Science.gov

Sample records for administrative circulars rev

  1. 76 FR 33210 - Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... and Tubes From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order, 49 FR 19369 (May 7, 1984) (Antidumping Duty Order). On...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 23236, 23237 (May 3, 2010). On June 1, 2010, a domestic... Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010)....

  2. 75 FR 32911 - Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... and Tubes From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order, 49 FR 19369 (May 7, 1984) (Antidumping Duty Order). On...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 20278 (May 1, 2009). On June 1, 2009, a domestic producer... for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 30052 (June 24, 2009). Yieh Phui submitted a response to Section A...

  3. Research Administration in History: The Development of OMB Circular A-110 through Joseph Warner's COGR Subcommittee, 1976-1979

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Phillip E.; Smith, Marie F.

    2008-01-01

    Research administrators can be assisted in resolving issues with awareness of the critical period of policy formation divulged in the Joseph Warner Papers. He and his colleagues on the Subcommittee on Grants and Contracts Provisions of COGR adopted the philosophy that research administrators needed flexibility and reduced paperwork and costs.…

  4. Circular Coinduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosu, Grigore; Goguen, Joseph; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Circular coinduction is a technique for behavioral reasoning that extends cobasis coinduction to specifications with circularities. Because behavioral satisfaction is not recursively enumerable, no algorithm can work for every behavioral statement. However. algorithms using circular coinduction can prove every practical behavioral result that we know. This paper proves the correctness of circular coinduction and some consequences.

  5. Circular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Isaac; Henry, Richard Conn

    2000-07-01

    An extraordinarily simple and transparent derivation of the formula for the acceleration that occurs in uniform circular motion is presented, and is advocated for use in high school and college freshman physics textbooks.

  6. 5 CFR 1310.3 - Availability of circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of circulars. 1310.3 Section 1310.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.3 Availability of circulars. Copies of individual circulars are available at OMB's Internet home page; you...

  7. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false List of current circulars. 1310.5 Section 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5 List of current circulars. The following list includes all circulars in effect as of December 1,...

  8. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false List of current circulars. 1310.5 Section 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5 List of current circulars. The following list includes all circulars in effect as of December 1,...

  9. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false List of current circulars. 1310.5 Section 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5 List of current circulars. The following list includes all circulars in effect as of December 1,...

  10. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of current circulars. 1310.5 Section 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5 List of current circulars. The following list includes all circulars in effect as of December 1,...

  11. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false List of current circulars. 1310.5 Section 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5 List of current circulars. The following list includes all circulars in effect as of December 1,...

  12. 5 CFR 1310.3 - Availability of circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of circulars. 1310.3 Section 1310.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.3 Availability of circulars. Copies of individual circulars are available at OMB's Internet home page; you...

  13. 5 CFR 1310.3 - Availability of circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of circulars. 1310.3 Section 1310.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.3 Availability of circulars. Copies of individual circulars are available at OMB's Internet home page; you...

  14. 39 CFR 233.2 - Circulars and rewards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circulars and rewards. 233.2 Section 233.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION INSPECTION SERVICE AUTHORITY § 233.2 Circulars and rewards. (a) Wanted circulars. The Inspection Service issues wanted circulars to assist...

  15. 39 CFR 233.2 - Circulars and rewards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Circulars and rewards. 233.2 Section 233.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION INSPECTION SERVICE AUTHORITY § 233.2 Circulars and rewards. (a) Wanted circulars. The Inspection Service issues wanted circulars to assist in locating and arresting fugitive...

  16. Stable complex formation between HIV Rev and the nucleosome assembly protein, NAP1, affects Rev function

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, Alan; Murley, Laura Lea; Gao Mian; Wong, Raymond; Clayton, Kiera; Brufatto, Nicole; Canadien, Veronica; Mamelak, Daniel; Chen, Tricia; Richards, Dawn; Zeghouf, Mahel; Greenblatt, Jack; Burks, Christian; Frappier, Lori

    2009-05-25

    The Rev protein of HIV-1 is essential for HIV-1 proliferation due to its role in exporting viral RNA from the nucleus. We used a modified version of tandem affinity purification (TAP) tagging to identify proteins interacting with HIV-1 Rev in human cells and discovered a prominent interaction between Rev and nucleosome assembly protein 1 (Nap1). This interaction was also observed by specific retention of Nap1 from human cell lysates on a Rev affinity column. Nap1 was found to bind Rev through the Rev arginine-rich domain and altered the oligomerization state of Rev in vitro. Overexpression of Nap1 stimulated the ability of Rev to export RNA, reduced the nucleolar localization of Rev, and affected Rev nuclear import rates. The results suggest that Nap-1 may influence Rev function by increasing the availability of Rev.

  17. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  18. Cold Rydberg atoms in circular states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Raithel, Georg

    2012-06-01

    Circular-state Rydberg atoms are interesting in that they exhibit a unique combination of extraordinary properties; long lifetimes (˜n^5), large magnetic moments (l=|m|=n-1) and no first order Stark shift. Circular states have found applications in cavity quantum electrodynamics and precision measurements [1,2], among other studies. In this work we present the production of circular states in an atom trapping apparatus using an adiabatic state-switching method (the crossed-field method [3]). To date, we have observed lifetimes of adiabatically prepared states of several milliseconds. Their relatively large ionization electric fields have been verified by time-of-flight signatures of ion trajectories. We intend to explore the magnetic trapping of circular state Rydberg atoms, as well as their production and interaction properties in ultra-cold and degenerate samples.[4pt] [1] P. Bertet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 14 (2002)[0pt] [2] M. Brune et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 72, 21 (1994)[0pt] [3] D. Delande and J.C. Gay, Europhys. Lett., 5, 303-308 (1988).

  19. 15 CFR 14.6 - Availability of OMB circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of OMB circulars. 14.6 Section 14.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 14.6 Availability of OMB circulars. OMB circulars cited in this part...

  20. 15 CFR 14.6 - Availability of OMB circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of OMB circulars. 14.6 Section 14.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 14.6 Availability of OMB circulars. OMB circulars cited in this part...

  1. 76 FR 62148 - Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Circular'' (76 FR 60593) and ``Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular'' (76 FR 60590). Corrections The... program questions, Amber Ontiveros, Office of Civil Rights, Federal Transit Administration, 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE., Washington, DC 20590, phone: (202) 366-4018, fax: (202) 366-3809, or e-mail,...

  2. Characterization of Circular RNAs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Yang, Li; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated lines of evidence reveal that a large number of circular RNAs are produced in transcriptomes from fruit fly to mouse and human. Unlike linear RNAs shaped with 5' cap and 3' tail, circular RNAs are characterized by covalently closed loop structures without open terminals, thus requiring specific treatments for their identification and validation. Here, we describe a detailed pipeline for the characterization of circular RNAs. It has been successfully applied to the study of circular intronic RNAs derived from intron lariats (ciRNAs) and circular RNAs produced from back spliced exons (circRNAs) in human. PMID:26721494

  3. Measuring cooperative Rev protein-protein interactions on Rev responsive RNA by fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Vercruysse, Thomas; Pawar, Sonalika; De Borggraeve, Wim; Pardon, Els; Pavlakis, George N; Pannecouque, Christophe; Steyaert, Jan; Balzarini, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The export of viral RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the cellular host is a crucial step in the life cycle of HIV-1 that is mediated by the viral Rev protein. One aspect of the Rev function, its multimerization, is still unexplored as a target for antiviral therapy. This is partly due to the lack of a fast and solid system to measure Rev multimerization. We have developed a high throughput in vitro Rev multimerization assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in which real-time Rev-Rev interactions can be measured both in the absence and the presence of Rev specific RRE RNA. Well-characterized Rev multimerization deficient mutants showed reduced FRET as well as unlabeled Rev molecules were able to inhibit the FRET signal demonstrating the specificity of the assay. Upon multimerization along RRE RNA the FRET signal significantly increased but dropped again at equimolar Rev/RRE ratios suggesting that in this condition most Rev molecules are bound as monomers to the RRE. Furthermore, using this assay, we demonstrate that a previously selected llama heavy-chain only antibody was shown to not only prevent the development of Rev multimers but also disassemble the already formed complexes confirming the dynamic nature of the Rev-Rev interactions. The in vitro FRET based multimerization assay facilitates the further study of the basic mechanism of cooperative Rev multimerization along the RRE and is also widely applicable to study the assembly of other functional complexes involving protein homo-multimerization or cooperative protein-protein interactions on RNA or DNA. PMID:21358282

  4. 14 CFR 1260.21 - Compliance With OMB Circular A-110.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Compliance With OMB Circular A-110. 1260.21... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.21 Compliance With OMB Circular A-110. Compliance With OMB Circular A... Circular A-110, Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements with Institutions of...

  5. 5 CFR 1315.19 - Regulatory references to OMB Circular A-125.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regulatory references to OMB Circular A... PROMPT PAYMENT § 1315.19 Regulatory references to OMB Circular A-125. This part supercedes OMB Circular A... to Circular A-125 shall be construed as referring to this part....

  6. 14 CFR 1260.21 - Compliance With OMB Circular A-110.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance With OMB Circular A-110. 1260.21... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.21 Compliance With OMB Circular A-110. Compliance With OMB Circular A... Circular A-110, Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements with Institutions of...

  7. 5 CFR 1315.19 - Regulatory references to OMB Circular A-125.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory references to OMB Circular A... PROMPT PAYMENT § 1315.19 Regulatory references to OMB Circular A-125. This part supercedes OMB Circular A... to Circular A-125 shall be construed as referring to this part....

  8. Optimized Chemical Probes for REV-ERBα

    PubMed Central

    Trump, Ryan P.; Bresciani, Stefano; Cooper, Anthony W. J.; Tellam, James P.; Wojno, Justyna; Blaikley, John; Orband-Miller, Lisa A.; Kashatus, Jennifer A.; Dawson, Helen C.; Loudon, Andrew; Ray, David; Grant, Daniel; Farrow, Stuart N.; Willson, Timothy M.; Tomkinson, Nicholas C. O.

    2015-01-01

    REV-ERBα has emerged as an important target for regulation of circadian rhythm and its associated physiology. Herein, we report on the optimization of a series of REV-ERBα agonists based on GSK4112 (1) for potency, selectivity, and bioavailability. Potent REV-ERBα agonists 4, 10, 16, and 23 are detailed for their ability to suppress BMAL and IL-6 expression from human cells while also demonstrating excellent selectivity over LXRα. Amine 4 demonstrated in vivo bioavailability after either IV or oral dosing. PMID:23656296

  9. 78 FR 21105 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ..., available in Antidumping Duty Order: Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand, 51 FR 8341... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Preliminary... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes...

  10. 78 FR 49255 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Partial... certain circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The period of review (POR) is May 1... initiation of an antidumping duty administrative review of the order on certain circular welded carbon...

  11. Toroidal circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raybould, T. A.; Fedotov, V. A.; Papasimakis, N.; Kuprov, I.; Youngs, I. J.; Chen, W. T.; Tsai, D. P.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that the induced toroidal dipole, represented by currents flowing on the surface of a torus, makes a distinct and indispensable contribution to circular dichroism. We show that toroidal circular dichroism supplements the well-known mechanism involving electric dipole and magnetic dipole transitions. We illustrate this with rigorous analysis of the experimentally measured polarization-sensitive transmission spectra of an artificial metamaterial, constructed from elements of toroidal symmetry. We argue that toroidal circular dichroism will be found in large biomolecules with elements of toroidal symmetry and should be taken into account in the interpretation of circular dichroism spectra of organics.

  12. The Structure of HIV-1 Rev Filaments Suggests a Bilateral Model for Rev-RRE Assembly.

    PubMed

    DiMattia, Michael A; Watts, Norman R; Cheng, Naiqian; Huang, Rick; Heymann, J Bernard; Grimes, Jonathan M; Wingfield, Paul T; Stuart, David I; Steven, Alasdair C

    2016-07-01

    HIV-1 Rev protein mediates the nuclear export of viral RNA genomes. To do so, Rev oligomerizes cooperatively onto an RNA motif, the Rev response element (RRE), forming a complex that engages with the host nuclear export machinery. To better understand Rev oligomerization, we determined four crystal structures of Rev N-terminal domain dimers, which show that they can pivot about their dyad axis, giving crossing angles of 90° to 140°. In parallel, we performed cryoelectron microscopy of helical Rev filaments. Filaments vary from 11 to 15 nm in width, reflecting variations in dimer crossing angle. These structures contain additional density, indicating that C-terminal domains become partially ordered in the context of filaments. This conformational variability may be exploited in the assembly of RRE/Rev complexes. Our data also revealed a third interface between Revs, which offers an explanation for how the arrangement of Rev subunits adapts to the "A"-shaped architecture of the RRE in export-active complexes. PMID:27265851

  13. 2. Northwest circular bastion, seen from edge of southwest circular ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Northwest circular bastion, seen from edge of southwest circular bastion wall. Metal roof beams extend up to form peak. World War II gun installation at right. - Fort Hamilton, Northwest Circular Bastion, Rose Island, Newport, Newport County, RI

  14. 78 FR 14620 - Joint Development: Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... published guidance on the eligibility of joint development activities for FTA funding. 72 FR 5788 (Feb. 7... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR... Federal Transit Administration Joint Development: Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit...

  15. Pharmacological Targeting the REV-ERBs in Sleep/Wake Regulation.

    PubMed

    Amador, Ariadna; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Roberts, Amanda J; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Solt, Laura A; Burris, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock maintains appropriate timing for a wide range of behaviors and physiological processes. Circadian behaviors such as sleep and wakefulness are intrinsically dependent on the precise oscillation of the endogenous molecular machinery that regulates the circadian clock. The identical core clock machinery regulates myriad endocrine and metabolic functions providing a link between sleep and metabolic health. The REV-ERBs (REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) are nuclear receptors that are key regulators of the molecular clock and have been successfully targeted using small molecule ligands. Recent studies in mice suggest that REV-ERB-specific synthetic agonists modulate metabolic activity as well as alter sleep architecture, inducing wakefulness during the light period. Therefore, these small molecules represent unique tools to extensively study REV-ERB regulation of sleep and wakefulness. In these studies, our aim was to further investigate the therapeutic potential of targeting the REV-ERBs for regulation of sleep by characterizing efficacy, and optimal dosing time of the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Applying different experimental paradigms in mice, our studies establish that SR9009 does not lose efficacy when administered more than once a day, nor does tolerance develop when administered once a day over a three-day dosing regimen. Moreover, through use of a time response paradigm, we determined that although there is an optimal time for administration of SR9009 in terms of maximal efficacy, there is a 12-hour window in which SR9009 elicited a response. Our studies indicate that the REV-ERBs are potential therapeutic targets for treating sleep problems as those encountered as a consequence of shift work or jet lag. PMID:27603791

  16. Squaring a Circular Segment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Consider a circular segment (the smaller portion of a circle cut off by one of its chords) with chord length c and height h (the greatest distance from a point on the arc of the circle to the chord). Is there a simple formula involving c and h that can be used to closely approximate the area of this circular segment? Ancient Chinese and Egyptian…

  17. Tunable circular patch antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, G.-L.; Sengupta, D. L.

    1985-10-01

    A method to control the resonant or operating frequencies of circular patch antennas has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. It consists of the placement of passive metallic or tuning posts at approximate locations within the input region of the antenna. Comparison of measured and analytical results seems to establish the validity of a theoretical model proposed to determine the input performance of such circular patch antennas.

  18. Project Execution Plan, Rev. 3

    SciTech Connect

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas

    2002-08-01

    This plan addresses project activities encompassed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division and conforms to the requirements contained in the Life-Cycle Asset Management, DOE Order 430.1A; The Joint Program Office Policy on Project Management in Support of DOE Order 430.1; Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, DOE Order 413.3; the Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning Guide, GPG-FM-010; and other applicable Good Practice Guides; and the FY 2001 Integrated Planning, Accountability, and Budgeting System Policy Guidance. The plan also reflects the milestone philosophies of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, as agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense; and traditional project management philosophies such as the development of life-cycle costs, schedules, and work scope; identification o f roles and responsibilities; and baseline management and controls.

  19. The Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus Rev Protein: Identification of a Novel Nuclear Import Pathway and Nuclear Export Signal among Retroviral Rev/Rev-Like Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gomez Corredor, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The Rev protein is essential for the replication of lentiviruses. Rev is a shuttling protein that transports unspliced and partially spliced lentiviral RNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm via the nucleopore. To transport these RNAs, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev uses the karyopherin β family importin β and CRM1 proteins that interact with the Rev nuclear localization signal (NLS) and nuclear exportation signal (NES), respectively. Recently, we reported the presence of new types of bipartite NLS and nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in the bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) Rev protein. Here we report the characterization of the nuclear import and export pathways of BIV Rev. By using an in vitro nuclear import assay, we showed that BIV Rev is transported into the nucleus by a cytosolic and energy-dependent importin α/β classical pathway. Results from glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays that showed the binding of BIV Rev with importins α3 and α5 were in agreement with those from the nuclear import assay. We also identified a leptomycin B-sensitive NES in BIV Rev, which indicates that the protein is exported via CRM1 like HIV-1 Rev. Mutagenesis experiments showed that the BIV Rev NES maps between amino acids 109 to 121 of the protein. Remarkably, the BIV Rev NES was found to be of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) type instead of the HIV-1 Rev type. In summary, our data showed that the nuclear import mechanism of BIV Rev is novel among Rev proteins characterized so far in lentiviruses. PMID:22379104

  20. Circular free-electron laser

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Kurnit, Norman A.; Cooper, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency, free electron laser utilizing a circular relativistic electron beam accelerator and a circular whispering mode optical waveguide for guiding optical energy in a circular path in the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator such that the circular relativistic electron beam and the optical energy are spatially contiguous in a resonant condition for free electron laser operation. Both a betatron and synchrotron are disclosed for use in the present invention. A free electron laser wiggler is disposed around the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator for generating a periodic magnetic field to transform energy from the circular relativistic electron beam to optical energy.

  1. Compact waveguide circular polarizer

    DOEpatents

    Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-08-16

    A multi-port waveguide is provided having a rectangular waveguide that includes a Y-shape structure with first top arm having a first rectangular waveguide port, a second top arm with second rectangular waveguide port, and a base arm with a third rectangular waveguide port for supporting a TE.sub.10 mode and a TE.sub.20 mode, where the end of the third rectangular waveguide port includes rounded edges that are parallel to a z-axis of the waveguide, a circular waveguide having a circular waveguide port for supporting a left hand and a right hand circular polarization TE.sub.11 mode and is coupled to a base arm broad wall, and a matching feature disposed on the base arm broad wall opposite of the circular waveguide for terminating the third rectangular waveguide port, where the first rectangular waveguide port, the second rectangular waveguide port and the circular waveguide port are capable of supporting 4-modes of operation.

  2. 14 CFR 151.72 - Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... guidelines in Advisory Circulars. 151.72 Section 151.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION....72 Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars. (a) Provisions incorporated; mandatory standards. The technical guidelines in the Advisory Circulars, or parts of...

  3. 28 CFR 31.401 - Compliance with other Federal laws, orders, circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., orders, circulars. 31.401 Section 31.401 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP GRANT..., orders, circulars. The applicant State must further assure and certify that the State and its subgrantees and contractors will adhere to other applicable Federal laws, orders and OMB circulars. These...

  4. 28 CFR 31.401 - Compliance with other Federal laws, orders, circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., orders, circulars. 31.401 Section 31.401 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP GRANT..., orders, circulars. The applicant State must further assure and certify that the State and its subgrantees and contractors will adhere to other applicable Federal laws, orders and OMB circulars. These...

  5. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  6. Copyright Basics. Circular 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    This circular answers some of the questions that are frequently asked about copyright, a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship" including library, dramatic musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. The Copyright Act of 1976 (title 17 of the United States Code), which…

  7. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-03-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a bicycle wheel.

  8. A nucleolar localizing Rev binding element inhibits HIV replication

    PubMed Central

    Michienzi, Alessandro; De Angelis, Fernanda G; Bozzoni, Irene; Rossi, John J

    2006-01-01

    The Rev protein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) facilitates the nuclear export of intron containing viral mRNAs allowing formation of infectious virions. Rev traffics through the nucleolus and shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Rev multimerization and interaction with the export protein CRM1 takes place in the nucleolus. To test the importance of Rev nucleolar trafficking in the HIV-1 replication cycle, we created a nucleolar localizing Rev Response Element (RRE) decoy and tested this for its anti-HIV activity. The RRE decoy provided marked inhibition of HIV-1 replication in both the CEM T-cell line and in primary CD34+ derived monocytes. These results demonstrate that titration of Rev in the nucleolus impairs HIV-1 replication and supports a functional role for Rev trafficking in this sub-cellular compartment. PMID:16712721

  9. 78 FR 34335 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order, 49 FR 19369 (May 7, 1984). These cash deposit... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Preliminary... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded carbon...

  10. Circular inferences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Denève, Sophie

    2013-11-01

    A considerable number of recent experimental and computational studies suggest that subtle impairments of excitatory to inhibitory balance or regulation are involved in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. The current paper aims to relate, specifically and quantitatively, excitatory to inhibitory imbalance with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Considering that the brain constructs hierarchical causal models of the external world, we show that the failure to maintain the excitatory to inhibitory balance results in hallucinations as well as in the formation and subsequent consolidation of delusional beliefs. Indeed, the consequence of excitatory to inhibitory imbalance in a hierarchical neural network is equated to a pathological form of causal inference called 'circular belief propagation'. In circular belief propagation, bottom-up sensory information and top-down predictions are reverberated, i.e. prior beliefs are misinterpreted as sensory observations and vice versa. As a result, these predictions are counted multiple times. Circular inference explains the emergence of erroneous percepts, the patient's overconfidence when facing probabilistic choices, the learning of 'unshakable' causal relationships between unrelated events and a paradoxical immunity to perceptual illusions, which are all known to be associated with schizophrenia. PMID:24065721

  11. Switchable circular beam deflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiaobing; Joshi, Pankaj; Tan, Jin-Yi; De Smet, Jelle; Cuypers, Dieter; Baghdasaryan, Tigran; Vervaeke, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo; De Smet, Herbert

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we report two types of electrically tunable photonic devices with circularly symmetric polarization independent beam steering performance (beam condensing resp. beam broadening). The devices consist of circular micro grating structures combined with nematic liquid crystal (LC) layers with anti-parallel alignment. A single beam deflector converts a polarized and monochromatic green laser beam (λ =543.5 nm) into a diffraction pattern, with the peak intensity appearing at the third order when 0~{{V}\\text{pp}} is applied and at the zeroth order (no deflection) for voltages above 30~{{V}\\text{pp}} . Depending on the shape of the grating structure (non-inverted or inverted), the deflection is inwards or outwards. Both grating types can be made starting from the same diamond-tooled master mold. A polarized white light beam is symmetrically condensed resp. broadened over 2° in the off state and is passed through unchanged in the on state. By stacking two such devices with mutually orthogonal LC alignment layers, polarization independent switchable circular beam deflectors are realized with a high transmittance (>80%), and with the same beam steering performance as the polarization dependent single devices.

  12. Suppression of atherosclerosis by synthetic REV-ERB agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaula, Sadichha; Billon, Cyrielle; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2015-05-08

    The nuclear receptors for heme, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, play important roles in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation. Recently it was demonstrated that reduced REV-ERBα expression in hematopoetic cells in LDL receptor null mice led to increased atherosclerosis. We sought to determine if synthetic REV-ERB agonists that we have developed might have the ability to suppress atherosclerosis in this model. A previously characterized synthetic REV-ERB agonist, SR9009, was used to determine if activation of REV-ERB activity would affect atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerotic plaque size was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in mice administered SR9009 (100 mg/kg) for seven weeks compared to control mice (n = 10 per group). SR9009 treatment of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMDM) reduced the polarization of BMDMs to proinflammatory M1 macrophage while increasing the polarization of BMDMs to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that pharmacological targeting of REV-ERBs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Synthetic REV-ERB agonist treatment reduced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB decreased M1 macrophage polarization. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB increased M2 macrophage polarization.

  13. 77 FR 8808 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of... antidumping duty administrative review of circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of...

  14. 78 FR 71563 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from... Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  15. REV7 counteracts DNA double-strand break resection and impacts PARP inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guotai; Yuan, Jingsong; Mistrik, Martin; Bouwman, Peter; Bartkova, Jirina; Gogola, Ewa; Warmerdam, Daniël; Barazas, Marco; Jaspers, Janneke E.; Watanabe, Kenji; Pieterse, Mark; Kersbergen, Ariena; Sol, Wendy; Celie, Patrick H. N.; Schouten, Philip C.; van den Broek, Bram; Salman, Ahmed; Nieuwland, Marja; de Rink, Iris; de Ronde, Jorma; Jalink, Kees; Boulton, Simon J.; Chen, Junjie; van Gent, Dik C.; Bartek, Jiri; Jonkers, Jos; Borst, Piet; Rottenberg, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Summary Error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is achieved by homologous recombination (HR), and BRCA1 is an important factor for this repair pathway1. In the absence of BRCA1-mediated HR, administration of PARP inhibitors induces synthetic lethality of tumor cells of patients with breast or ovarian cancers2,3. Despite the benefit of this tailored therapy, drug resistance can occur by HR restoration4. Genetic reversion of BRCA1-inactivating mutations can be the underlying mechanism of drug resistance, but this does not explain resistance in all cases5. In particular, little is known about BRCA1-independent restoration of HR. Here, we show that loss of REV7 (also known as MAD2L2) re-establishes CtIP-dependent end resection of DSBs in BRCA1-deficient cells, leading to HR restoration and PARP inhibitor resistance, reversed by ATM kinase inhibition. REV7 is recruited to DSBs in a manner dependent on the H2AX-MDC1-RNF8-RNF168-53BP1 chromatin pathway, and appears to block HR and promote end joining in addition to its regulatory role in DNA damage tolerance6. Finally, we establish that REV7 blocks DSB resection to promote non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) during immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Our results reveal an unexpected critical function of REV7 downstream of 53BP1 in coordinating pathological DSB repair pathway choices in BRCA1-deficient cells. PMID:25799992

  16. Research Administration: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, George H.

    1995-01-01

    The ways in which accountability issues have affected federal-university relationships, particularly in the area of academic research, are examined. Lessons university administrators have learned since issuance of Office of Management and Budget Circular A-21 in 1958, Congressional hearings on the operations of the National Institutes of Health…

  17. Photoelectron angular distributions in bichromatic atomic ionization induced by circularly polarized VUV femtosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douguet, Nicolas; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N.; Gryzlova, Elena V.; Staroselskaya, Ekaterina I.; Venzke, Joel; Bartschat, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    We investigate two-pathway interferences between nonresonant one-photon and resonant two-photon ionization of atomic hydrogen. In particular, we analyze in detail the photoionization mediated by the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic of a femtosecond VUV pulse when the fundamental is tuned near an intermediate atomic state. Following our recent study [Phys. Rev. A 91, 063418 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.063418] of such effects with linearly polarized light, we analyze a similar situation with circularly polarized radiation. As a consequence of the richer structure in circularly polarized light, characterized by its right-handed or left-handed helicity, we present and discuss various important features associated with the photoelectron angular distribution.

  18. Open end correction for a flanged circular tube using the diffusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Naohisa; Kaneko, Fumitoshi

    2013-09-01

    In physics lessons on waves and resonance phenomena in high school and college, we usually consider sound waves in a tube with open or closed ends (Halliday et al 2002 Fundamentals of Physics (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley)). However, it is well known that we need a tube with open end correction ΔL. The correction for a flanged circular tube was first given by Rayleigh (1870 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 161 77-118 1926 The Theory of Sound (New York: Dover)) and experimentally checked by several authors (Bosanquet 1877 Phil. Mag. 4 216; Blaikley 1879 Phil. Mag. 7 339; Boehm 1910 Phys. Rev. 31 341; Bate 1930 Phil. Mag. 10 617; Bate 1937 Phil. Mag. 24 453; Anderson and Ostensen 1928 Phys. Rev. 31 267). In this paper, we show the different methods of obtaining the end correction for a circular tube by using a diffusion process.

  19. 78 FR 27971 - Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... include what is now section 505(j)(7) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 355(j)(7... approval of the drug's NDA or ANDA for reasons of safety or effectiveness or if FDA determines that the... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole...

  20. 75 FR 60493 - Advisory Circular 120-79A, Developing and Implementing an Air Carrier Continuing Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 120-79A, Developing and Implementing an Air Carrier... of Availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the issuance and availability of Advisory Circular...''. This new advisory circular (AC) updates AC 120-79 originally issued on April 21, 2003. This new...

  1. 77 FR 26815 - Opportunity To Comment on the Draft Airport Design Advisory Circular 150/5300-13A

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Opportunity To Comment on the Draft Airport Design Advisory Circular 150... interested parties to review and comment on the Draft ``Airport Design'' Advisory Circular, AC 150/5300-13A. The Advisory Circular provides standards and recommendations for airport design. The FAA has...

  2. 75 FR 70723 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The review covers two firms: Yieh Phui Enterprise... the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan covering...

  3. 75 FR 28557 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time... antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results and Rescission, in Part, of...

  4. RNA-directed remodeling of the HIV-1 protein Rev orchestrates assembly of the Rev–Rev response element complex

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Bhargavi; Crosby, David C; Homer, Christina; Ribeiro, Isabel; Mavor, David; Frankel, Alan D

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 protein Rev controls a critical step in viral replication by mediating the nuclear export of unspliced and singly-spliced viral mRNAs. Multiple Rev subunits assemble on the Rev Response Element (RRE), a structured region present in these RNAs, and direct their export through the Crm1 pathway. Rev-RRE assembly occurs via several Rev oligomerization and RNA-binding steps, but how these steps are coordinated to form an export–competent complex is unclear. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a Rev dimer-RRE complex, revealing a dramatic rearrangement of the Rev-dimer upon RRE binding through re-packing of its hydrophobic protein–protein interface. Rev-RNA recognition relies on sequence-specific contacts at the well-characterized IIB site and local RNA architecture at the second site. The structure supports a model in which the RRE utilizes the inherent plasticity of Rev subunit interfaces to guide the formation of a functional complex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04120.001 PMID:25486594

  5. Condensation of circular DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostin, E. L.

    2013-04-01

    A simple model of a circularly closed double-stranded DNA in a poor solvent is considered as an example of a semi-flexible polymer with self-attraction. To find the ground states, the conformational energy is computed as a sum of the bending and torsional elastic components and the effective self-attraction energy. The model includes a relative orientation or sequence dependence of the effective attraction forces between different pieces of the polymer chain. Two series of conformations are analysed: a multicovered circle (a toroid) and a multifold two-headed racquet. The results are presented as a diagram of state. It is suggested that the stability of particular conformations may be controlled by proper adjustment of the primary structure. Application of the model to other semi-flexible polymers is considered.

  6. CIRCULAR CAVITY SLOT ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Kerley, P.L.

    1959-01-01

    A small-size antenna having a doughnut-shaped field pattern and which can act both as an antenna and a resonant circuit is described. The antenna is of the slotted type and comprises a resonant cavity with a center hole. A circular slot is provided in one wall of the cavity concentric with the hole and a radio frequency source is connected across the slot. The pattern and loading of the antenna are adjusted by varying the position and shape of a center element slidably disposed within the hole and projecting from the slotted side of the resonant cavity. The disclosed structure may also be used to propagate the oscillator signal down a transniission line by replacing the center element with one leg of the transmission line in a spaced relation from the walls of the cavity.

  7. 75 FR 39413 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-44; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Circular 2005-44; Introduction AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... Defense General Services Administration National Aeronautics and Space Administration 48 CFR Chapter 1..., 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION...

  8. Children's Sensitivity to Circular Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Laura A.; Danovitch, Judith H.; Keil, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to evaluate the quality of explanations is an essential part of children's intellectual growth. Explanations can be faulty in structural ways such as when they are circular. A circular explanation reiterates the question as if it were an explanation rather than providing any new information. Two experiments (N=77) examined children's…

  9. Circular chemiresistors for microchemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-03-13

    A circular chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of electrodes is fabricated on an electrically insulating substrate. The pattern of electrodes is arranged in a circle-filling geometry, such as a concentric, dual-track spiral design, or a circular interdigitated design. A drop of a chemically sensitive polymer (i.e., chemiresistive ink) is deposited on the insulating substrate on the electrodes, which spreads out into a thin, circular disk contacting the pair of electrodes. This circularly-shaped electrode geometry maximizes the contact area between the pair of electrodes and the polymer deposit, which provides a lower and more stable baseline resistance than with linear-trace designs. The circularly-shaped electrode pattern also serves to minimize batch-to-batch variations in the baseline resistance due to non-uniform distributions of conductive particles in the chemiresistive polymer film.

  10. Analysis of the influence of subcellular localization of the HIV Rev protein on Rev-dependent gene expression by multi-fluorescence live-cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Horst; Hadian, Kamyar; Ziegler, Manja; Weierich, Claudia; Kramer-Hammerle, Susanne; Kleinschmidt, Andrea; Erfle, Volker; Brack-Werner, Ruth . E-mail: brack@gsf.de

    2006-02-15

    The human immunodeficiency virus Rev protein is a post-transcriptional activator of HIV gene expression. Rev is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein that displays characteristic nuclear/nucleolar subcellular localization in various cell lines. Cytoplasmic localization of Rev occurs under various conditions disrupting Rev function. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between localization of Rev and its functional activity in living cells. A triple-fluorescent imaging assay, called AQ-FIND, was established for automatic quantitative evaluation of nucleocytoplasmic distribution of fluorescently tagged proteins. This assay was used to screen 500 rev genes generated by error-prone PCR for Rev mutants with different localization phenotypes. Activities of the Rev mutants were determined with a second quantitative, dual-fluorescent reporter assay. In HeLa cells, the majority of nuclear Rev mutants had activities similar to wild-type Rev. The activities of Rev mutants with abnormal cytoplasmic localization ranged from moderately impaired to nonfunctional. There was no linear correlation between subcellular distribution and levels of Rev activity. In astrocytes, nuclear Rev mutants showed similar impaired activities as the cytoplasmic wild-type Rev. Our data suggest that steady-state subcellular localization is not a primary regulator of Rev activity but may change as a secondary consequence of altered Rev function. The methodologies described here have potential for studying the significance of subcellular localization for functions of other regulatory factors.

  11. Nuclear spin circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-04-07

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.

  12. 21 CFR 606.122 - Circular of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Circular of information. 606.122 Section 606.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Additional Labeling Standards for Blood and Blood Components §...

  13. 49 CFR 1542.303 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars. 1542.303 Section 1542.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures § 1542.303...

  14. Biallelic inactivation of REV7 is associated with Fanconi anemia.

    PubMed

    Bluteau, Dominique; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Clairmont, Connor; Rousseau, Alix; Ceccaldi, Raphael; Dubois d'Enghien, Catherine; Bluteau, Olivier; Cuccuini, Wendy; Gachet, Stéphanie; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Leblanc, Thierry; Socié, Gérard; Baruchel, André; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; D'Andrea, Alan D; Soulier, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive genetic disease characterized by congenital abnormalities, chromosome instability, progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), and a strong predisposition to cancer. Twenty FA genes have been identified, and the FANC proteins they encode cooperate in a common pathway that regulates DNA crosslink repair and replication fork stability. We identified a child with severe BMF who harbored biallelic inactivating mutations of the translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) gene REV7 (also known as MAD2L2), which encodes the mutant REV7 protein REV7-V85E. Patient-derived cells demonstrated an extended FA phenotype, which included increased chromosome breaks and G2/M accumulation upon exposure to DNA crosslinking agents, γH2AX and 53BP1 foci accumulation, and enhanced p53/p21 activation relative to cells derived from healthy patients. Expression of WT REV7 restored normal cellular and functional phenotypes in the patient's cells, and CRISPR/Cas9 inactivation of REV7 in a non-FA human cell line produced an FA phenotype. Finally, silencing Rev7 in primary hematopoietic cells impaired progenitor function, suggesting that the DNA repair defect underlies the development of BMF in FA. Taken together, our genetic and functional analyses identified REV7 as a previously undescribed FA gene, which we term FANCV. PMID:27500492

  15. Suppression of atherosclerosis by synthetic REV-ERB agonist.

    PubMed

    Sitaula, Sadichha; Billon, Cyrielle; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Solt, Laura A; Burris, Thomas P

    2015-05-01

    The nuclear receptors for heme, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, play important roles in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation. Recently it was demonstrated that reduced REV-ERBα expression in hematopoetic cells in LDL receptor null mice led to increased atherosclerosis. We sought to determine if synthetic REV-ERB agonists that we have developed might have the ability to suppress atherosclerosis in this model. A previously characterized synthetic REV-ERB agonist, SR9009, was used to determine if activation of REV-ERB activity would affect atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerotic plaque size was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in mice administered SR9009 (100 mg/kg) for seven weeks compared to control mice (n = 10 per group). SR9009 treatment of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMDM) reduced the polarization of BMDMs to proinflammatory M1 macrophage while increasing the polarization of BMDMs to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that pharmacological targeting of REV-ERBs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:25800870

  16. Circular Scan Streak Tube Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1980-01-01

    A streak tube having circular scan was designed, built and tested. Continuous circular scan, easily derived from out of phase sine waves applied to the conventional deflection plates, permits the timing of pulses traveling long baselines. At the tube's output a circular array of 720 elements is scanned to provide 30 to 40 picosecond resolution. Initial difficulties with electron bombarded silicon arrays were circumvented by using microchannel plates within the streak tube to provide the needed electronic amplification and digital sensitivity and coupling the 720 element arrays to the electron beam by means of a phosphor on a fiber optics. Two ceramic body tubes with S-20 photocathodes were tested and delivered.

  17. 75 FR 70908 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 22107 (April 27, 2010). The period of review (``POR'') is September 5... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic... of the antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the...

  18. 76 FR 40689 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 81565 (December 28, 2010). The current deadline for the preliminary results of this... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded non- alloy steel pipe...

  19. 76 FR 14649 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 78216 (December 15, 2010). The final results for this... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Extension of Time... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from Mexico for the November 1, 2008, through October 31, 2009,...

  20. 78 FR 9676 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 52688, 52691 (August 30, 2012). The review covers 24... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China...'') is rescinding the administrative review of the countervailing duty order on circular welded...

  1. 76 FR 71938 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 23545, 23546 (April 27, 2011). This review covers two producers/exporters of the... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time... the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand for...

  2. 76 FR 57020 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial... welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The review covers eight firms. Based on a withdrawal of... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel...

  3. Topological Phase and Half-Integer Orbital Angular Momenta in Circular Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshov, V. M.; Mur, V. D.; Narozhny, N. B.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2016-06-01

    We show that there exists a non-trivial topological phase in circular two-dimensional quantum dots with an odd number of electrons. The possible non-zero value of this phase is explained by axial symmetry of two-dimensional quantum systems. The particular value of this phase (π ) is fixed by T-invariance and the Pauli exclusion principle and leads to half-integer values of the angular orbital momentum for ground states of such systems. This conclusion agrees with the experimental data for ground-state energies of few-electron circular quantum dots in perpendicular magnetic field (Schmidt et al. in Phys Rev B 51:5570, 1995). Hence, these data may be considered as the first experimental evidence for the existence of topological phase leading to half-integer quantization of the orbital angular momentum in circular quantum dots with an odd number of electrons.

  4. Beam Rounders for Circular Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    A. Burov; S. Nagaitsev; Ya. Derbenev

    2001-07-01

    By means of linear optics, an arbitrary uncoupled beam can be locally transformed into a round (rotation-invariant) state and then back. This provides an efficient way to round beams in the interaction region of circular colliders.

  5. Circularly-Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Microstrip construction compact for mobile applications. Circularly polarized microstrip antenna made of concentric cylindrical layers of conductive and dielectric materials. Coaxial cable feedlines connected to horizontal and vertical subelements from inside. Vertical subelement acts as ground for horizontal subelement.

  6. Circularization time of binary galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junqueira, S.; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.

    1994-11-01

    We report the results of numerical experiments performed to study the orbital circularization time of binary galaxies. We find that the time scale is quite long (larger than the Hubble time), confirming earlier calculations. The results depend on the initial conditions. From our simulations we obtained a fitting formula for the circularization time as a function of the initial orbital parameters like the pericentric distance, mass ratio, and eccentricity.

