; Liu, Jia

    2015-06-05

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) transports free Ca{sup 2+} into the mitochondrial matrix, maintaining Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis, thus regulates the mitochondrial morphology. Previous studies have indicated that there was closely crosstalk between MCU and mitochondrial fission during the process of ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study constructed a hypoxia reoxygenation model using primary hippocampus neurons to mimic the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and aims to explore the exactly effect of MCU on the mitochondrial fission during the process of ischemia/reperfusion injury and so as the mechanisms. Our results found that the inhibitor of the MCU, Ru360, decreased mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} concentration, suppressed the expression of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, MIEF1 and Fis1, and thus improved mitochondrial morphology significantly. Whereas spermine, the agonist of the MCU, had no significant impact compared to the I/R group. This study demonstrated that the MCU regulates the process of mitochondrial fission by controlling the Ca{sup 2+} transport, directly upregulating mitochondrial fission proteins Drp1, Fis1 and indirectly reversing the MIEF1-induced mitochondrial fusion. It also provides new targets for brain protection during ischemia/reperfusion injury. - Highlights: • We study MCU with primary neuron culture. • MCU induces mitochondrial fission. • MCU reverses MIEF1 effect.

  10. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Rosa damascena hydro-alcoholic extract on rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Homayoun, Mansour; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh; Pourzaki, Mojtaba; Shafieian, Reihaneh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Previously, analgesic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects have been suggested for Rosa damascena (R. damascena). In the present study, possible anti-seizure and neuro-protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has been investigated after inducing seizures in rats by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Materials and Methods: The rats were divided to five groups: (1) Control: received saline, (2) PTZ: 100 mg/kg, i.p., (3) PTZ- Extract 50 mg/kg (PTZ-Ext 50), (4) PTZ- Extract 100 mg/kg (PTZ-Ext 100), and (5) PTZ- Extract 200 mg/kg (PTZ-Ext 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg respectively of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena for one week before PTZ injection. The animals were examined for electrocorticography (ECoG) recording and finally, the brains were removed for histological study. Results: The hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the frequency and amplitude of epileptiform burst discharges induced by PTZ injection. Moreover, all three doses of the extract significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the hippocampus in the mentioned animal model. Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. More investigations are needed to be done in order to better understand the responsible compound(s) as well as the possible mechanism(s). PMID:26101759

  11. Aromatase Expression in the Hippocampus of AD Patients and 5xFAD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Prange-Kiel, Janine; Dudzinski, Danuta A.; Pröls, Felicitas; Glatzel, Markus; Matschke, Jakob; Rune, Gabriele M.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies show that 17β-estradiol (E2) protects against Alzheimer's disease (AD) induced neurodegeneration. The E2-synthesizing enzyme aromatase is expressed in healthy hippocampi, but although the hippocampus is severely affected in AD, little is known about the expression of hippocampal aromatase in AD. To better understand the role of hippocampal aromatase in AD, we studied its expression in postmortem material from patients with AD and in a mouse model for AD (5xFAD mice). In human hippocampi, aromatase-immunoreactivity was observed in the vast majority of principal neurons and signal quantification revealed higher expression of aromatase protein in AD patients compared to age- and sex-matched controls. The tissue-specific first exons of aromatase I.f, PII, I.3, and I.6 were detected in hippocampi of controls and AD patients by RT-PCR. In contrast, 3-month-old, female 5xFAD mice showed lower expression of aromatase mRNA and protein (measured by qRT-PCR and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry) than WT controls; no such differences were observed in male mice. Our findings stress the importance of hippocampal aromatase expression in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27298742

  12. The effect of mitochondrial calcium uniporter on mitochondrial fission in hippocampus cells ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lantao; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Shilei; Yu, Ning; Liu, Jia

    2015-06-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) transports free Ca(2+) into the mitochondrial matrix, maintaining Ca(2+) homeostasis, thus regulates the mitochondrial morphology. Previous studies have indicated that there was closely crosstalk between MCU and mitochondrial fission during the process of ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study constructed a hypoxia reoxygenation model using primary hippocampus neurons to mimic the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and aims to explore the exactly effect of MCU on the mitochondrial fission during the process of ischemia/reperfusion injury and so as the mechanisms. Our results found that the inhibitor of the MCU, Ru360, decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration, suppressed the expression of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, MIEF1 and Fis1, and thus improved mitochondrial morphology significantly. Whereas spermine, the agonist of the MCU, had no significant impact compared to the I/R group. This study demonstrated that the MCU regulates the process of mitochondrial fission by controlling the Ca(2+) transport, directly upregulating mitochondrial fission proteins Drp1, Fis1 and indirectly reversing the MIEF1-induced mitochondrial fusion. It also provides new targets for brain protection during ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25911325

  13. Stressor-like effects of cocaine on heat shock protein and stress-activated protein kinase expression in the rat hippocampus: interaction with ethanol and anti-toxicity drugs.