  7. REV-ERB and ROR nuclear receptors as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Kojetin, Douglas J.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear receptors REV-ERB (consisting of REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs; consisting of RORα, RORβ and RORγ) are involved in many physiological processes, including regulation of metabolism, development and immunity as well as the circadian rhythm. The recent characterization of endogenous ligands for these former orphan nuclear receptors has stimulated the development of synthetic ligands and opened up the possibility of targeting these receptors to treat several diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, autoimmunity and cancer. This Review focuses on the latest developments in ROR and REV-ERB pharmacology indicating that these nuclear receptors are druggable targets and that ligands targeting these receptors may be useful in the treatment of several disorders. PMID:24577401

  8. Theoretical confirmation of Feynman's hypothesis on the creation of circular vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates: III.

    PubMed

    Infeld, E; Senatorski, A; Skorupski, A A

    2010-12-22

    In two preceding papers (Infeld and Senatorski 2003 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15 5865, Senatorski and Infeld 2004 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16 6589) the authors confirmed Feynman's hypothesis on how circular vortices can be created from oppositely polarized pairs of linear vortices (first paper), and then gave examples of the creation of several different circular vortices from one linear pair (second paper). Here, in part III, we give two classes of examples of how the vortices can interact. The first confirms the intuition that the reconnection processes which join two interacting vortex lines into one, and thus increase the degree of entanglement of the vortex system, practically do not occur. The second shows that new circular vortices can also be created from pairs of oppositely polarized coaxial circular vortices. This seems to contradict the results for such pairs given in Koplik and Levine (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 4745). PMID:21406802

  9. 2 CFR 215.47 - Contract administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract administration. 215.47 Section 215.47 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM... Contract administration. A system for contract administration shall be maintained to ensure...

  10. Circular polarization interferometry: circularly polarized modes of cholesteric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Castillo, A; Eslami, S; Giesselmann, F; Fischer, P

    2014-12-15

    We describe a novel polarization interferometer which permits the determination of the refractive indices for circularly-polarized light. It is based on a Jamin-Lebedeff interferometer, modified with waveplates, and permits us to experimentally determine the refractive indices nL and nR of the respectively left- and right-circularly polarized modes in a cholesteric liquid crystal. Whereas optical rotation measurements only determine the circular birefringence, i.e. the difference (nL - nR), the interferometer also permits the determination of their absolute values. We report refractive indices of a cholesteric liquid crystal in the region of selective (Bragg) reflection as a function of temperature. PMID:25607071

  11. 24 CFR 570.502 - Applicability of uniform administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Governments”; OMB Circular A-128, “Audits of State and Local Governments” (implemented at 24 CFR part 44); and with the following sections of 24 CFR part 85 “Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and... Uniform Administrative requirements of OMB Circular A-110 (implemented at 24 CFR part 84,...

  12. 24 CFR 570.502 - Applicability of uniform administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Governments”; OMB Circular A-128, “Audits of State and Local Governments” (implemented at 24 CFR part 44); and with the following sections of 24 CFR part 85 “Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and... Uniform Administrative requirements of OMB Circular A-110 (implemented at 24 CFR part 84,...

  13. Generalized bi-circular projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pei-Kee

    2008-04-01

    Recall that a projection P on a complex Banach space X is a generalized bi-circular projection if P+[lambda](I-P) is a (surjective) isometry for some [lambda] such that [lambda]=1 and [lambda][not equal to]1. It is easy to see that every hermitian projection is generalized bi-circular. A generalized bi-circular projection is said to be nontrivial if it is not hermitian. Botelho and Jamison showed that a projection P on C([0,1]) is a nontrivial generalized bi-circular projection if and only if P-(I-P) is a surjective isometry. In this article, we prove that if P is a projection such that P+[lambda](I-P) is a (surjective) isometry for some [lambda], then either P is hermitian or [lambda] is an nth unit root of unity. We also show that for any nth unit root [lambda] of unity, there are a complex Banach space X and a nontrivial generalized bi-circular projection P on X such that P+[lambda](I-P) is an isometry.

  14. Circular codes, symmetries and transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Circular codes, putative remnants of primeval comma-free codes, have gained considerable attention in the last years. In fact they represent a second kind of genetic code potentially involved in detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame in protein coding sequences. The discovering of an universal code across species suggested many theoretical and experimental questions. However, there is a key aspect that relates circular codes to symmetries and transformations that remains to a large extent unexplored. In this article we aim at addressing the issue by studying the symmetries and transformations that connect different circular codes. The main result is that the class of 216 C3 maximal self-complementary codes can be partitioned into 27 equivalence classes defined by a particular set of transformations. We show that such transformations can be put in a group theoretic framework with an intuitive geometric interpretation. More general mathematical results about symmetry transformations which are valid for any kind of circular codes are also presented. Our results pave the way to the study of the biological consequences of the mathematical structure behind circular codes and contribute to shed light on the evolutionary steps that led to the observed symmetries of present codes. PMID:25008961

  15. Circular birefringence of banded spherulites.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Freudenthal, John; Nichols, Shane; Kahr, Bart

    2014-04-01

    Crystal optical properties of banded spherulites of 21 different compounds--molecular crystals, polymers, and minerals--with helically twisted fibers were analyzed with Mueller matrix polarimetry. The well-established radial oscillations in linear birefringence of many polycrystalline ensembles is accompanied by oscillations in circular birefringence that cannot be explained by the natural optical activity of corresponding compounds, some of which are centrosymmetric in the crystalline state. The circular birefringence is shown to be a consequence of misoriented, overlapping anisotropic lamellae, a kind of optical activity associated with the mesoscale stereochemistry of the refracting components. Lamellae splay as a consequence of space constraints related to simultaneous twisting of anisometric lamellae. This mechanism is supported by quantitative simulations of circular birefringence arising from crystallite twisting and splaying under confinement. PMID:24625095

  16. Differential study on molecular suppressed ionization in intense linearly and circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yongkai; Liu, Yunquan; Liu, Xianrong; Liu, Hong; Yang, Yudong; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang

    2011-12-01

    We present a differential study on above-threshold ionization of the O2 (N2) molecule as well as the companion atom Xe (Ar) (with close ionization potential) produced by linearly and circularly polarized laser fields (25 fs, 795 nm). The photoelectron angular distributions of the companion target are similar at the same laser condition. In both linearly and circularly polarized fields, we observe that the photoelectron yields of O2 are suppressed in the entire energy spectral range as compared with Xe with fully differential measurements, but not for the N2-Ar pair. This is different from the prediction of photoelectron energy spectra by the model including the interference terms [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.85.2280 85, 2280 (2000)], from which the low-energy photoelectrons of O2 were expected to be strongly suppressed in both linearly and circularly polarized laser fields. Resorting to the basic strong-field ionization picture, we believe that the lower orbital-dependent multiphoton excitation or tunneling possibility of O2 as compared with Xe is responsible for this effect. High-resolution fully differential data pose a stringent test on the current strong-field calculations on molecules.

  17. Podokinetic circular vection: characteristics and interaction with optokinetic circular vection.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Kliegl, K; Kassubek, J; Jürgens, R

    2016-07-01

    Stabilising horizontal body orientation in space without sight on a rotating platform by holding to a stationary structure and circular 'treadmill' stepping in the opposite direction can elicit an illusion of self-turning in space (Bles and Kapteyn in Agressologie 18:325-328, 1977). Because this illusion is analogous to the well-known illusion of optokinetic circular vection (oCV), we call it 'podokinetic circular vection' (pCV) here. Previous studies using eccentric stepping on a path tangential to the rotation found that pCV was always contraversive relative to platform rotation. In contrast, when our subjects stepped at the centre of rotation about their vertical axis, we observed an inverted, ipsiversive pCV as a reproducible trait in many of our subjects. This ipCV occurred at the same latency as the pCV of subjects reporting the actually expected contraversive direction, but had lower gain. In contrast to pCV, the nystagmus accompanying circular treadmill stepping had the same direction in all individuals (slow phase in the direction of platform motion). The direction of an individual's pCV predicted the characteristics of the CV resulting from combined opto- and podokinetic stimulation (circular treadmill stepping while viewing a pattern rotating together with the platform): in individuals with contraversive pCV, latency shortened and both gain and felt naturalness increased in comparison with pure oCV, whereas the opposite (longer latency, reduced gain and naturalness) occurred in individuals with ipCV. Taken together, the reproducibility of ipCV, the constant direction of nystagmus and the fact that pCV direction predicts the outcome of combined stimulation suggest that ipCV is an individual trait of many subjects during compensatory stepping at the centre of rotation. A hypothetical model is presented of how ipCV possibly could arise. PMID:26965438

  18. Maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J; Pellegrini, Marco; Pirillo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-21

    We determine here the number and the list of maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. We prove that there is no maximal dinucleotide circular code having strictly less than 6 elements (maximum size of dinucleotide circular codes). On the other hand, a computer calculus shows that there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with less than 20 elements (maximum size of trinucleotide circular codes). More precisely, there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 elements and no maximal trinucleotide circular code having less than 14 elements. We give the same information for the maximal self-complementary dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. The amino acid distribution of maximal trinucleotide circular codes is also determined. PMID:26382231

  19. Circular RNA expands its territory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chunyang; Lyu, Dongbin; Huang, Shenglin

    2016-03-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) represent a novel class of widespread non-coding RNAs in eukaryotes. They are unusually stable RNA molecules with cell type-specific expression patterns, and are predominantly present in the cytoplasm. We recently demonstrated the existence of abundant circRNAs in exosomes and suggest a potential application of exosomal circRNAs for cancer detection. PMID:27308606

  20. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in boldfaced type at least as large as that used generally in the body of such offering circular: THE... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO...

  1. Circularly polarized wave propagation in magnetofluid dynamics for relativistic electron-positron plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asenjo, Felipe A.; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Hada, Tohru

    2009-12-01

    The dispersion relation for circularly polarized electromagnetic waves propagating in the direction of an external magnetic field in a relativistic electron-positron plasma with arbitrary constant drift velocities is obtained for constant temperature in the homentropic regime. This result is an exact solution of the nonlinear magnetofluid unification field formalism introduced by S. Mahajan [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 035001 (2003)], where the electromagnetic and fluid fields are coupled through the relativistic enthalpy density. The behavior of electromagnetic and Alfvén branches of the dispersion relation are discussed for different temperatures.

  2. 75 FR 36635 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... FR 9162 (March 1, 2010). On March 31, 2010, we received a timely request from Saha Thai Steel Pipe... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 22107 (April 27, 2010). Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review The... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Rescission...

  3. 76 FR 78615 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman... Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). See Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 72173 (November 22, 2011). Currently, the preliminary...

  4. 77 FR 15718 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman... Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). See Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of... Investigations, 76 FR 72164 (November 22, 2011). The current deadline for the preliminary determinations of...

  5. 75 FR 73033 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 51 FR... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Amended Final... published in the Federal Register on October 20, 2010. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes...

  6. Intermolecular masking of the HIV-1 Rev NLS by the cellular protein HIC: Novel insights into the regulation of Rev nuclear import

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The HIV-1 regulatory protein Rev, which is essential for viral replication, mediates the nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts. Rev nuclear function requires active nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, and Rev nuclear import is mediated by the recognition of its Nuclear Localisation Signal (NLS) by multiple import factors, which include transportin and importin β. However, it remains unclear which nuclear import pathway(s) predominate in vivo, and the cellular environment that modulates Rev nucleocytoplasmic shuttling remains to be characterised. Results In our study, we have identified the cellular protein HIC (Human I-mfa domain-Containing protein) as a novel interactor of HIV-1 Rev. We demonstrate that HIC selectively interferes with Rev NLS interaction with importin β and impedes its nuclear import and function, but does not affect Rev nuclear import mediated by transportin. Hence, the molecular determinants mediating Rev-NLS recognition by importin β and transportin appear to be distinct. Furthermore, we have employed HIC and M9 M, a peptide specifically designed to inhibit the transportin-mediated nuclear import pathway, to characterise Rev nuclear import pathways within different cellular environments. Remarkably, we could show that in 293T, HeLa, COS7, Jurkat, U937, THP-1 and CEM cells, Rev nuclear import is cell type specific and alternatively mediated by transportin or importin β, in a mutually exclusive fashion. Conclusions Rev cytoplasmic sequestration by HIC may represent a novel mechanism for the control of Rev function. These studies highlight that the multivalent nature of the Rev NLS for different import receptors enables Rev to adapt its nuclear trafficking strategy. PMID:21401918

  7. Circular on planned parenthood, 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    In 1987 fourteen units of the Government of Henan issued a Circular stating that: "Planned parenthood must be publicized deep into the grass roots and among the people, and importance must be attached to results." The Circular stresses: "In the propaganda drive, it is necessary to successfully grasp three key links: 1. It is necessary to disseminate intensively the important directive on population problems that is contained in the report of the 13th CPC National Congress and the seriousness of the population situation of our country and province so that the cadres and the masses can understand the relationship between population control and the achievement of the strategic target of the three big steps, understand the reason for carrying out planned parenthood, understand that the one-child policy is still advocated, and conscientiously carry out planned parenthood. 2. It is essential to succeed in propagating knowledge of contraception, sterilization, childbirth, and child care and in conducting ideological education for those who undergo operations and for their family members. 3. It is imperative to visit those who have undergone operations and to help them solve practically their difficulties in making a living." The Circular concludes by demanding that under the unified leadership of party committees and governments at all levels, the propaganda drive be carried out by relying on the efforts of all of society. In conjunction with their own work, departments, including the propaganda, education, public health, and cultural departments, must carry out propaganda and education for planned parenthood. PMID:12346601

  8. The circular internal hydraulic jump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, S. A.; Kavcic, I.

    Circular hydraulic jumps are familiar in single layers. Here we report the discovery of similar jumps in two-layer flows. A thin jet of fluid impinging vertically onto a rigid horizontal plane surface submerged in a deep layer of less-dense miscible fluid spreads radially, and a near-circular internal jump forms within a few centimetres from the point of impact with the plane surface. A jump is similarly formed as a jet of relatively less-dense fluid rises to the surface of a deep layer of fluid, but it appears less stable or permanent in form. Several experiments are made to examine the case of a downward jet onto a horizontal plate, the base of a square or circular container. The inlet Reynolds numbers, Re, of the jet range from 112 to 1790. Initially jumps have an undular, laminar form with typically 2-4 stationary waves on the interface between the dense and less-dense layers but, as the depth of the dense layer beyond the jump increases, the transitions become more abrupt and turbulent, resulting in mixing between the two layers. During the transition to a turbulent regime, single and sometimes moving multiple cusps are observed around the periphery of jumps. A semi-empirical model is devised that relates the parameters of the laboratory experiment, i.e. flow rate, inlet nozzle radius, kinematic viscosity and reduced gravity, to the layer depth beyond the jump and the radius at which an undular jump occurs. The experiments imply that surface tension is not an essential ingredient in the formation of circular hydraulic jumps and demonstrate that stationary jumps can exist in stratified shear flows which can be represented as two discrete layers. No stationary circular undular jumps are found, however, in the case of a downward jet of dense fluid when the overlying, less-dense, fluid is stratified, but a stationary turbulent transition is observed. This has implications for the existence of stationary jumps in continuously stratified geophysical flows: results

  9. Rev-RRE Functional Activity Differs Substantially Among Primary HIV-1 Isolates.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Patrick E; Tebit, Denis M; Rekosh, David; Hammarskjold, Marie-Louise

    2016-09-01

    The HIV-1 replication cycle requires the nucleocytoplasmic export of intron-containing viral RNAs, a process that is ordinarily restricted. HIV overcomes this by means of the viral Rev protein, which binds to an RNA secondary structure called the Rev response element (RRE) present in all unspliced or incompletely spliced viral RNA transcripts. The resulting mRNP complex is exported through interaction with cellular factors. The Rev-RRE binding interaction is increasingly understood to display remarkable structural plasticity, but little is known about how Rev-RRE sequence differences affect functional activity. To study this issue, we utilized a lentiviral vector assay in which vector titer is dependent on the activity of selected Rev-RRE pairs. We found that Rev-RRE functional activity varies significantly (up to 24-fold) between naturally occurring viral isolates. The activity differences of the Rev-RRE cognate pairs track closely with Rev, but not with RRE activity. This variation in Rev activity is not correlated with differences in Rev steady state protein levels. These data suggest that Rev sequence differences drive substantial variation in Rev-RRE functional activity between patients. Such variation may play a role in viral adaptation to different immune milieus within and between patients and may be significant in the establishment of latency. The identification of differences in Rev-RRE functional activity in naturally occurring isolates may also permit more efficient production of lentiviral vectors. PMID:27147495

  10. Exon circularization requires canonical splice signals.

    PubMed

    Starke, Stefan; Jost, Isabelle; Rossbach, Oliver; Schneider, Tim; Schreiner, Silke; Hung, Lee-Hsueh; Bindereif, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs), an abundant class of noncoding RNAs in higher eukaryotes, are generated from pre-mRNAs by circularization of adjacent exons. Using a set of 15 circRNAs, we demonstrated their cell-type-specific expression and circular versus linear processing in mammalian cells. Northern blot analysis combined with RNase H cleavage conclusively proved a circular configuration for two examples, LPAR1 and HIPK3. To address the circularization mechanism, we analyzed the sequence requirements using minigenes derived from natural circRNAs. Both canonical splice sites are required for circularization, although they vary in flexibility and potential use of cryptic sites. Surprisingly, we found that no specific circRNA exon sequence is necessary and that potential flanking intron structures can modulate circularization efficiency. In combination with splice inhibitor assays, our results argue that the canonical spliceosomal machinery functions in circRNA biogenesis, constituting an alternative splicing mode. PMID:25543144

  11. User Instructions for the Systems Assessment Capability, Rev. 1, Computer Codes Volume 3: Utility Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Miley, Terri B.; Nichols, William E.; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2004-09-14

    This document contains detailed user instructions for a suite of utility codes developed for Rev. 1 of the Systems Assessment Capability. The suite of computer codes for Rev. 1 of Systems Assessment Capability performs many functions.

  12. 78 FR 17637 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico: Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Rescission of Administrative Review in Part, 75 FR 20342 (April 19... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico: Notice of Amended... welded non-alloy steel pipe from Mexico. The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2007, through...

  13. 76 FR 3612 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759... Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 70723 (November 18... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan; Extension of...

  14. Flexural Vibrations of Circular Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, I. K.

    1998-03-01

    For circular cylindrical beams, the Timoshenko theory, which includes shear and rotary effects, can be applied by introducing a constantK‧=0·9. The study presented here takes into account the actual configuration and thus makes it an integral part of the analysis. A variational approach previously used [7] is followed. A simplification of the three-dimensional problem is obtained using the inverse method due to St. Venant. A biquadratic equation yields numerical results for the natural frequencies of the first three modes for the following cases: simply supported, fixed-fixed, free-free and fixed-free.

  15. Circular polarization induced by the three-dimensional chiral structure of human sweat ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayut, Itai; Ben Ishai, Paul; Agranat, Aharon J.; Feldman, Yuri

    2014-04-01

    The upper part of the human eccrine sweat ducts, embedded within the epidermis layer, have a well-defined helical structure. It was recently suggested that, as electromagnetic entities, the sweat ducts interact with sub-mm waves [Y. Feldman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 128102 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.128102]. Although correlation between changes in the reflectance spectrum in this frequency range and physiological activities has been shown, a direct link between the electromagnetic reflection and the helical structure itself has remained to be established. The fact that the sweat ducts manifest natural homochirality is henceforth used to produce this link. We report the detection of circular polarization asymmetry in the electromagnetic reflection from the human skin at sub-THz frequencies in vivo. We compare the results to numerical simulations and to measurements of a fabricated metamaterial. We argue that the observed circular dichroism can be interpreted uniquely as the signature of the helical structure itself. By twisting reflected electromagnetic waves, the human skin exhibits properties which are usually discussed only in the framework of metamaterial science.

  16. Structural Basis of Rev1-mediated Assembly of a Quaternary Vertebrate Translesion Polymerase Complex Consisting of Rev1, Heterodimeric Polymerase (Pol) ζ, and Pol κ*

    PubMed Central

    Wojtaszek, Jessica; Lee, Chul-Jin; D'Souza, Sanjay; Minesinger, Brenda; Kim, Hyungjin; D'Andrea, Alan D.; Walker, Graham C.; Zhou, Pei

    2012-01-01

    DNA synthesis across lesions during genomic replication requires concerted actions of specialized DNA polymerases in a potentially mutagenic process known as translesion synthesis. Current models suggest that translesion synthesis in mammalian cells is achieved in two sequential steps, with a Y-family DNA polymerase (κ, η, ι, or Rev1) inserting a nucleotide opposite the lesion and with the heterodimeric B-family polymerase ζ, consisting of the catalytic Rev3 subunit and the accessory Rev7 subunit, replacing the insertion polymerase to carry out primer extension past the lesion. Effective translesion synthesis in vertebrates requires the scaffolding function of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Rev1 that interacts with the Rev1-interacting region of polymerases κ, η, and ι and with the Rev7 subunit of polymerase ζ. We report the purification and structure determination of a quaternary translesion polymerase complex consisting of the Rev1 CTD, the heterodimeric Pol ζ complex, and the Pol κ Rev1-interacting region. Yeast two-hybrid assays were employed to identify important interface residues of the translesion polymerase complex. The structural elucidation of such a quaternary translesion polymerase complex encompassing both insertion and extension polymerases bridged by the Rev1 CTD provides the first molecular explanation of the essential scaffolding function of Rev1 and highlights the Rev1 CTD as a promising target for developing novel cancer therapeutics to suppress translesion synthesis. Our studies support the notion that vertebrate insertion and extension polymerases could structurally cooperate within a megatranslesion polymerase complex (translesionsome) nucleated by Rev1 to achieve efficient lesion bypass without incurring an additional switching mechanism. PMID:22859295

  17. Single-molecule studies reveal that DEAD box protein DDX1 promotes oligomerization of HIV-1 Rev on the Rev response element.

    PubMed

    Robertson-Anderson, Rae M; Wang, Jun; Edgcomb, Stephen P; Carmel, Andrew B; Williamson, James R; Millar, David P

    2011-07-29

    Oligomeric assembly of Rev on the Rev response element (RRE) is essential for the nuclear export of unspliced and singly spliced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral mRNA transcripts. Several host factors, including the human DEAD box protein DDX1, are also known to be required for efficient Rev function. In this study, spontaneous assembly and dissociation of individual Rev-RRE complexes in the presence or absence of DDX1 were observed in real time via single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Binding of up to eight fluorescently labeled Rev monomers to a single RRE molecule was visualized, and the event frequencies and corresponding binding and dissociation rates for the different Rev-RRE stoichiometries were determined. The presence of DDX1 eliminated a second kinetic phase present during the initial Rev binding step, attributed to nonproductive nucleation events, resulting in increased occurrence of higher-order Rev-RRE stoichiometries. This effect was further enhanced upon the addition of a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog (adenylyl-imidophosphate), whereas ADP had no effect beyond that of DDX1 alone. Notably, the first three Rev monomer binding events were accelerated in the presence of DDX1 and adenylyl-imidophosphate, while the dissociation rates remained unchanged. Measurements performed across a range of DDX1 concentrations suggest that DDX1 targets Rev rather than the RRE to promote oligomeric assembly. Moreover, DDX1 is able to restore the oligomerization activity of a Rev mutant that is otherwise unable to assemble on the RRE beyond a monomeric complex. Taken together, these results suggest that DDX1 acts as a cellular cofactor by promoting oligomerization of Rev on the RRE. PMID:21763499

  18. 40 CFR 307.32 - Verification, award, and administrative hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Circular A-122; States and political subdivisions—OMB Circular A-87; profit-making organizations—48 CFR... performed effectively, as provided in 40 CFR 300.120(e)(3) and 300.400(h); and (4) Only to the extent that... administrative hearings. 307.32 Section 307.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  19. 18 CFR 740.7 - Administration of financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-102, Revised, (34 CFR part 256), entitled “Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants-in-Aid to State and Local Governments;” (2) Federal Management Circular (FMC) 74-4 (34 CFR part 255), entitled... A-73 (34 CFR part 251), entitled “Audit of Federal Operations and Programs;” (4) OMB Circular...

  20. 18 CFR 740.7 - Administration of financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-102, Revised, (34 CFR part 256), entitled “Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants-in-Aid to State and Local Governments;” (2) Federal Management Circular (FMC) 74-4 (34 CFR part 255), entitled... A-73 (34 CFR part 251), entitled “Audit of Federal Operations and Programs;” (4) OMB Circular...

  1. 18 CFR 740.7 - Administration of financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-102, Revised, (34 CFR part 256), entitled “Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants-in-Aid to State and Local Governments;” (2) Federal Management Circular (FMC) 74-4 (34 CFR part 255), entitled... A-73 (34 CFR part 251), entitled “Audit of Federal Operations and Programs;” (4) OMB Circular...

  2. Physics at Future Circular Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotwal, Ashutosh

    2016-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider has been a grand success with the discovery of the Higgs boson, with bright prospects for additional discoveries since the recent increase in collider energy and the anticipated large datasets. Big open questions such as the nature of dark matter, the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe, and the theoretical puzzle of the finely-tuned parameters in the Higgs sector, demand new physics principles that extend the established Standard Model paradigm. Future circular colliders in a substantially larger tunnel can house both a high luminosity electron-positron collider for precision measurements of Higgs and electroweak parameters, as well as a very high energy proton-proton collider which can directly manifest particles associated with these new physics principles. We discuss the physics goals of these future circular colliders, and the prospects for elucidating fundamental new laws of nature that will significantly extend our understanding of the Universe. Detailed studies of the discovery potential in specific benchmark models will be presented, with implications for detector design.

  3. Method of oriented circular dichroism.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y; Huang, H W; Olah, G A

    1990-01-01

    We present a new method for determining the orientation of alpha-helical sections of proteins or peptides in membrane. To apply this method, membranes containing proteins must be prepared in a multilayer array. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the multilayer sample are then measured at the normal as well as oblique incident angles with respect to the bilayer planes; we call such spectra oriented circular dichroism (OCD). The procedure of OCD measurement, particularly the ways to avoid the spectral artifacts due to the effects of dielectric interfaces, linear dichroism and birefringence, and the method of data analysis are described in detail. To illustrate the method, we analyze the OCD of alamethicin in diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine multilayers. We conclude unambiguously that the helical section of alamethicin is parallel to the membrane normal when the sample is in the full-hydration state, but the helical section rotates to the plane of membrane when the sample is in a low-hydration state. We also obtained the parallel and perpendicular CD spectra of alpha-helix, and found them to be in agreement with previous theoretical calculations based on the exciton theory. These spectra are useful for analyzing protein orientations in future experiments. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:2344464

  4. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-04-16

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  5. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2008-06-24

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  6. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2011-06-14

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  7. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-02-12

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  8. Nuclear receptor REV-ERBα mediates circadian sensitivity to mortality in murine vesicular stomatitis virus-induced encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gagnidze, Khatuna; Hajdarovic, Kaitlyn H; Moskalenko, Marina; Karatsoreos, Ilia N; McEwen, Bruce S; Bulloch, Karen

    2016-05-17

    Certain components and functions of the immune system, most notably cytokine production and immune cell migration, are under circadian regulation. Such regulation suggests that circadian rhythms may have an effect on disease onset, progression, and resolution. In the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-induced encephalitis model, the replication, caudal penetration, and survivability of intranasally applied VSV depends on both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. In the current study, we investigated the effect of circadian time of infection on the progression and outcome of VSV-induced encephalitis and demonstrated a significant decrease in the survival rate in mice infected at the start of the rest cycle, zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0). The lower survival rate in these mice was associated with higher levels of circulating chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), a greater number of peripherally derived immune cells accumulating in the olfactory bulb (OB), and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, indicating an immune-mediated pathology. We also found that the acrophase of molecular circadian clock component REV-ERBα mRNA expression in the OB coincides with the start of the active cycle, ZT12, when VSV infection results in a more favorable outcome. This result led us to hypothesize that REV-ERBα may mediate the circadian effect on survival following VSV infection. Blocking REV-ERBα activity before VSV administration resulted in a significant increase in the expression of CCL2 and decreased survival in mice infected at the start of the active cycle. These data demonstrate that REV-ERBα-mediated inhibition of CCL2 expression during viral-induced encephalitis may have a protective effect. PMID:27143721

  9. Dominance of the Breit interaction in the cross section and circular polarization of x-ray radiation following longitudinally-polarized-electron-impact excitation of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhan-Bin; Dong, Chen-Zhong; Jiang, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Longitudinally-polarized-electron-impact excitation cross sections from the ground state to the individual magnetic sublevels of the excited state 1s2s22p3/2(J = 2) of highly charged Be-like ions are calculated using a fully relativistic distorted-wave method. The contributions of the Breit interaction to the cross sections and circular polarizations of the 1s2s22p3/2(J = 2)→1s22s2(J = 0) magnetic quadrupole (M2) line for selected Be-like Ag43+, Ho63+, and Bi79+ ions are investigated systematically. It is found that the Breit interaction has a large effect and makes the cross sections increase, especially to the mf = -1 and -2 sublevels, the Breit interaction can modify the cross sections by several orders of magnitude. These dramatic influences also lead to a remarkable decrease in the circular polarization of subsequent x-ray radiation, the character of which becomes more and more evident with increasing incident energy and atomic number. And all these characteristics are very different from the conclusions for the linear polarization of radiation following the electron-impact process [S. Fritzsche, A. Surzhykov, and T. Stöhlker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113001 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.113001; Z. W. Wu, J. Jiang, and C. Z. Dong, Phys. Rev. A 84, 032713 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.032713].

  10. Inhibition of the HIV Rev transactivator : a new target for therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Heguy, A

    1997-01-01

    The viral transactivator Rev is essential for HIV replication, since it allows the nuclear export of unspliced and partially spliced viral mRNAs that encode the structural proteins. Rev is an RNA binding protein that interacts with a highly structured RNA element, the RRE, found within the envelope sequences. This viral protein also interacts with cellular proteins, termed nucleoporins, and acts as an adaptor between the viral mRNAs and the cellular nuclear export machinery. Both interactions are specific, and required for Rev function. Because of its crucial role in the HIV replication cycle, and its novel mechanism of action, Rev represents an ideal target for therapeutic intervention. This review describes the efforts towards Rev inhibition. Gene therapy approaches, including the expression of trans-dominant mutants and RNA decoys, as well as antisense therapies and small molecule inhibitors of Rev-RRE binding or Rev interaction with the cellular machinery will be discussed PMID:9206979

  11. Electrodynamics of circular dichroism and its application in the construction of a circular polaroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volobuev, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    Electrodynamic principles of circular dichroism are developed using a concept of conducting circular structures in matter. A simplified representation of material equations for an optically active medium is obtained in the absence of a transition to the complex domain. A dependence of the absorption coefficient of a circular polarization as a component of the linearly polarized radiation on material parameters is found. Such parameters are analyzed to reveal a possibility of construction of a circular polaroid.

  12. A Random Walk on a Circular Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, W.-K.; Lee, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This short note introduces an interesting random walk on a circular path with cards of numbers. By using high school probability theory, it is proved that under some assumptions on the number of cards, the probability that a walker will return to a fixed position will tend to one as the length of the circular path tends to infinity.

  13. Microstrip Antenna Generates Circularly Polarized Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.

    1986-01-01

    Circular microstrip antenna excited with higher order transverse magnetic (TM) modes generates circularly polarized, conical radiation patterns. Found both theoretically and experimentally that peak direction of radiation pattern is varied within wide angular range by combination of mode selection and loading substrate with materials of different dielectric constants.

  14. Circular RNAs: diversity of form and function.

    PubMed

    Lasda, Erika; Parker, Roy

    2014-12-01

    It is now clear that there is a diversity of circular RNAs in biological systems. Circular RNAs can be produced by the direct ligation of 5' and 3' ends of linear RNAs, as intermediates in RNA processing reactions, or by "backsplicing," wherein a downstream 5' splice site (splice donor) is joined to an upstream 3' splice site (splice acceptor). Circular RNAs have unique properties including the potential for rolling circle amplification of RNA, the ability to rearrange the order of genomic information, protection from exonucleases, and constraints on RNA folding. Circular RNAs can function as templates for viroid and viral replication, as intermediates in RNA processing reactions, as regulators of transcription in cis, as snoRNAs, and as miRNA sponges. Herein, we review the breadth of circular RNAs, their biogenesis and metabolism, and their known and anticipated functions. PMID:25404635

  15. Gauge-Invariant Formulation of Circular Dichroism.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Nathaniel; de Boeij, Paul L; Romaniello, Pina; Berger, J A

    2016-07-12

    Standard formulations of magnetic response properties, such as circular dichroism spectra, are plagued by gauge dependencies, which can lead to unphysical results. In this work, we present a general gauge-invariant and numerically efficient approach for the calculation of circular dichroism spectra from the current density. First we show that in this formulation the optical rotation tensor, the response function from which circular dichroism spectra can be obtained, is independent of the origin of the coordinate system. We then demonstrate that its trace is independent of the gauge origin of the vector potential. We also show how gauge invariance can be retained in practical calculations with finite basis sets. As an example, we explain how our method can be applied to time-dependent current-density-functional theory. Finally, we report gauge-invariant circular dichroism spectra obtained using the adiabatic local-density approximation. The circular dichroism spectra we thus obtain are in good agreement with experiment. PMID:27295541

  16. PROLink-Single Step Circularization and Purification Procedure for the Generation of an Improved Variant of Human Growth Hormone.

    PubMed

    Rasche, Nicolas; Tonillo, Jason; Rieker, Marcel; Becker, Stefan; Dorr, Brent; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Betz, Ulrich A K; Hock, Björn; Kolmar, Harald

    2016-05-18

    Human growth hormone (hGH) plays an important role during human development and is also an approved therapeutic for the treatment of several diseases. However, one major drawback of hGH is its short circulating half-life requiring frequent administration, which is inconvenient and painful for the patients. Recent publications indicate that circularization greatly increases the stability of proteins due to their protection from exoproteolytic attack and a higher thermal stability of the circular form. Using sortase A, a transpeptidase isolated from Staphylococcus aureus, we developed a single step solid-phase circularization and purification procedure resulting in a circular version of hGH with improved properties. We could show that circular hGH binds to the recombinant hGH receptor with binding kinetics similar to those of linear hGH and that circularization does not alter the biological activity of hGH in vitro. Besides, circular hGH showed almost complete resistance toward exoproteolytic attack and slightly increased thermal stability which could possibly translate into an extended plasma half-life. The single step solid-phase circularization and purification procedure is in principle a generic process, which could also be applied for other proteins that meet the requirements for circularization. PMID:27108993

  17. Targeted cleavage of HIV RRE RNA by Rev-coupled transition metal chelates.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Jeff C; Cowan, J A

    2011-06-29

    A series of compounds that target reactive metal chelates to the HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) mRNA have been synthesized. Dissociation constants and chemical reactivity toward HIV RRE RNA have been determined and evaluated in terms of reduction potential, coordination unsaturation, and overall charge associated with the metal-chelate-Rev complex. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) were linked to a lysine side chain of a Rev-derived peptide by either EDC/NHS or isothiocyanate coupling. The resulting chelate-Rev (EDTA-Rev, DTPA-Rev, NTA-Rev, and DOTA-Rev) conjugates were used to form coordination complexes with Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Cu(2+) such that the arginine-rich Rev peptide could mediate localization of the metal chelates to the Rev peptide's high-affinity mRNA binding partner, RRE stem loop IIB. Metal complexes of the extended peptides GGH-Rev and KGHK-Rev, which also contain N-terminal peptidic chelators (ATCUN motifs), were studied for comparison. A fluorescence titration assay revealed high-affinity RRE RNA binding by all 22 metal-chelate-Rev species, with K(D) values ranging from ~0.2 to 16 nM, indicating little to no loss of RNA affinity due to the coupling of the metal chelates to the Rev peptide. Dissociation constants for binding at a previously unobserved low-affinity site are also reported. Rates of RNA modification by each metal-chelate-Rev species were determined and varied from ~0.28 to 4.9 nM/min but were optimal for Cu(2+)-NTA-Rev. Metal-chelate reduction potentials were determined and varied from -228 to +1111 mV vs NHE under similar solution conditions, allowing direct comparison of reactivity with redox thermodynamics. Optimal activity was observed when the reduction potential for the metal center was poised between those of the two principal co-reagents for metal-promoted formation of

  18. The Nuclear Receptor Rev-erbα Controls Circadian Thermogenic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Everett, Logan J.; Loro, Emanuele; Briggs, Erika R.; Bugge, Anne; Hou, Catherine; Ferrara, Christine; Seale, Patrick; Pryma, Daniel A.; Khurana, Tejvir S.; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2013-01-01

    Circadian oscillation of body temperature is a basic, evolutionary-conserved feature of mammalian biology1. Additionally, homeostatic pathways allow organisms to protect their core temperatures in response to cold exposure2. However, the mechanism responsible for coordinating daily body temperature rhythm and adaptability to environmental challenges is unknown. Here we show that the nuclear receptor Rev-erbα, a powerful transcriptional repressor, links circadian and thermogenic networks through the regulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Mice exposed to cold fare dramatically better at 5 AM (Zeitgeber time 22) when Rev-erbα is barely expressed than at 5 PM (ZT10) when Rev-erbα is abundant. Deletion of Rev-erbα markedly improves cold tolerance at 5 PM, indicating that overcoming Rev-erbα-dependent repression is a fundamental feature of the thermogenic response to cold. Physiological induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) by cold temperatures is preceded by rapid down-regulation of Rev-erbα in BAT. Rev-erbα represses UCP1 in a brown adipose cell-autonomous manner and BAT UCP1 levels are high in Rev-erbα-null mice even at thermoneutrality. Genetic loss of Rev-erbα also abolishes normal rhythms of body temperature and BAT activity. Thus, Rev-erbα acts as a thermogenic focal point required for establishing and maintaining body temperature rhythm in a manner that is adaptable to environmental demands. PMID:24162845

  19. The nuclear receptor Rev-erbα controls circadian thermogenic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gerhart-Hines, Zachary; Feng, Dan; Emmett, Matthew J; Everett, Logan J; Loro, Emanuele; Briggs, Erika R; Bugge, Anne; Hou, Catherine; Ferrara, Christine; Seale, Patrick; Pryma, Daniel A; Khurana, Tejvir S; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2013-11-21

    Circadian oscillation of body temperature is a basic, evolutionarily conserved feature of mammalian biology. In addition, homeostatic pathways allow organisms to protect their core temperatures in response to cold exposure. However, the mechanism responsible for coordinating daily body temperature rhythm and adaptability to environmental challenges is unknown. Here we show that the nuclear receptor Rev-erbα (also known as Nr1d1), a powerful transcriptional repressor, links circadian and thermogenic networks through the regulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Mice exposed to cold fare considerably better at 05:00 (Zeitgeber time 22) when Rev-erbα is barely expressed than at 17:00 (Zeitgeber time 10) when Rev-erbα is abundant. Deletion of Rev-erbα markedly improves cold tolerance at 17:00, indicating that overcoming Rev-erbα-dependent repression is a fundamental feature of the thermogenic response to cold. Physiological induction of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) by cold temperatures is preceded by rapid downregulation of Rev-erbα in BAT. Rev-erbα represses Ucp1 in a brown-adipose-cell-autonomous manner and BAT Ucp1 levels are high in Rev-erbα-null mice, even at thermoneutrality. Genetic loss of Rev-erbα also abolishes normal rhythms of body temperature and BAT activity. Thus, Rev-erbα acts as a thermogenic focal point required for establishing and maintaining body temperature rhythm in a manner that is adaptable to environmental demands. PMID:24162845

  20. REV3L modulates cisplatin sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjie; Sheng, Wenjiong; Yu, Chenxiao; Cao, Jianping; Zhou, Jundong; Wu, Jinchang; Zhang, Huojun; Zhang, Shuyu

    2015-09-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 80-85% of all cases of lung cancer. Cisplatin plays a significant role in the management of human lung cancer. Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is involved in DNA damage repair. DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ) is able to mediate the DNA replication bypass of DNA damage, which is suggested to be involved in chemoresistance. REV3L is the catalytic subunit of Pol ζ. Due to its critical role in translesion DNA synthesis, whether REV3L modulates cisplatin response in NSCLC cells remains unknown. In this study, REV3L overexpression and silencing H1299 cell lines were established. The reports showed that cisplatin induced the expression of REV3L by recruiting Sp1 to its promoter. Similar results were obtained when the ability of the cells to express luciferase from a platinated plasmid was measured. Co-transfection of the reporter with the REV3L overexpression vector or REV3L plus REV7L significantly enhanced the reporter activity. Nuclear condensation and fragmentation of shRNA-REV3L H1299 cells were more pronounced than shRNA-NC H1299 cells after cisplatin exposure, indicating that REV3L overexpression abolished cisplatin-induced DNA damage. Moreover, a forced expression of REV3L conferred the resistance of H1299 cells to cisplatin, whereas the knockdown of REV3L sensitized cisplatin efficacy in H1299 cells. Taken together, we demonstrated that inhibition of REV3L sensitized lung cancer H1299 cells to cisplatin treatment. Thus, REV3L may be a novel target for the chemotherapy of NSCLC. PMID:26165320

  1. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  2. Interaction of a circularly polarised gravitational wave with a charged particle in a static magnetic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Saha, Anirban; Saha, Swarup

    2015-06-01

    Interaction of a charged particle in a static magnetic background, i.e., a Landau system with circularly polarised gravitational wave (GW) is studied quantum mechanically in the long wavelength and low velocity limit. We quantize the classical Hamiltonian following (Speliotopoulos in Phys Rev D 51:1701, 1995). The rotating polarization vectors of the circularly polarized GW are employed to form a unique directional triad which served as the coordinate axes. The Schrodinger equations for the system are cast in the form of a set of coupled linear differential equations. This system is solved by iterative technique. We compute the time-evolution of the position and momentum expectation values of the particle. The results show that the resonance behaviour obtained earlier (Macedo and Nelson in Astrophys J 362:584, 1990; Papadopoulos in Astron Astrophys 396:1045, 2002) by classical treatements of the system has a quantum analogue not only for the linearly polarized GW (Gangopadhyay and Saha in Mod Phys Lett A 27:1250192, 2012), but for circularly polarized GW as well.

  3. Surgery for malposition of the great arteries: the REV procedure.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Duccio; Lecompte, Yves; Tomasco, Biagio; Cohen, Laurence; Vouhé, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The REV procedure was introduced in 1980 to treat transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and pulmonary stenosis and malpositions similar to transposition of the great arteries (TGA). It aims at overcoming the drawbacks and limitations of the classic Rastelli operation, such as subaortic stenosis, late ventricular deterioration, arrhythmias and sudden death. In particular, the resection of the infundibular septum allows for the placement of a straighter, smaller ventricular patch, bulging much less in the right ventricular cavity. The extensive mobilization of the main pulmonary branches permits a direct connection with the right ventricular incision, thus avoiding the need for an extracardiac conduit. The procedure was performed in 205 patients as of December 2003 with 12% hospital mortality. Patients for whom the Rastelli operation would have been contraindicated, were accepted for REV repair. Late results show a clear improvement over those reported with the Rastelli operation in terms of overall survival (85% at 25-year follow-up interval) and prevalence of reoperation for right ventricular obstruction. Obstruction of the left ventricle-to-aorta tunnel is exceedingly rare. This operation should be considered the gold standard when new surgical options are considered for this complex form of transpositions/malpositions of the great arteries. PMID:24412824

  4. Circular RNAs in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Huang, Chuan; Wang, Xiaolin; Shan, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are now recognized as large species of transcripts in eukaryotic cells. From model organisms such as C. elegans, Drosophila, mice to human beings, thousands of circRNAs formed from back-splicing of exons have been identified. The known complexity of transcriptome has been greatly expanded upon the discovery of these RNAs. Studies about the biogenesis and physiological functions have yielded substantial knowledge for the circRNAs, and they are now more likely to be viewed as regulatory elements coded by the genome rather than unavoidable noise of gene expression. Certain human diseases may also relate to circRNAs. These circRNAs show diversifications in features such as sequence composition and cellular localization, and thus we propose that they may be divided into subtypes such as cytoplasmic circRNAs, nuclear circRNAs, and exon-intron circRNAs (EIciRNAs). Here we summarize and discuss knowns and unknowns for these RNAs, and we need to keep in mind that the whole field is still at the beginning of exciting explorations. PMID:27047251

  5. Circular on family planning, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Hubei, China, Circular, issued near the end of 1988, provides the following: "The population growth situation in our country is grim. Since 1986, the natural population growth rate has risen continuously. To draw the prompt attention of the whole party and the entire people to the issue of our population, all localities must seriously unfold the activities of publicizing family planning (FP) this winter and next spring, in coordination with education in current affairs. It is necessary to publicize FP in an all-around way and with accuracy, and the activities of publicizing must be carried out effectively in a solid and deep-going way. In the rural areas, stress must be placed on areas where FP work is not carried out well and where there is a prevailing tendency toward early marriage, early child-bearing, and extra-budgetary births. In cities, publicity and education must be conducted especially among the transient population, individual households, and jobless households. During the period of publicity, large-scale street-corner publicity activities must be carried out in cities and towns so as to create strong public opinion and to combine the endeavor to publicize current affairs and policies with the effort to popularize knowledge about contraception and birth-control, to execute measures of contraception and birth control, and to establish FP associations in the countryside." PMID:12289626

  6. Circular protecting female students, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1988 the Ministry of Education of Benin issued a Circular designed to protect female students from sexual advances from male students and teachers. Teachers who are suspected of having sexual relations with a student are to receive a note in their file or can be suspended for a month. Teachers who have raped a student or are responsible for a student's pregnancy are to be suspended for three months if the student was not in their class, and six months if she was. Teachers who have incited their sexual partner to have an abortion are subject to demotion. Teachers who are repeat offenders or whose actions have led to an abortion resulting in death are to be fired. Students who have made a female student pregnant are to be suspended from school until delivery of the child and then are to be enrolled in a different school. The directors of schools are asked to put an end to the provocative clothes, make-up, and hairstyles of female students. PMID:12289212

  7. 75 FR 38673 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-43; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... 2005-17, FAR case 2004-025, May 15, 2007, (72 FR 27364). Minor changes are made to the proposed rule published August 6, 2009 (74 FR 39262). The rule specifically impacts contracting officers, property... Circular 2005-43; Introduction AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration...

  8. 75 FR 18788 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results and Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...: Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand, 51 FR 8341 (March 11, 1986). On March 2, 2009..., Finding or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 9077 (March 2... Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 19042 (April 27, 2009). On May 5, 2009, Pacific...

  9. 75 FR 82374 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Circular Welded...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ...: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Korea, 57 FR 49453 (November 2, 1992). On May 17, 2010... Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico, 75 FR 71072 (November 22, 2010) (Preliminary Results). The... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 66 FR 37454 (July 18, 2001). This deposit...

  10. 14 CFR 151.72 - Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars. 151.72 Section 151.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.72 Incorporation by reference...

  11. 14 CFR 151.72 - Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars. 151.72 Section 151.72 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards §...

  12. 78 FR 21107 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results... carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey (pipes and tubes from Turkey) for the period of review (POR) of..., of any wall thickness (pipe and tube) from Turkey. These products are currently provided for...

  13. 75 FR 77838 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 6627 (February 10, 2010) (``SSSS from...: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Korea, 57 FR 49453 (November 2, 1992) (``CWP Order... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR...

  14. 76 FR 15941 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR... the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Accordingly, the deadline for... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension...

  15. 76 FR 52636 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 67079 (November 1, 2010). In accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b), on November 30, 2010... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 81565 (December 28, 2010). Wheatland withdrew its request for a review of Husteel... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea:...

  16. 75 FR 1335 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Taiwan; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 30052 (June 24, 2009). The current deadline for... Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). We intend to issue the... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Taiwan; Extension of...

  17. 75 FR 71672 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... FR 38074 (July 1, 2010). On July 31, 2010, the Ad Hoc Coalition for Fair Pipe Imports and its... Initiation of Administrative Review, 75 FR 53274, 53276 (August 31, 2010). Rescission of Review Pursuant to... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of...

  18. 76 FR 78887 - Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 38609 (July 1, 2011). On August 1, 2011, the..., 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011). Rescission of Review Pursuant to 19 CFR 351.213(d)(l), the Secretary... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe From the People's Republic of...

  19. 77 FR 73015 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Administrative Review, 63 FR 32833 (June 16, 1998), remains dispositive. Partial Rescission of Administrative...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). For Husteel and HYSCO, we intend to issue...: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Korea, 57 FR 49453 (November 2, 1992). Notification...

  20. Generation of circular polarization of the CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei, M.; Bavarsad, E.; Haghighat, M.; Mohammadi, R.; Motie, I.; Rezaei, Z.

    2010-04-01

    According to the standard cosmology, near the last scattering surface, the photons scattered via Compton scattering are just linearly polarized and then the primordial circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons is zero. In this work we show that CMB polarization acquires a small degree of circular polarization when a background magnetic field is considered or the quantum electrodynamic sector of standard model is extended by Lorentz-noninvariant operators as well as noncommutativity. The existence of circular polarization for the CMB radiation may be verified during future observation programs, and it represents a possible new channel for investigating new physics effects.

  1. Entanglement of quantum circular states of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoshko, D. B.; De Bièvre, S.; Kolobov, M. I.; Patera, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present a general approach to calculating the entanglement of formation for superpositions of two-mode coherent states, placed equidistantly on a circle in phase space. We show that in the particular case of rotationally invariant circular states the Schmidt decomposition of two modes, and therefore the value of their entanglement, are given by analytical expressions. We analyze the dependence of the entanglement on the radius of the circle and number of components in the superposition. We also show that the set of rotationally invariant circular states creates an orthonormal basis in the state space of the harmonic oscillator, and this basis is advantageous for representation of other circular states of light.

  2. Circular Polarization in PKS 1519-273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, W.; Macquart, J. P.; Johnston, H.; Jauncey, D.

    2005-12-01

    The intra-day variable BL Lac PKS 1519-273 exhibits variations at centimeter wavelengths in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization. Their variability is caused by scintillation due to the interstellar medium. PKS 1519-273 displays 4% circular polarization at 4.8 GHz and the variability has persisted as long as the source has been observed. We present observations of this source over several years, showing that the circularly polarized emission is highly variable on micro-arcsecond scales. We determine properties of the structure of the emission by examining the light curves and associated scintillation theory.

  3. 44 CFR 78.13 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... costs will be governed by OMB Circular A-87 and 44 CFR part 13. (b) The grantee must submit performance... under 44 CFR part 13. (c) FEMA will recapture any funds provided to a State or a community under FMA and... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grant administration....

  4. 44 CFR 78.13 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... costs will be governed by OMB Circular A-87 and 44 CFR part 13. (b) The grantee must submit performance... under 44 CFR part 13. (c) FEMA will recapture any funds provided to a State or a community under FMA and... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant administration....

  5. 44 CFR 78.13 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... costs will be governed by OMB Circular A-87 and 44 CFR part 13. (b) The grantee must submit performance... under 44 CFR part 13. (c) FEMA will recapture any funds provided to a State or a community under FMA and... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Grant administration....

  6. 44 CFR 78.13 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... costs will be governed by OMB Circular A-87 and 44 CFR part 13. (b) The grantee must submit performance... under 44 CFR part 13. (c) FEMA will recapture any funds provided to a State or a community under FMA and... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant administration....

  7. 44 CFR 78.13 - Grant administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... costs will be governed by OMB Circular A-87 and 44 CFR part 13. (b) The grantee must submit performance... under 44 CFR part 13. (c) FEMA will recapture any funds provided to a State or a community under FMA and... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant administration....

  8. Novel Function of Rev-erbα in Promoting Brown Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Deokhwa; Chatterjee, Somik; Yin, Hongshan; Liu, Ruya; Lee, Jeongkyung; Yechoor, Vijay K.; Ma, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is a major thermogenic organ that plays a key role in maintenance of body temperature and whole-body energy homeostasis. Rev-erbα, a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor and transcription repressor of the molecular clock, has been implicated in the regulation of adipogenesis. However, whether Rev-erbα participates in brown fat formation is not known. Here we show that Rev-erbα is a key regulator of brown adipose tissue development by promoting brown adipogenesis. Genetic ablation of Rev-erbα in mice severely impairs embryonic and neonatal brown fat formation accompanied by loss of brown identity. This defect is due to a cell-autonomous function of Rev-erbα in brown adipocyte lineage commitment and terminal differentiation, as demonstrated by genetic loss- and gain-of-function studies in mesenchymal precursors and brown preadipocytes. Moreover, pharmacological activation of Rev-erbα activity promotes, whereas its inhibition suppresses brown adipocyte differentiation. Mechanistic investigations reveal that Rev-erbα represses key components of the TGF-β cascade, an inhibitory pathway of brown fat development. Collectively, our findings delineate a novel role of Rev-erbα in driving brown adipocyte development, and provide experimental evidence that pharmacological interventions of Rev-erbα may offer new avenues for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:26058812

  9. Identification of the first small-molecule inhibitor of the REV7 DNA repair protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Actis, Marcelo L; Ambaye, Nigus D; Evison, Benjamin J; Shao, Youming; Vanarotti, Murugendra; Inoue, Akira; McDonald, Ezelle T; Kikuchi, Sotaro; Heath, Richard; Hara, Kodai; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Fujii, Naoaki

    2016-09-15

    DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair (ICLR) has been implicated in the resistance of cancer cells to ICL-inducing chemotherapeutic agents. Despite the clinical significance of ICL-inducing chemotherapy, few studies have focused on developing small-molecule inhibitors for ICLR. The mammalian DNA polymerase ζ, which comprises the catalytic subunit REV3L and the non-catalytic subunit REV7, is essential for ICLR. To identify small-molecule compounds that are mechanistically capable of inhibiting ICLR by targeting REV7, high-throughput screening and structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis were performed. Compound 1 was identified as an inhibitor of the interaction of REV7 with the REV7-binding sequence of REV3L. Compound 7 (an optimized analog of compound 1) bound directly to REV7 in nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, and inhibited the reactivation of a reporter plasmid containing an ICL in between the promoter and reporter regions. The normalized clonogenic survival of HeLa cells treated with cisplatin and compound 7 was lower than that for cells treated with cisplatin only. These findings indicate that a small-molecule inhibitor of the REV7/REV3L interaction can chemosensitize cells by inhibiting ICLR. PMID:27448776

  10. Modernizing Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Vincent L.; Hildebrand, Verna

    1981-01-01

    Suggests assignment of research duties and rotation of teaching and management roles for college administrators, to increase their effectiveness and diminish the negative effects of declining enrollments. (JD)

  11. Dual frequency launcher for circularly polarized antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming H.

    1989-10-01

    A dual frequency antenna feed is formed from a central, circular waveguide connected to the flat boundry of circular, disk-shaped resonant cavity. A second circular waveguide is connected one end of a disk-shaped resonant cavity. Energy of one frequency enters and exits the cavity along the common axis of the waveguides. Energy of the second frequency is introduced to the same resonant cavity by way of a plurality of bandpass filters, also connected to the cavity. This energy enters by way of slots in the cylindrical walls of the cavity. The central circular waveguide is propagating at one frequency but cut off at the second frequency. These bandpass filters are at this pass band for the second frequency, but at the rejection band for the first frequency. Therefore, the isolation between these two input ports are obtained.

  12. Low energy aspects of circular accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.D.

    1990-12-01

    Performance in circular accelerators can be limited by some of the same sorts of phenomena described by Miller and Wangler in their lectures on low energy behavior in linear accelerators. In general the strength of the perturbation required to degrade performance is reduced in circular accelerators due to the repetitive nature of the orbits. For example, we shall see that space-charge can severely limit performance in circular accelerators even when operating far from the space-charge dominated regime'' as defined in linear accelerators. We will be discussing two particular aspects of low energy operation in circular accelerators -- space-charge and transition. Low energy'' is defined within the context of these phenomena. We shall see that the phenomena are really only relevant in hadron accelerators.

  13. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 1403 - OMB Circular A-128, “Audits of State and Local Governments”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OMB Circular A-128, âAudits of State and Local Governmentsâ A Appendix A to Part 1403 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Pt. 1403, App. A Appendix A to Part 1403—OMB Circular...

  14. CIRCULAR RIBBON FLARES AND HOMOLOGOUS JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Haimin; Liu Chang

    2012-12-01

    Solar flare emissions in the chromosphere often appear as elongated ribbons on both sides of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), which has been regarded as evidence of a typical configuration of magnetic reconnection. However, flares having a circular ribbon have rarely been reported, although it is expected in the fan-spine magnetic topology involving reconnection at a three-dimensional (3D) coronal null point. We present five circular ribbon flares with associated surges, using high-resolution and high-cadence H{alpha} blue wing observations obtained from the recently digitized films of Big Bear Solar Observatory. In all the events, a central parasitic magnetic field is encompassed by the opposite polarity, forming a circular PIL traced by filament material. Consequently, a flare kernel at the center is surrounded by a circular flare ribbon. The four homologous jet-related flares on 1991 March 17 and 18 are of particular interest, as (1) the circular ribbons brighten sequentially, with cospatial surges, rather than simultaneously, (2) the central flare kernels show an intriguing 'round-trip' motion and become elongated, and (3) remote brightenings occur at a region with the same magnetic polarity as the central parasitic field and are co-temporal with a separate phase of flare emissions. In another flare on 1991 February 25, the circular flare emission and surge activity occur successively, and the event could be associated with magnetic flux cancellation across the circular PIL. We discuss the implications of these observations combining circular flare ribbons, homologous jets, and remote brightenings for understanding the dynamics of 3D magnetic restructuring.

  15. Single particle dynamics in circular accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, R.D.

    1986-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to the theory associated with the transverse dynamics of single particle, in circular accelerators. The discussion begins with a review of Hamiltonian dynamics and canonical transformations. The case of a single particle in a circular accelerator is considered with a discussion of non-linear terms and chromaticity. The canonical perturbation theory is presented and nonlinear resonances are considered. Finally, the concept of renormalization and residue criterion are examined. (FI)

  16. Circular DNA Molecules in the Genus Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Travaglini, E. C.; Schultz, J.

    1972-01-01

    The satellite DNA's from the embryos of five species of Drosophila (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. nasuta, D. virilis and D. hydei) have been analyzed for the presence of closed circular duplex DNA molecules, as determined by CsCl-EBr gradients. Circular DNA molecules were found in every species but D. melanogaster. Analyses of cell fractions from adult Drosophila and organ fractions from Drosophila larvae show that fractions containing mitochondria are highly enriched in these molecules. PMID:4643820

  17. Circular polarization of sunlight reflected by clouds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of circular polarization of visible light from planets have recently been reported. It is pointed out that the values measured for the circular polarization for Jupiter and Venus are of the magnitude expected for sunlight reflected by a cloudy planetary atmosphere. The variations of the sense of the polarization with phase angle and with location on the planetary disk are also consistent with expectations for reflection by clouds.

  18. Circular Data Images for Directional Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morpet, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Directional data includes vectors, points on a unit sphere, axis orientation, angular direction, and circular or periodic data. The theoretical statistics for circular data (random points on a unit circle) or spherical data (random points on a unit sphere) are a recent development. An overview of existing graphical methods for the display of directional data is given. Cross-over occurs when periodic data are measured on a scale for the measurement of linear variables. For example, if angle is represented by a linear color gradient changing uniformly from dark blue at -180 degrees to bright red at +180 degrees, the color image will be discontinuous at +180 degrees and -180 degrees, which are the same location. The resultant color would depend on the direction of approach to the cross-over point. A new graphical method for imaging directional data is described, which affords high resolution without color discontinuity from "cross-over". It is called the circular data image. The circular data image uses a circular color scale in which colors repeat periodically. Some examples of the circular data image include direction of earth winds on a global scale, rocket motor internal flow, earth global magnetic field direction, and rocket motor nozzle vector direction vs. time.

  19. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  20. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  1. Modeling Asteroid Surface Properties Using Radar Albedos and Circular-Polarization Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkki, Anne; Muinonen, K.; Penttilä, A.

    2012-10-01

    A basic strategy for observing using radar is to transmit a fully circularly polarized wave in a specific polarization state and to measure the distribution of echo power in the same (SC) and opposite states of circular polarization (OC). The ratio of SC to OC (μ) is an important physical observable when using the radar technique, as it is considered to provide the best indications for wavelength-scale geometric complexity of the surface (positive correlation with the complexity; S. J. Ostro, Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 1993). The observed values are taxonomic-class dependent to some extent, varying from μ = 0.10 (G class) to μ = 0.83 (E class). The maximum value observed for an asteroid using radar is μ = 1.48 ± 0.4 for 2003 TH2. Circular polarization is studied for aggregates of spheres at backscattering. Exact electromagnetic scattering computations using the superposition T-matrix method are carried out to study how different parameters affect the value of μ, e.g., the size distribution, the size parameters, and the refractive indices. Both scattering and absorption of the electromagnetic waves are treated using various monodisperse and polydisperse sphere aggregates. The simulations show striking interference structure at backscattering for μ as a function of the size parameter and the refractive index of the spherical particles. The structure comprises two sets of bands of maxima: the primary band, following the extinction efficiency of a sphere with the same size parameter as the monomers of the aggregate; and the secondary bands, a result of bi-sphere resonances between the monomers. Our goal is to relate the computed circular-polarization ratios and radar albedos for aggregates of spheres to the observational data of asteroid regoliths measured using radar.

  2. Ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Abu-samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Filsinger, Frank; Meijer, Gerard; Kuepper, Jochen; Holmegaard, Lotte; Kalhoej, Line; Nielsen, Jens H.; Stapelfeldt, Henrik

    2011-02-15

    We present combined experimental and theoretical results on strong-field ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. The obtained molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions show pronounced asymmetries perpendicular to the direction of the molecular electric dipole moment. These findings are explained by a tunneling model invoking the laser-induced Stark shifts associated with the dipoles and polarizabilities of the molecule and its unrelaxed cation. The focus of the present article is to understand the strong-field ionization of one-dimensionally-oriented polar molecules, in particular asymmetries in the emission direction of the photoelectrons. In the following article [Phys. Rev. A 83, 023406 (2011)] the focus is to understand strong-field ionization from three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric top molecules, in particular the suppression of electron emission in nodal planes of molecular orbitals.

  3. Photoemission and magnetic circular dichroism studies of magnetic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Atsushi

    2005-03-01

    Recently, a series of novel ferromagnetic semiconductors have been synthesized using MBE and related techniques and have attracted much attention because of unknown mechanisms of carrier-induced ferromagnetism and potential applications as "spin electronics" devices. Some new materials show ferromagnetism even well above room temperature. Photoemission spectroscopy has been used to study the d orbitals of the dilute transition-metal atoms, mostly Mn, and their hybridization with the host band states [1]. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) at the transition-metal 2p-3d absorption edges are useful techniques to study the valence and spin states of the transition-metal atoms. Furthermore, since MCD has different sensitivities to the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic components at different temperatures and magnetic fileds, if the sample is a mixture of ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic transition- metal atoms, it can be used to separate the two components and to study their electronic structures. In this talk, results are presented for the prototypical diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxAs [2] and the room-temperature ferromagnets Zn1-xCoxO and Ti1-xCoxO2.I acknowledge collaboration with Y. Ishida, J.-I. Hwang, M. Kobayashi, Y. Takeda, Y. Saitoh, J. Okamoto, T. Okane, Y. Muramatsu, K. Mamiya, T. Koide, A. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, Hayashi, S. Ohya, T. Kondo, H. Munekata, H. Saeki, H. Tabata, T. Kawai, Y. Matsumoto, H. Koinuma, T. Fukumura and M. Kawasaki. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Priority Area "Semiconductor nano-spintronics" (14076209) from MEXT, Japan.1. J. Okabayashi et al., Phys. Rev. B 64, 125304 (2001).2. A. Fujimori et al., J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., in press.

  4. Pharmacological and Genetic Modulation of REV-ERB Activity and Expression Affects Orexigenic Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Amador, Ariadna; Wang, Yongjun; Banerjee, Subhashis; Kameneka, Theodore M; Solt, Laura A; Burris, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear receptors REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ are transcription factors that play pivotal roles in the regulation of the circadian rhythm and various metabolic processes. The circadian rhythm is an endogenous mechanism, which generates entrainable biological changes that follow a 24-hour period. It regulates a number of physiological processes, including sleep/wakeful cycles and feeding behaviors. We recently demonstrated that REV-ERB-specific small molecules affect sleep and anxiety. The orexinergic system also plays a significant role in mammalian physiology and behavior, including the regulation of sleep and food intake. Importantly, orexin genes are expressed in a circadian manner. Given these overlaps in function and circadian expression, we wanted to determine whether the REV-ERBs might regulate orexin. We found that acute in vivo modulation of REV-ERB activity, with the REV-ERB-specific synthetic ligand SR9009, affects the circadian expression of orexinergic genes in mice. Long term dosing with SR9009 also suppresses orexinergic gene expression in mice. Finally, REV-ERBβ-deficient mice present with increased orexinergic transcripts. These data suggest that the REV-ERBs may be involved in the repression of orexinergic gene expression. PMID:26963516

  5. Protective efficacy of a recombinant BAC clone of Marek's disease virus containing REV-LTR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long-terminal repeat (LTR) into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a very virulent strain of Marek’s disease (MD) virus (MDV), Md5 (Kim et al, 2011) rendered the resultant recombinant virus termed rMd5 REV-LTR BAC fully attenuated at passa...

  6. Rev-erb-α modulates skeletal muscle oxidative capacity by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Woldt, Estelle; Sebti, Yasmine; Solt, Laura A.; Duhem, Christian; Lancel, Steve; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Hesselink, Matthijs K.C.; Paquet, Charlotte; Delhaye, Stéphane; Shin, Youseung; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Schaart, Gert; Lefebvre, Philippe; Nevière, Rémi; Burris, Thomas P.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Staels, Bart; Duez, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear receptor Rev-erb-α modulates hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, adipogenesis and the inflammatory response in macrophages. We show here that Rev-erb-α is highly expressed in oxidative skeletal muscle and plays a role in mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function, in gain- and loss-of function studies. Rev-erb-α-deficiency in skeletal muscle leads to reduced mitochondrial content and oxidative function, resulting in compromised exercise capacity. This phenotype was recapitulated in isolated fibers and in muscle cells upon Rev-erbα knock-down, while Rev-erb-α over-expression increased the number of mitochondria with improved respiratory capacity. Rev-erb-α-deficiency resulted in deactivation of the Stk11–Ampk–Sirt1–Ppargc1-α signaling pathway, whereas autophagy was up-regulated, resulting in both impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and increased clearance. Muscle over-expression or pharmacological activation of Rev-erb-α increased respiration and exercise capacity. This study identifies Rev-erb-α as a pharmacological target which improves muscle oxidative function by modulating gene networks controlling mitochondrial number and function. PMID:23852339

  7. Pharmacological and Genetic Modulation of REV-ERB Activity and Expression Affects Orexigenic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Ariadna; Wang, Yongjun; Banerjee, Subhashis; Kameneka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear receptors REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ are transcription factors that play pivotal roles in the regulation of the circadian rhythm and various metabolic processes. The circadian rhythm is an endogenous mechanism, which generates entrainable biological changes that follow a 24-hour period. It regulates a number of physiological processes, including sleep/wakeful cycles and feeding behaviors. We recently demonstrated that REV-ERB-specific small molecules affect sleep and anxiety. The orexinergic system also plays a significant role in mammalian physiology and behavior, including the regulation of sleep and food intake. Importantly, orexin genes are expressed in a circadian manner. Given these overlaps in function and circadian expression, we wanted to determine whether the REV-ERBs might regulate orexin. We found that acute in vivo modulation of REV-ERB activity, with the REV-ERB-specific synthetic ligand SR9009, affects the circadian expression of orexinergic genes in mice. Long term dosing with SR9009 also suppresses orexinergic gene expression in mice. Finally, REV-ERBβ-deficient mice present with increased orexinergic transcripts. These data suggest that the REV-ERBs may be involved in the repression of orexinergic gene expression. PMID:26963516

  8. 12 CFR 563g.8 - Use of the offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the offering circular. 563g.8 Section... § 563g.8 Use of the offering circular. (a) An offering circular or amendment declared effective by the... therein is as of a date not more than 16 months prior to such use. (b) An offering circular filed...

  9. 24 CFR 574.605 - Applicability of OMB circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Requirements § 574.605 Applicability of OMB circulars. The policies, guidelines, and requirements of 24 CFR part 85 (codified pursuant to OMB Circular No. A-102) and OMB Circular No. A-87 apply with... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Applicability of OMB circulars....

  10. 24 CFR 574.605 - Applicability of OMB circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Requirements § 574.605 Applicability of OMB circulars. The policies, guidelines, and requirements of 24 CFR part 85 (codified pursuant to OMB Circular No. A-102) and OMB Circular No. A-87 apply with... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of OMB circulars....

  11. 49 CFR 1544.305 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars... and Information Circulars. (a) TSA may issue an Information Circular to notify aircraft operators of... operator that receives a Security Directive or Information Circular and each person who...

  12. 12 CFR 563g.8 - Use of the offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the offering circular. 563g.8 Section... § 563g.8 Use of the offering circular. (a) An offering circular or amendment declared effective by the... therein is as of a date not more than 16 months prior to such use. (b) An offering circular filed...

  13. Prenylcoumarin with Rev-export inhibitory activity from Cnidii Monnieris Fructus.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Satoru; Fujitani, Toshiaki; Kaneko, Masafumi; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2010-06-15

    By use of the fission yeast expressing the model fusion protein comprised of GST, SV40 T antigen NLS, GFP, and Rev-NES in the bioassay, the prenylcoumarin osthol (1) was disclosed as the new Rev-export inhibitor from the MeOH extract of Cnidii Monnieris Fructus. Furthermore, 1 was also found to inhibit export the genuine Rev in HeLa cells by indirect fluorescent antibody technique. By the competitive experiment using the biotinylated probe 3, osthol (1) was revealed to inhibit nuclear export of Rev through a NES non-antagonistic mode. Structure-activity relationship analysis of several analogs of 1 clarified that both prenyl side chain and double bond adjacent to the lactone carbonyl residue play an important role in the Rev-export inhibitory potency of 1. PMID:20493693

  14. HIV-1 pre-mRNA commitment to Rev mediated export through PSF and Matrin 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, Anna; Gharu, Lavina; Marcello, Alessandro

    2013-01-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus gene expression and replication are regulated at several levels. Incompletely spliced viral RNAs and full-length genomic RNA contain the RRE element and are bound by the viral trans-acting protein Rev to be transported out of the nucleus. Previously we found that the nuclear matrix protein MATR3 was a cofactor of Rev-mediated RNA export. Here we show that the pleiotropic protein PSF binds viral RNA and is associated with MATR3. PSF is involved in the maintenance of a pool of RNA available for Rev activity. However, while Rev and PSF bind the viral pre-mRNA at the site of viral transcription, MATR3 interacts at a subsequent step. We propose that PSF and MATR3 define a novel pathway for RRE-containing HIV-1 RNAs that is hijacked by the viral Rev protein.

  15. 24 CFR 1006.370 - Federal administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... State, Local and Indian Tribal Governments,” and with 24 CFR part 85 “Uniform Administrative... Non-profit Organizations,” and the requirements of 24 CFR part 84, “Uniform Administrative... referenced in this part may be obtained from www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars/index.html; telephone;...

  16. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J.; Mancuso, Christopher A.; Hogle, Craig W.; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Milošević, Dejan B.; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A.; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform. PMID:26534992

  17. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform. PMID:26534992

  18. RevBayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models and an Interactive Model-Specification Language

    PubMed Central

    Höhna, Sebastian; Landis, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Programs for Bayesian inference of phylogeny currently implement a unique and fixed suite of models. Consequently, users of these software packages are simultaneously forced to use a number of programs for a given study, while also lacking the freedom to explore models that have not been implemented by the developers of those programs. We developed a new open-source software package, RevBayes, to address these problems. RevBayes is entirely based on probabilistic graphical models, a powerful generic framework for specifying and analyzing statistical models. Phylogenetic-graphical models can be specified interactively in RevBayes, piece by piece, using a new succinct and intuitive language called Rev. Rev is similar to the R language and the BUGS model-specification language, and should be easy to learn for most users. The strength of RevBayes is the simplicity with which one can design, specify, and implement new and complex models. Fortunately, this tremendous flexibility does not come at the cost of slower computation; as we demonstrate, RevBayes outperforms competing software for several standard analyses. Compared with other programs, RevBayes has fewer black-box elements. Users need to explicitly specify each part of the model and analysis. Although this explicitness may initially be unfamiliar, we are convinced that this transparency will improve understanding of phylogenetic models in our field. Moreover, it will motivate the search for improvements to existing methods by brazenly exposing the model choices that we make to critical scrutiny. RevBayes is freely available at http://www.RevBayes.com. [Bayesian inference; Graphical models; MCMC; statistical phylogenetics.] PMID:27235697

  19. RevBayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models and an Interactive Model-Specification Language.

    PubMed

    Höhna, Sebastian; Landis, Michael J; Heath, Tracy A; Boussau, Bastien; Lartillot, Nicolas; Moore, Brian R; Huelsenbeck, John P; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2016-07-01

    Programs for Bayesian inference of phylogeny currently implement a unique and fixed suite of models. Consequently, users of these software packages are simultaneously forced to use a number of programs for a given study, while also lacking the freedom to explore models that have not been implemented by the developers of those programs. We developed a new open-source software package, RevBayes, to address these problems. RevBayes is entirely based on probabilistic graphical models, a powerful generic framework for specifying and analyzing statistical models. Phylogenetic-graphical models can be specified interactively in RevBayes, piece by piece, using a new succinct and intuitive language called Rev. Rev is similar to the R language and the BUGS model-specification language, and should be easy to learn for most users. The strength of RevBayes is the simplicity with which one can design, specify, and implement new and complex models. Fortunately, this tremendous flexibility does not come at the cost of slower computation; as we demonstrate, RevBayes outperforms competing software for several standard analyses. Compared with other programs, RevBayes has fewer black-box elements. Users need to explicitly specify each part of the model and analysis. Although this explicitness may initially be unfamiliar, we are convinced that this transparency will improve understanding of phylogenetic models in our field. Moreover, it will motivate the search for improvements to existing methods by brazenly exposing the model choices that we make to critical scrutiny. RevBayes is freely available at http://www.RevBayes.com [Bayesian inference; Graphical models; MCMC; statistical phylogenetics.]. PMID:27235697

  20. Structure of REV-ERBβ Ligand-binding Domain Bound to a Porphyrin Antagonist*

    PubMed Central

    Matta-Camacho, Edna; Banerjee, Subhashis; Hughes, Travis S.; Solt, Laura A.; Wang, Yongjun; Burris, Thomas P.; Kojetin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-regulated transcription factors that play important roles in the regulation of circadian physiology, metabolism, and immune function. Although the REV-ERBs were originally characterized as orphan receptors, recent studies have demonstrated that they function as receptors for heme. Here, we demonstrate that cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) and zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) are ligands that bind directly to the REV-ERBs. However, instead of mimicking the agonist action of heme, CoPP and ZnPP function as antagonists of REV-ERB function. This was unexpected because the only distinction between these ligands is the metal ion that is coordinated. To understand the structural basis by which REV-ERBβ can differentiate between a porphyrin agonist and antagonist, we characterized the interaction between REV-ERBβ with heme, CoPP, and ZnPP using biochemical and structural approaches, including x-ray crystallography and NMR. The crystal structure of CoPP-bound REV-ERBβ indicates only minor conformational changes induced by CoPP compared with heme, including the porphyrin ring of CoPP, which adopts a planar conformation as opposed to the puckered conformation observed in the heme-bound REV-ERBβ crystal structure. Thus, subtle changes in the porphyrin metal center and ring conformation may influence the agonist versus antagonist action of porphyrins and when considered with other studies suggest that gas binding to the iron metal center heme may drive alterations in REV-ERB activity. PMID:24872411

  1. The orphan receptor Rev-erbα gene is a target of the circadian clock pacemaker

    PubMed Central

    Triqueneaux, Gérard; Thenot, Sandrine; Kakizawa, Tomoko; Antoch, Marina P; Safi, Rachid; Takahashi, Joseph S; Delaunay, Franck; Laudet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Rev-erbα is a ubiquitously expressed orphan nuclear receptor which functions as a constitutive transcriptional repressor and is expressed in vertebrates according to a robust circadian rhythm. We report here that two Rev-erbα mRNA isoforms, namely Rev-erbα1 and Rev-erbα2, are generated through alternative promoter usage and that both show a circadian expression pattern in an in vitro system using serum-shocked fibroblasts. Both promoter regions P1 (Rev-erbα1) and P2 (Rev-erbα2) contain several E-box DNA sequences, which function as response elements for the core circadian-clock components: CLOCK and BMAL1. The CLOCK–BMAL1 heterodimer stimulates the activity of both P1 and P2 promoters in transient transfection assay by 3–6-fold. This activation was inhibited by the overexpression of CRY1, a component of the negative limb of the circadian transcriptional loop. Critical E-box elements were mapped within both promoters. This regulation is conserved in vertebrates since we found that the CLOCK–BMAL1 heterodimer also regulates the zebrafish Rev-erbα gene. In line with these data Rev-erbα circadian expression was strongly impaired in the livers of Clock mutant mice and in the pineal glands of zebrafish embryos treated with Clock and Bmal1 antisense oligonucleotides. Together these data demonstrate that CLOCK is a critical regulator of Rev-erbα circadian gene expression in evolutionarily distant vertebrates and suggest a role for Rev-erbα in the circadian clock output. PMID:15591021

  2. Rev-erb beta regulates the Srebp-1c promoter and mRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Sathiya N.; Lau, Patrick; Crowther, Lisa M.; Cleasby, Mark E.; Millard, Susan; Leong, Gary M.; Cooney, Gregory J.; Muscat, George E.O.

    2009-10-30

    The nuclear hormone receptor, Rev-erb beta operates as a transcriptional silencer. We previously demonstrated that exogenous expression of Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E in skeletal muscle cells increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. We validated these in vitro observations by injection of an expression vector driving Rev-erb{beta}{Delta}E expression into mouse tibialis muscle that resulted in increased Srebp-1c mRNA expression. Paradoxically, Rev-erb{beta} siRNA expression in skeletal muscle cells repressed Srebp-1c expression, and indicated that Rev-erb{beta} expression was necessary for Srebp-1c expression. ChIP analysis demonstrated that Rev-erb{beta} was recruited to the Srebp-1c promoter. Moreover, Rev-erb{beta} trans-activated the Srebp-1c promoter, in contrast, Rev-erb{beta} efficiently repressed the Rev-erb{alpha} promoter, a previously characterized target gene. Finally, treatment with the Rev-erb agonist (hemin) (i) increased the trans-activation of the Srebp-1c promoter by Rev-erb{beta}; and (ii) increased Rev-erb{beta} and Srebp-1c mRNA expression. These data suggest that Rev-erb{beta} has the potential to activate gene expression, and is a positive regulator of Srebp-1c, a regulator of lipogenesis.