    PubMed

    Hayase, Tamaki; Yamamoto, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Muso, Eri; Shiota, Kohei

    2003-03-01

    The present study examined the stressor-like effects of repeated (4 days) administration of cocaine hydrochloride(COC) (35 mg/kg, i.p.) on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) (HSP27, HSP60, HSP70, HSC70) and stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) (SAPKalpha, SAPKbeta, SAPKgamma) in the rat hippocampus. The interactions with intraperitoneal ethanol and drugs known as antidotes against COC toxicity were also examined. Similar to the effects of a 10 min immobilization stress (IM) over 4 days, an early increase (5 h time point) in nerve cells immunoreactive for HSPs (HSP27, HSP60, HSP70, HSC70) and SAPKs (SAPKbeta, SAPKgamma) was observed in the COC group. At the 24 h time point, a recovery was observed only for SAPKs, which have been suggested to control the HSP levels. Before the 48 h time point, alterations in the number of HSP+cells as compared to the control group (increase for HSP27 and HSP70+cells, and attenuation for HSP60 and HSC70+cells) could still be observed. Stress-related, attenuated swimming behaviors in the forced swimming test were also the most severe at the 5 h time point. Ethanol (1.5 g/kg) cotreatment on each administration day, even at non-toxic and/or euphoric doses, enhanced these stressor-like alterations. On the other hand, the protective effects of daily coadministered drugs related to benzodiazepine (5 mg/kg Ro 15-4513), dopamine (0.5 mg/kg SCH 23390), muscarinic (0.25 mg/kg pirenzepine) and serotonin (5 mg/kg ketanserin) receptors could be observed on the number of HSP-immunoreactive (24 h) and SAPK-immunoreactive cells (5 h). Against the stressor-altered swimming behaviors, Ro 15-4513 and SCH 23390 were more effective as compared to pirenzepine and ketanserin. PMID:12935560

  14. Dopamine D1/D5 receptors in the dorsal hippocampus are required for the acquisition and expression of a single trial cocaine-associated memory.

    PubMed

    Kramar, Cecilia P; Barbano, M Flavia; Medina, Jorge H

    2014-12-01

    The role of the hippocampus in memory supporting associative learning between contexts and unconditioned stimuli is well documented. Hippocampal dopamine neurotransmission modulates synaptic plasticity and memory processing of fear-motivated and spatial learning tasks. Much less is known about the involvement of the hippocampus and its D1/D5 dopamine receptors in the acquisition, consolidation and expression of memories for drug-associated experiences, more particularly, in the processing of single pairing cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) training. To determine the temporal dynamics of cocaine CPP memory formation, we trained rats in a one-pairing CPP paradigm and tested them at different time intervals after conditioning. The cocaine-associated memory lasted 24 h but not 72 h. Then, we bilaterally infused the dorsal hippocampus with the GABA A receptor agonist muscimol or the D1/D5 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 at different stages to evaluate the mechanisms involved in the acquisition, consolidation or expression of cocaine CPP memory. Blockade of D1/D5 dopamine receptors at the moment of training impaired the acquisition of cocaine CPP memories, without having any effect when administered immediately or 12 h after training. The expression of cocaine CPP memory was also affected by the administration of SCH 23390 at the moment of the test. Conversely, muscimol impaired the consolidation of cocaine CPP memory only when administered 12 h post conditioning. These findings suggests that dopaminergic inputs to the dorsal hippocampus are required for the acquisition and expression of one trial cocaine-associated memory while neural activity of this structure is required for the late consolidation of these types of memories. PMID:25452086

  15. Effects of streptozotocin-induced type 1 maternal diabetes on PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the hippocampus of rat neonates.

    PubMed

    Hami, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad-Amin; Karimi, Razieh; Haghir, Hossein; Sadr-Nabavi, Ariane