  3. Repetitive elements regulate circular RNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wilusz, Jeremy E

    2015-01-01

    It was long assumed that eukaryotic precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs) are almost always spliced to generate a linear mRNA that is subsequently translated to produce a protein. However, it is now clear that thousands of protein-coding genes can be non-canonically spliced to produce circular noncoding RNAs, some of which are expressed at much higher levels than their associated linear mRNAs. How then does the splicing machinery decide whether to generate a linear mRNA or a circular RNA? Recent work has revealed that intronic repetitive elements, including sequences derived from transposons, are critical regulators of this decision. In most cases, circular RNA biogenesis appears to be initiated when complementary sequences from 2 different introns base pair to one another. This brings the splice sites from the intervening exon(s) into close proximity and facilitates the backsplicing event that generates the circular RNA. As many pre-mRNAs contain multiple intronic repeats, distinct circular transcripts can be produced depending on which repeats base pair to one another. Intronic repeats are thus critical regulatory sequences that control the functional output of their host genes, and potentially cause the functions of protein-coding genes to be highly divergent across species. PMID:26442181

  4. Circular and Elliptic Submerged Impinging Water Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudey, Eric; Benedicto, Olivier; Ravier, Emmanuel; Gutmark, Ephraim

    1999-11-01

    Experiments and CFD have been performed to study circular and elliptic jets in a submerged water jet facility. The tests included discharge coefficient measurement to evaluate pressure losses encountered in noncircular nozzles compared to circular ones. Three-dimensional pressure mappings on the impingement surface and PIV measurement of the jet mean and turbulent velocity have been performed at different compound impingement angles relative to the impingement surface and at different stand-off distances. The objective was to investigate the effect of the non-circular geometry on the flow field and on the impact region. The tests were performed in a close loop system in which the water was pumped through the nozzles into a clear Plexiglas tank. The Reynolds numbers were typically in the range of 250000. Discharge coefficients of the elliptic nozzle was somewhat lower than that of the circular jet but spreading rate and turbulence level were higher. Pressure mapping showed that the nozzle exit geometry had an effect on the pressure distribution in the impact region and that high-pressure zones were generated at specific impact points. PIV measurements showed that for a same total exit area, the elliptic jets affected a surface area that is 8the equivalent circular. The turbulence level in the elliptic jet tripled due to the nozzle design. Results of the CFD model were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  6. A broadband, circular-polarization selective surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin; Behdad, Nader

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a new technique for designing wideband circular-polarization selective surfaces (CPSSs) based on anisotropic miniaturized element frequency selective surfaces. The proposed structure is a combination of two linear-to-circular polarization converters sandwiching a linear polarizer. This CPSS consists of a number of metallic layers separated from each other by thin dielectric substrates. The metallic layers are in the form of two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength capacitive patches and inductive wire grids with asymmetric dimensions and a wire grid polarizer with sub-wavelength period. The proposed device is designed to offer a wideband circular-polarization selection capability allowing waves with left-hand circular polarization to pass through while rejecting those having right-hand circular polarization. A synthesis procedure is developed that can be used to design the proposed CPSS based on its desired band of operation. Using this procedure, a prototype of the proposed CPSS operating in the 12-18 GHz is designed. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations are used to predict the response of this structure. These simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed design concept and synthesis procedure and show that proposed CPSS operates within a fractional bandwidth of 40% with a co-polarization transmission discrimination of more than 15 dB. Furthermore, the proposed design is shown to be capable of providing an extremely wide field of view of ±60°.

  7. Nanofocusing in circular sector-like nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Zenin, Vladimir A; Pors, Anders; Han, Zhanghua; Eriksen, René L; Volkov, Valentyn S; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2014-05-01

    Gold circular sector-like nanoantennas (with a radius of 500 nm and a taper angle of 60°, 90°, and 120°) on glass are investigated in a near-infrared wavelength range (900 - 2100 nm). Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field images of circular sector-like antenna modes at telecom wavelength feature a concentric circular line of phase contrast, demonstrating resonant excitation of a standing wave of counter-propagating surface plasmons, travelling between a tip and opposite circular edge of the antenna. Transmission spectra obtained in the range 900 - 2100 nm are in good agreement with numerical simulations, revealing the main feature of this antenna configuration, viz., the resonance wavelength, in contrast to triangular antennas, does not depend on the taper angle and is determined only by the sector radius. This feature together with a robust and easily predictable frequency response makes circular sector-like nanoantennas very promising for implementing bowtie antennas and attractive for many applications. PMID:24921736

  8. Optics modules for circular accelerator design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.L.; Servranckx, R.V.

    1986-05-01

    The first-order differential equations of motion for a single particle in a closed circular machine are solved, introducing the concepts of phase shift, beta functions, and the Courant-Snyder invariant. The transfer matrix between two points in the machine is derived as a function of the phase shift and the parameters contained in the Courant-Snyder invariant. Typical optical modules used in circular machine designs are introduced and related to their characteristic transfer matrix elements, the phase shift through them, and the Courant-Snyder-Twiss parameters. The systematics of some elementary phase ellipse matching problems between optical modules are discussed. Second-order optical modules are discussed, including how they are used to provide the momentum bandwidth needed for the design of a typical circular machine. (LEW)

  9. Circularly symmetric light scattering from nanoplasmonic spirals.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Jacob; Cao, Hui; Dal Negro, Luca

    2011-05-11

    In this paper, we combine experimental dark-field imaging, scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy with rigorous electrodynamics calculations in order to investigate light scattering from planar arrays of Au nanoparticles arranged in aperiodic spirals with diffuse, circularly symmetric Fourier space. In particular, by studying the three main types of Vogel's spirals fabricated by electron-beam lithography on quartz substrates, we demonstrate polarization-insensitive planar light diffraction in the visible spectral range. Moreover, by combining dark-field imaging with analytical multiparticle calculations in the framework of the generalized Mie theory, we show that plasmonic spirals support distinctive structural resonances with circular symmetry carrying orbital angular momentum. The engineering of light scattering phenomena in deterministic structures with circular Fourier space provides a novel strategy for the realization of optical devices that fully leverage on enhanced, polarization-insensitive light-matter coupling over planar surfaces, such as thin-film plasmonic solar cells, plasmonic polarization devices, and optical biosensors. PMID:21466155

  10. Reconnaissance with slant plane circular SAR imaging.

    PubMed

    Soumekh, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for imaging from the slant plane data collected by a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) over the full rotation or a partial segment of a circular flight path. A Fourier analysis for the Green's function of the imaging system is provided. This analysis is the basis of an inversion for slant plane circular SAR data. The reconstruction algorithm and resolution for this SAR system are outlined. It is shown that the slant plane circular SAR, unlike the slant plane linear SAR, has the capability to extract three-dimensional imaging information of a target scene. The merits of the algorithm are demonstrated via a simulated target whose ultra wideband foliage penetrating (FOPEN) or ground penetrating (GPEN) ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radar signature varies with the radar's aspect angle. PMID:18285213

  11. Circular Proteins from Plants and Fungi*

    PubMed Central

    Göransson, Ulf; Burman, Robert; Gunasekera, Sunithi; Strömstedt, Adam A.; Rosengren, K. Johan

    2012-01-01

    Circular proteins, defined as head-to-tail cyclized polypeptides originating from ribosomal synthesis, represent a novel class of natural products attracting increasing interest. From a scientific point of view, these compounds raise questions of where and why they occur in nature and how they are formed. From a rational point of view, these proteins and their structural concept may be exploited for crop protection and novel pharmaceuticals. Here, we review the current knowledge of three protein families: cyclotides and circular sunflower trypsin inhibitors from the kingdom of plants and the Amanita toxins from fungi. A particular emphasis is placed on their biological origin, structure, and activity. In addition, the opportunity for discovery of novel circular proteins and recent insights into their mechanism of action are discussed. PMID:22700984

  12. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  13. Time-resolved circularly polarized protein phosphorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Schauerte, J A; Steel, D G; Gafni, A

    1992-01-01

    The existence of circular polarization in room-temperature protein phosphorescence is demonstrated, and time-resolved circularly polarized phosphorescence (TR-CPP) is used to characterize unique tryptophan environments in multitryptophan proteins. Circularly polarized luminescence studies provide information regarding the excited state chirality of a lumiphore which can be used to extract sensitive structural information. It is shown by time resolving the circular polarization that it is possible to correlate the excited state chirality with unique decay components in a multiexponential phosphorescence decay profile. The present study presents a concurrent analysis of room-temperature time-resolved phosphorescence and TR-CPP of bacterial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase as well as those of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. Only one of the two tryptophan residues per subunit of dimeric alcohol dehydrogenase is believed to phosphorescence, while the dimeric glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase has eight tryptophan residues per subunit and shows a corresponding complexity in its phosphorescence decay profile. The anisotropy factor [g(em) = delta I/(Itotal/2); delta I = Ileft circular-Iright circular] for alcohol dehydrogenase is time independent, suggesting a unique excited state chirality. The phosphorescence decay of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase can be well fitted with four exponential terms of 4, 23, 76, and 142 msec, and the TR-CPP of this enzyme shows a strong time dependence that can be resolved into four individual time-independent anisotropy factors of -4.0, -2.1, +6.5, and +6.9 (x10(-3)), each respectively associated with one of the four lifetime components. These results demonstrate how the use of TR-CPP can facilitate the study of proteins with multiple lumiphores. PMID:1438204

  14. Scalar wave diffraction from a circular aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Cerjan, C.

    1995-01-25

    The scalar wave theory is used to evaluate the expected diffraction patterns from a circular aperture. The standard far-field Kirchhoff approximation is compared to the exact result expressed in terms of oblate spheroidal harmonics. Deviations from an expanding spherical wave are calculated for circular aperture radius and the incident beam wavelength using suggested values for a recently proposed point diffractin interferometer. The Kirchhoff approximation is increasingly reliable in the far-field limit as the aperture radius is increased, although significant errors in amplitude and phase persist.

  15. Computing Scattering Matrices For Circular Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    Scattering Matrix Program for Circular Waveguide Junctions computes scattering matrix for series of circular waveguide sections. Sections must have same axis, but radius and length of each section completely arbitrary. Devices analyzed include simple waveguide step discontinuity like that used in a dual-mode horn, stepped matching section, or corrugated waveguide section with constant or varying slot depth. Certain types of corrugated horns also analyzed with program. Mathematical model used in program accurately predicts reflection and transmission characteristics of such devices, taking into account excitation of modes of higher order as well as multiple reflections and energy stored at each discontinuity. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  16. Rotatable non-circular forebody flow controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskovitz, Cary A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a rotatable, non-circular forebody flow controller. The apparatus comprises a small geometric device located at a nose of a forebody of an aircraft and a non-circular cross-sectional area that extends toward the apex of the aircraft. The device is symmetrical about a reference plane and preferably attaches to an axle which in turn attaches to a rotating motor. The motor rotates the device about an axis of rotation. Preferably, a control unit connected to an aircraft flight control computer signals to the rotating motor the proper rotational positioning of the geometric device.

  17. Beam scanning reflectarray antenna with circular polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, John (Inventor); Pogorzelski, Ronald J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A novel means of scanning a circularly polarized reflectarray antenna. The reflectarray is an array of metallic elements arranged on a surface designed to compensate for the various path lengths of the optical rays from an illuminating feed to the reflecting surface and then to the antenna aperture. With appropriate design, the phase in the aperture can be made to vary linearly in any desired direction and also to produce a radiated beam normal to the constant phase surface. In the case of circular polarization, this path length compensation can be accomplished by rotation of the individual elements.

  18. Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Simple Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carnerero, Esther M; Agarrabeitia, Antonia R; Moreno, Florencio; Maroto, Beatriz L; Muller, Gilles; Ortiz, María J; de la Moya, Santiago

    2015-09-21

    This article aims to show the identity of "circularly polarized luminescent active simple organic molecules" as a new concept in organic chemistry due to the potential interest of these molecules, as availed by the exponentially growing number of research articles related to them. In particular, it describes and highlights the interest and difficulty in developing chiral simple (small and non-aggregated) organic molecules able to emit left- or right-circularly polarized light efficiently, the efforts realized up to now to reach this challenging objective, and the most significant milestones achieved to date. General guidelines for the preparation of these interesting molecules are also presented. PMID:26136234

  19. Tamavidin 2-REV: an engineered tamavidin with reversible biotin-binding capability.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Sofuku, Kozue; Tsunashima, Masako

    2013-03-10

    A biotin-binding protein with reversible biotin-binding capability is of great technical value in the affinity purification of biotinylated biomolecules. Although several proteins, chemically or genetically modified from avidin or streptavidin, with reversible biotin-binding have been reported, they have been problematic in one way or another. Tamavidin 2 is a fungal protein similar to avidin and streptavidin in biotin-binding. Here, a mutein, tamavidin 2-REV, was engineered from tamavidin 2 by replacing the serine at position 36 (S36) with alanine. S36 is thought to form a hydrogen bond with biotin in tamavidin 2/biotin complexes and two hydrogen bonds with V38 within the protein. Tamavidin 2-REV bound to biotin-agarose and was eluted with excess free biotin at a neutral pH. In addition, the model substrate biotinylated bovine serum albumin was efficiently purified from a crude extract from Escherichia coli by means of single-step affinity chromatography with tamavidin 2-REV-immobilized resin. Tamavidin 2-REV thus demonstrated reversible biotin-binding capability. The Kd value of tamavidin 2-REV to biotin was 2.8-4.4×10(-7)M.Tamavidin 2-REV retained other convenient characteristics of tamavidin 2, such as high-level expression in E. coli, resistance to proteases, and a neutral isoelectric point, demonstrating that tamavidin 2-REV is a powerful tool for the purification of biotinylated biomolecules. PMID:23333918

  20. Lack of Rev7 function results in development of tubulostromal adenomas in mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Abdolrahim; Khalaj, Maryam; Akiyama, Kouyou; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Acosta, Tomas J; Said, Neveen; Yoshida, Midori; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Rev7 is a subunit of Polζ, one of the translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) polymerases involved in DNA damage repair. We recently found that Rev7 is also essential for germ cell development in mouse. In the present study, we found the development of ovarian tumors in Rev7 mutant mouse, suggesting the involvement of TLS deficiency in the etiology of ovarian tumor. The Rev7 mutant mice showed complete lack of oocytes and follicles in the ovary. The lack of follicles causes a significant increase of gonadotropin level and an increase in the proliferation of ovarian cells. As a result, the weight of the ovaries of Rev7 mutant mice increased with age and they developed tubulostromal adenomas. However, the remarkable overgrowth of ovaries occurred after gonadotropin level decreases at older ages, suggesting gonadotropin-independent progression of the ovarian tumors. In addition, the Rev7 mutant fibroblasts and ovarian cells showed significant accumulation of DNA damage. These findings suggest that not only increased gonadotropin levels but also lack of DNA damage repair function could be responsible for the development of ovarian tumors in the Rev7 mutant mouse. PMID:26004212

  1. 75 FR 10524 - NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... COMMISSION NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for... document entitled: ``NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action...-4737, or by e-mail to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3,...

  2. FANCD2 and REV1 cooperate in the protection of nascent DNA strands in response to replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yeran; Liu, Zhenbo; Wang, Fengli; Temviriyanukul, Piya; Ma, Xiaolu; Tu, Yingfeng; Lv, Lingna; Lin, Yu-Fen; Huang, Min; Zhang, Ting; Pei, Huadong; Chen, Benjamin P.C.; Jansen, Jacob G.; de Wind, Niels; Fischhaber, Paula L.; Friedberg, Errol C.; Tang, Tie-Shan; Guo, Caixia

    2015-01-01

    REV1 is a eukaryotic member of the Y-family of DNA polymerases involved in translesion DNA synthesis and genome mutagenesis. Recently, REV1 is also found to function in homologous recombination. However, it remains unclear how REV1 is recruited to the sites where homologous recombination is processed. Here, we report that loss of mammalian REV1 results in a specific defect in replication-associated gene conversion. We found that REV1 is targeted to laser-induced DNA damage stripes in a manner dependent on its ubiquitin-binding motifs, on RAD18, and on monoubiquitinated FANCD2 (FANCD2-mUb) that associates with REV1. Expression of a FANCD2-Ub chimeric protein in RAD18-depleted cells enhances REV1 assembly at laser-damaged sites, suggesting that FANCD2-mUb functions downstream of RAD18 to recruit REV1 to DNA breaks. Consistent with this suggestion we found that REV1 and FANCD2 are epistatic with respect to sensitivity to the double-strand break-inducer camptothecin. REV1 enrichment at DNA damage stripes also partially depends on BRCA1 and BRCA2, components of the FANCD2/BRCA supercomplex. Intriguingly, analogous to FANCD2-mUb and BRCA1/BRCA2, REV1 plays an unexpected role in protecting nascent replication tracts from degradation by stabilizing RAD51 filaments. Collectively these data suggest that REV1 plays multiple roles at stalled replication forks in response to replication stress. PMID:26187992

  3. FANCD2 and REV1 cooperate in the protection of nascent DNA strands in response to replication stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yeran; Liu, Zhenbo; Wang, Fengli; Temviriyanukul, Piya; Ma, Xiaolu; Tu, Yingfeng; Lv, Lingna; Lin, Yu-Fen; Huang, Min; Zhang, Ting; Pei, Huadong; Chen, Benjamin P C; Jansen, Jacob G; de Wind, Niels; Fischhaber, Paula L; Friedberg, Errol C; Tang, Tie-Shan; Guo, Caixia

    2015-09-30

    REV1 is a eukaryotic member of the Y-family of DNA polymerases involved in translesion DNA synthesis and genome mutagenesis. Recently, REV1 is also found to function in homologous recombination. However, it remains unclear how REV1 is recruited to the sites where homologous recombination is processed. Here, we report that loss of mammalian REV1 results in a specific defect in replication-associated gene conversion. We found that REV1 is targeted to laser-induced DNA damage stripes in a manner dependent on its ubiquitin-binding motifs, on RAD18, and on monoubiquitinated FANCD2 (FANCD2-mUb) that associates with REV1. Expression of a FANCD2-Ub chimeric protein in RAD18-depleted cells enhances REV1 assembly at laser-damaged sites, suggesting that FANCD2-mUb functions downstream of RAD18 to recruit REV1 to DNA breaks. Consistent with this suggestion we found that REV1 and FANCD2 are epistatic with respect to sensitivity to the double-strand break-inducer camptothecin. REV1 enrichment at DNA damage stripes also partially depends on BRCA1 and BRCA2, components of the FANCD2/BRCA supercomplex. Intriguingly, analogous to FANCD2-mUb and BRCA1/BRCA2, REV1 plays an unexpected role in protecting nascent replication tracts from degradation by stabilizing RAD51 filaments. Collectively these data suggest that REV1 plays multiple roles at stalled replication forks in response to replication stress. PMID:26187992

  4. Expression Patterns of Circular RNAs from Primary Kinase Transcripts in the Mammary Glands of Lactating Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, ChunLei; Wu, Hui; Wang, YanHong; Zhao, YuLong; Fang, XingTang; Chen, CaiFa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of RNAs, perform important functions in biological processes. However, the role of circRNAs in the mammary gland remains unknown. The present study is aimed at identifying and characterizing the circRNAs expressed in the mammary gland of lactating rats. Methods Deep sequencing of RNase R-enriched rat lactating mammary gland samples was performed and circRNAs were predicted using a previously reported computational pipeline. Gene ontology terms of circRNA-producing genes were also analyzed. Results A total of 6,824 and 4,523 circRNAs were identified from rat mammary glands at two different lactation stages. Numerous circRNAs were specifically expressed at different lactation stages, and only 1,314 circRNAs were detected at both lactation stages. The majority of the candidate circRNAs map to noncoding intronic and intergenic regions. The results demonstrate a circular preference or specificity of some genes. DAVID analysis revealed an enrichment of protein kinases and related proteins among the set of genes encoding circRNAs. Interestingly, four protein-coding genes (Rev3l, IGSF11, MAML2, and LPP) that also transcribe high levels of circRNAs have been reported to be involved in cancer. Conclusion Our findings provide the basis for comparison between breast cancer profiles and for selecting representative circRNA candidates for future functional characterization in breast development and breast cancer. PMID:26472973

  5. Amchitka Mud Pit Sites 2006 Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Report, Amchitka Island, Alaska, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2006-09-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA/NSO) remediated six areas associated with Amchitka mud pit release sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. This included the construction of seven closure caps. To ensure the integrity and effectiveness of remedial action, the mud pit sites are to be inspected every five years as part of DOE's long-term monitoring and surveillance program. In August of 2006, the closure caps were inspected in accordance with the ''Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Plan for Amchitka Island Mud Pit Release Sites'' (Rev. 0, November 2005). This post-closure monitoring report provides the 2006 cap inspection results.

  6. MT3D: a 3 dimensional magnetotelluric modeling program (user's guide and documentation for Rev. 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Nutter, C.; Wannamaker, P.E.

    1980-11-01

    MT3D.REV1 is a non-interactive computer program written in FORTRAN to do 3-dimensional magnetotelluric modeling. A 3-D volume integral equation has been adapted to simulate the MT response of a 3D body in the earth. An integro-difference scheme has been incorporated to increase the accuracy. This is a user's guide for MT3D.REV1 on the University of Utah Research Institute's (UURI) PRIME 400 computer operating under PRIMOS IV, Rev. 17.

  7. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  8. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  9. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  10. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  11. U.S. Government Information Policy: The Coming of a New Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernon, Peter; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of possible information policy initiatives of the Clinton administration focuses on the issues addressed by a 1992 draft document which revises the Office of Management and Budget's Circular A-130, "The Management of Federal Information Resources." Recommended revisions for the circular are listed. (seven references) (EA)

  12. 21 CFR 606.122 - Instruction circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shall contain: (1) Instructions to administer a suitable plasma volume expander if Red Blood Cells are...: (1) The approximate volume of plasma from which a sample unit of Platelets is prepared. (2... container. (m) For Plasma, the instruction circular shall contain: (1) A warning against further...

  13. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Offering circular. 230.253 Section 230.253 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.253...

  14. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offering circular. 230.253 Section 230.253 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.253...

  15. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Offering circular. 230.253 Section 230.253 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.253...

  16. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Offering circular. 230.253 Section 230.253 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation A-Conditional Small Issues Exemption § 230.253...

  17. Using Pesticides Safely. Special Circular 296.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, W. K.

    The use of pesticides is necessary to aid in the production of food, feed and fiber, and is equally important in the control of home garden and household pests, but correct use is critical in preventing injury to persons, animals, and plants. This circular contains information on State of Pennsylvania and federal pesticide laws; different types of…

  18. Compliance Supplement. OMB Circular A-133.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC.

    This document is a supplement to Circular A-133 (1990) from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which extended the government's "single audit process" for agencies that administer federal financial assistance programs to higher education institutions and non-profit organizations. This supplement is based on the 1996 Amendments (the Single…

  19. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  20. Magnifying Devices: A Resource Guide. Reference Circular.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Carol, Comp.

    The devices listed in this reference circular are designed to assist people who have visual impairments by magnifying objects and print or graphic materials. Before buying a magnification device, one should consult a low-vision specialist to determine the level of usable vision, the power of magnification needed for a particular eye condition and…

  1. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 10, Circular Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the tenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials relating to circular motion are presented in this study guide. The topics are concerned with instantaneous velocity, centripetal force, centrifugal force, and satellite paths. The content is arranged in scrambled form, and the use of matrix transparencies is…

  2. Non-Circular Wheels: Reuleaux and Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Circular wheels are so familiar on vehicles of all types that it is seldom realized that alternatives do exist. This short non-mathematical article describes Reuleaux and square wheels that, rolling along appropriate tracks, can maintain a moving platform at a constant height. Easily made working models lend themselves to demonstrations at science…

  3. Circular Vibration Planing of Inconel 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettiarachchi, Nandita Kalyanakumara; Moriwaki, Toshimichi; Shibasaka, Toshiro; Nakamoto, Keiichi

    Circular vibration milling (CVM) is achieved by vibrating a milling cutter about the machine tool spindle axis in a circular path, in addition to its rotary motion. CVM has been proven capable of producing better surface finishes on difficult to cut materials. However, the CVM process is far slower than conventional milling process. In circular vibration planing (CVP) process, the cutting tool is clamped without rotation and fed at a speed comparable to the feed speed of conventional milling. By superimposing circular vibration motion, necessary cutting speed could be achieved keeping the feed speed at realistic values. Inconel 718 was machined by CVP and conventional milling at a similar feed rate. It was observed that CVP could reduce tool wear and hence produce better surface finishes than conventional milling. A geometric simulation showed a major difference between uncut chip shapes of the two processes. The difference of uncut chip shapes suggests that in CVP process, less rubbing occurs between tool flank face and work before the tool penetrates in to the work to form a chip. The reduced rubbing of the flank face is proposed as the reson for reduced tool wear in CVP when compared with conventional milling.

  4. Circular tapered tape fabrication: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stockdale, D.A.

    1988-04-01

    A new approach to producing tapered tapes has been developed involving generating a tapered tape in a circular configuration on a lathe rather than a mill. This approach is more cost-effective and the redesigned slot configuration induced less stress on the tapes during installation and removal.

  5. Helically corrugated circular waveguides as antenna feeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jecko, F.; Papiernik, A.

    1983-07-01

    Rotation of the plane of polarization of the TE(11)-mode is predicted and observed in a helically corrugated circular waveguide. Rotation is suppressed by a longitudinal deformation produced on the corrugation. This modified structure can be used as an antenna feeder with low losses.

  6. Combustor with non-circular head end

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a head end with a non-circular configuration, a number of fuel nozzles positioned about the head end, and a transition piece extending downstream of the head end.

  7. 77 FR 52116 - Title VI; Final Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... September 29, 2011, Federal Register notice (76 FR 60593), and provides information regarding implementation... Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations,'' 77 FR 27534, May 10...-0055) (77 FR 42077, July 17, 2012). The EJ Circular is available on FTA's Web site here:...

  8. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. W.; Justice, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    A circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. This device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  9. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choon S.; Justice, D. W.; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1988-02-01

    It is shown that a circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. The device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  10. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. W.; Justice, D. W.

    1986-08-01

    A circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. This device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  11. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Choon S.; Justice, D. W.; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that a circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. The device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  12. Nullbasic, a potent anti-HIV tat mutant, induces CRM1-dependent disruption of HIV rev trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min-Hsuan; Sivakumaran, Haran; Apolloni, Ann; Wei, Ting; Jans, David A; Harrich, David

    2012-01-01

    Nullbasic, a mutant of the HIV-1 Tat protein, has anti-HIV-1 activity through mechanisms that include inhibition of Rev function and redistribution of the HIV-1 Rev protein from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Here we investigate the mechanism of this effect for the first time, establishing that redistribution of Rev by Nullbasic is not due to direct interaction between the two proteins. Rather, Nullbasic affects subcellular localization of cellular proteins that regulate Rev trafficking. In particular, Nullbasic induced redistribution of exportin 1 (CRM1), nucleophosmin (B23) and nucleolin (C23) from the nucleolus to the nucleus when Rev was coexpressed, but never in its absence. Inhibition of the Rev:CRM1 interaction by leptomycin B or a non-interacting RevM10 mutant completely blocked redistribution of Rev by Nullbasic. Finally, Nullbasic did not inhibit importin β- or transportin 1-mediated nuclear import, suggesting that cytoplasmic accumulation of Rev was due to increased export by CRM1. Overall, our data support the conclusion that CRM1-dependent subcellular redistribution of Rev from the nucleolus by Nullbasic is not through general perturbation of either nuclear import or export. Rather, Nullbasic appears to interact with and disrupt specific components of a Rev trafficking complex required for its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and, in particular, its nucleolar accumulation. PMID:23251541

  13. Overexpression of the Circadian Clock Gene Rev-erbα Affects Murine Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    He, Yao; Lin, Fuwei; Chen, Yaqun; Tan, Zhen; Bai, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) age-related changes include decreased osteogenesis and increased adipogenesis. Rev-erbα and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were known to play important roles in BMSC aging. In this study, we have aimed to elucidate whether Rev-erbα and Wnt/β-catenin signaling interact during BMSC proliferation and osteogenesis. Our results showed that Rev-erbα expression gradually dropped during BMSC osteogenesis, and overexpression of Rev-erbα in BMSCs inhibited cell proliferation and osteogenesis. The inhibition of cell proliferation induced by Rev-erbα overexpression was partially reversed when Wnt/β-catenin signaling was activated. These results suggested that Rev-erbα could promote BMSC aging and may be the negative regulator during the late stage of osteogenesis. The clock gene Rev-erbα and Wnt/β-catenin signaling interact in the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:25539035

  14. Rev-erbα in the brain is essential for circadian food entrainment.

    PubMed

    Delezie, Julien; Dumont, Stéphanie; Sandu, Cristina; Reibel, Sophie; Pevet, Paul; Challet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Foraging is costly in terms of time and energy. An endogenous food-entrainable system allows anticipation of predictable changes of food resources in nature. Yet the molecular mechanism that controls food anticipation in mammals remains elusive. Here we report that deletion of the clock component Rev-erbα impairs food entrainment in mice. Rev-erbα global knockout (GKO) mice subjected to restricted feeding showed reduced elevations of locomotor activity and body temperature prior to mealtime, regardless of the lighting conditions. The failure to properly anticipate food arrival was accompanied by a lack of phase-adjustment to mealtime of the clock protein PERIOD2 in the cerebellum, and by diminished expression of phosphorylated ERK 1/2 (p-ERK) during mealtime in the mediobasal hypothalamus and cerebellum. Furthermore, brain-specific knockout (BKO) mice for Rev-erbα display a defective suprachiasmatic clock, as evidenced by blunted daily activity under a light-dark cycle, altered free-running rhythm in constant darkness and impaired clock gene expression. Notably, brain deletion of Rev-erbα totally prevented food-anticipatory behaviour and thermogenesis. In response to restricted feeding, brain deletion of Rev-erbα impaired changes in clock gene expression in the hippocampus and cerebellum, but not in the liver. Our findings indicate that Rev-erbα is required for neural network-based prediction of food availability. PMID:27380954

  15. Rev-erbα in the brain is essential for circadian food entrainment

    PubMed Central

    Delezie, Julien; Dumont, Stéphanie; Sandu, Cristina; Reibel, Sophie; Pevet, Paul; Challet, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Foraging is costly in terms of time and energy. An endogenous food-entrainable system allows anticipation of predictable changes of food resources in nature. Yet the molecular mechanism that controls food anticipation in mammals remains elusive. Here we report that deletion of the clock component Rev-erbα impairs food entrainment in mice. Rev-erbα global knockout (GKO) mice subjected to restricted feeding showed reduced elevations of locomotor activity and body temperature prior to mealtime, regardless of the lighting conditions. The failure to properly anticipate food arrival was accompanied by a lack of phase-adjustment to mealtime of the clock protein PERIOD2 in the cerebellum, and by diminished expression of phosphorylated ERK 1/2 (p-ERK) during mealtime in the mediobasal hypothalamus and cerebellum. Furthermore, brain-specific knockout (BKO) mice for Rev-erbα display a defective suprachiasmatic clock, as evidenced by blunted daily activity under a light-dark cycle, altered free-running rhythm in constant darkness and impaired clock gene expression. Notably, brain deletion of Rev-erbα totally prevented food-anticipatory behaviour and thermogenesis. In response to restricted feeding, brain deletion of Rev-erbα impaired changes in clock gene expression in the hippocampus and cerebellum, but not in the liver. Our findings indicate that Rev-erbα is required for neural network-based prediction of food availability. PMID:27380954

  16. Ubiquitin ligase Siah2 regulates RevErbα degradation and the mammalian circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    DeBruyne, Jason P.; Baggs, Julie E.; Sato, Trey K.; Hogenesch, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Regulated degradation of proteins by the proteasome is often critical to their function in dynamic cellular pathways. The molecular clock underlying mammalian circadian rhythms relies on the rhythmic expression and degradation of its core components. However, because the tools available for identifying the mechanisms underlying the degradation of a specific protein are limited, the mechanisms regulating clock protein degradation are only beginning to be elucidated. Here we describe a cell-based functional screening approach designed to quickly identify the ubiquitin E3 ligases that induce the degradation of potentially any protein of interest. We screened the nuclear hormone receptor RevErbα (Nr1d1), a key constituent of the mammalian circadian clock, for E3 ligases that regulate its stability and found Seven in absentia2 (Siah2) to be a key regulator of RevErbα stability. Previously implicated in hypoxia signaling, Siah2 overexpression destabilizes RevErbα/β, and siRNA depletion of Siah2 stabilizes endogenous RevErbα. Moreover, Siah2 depletion delays circadian degradation of RevErbα and lengthens period length. These results demonstrate the utility of functional screening approaches for identifying regulators of protein stability and reveal Siah2 as a previously unidentified circadian clockwork regulator that mediates circadian RevErbα turnover. PMID:26392558

  17. Discrete Functions of Nuclear Receptor Rev-erbα Couple Metabolism to the Clock

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Fang, Bin; Emmett, Matthew J.; Damle, Manashree; Sun, Zheng; Feng, Dan; Armour, Sean M.; Remsberg, Jarrett R.; Jager, Jennifer; Soccio, Raymond E.; Steger, David J.; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Circadian and metabolic physiology are intricately intertwined, as illustrated by Rev-erbα, a transcription factor (TF) that functions both as a core repressive component of the cell autonomous clock and as a regulator of metabolic genes. Here we show that Rev-erbα modulates the clock and metabolism by different genomic mechanisms. Clock control requires Rev-erbα to bind directly to the genome at its cognate sites, where it competes with activating ROR TFs. By contrast, Rev-erbα regulates metabolic genes primarily by recruiting the HDAC3 corepressor to sites to which it is tethered by cell type-specific transcription factors. Thus, direct competition between Rev-erbα and ROR TFs provides a universal mechanism for self-sustained control of molecular clock across all tissues, whereas Rev-erbα utilizes lineage-determining factors to convey a tissue-specific epigenomic rhythm that regulates metabolism tailored to the specific need of that tissue. PMID:26044300

  18. Topologically non-linked circular duplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Biegeleisen, Ken

    2002-05-01

    The discovery of circular DNA, over 30 years ago, introduced an element of uneasiness in what had been, up to that point, the almost picture-perfect story of the elucidation of the molecular biology of heredity. If DNA indeed has the Watson-Crick right-handed helical secondary structure, then in circular DNA, thousands, or perhaps even millions of twists must be removed in each generation, and re-wound in the next generation. Although enzyme systems adequate for this task have long since been found and characterized, there have nevertheless arisen a number of proposals for alternative DNA structures in which the strands are topologically non-linked, so that they might separate during replication without having to be unwound. These structures have generally been put forth as theory only, and have been largely unaccompanied by experimental evidence to support their applicability to native DNA from living systems. Recently, however, a report has emerged suggesting that it might be possible to separate, intact, the individual single-stranded circular half-chromosomes which constitute the double-stranded circular chromosomes of certain plasmids. This would not be possible unless the chromosomes had one of the alternative, topologically non-linked structures. It is widely believed that after a half-century of worldwide DNA research, any significant change to the Watson-Crick structure is unlikely to stand up to scrutiny. Nevertheless, the present author has found that in many instances in which the behavior of circular duplex DNA is considered to be explicable only in terms of the topologically linked helical model, it is also possible to explain that same behavior in terms of a topologically non-linked model. It is necessary, in these instances, to make certain logical assumptions which cannot be conclusively proven at the present time. The author herein offers an example of one such instance, namely an examination of the behavior of circular duplex DNA in an alkaline

  19. Dual inhibition of REV-ERBβ and autophagy as a novel pharmacological approach to induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    De Mei, C; Ercolani, L; Parodi, C; Veronesi, M; Vecchio, C Lo; Bottegoni, G; Torrente, E; Scarpelli, R; Marotta, R; Ruffili, R; Mattioli, M; Reggiani, A; Wade, M; Grimaldi, B

    2015-01-01

    REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ nuclear receptors regulate several physiological processes, including circadian rhythm and metabolism. A previous study reported the REV-ERBα gene to be co-overexpressed with ERBB2 in breast cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, we found that several tumor types, including a number of breast cancer cell lines, predominantly express the REV-ERBβ variant. This pattern was independent of ERBB2 and ER status, and opposite to that of non-cancer mammary epithelial HMEC cells, in which REV-ERBα was the major variant. Consistent with this molecular profile, REV-ERB target genes in both circadian and metabolic pathways were derepressed upon silencing of REV-ERBβ, but not REV-ERBα. Strikingly, we found that REV-ERBβ is a determinant of sensitivity to chloroquine, a clinically relevant lysosomotropic agent that suppresses autophagy. The cytoprotective function of REV-ERBβ appears to operate downstream of autophagy blockade. Through compound screening, we identified ARN5187, a novel lysosomotropic REV-ERBβ ligand with a dual inhibitory activity toward REV-ERB-mediated transcriptional regulation and autophagy. Remarkably, although ARN5187 and chloroquine share similar lysosomotropic potency and have a similar effect on autophagy inhibition, ARN5187 is significantly more cytotoxic. Collectively, our results reveal that dual inhibition of REV-ERBβ and autophagy is an effective strategy for eliciting cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Furthermore, our discovery of a novel inhibitor compound of both REV-ERB and autophagy may provide a scaffold for the discovery of new multifunctional anticancer agents. PMID:25023698

  20. 30 CFR 886.18 - What audit and administrative requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What audit and administrative requirements must... INDIAN TRIBES § 886.18 What audit and administrative requirements must I meet? (a) You must comply with the audit requirements of the OMB Circular A-133. (b) You must follow administrative...

  1. 49 CFR 1548.19 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars... CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.19 Security Directives and Information Circulars. (a) TSA may issue an Information Circular to notify indirect air carriers of security concerns. (b) When TSA determines that...

  2. 49 CFR 1549.109 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars... SCREENING PROGRAM Operations § 1549.109 Security Directives and Information Circulars. (a) TSA may issue an Information Circular to notify certified cargo screening facilities of security concerns. (b) When...

  3. 17 CFR 230.255 - Preliminary Offering Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary Offering Circulars... Preliminary Offering Circulars. (a) Prior to qualification of the required offering statement, but after its... front cover page of the material bears the caption “Preliminary Offering Circular,” the date of...

  4. 17 CFR 230.255 - Preliminary Offering Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary Offering Circulars... Preliminary Offering Circulars. (a) Prior to qualification of the required offering statement, but after its... front cover page of the material bears the caption “Preliminary Offering Circular,” the date of...

  5. 49 CFR 1548.19 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars... CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.19 Security Directives and Information Circulars. (a) TSA may issue an Information Circular to notify indirect air carriers of security concerns. (b) When TSA determines that...

  6. 49 CFR 1549.109 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security Directives and Information Circulars... SCREENING PROGRAM Operations § 1549.109 Security Directives and Information Circulars. (a) TSA may issue an Information Circular to notify certified cargo screening facilities of security concerns. (b) When...

  7. 49 CFR 1544.305 - Security Directives and Information Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Information Circulars. (a) TSA may issue an Information Circular to notify aircraft operators of... with an operational need-to-know. (2) Refuse to release the Security Directive or Information Circular, and information contained in either document, to persons other than those with an operational...

  8. 76 FR 77770 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Circumstances Review: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico, 75 FR 82374 (December 30, 2010... Administrative Review, 76 FR 49437 (August 10, 2011) (Preliminary Results). \\2\\ The Department determined that...; Countervailing Duties, 62 FR 27296, 27393 (May 19, 1997); see also Oil Country Tubular Goods From...

  9. 76 FR 49437 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Circumstances Review: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico, 75 FR 82374 (December 30, 2010... Steel Pipe from Korea, 57 FR 49453 (November 2, 1992) (Antidumping Duty Order). On November 1, 2010, the... Administrative Review, 75 FR 67079 (November 1, 2010). On November 30, 2010, the Department received...

  10. 76 FR 36089 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...On December 14, 2010, the Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (``CWP'') from the Republic of Korea (``Korea''), covering the period November 1, 2008, through October 31, 2009. This review covers six producers/exporters of the subject merchandise to the......

  11. 75 FR 39917 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 68229 (December 23, 2009). The current deadline for the preliminary... International Trade Administration (A-580-809) Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea... non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of Korea, covering the period November 1, 2008 through...

  12. 75 FR 44763 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 68229 (December 23, 2009). The current deadline for the... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time... welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico. We also received review requests on November 30, 2009,...

  13. 76 FR 76369 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Less Than Fair Value: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Korea, 57 FR 49453 (November 2... Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 81565 (December 28, 2010..., 75 FR at 81565. On January 10, 2011, we received comments on the issue of respondent selection...

  14. 78 FR 64916 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Review; Calendar Year 2011, 78 FR 21107 (April 9, 2013) (Preliminary Results). \\2\\ See Decision..., 51 FR 7984 (March 7, 1986). \\4\\ See Preliminary Results. \\5\\ Petitioners in this review are Wheatland... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Final Results...

  15. 77 FR 55807 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial... welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. The review covers four respondents. Based on a... welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan covering the period May 1, 2011, through April 30,...

  16. Entropic penalties in circular DNA assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoli, Marco

    2014-11-01

    The thermodynamic properties of DNA circular molecules are investigated by a new path integral computational method which treats in the real space the fundamental forces stabilizing the molecule. The base pair and stacking contributions to the classical action are evaluated separately by simulating a broad ensemble of twisted conformations. We obtain, for two short sequences, a free energy landscape with multiple wells corresponding to the most convenient values of helical repeat. Our results point to a intrinsic flexibility of the circular structures in which the base pair fluctuations move the system from one well to the next thus causing the local unwinding of the helix. The latter is more pronounced in the shorter sequence whose cyclization causes a higher bending stress. The entropic reductions associated to the formation of the ordered helicoidal structure are estimated.

  17. Circular polarization sensitive absorbers based on graphene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kunpeng; Wang, Min; Pu, Mingbo; Wu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Hui; Hu, Chenggang; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the polarization of a linearly polarized (LP) light would rotate after passing through a single layer graphene under the bias of a perpendicular magnetostatic field. Here we show that a corresponding phase shift could be expected for circularly polarized (CP) light, which can be engineered to design the circular polarization sensitive devices. We theoretically validate that an ultrathin graphene-based absorber with the thickness about λ/76 can be obtained, which shows efficient absorption >90% within incident angles of ±80°. The angle-independent phase shift produced by the graphene is responsible for the nearly omnidirectional absorber. Furthermore, a broadband absorber in frequencies ranging from 2.343 to 5.885 THz with absorption over 90% is designed by engineering the dispersion of graphene. PMID:27034257

  18. Circular RNAs: Novel Regulators of Neuronal Development.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Daniëlle; Verheijen, Bert M; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are highly stable, circularized long non-coding RNAs. circRNAs are conserved across species and appear to be specifically enriched in the nervous system. Recent studies show that many circRNAs are expressed in a tissue- and developmental-stage-specific manner, reveal a striking regulation of circRNAs during neuronal development, and detect their presence at synaptic sites. The exact functions of circRNAs remain poorly understood, but evidence from analysis of some circRNA molecules suggests that they could substantially contribute to the regulation of gene expression, particularly in architecturally complex and polarized cells such as neurons. Emerging evidence also indicates that circRNAs are involved in the development and progression of various neurological disorders. In this review, we summarize the molecular characteristics of circRNAs and discuss their proposed functions and mechanism-of-action in developing neurons. PMID:27616979

  19. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Garnett, Robert W.; Dobelbower, M. Christian

    1995-01-01

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  20. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  1. Circular polarization sensitive absorbers based on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kunpeng; Wang, Min; Pu, Mingbo; Wu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Hui; Hu, Chenggang; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the polarization of a linearly polarized (LP) light would rotate after passing through a single layer graphene under the bias of a perpendicular magnetostatic field. Here we show that a corresponding phase shift could be expected for circularly polarized (CP) light, which can be engineered to design the circular polarization sensitive devices. We theoretically validate that an ultrathin graphene-based absorber with the thickness about λ/76 can be obtained, which shows efficient absorption >90% within incident angles of ±80°. The angle-independent phase shift produced by the graphene is responsible for the nearly omnidirectional absorber. Furthermore, a broadband absorber in frequencies ranging from 2.343 to 5.885 THz with absorption over 90% is designed by engineering the dispersion of graphene.

  2. Electron capture from circular Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.B.; Ehrenreich, T.; Horsdal-Pedersen, E. ); MacAdam, K.B. ); Dube, L.J. )

    1993-09-06

    Capture cross sections for circular Rydberg states have been measured as a function of the angle, [ital cphi], between ion velocity and angular momentum of the circular orbital. The system studied is 2.5 keV [sup 23]Na[sup +] on Li(1[ital s][sup 2],[ital nlm]) with [ital n]=25, [ital l]=[ital n][minus]1, and [ital m]=+[ital l], where [ital m] is defined relative to a weak, external magnetic field. A strong dependence on [ital cphi] is found. It is expected that studies such as the present will lead to an improved understanding of the three-body problem in the region of sufficiently large quantum numbers and impact velocities for classical physics to be accurate.

  3. Circular RNAs: Novel Regulators of Neuronal Development

    PubMed Central

    van Rossum, Daniëlle; Verheijen, Bert M.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are highly stable, circularized long non-coding RNAs. circRNAs are conserved across species and appear to be specifically enriched in the nervous system. Recent studies show that many circRNAs are expressed in a tissue- and developmental-stage-specific manner, reveal a striking regulation of circRNAs during neuronal development, and detect their presence at synaptic sites. The exact functions of circRNAs remain poorly understood, but evidence from analysis of some circRNA molecules suggests that they could substantially contribute to the regulation of gene expression, particularly in architecturally complex and polarized cells such as neurons. Emerging evidence also indicates that circRNAs are involved in the development and progression of various neurological disorders. In this review, we summarize the molecular characteristics of circRNAs and discuss their proposed functions and mechanism-of-action in developing neurons. PMID:27616979

  4. Circular machine design techniques and tools

    SciTech Connect

    Servranckx, R.V.; Brown, K.L.

    1986-04-01

    Some of the basic optics principles involved in the design of circular accelerators such as Alternating Gradient Synchrotrons, Storage and Collision Rings, and Pulse Stretcher Rings are outlined. Typical problems facing a designer are defined, and the main references and computational tools are reviewed that are presently available. Two particular classes of problems that occur typically in accelerator design are listed - global value problems, which affect the control of parameters which are characteristic of the complete closed circular machine, and local value problems. Basic mathematical formulae are given that are considered useful for a first draft of a design. The basic optics building blocks that can be used to formulate an initial machine design are introduced, giving only the elementary properties and transfer matrices only in one transverse plane. Solutions are presented for some first-order and second-order design problems. (LEW)

  5. Entropic penalties in circular DNA assembly.

    PubMed

    Zoli, Marco

    2014-11-01

    The thermodynamic properties of DNA circular molecules are investigated by a new path integral computational method which treats in the real space the fundamental forces stabilizing the molecule. The base pair and stacking contributions to the classical action are evaluated separately by simulating a broad ensemble of twisted conformations. We obtain, for two short sequences, a free energy landscape with multiple wells corresponding to the most convenient values of helical repeat. Our results point to a intrinsic flexibility of the circular structures in which the base pair fluctuations move the system from one well to the next thus causing the local unwinding of the helix. The latter is more pronounced in the shorter sequence whose cyclization causes a higher bending stress. The entropic reductions associated to the formation of the ordered helicoidal structure are estimated. PMID:25381507

  6. Entropic penalties in circular DNA assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Zoli, Marco

    2014-11-07

    The thermodynamic properties of DNA circular molecules are investigated by a new path integral computational method which treats in the real space the fundamental forces stabilizing the molecule. The base pair and stacking contributions to the classical action are evaluated separately by simulating a broad ensemble of twisted conformations. We obtain, for two short sequences, a free energy landscape with multiple wells corresponding to the most convenient values of helical repeat. Our results point to a intrinsic flexibility of the circular structures in which the base pair fluctuations move the system from one well to the next thus causing the local unwinding of the helix. The latter is more pronounced in the shorter sequence whose cyclization causes a higher bending stress. The entropic reductions associated to the formation of the ordered helicoidal structure are estimated.

  7. Impedance properties of circular microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M. D.; Bailey, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A moment method solution to the input impedance of a circular microstrip antenna excited by either a microstrip feed or a coaxial probe is presented. Using the exact dyadic Green's function and the Fourier transform the problem is formulated in terms of Richmond's reaction integral equation from which the unknown patch current can be solved for. The patch current is expanded in terms of regular surface patch modes and an attachment mode (for probe excited case) which insures continuity of the current at probe/patch junction, proper polarization and p-dependance of patch current in the vicinity of the probe. The input impedance of a circular microstrip antenna is computed and compared with earlier results. Effect of attachment mode on the input impedance is also discussed.

  8. Shock structure in non-circular jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The shock-cell structure of supersonic jets with non-circular exit geometry is modeled using a linearized analysis. The model takes into account the finite thickness of the jet shear layer using realistic velocity and density profiles. The effects of the shear layer turbulence are included by incorporating eddy-viscosity terms. A finite-difference numerical method is used to solve the steady linearized equations of motion. A body-fitted coordinate system is used to describe the shear layer. The variation of the pressure fluctuation with downstream distance is given for circular jets and for an elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2.0. Comparisons with experimental data are made. Difficulties with the numerical technique are also discussed.

  9. 75 FR 13729 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Results and Rescission in Part of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 64670 (December 8... of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Accordingly, the deadline for completion of the... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Extension...

  10. Roles of Circular RNAs in Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yiye; Chen, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel type of endogenous noncoding RNA receiving increasing attention. They have been shown to act as a natural microRNA sponges that repress the activity of corresponding miRNAs by binding with them, thus regulating target genes. Numerous studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Therefore, circRNAs may act as important regulatory factors in the occurrence and development processes of neurological disease. PMID:27147959

  11. A fractal circular polarized RFID tag antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaouki, Guesmi; Ferchichi, Abdelhak; Gharsallah, Ali

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we present a novel fractal antenna for radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags. The proposed antenna has a resonant frequency equal to 2.45GHz and circular polarization. The fractal technique was very useful to obtain a miniaturization of antenna size by more than 30%. The gain and directivity of the antenna are acceptable for the desired RFID application. All the results are obtained using CST Microwave simulation tool.

  12. Circular analysis in complex stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valleriani, Angelo

    2015-12-01

    Ruling out observations can lead to wrong models. This danger occurs unwillingly when one selects observations, experiments, simulations or time-series based on their outcome. In stochastic processes, conditioning on the future outcome biases all local transition probabilities and makes them consistent with the selected outcome. This circular self-consistency leads to models that are inconsistent with physical reality. It is also the reason why models built solely on macroscopic observations are prone to this fallacy.

  13. Calculating the CEP (Circular Error Probable)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report compares the probability contained in the Circular Error Probable associated with an Elliptical Error Probable to that of the EEP at a given confidence level. The levels examined are 50 percent and 95 percent. The CEP is found to be both more conservative and less conservative than the associated EEP, depending on the eccentricity of the ellipse. The formulas used are derived in the appendix.

  14. Circular analysis in complex stochastic systems

    PubMed Central

    Valleriani, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Ruling out observations can lead to wrong models. This danger occurs unwillingly when one selects observations, experiments, simulations or time-series based on their outcome. In stochastic processes, conditioning on the future outcome biases all local transition probabilities and makes them consistent with the selected outcome. This circular self-consistency leads to models that are inconsistent with physical reality. It is also the reason why models built solely on macroscopic observations are prone to this fallacy. PMID:26656656

  15. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, C. Glen; Simmons, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal.

  16. Circular Intensity Differential Scattering of chiral molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bustamante, C.J.

    1980-12-01

    In this thesis a theory of the Circular Intensity Differential Scattering (CIDS) of chiral molecules as modelled by a helix oriented with respect to the direction of incidence of light is presented. It is shown that a necessary condition for the existence of CIDS is the presence of an asymmetric polarizability in the scatterer. The polarizability of the scatterer is assumed generally complex, so that both refractive and absorptive phenomena are taken into account.

  17. Accelerator considerations of large circular colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Alex

    2016-07-01

    As we consider the tremendous physics reaches of the big future circular electron-positron and proton-proton colliders, it might be advisable to keep a close track of what accelerator challenges they face. Good progresses are being made, and yet it is reported here that substantial investments in funding, manpower, as well as a long sustained time to the R&D efforts will be required in preparation to realize these dream colliders.

  18. Circular dichroism of planar chiral magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Decker, M; Klein, M W; Wegener, M; Linden, S

    2007-04-01

    We propose, fabricate, and study a double-layer chiral planar metamaterial that exhibits pronounced circular dichroism at near-infrared wavelengths. The antisymmetric oscillation modes of the two coupled layers allow local magnetic-dipole moments and enhanced polarization effects compared with similar single-layer systems where only electric-dipole moments occur. Experiment and rigorous theoretical calculations are in good agreement. PMID:17339960

  19. The vital role of polymerase ζ and REV1 in mutagenic, but not correct, DNA synthesis across benzo[a]pyrene-dG and recruitment of polymerase ζ by REV1 to replication-stalled site.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Keiji; Cho, Youngjin; Yang, In-Young; Akagi, Jun-ichi; Ohashi, Eiji; Tateishi, Satoshi; de Wind, Niels; Hanaoka, Fumio; Ohmori, Haruo; Moriya, Masaaki

    2012-03-16

    The DNA synthesis across DNA lesions, termed translesion synthesis (TLS), is a complex process influenced by various factors. To investigate this process in mammalian cells, we examined TLS across a benzo[a]pyrene dihydrodiol epoxide-derived dG adduct (BPDE-dG) using a plasmid bearing a single BPDE-dG and genetically engineered mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In wild-type MEFs, TLS was extremely miscoding (>90%) with G → T transversions being predominant. Knockout of the Rev1 gene decreased both the TLS efficiency and the miscoding frequency. Knockout of the Rev3L gene, coding for the catalytic subunit of pol ζ, caused even greater decreases in these two TLS parameters; almost all residual TLS were error-free. Thus, REV1 and pol ζ are critical to mutagenic, but not accurate, TLS across BPDE-dG. The introduction of human REV1 cDNA into Rev1(-/-) MEFs restored the mutagenic TLS, but a REV1 mutant lacking the C terminus did not. Yeast and mammalian three-hybrid assays revealed that the REV7 subunit of pol ζ mediated the interaction between REV3 and the REV1 C terminus. These results support the hypothesis that REV1 recruits pol ζ through the interaction with REV7. Our results also predict the existence of a minor REV1-independent pol ζ recruitment pathway. Finally, although mutagenic TLS across BPDE-dG largely depends on RAD18, experiments using Polk(-/-) Polh(-/-) Poli(-/-) triple-gene knockout MEFs unexpectedly revealed that another polymerase(s) could insert a nucleotide opposite BPDE-dG. This indicates that a non-Y family polymerase(s) can insert a nucleotide opposite BPDE-dG, but the subsequent extension from miscoding termini depends on REV1-polζ in a RAD18-dependent manner. PMID:22303021

  20. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2016-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ∼ 5 times the binary period P b, accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ∼ 1{P}{{b}}. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10–20 times larger than its companion. This “symmetry breaking” between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200P b and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the net accretion rates onto individual stars are the same, reaching a quasi-steady state with the circumbinary disk. These results have important implications for the accretion behavior of binary T Tauri stars and supermassive binary black holes.

  1. Online inspection of circular fluorescent lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Beng-Hoe

    1998-10-01

    One step in the manufacture of circular fluorescent lamps is the mercury (Hg) injection process in which a small amount of mercury approximately 20 mg is injected into the fluorescent tube. An on-line detection of mercury is required to ensure that the amount of mercury residual inside the tube is within the acceptable tolerance. This critical operation is to reduce manufacturing overhead by controlling cost and reducing waste of materials. In view of this, an attempt has been made to design and develop an on- line mercury detection system with important benefits to the manufacturers, such as increased throughput, accuracy, reliability and consistency. This paper presents the configuration and development works of the on-line circular fluorescent lamp inspection system developed by Industrial Project Group--Machine Vision Center of Nanyang Polytechnic. The inspection system performs on-line detection of mercury particles (Hg) inside the circular fluorescent lamp. Taking the orientation and translation offsets of the lamp into consideration, it detects the presence/absence as well as the size of the injected mercury. The system has been successfully operating 15 hours per day and inspecting more than 22 thousands lamps in the production plant.

  2. Continuous-wave circular polarization terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jillian P.; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2016-07-01

    Biomedical applications of terahertz (THz) radiation are appealing because THz radiation is nonionizing and has the demonstrated ability to detect intrinsic contrasts between cancerous and normal tissue. A linear polarization-sensitive detection technique for tumor margin delineation has already been demonstrated; however, utilization of a circular polarization-sensitive detection technique has yet to be explored at THz frequencies. A reflective, continuous-wave THz imaging system capable of illuminating a target sample at 584 GHz with either linearly or circularly polarized radiation, and capable of collecting both cross- and copolarized signals remitted from the target, is implemented. To demonstrate the system's utility, a fresh ex vivo human skin tissue specimen containing nonmelanoma skin cancer was imaged. Both polarization-sensitive detection techniques showed contrast between tumor and normal skin tissue, although some differences in images were observed between the two techniques. Our results indicate that further investigation is required to explain the contrast mechanism, as well as to quantify the specificity and sensitivity of the circular polarization-sensitive detection technique.

  3. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2016-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ˜ 5 times the binary period P b, accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ˜ 1{P}{{b}}. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10–20 times larger than its companion. This “symmetry breaking” between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200P b and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the net accretion rates onto individual stars are the same, reaching a quasi-steady state with the circumbinary disk. These results have important implications for the accretion behavior of binary T Tauri stars and supermassive binary black holes.

  4. Navigation and vessel inspection circular No. 0-97. Index of Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circulars (NVICS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-21

    This Circular provides the current listing of Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circulars (NVICS). NVICs are issued by Coast Guard Headquarters in the form of duplicated circulars. Their purpose is to inform the public of Coast Guard guidance, requirements or information regarding marine safety activities.

  5. Circular RNAs as Promising Biomarkers: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Abu, Nadiah; Jamal, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    The interest in circular RNAs has resurfaced in the past few years. What was considered as “junk” for nearly two decades is now one of the most interesting molecules. Circular RNAs are non-coding RNAs that are formed by back-splicing events and have covalently closed loops with no poly-adenylated tails. The regulation of circular RNAs is distinctive and they are selectively abundant in different types of tissues. Based on the current knowledge of circular RNAs, these molecules have the potential to be the “next big thing” especially as biomarkers for different diseases. This mini-review attempts to concisely look at the biology of circular RNAs, the putative functional activities, the prevalence of circular RNAs, and the possible role of circular RNA as biomarkers for diagnosis or measuring drug response. PMID:27588005

  6. Circular RNAs as Promising Biomarkers: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Abu, Nadiah; Jamal, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    The interest in circular RNAs has resurfaced in the past few years. What was considered as "junk" for nearly two decades is now one of the most interesting molecules. Circular RNAs are non-coding RNAs that are formed by back-splicing events and have covalently closed loops with no poly-adenylated tails. The regulation of circular RNAs is distinctive and they are selectively abundant in different types of tissues. Based on the current knowledge of circular RNAs, these molecules have the potential to be the "next big thing" especially as biomarkers for different diseases. This mini-review attempts to concisely look at the biology of circular RNAs, the putative functional activities, the prevalence of circular RNAs, and the possible role of circular RNA as biomarkers for diagnosis or measuring drug response. PMID:27588005

  7. Nuclear export of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein Rev is mediated by its activation domain and is blocked by transdominant negative mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Szilvay, A M; Brokstad, K A; Kopperud, R; Haukenes, G; Kalland, K H

    1995-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein Rev moves repeatedly between the cytoplasm, a perinuclear zone, the nucleoli, and nucleoplasmic speckles. In this study, we demonstrated by both indirect immunofluorescence and Western immunoblot analysis that nuclear exit of Rev transdominant negative mutants was defective compared with that of wild-type Rev. The basic and activation domains of Rev signal import and export, respectively, of Rev across the nuclear membrane. In cotransfection experiments, mutants containing mutations of Rev inhibited the nuclear egress of wild-type Rev, thus revealing a novel transdominant negative phenotype. PMID:7745679

  8. Computational simulations of hydrogen circular migration in protonated acetylene induced by circularly polarized light.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2016-08-28

    The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C2 core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H2CCH(+) ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C2H3 (+) has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 10(13) W/cm(2) and 3.15 × 10(13) W/cm(2), respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C2H3 (+). The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C2 core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C2 core of protonated acetylene. PMID:27586924

  9. Involvement of budding yeast Rad5 in translesion DNA synthesis through physical interaction with Rev1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Lin, Aiyang; Zhou, Cuiyan; Blackwell, Susan R.; Zhang, Yiran; Wang, Zihao; Feng, Qianqian; Guan, Ruifang; Hanna, Michelle D.; Chen, Zhucheng; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage tolerance (DDT) is responsible for genomic stability and cell viability by bypassing the replication block. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae DDT employs two parallel branch pathways to bypass the DNA lesion, namely translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and error-free lesion bypass, which are mediated by sequential modifications of PCNA. Rad5 has been placed in the error-free branch of DDT because it contains an E3 ligase domain required for PCNA polyubiquitination. Rad5 is a multi-functional protein and may also play a role in TLS, since it interacts with the TLS polymerase Rev1. In this study we mapped the Rev1-interaction domain in Rad5 to the amino acid resolution and demonstrated that Rad5 is indeed involved in TLS possibly through recruitment of Rev1. Genetic analyses show that the dual functions of Rad5 can be separated and reconstituted. Crystal structure analysis of the Rad5–Rev1 interaction reveals a consensus RFF motif in the Rad5 N-terminus that binds to a hydrophobic pocket within the C-terminal domain of Rev1 that is highly conserved in eukaryotes. This study indicates that Rad5 plays a critical role in pathway choice between TLS and error-free DDT. PMID:27001510

  10. Involvement of budding yeast Rad5 in translesion DNA synthesis through physical interaction with Rev1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Lin, Aiyang; Zhou, Cuiyan; Blackwell, Susan R; Zhang, Yiran; Wang, Zihao; Feng, Qianqian; Guan, Ruifang; Hanna, Michelle D; Chen, Zhucheng; Xiao, Wei

    2016-06-20

    DNA damage tolerance (DDT) is responsible for genomic stability and cell viability by bypassing the replication block. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae DDT employs two parallel branch pathways to bypass the DNA lesion, namely translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and error-free lesion bypass, which are mediated by sequential modifications of PCNA. Rad5 has been placed in the error-free branch of DDT because it contains an E3 ligase domain required for PCNA polyubiquitination. Rad5 is a multi-functional protein and may also play a role in TLS, since it interacts with the TLS polymerase Rev1. In this study we mapped the Rev1-interaction domain in Rad5 to the amino acid resolution and demonstrated that Rad5 is indeed involved in TLS possibly through recruitment of Rev1. Genetic analyses show that the dual functions of Rad5 can be separated and reconstituted. Crystal structure analysis of the Rad5-Rev1 interaction reveals a consensus RFF motif in the Rad5 N-terminus that binds to a hydrophobic pocket within the C-terminal domain of Rev1 that is highly conserved in eukaryotes. This study indicates that Rad5 plays a critical role in pathway choice between TLS and error-free DDT. PMID:27001510

  11. Role of the clock gene Rev-erbα in metabolism and in the endocrine pancreas.

    PubMed

    Vieira, E; Merino, B; Quesada, I

    2015-09-01

    Several hormones are regulated by circadian rhythms to adjust the metabolism to the light/dark cycles and feeding/activity patterns throughout the day. Circadian rhythms are mainly governed by the central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus but also by clocks present in peripheral organs, like the endocrine pancreas. Plasma glucose levels and the main pancreatic hormones insulin and glucagon also exhibit daily variations. Alterations in circadian rhythms are associated with metabolic disturbances and pathologies such as obesity and diabetes. The molecular components of central and peripheral clocks and their regulatory mechanisms are well established. Among the different clock genes, Rev-erbα is considered one of the key links between circadian rhythms and metabolism. Rev-erbα is a critical part of a negative feedback loop in the core circadian clock and modulates the clock oscillatory properties. In addition, Rev-erbα plays an important role in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, thermogenesis, adipocyte and muscle differentiation as well as mitochondrial function. In the endocrine pancreas, Rev-erbα regulates insulin and glucagon secretion and pancreatic β-cell proliferation. In the present review, we discuss all these subjects and, particularly, the role of the clock gene Rev-erbα in the endocrine pancreas. PMID:26332975

  12. Structure of the Human Rev1-DNA-dNTP Ternary Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, M.; Johnson, R; Prakash, L; Prakash, S; Aggarwal, A

    2009-01-01

    Y-family DNA polymerases have proven to be remarkably diverse in their functions and in strategies for replicating through DNA lesions. The structure of yeast Rev1 ternary complex has revealed the most radical replication strategy, where the polymerase itself dictates the identity of the incoming nucleotide, as well as the identity of the templating base. We show here that many of the key elements of this highly unusual strategy are conserved between yeast and human Rev1, including the eviction of template G from the DNA helix and the pairing of incoming deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate with a surrogate arginine residue. We also show that the catalytic core of human Rev1 is uniquely augmented by two large inserts, I1 and I2, wherein I1 extends > 20 A away from the active site and may serve as a platform for protein-protein interactions specific for Rev1's role in translesion DNA synthesis in human cells, and I2 acts as a 'flap' on the hydrophobic pocket accommodating template G. We suggest that these novel structural features are important for providing human Rev1 greater latitude in promoting efficient and error-free translesion DNA synthesis through the diverse array of bulky and potentially carcinogenic N2-deoxyguanosine DNA adducts in human cells.

  13. A rev1-vpu polymorphism unique to HIV-1 subtype A and C strains impairs envelope glycoprotein expression from rev-vpu-env cassettes and reduces virion infectivity in pseudotyping assays

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Matthias H.; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Shaw, Katharina S.; Decker, Julie M.; Keele, Brandon F.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Grayson, Truman; McPherson, David T.; Ping, Li-Hua; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Swanstrom, Ronald; Williamson, Carolyn; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2010-02-20

    Functional studies of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) commonly include the generation of pseudoviruses, which are produced by co-transfection of rev-vpu-env cassettes with an env-deficient provirus. Here, we describe six Env constructs from transmitted/founder HIV-1 that were defective in the pseudotyping assay, although two produced infectious virions when expressed from their cognate proviruses. All of these constructs exhibited an unusual gene arrangement in which the first exon of rev (rev1) and vpu were in the same reading frame without an intervening stop codon. Disruption of the rev1-vpu fusion gene by frameshift mutation, stop codon, or abrogation of the rev initiation codon restored pseudovirion infectivity. Introduction of the fusion gene into wildtype Env cassettes severely compromised their function. The defect was not due to altered env and rev transcription or a dominant negative effect of the expressed fusion protein, but seemed to be caused by inefficient translation at the env initiation codon. Although the rev1-vpu polymorphism affects Env expression only in vitro, it can cause problems in studies requiring Env complementation, such as analyses of co-receptor usage and neutralization properties, since 3% of subtype A, 20% of subtype C and 5% of CRF01{sub A}/E viruses encode the fusion gene. A solution is to eliminate the rev initiation codon when amplifying rev-vpu-env cassettes since this increases Env expression irrespective of the presence of the polymorphism.

  14. [Haikou issues circular on planned parenthood].

    PubMed

    1981-02-01

    The Organization Department of the Haikou Municipal CCP Committee, the municipal grain, finance, commerce, education bureau, personnel, public security, labor, civil affairs, public health, and housing bureaus, supply and marketing cooperative, and planned parenthood office recently issued a joint circular on implementing the provincial planned parenthood regulations. The circular demanded that the marriage registration and census system be seriously implemented. When people are registering for marriage, we must teach them to have only 1 child. We must give priority in housing and employment to an only child and his parents. When commercial, supply, and marketing departments are distributing coupons for fuel, and nonstaple food, they should supply a double amount to the only child. We must carry out serious health care for an only child and give them regular physical check-ups. When they are ill, hospitals should give them priority in registration, treatment, reservation of beds and medicines. The circular reiterated: We must seriously implement the stipulations on rewards and punishments contained in the provincial planned parenthood regulations. Cadres, staff, or workers who apply to have only 1 child must be given lump sums in addition to enjoying the relevant rewards stipulated by the regulations. Cadres, staff, workers, inhabitants, and commune workers who depend on state grain who violate the regulations must be punished according to the regulation. As for those who have 3 or more than 3 children, a 2nd child without planning, or an illegitimate child, the child's grain ration will be sold at negotiated price up to the age of 14. The grain department will distribute to them a supply ticket for negotiated price grain to buy grain in assigned grain shops. PMID:12338059

  15. Multipole Analysis of Circular Cylindircal Magnetic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J Selvaggi

    2006-01-09

    This thesis deals with an alternate method for computing the external magnetic field from a circular cylindrical magnetic source. The primary objective is to characterize the magnetic source in terms of its equivalent multipole distribution. This multipole distribution must be valid at points close to the cylindrical source and a spherical multipole expansion is ill-equipped to handle this problem; therefore a new method must be introduced. This method, based upon the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is developed as an alternative to the more familiar spherical harmonic expansion. A family of special functions, called the toroidal functions or Q-functions, are found to exhibit the necessary properties for analyzing circular cylindrical geometries. In particular, the toroidal function of zeroth order, which comes from the integral formulation of the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is employed to handle magnetic sources which exhibit circular cylindrical symmetry. The toroidal functions, also called Q-functions, are the weighting coefficients in a ''Fourier series-like'' expansion which represents the free-space Green's function. It is also called a toroidal expansion. This expansion can be directly employed in electrostatic, magnetostatic, and electrodynamic problems which exhibit cylindrical symmetry. Also, it is shown that they can be used as an alternative to the Elliptic integral formulation. In fact, anywhere that an Elliptic integral appears, one can replace it with its corresponding Q-function representation. A number of problems, using the toroidal expansion formulation, are analyzed and compared to existing known methods in order to validate the results. Also, the equivalent multipole distribution is found for most of the solved problems along with its corresponding physical interpretation. The main application is to characterize the external magnetic field due to a six-pole permanent magnet motor in terms of

  16. [Anesthetic maintenance during circular face lifting].

    PubMed

    Parshin, V I; Pastukhova, N K

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the specific features of anesthetic maintenance (ketamine, diprivan, dormicum, perfalgan, promedol) during circular face lifting without artificial ventilation. All intravenous anesthesia procedures have yielded good results. Narcotic analgesics may be removed from the anesthetic maintenance scheme, ruling out the necessity of their licensing, storing, and recording. The use of perfalgan causes no hallucinogenic reactions and offers the optimum level of anesthesia. During face lifting, 2.3 +/- 0.6-hour anesthesia with spontaneous breathing is possible, safe, and warranted. PMID:20524331

  17. Circular orbits on a warped spandex fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Chad A.; Langston, Michael

    2014-04-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of circular-like orbits made by a marble rolling on a warped spandex fabric. We show that the mass of the fabric interior to the orbital path influences the motion of the marble in a nontrivial way and can even dominate the orbital characteristics. We also compare a Kepler-like expression for such orbits to similar expressions for orbits about a spherically symmetric massive object in the presence of a constant vacuum energy, as described by general relativity.

  18. Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foeppl, L.

    1983-01-01

    Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder moving through water is discussed. It is shown that a pair of vortices form behind a moving cylinder and that their centers will move along a predictable curve. This curve represents an equilibrium condition which, however, is subject to perturbation. The stability of the vortex pair is investigated. Movement of the vortex pair away from the cylinder is calculated as an explanation of the resistance of the cylinder. Finally, the principles elaborated are applied to the flow around a flat plate.

  19. Optofluidic circular grating distributed feedback dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Li, Zhenyu; Henry, M. David; Scherer, Axel

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrate an optically pumped surface emitting optofluidic dye laser using a second-order circular grating distributed feedback resonator. We present a composite bilayer soft lithography technique specifically developed for the fabrication of our dye laser and investigate a hybrid polymer material system [poly(dimethylsiloxane)/perfluoropolyether] to construct high-resolution Bragg gratings. Our lasers emit single frequency light at low lasing thresholds of 6 μJ/mm2. These optofluidic dye lasers can serve as low-cost and compact coherent light sources that are fully integrated within microfluidic analysis chips and provide an efficient approach to construct compact spectroscopy systems.

  20. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1992-06-09

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes is disclosed. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal. 10 figs.

  1. Build a circularly polarized waveguide slot antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisliuk, M.; Axelrod, A.

    1987-06-01

    The development and design of a circularly polarized waveguide slot antenna are described. Consideration is given to the resonance frequency, radiation efficiencies, excitement, and resonant conductance of the transverse and longitudinal slots. The transverse and longitudinal slots in a rectangular guide are analyzed. The voltage distribution across the slot is calculated from the solution of a standard transmission line equation; and using the Poynting theorem the fields scattered by the slot in an arbitrary frequency range are determined. The proposed antenna is examined using an equivalent circuit; a diagram of the circuit is given. The radiation, slot, and antenna efficiencies are measured.

  2. Acceleration of polarized protons in circular accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.

    1980-09-12

    The theory of depolarization in circular accelerators is presented. The spin equation is first expressed in terms of the particle orbit and then converted to the equivalent spinor equation. The spinor equation is then solved for three different situations: (1) a beam on a flat top near a resonance, (2) uniform acceleration through an isolated resonance, and (3) a model of a fast resonance jump. Finally, the depolarization coefficient, epsilon, is calculated in terms of properties of the particle orbit and the results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS.

  3. The strength of the HIV-1 3' splice sites affects Rev function

    PubMed Central

    Kammler, Susanne; Otte, Marianne; Hauber, Ilona; Kjems, Jørgen; Hauber, Joachim; Schaal, Heiner

    2006-01-01

    Background The HIV-1 Rev protein is a key component in the early to late switch in HIV-1 splicing from early intronless (e.g. tat, rev) to late intron-containing Rev-dependent (e.g. gag, vif, env) transcripts. Previous results suggested that cis-acting sequences and inefficient 5' and 3' splice sites are a prerequisite for Rev function. However, we and other groups have shown that two of the HIV-1 5' splice sites, D1 and D4, are efficiently used in vitro and in vivo. Here, we focus on the efficiency of the HIV-1 3' splice sites taking into consideration to what extent their intrinsic efficiencies are modulated by their downstream cis-acting exonic sequences. Furthermore, we delineate their role in RNA stabilization and Rev function. Results In the presence of an efficient upstream 5' splice site the integrity of the 3' splice site is not essential for Rev function whereas an efficient 3' splice site impairs Rev function. The detrimental effect of a strong 3' splice site on the amount of Rev-dependent intron-containing HIV-1 glycoprotein coding (env) mRNA is not compensatable by weakening the strength of the upstream 5' splice site. Swapping the HIV-1 3' splice sites in an RRE-containing minigene, we found a 3' splice site usage which was variably dependent on the presence of the usual downstream exonic sequence. The most evident activation of 3' splice site usage by its usual downstream exonic sequence was observed for 3' splice site A1 which was turned from an intrinsic very weak 3' splice site into the most active 3' splice site, even abolishing Rev activity. Performing pull-down experiments with nuclear extracts of HeLa cells we identified a novel ASF/SF2-dependent exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) within HIV-1 exon 2 consisting of a heptameric sequence motif occurring twice (M1 and M2) within this short non-coding leader exon. Single point mutation of M1 within an infectious molecular clone is detrimental for HIV-1 exon 2 recognition without affecting Rev

  4. Coactivator-Dependent Oscillation of Chromatin Accessibility Dictates Circadian Gene Amplitude via REV-ERB Loading.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bokai; Gates, Leah A; Stashi, Erin; Dasgupta, Subhamoy; Gonzales, Naomi; Dean, Adam; Dacso, Clifford C; York, Brian; O'Malley, Bert W

    2015-12-01

    A central mechanism for controlling circadian gene amplitude remains elusive. We present evidence for a "facilitated repression (FR)" model that functions as an amplitude rheostat for circadian gene oscillation. We demonstrate that ROR and/or BMAL1 promote global chromatin decondensation during the activation phase of the circadian cycle to actively facilitate REV-ERB loading for repression of circadian gene expression. Mechanistically, we found that SRC-2 dictates global circadian chromatin remodeling through spatial and temporal recruitment of PBAF members of the SWI/SNF complex to facilitate loading of REV-ERB in the hepatic genome. Mathematical modeling highlights how the FR model sustains proper circadian rhythm despite fluctuations of REV-ERB levels. Our study not only reveals a mechanism for active communication between the positive and negative limbs of the circadian transcriptional loop but also establishes the concept that clock transcription factor binding dynamics is perhaps a central tenet for fine-tuning circadian rhythm. PMID:26611104

  5. 24 CFR 570.489 - Program administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this subpart and 24 CFR part 58. (c) Federal grant payments—(1) Payments. The state shall be paid in advance in accordance with Treasury Circular 1075 (31 CFR part 205). The State shall use procedures to...) Applying the provisions in 24 CFR part 85 “Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and...

  6. 24 CFR 570.489 - Program administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this subpart and 24 CFR part 58. (c) Federal grant payments—(1) Payments. The state shall be paid in advance in accordance with Treasury Circular 1075 (31 CFR part 205). The State shall use procedures to...) Applying the provisions in 24 CFR part 85 “Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and...

  7. Innocuity and immune response to Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Benkirane, A; Idrissi, A H El; Doumbia, A; de Balogh, K

    2014-01-01

    A field trial was conducted in a camel brucellosis-free herd to evaluate antibody response to the Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels and assess shedding of the vaccine strain in milk. Twenty eight camels were divided into four groups according to their age and vaccination route. Groups A (n=3) and B (n=3) consisted of non-pregnant lactating female camels, vaccinated through subcutaneous and conjunctival routes, respectively. Groups C (n=10) consisted of 8-11 months old calves vaccinated through conjunctival route. The rest of the herd (n=12) composed of female and young camels were not vaccinated and were considered as the control group. Each animal from groups A, B and C was given the recommended dose of 2 × 10(9) colony forming units of Rev.1 vaccine irrespective of age or route of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from all the animals at the time of vaccination and at weekly, bi-weekly and monthly interval until 32 weeks post vaccination and from controls at weeks 8 and 24. The serological tests used were modified Rose Bengal Test, sero-agglutination test, and an indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Milk samples were collected from all vaccinated female camels and tested for the presence of Rev.1 vaccine strain. Most vaccinated animals started to show an antibody response at week 2 and remained positive until week 16. By week 20 post-vaccination all animals in the three groups were tested negative for Brucella antibodies. Bacteriological analysis of milk samples did not allow any isolation of Brucella melitensis. All samples were found Brucella negative in PCR analysis. The results of this study indicate that the Rev.1 vaccine induces seroconversion in camels. Rev.1 vaccine strain is not excreted in the milk of camels. These findings are promising as to the safe use of the Rev.1 vaccine in camels. PMID:26623347

  8. Innocuity and immune response to Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    PubMed Central

    Benkirane, A.; Idrissi, A.H. El; Doumbia, A.; de Balogh, K.

    2014-01-01

    A field trial was conducted in a camel brucellosis-free herd to evaluate antibody response to the Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels and assess shedding of the vaccine strain in milk. Twenty eight camels were divided into four groups according to their age and vaccination route. Groups A (n=3) and B (n=3) consisted of non-pregnant lactating female camels, vaccinated through subcutaneous and conjunctival routes, respectively. Groups C (n=10) consisted of 8-11 months old calves vaccinated through conjunctival route. The rest of the herd (n=12) composed of female and young camels were not vaccinated and were considered as the control group. Each animal from groups A, B and C was given the recommended dose of 2 × 109 colony forming units of Rev.1 vaccine irrespective of age or route of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from all the animals at the time of vaccination and at weekly, bi-weekly and monthly interval until 32 weeks post vaccination and from controls at weeks 8 and 24. The serological tests used were modified Rose Bengal Test, sero-agglutination test, and an indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Milk samples were collected from all vaccinated female camels and tested for the presence of Rev.1 vaccine strain. Most vaccinated animals started to show an antibody response at week 2 and remained positive until week 16. By week 20 post-vaccination all animals in the three groups were tested negative for Brucella antibodies. Bacteriological analysis of milk samples did not allow any isolation of Brucella melitensis. All samples were found Brucella negative in PCR analysis. The results of this study indicate that the Rev.1 vaccine induces seroconversion in camels. Rev.1 vaccine strain is not excreted in the milk of camels. These findings are promising as to the safe use of the Rev.1 vaccine in camels. PMID:26623347

  9. Simple Broadband Circular Polarizer in Oversized Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stange, Torsten

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a possibility is shown to realize a simple waveguide polarizer producing nearly the same circular polarization over a broad frequency range up to an octave. It is based upon the combination of two smoothly squeezed oversized waveguides with different diameters. The principle is similar to an achromatic lens in optics, where two counteracting lenses with differently sloped wavelength dependencies of the refractive index are combined to compensate the dispersion in the desired wavelength range. Consequently, two different wavelengths of light are brought into focus at the same plane. A waveguide for the transmission of microwaves has a similar frequency dependence of the refractive index resulting in a frequency-dependent phase shift between two propagating waves polarized along the symmetry axes of a waveguide with an elliptical cross section. For this reason, an incident wave with a linear polarization between the axes of symmetry can be only converted into a circularly polarized wave over a limited frequency range. However, the diameter and the shape along two counteracting squeezed waveguides can be adjusted in such a way that the frequency dependence of the resultant phase shift is finally canceled out.

  10. High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.

  11. Interaction between the Rev1 C-terminal Domain and the PolD3 Subunit of Polζ Suggests a Mechanism of Polymerase Exchange upon Rev1/Polζ-Dependent Translesion Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pustovalova, Yulia; Magalhães, Mariana T. Q.; D’Souza, Sanjay; Rizzo, Alessandro A.; Korza, George; Walker, Graham C.; Korzhnev, Dmitry M.