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes in pregnancy impairs hippocampus development in offspring, leading to behavioral problems and learning deficits. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the regulation of neuronal proliferation, survival and death. The present study was designed to examine the effects of maternal diabetes on PKB/Akt expression and phosphorylation in the developing rat hippocampus. Wistar female rats were maintained diabetic from a week before pregnancy through parturition and male offspring was killed at first postnatal day (P1). The hippocampal expression and phosphorylation level of PKB/Akt, one of the key molecules in PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. We found a significant bilateral downregulation of AKT1 gene expression in the hippocampus of pups born to diabetic mothers (p < 0.05). Interestingly, our results revealed a marked upregulation of Akt1 gene in insulin-treated group compared with other groups (p < 0.05). The western blot analysis also showed the reduction of phosphorylation level of all AKT isoforms in both diabetic and insulin-treated groups compared with control (p < 0.05). Moreover, the results showed a significant increase in phosphorylation level of AKT in insulin-treated group compared with the diabetic group. These results represent that diabetes during pregnancy strongly influences the regulation of PKB/AKT in the developing rat hippocampus. Furthermore, although the control of glycemia by insulin administration is not sufficient to prevent the alterations in PKB/Akt expression, it modulates the phosphorylation process, thus ultimately resulting in a situation comparable to that found in the normal condition. PMID:26479041

  16. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation reduces the convulsive expression and amino acid release in the hippocampus during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    PubMed

    Santana-Gómez, César E; Alcántara-González, David; Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Bañuelos-Cabrera, Ivette; Magdaleno-Madrigal, Víctor; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Besio, Walter; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate release in the hippocampus under basal conditions and during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Animals were previously implanted with a guide cannula attached to a bipolar electrode into the right ventral hippocampus and a concentric ring electrode placed on the skull surface. The first microdialysis experiment was designed to determine, under basal conditions, the effects of TFS (300 Hz, 200 μs biphasic square pulses, for 30 min) on afterdischarge threshold (ADT) and the release of GABA and glutamate in the hippocampus. The results obtained indicate that at low current intensities (<2800 μA), TFS enhances and decreases the basal extracellular levels of GABA and glutamate, respectively. However, TFS did not modify the ADT. During the second microdialysis experiment, a group of animals was subjected to SE induced by pilocarpine administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.; SE group). The SE was associated with a significant rise of GABA and glutamate release (up to 120 and 182% respectively, 5h after pilocarpine injection) and the prevalence of high-voltage rhythmic spikes and increased spectral potency of delta, gamma, and theta bands. A group of animals (SE-TFS group) received TFS continuously during 2h at 100 μA, 5 min after the establishment of SE. This group showed a significant decrease in the expression of the convulsive activity and spectral potency in gamma and theta bands. The extracellular levels of GABA and glutamate in the hippocampus remained at basal conditions. These results suggest that TFS induces anticonvulsant effects when applied during the SE, an effect associated with lower amino acid release. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". PMID:26006058

  17. Instant and Lasting Down-Regulation of NR1 Expression in the Hippocampus is Associated Temporally with Antidepressant Activity After Acute Yueju.

    PubMed

    Xia, Baomei; Zhang, Hailou; Xue, Wenda; Tao, Weiwei; Chen, Chang; Wu, Ruyan; Ren, Li; Tang, Juanjuan; Wu, Haoxin; Cai, Baochang; Doronc, Ravid; Chen, Gang

    2016-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicated that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of depression and implicated in therapeutic targets. NMDA antagonists, such as ketamine, displayed fast-onset and long-lasting antidepressant activity in preclinical and clinical studies. Previous studies showed that Yueju pill exerts antidepressant effects similar to ketamine. Here, we focused on investigating the association of acute and lasting antidepressant responses of Yueju with time course changes of NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B expressions in the hippocampus, a key region regulating depression response. As a result, Yueju reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test from 30 min to 5 days post a single administration. Yueju acutely decreased NR1 and NR2B protein expression in the hippocampus, with NR2A expression unaltered. NR1 expression remained down-regulated 5 days post Yueju administration, whereas NR2B returned to normal level in 24 h. Yueju and ketamine similarly ameliorated the depression-like symptoms at least for 72 h in learned helplessness test. They both reversed the up-regulated expression of NR1 in the learned helpless mice 1 or 3 days post administration. Different from ketamine, the antidepressant effects of Yueju were not influenced by blockade of amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor. These findings served as preclinical evidence that Yueju may confer acute and long-lasting antidepressant effects by favorably modulating NMDA function in the hippocampus. PMID:26825573

  18. 40 CFR 1.23 - Office of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of the Administrator. 1.23... AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.23 Office of the Administrator. The Environmental Protection Agency is headed by an Administrator who is appointed by the President, by and with the consent of...

  19. 40 CFR 108.4 - Investigation by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Investigation by Regional Administrator... PROGRAMS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION HEARINGS § 108.4 Investigation by Regional Administrator. Upon receipt of any request meeting the requirements of § 108.3, the Regional Administrator shall conduct a full...

  20. 40 CFR 1.23 - Office of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office of the Administrator. 1.23... AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.23 Office of the Administrator. The Environmental Protection Agency is headed by an Administrator who is appointed by the President, by and with the consent of...