    2016-01-01

    Translesion synthesis (TLS) is a mutagenic branch of cellular DNA damage tolerance that enables bypass replication over DNA lesions carried out by specialized low-fidelity DNA polymerases. The replicative bypass of most types of DNA damage is performed in a two-step process of Rev1/Polζ-dependent TLS. In the first step, a Y-family TLS enzyme, typically Polη, Polι or Polκ, inserts a nucleotide across DNA lesion. In the second step, a four-subunit B-family DNA polymerase Polζ (Rev3/Rev7/PolD2/PolD3 complex) extends the distorted DNA primer-template. The coordinated action of error-prone TLS enzymes is regulated through their interactions with the two scaffold proteins, the sliding clamp PCNA and the TLS polymerase Rev1. Rev1 interactions with all other TLS enzymes are mediated by its C-terminal domain (Rev1-CT), which can simultaneously bind the Rev7 subunit of Polζ and Rev1-interacting regions (RIRs) from Polη, Polι or Polκ. In this work, we identified a previously unknown RIR motif in the C-terminal part of PolD3 subunit of Polζ whose interaction with the Rev1-CT is among the tightest mediated by RIR motifs. Three-dimensional structure of the Rev1-CT/PolD3-RIR complex determined by NMR spectroscopy revealed a structural basis for the relatively high affinity of this interaction. The unexpected discovery of PolD3-RIR motif suggests a mechanism of 'inserter' to 'extender' DNA polymerase switch upon Rev1/Polζ-dependent TLS, in which the PolD3-RIR binding to the Rev1-CT (i) helps displace the 'inserter' Polη, Polι or Polκ from its complex with Rev1, and (ii) facilitates assembly of the four-subunit 'extender' Polζ through simultaneous interaction of Rev1-CT with Rev7 and PolD3 subunits. PMID:26982350

  12. 78 FR 63568 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Rev. Proc. 2007-35

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Rev. Proc. 2007-35 AGENCY: Internal...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Revenue Procedure 2007-35...: Statistical Sampling for purposes of Section 199. OMB Number: 1545-2072. Revenue Procedure Number:...

  13. 75 FR 53738 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Rev. Proc. 2007-35

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Rev. Proc. 2007-35 AGENCY: Internal... 2007-35, Statistical Sampling for purposes of Section 199. DATES: Written comments should be received... 199. OMB Number: 1545-2072. Revenue Procedure Number: RP-2007-35. Abstract: This revenue...

  14. Erratum: Binary neutron stars with arbitrary spins in numerical relativity [Phys. Rev. D 92, 124012 (2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacik, Nick; Foucart, Francois; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Haas, Roland; Ossokine, Serguei; Kaplan, Jeff; Muhlberger, Curran; Duez, Matt D.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilágyi, Béla

    2016-08-01

    The code used in [Phys. Rev. D 92, 124012 (2015)] erroneously computed the enthalpy at the center of the neutron stars. Upon correcting this error, density oscillations in evolutions of rotating neutron stars are significantly reduced (from ˜20 % to ˜0.5 % ). Furthermore, it is possible to construct neutron stars with faster rotation rates.

  15. Athabaskan Stories from Anvik. Rev. John W. Chapman's "Ten'a Texts and Tales."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, John W.; Kari, James, Ed.

    Sixteen Deg Hit'an (Ingalik) Athabaskan stories recorded by Rev. John W. Chapman during 1887-1905 in Anvik, Alaska, are presented. The stories are retranscribed with the help of current Deg Hit'an speakers, and are accompanied by both interlinear and free translations in English. The materials are intended to serve as reading material for students…

  16. Bioavailable inhibitors of HIV-1 RNA biogenesis identified through a Rev-based screen.

    PubMed

    Prado, Silvia; Beltrán, Manuela; Coiras, Mayte; Bedoya, Luis M; Alcamí, José; Gallego, José

    2016-05-01

    New antiretroviral agents with alternative mechanisms are needed to complement the combination therapies used to treat HIV-1 infections. Here we report the identification of bioavailable molecules that interfere with the gene expression processes of HIV-1. The compounds were detected by screening a small library of FDA-approved drugs with an assay based on measuring the displacement of Rev, and essential virus-encoded protein, from its high-affinity RNA binding site. The antiretroviral activity of two hits was based on interference with post-integration steps of the HIV-1 cycle. Both hits inhibited RRE-Rev complex formation in vitro, and blocked LTR-dependent gene expression and viral transcription in cellular assays. The best compound altered the splicing pattern of HIV-1 transcripts in a manner consistent with Rev inhibition. This mechanism of action is different from those used by current antiretroviral agents. The screening hits recognized the Rev binding site in the viral RNA, and the best compound did so with substantial selectivity, allowing the identification of a new RNA-binding scaffold. These results may be used for developing novel antiretroviral drugs. PMID:26896646

  17. Circadian Amplitude Regulation via FBXW7-Targeted REV-ERBα Degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuan; Hirota, Tsuyoshi; Han, Xuemei; Cho, Han; Chong, Ling-Wa; Lamia, Katja; Liu, Sihao; Atkins, Annette R; Banayo, Ester; Liddle, Christopher; Yu, Ruth T; Yates, John R; Kay, Steve A; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M

    2016-06-16

    Defects in circadian rhythm influence physiology and behavior with implications for the treatment of sleep disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer. Although core regulatory components of clock rhythmicity have been defined, insight into the mechanisms underpinning amplitude is limited. Here, we show that REV-ERBα, a core inhibitory component of clock transcription, is targeted for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the F-box protein FBXW7. By relieving REV-ERBα-dependent repression, FBXW7 provides an unrecognized mechanism for enhancing the amplitude of clock gene transcription. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)-mediated phosphorylation of REV-ERBα is necessary for FBXW7 recognition. Moreover, targeted hepatic disruption of FBXW7 alters circadian expression of core clock genes and perturbs whole-body lipid and glucose levels. This CDK1-FBXW7 pathway controlling REV-ERBα repression defines an unexpected molecular mechanism for re-engaging the positive transcriptional arm of the clock, as well as a potential route to manipulate clock amplitude via small molecule CDK1 inhibition. PMID:27238018

  18. Comment on ``Quantum key distribution without alternative measurements'' [Phys. Rev. A 61, 052312 (2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2001-03-01

    In a recent paper [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. A 61, 052312 (2000)], a quantum key distribution protocol based on entanglement swapping was proposed. However, in this Comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve uses a special strategy to attack.

  19. 3D measurement using circular gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    3D measurement using methods of structured light are well known in the industry. Most such systems use some variation of straight lines, either as simple lines or with some form of encoding. This geometry assumes the lines will be projected from one side and viewed from another to generate the profile information. But what about applications where a wide triangulation angle may not be practical, particularly at longer standoff distances. This paper explores the use of circular grating patterns projected from a center point to achieve 3D information. Originally suggested by John Caulfield around 1990, the method had some interesting potential, particularly if combined with alternate means of measurement from traditional triangulation including depth from focus methods. The possible advantages of a central reference point in the projected pattern may offer some different capabilities not as easily attained with a linear grating pattern. This paper will explore the pros and cons of the method and present some examples of possible applications.

  20. A 90° fair circular waveguide bend.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin-hua; Deng, Ji-liang; Cao, Wei-ping; Li, Si-min; Gao, Xi; Jiang, Yan-nan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a synthesis method to design a 90° bent fair circular waveguide TE01 mode transition based on the non-uniform rational B-spline technique. The transition by this method has advantages of small geometry, high transmission with wide band and high profile fairness. An example of design of such a transition is presented. The simulation shows that the transition exhibits a transmission as high as 99.3% at the central frequency 35 GHz and has a bandwidth of 16.7% when keeping the transmission over 95%. Furthermore, the profile is extremely fair, which meets the requirements to decrease the geometry errors between actual device and its design, to reduce the machining difficulty in the machining process. The hot test data indicate that good transmission of the TE01 mode is obtained. PMID:25638106

  1. Torsion Tests of Stiffened Circular Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R L; Wescoat, C

    1944-01-01

    The design of curved sheet panels to resist shear involves a consideration of several factors: the buckling resistance of the sheet, the stress at which buckling becomes permanent, and the strength which may be developed beyond the buckling limit by tension-field action. Although some experimental as well as theoretical work has been done on the buckling and tension-field phases of this problem, neither of these types of action appears to be very well understood. The problem is of sufficient importance from the standpoint of aircraft design, it is believed, to warrant further experimental investigation. This report presents the results of the first series of torsion tests of stiffened circular cylinders to be completed in connection with this study at Aluminum Research Laboratories. (author)

  2. Electronic circular dichroism behavior of chiral Phthiobuzone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Wang, Lin; Si, Yikang

    2014-01-01

    Phthiobuzone is a bis(thiosemicarbazone) derivative with a single chiral center which has been used as a racemate in the clinical treatment of herpes and trachoma diseases. In this study, its two enantiomers were prepared from chiral amino acids and their absolute configurations were investigated by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) combined with modern quantum-chemical calculations using time-dependent density functional theory. It was found that solvation changed both the conformational distribution and the ECD spectrum of each conformer. The theoretical ECD spectra of the two enantiomers were in good agreement with the experimentally determined spectra of the corresponding isomers in dimethyl sulfoxide. The ECD behavior of the bis(thiosemicarbazone) chromophore in a chiral environment is also discussed. Our results indicate that ECD spectroscopy may be a useful tool for the stereochemical evaluation of chiral drugs. PMID:26579380

  3. Magnetic circular dichroism in EELS (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, G.R.; Farrow, R.F.; Marks, R.F.

    1996-04-01

    We evaluate the possibility of using dichroic electron energy loss spectroscopy (DEELS) as an alternative to x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). It is well known that electron energy loss spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy are highly analogous, providing similar information. A simple semiclassical model suggests that DEELS might have a magnetic sensitivity similar to that of XMCD. This sensitivity will be reduced, however, by multiple scattering of the probe electron before and after the energy loss event. Thus it is difficult to predict the magnitude of the DEELS effect. Experiments were performed at the {ital L}-edge of polycrystalline Fe, Co, and Ni thin film samples with uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy, prepared {ital in} {ital situ} with a magnetic bias field. Even in those most favorable cases, the DEELS effect is seen to be at least 10 times smaller than similar effects in XMCD. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Rotation sensing with a circular atomic waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lian-jie; Yan, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Guo-wan; Zhang, An-ning

    2016-01-01

    The hollow metallic optical fibers not only retain the advantage of flexibility but possess a greater intensity gradient for atomic waveguide. Therefore, based on the vector model of Maxwell's equations, we exactly calculated the intensity distribution of the TE01 mode in a typical metallic fiber, and analyzed the optical potential for 85Rb atom. Most of all, based on a circular atomic waveguide, we creatively proposed a novel measurement scheme for rotation sensing, explained the specific measurement principle, and built a mathematical model for this novel scheme. By measuring the number of atoms in the final states, we could get the rotation rate for this typical rotation system. This novel rotation sensor not only possessed a higher measurement precision, but realized the continuity measurement. It will be widely used in navigation, geophysics and general relativity.

  5. Circular dichroism study of the hemocyanin thermostability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova Georgieva, Dessislava; Stoeva, Stanka; Abid Ali, Syed; Abbasi, Atiya; Genov, Nicolay; Voelter, Wolfgang

    1998-05-01

    Circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to investigate the thermostability of six arthropod hemocyanins (Hcs), representatives of the subphyla Crustacea (infraorder Brachyura) and Chelicerate (infraorders Xiphosura and Arachnida), and three molluscan Hcs from gastropod organisms. Melting points ( Tm) are determined from the temperature dependence of ellipticity of dioxygen-binding proteins from Maia squinado, Callinectes sapidus, Carcinus maenas, Limulus polyphemus, Buthus sindicus, Androctonus australis, Megathura crenulata, Haliotis tuberculata, and Rapana thomasiana. Both, arthropod and molluscan Hcs, are thermostable proteins with melting temperatures in the region 68-91°C. Binuclear dioxygen-binding sites contribute significantly to the thermostability and increase the Tm values of the apo-forms by 3-16°C. An elevated thermostability is observed in the case of the Limulus polyphemus Hc. One of the reasons is the high degree of hemocyanin oligomerization.

  6. Magnetic circular dichroism of peralkylated tetrasilane conformers

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Heather A.; Imhof, Roman; Michl, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of five peralkylated tetrasilanes (1–5) conformationally constrained to angles ranging from nearly 0° to 180° and of the open chain tetrasilane Si4Me10 (6) shows a clear conformational dependence and permits the detection of previously hidden transitions. In the tetrasilane CH2Si4Me8 (1), with the smallest dihedral angle, comparison of MCD with absorption spectra reveals four low-energy electronic transitions. In the tetrasilanes 2–4, three distinct transitions are apparent. In tetrasilanes 5 and 6, MCD reveals the very weak transition that has been predicted to be buried under the first intense peak and to which the anomalous thermochromism of 6 and other short-chain oligosilanes has been attributed. PMID:15249672

  7. Omnidirectional, circularly polarized, cylindrical microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, Philip H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A microstrip cylindrical antenna comprised of two concentric subelements on a ground cylinder, a vertically polarized (E-field parallel to the axis of the antenna cylinder) subelement on the inside and a horizontally polarized (E-field perpendicular to the axis) subelement on the outside. The vertical subelement is a wraparound microstrip radiator. A Y-shaped microstrip patch configuration is used for the horizontally polarized radiator that is wrapped 1.5 times to provide radiating edges on opposite sides of the cylindrical antenna for improved azimuthal pattern uniformity. When these subelements are so fed that their far fields are equal in amplitude and phased 90.degree. from each other, a circularly polarized EM wave results. By stacking a plurality of like antenna elements on the ground cylinder, a linear phased array antenna is provided that can be beam steered to the desired elevation angle.

  8. Rectenna composed of a circular microstrip antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, K.; Ohgane, T.; Ogawa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    One of the big problems in the SPS system is reradiation of the harmonic waves generated by the rectifying diode. The authors proposed the use of a circular microstrip antenna (CMSA), since the CMSA has no higher resonance-harmonic of integer multiple of the dominant resonance frequency. However, characteristics of a large rectenna array of CMSA's have not been clarified. This paper is concerned with the absorption efficiency of the rectenna composed of the CMSA. The efficiency is estimated explicitly using an infinite array model. The results show that the absorption efficiency of the infinite rectenna array composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the CMSA. 4 references, 4 figures.

  9. Higher order diffractions from a circular disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsland, Diane P.; Balanis, Constantine A.; Brumley, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    The backscattering from a circular disk is analyzed using the geometrical theory of diffraction. First-, second-, and third-order diffractions are included in the hard polarization analysis, while first-, second-, and third-order slope diffractions are included for soft polarization. Improvements in the prediction of the monostatic radar cross section over previous works are noted. For hard polarization, an excellent agreement is exhibited between experimental and theoretical results, while a very good agreement is noted for soft polarization. To further improve the soft polarization results for wide angles, a model for the creeping wave or circulating current on the edge of the disk is obtained and used to find an additional component of the backscattered field. The addition of this component significantly improves the results for wide angles, leading to excellent agreement for soft polarization also. An axial-caustic correction method using equivalent currents is also included in the analysis.

  10. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Miles, A J; Wallace, B A

    2016-09-21

    Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for studying the secondary structures, dynamics, folding pathways, and interactions of soluble proteins, and is complementary to the high resolution but generally static structures produced by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and cryo electron microscopy. CD spectroscopy has special relevance for the study of membrane proteins, which are difficult to crystallise and largely ignored in structural genomics projects. However, the requirement for membrane proteins to be embedded in amphipathic environments such as membranes, lipid vesicles, detergent micelles, bicelles, oriented bilayers, or nanodiscs, in order for them to be soluble or dispersed in solution whilst maintaining their structure and function, necessitates the use of different experimental and analytical approaches than those employed for soluble proteins. This review discusses specialised methods for collecting and analysing membrane protein CD data, highlighting where protocols for soluble and membrane proteins diverge. PMID:27347568

  11. Magnetic resonance of slotted circular cylinder resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Junjie; Liu, Shiyang; Lin, Zhifang; Chui, S. T.

    2008-07-01

    By a rigorous full-wave approach, a systemic study is made on the magnetic resonance of slotted circular cylinder resonators (SCCRs) made of a perfect conductor for the lossless case. This is a two-dimensional analog of the split-ring resonator and may serve as an alternative type of essential constituent of electromagnetic metamaterials. It is found that the resonance frequency can be modulated by changing the geometrical parameters and the dielectrics filling in the cavity and the slot. An approximate empirical expression is presented for magnetic resonance frequency of SCCRs from the viewpoint of an L-C circuit system. Finally, it is demonstrated that the SCCR structure can be miniaturized to less than 1/150 resonant wavelength in size with the dielectrics available currently.

  12. The circular velocity function of group galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, Louis E.; Williams, Rik J.; Benson, Andrew J.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Mulchaey, John S.

    2014-09-20

    A robust prediction of ΛCDM cosmology is the halo circular velocity function (CVF), a dynamical cousin of the halo mass function. The correspondence between theoretical and observed CVFs is uncertain, however: cluster galaxies are reported to exhibit a power-law CVF consistent with N-body simulations, but that of the field is distinctly Schechter-like, flattened compared to ΛCDM expectations at circular velocities v {sub c} ≲ 200 km s{sup –1}. Groups offer a powerful probe of the role environment plays in this discrepancy as they bridge the field and clusters. Here, we construct the CVF for a large, mass- and multiplicity-complete sample of group galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using independent photometric v {sub c} estimators, we find no transition from field to ΛCDM-shaped CVF above v {sub c} = 50 km s{sup –1} as a function of group halo mass. All groups with 12.4 ≲ log M {sub halo}/M {sub ☉} ≲ 15.1 (Local Group analogs to rich clusters) display similar Schechter-like CVFs marginally suppressed at low v {sub c} compared to that of the field. Conversely, some agreement with N-body results emerges for samples saturated with late-type galaxies, with isolated late-types displaying a CVF similar in shape to ΛCDM predictions. We conclude that the flattening of the low-v {sub c} slope in groups is due to their depressed late-type fractions—environment affecting the CVF only to the extent that it correlates with this quantity—and that previous cluster analyses may suffer from interloper contamination. These results serve as useful benchmarks for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation.

  13. 75 FR 27840 - NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...: extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On March 8, 2010, (75 FR 10524), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published for public comment a document entitled: ``NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3... COMMISSION NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations...

  14. REV-ERB-ALPHA circadian gene variant associates with obesity in two independent populations: Mediterranean and North American

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the solid connection between REV-ERB and obesity, the information about whether genetic variations at this locus may be associated with obesity traits is scarce. Therefore our objective was to study the association between REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339 and obesity in two independent populations. ...

  15. Borrelia burgdorferi RevA Significantly Affects Pathogenicity and Host Response in the Mouse Model of Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Byram, Rebecca; Gaultney, Robert A.; Floden, Angela M.; Hellekson, Christopher; Stone, Brandee L.; Bowman, Amy; Stevenson, Brian; Johnson, Barbara J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, expresses RevA and numerous outer surface lipoproteins during mammalian infection. As an adhesin that promotes bacterial interaction with fibronectin, RevA is poised to interact with the extracellular matrix of the host. To further define the role(s) of RevA during mammalian infection, we created a mutant that is unable to produce RevA. The mutant was still infectious to mice, although it was significantly less well able to infect cardiac tissues. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type revA gene restored heart infectivity to wild-type levels. Additionally, revA mutants led to increased evidence of arthritis, with increased fibrotic collagen deposition in tibiotarsal joints. The mutants also induced increased levels of the chemokine CCL2, a monocyte chemoattractant, in serum, and this increase was abolished in the complemented strain. Therefore, while revA is not absolutely essential for infection, deletion of revA had distinct effects on dissemination, arthritis severity, and host response. PMID:26150536

  16. A novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein, tev, shares sequences with tat, env, and rev proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Benko, D M; Schwartz, S; Pavlakis, G N; Felber, B K

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized a novel 28-kilodalton protein, p28tev, detected in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells. tev is recognized by both tat and rev monospecific antibodies. tev is initiated at the tat AUG and contains the first exon of tat at its amino terminus, a small portion of env in the middle, and the second exon of rev at its carboxy terminus. A cDNA clone producing tev was cloned and expressed in human cells. Sequence analysis revealed that the tev mRNA is generated by splicing to a novel exon located in the env region. This identifies a fourth class of multiply spliced human immunodeficiency virus mRNAs, produced in infected and transfected cells. tev is regulated during the virus life cycle similarly to the other regulatory proteins, tat, rev, and nef, and displays both tat and rev activities in functional assays. Since tev contains important functional domains of tat and rev and is produced very early after transfection, it may be an important regulator in the initial phase of virus expression. Another rev-related protein, p18(6)Drev, containing env and rev sequences, was characterized and was found not to have detectable rev activity. Images PMID:2186172

  17. Relationship between circadian oscillations of Rev-erb{alpha} expression and intracellular levels of its ligand, heme

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Pamela M.; Ying Ling; Burris, Thomas P.

    2008-04-18

    The nuclear hormone receptors, REV-ERB{alpha} [NR1D1] and REV-ERB{beta} [NR1D1], were recently demonstrated to be receptors for the porphyrin, heme. Heme regulates the ability of these receptors to repress transcription of their target genes via modulation of the affinity of the receptor's ligand binding domain for the corepressor, NCoR. The REV-ERBs function as critical components of the mammalian clock and their expression oscillates in a circadian manner. Here, we show that in NIH3T3 cells intracellular heme levels also oscillate in a circadian fashion. These data are the first to show the temporal relationship of intracellular heme levels to the expression of its receptor, Rev-erb{alpha}, and suggest that the rapid oscillations in heme levels may an important component regulating REV-ERB transcriptional activity.

  18. PCDDB: the protein circular dichroism data bank, a repository for circular dichroism spectral and metadata

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Lee; Woollett, Benjamin; Miles, Andrew John; Klose, D. P.; Janes, Robert W.; Wallace, B. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank (PCDDB) is a public repository that archives and freely distributes circular dichroism (CD) and synchrotron radiation CD (SRCD) spectral data and their associated experimental metadata. All entries undergo validation and curation procedures to ensure completeness, consistency and quality of the data included. A web-based interface enables users to browse and query sample types, sample conditions, experimental parameters and provides spectra in both graphical display format and as downloadable text files. The entries are linked, when appropriate, to primary sequence (UniProt) and structural (PDB) databases, as well as to secondary databases such as the Enzyme Commission functional classification database and the CATH fold classification database, as well as to literature citations. The PCDDB is available at: http://pcddb.cryst.bbk.ac.uk. PMID:21071417

  19. 7 CFR 247.25 - Allowable uses of administrative funds and other funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... allowable. For availability of OMB Circulars referenced in this section, see 5 CFR 1310.3. Some examples of... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable uses of administrative funds and other funds... § 247.25 Allowable uses of administrative funds and other funds. (a) What are allowable uses...

  20. 25 CFR 700.477 - Administration of financial assistance and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administration of financial assistance and recordkeeping... OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Discretionary Funds § 700.477 Administration of financial assistance and... requirements; and (2) Federal Management Circular 74-4 5 CFR part 1310, entitled “Cost Principles Applicable...

  1. Rev-erbalpha2 mRNA encodes a stable protein with a potential role in circadian clock regulation.

    PubMed

    Rambaud, Juliette; Triqueneaux, Gérard; Masse, Ingrid; Staels, Bart; Laudet, Vincent; Benoit, Gérard

    2009-05-01

    Circadian rhythms are observed in nearly all aspects of physiology and behavior. In mammals, such biological rhythms are supported by a complex network of self-sustained transcriptional loops and posttranslational modifications, which regulate timely controlled production and degradation of critical factors on a 24-h basis. Among these factors, the orphan nuclear receptor rev-erbalpha plays an essential role by linking together positive and negative regulatory loops. As an essential part of the circadian core clock mechanism, REV-ERBalpha expression shows a precisely scheduled oscillation reflecting the tight control of its production and degradation. In previous studies, we identified two alternative transcripts encoding two protein variants referred to as REV-ERBalpha1 and -alpha2. Interestingly, recent work identified structural elements present only in REV-ERBalpha1 that controls its turnover and thereby influences circadian oscillations. In the present work, we comparatively analyze the two variants and show that REV-ERBalpha2 exhibits a half-life incompatible with a circadian function, suggesting that this variant exerts different biological functions. However, our comparative study clearly indicates undistinguishable DNA-binding properties and transcriptional repression activity as well as a similar regulation mechanism. The only consistent difference appears to be the relative expression level of the two transcripts, rev-erbalpha1 being one to 100 times more expressed than alpha2 depending on tissue and circadian time. Taking this finding into consideration, we reassessed REV-ERBalpha2 turnover and were able to show that this variant exhibits a reduced half-life when coexpressed with REV-ERBalpha1. We propose that the relative expression levels of the two REV-ERBalpha variants fine-tune the circadian period length by regulating REV-ERBalpha half-life. PMID:19228794

  2. Interaction effect of number of circular holes in a circular plate

    SciTech Connect

    Ukadgaonker, V.G.; Agnahotri, N.A.

    1996-12-01

    The problem of circular tubesheet with uniform tension at its circular boundary and nine holes in the circular pitch pattern at its center is solved using complex stress functions. The Schwarz Alternating Technique is used to find the interaction effect of the holes on each other and then the superposition method is used to obtain desired geometry of the nine holes. This superposition gives the stress free boundary at the central hole exactly satisfied. When these results are compared with those obtained by Ukadgaonker and Kale by Finite Element Method it is found that the theoretical solutions give higher stress concentration than FEM by about 20% for a large outer radius. When the outer radius is reduced the stress concentration factor increases considerably and the difference in the analytical and the FEM solution also increases to a large extent. The analytical solution found in the present paper is verified with the FEM and Photoelasticity solution obtained by Ukadgaonker and Kale (1996) earlier. This problem is further generalized for a rhombic pitch pattern, which can be reduced to particular cases such as square pitch pattern, triangular pitch pattern, diagonal pitch pattern by changing the angle of the rhombus. The stress concentration factor around the central hole varies very little for various ligament efficiencies which is given in percentage.

  3. Circularization pathway of a bacterial group II intron.

    PubMed

    Monat, Caroline; Cousineau, Benoit

    2016-02-29

    Group II introns are large RNA enzymes that can excise as lariats, circles or in a linear form through branching, circularization or hydrolysis, respectively. Branching is by far the main and most studied splicing pathway while circularization was mostly overlooked. We previously showed that removal of the branch point A residue from Ll.LtrB, the group II intron from Lactococcus lactis, exclusively leads to circularization. However, the majority of the released intron circles harbored an additional C residue of unknown origin at the splice junction. Here, we exploited the Ll.LtrB-ΔA mutant to study the circularization pathway of bacterial group II introns in vivo. We demonstrated that the non-encoded C residue, present at the intron circle splice junction, corresponds to the first nt of exon 2. Intron circularization intermediates, harboring the first 2 or 3 nts of exon 2, were found to accumulate showing that branch point removal leads to 3' splice site misrecognition. Traces of properly ligated exons were also detected functionally confirming that a small proportion of Ll.LtrB-ΔA circularizes accurately. Overall, our data provide the first detailed molecular analysis of the group II intron circularization pathway and suggests that circularization is a conserved splicing pathway in bacteria. PMID:26673697

  4. Scattering-Matrix Program For Circular Waveguide Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Scattering Matrix Program for Circular Waveguide Junctions, CWGSCAT, computes scattering matrices of series of circular waveguide sections. Sections must have same axis, but radius and length of each section completely arbitrary. Step discontinuities, corrugated sections, and horns analyzed. Written in FORTRAN.

  5. Flow-induced vibration of circular cylindrical structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes the flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders in quiescent fluid, axial flow, and crossflow, and applications of the analytical methods and experimental data in design evaluation of various system components consisting of circular cylinders. 219 figs., 30 tabs. (JDB)

  6. 40 CFR 30.6 - Availability of OMB circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of OMB circulars. 30.6 Section 30.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 30.6 Availability of OMB circulars. OMB...

  7. 40 CFR 30.6 - Availability of OMB circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availability of OMB circulars. 30.6 Section 30.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 30.6 Availability of OMB circulars. OMB...

  8. 31 CFR 330.10 - Modifications of other circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... supplementing: Department of the Treasury Circulars Nos. 530, 653, and 750 (31 CFR parts 315, 316, and 321..., and 2-98 (31 CFR parts 351, 352, 353, 342, 359, and 360 respectively), and any revisions thereof or... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modifications of other circulars....

  9. 31 CFR 330.10 - Modifications of other circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... supplementing: Department of the Treasury Circulars Nos. 530, 653, and 750 (31 CFR parts 315, 316, and 321..., and 2-98 (31 CFR parts 351, 352, 353, 342, 359, and 360 respectively), and any revisions thereof or... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modifications of other circulars....

  10. 77 FR 7656 - Advisory Circular: Public Aircraft Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... Aircraft Operations) (76 FR 16349). This advisory circular provides additional information on the.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of a proposed revision to Advisory Circular...

  11. Outlier detection in a new half-circular distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambli, Adzhar; Mohamed, Ibrahim Bin; Shimizu, Kunio; Khalidin, Nurliza

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we use a discordancy test based on spacing theory to detect outlier in a half-circular data. Up to now, numerous discordancy tests have been proposed to detect outlier in circular distributions which are defined in [0,2π). However, some circular data lie within just half of this range. Therefore, first we introduce a new half-circular distribution developed using the inverse stereographic projection technique on a gamma distributed variable. Then, we develop a new discordancy test to detect single or multiple outliers in the half-circular data based on the spacing theory. We show the practical value of the test by applying it to an eye data set obtained from a glaucoma clinic at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia.

  12. Performance degradation in fast frequency-scanned circular arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, R. K.; Patel, M. R.

    1983-05-01

    The effects of high-speed scanning in frequency-scanned circular arrays are investigated. It is found that at high scanning rates the performance deteriorates with both a loss of main beam amplitude and an increase in side-lobe level. The performance of a circular array is similar to that of a linear array, although the deterioration observed in the case of a circular array is less than that observed in the case of a linear array having a length equal to the diameter of the circular array. However, in contrast with the case of a linear array, the circular array does not exhibit any significant changes in the 3 dB bandwidth, nor does it show a frequency spread associated with a fast scanning linear array. Examples from both radar and sonar are examined.

  13. Detection of circular polarization in light scattered from photosynthetic microbes

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, William B.; Hough, James; Germer, Thomas A.; Chen, Feng; DasSarma, Shiladitya; DasSarma, Priya; Robb, Frank T.; Manset, Nadine; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Reid, Neill; Macchetto, F. Duccio; Martin, William

    2009-01-01

    The identification of a universal biosignature that could be sensed remotely is critical to the prospects for success in the search for life elsewhere in the universe. A candidate universal biosignature is homochirality, which is likely to be a generic property of all biochemical life. Because of the optical activity of chiral molecules, it has been hypothesized that this unique characteristic may provide a suitable remote sensing probe using circular polarization spectroscopy. Here, we report the detection of circular polarization in light scattered by photosynthetic microbes. We show that the circular polarization appears to arise from circular dichroism of the strong electronic transitions of photosynthetic absorption bands. We conclude that circular polarization spectroscopy could provide a powerful remote sensing technique for generic life searches. PMID:19416893

  14. Circular polarization of sunlight reflected by planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawata, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Multiple scattering calculations are performed in order to investigate the nature of the circular polarization of sunlight reflected by planetary atmospheres. Contour diagrams as a function of size parameter and phase angle are made for the integrated light from a spherical but locally plane-parallel atmosphere of spherical particles. To investigate the origin of the circular polarization, results are also computed for second-order scattering and for a simpler semiquantitative model of scattering by two particles. Observations of the circular polarization of the planets are presently too meager for accurate deduction of cloud particle properties. However, certain very broad constraints can be placed on the properties of the dominant cloud particles on Jupiter and Saturn. The cloud particle size and refractive index deduced for the Jupiter clouds by Loskutov, Morozhenko, and Yanovitskii from analyses of the linear polarization are not consistent with the circular polarization. The few available circular polarization observations of Venus are also examined.

  15. Choke position effects in double-choked circular waveguide antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, K.; Suzuki, M.

    1984-06-01

    A number of studies have been conducted regarding choke-loaded circular waveguide antennas. Aoki et al. (1970) have obtained improved results with respect to the beam circularity and the wide-angle radiation properties. Cowan (1973) suggested the employment of suitable compact, double choked feeds for frequency-reuse application. Further improvements can apparently be obtained by loading double chokes on a circular waveguide. The present investigation is concerned with the variation of the radiated fields for various choke positions in double-choked circular waveguide antennas. In the case of double-choked small circular waveguide antennas, it is found that the choke position has a pronounced effect on the radiation properties. Particularly sensitive to the choke position is the cross-polar level.

  16. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  17. A Naturally Occurring rev1-vpu Fusion Gene Does Not Confer a Fitness Advantage to HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Simon M.; Hopfensperger, Kristina; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Kreider, Edward F.; Learn, Gerald H.; Lee, Lan-Hui; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sauter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Pandemic strains of HIV-1 (group M) encode a total of nine structural (gag, pol, env), regulatory (rev, tat) and accessory (vif, vpr, vpu, nef) genes. However, some subtype A and C viruses exhibit an unusual gene arrangement in which the first exon of rev (rev1) and the vpu gene are placed in the same open reading frame. Although this rev1-vpu gene fusion is present in a considerable fraction of HIV-1 strains, its functional significance is unknown. Results Examining infectious molecular clones (IMCs) of HIV-1 that encode the rev1-vpu polymorphism, we show that a fusion protein is expressed in infected cells. Due to the splicing pattern of viral mRNA, however, these same IMCs also express a regular Vpu protein, which is produced at much higher levels. To investigate the function of the fusion gene, we characterized isogenic IMC pairs differing only in their ability to express a Rev1-Vpu protein. Analysis in transfected HEK293T and infected CD4+ T cells showed that all of these viruses were equally active in known Vpu functions, such as down-modulation of CD4 or counteraction of tetherin. Furthermore, the polymorphism did not affect Vpu-mediated inhibition of NF-кB activation or Rev-dependent nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral mRNAs. There was also no evidence for enhanced replication of Rev1-Vpu expressing viruses in primary PBMCs or ex vivo infected human lymphoid tissues. Finally, the frequency of HIV-1 quasispecies members that encoded a rev1-vpu fusion gene did not change in HIV-1 infected individuals over time. Conclusions Expression of a rev1-vpu fusion gene does not affect regular Rev and Vpu functions or alter HIV-1 replication in primary target cells. Since there is no evidence for increased replication fitness of rev1-vpu encoding viruses, this polymorphism likely emerged in the context of other mutations within and/or outside the rev1-vpu intergenic region, and may have a neutral phenotype. PMID:26554585

  18. Novice Administrators: Personality and Administrative Style Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Since the advent of effective-schools research findings, educational administration experts have advocated a democratic and collegial leadership style for school administrators. This paper provides the findings of a study that examined 43 beginning administrators (25 females, 32 Caucasians, 9 African-Americans, 2 Hispanics) to determine what…

  19. No evidence for behavioral responses to circularly polarized light in four scarab beetle species with circularly polarizing exocuticle.

    PubMed

    Blahó, Miklós; Egri, Adám; Hegedüs, Ramón; Jósvai, Júlia; Tóth, Miklós; Kertész, Krisztián; Biró, László Péter; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2012-02-28

    The strongest known circular polarization of biotic origin is the left-circularly polarized (LCP) light reflected from the metallic shiny exocuticle of certain beetles of the family Scarabaeidae. This phenomenon has been discovered by Michelson in 1911. Although since 1955 it has been known that the human eye perceives a visual illusion when stimulated by circularly polarized (CP) light, it was discovered only recently that a stomatopod shrimp is able to perceive circular polarization. It is pertinent to suppose that scarab beetles reflecting LCP light in an optical environment (vegetation) being deficient in CP signals may also perceive circular polarization and use it to find each other (mate/conspecifics) as until now it has been believed. We tested this hypothesis in six choice experiments with several hundred individuals of four scarab species: Anomala dubia, Anomala vitis (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae), and Cetonia aurata, Potosia cuprea (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae), all possessing left-circularly polarizing exocuticle. From the results of our experiments we conclude that the studied four scarab species are not attracted to CP light when feeding or looking for mate or conspecifics. We demonstrated that the light reflected by host plants of the investigated scarabs is circularly unpolarized. Our results finally solve a puzzle raised over one hundred years ago, when Michaelson discovered that scarab beetles reflect circularly polarized light. PMID:22155007

  20. Three-dimensional computation for flow-induced vibrations of an upstream circular cylinder in two tandem circular cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Norio

    2014-07-01

    It is well known from a lot of experimental data that fluid forces acting on two tandem circular cylinders are quite different from those acting on a single circular cylinder. Therefore, we first present numerical results for fluid forces acting on two tandem circular cylinders, which are mounted at various spacings in a smooth flow, and second we present numerical results for flow-induced vibrations of the upstream circular cylinder in the tandem arrangement. The two circular cylinders are arranged at close spacing in a flow field. The upstream circular cylinder is elastically placed by damper-spring systems and moves in both the in-line and cross-flow directions. In such models, each circular cylinder is assumed as a rigid body. On the other hand, we do not introduce a turbulent model such as the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) or Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models into the numerical scheme to compute the fluid flow. Our numerical procedure to capture the flow-induced vibration phenomena of the upstream circular cylinder is treated as a fluid-structure interaction problem in which the ideas of weak coupling is taken into consideration.

  1. Circular Conditional Autoregressive Modeling of Vector Fields.

    PubMed

    Modlin, Danny; Fuentes, Montse; Reich, Brian

    2012-02-01

    As hurricanes approach landfall, there are several hazards for which coastal populations must be prepared. Damaging winds, torrential rains, and tornadoes play havoc with both the coast and inland areas; but, the biggest seaside menace to life and property is the storm surge. Wind fields are used as the primary forcing for the numerical forecasts of the coastal ocean response to hurricane force winds, such as the height of the storm surge and the degree of coastal flooding. Unfortunately, developments in deterministic modeling of these forcings have been hindered by computational expenses. In this paper, we present a multivariate spatial model for vector fields, that we apply to hurricane winds. We parameterize the wind vector at each site in polar coordinates and specify a circular conditional autoregressive (CCAR) model for the vector direction, and a spatial CAR model for speed. We apply our framework for vector fields to hurricane surface wind fields for Hurricane Floyd of 1999 and compare our CCAR model to prior methods that decompose wind speed and direction into its N-S and W-E cardinal components. PMID:24353452

  2. Wave interaction with dual circular porous plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Arpita; Gayen, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we investigated the reflection and the transmission of a system of two symmetric circular-arc-shaped thin porous plates submerged in deep water within the context of linear theory. The hypersingular integral equation technique has been used to analyze the problem mathematically. The integral equations are formulated by applying Green's integral theorem to the fundamental potential function and the scattered potential function into a suitable fluid region, and then using the boundary condition on the porous plate surface. These are solved approximately using an expansion-cum-collocation method using the behaviour of the potential functions at the tips of the plates. This method ultimately produces a very good numerical approximation for the reflection and the transmission coefficients and hydrodynamic force components. The numerical results are depicted graphically against the wave number for a variety of layouts of the arc. Some results are compared with known results for similar configurations of dual rigid plate systems available in the literature with good agreement.

  3. THE ORBIT OF CHARON IS CIRCULAR

    SciTech Connect

    Buie, Marc W.; Tholen, David J.; Grundy, William M. E-mail: tholen@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2012-07-15

    We present a detailed analysis of the orbit of Charon where we show its orbit to be circular. This analysis explores the effects of surface albedo variations on the astrometry and the resulting errors in the orbital elements. We present two new epochs of data from the Hubble Space Telescope taken in 2008 and 2010 and combine that with a re-analysis of previously published data from 1992 and 2002. Our adopted two-body Keplerian orbital elements for Charon are P = 6.3872273 {+-} 0.0000003 days, a = 19573 {+-} 2 km, e = 0., i = 96.218 {+-} 0.008 deg, L = 4.50177 {+-} 0.00018 rad, and {Omega} = 3.89249 {+-} 0.00012 rad for an epoch of JDT = 2452600.5 in the J2000 reference frame. The 1{sigma} upper limit to the eccentricity is 7.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. The predicted uncertainty in the position of Charon relative to Pluto at the time of the New Horizons encounter based on this orbit is 8 km.

  4. Cellular pattern formation in circular domains.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Antonio; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.; Gorman, Michael; Robbins, Kay A.

    1997-09-01

    An analysis of stationary and nonstationary cellular patterns observed in premixed flames on a circular, porous plug burner is presented. A phenomenological model is introduced, that exhibits patterns similar to the experimental states. The primary modes of the model are combinations of Fourier-Bessel functions, whose radial parts have neighboring zeros. This observation explains several features of patterns, such as the existence of concentric rings of cells and the weak coupling between rings. Properties of rotating rings of cells, including the existence of modulated rotations and heteroclinic cycles can be deduced using mode coupling. For nonstationary patterns, the modal decomposition of experimental data can be carried out using the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) analysis. Experimental states are used to demonstrate the possibility of using KL analysis to differentiate between uniform and nonuniform rotations. The methodology can be extended to study more complicated nonstationary patterns. In particular, it is shown how the complexity of "hopping states" can be unraveled through the analysis. (c) 1997 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779674

  5. Superfluid Turbulence in a Nonuniform Circular Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Paul Joseph

    The excess dissipation due to the presence of quantized vorticity in flowing helium has been studied extensively. The success of the microscopic theory proposed by Schwarz in describing many properties of this dissipation led to a belief that the major aspects of the problem had been understood at the microscopic level. The experiment of Kafkalidis and Tough demonstrated that a weak one dimensional nonuniformity in the flow field led to a dramatic departure between the observed behavior and the predictions of the Schwarz theory using the local uniformity approximation (LUA). The research presented in this thesis was undertaken to measure the dissipative states for thermal counterflow with a weak two dimensional nonuniformity. The experiment of Kafkalidis and Tough used a flow channel with a high aspect ratio. Such channels are known to exhibit only one state of superfluid turbulence. In this research the channel is circular in cross section and shows two distinct turbulent states (T-I and T-II). This experiment demonstrates that there is no difference in the excess dissipation for flows that are either converging or diverging. The T-I state is described by the same parameters as the T-I state in uniform channels. The turbulence exhibits front behavior at the transition between states. These conclusions are consistent with the LUA. The T-II state is at variance with the LUA, but is consistant with the results found in the Kafkalidis and Tough experiment.

  6. Magnetoresistance of single Permalloy circular rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavassori, P.; Busato, A.; Chiapatti, A.; di Bona, A.; Valeri, S.; Metlushko, V.; Ilic, B.

    2007-09-01

    We have measured magnetoresistance in single, 1 μm external diameter, Permalloy (Ni 80Fe 20) circular rings with varied inner hole diameter of 150, 300, and 600 nm and film thickness of 25 nm. The Permalloy ring structures and the 10-nm-thick, 250-nm-wide Au nanocontacts were fabricated on a SiO 2/Si substrate using e-beam lithography. Using a four contact geometry we studied the dependence of the magnetoresistance on the direction of the applied field. The experimental data are explained by considering only the conventional anisotropic magnetoresistance effect. Numerical simulations of the current distribution within the samples combined with micromagnetic simulations of the field dependent magnetization profile, yield good agreement with the experimental data. Upon increasing the inner hole diameter (viz. decreasing the ring width) the magnetoresistance measurements show a transition of the reversal process from the "vortex nucleation-displacement-annihilation" sequence to the "onion state-reversed onion state" sequence, typical of narrow nanorings.

  7. Drops with non-circular footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzoli, Pablo D.; González, Alejandro G.; Diez, Javier A.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we study the morphology of drops formed on partially wetting substrates, whose footprint is not circular. These drops are consequence of the breakup processes occurring in thin films when anisotropic contact line motions take place. The anisotropy is basically due to the hysteresis of the contact angle since there is a wetting process in some parts of the contact line, while a dewetting occurs in other parts. Here, we obtain a characteristic drop shape from the rupture of a long liquid filament sitting on a solid substrate. We analyze its shape and contact angles by means of goniometric and refractive techniques. We also find a non-trivial steady state solution for the drop shape within the long wave approximation (lubrication theory), and we compare most of its features with experimental data. This solution is presented both in Cartesian and polar coordinates, whose constants must be determined by a certain group of measured parameters. Besides, we obtain the dynamics of the drop generation from numerical simulations of the full Navier-Stokes equation, where we emulate the hysteretic effects with an appropriate spatial distribution of the static contact angle over the substrate.

  8. Doppler global velocimetry data in circular jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, John; Burton, Lucinda; Scarberry, Tom

    2002-07-01

    A two-component Doppler global velocimeter (DGV) system has been improved through the use of vapour-limited iodine cells that have temperature-independent responses, along with nonpolarizing beam splitters and lower f-number lenses. Two-component DGV velocity measurements have been obtained for a 1 inch diameter uniform circular jet flow at a nominal exit velocity of 60 m s-1, as well as for an annular jet and a swirling jet. These data generally agree with earlier point Doppler velocimeter and hot wire anemometer results to within about 2-4 m s-1, and display a total variability from a smooth curve of ±2-3 m s-1. This level of accuracy has been obtained for a system that uses a cw argon ion laser and eight-bit CCD cameras and digitizers. Exceptions to this level of accuracy are noted in regions of significant secondary scattering, due to scattered laser light that is reflected off the lip of the jet nozzle, as well as in regions of low smoke seeding levels, resulting in low signal-to-noise ratios. A significant amount of the variability of the data from a smooth curve is due to the flat field correction.

  9. Radially uniform circular sweep of ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmetov, T.D.; Davydenko, V.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Kobets, V.V.; Medvedko, A.S.; Skorobogatov, D.N.; Tiunov, M.A.

    2006-03-15

    A spiral sweep of the ion beam was suggested to provide sufficiently uniform irradiation of a circular target. It is shown that if the beam radius is small enough, the radius of the beam center should increase as a square root of time to provide uniform radial irradiation of the target. In the complex for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, the proton beam sweep will be performed by a sweeper with uniform magnetic field with strength up to 500 G and axial length {approx}20 cm, rotating at 100-2000 Hz, and scanning over the radius at a 1-10 Hz frequency. The sweeper field is produced by four longitudinal flat current windings placed near the inner walls of a box-shaped yoke with the inner opening of a square cross section. A similar sweeping technique can be used in a 200 keV oxygen implanter, which is also under development at the Budker Institute.

  10. Extrachromosomal circular DNA is common in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Henrik D.; Parsons, Lance; Jørgensen, Tue S.; Botstein, David; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Examples of extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are found in many organisms, but their impact on genetic variation at the genome scale has not been investigated. We mapped 1,756 eccDNAs in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome using Circle-Seq, a highly sensitive eccDNA purification method. Yeast eccDNAs ranged from an arbitrary lower limit of 1 kb up to 38 kb and covered 23% of the genome, representing thousands of genes. EccDNA arose both from genomic regions with repetitive sequences ≥15 bases long and from regions with short or no repetitive sequences. Some eccDNAs were identified in several yeast populations. These eccDNAs contained ribosomal genes, transposon remnants, and tandemly repeated genes (HXT6/7, ENA1/2/5, and CUP1-1/-2) that were generally enriched on eccDNAs. EccDNAs seemed to be replicated and 80% contained consensus sequences for autonomous replication origins that could explain their maintenance. Our data suggest that eccDNAs are common in S. cerevisiae, where they might contribute substantially to genetic variation and evolution. PMID:26038577

  11. Circularly Polarized Light and Growth of Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayev, Pavel; Pergolizzi, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The influence of linearly polarized light on the direction of plants growth has been recently demonstrated. The state of circularly polarized (CP) light can also change when it is reflected from the surface of leaves and stems. However, the role of light handedness in the development of plants and CP light interaction with the complexes of chlorophyll molecules have still not been studied enough. In this work, the role of left CP light in the accelerated growth of lentil and pea plants is revealed and studied. The mechanism of such an enhancement is discussed in terms of the model considering transmission, absorption, and scattering of CP light on micro and macro levels of leaf organization. Theoretical modeling of light interaction with the interior of the leaf was conducted for a number of recently proposed models of organization of chlorophyll molecules and chloroplasts. All the calculations were performed by employing a 4x4 matrix method in solving Maxwell equations. It is shown that left-handed chiral organization of chlorophyll molecules can greatly enhance the absorption of light and therefore lead to the enhanced growth of the whole plant under CP light.

  12. Circular dichroism of bradykinin and related peptides

    PubMed Central

    Brady, A. H.; Ryan, J. W.; Stewart, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    1. The circular dichroism of bradykinin and a number of its analogues and homologues was measured over the spectral range 200–300nm. All of the biologically active peptides showed maxima at 220nm and minima at 235nm. The spectra were independent of solvent and temperature. The vibronic transitions of phenylalanyl residues in the 250–280nm range showed no evidence of intra- or inter-molecular interactions. We take this as evidence that bradykinin and its biologically active analogues and homologues exist in solution as disordered chains. 2. None of the analogues with spectra unlike bradykinin possessed biological activity. However, peptides such as retro-bradykinin, des-6-serine-bradykinin, des-1-arginine-bradykinin and des-9-arginine-bradykinin produced spectra like that of bradykinin but were devoid of biological activity. Although we could not identify spectral features that were clearly correlated with biological activity, it appears unlikely that highly ordered peptides of the same amino acid composition as bradykinin would possess bradykinin-like effects. PMID:5117026

  13. A Novel Circular TE01-Mode Bend

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawi, S

    2004-04-19

    Future Linear Colliders and Accelerators require rf systems and components that are capable of handling hundreds of megawatts power levels at x-band frequencies and higher. Standard rf components that have been in use for a long time such as waveguide bends, directional couplers and hybrids, can not be used because of peak field considerations. Indeed, one has to reinvent most of these components taking into account the constraints imposed by ultra-high-power operation. Here, we present a new design for circular waveguides bends propagating the low-loss TE{sub 01} mode. The bend has smooth walls and low field levels. We present a simple synthesis process for designing such device. The general philosophy of this technique can be applied to other components as well. We describe the detailed design of the bend and compare our design with finite element simulations and experimental data. The bend has very low ohmic losses, and the TE{sub 01} mode is transmitted with virtually perfect mode purity.

  14. LED downlights with non-circular spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkyn, William A.; Pelka, David G.

    2005-09-01

    The ubiquitous downlight inhabits our ceilings by the millions. Hot, inefficient, and electrically wasteful, it is next in line for replacement by the latest high-brightness, high-efficacy white LEDs. The conventional downlight configuration of a large incandescent spotlight in a low-cost, ceiling-recessed metal can, represents the culmination of old technology, fated never to improve significantly. Incandescent downlights add greatly both to direct and indirect electrical consumption, with the lamps requiring relatively frequent replacement. The small size of LED emitters means small optical elements can produce much higher-quality beams than incandescent spotlight-lamps can produce. Herein we introduce compact high-luminosity LED downlights with lenses that deliver uniform illumination to delimited targets such as tables. One version utilizes circular lenses and micro-diffuser films to deliver square outputs. The other uses lenses cut to the target shape. In particular, one of these lenses is the first to offer a semicircular spot suitable for gambling tables.

  15. A novel broadband circularly polarised monopole antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ding; Cheng, Gao; Tongbin, Yu; Dexin, Qu

    2015-11-01

    A novel broadband circularly polarised (CP) monopole antenna is designed and implemented in this article. The antenna consists of a radiating patch that is composed of an annular-ring linked by a square ring over the corner and a modified ground plane. The broadband property is achieved based on a novel monopole structure that is connected by two perturbed loops, so the CP wave is generated due to the perturbation. Besides, by cutting a rectangular slit and embedding a vertical stub on the ground plane, the impedance and axial-ratio (AR) bandwidths can be greatly enhanced. The measured results reveal that the proposed monopole antenna has an impedance bandwidth of 4.575 GHz from 2.3 to 6.85 GHz, reaching the particularly broad bandwidth of 99.5%. Furthermore, a wide 3-dB AR bandwidth of 34.6% (1.53 GHz, 3.65-5.18 GHz) centred at 4.42 GHz is achieved. The radiation characteristics of the designed antenna are also presented.

  16. Diabatic flow boiling in circular transparent microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvério, V.; Moreira, A. L. N.

    2012-11-01

    The horizontally assembled circular microchannel (Dh= 543μm, LHT = 60mm) made of transparent borosilicate glass is kept under constant wall heat flux conditions by means of a transparent metallic thin film deposit at the channel external wall as in Silvério and Moreira [1]. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements are achieved by measuring the temperature and pressure at the channel inlet and outlet. Temperature is also measured along the channel outer wall. Experiments are carried with two different fluids, ethanol and methanol. Inlet liquid subcooling is of 297K, mass fluxes, G, up to 689kg.m-2.s-1 and imposed heat fluxes, q"s, up to 12.5W.cm-2 at ΔTsub from 0.8 to 50K. Synchronized high-speed visualization and microscope optics are used to determine dominant two-phase flow patterns and characterize hydrodynamic instabilities. Vapor qualities, χ, of -0.1 (indicating a subcooled liquid state) to 0.5 are under investigation. Semi-periodic variation of the flow patterns is noticeable for different flow conditions.

  17. Dynamic polarizability tensor for circular cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Diana; Ayón, Arturo; Alù, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Based on Mie scattering theory, we derive the complete dynamic polarizability tensor for circular, azimuthally symmetric cylinders excited by an arbitrary field distribution, and provide compact expressions for all of its elements. Our results comprise fully dynamic cylinder polarizabilities, improving existing approximate models that use averaged electric or magnetic current lines to describe the scattering response of moderately thin cylinders. We show that the derived polarizability tensor satisfies reciprocity and passivity relations, and analyze its response under different conditions, varying the excitation angle, material properties, and cylinder radius. Interestingly, magnetoelectric effects are shown to arise at oblique incidence, even in the case of centrosymmetric achiral thin cylinders, associated with a weak form of spatial dispersion. This finding is particularly relevant for the proper modeling of individual cylinders and arrays of them, as in the case of metamaterials. We expect this work to find applications in antenna and metamaterial design, and to improve the physical understanding of the wave interaction and spatial dispersion in artificial materials composed of elongated inclusions such as wire media.

  18. Circular Signs of the Rock Abrasion Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image was taken by Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's front hazard-avoidance camera, providing a circular sign of the success of the rover's first grinding of a rock. The round, shallow hole seen in this image is on a rock dubbed 'McKittrick,' located in the 'El Capitan' area of the larger outcrop near Opportunity's landing site.

    Opportunity used its rock abrasion tool to grind off a patch of rock 45.5 millimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter during the 30th martian day, or sol, of its mission (Feb. 23, 2004). The grinding exposed fresh rock for close inspection by the rover's microscopic imager and two spectrometers located on its robotic arm. The Honeybee Robotics team, which designed and operates the rock abrasion tool, determined the depth of the cut at 'McKittrick' to be 4.4 millimeters (0.17 inches) deep.

    On sol 34 (Feb. 27, 2004), the rover is scheduled to grind into its second target on the 'El Capitan' area, a rock dubbed 'Guadalupe' in the upper middle part of this image. The rock abrasion tools on both Mars Exploration Rovers were supplied by Honeybee Robotics, New York, N.Y.

  19. Circular Conditional Autoregressive Modeling of Vector Fields*

    PubMed Central

    Modlin, Danny; Fuentes, Montse; Reich, Brian

    2013-01-01

    As hurricanes approach landfall, there are several hazards for which coastal populations must be prepared. Damaging winds, torrential rains, and tornadoes play havoc with both the coast and inland areas; but, the biggest seaside menace to life and property is the storm surge. Wind fields are used as the primary forcing for the numerical forecasts of the coastal ocean response to hurricane force winds, such as the height of the storm surge and the degree of coastal flooding. Unfortunately, developments in deterministic modeling of these forcings have been hindered by computational expenses. In this paper, we present a multivariate spatial model for vector fields, that we apply to hurricane winds. We parameterize the wind vector at each site in polar coordinates and specify a circular conditional autoregressive (CCAR) model for the vector direction, and a spatial CAR model for speed. We apply our framework for vector fields to hurricane surface wind fields for Hurricane Floyd of 1999 and compare our CCAR model to prior methods that decompose wind speed and direction into its N-S and W-E cardinal components. PMID:24353452

  20. Large Circular Basin - 1300-km diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Close-up view of one-half of a 1300-km diameter circular basin the largest observed on Mercury. The other half is hidden beyond the terminator to the left. Hills and valleys extend in a radial fashion outward from the main ring. Interior of the large basin is completely flooded by plains materials; adjacent lowlands are also partially flooded and superimposed on the plains are bowl shaped craters. Wrinkle ridges are abundant on the plains materials. The area shown is 1008 miles (1600 km) from the top to the bottom of the picture. Sun's illumination is from the right. Blurred linear lines extending across the picture near bottom are missing data lines that have been filled in by the computer. Mariner 10 encountered Mercury on Friday, March 29th, 1974, passing the planet on the darkside 431 miles (690-km) from the surface.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    NOTE: This image was scanned from physical media.

  1. Circular photogalvanic effect in silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Sajal; Mele, E. J.; Agarwal, Ritesh

    Circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE), the generation of a photocurrent whose magnitude and polarity depends on chirality of optical excitation, is demonstrated in the visible optical range in silicon nanowires, a bulk non-gyrotropic material with weak spin-orbit coupling. CPGE, which is absent in bulk Si is found to arise from interband transitions only at the metal-semiconductor contacts to Si nanowires where inversion symmetry is broken by a Schottky electric field. Furthermore, by applying a bias voltage that modulates this field, the sign and magnitude of the CPGE can be controlled. From excitation energy dependent measurements and symmetry considerations, it is argued that the [10] surface states due to Si chains that are not aligned with the nanowire growth direction and the Schottky field produce an artificial gyrotropic optical medium that supports CPGE. This work reveals the role of the surface states in the generation of chirality-dependent photocurrents in silicon with a purely orbital-based mechanism, and also opens up new possibilities of engineering new functionalities in Si that can be integrated with conventional electronics.

  2. Mutational analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev transactivator: essential residues near the amino terminus.

    PubMed Central

    Hope, T J; McDonald, D; Huang, X J; Low, J; Parslow, T G

    1990-01-01

    The expression of certain mRNAs from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is controlled by the viral transactivator Rev, a nucleolar protein that binds a cis-acting element in these mRNAs. Rev is encoded by two viral exons that specify amino acids 1 to 26 and 27 to 116, respectively. Earlier studies have mapped essential regions of the protein that are encoded in the second exon. By further mutational analysis of Rev, we have now identified a novel locus encoded by the first exon that also is essential for transactivation in vivo. Defined by mutations at residues 14 to 20, this locus coincides with a cluster of positively charged and nonpolar amino acids that is conserved in Rev proteins of all known primate immunodeficiency viruses. Rev proteins that contained mutations at this site were defective in both nuclear localization and transactivation and did not function as trans-dominant inhibitors of wild-type Rev. Fusion of these mutants to a heterologous nuclear protein complemented the defect in localization but did not restore biological activity. Our findings suggest that this N-terminal locus may play a direct role in transactivation, perhaps contributing to essential protein-protein interactions or forming part of the RNA-binding domain of Rev. Images PMID:2120472

  3. Sources of varieties and quality of circular Fructus Ligustri Lucidi.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Peng; Wang, Si-Jia; Zang, Yi-Mei; Hu, Zhong-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to trace sources and quantitatively analyze the specnuezhenide content of circular Fructus Ligustri Lucidi for clinical use. Different specifications of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi were identified using DNA barcoding technology and the specnuezhenide content was analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The ITS sequence of circular Fructus Ligustri Lucidi was identical to that of standard privet, which was determined through botanical identification. ITS sequence similarity between circular Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi which was registered in NCBI ranged from 99.5% to 100%. The sequences of circular and other Fructus Ligustri Lucidi were clustered in a Neighbor-Joining tree with bootstrap value of 95, and these sequences could be distinguished from adulterants. Conforming to pharmacopoeia standard, the average specnuezhenide content of circular Fructus Ligustri Lucidi was higher than that of chicken waist Fructus Ligustri Lucidi. Circular Fructus Ligustri Lucidi derived from Ligustrum lucidum Ait. and the specnuezhenide content was higher in circular Fructus Ligustri Lucidi than that in chicken waist Fructus Ligustri Lucidi. PMID:27025372

  4. Double circular erosion patterns on dielectric target in magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Suzaki, Yoshifumi; Miyagawa, Hayato; Ejima, Seiki

    2009-10-01

    In rf magnetron sputtering, a circular erosion pattern forms on the surface of a circular metal conductor target with permanent magnets on its back. In this case, the theory behind the erosion pattern has been established. However, in the case of a dielectric target, a double circular erosion pattern is formed. So far, this pattern has been phenomenologically recognized by experimenters; however, it has not yet been investigated. In this study, we performed a magnetron sputtering experiment with a SiO2 dielectric target, and confirmed the formation of a double circular erosion pattern. The dimensions of the double circular erosion pattern varied depending on the insulation resistance or the thickness of the SiO2 target. Furthermore, we found that the dimensions of a double circular erosion pattern changed by making a gap between the SiO2 target and guard ring. Based on the experimental results, we have proposed a qualitative model to explain the formation mechanism of double circular erosion patterns. PMID:19895082

  5. Curved-Line Cutting Using a Flexible Circular Saw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yohei; Osumi, Nobuyuki; Takasugi, Akio; Sasahara, Hiroyuki

    We propose a flexible circular saw for high-speed cutting of curved lines in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP). A conventional circular saw is appropriate for straight line cutting, but it cannot be applied to curved line cutting because of the interference between the saw body and the machined surface. To eliminate this problem, the flexible circular saw is deflected into a bowl shape by circular forced displacement, and the cross-section of the saw becomes a circular arc. A curved line can be cut by the bowl-like-deflection. The deflection shape is very important to realize the curved-line cutting without interference. We investigated the deflection of the flexible circular saw by a finite element method (FEM) analysis. Suitable slit shapes for the saw body are also proposed, based on the FEM results regarding stress in the saw body, the minimum radius of curvature, and the effects of cutting force and centrifugal force and eigenvalue. We also conducted a curved-line cutting test on a CFRP plate, and we found that the flexible circular saw can cut curved lines with high accuracy and high speed without interference between the saw body and the machined surface.

  6. Rev-erbα and the circadian transcriptional regulation of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gerhart-Hines, Z; Lazar, M A

    2015-09-01

    The circadian clock orchestrates the co-ordinated rhythmicity of numerous metabolic pathways to anticipate daily and seasonal changes in energy demand. This vital physiological function is controlled by a set of individual clock components that are present in each cell of the body, and regulate each other as well as clock output genes. A key factor is the nuclear receptor, Rev-erbα, a transcriptional repressor which functions not only as a clock component but also as a modulator of metabolic programming in an array of tissues. This review explores the role of Rev-erbα in mediating this crosstalk between circadian rhythm and tissue-specific biological networks and its relevance to organismal physiology. PMID:26332963

  7. The REV-ERBs and RORs: molecular links between circadian rhythms and lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Solt, Laura A; Kojetin, Douglas J; Burris, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    Research efforts spanning the past two decades have established a clear link between nuclear receptor function, regulation of the circadian clock and lipid homeostasis. As such, this family of receptors represents an important area of research. Recent advances in the field have identified two nuclear receptor subfamilies, the REV-ERBs and the ‘retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors’ (RORs), as critical regulators of the circadian clock with significant roles in lipid homeostasis. In this review, the latest information garnered from cutting-edge research on these two nuclear receptor subfamilies will be discussed. Through direct targeting of the REV-ERBs and RORs with synthetic ligands, generation of novel tools aimed at characterizing their function in vivo have been developed, which may lead to novel therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:21526899

  8. Circular RNAs are abundant, conserved, and associated with ALU repeats

    PubMed Central

    Jeck, William R.; Sorrentino, Jessica A.; Wang, Kai; Slevin, Michael K.; Burd, Christin E.; Liu, Jinze; Marzluff, William F.; Sharpless, Norman E.

    2013-01-01

    Circular RNAs composed of exonic sequence have been described in a small number of genes. Thought to result from splicing errors, circular RNA species possess no known function. To delineate the universe of endogenous circular RNAs, we performed high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) of libraries prepared from ribosome-depleted RNA with or without digestion with the RNA exonuclease, RNase R. We identified >25,000 distinct RNA species in human fibroblasts that contained non-colinear exons (a “backsplice”) and were reproducibly enriched by exonuclease degradation of linear RNA. These RNAs were validated as circular RNA (ecircRNA), rather than linear RNA, and were more stable than associated linear mRNAs in vivo. In some cases, the abundance of circular molecules exceeded that of associated linear mRNA by >10-fold. By conservative estimate, we identified ecircRNAs from 14.4% of actively transcribed genes in human fibroblasts. Application of this method to murine testis RNA identified 69 ecircRNAs in precisely orthologous locations to human circular RNAs. Of note, paralogous kinases HIPK2 and HIPK3 produce abundant ecircRNA from their second exon in both humans and mice. Though HIPK3 circular RNAs contain an AUG translation start, it and other ecircRNAs were not bound to ribosomes. Circular RNAs could be degraded by siRNAs and, therefore, may act as competing endogenous RNAs. Bioinformatic analysis revealed shared features of circularized exons, including long bordering introns that contained complementary ALU repeats. These data show that ecircRNAs are abundant, stable, conserved and nonrandom products of RNA splicing that could be involved in control of gene expression. PMID:23249747

  9. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2015-04-21

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  10. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2015-04-01

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  11. Haloarcula marismortui (Volcani) sp. nov., nom. rev., an extremely halophilic bacterium from the Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, A.; Ginzburg, M.; Ginzburg, B. Z.; Hochstein, L. I.; Volcani, B. E.

    1990-01-01

    An extremely halophilic red archaebacterium isolated from the Dead Sea (Ginzburg et al., J. Gen. Physiol. 55: 187-207, 1970) belongs to the genus Haloarcula and differs sufficiently from the previously described species of the genus to be designated a new species; we propose the name Haloarcula marismortui (Volcani) sp. nov., nom. rev. because of the close resemblance of this organism to "Halobacterium marismortui," which was first described by Volcani in 1940. The type strain is strain ATCC 43049.

  12. Circular RNA oligonucleotides. Synthesis, nucleic acid binding properties, and a comparison with circular DNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S; Kool, E T

    1994-01-01

    We report the synthesis and nucleic acid binding properties of two cyclic RNA oligonucleotides designed to bind single-stranded nucleic acids by pyr.pur.pyr-type triple helix formation. The circular RNAs are 34 nucleotides in size and were cyclized using a template-directed nonenzymatic ligation. To ensure isomeric 3'-5' purity in the ligation reaction, one nucleotide at the ligation site is a 2'-deoxyribose. One circle (1) is complementary to the sequence 5'-A12, and the second (2) is complementary to 5'-AAGAAAGAAAAG. Results of thermal denaturation experiments and mixing studies show that both circles bind complementary single-stranded DNA or RNA substrates by triple helix formation, in which two domains in a pyrimidine-rich circle sandwich a central purine-rich substrate. The affinities of these circles with their purine complements are much higher than the affinities of either the linear precursors or simple Watson-Crick DNA complements. For example, circle 1 binds rA12 (pH 7.0, 10 mM MgCl2, 100 mM NaCl) with a Tm of 48 degrees C and a Kd (37 degrees C) of 4.1 x 10(-9) M, while the linear precursor of the circle binds with a Tm of 34 degrees C and a Kd of 1.2 x 10(-6) M. The complexes of circle 2 are pH-dependent, as expected for triple helical complexes involving C(+)G.C triads, and mixing plots for both circles reveal one-to-one stoichiometry of binding either to RNA or DNA substrates. Comparison of circular RNAs with previously synthesized circular DNA oligonucleotides of the same sequence reveals similar behavior in the binding of DNA, but strikingly different behavior in the binding of RNA. The cyclic DNAs show high DNA-binding selectivity, giving relatively weaker duplex-type binding with complementary RNAs. The relative order of thermodynamic stability for the four types of triplex studied here is found to be DDD >> RRR > RDR >> DRD. The results are discussed in the context of recent reports of strong triplex dependence on RNA versus DNA backbones

  13. Circular RNA oligonucleotides. Synthesis, nucleic acid binding properties, and a comparison with circular DNAs.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Kool, E T

    1994-06-25

    We report the synthesis and nucleic acid binding properties of two cyclic RNA oligonucleotides designed to bind single-stranded nucleic acids by pyr.pur.pyr-type triple helix formation. The circular RNAs are 34 nucleotides in size and were cyclized using a template-directed nonenzymatic ligation. To ensure isomeric 3'-5' purity in the ligation reaction, one nucleotide at the ligation site is a 2'-deoxyribose. One circle (1) is complementary to the sequence 5'-A12, and the second (2) is complementary to 5'-AAGAAAGAAAAG. Results of thermal denaturation experiments and mixing studies show that both circles bind complementary single-stranded DNA or RNA substrates by triple helix formation, in which two domains in a pyrimidine-rich circle sandwich a central purine-rich substrate. The affinities of these circles with their purine complements are much higher than the affinities of either the linear precursors or simple Watson-Crick DNA complements. For example, circle 1 binds rA12 (pH 7.0, 10 mM MgCl2, 100 mM NaCl) with a Tm of 48 degrees C and a Kd (37 degrees C) of 4.1 x 10(-9) M, while the linear precursor of the circle binds with a Tm of 34 degrees C and a Kd of 1.2 x 10(-6) M. The complexes of circle 2 are pH-dependent, as expected for triple helical complexes involving C(+)G.C triads, and mixing plots for both circles reveal one-to-one stoichiometry of binding either to RNA or DNA substrates. Comparison of circular RNAs with previously synthesized circular DNA oligonucleotides of the same sequence reveals similar behavior in the binding of DNA, but strikingly different behavior in the binding of RNA. The cyclic DNAs show high DNA-binding selectivity, giving relatively weaker duplex-type binding with complementary RNAs. The relative order of thermodynamic stability for the four types of triplex studied here is found to be DDD > RRR > RDR > DRD. The results are discussed in the context of recent reports of strong triplex dependence on RNA versus DNA backbones. Triplex

  14. Plastic welding techniques based on torsional and circular motion.

    PubMed

    Kising, J

    2001-05-01

    The torsion ultrasonic welding process and the frequency decoupled circular friction process at low frequencies deliver low particle production. In addition, the even, circular movement of the circular welding process over the whole seam area and the freely selectable frequency open up applications in the medical field that cannot be achieved, or can only be achieved with difficulty, by traditional welding processes. The processes are fast and can be process controlled to a fine degree with a facility to be integrated into automation lines. PMID:11521653

  15. Circularly polarized light emission from semiconductor planar chiral nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Kuniaki; Nomura, Masahiro; Kumagai, Naoto; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate circularly polarized light emission from InAs quantum dots embedded in the waveguide region of a GaAs-based chiral nanostructure. The observed phenomenon originates due to a strong imbalance between left- and right-circularly polarized components of the vacuum field and results in a degree of polarization as high as 26% at room temperature. A strong circular anisotropy of the vacuum field modes inside the chiral nanostructure is visualized using numerical simulation. The results of the simulation agree well with experimental results. PMID:21405435

  16. Absorbed Power Minimization in Cellular Users with Circular Antenna Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofilakis, Vasilis; Votis, Constantinos; Tatsis, Giorgos; Raptis, Vasilis; Kostarakis, Panos

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays electromagnetic pollution of non ionizing radiation generated by cellular phones concerns millions of people. In this paper the use of circular antenna array as a means of minimizing the absorbed power by cellular phone users is introduced. In particular, the different characteristics of radiation patterns produced by a helical conventional antenna used in mobile phones operating at 900 MHz and those produced by a circular antenna array, hypothetically used in the same mobile phones, are in detail examined. Furthermore, the percentage of decrement of the power absorbed in the head as a function of direction of arrival is estimated for the circular antenna array.

  17. Conceptual design of X band waveguide dual circular polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chen; Tantawi, Sami; Wang, Juwen

    2016-06-01

    A new design of dual circular polarizer is presented in this paper. This innovative design converts radiofrequency (rf) energy from TE10 mode in a rectangular waveguide to two polarized TE11 modes in a circular waveguide. A reflection less than -20 db is achieved and breakdown field is less than 42 MV /m at input of 1 MW. Meanwhile, this polarizer has a megahertz bandwidth, and the thermal stability is also discussed. This device can be used for broadcasting and receiving the circular polarized signals.

  18. Biophysical Characterization of Nucleophosmin Interactions with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Rev and Herpes Simplex Virus US11

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Kazem; Moll, Jens M.; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Hain, Anika; Dvorsky, Radovan; Amin, Ehsan; Lenders, Michael; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Howe, Sebastian; Smits, Sander H. J.; Hengel, Hartmut; Schmitt, Lutz; Münk, Carsten; Brunsveld, Luc; Ahmadian, Mohammad R.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM1, also known as B23, numatrin or NO38) is a pentameric RNA-binding protein with RNA and protein chaperon functions. NPM1 has increasingly emerged as a potential cellular factor that directly associates with viral proteins; however, the significance of these interactions in each case is still not clear. In this study, we have investigated the physical interaction of NPM1 with both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev and Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) US11, two functionally homologous proteins. Both viral proteins show, in mechanistically different modes, high affinity for a binding site on the N-terminal oligomerization domain of NPM1. Rev, additionally, exhibits low-affinity for the central histone-binding domain of NPM1. We also showed that the proapoptotic cyclic peptide CIGB-300 specifically binds to NPM1 oligomerization domain and blocks its association with Rev and US11. Moreover, HIV-1 virus production was significantly reduced in the cells treated with CIGB-300. Results of this study suggest that targeting NPM1 may represent a useful approach for antiviral intervention. PMID:26624888

  19. 77 FR 75780 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-64; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-64; Small Entity Compliance Guide AGENCIES... the rule appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-64, which amends the Federal...

  20. Individual muscle contributions to circular turning mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-04-13

    Turning is an activity of daily living that involves both the acceleration of the body center-of-mass (COM) towards the center of curvature and rotation of the pelvis towards the new heading. The purpose of this study was to understand which muscles contribute to turning using experimentation, musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. Ten healthy adults consented to walk around a 1-m radius circular path at their self-selected walking speed and then along a straight line at the same speed. Forward dynamics simulations of the individual subjects during the turning and straight-line walking tasks were generated to identify the contributions of individual muscle groups to the body mediolateral and anterior-posterior COM acceleration impulse and to the pelvis angular acceleration impulse. The stance leg gluteus medius and ankle plantarflexor muscles and the swing leg adductor muscles were the primary contributors to redirect the body's COM relative to straight-line walking. In some cases, contributions to mediolateral COM acceleration were modulated through changes in leg orientation rather than through changes in muscle force. While modulation of the muscle contributions generally occurred in both the inner and outer legs, greater changes were observed during inner single-leg support than during outer single-leg support. Total pelvis angular acceleration was minimal during the single-support phase, but the swing leg muscles contributed significantly to balancing the internal and external rotation of the pelvis. The understanding of which muscles contribute to turning the body during walking may help guide the development of more effective locomotor therapies for those with movement impairments. PMID:25700608

  1. Z-DNA: vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.; Keck, P.C.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-08-01

    In concentrated salt or ethanolic solutions, the self-complementary copolymer poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC) forms a left-handed double-helical structure that has been termed Z-DNA. The first evidence for this structure came from changes observed in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum between 230 and 300 nm for low- and high-salt solutions. In 3 M NaCl, the CD spectrum is approximately inverted compared to the B-form spectrum observed in low salt solution. We measured the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC) down to 180 nm under conditions in which the 230- to 300-nm spectrum is inverted. Below 200 nm, where the B form exhibits the large positive peak at 187 nm that is characteristic of right-handed double-helical DNAs, the Z form exhibits a large negative peak at 194 nm and a positive band below 186 nm. Therefore, the Z-form vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum resembles an inverted and red-shifted B-form spectrum. The magnitudes of the differences observed between the B and Z forms in the CD spectrum below 200 nm are about 10 times greater than those observed between 230 and 300 nm. The vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC)-poly(dG-dC) is 3 M C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ also is inverted compared to the B-form spectrum; however, between 230 and 300 nm, it is nonconservative with a negative maximum at 290 nm and a weak positive CD signal above 300 nm, presumably reflecting differential light scattering and indicating the existence of molecular aggregates. Our results suggest that the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum is sensitive to the handedness of doublehelical DNA structures.

  2. Z-DNA Vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.; Keck, P.C.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-08-01

    In concentrated salt or ethanolic solutions, the self-complementary copolymer poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) forms a left-handed double-helical structure that has been termed ZDNA. The first evidence for this structure came from changes observed in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum between 230 and 300 nm for low- and high-salt solutions (Pohl, F.M. and Jovin, T.M. (1972) J. Mol. Biol. 67, 675-696). In 3 M NaCl, the CD spectrum is approximately inverted compared to the B-form spectrum observed in low-salt solution. We measured the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) down to 180 nm under conditions in which the 230 to 300 nm spectrum is inverted. Below 200 nm, where the B form exhibits the large positive peak at 187 nm that is characteristic of right-handed double-helical DNAs, the Z form exhibits a large negative peak at 194 nm and a positive band below 186 nm. Therefore, the Z-form vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum resembles an inverted and red-shifted B-form spectrum. The magnitudes of the differences observed between the Band Z forms in the CD spectrum below 200 nm are about 10 times greater than those observed between 230 and 300 nm. The vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum of poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) in 3 M Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ also is inverted compared to the B-form spectrum; however, between 230 and 300 nm, it is nonconservative with a negative maximum at 290 nm and a weak positive CD signal above 300 nm, presumably reflecting differential light scattering and indicating the existence of molecular aggregates. Our results suggest that the vacuum ultraviolet CD spectrum is sensitive to the handedness of double-helical DNA structures.

  3. Status of the Future Circular Collider Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study has been launched by CERN as host institute, to design an energy frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new 80-100 km tunnel with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV, an order of magnitude beyond the LHC's, as a long-term goal. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90-350 GeV high-luminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) installed in the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines will be assessed and concepts for experiments will be developed in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics by the end of 2018. The presentation will summarize the status of machine designs and parameters and discuss the essential technical components to be developed in the frame of the FCC study. Key elements are superconducting accelerator-dipole magnets with a field of 16 T for the hadron collider and high-power, high-efficiency RF systems for the lepton collider. In addition the unprecedented beam power presents special challenges for the hadron collider for all aspects of beam handling and machine protection. First conclusions of geological investigations and implementation studies will be presented. The status of the FCC collaboration and the further planning for the study will be outlined.

  4. Circular RNAs and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Li, Lian-Ju; Huang, Qing; Pan, Hai-Feng; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2016-08-15

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large class of noncoding RNAs that form covalently closed RNA circles. The discovery of circRNAs discloses a new layer of gene regulation occurred post-transcriptionally. Identification of endogenous circRNAs benefits from the advance in high-throughput RNA sequencing and remains challenging. Many studies probing into the mechanisms of circRNAs formation occurred cotranscriptionally or posttranscriptionally emerge and conclude that canonical splicing mechanism, sequence properties, and certain regulatory factors are at play in the process. Although our knowledge on functions of circRNAs is rather limited, a few circRNAs are shown to sponge miRNA and regulate gene transcription. The clearest case is one circRNA CDR1as that serves as sponge of miR-7. Researches on circRNAs in human diseases such as cancers highlight the function and physical relevance of circRNAs. Given the implication of miRNAs in the initiation and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the roles of circRNAs in sponging miRNA and gene regulation, it is appealing to speculate that circRNAs may associate with SLE and may be potential therapeutic targets for treatment of SLE. Future studies should attach more importance to the relationship between circRNAs and SLE. This review will concern identification, biogenesis, and function of circRNAs, introduce reports exploring the association of circRNAs with human diseases, and conjecture the potential roles of circRNAs in SLE. PMID:27450756

  5. Failure of Non-Circular Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a progressive failure analysis is used to investigate leakage in internally pressurized non-circular composite cylinders. This type of approach accounts for the localized loss of stiffness when material failure occurs at some location in a structure by degrading the local material elastic properties by a certain factor. The manner in which this degradation of material properties takes place depends on the failure modes, which are determined by the application of a failure criterion. The finite-element code STAGS, which has the capability to perform progressive failure analysis using different degradation schemes and failure criteria, is utilized to analyze laboratory scale, graphite-epoxy, elliptical cylinders with quasi-isotropic, circumferentially-stiff, and axially-stiff material orthotropies. The results are divided into two parts. The first part shows that leakage, which is assumed to develop if there is material failure in every layer at some axial and circumferential location within the cylinder, does not occur without failure of fibers. Moreover before fibers begin to fail, only matrix tensile failures, or matrix cracking, takes place, and at least one layer in all three cylinders studied remain uncracked, preventing the formation of a leakage path. That determination is corroborated by the use of different degradation schemes and various failure criteria. Among the degradation schemes investigated are the degradation of different engineering properties, the use of various degradation factors, the recursive or non-recursive degradation of the engineering properties, and the degradation of material properties using different computational approaches. The failure criteria used in the analysis include the noninteractive maximum stress criterion and the interactive Hashin and Tsai-Wu criteria. The second part of the results shows that leakage occurs due to a combination of matrix tensile and compressive, fiber tensile and compressive, and inplane

  6. The Circular Hydraulic Jump in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avedisian, C. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the key experimental results and observations that were obtained under NASA grant NAG 3-1627 from the Fluid Physics Program. The Principle Investigator was Thomas Avedisian. In addition a half-time post-doctoral associate, Ziqun Zhao, was funded for half year. The project monitor was David Chao of the NASA-Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The grant period was originally for one year at $34K and a no-cost extension was applied for and granted for an additional year. The research consisted of an experimental study of the circular hydraulic jump (CHJ) in microgravity using water as the working fluid. The evolution of the CHJ radius was measured during a sudden transition from normal to microgravity in a drop tower. The downstream height of the CHJ was controlled by submerging the target plate in a tank filled with water to the desired depth, and the measurements are compared with an existing theory for the location of the CHJ. Results show that the CHJ diameter is larger in microgravity than normal gravity. The adjustment of the CHJ diameter to a sudden change in gravity occurs over a period of about 200ms for the conditions of the present study, and remains constant thereafter for most of the flow conditions examined. For flow conditions that a CHJ was not first established at normal gravity but which later appeared during the transition tb microgravity, the CHJ diameter was not constant during the period of microgravity but continually changed. Good agreement between measured and predicted CHJ radii is found for normal gravity CHJ radii, but comparatively poorer agreement is observed for the CHJ radii measurements in microgravity.

  7. Circular dichroism and magnetic circular dichroism of iron-sulfur proteins.

    PubMed

    Stephens, P J; Thomson, A J; Dunn, J B; Keiderling, T A; Rawlings, J; Rao, K K; Hall, D O

    1978-10-31

    Circular dichroism (CD) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra are reported for the 2-Fe ferredoxins from Pseudomonas putida and Spirulina maxima, Chromatium HIPIP, the 4-Fe ferredoxin from Bacillus stearothermophilus, and the 8-Fe ferredoxin from Clostridium pasteurianum. The spectral range spans the near-infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet. In all cases except oxidized 2-Fe ferredoxins, electronic absorption is observed continuously from less than 5000 cm-1 to above 30,000 cm-1. The CD spectra of the two 2-Fe ferredoxins are similar. In contrast, the CD of the 4-Fe and 8-Fe proteins, for a given 4-Fe cluster oxidation level, varies considerable with protein. MCD is less sensitive to protein environment than is CD. In the 2-Fe proteins, MCD at 5 T is appreciably smaller than the CD; in the 4-Fe and 8-Fe proteins, MCD and CD are comparable in magnitude. Both CD and MCD are more highly structured than the corresponding absorption spectra. The CD and MCD spectra reported provide a broader base than heretofore available for the characterization of iron-sulfur proteins containing 2-Fe and 4-Fe clusters and for the evaluation of electronic structural models for these clusters. PMID:728385

  8. Comparing modal noise and FRD of circular and non-circular cross-section fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablowski, D. P.; Plüschke, D.; Weber, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Järvinen, A.

    2016-03-01

    Modal noise is a common source of noise introduced to the measurements by optical fibres and is particularly important for fibre-fed spectroscopic instruments, especially for high-resolution measurements. This noise source can limit the signal-to-noise ratio and jeopardize photon-noise limited data. The subject of the present work is to compare measurements of modal noise and focal-ratio degradation (FRD) for several commonly used fibres. We study the influence of a simple mechanical scrambling method (excenter) on both FRD and modal noise. Measurements are performed with circular and octagonal fibres from Polymicro Technology (FBP-Series) with diameters of 100, 200, and 300 μm and for square and rectangular fibres from CeramOptec, among others. FRD measurements for the same sample of fibres are performed as a function of wavelength. Furthermore, we replaced the circular fibre of the STELLA-échelle-spectrograph (SES) in Tenerife with an octagonal and found a SNR increase by a factor of 1.6 at 678 nm. It is shown in the laboratory that an excenter with a large amplitude and low frequency will not influence the FRD but will reduce modal noise rather effectively by up to 180%.

  9. SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF CIRCULAR DICHROISM AND FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION ANISOTROPY.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2002-01-19

    Circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy are important tools for characterizing biomolecular systems. Both are used extensively in kinetic experiments involving stopped- or continuous flow systems as well as titrations and steady-state spectroscopy. This paper presents the theory for determining circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy simultaneously, thus insuring the two parameters are recorded under exactly the same conditions and at exactly the same time in kinetic experiments. The approach to measuring circular dichroism is that used in almost all conventional dichrographs. Two arrangements for measuring fluorescence polarization anisotropy are described. One uses a single fluorescence detector and signal processing with a lock-in amplifier that is similar to the measurement of circular dichroism. The second approach uses classic ''T'' format detection optics, and thus can be used with conventional photon-counting detection electronics. Simple extensions permit the simultaneous measurement of the absorption and excitation intensity corrected fluorescence intensity.

  10. 35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight opening, view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  11. 11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX CARS LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  12. 13. PHOTOCOPY OF ILLUSTRATED CIRCULAR OF 'ROOTS NEW IRON POSITIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PHOTOCOPY OF ILLUSTRATED CIRCULAR OF 'ROOTS NEW IRON POSITIVE BLAST BLOWER,' CA. JAN. 1880, FROM FILES OF ROOTS-CONNERSVILLE BLOWER CO., CONNERSVILLE, IND. - P. H. & F. M. Roots Company, Eastern Avenue, Connersville, Fayette County, IN

  13. Procedure for Detecting Outliers in a Circular Regression Model

    PubMed Central

    Rambli, Adzhar; Abuzaid, Ali H. M.; Mohamed, Ibrahim Bin; Hussin, Abdul Ghapor

    2016-01-01

    A number of circular regression models have been proposed in the literature. In recent years, there is a strong interest shown on the subject of outlier detection in circular regression. An outlier detection procedure can be developed by defining a new statistic in terms of the circular residuals. In this paper, we propose a new measure which transforms the circular residuals into linear measures using a trigonometric function. We then employ the row deletion approach to identify observations that affect the measure the most, a candidate of outlier. The corresponding cut-off points and the performance of the detection procedure when applied on Down and Mardia’s model are studied via simulations. For illustration, we apply the procedure on circadian data. PMID:27064566

  14. High circular polarization in electroluminescence from MoSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onga, Masaru; Zhang, Yijin; Suzuki, Ryuji; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    The coupling between the valley degree of freedom and the optical helicity is one of the unique phenomena in transition metal dichalcogenides. The significant valley polarization evaluated from circularly polarized photoluminescence (PL) has been reported in many transition metal dichalcogenides, except in MoSe2. This compound is an anomalous material showing ultra-fast relaxation of the valley polarized states, which causes negligible polarization in the PL. Meanwhile, circularly polarized electroluminescence (EL) has been recently reported in a WSe2 light-emitting transistor, providing another method for using the valley degree of freedom. Here, we report the EL properties of MoSe2, demonstrating electrical switching of the optical helicity. Importantly, we observed high circular polarization reaching 66%. The results imply that the dominant mechanism of circularly polarized EL is robust against intervalley scattering, in marked contrast to the PL.

  15. Circularly polarized waves in a plasma with vacuum polarization effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, J.; Stenflo, L.; Brodin, G.; Marklund, M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2007-06-15

    The theory for large amplitude circularly polarized waves propagating along an external magnetic field is extended in order to also include vacuum polarization effects. A general dispersion relation, which unites previous results, is derived.

  16. The nature of circular maria based on gravity studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Conel, J. E.; Sjogren, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Current thinking on the evolution of major lunar morphological features, i.e., large lunar circular basins, and on the nature and origin of surface structures observed in the fill deposits is summarized. The great lunar circular basins must result from high-velocity impact of large bodies with the moon. A hydrostatic mechanism is outlined, and a working hypothesis is presented for the evolution of lunar circular basins subsequent to their origin by impact. In the main appeal is made to Doppler gravity data to support the hypothesis, although photographic and altimetric information is also used. It is considered that all large ringed circular basins follow a common evolutionary path of superisostatic volcanic flooding followed by partial and variable isostatic adjustment. The difference between basins is the amount of flooding, which in turn may be related to the center of figure-center of mass offset of the moon.

  17. 77. East facade of circular forebay showing overflow well. Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. East facade of circular forebay showing overflow well. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  18. 78. Interior of circular forebay showing valves for operating sluice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. Interior of circular forebay showing valves for operating sluice gates, looking south. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  19. Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization

    PubMed Central

    Rauter, Patrick; Lin, Jiao; Genevet, Patrice; Khanna, Suraj P.; Lachab, Mohammad; Giles Davies, A.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by “fishbone” gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12°-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6°. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed. PMID:25512515

  20. Livestock Waste Management in a Quality Environment. Circular 1074.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedele, D. G., Ed.

    This circular provides information to assist in assessing the pollution potential of livestock operations. It discusses a systematic approach to resolving problems through feedlot runoff control, liquid manure handling, hauling and lagooning, and ditching. (CS)

  1. Numerical simulation for flow around two circular cylinders in tandem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Norio; Matsukuma, Daisuke

    2005-05-01

    We use a third-order upwind finite element scheme in order to perform numerical stabilization of solutions of the Navier Stokes equations and present numerical results of flow around two circular cylinders in tandem arrangement by two- and three-dimensional computations. The two circular cylinders are arranged with some spacings between the cylinders. It is well known from experimental data that the flow around two circular cylinders denotes very complicated phenomena with the variation of spacing between two cylinders. In addition, the time-averaged drag coefficients of two circular cylinders suddenly change at a certain spacing between the cylinders. We, therefore, make an investigation of such phenomena at the Reynolds number of 1000 by the use of a numerical approach, and the obtained numerical results are also qualitatively compared with experimental data.

  2. Recent progress in circular high-power overmoded waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huting, William A.; Warren, Jeffery W.; Krill, Jerry A.

    1991-03-01

    To support future combat system requirements, the use of circular TE(01) mode 'overmoded' waveguide technology has been investigated. A circular TE(01) mode overmoded waveguide of a sheathed-helix design has been optimized for application to microwave bands subject to high-power and low-attenuation objectives and to bend and cross-sectional size constraints. New circular TE(01) mode components, such as the multiple-port rectangular TE(10) to circular TE(01) mode waveguide transition, the mode-transitioning elbow, and a mode filter, provide further design flexibility for high-power waveguide systems. An application of the technology under consideration to a combat system element has been successfully demonstrated in the Cooperative Engagement Capability developed under APL technical direction.

  3. Circular stair from Parking Overlook to Clay Tennis Courts, Riverside ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Circular stair from Parking Overlook to Clay Tennis Courts, Riverside Park at 96th Street, looking southwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  4. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF CIRCULAR BRONZE ROLLER GATE POSITION GAUGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF CIRCULAR BRONZE ROLLER GATE POSITION GAUGE, ROLLER GATE PIER HOUSE, TYPE 2A, DAM - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 11, Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  5. Electrically pumped semiconductor laser with monolithic control of circular polarization.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Patrick; Lin, Jiao; Genevet, Patrice; Khanna, Suraj P; Lachab, Mohammad; Giles Davies, A; Linfield, Edmund H; Capasso, Federico

    2014-12-30

    We demonstrate surface emission of terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from a monolithic quantum cascade laser with built-in control over the degree of circular polarization by "fishbone" gratings composed of orthogonally oriented aperture antennas. Different grating concepts for circularly polarized emission are introduced along with the presentation of simulations and experimental results. Fifth-order gratings achieve a degree of circular polarization of up to 86% within a 12°-wide core region of their emission lobes in the far field. For devices based on an alternative transverse grating design, degrees of circular polarization as high as 98% are demonstrated for selected far-field regions of the outcoupled THz radiation and within a collection half-angle of about 6°. Potential and limitations of integrated antenna gratings for polarization-controlled emission are discussed. PMID:25512515

  6. Supersonic flow around circular cones at angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferri, Antonio

    1951-01-01

    The properties of conical flow without axial symmetry are analyzed. The flow around cones of circular cross section at small angles of attack is determined by correctly considering the effect of the entropy gradients in the flow.

  7. Research on object detection based on circular polarization property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yun-zhi; Zeng, Xian-fang; Yin, Cheng-liang; Luo, Xiao-lin

    2013-09-01

    It is an important subject in information scout, battlefield surveillance and automatic target recognition to detect interesting objects from complicated background. Compared with intensity detection, polarization detection has its advantage in identifying some camouflage targets. Usually, in the studies of target polarization detection, circular polarization property is usually neglected because of its small value. But in particular conditions, the circular polarization property of target will be used to accomplish object detection with their obviously different value. In this study, a single reflectance model of Mueller matrix is established, and based on Fresnel's law, circular polarization property of object is analyzed which is obvious while linear polarization property is obscure in particular condition. It is available to use the circular polarization component to detect target.

  8. Potent Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by an Intracellular Anti-Rev Single-Chain Antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lingxun; Bagasra, Omar; Laughlin, Mark A.; Oakes, Joseph W.; Pomerantz, Roger J.

    1994-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has a complex life cycle, which has made it a difficult target for conventional therapeutic modalities. A single-chain antibody moiety, directed against the HIV-1 regulatory protein Rev, which rescues unspliced viral RNA from the nucleus of infected cells, has now been developed. This anti-Rev single-chain construct (SFv) consists of both light and heavy chain variable regions of an anti-Rev monoclonal antibody, which, when expressed intracellularly within human cells, potently inhibits HIV-1 replication. This intracellular SFv molecule is demonstrated to specifically antagonize Rev function. Thus, intracellular SFv expression, against a retroviral regulatory protein, may be useful as a gene therapeutic approach to combat HIV-1 infections.

  9. WBN-1 Cycle 10 TPBAR Tritium Release, Deduced From Analysis of RCS Data TTP-1-3046-00, Rev 0

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Niehus, Mark T.; Love, Edward F.

    2012-02-19

    This document contains the calculation of the TPBAR tritium release from the Mark 9.2 design TPBARs irradiated in WBN cycle 10. The calculation utilizes the generalized cycle analysis methodology given in TTP-1-3045 Rev. 0.

  10. Electronic and vibrational circular dichroism spectra of (R)-(-)-apomorphine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, Sergio; Longhi, Giovanna; Lebon, France; Tommasini, Matteo

    2012-09-01

    Apomorphine is a chiral drug molecule; notwithstanding its extraordinary importance, little attention has been paid to the characterization of its chiroptical properties. Here we report on its electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, recorded in methanol and water, and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have allowed us to interpret the spectra and to evaluate the role of possible conformations, charge-states and interactions with counter ions.

  11. Aharonov-Bohm effect induced by circularly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, H.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrated theoretically that the strong electron interaction with circularly polarized photons in ring-like nanostructures changes the phase of electron wave. This optically-induced effect is caused by the breaking of time-reversal symmetry and is similar to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. As a consequence of this phenomenon, the conductance of mesoscopic rings irradiated by a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave behaves as an oscillating function of the intensity and frequency of the wave.

  12. Circular Bioassay Platforms for Applications in Microwave-Accelerated Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Clement, Travis C.; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of four different circular bioassay platforms, which are suitable for homogeneous microwave heating, using theoretical calculations (i.e., COMSOL™ multiphysics software). Circular bioassay platforms are constructed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for optical transparency between 400–800 nm, has multiple sample capacity (12, 16, 19 and 21 wells) and modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to be used in microwave-accelerated bioassays (MABs). In addition, a small monomode microwave cavity, which can be operated with an external microwave generator (100 W), for use with the bioassay platforms in MABs is also developed. Our design parameters for the circular bioassay platforms and monomode microwave cavity during microwave heating were: (i) temperature profiles, (ii) electric field distributions, (iii) location of the circular bioassay platforms inside the microwave cavity, and (iv) design and number of wells on the circular bioassay platforms. We have also carried out additional simulations to assess the use of circular bioassay platforms in a conventional kitchen microwave oven (e.g., 900 W). Our results show that the location of the circular bioassay platforms in the microwave cavity was predicted to have a significant effect on the homogeneous heating of these platforms. The 21-well circular bioassay platform design in our monomode microwave cavity was predicted to offer a homogeneous heating pattern, where inter-well temperature was observed to be in between 23.72–24.13°C and intra-well temperature difference was less than 0.21°C for 60 seconds of microwave heating, which was also verified experimentally. PMID:25568813

  13. Circular dichroism from Fano resonances in planar chiral oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Ben; Poddubny, Alexander N.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-05-01

    Here we present a general approach for describing the physics of Fano resonances in nanoparticle oligomers. It is shown that the interference of nonorthogonal collective eigenmodes is a sufficient condition to produce Fano resonances. We then show that such nonorthogonality between eigenmodes also permits the existence of a new form circular dichroism in the absorption and scattering cross-sections, even when circular dichroism is forbidden in the extinction cross-section.

  14. Tool for Torquing Circular Electrical-Connector Collars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaulke, Kathryn; Werneth, Russell; Grunsfeld, John; O'Neill, Patrick; Snyder, Russ

    2006-01-01

    An improved tool has been devised for applying torque to lock and unlock knurled collars on circular electrical connectors. The tool was originally designed for, and used by, astronauts working in outer space on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The tool is readily adaptable to terrestrial use in installing and removing the same or similar circular electrical connectors as well as a wide variety of other cylindrical objects, the tightening and loosening of which entail considerable amounts of torque.

  15. Circular electrode geometry metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaddo, James A. (Inventor); Towe, Elias (Inventor); Bishop, William L. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention comprises a high speed, metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector which comprises a pair of generally circular, electrically conductive electrodes formed on an optically active semiconductor layer. Various embodiments of the invention include a spiral, intercoiled electrode geometry and an electrode geometry comprised of substantially circular, concentric electrodes which are interposed. These electrode geometries result in photodetectors with lower capacitances, dark currents and lower inductance which reduces the ringing seen in the optical pulse response.

  16. Circular electrode geometry metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadoo, James A. (Inventor); Towe, Elias (Inventor); Bishop, William L. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a high speed, metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector which comprises a pair of generally circular, electrically conductive electrodes formed on an optically active semiconductor layer. Various embodiments of the invention include a spiral, intercoiled electrode geometry and an electrode geometry comprised of substantially circular, concentric electrodes which are interposed. These electrode geometries result in photodetectors with lower capacitances, dark currents and lower inductance which reduces the ringing seen in the optical pulse response.

  17. Organization/Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  18. Early sensitivity to arguments: how preschoolers weight circular arguments.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Hugo; Bernard, Stéphane; Clément, Fabrice

    2014-09-01

    Observational studies suggest that children as young as 2 years can evaluate some of the arguments people offer them. However, experimental studies of sensitivity to different arguments have not yet targeted children younger than 5 years. The current study aimed at bridging this gap by testing the ability of preschoolers (3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) to weight arguments. To do so, it focused on a common type of fallacy-circularity-to which 5-year-olds are sensitive. The current experiment asked children-and, as a group control, adults-to choose between the contradictory opinions of two speakers. In the first task, participants of all age groups favored an opinion supported by a strong argument over an opinion supported by a circular argument. In the second task, 4- and 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds or adults, favored the opinion supported by a circular argument over an unsupported opinion. We suggest that the results of these tasks in 3- to 5-year-olds are best interpreted as resulting from the combination of two mechanisms: (a) basic skills of argument evaluations that process the content of arguments, allowing children as young as 3 years to favor non-circular arguments over circular arguments, and (b) a heuristic that leads older children (4- and 5-year-olds) to give some weight to circular arguments, possibly by interpreting these arguments as a cue to speaker dominance. PMID:24485755

  19. Circular extinction of plasmonic silver nanocaps and gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Chiral plasmonic nanostructures exhibit strong rotatory optical activity and are expected to enrich the field of metaoptical materials. Potential applications of chiroplasmonic nanostructures include circular polarizers, optical polarization detectors, asymmetric catalysts, and sensors. However, chiral plasmonic materials require subwavelength structural control and involve laborious chemical or lithographic procedures for their manufacturing. Moreover, strong rotatory activity of subwavelength structures whose chirality was imparted by microfabrication, has been obtained for the red and infrared parts of the spectrum but faces new challenges for the blue and violet spectral ranges even with plasmonic materials with plasmonic bands in the 200-400 nm window. In this study, we address this problem by preparing chiral subwavelength nanostructures by glancing angle sputtering of metallic silver on ZnO nanopillar arrays. Silver deposition in two different planes is a convenient method for preparation of silver chiroplasmonic nanocaps (Ag CPNCs) with controlled asymmetry. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to examine the circular extinction for the left-handed nanocaps (L-CPNCs) with understanding that not only circular dichroism but also many other optical effects contribute to the amplitude of these bands. The pillared silver films exhibit circular extinction in the violet area of the electromagnetic spectrum. Partial oxidation of Ag to AgxO causes the absorption and corresponding circular extinction band obtained using a conventional CD spectrometer at 400-525 nm to increase and shift. This optical material may be used to detect oxygen and extends the spectrum of application of chiroplasmonic materials to gas sensing. PMID:26952921

  20. HIV-1 Rev protein specifies the viral RNA export pathway by suppressing TAP/NXF1 recruitment.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ichiro; Mabuchi, Naoto; Ohno, Mutsuhito

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear RNA export pathways in eukaryotes are often linked to the fate of a given RNA. Therefore, the choice of export pathway should be well-controlled to avoid an unfavorable effect on gene expression. Although some RNAs could be exported by more than one pathway, little is known about how the choice is regulated. This issue is highlighted when the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev protein induces the export of singly spliced and unspliced HIV-1 transcripts. How these RNAs are exported is not well understood because such transcripts should have the possibility of utilizing CRM1-dependent export via Rev or cellular TAP/NXF1-dependent export via the transcription/export (TREX) complex, or both. Here we found that Rev suppressed TAP/NXF1-dependent export of model RNA substrates that recapitulated viral transcripts. In this effect, Rev interacted with the cap-binding complex and inhibited the recruitment of the TREX complex. Thus, Rev controls the identity of the factor occupying the cap-proximal region that determines the RNA export pathway. This ribonucleoprotein remodeling activity of Rev may favor viral gene expression. PMID:24753416

  1. Interaction of the HIV-1 Rev cofactor eukaryotic initiation factor 5A with ribosomal protein L5

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Octavian; Oft, Martin; Dascher, Christiane; Schebesta, Michael; Rosorius, Olaf; Jaksche, Herbert; Dobrovnik, Marika; Bevec, Dorian; Hauber, Joachim

    1998-01-01

    It has previously been shown that interaction of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) with the Rev trans-activator protein of HIV-1 mediates the transport of unspliced or incompletely spliced viral mRNAs across the nuclear envelope. Consequently, mutants of eIF-5A block Rev function and thereby replication of HIV-1 in trans, indicating that eIF-5A is a crucial protein that connects the viral Rev regulator with cellular RNA transport systems. Here we show that the ribosomal protein L5, which is the central protein component of the 5S rRNA export system, is a cellular interaction partner of eIF-5A. Functional studies demonstrate that overexpression of L5 protein significantly enhances Rev activity. Furthermore, Rev nuclear export activity is inhibited in human somatic cells by antibodies that recognize eIF-5A or L5. Our data suggest that the Rev export pathway shares components of a cellular transport system involved in the intracellular trafficking of polymerase III (5S rRNA) transcripts. PMID:9465063

  2. Coupling between meniscus and smectic-A films: circular and catenoid profiles, induced stress, and dislocation dynamics

    PubMed

    Picano; Holyst; Oswald

    2000-09-01

    In this paper we discuss the formation and shape of the meniscus between a free-standing film of a smectic-A phase and a wall (in practice the frame that supports the film). The wall may be flat or circular, and the system with or without a reservoir of particles. The formation of the meniscus is always an irreversible thermodynamic process, since it involves the creation of dislocations in the bulk (therefore it involves friction). The four basic shapes of meniscus discussed are the following: exponential, algebraic (x(3/2)), circular, and catenoid. Three principal regions of the whole meniscus must be distinguished: close to the wall with a high density of dislocations, away from the wall with medium density of dislocations, and far from the wall (i.e., close to the film) with a low density of dislocations (vicinal regime). The region with medium density of dislocations is observable using a microscope, and is determined by the competition between surface tension, energy of dislocations, and pressure difference set by the mass of the meniscus or by the reservoir. Its profile is circular as observed in recent experiments [J.-C. Geminard, R. Holyst, and P. Oswald, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1924 (1997)]. By contrast, the vicinal regime with low density of dislocations is never observable with an optical microscope. In the regime with a high density of dislocations, the reasons why the dislocations tend to gather by forming giant dislocations and rows of focal conics are discussed. Finally, we discuss the stability of a smectic film with respect to the formation of a dislocation loop. We show experimentally that the critical radius of the loop is proportional to the curvature radius of the meniscus in its circular part, in agreement with the theory. In addition, we show that the mobility of edge dislocations measured in thick films is in agreement with that found in bulk samples from a creep experiment. This result confirms again our model of the meniscus. PMID:11088891

  3. Making mission possible. A response to Rev. Richard A. McCormick's article on the preservation of Catholic hospitals.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, K D

    1995-01-01

    In "The Catholic Hospital Today: Mission Impossible?" (Origins, March 16, 1995, pp. 648-653), Rev. Richard A. McCormick, SJ, STD, questions whether Catholic hospitals can continue their missions in a society with so many factors and influences that seem to oppose efforts to perpetuate the healing ministry of Christ. As Fr. McCormick states, the matrix of good medicine is centered on the good of the individual. But too often, the patient has been considered an individual isolated from others. The rights of families, people who belong to the same insurance program, and the society funding much of healthcare must also be considered. Fr. McCormick points out that an obstacle to the healing mission arises because healthcare is often treated as a business instead of a service. If not-for-profit healthcare facilities come to exist for the well-being of the shareholders, as do for-profit healthcare facilities, then a perversion of values results. This should lead us to renounce for-profit healthcare and the behavior that some Catholic health organizations have borrowed from the for-profit sector. In addition, Fr. McCormick calls attention to our society's denial of death and tendency to call on medicine to cure personal, social, or economic problems. This denial-of-death phenomenon helps us realize the need for the mission of Catholic hospitals. Continuing the mission of Catholic hospitals will require the attention of all involved in them-physicians, trustees, nurses, administrators, and ancillary personnel. These healthcare providers must not be distracted from the mission by joint ventures and economic issues. PMID:10144226

  4. n-Nucleotide circular codes in graph theory.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Michel, Christian J; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-03-13

    The circular code theory proposes that genes are constituted of two trinucleotide codes: the classical genetic code with 61 trinucleotides for coding the 20 amino acids (except the three stop codons {TAA,TAG,TGA}) and a circular code based on 20 trinucleotides for retrieving, maintaining and synchronizing the reading frame. It relies on two main results: the identification of a maximal C(3) self-complementary trinucleotide circular code X in genes of bacteria, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses (Michel 2015 J. Theor. Biol. 380, 156-177. (doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2015.04.009); Arquès & Michel 1996 J. Theor. Biol. 182, 45-58. (doi:10.1006/jtbi.1996.0142)) and the finding of X circular code motifs in tRNAs and rRNAs, in particular in the ribosome decoding centre (Michel 2012 Comput. Biol. Chem. 37, 24-37. (doi:10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2011.10.002); El Soufi & Michel 2014 Comput. Biol. Chem. 52, 9-17. (doi:10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2014.08.001)). The univerally conserved nucleotides A1492 and A1493 and the conserved nucleotide G530 are included in X circular code motifs. Recently, dinucleotide circular codes were also investigated (Michel & Pirillo 2013 ISRN Biomath. 2013, 538631. (doi:10.1155/2013/538631); Fimmel et al. 2015 J. Theor. Biol. 386, 159-165. (doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2015.08.034)). As the genetic motifs of different lengths are ubiquitous in genes and genomes, we introduce a new approach based on graph theory to study in full generality n-nucleotide circular codes X, i.e. of length 2 (dinucleotide), 3 (trinucleotide), 4 (tetranucleotide), etc. Indeed, we prove that an n-nucleotide code X is circular if and only if the corresponding graph [Formula: see text] is acyclic. Moreover, the maximal length of a path in [Formula: see text] corresponds to the window of nucleotides in a sequence for detecting the correct reading frame. Finally, the graph theory of tournaments is applied to the study of dinucleotide circular codes. It has full equivalence between the combinatorics

  5. 14 CFR 151.72 - Incorporation by reference of technical guidelines in Advisory Circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151... any Advisory Circular or part thereof. (c) Availability of Advisory Circulars. The Advisory Circulars....C. 20553. Copies of the Circulars that are for sale may be bought from the Superintendent...

  6. 12 CFR 563b.305 - When may I distribute the offering circular?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When may I distribute the offering circular... CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Offering Circular § 563b.305 When may I distribute the offering circular? (a) You may distribute a preliminary offering circular at the same time as...

  7. 12 CFR 563b.305 - When may I distribute the offering circular?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When may I distribute the offering circular... CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Offering Circular § 563b.305 When may I distribute the offering circular? (a) You may distribute a preliminary offering circular at the same time as...

  8. Creating a Community Coalition to Prevent Childhood Obesity in Yakima County, Washington: Rev It Up! 2008

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jessica; Bindler, Ruth C.; Miller, Kris

    2012-01-01

    Background One-third of the US population is obese, and childhood obesity has tripled since the late 1970s. Childhood obesity is a significant health issue requiring interventions on individual, interpersonal, community, organizational, and policy levels. Community coalitions offer successful strategies for engaging community partners with health improvement goals. Community Context In 2008, Yakima County, an agricultural community in eastern Washington, was ranked the eighth fattest city in the United States. Recognizing the obesity problem, the Yakima Health District (YHD) established 2 objectives: to decrease rates of childhood obesity in Yakima County and to recruit and establish a community coalition of key stakeholders and experts to help address the problem. Methods The YHD spearheaded a movement to create a community coalition. The coalition applied for and received state and federal grants. In September 2008, the YHD held the first recruitment event for Rev It Up!, its community-based effort to address the obesity problem in Yakima. YHD invited the Washington State Department of Health to advise the coalition-building and action-planning process. Outcome The community coalition achieved 5 of 7 objectives, including developing a common vision, creating an advisory committee, and conducting a community inventory, prioritization process, and action plan. However, unexpected public health challenges in the YHD delayed coalition efforts. Interpretation Creating the Rev It Up! coalition met a community need and engaged community partners. Some potential partners were dissuaded by the 6-month period required to establish the coalition. Rev It Up! continues as a community effort to reduce rates of obesity in Yakima County. PMID:22765932

  9. Remote Sensing of Life using Circular Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagdimunov, L.; Kolokolova, L.; Sparks, W. B.

    2012-12-01

    An emerging interest in circular polarization (CP) has developed over the last fifteen years in astronomy, stimulated by the discovery of high CP in the Orion nebula, and its possible connection to prebiotic chemistry. Traditionally, CP was thought to be rarely present in astronomy, and has been technically difficult to measure. Nevertheless, CP has now been reliably measured in planets, interstellar dust, molecular clouds, stars, protoplanetary disks, and comets. Several effects can produce CP in such objects: multiple scattering in asymmetric media, scattering by aligned particles, and scattering by intrinsically asymmetric particles; the later effect is of particular interest to this study. One of the most widespread and intriguing intrinsic asymmetries is homochirality, which is the dominance of one handedness of chiral organic molecules that exist in two mirror-symmetric forms. Homochirality is a property shared by all terrestrial life, and the presence of this microscopic asymmetry has the potential to have macroscopic consequences by introducing CP in scattered light. Recently this effect has been studied in the lab by Sparks et al [2009, PNAS, 7816], who found that light scattered by photosynthesizing organisms (such as macroscopic vegetation or microscopic bacteria), has a significant degree of CP with a peculiar and possibly unique spectral pattern. Non-homochiral aggregates do not display any detectable CP. To further investigate CP induced by homochirality, we modeled light scattering by biological objects, representing them as aggregates of spheres since aggregated structure is typical for many biological objects, e.g. chlorophyll in leaves and colonies of bacteria. Our computations were based on the T-matrix code recently updated to treat chiral materials [Mackowski et al, 2011, JQSRT 112, 1726]. Results of our computations replicated the lab measurements. They showed that inside the absorption band, CP experienced a dramatic change in slope, which

  10. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Acting Assistant Secretary for Aging and ACL Administrator Edwin Walker at the HCBS Conference (08/29/ ... Remarks by Assistant Secretary on Aging and ACL Administrator Kathy Greenlee at the n4a Answers on Aging ...

  11. The New Administrative Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    1988-01-01

    The past decade has seen dramatic changes in administrative computing, including more systems, more applications, a new group of computer users, and new opportunities for computer use in campus administration. (Author/MSE)

  12. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration When I fly can I bring my... ... to know if you could bring through the security checkpoint. Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special ...

  13. Circularly Polarized Light as a Communication Signal in Mantis Shrimps.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Templin, Rachel Marie; How, Martin John; Marshall, N Justin

    2015-12-01

    Animals that communicate using conspicuous body patterns face a trade-off between desired detection by intended receivers and undesired detection from eavesdropping predators, prey, rivals, or parasites. In some cases, this trade-off favors the evolution of signals that are both hidden from predators and visible to conspecifics. Animals may produce covert signals using a property of light that is invisible to those that they wish to evade, allowing them to hide in plain sight (e.g., dragonfish can see their own, otherwise rare, red bioluminescence). The use of the polarization of light is a good example of a potentially covert communication channel, as very few vertebrates are known to use polarization for object-based vision. However, even these patterns are vulnerable to eavesdroppers, as sensitivity to the linearly polarized component of light is widespread among invertebrates due to their intrinsically polarization sensitive photoreceptors. Stomatopod crustaceans appear to have gone one step further in this arms race and have evolved a sensitivity to the circular polarization of light, along with body patterns producing it. However, to date we have no direct evidence that any of these marine crustaceans use this modality to communicate with conspecifics. We therefore investigated circular polarization vision of the mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus and demonstrate that (1) the species produces strongly circularly polarized body patterns, (2) they discriminate the circular polarization of light, and (3) that they use circular polarization information to avoid occupied burrows when seeking a refuge. PMID:26585281

  14. Plasmonic magnetization during circularly polarized excitation (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Matthew T.

    2015-09-01

    In contrast with linearly polarized excitation, which necessarily has zero magnitude electrical field twice during an optical cycle, the electrical field vector of circularly polarized light has constant magnitude. During an optical cycle the electric field vector rotates in the plane normal to the wave propagation. Consequently, if plasmonic structures are resonant with circularly polarized excitation, it is possible for them to exhibit regions of strongly modified carrier density for the duration of the optical cycle. Here, we study a class of achiral toroid and `sun burst' nano-patterned plasmonic surfaces that show persistent, circulating charge density waves during circularly polarized illumination. The direction of the continuously circulating wave (clockwise or counterclockwise) depends on the handedness of the incident beam. Our interest stems from whether these charge density waves can support circular electric currents (DC) manifest experimentally as static magnetic fields during illumination. Using full-wave optical modeling (FDTD method), and mechanistic calculations of the circulating potential acting on electrons in the toroid resonators, we outline the conditions that maximize optical excitation of both circulating displacement currents and electron transport currents. We show that in the limit of very weak coupling to the solenoid-like electron transport, or when < 1 x 10^-6% of the plasmonically active electron population enters the circular transport modes, relatively strong magnetic fields, > 1 G, can be expected. We discuss scanning probe measurements for monitoring the induced magnetic field, as well as the relationship between this phenomenon and the inverse Faraday effect observed in continuous media.

  15. Motion Response of 2 DOF Circular Cylinder in Bundle Arrangment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hans, Hendik; Nguyen, Vinh Tan

    2014-11-01

    This study focuses on the motion response of a freely vibrating in streamwise and crossflow circular cylinder in the wake of two leading stationary circular cylinders. Studies on the effects of spatial positioning of the trailing circular cylinder to its amplitude and frequency response are conducted. In order to explain the effects of mass ratio and phase angle on the motion response of the structure, analytical model based on tandem cylinder arrangement are presented. For almost all reduced velocities, the results indicated larger crossflow amplitude of oscillation as the trailing cylinder is aligned to the centerline of one of the leading circular cylinder. Two dominant response frequencies are found on the trailing circular cylinder. Switching between the two response frequencies as the dominant response frequency is found to be strongly related to the natural frequency of the system. Additionally, the mass ratio played a significant role in determining the intermittent domination of the Vortex-Induced Vibrating (VIV) frequency of the structure. For low mass ratio, larger mass ratio is found to increase its amplitude of oscillation.

  16. Lunar Maria and circular basins-a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart-Alexander, D. E.; Howard, K.A.

    1970-01-01

    Lunar Orbiter data make it possible to examine the distribution and relations of maria and large circular basins over the entire Moon. The restricted distribution and age of the maria are in marked contrast to the apparently random distribution in time and place of the circular basins, some of which contain mare fillings. The circular basins are believed to be impact scars, and the maria to be volcanic fills which in each case are younger than the structures they fill. Twenty-nine circular basins 300 km wide or wider are recognized. They are placed in an age sequence because successive stages of degradation can be recognized from the fresh Orientale basin to the almost obliterated basin containing Mare Australe. The maria were emplaced during a short span of lunar history, although some light plains of the highlands may be older maria lightened through age. The present maria are topographically low, tend to be associated with large circular basins, and lie in a crude global belt of regional concentrations; 94% are on the hemisphere facing the Earth. Possible explanations offered for these patterns of mare distribution include impact-induced volcanism, volcanic extrusion to a hydrostatic level, isostatic compensation, lateral heterogeneity in the lunar interior, subcrustal convection, and volcanism due to disruption by Earth's gravity. ?? 1970.

  17. Method for measuring optical fiber core no-circularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shao-rong; Zhang, Xian-ling; Mao, Xiao-li

    2007-12-01

    Tops of optical fiber are polished to be detectable, the tops come into plane, which are perpendicular to fiber axis. A cirque pattern is formed on the out top of fiber by skew rays in the fiber. The pattern is shot with a digital camera. A bitmap format cirque pattern is obtained. The inside and outside boundaries are taken out with digital image processing method. Three different pels on the boundaries are picked out to define a circle at every space. The maximum and the minimum diameter are picked out from many circles acquired to calculate the fiber core no-circularity in according to definition. A quartz fiber core no-circularity was measured, with numerical aperture 0.22, and diameter 100 micron. When the optical fiber was placed straight, periphery of the pattern on the out top appear regular denotation, the core no-circularity is less than 4.0%. But the fiber is made into a spiral cord in diameter 20cm, the periphery of the pattern is smooth, measured the no-circularity is about 1.7%, the result is identical to which obtained by microscope measurement. The result indicates that no-circularity measured is almost independent of wavelength of laser with modes being disturbed.

  18. On electrostatically actuated NEMS/MEMS circular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruntu, Dumitru I.; Alvarado, Iris

    2011-04-01

    This paper deals with electrostatically actuated micro and nano-electromechanical (MEMS/NEMS) circular plates. The system under investigation consists of two bodies, a deformable and conductive circular plate placed above a fixed, rigid and conductive ground plate. The deformable circular plate is electrostatically actuated by applying an AC voltage between the two plates. Nonlinear parametric resonance and pull-in occur at certain frequencies and relatively large AC voltage, respectively. Such phenomena are useful for applications such as sensors, actuators, switches, micro-pumps, micro-tweezers, chemical and mass sensing, and micro-mirrors. A mathematical model of clamped circular MEMS/NEMS electrostatically actuated plates has been developed. Since the model is in the micro- and nano-scale, surface forces, van der Waals and/or Casimir, acting on the plate are included. A perturbation method, the Method of Multiple Scales (MMS), is used for investigating the case of weakly nonlinear MEMS/NEMS circular plates. Two time scales, fast and slow, are considered in this work. The amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency response of the plate in the case of primary resonance are obtained and discussed.

  19. Chirped microlens arrays for diode laser circularization and beam expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Peter; Dannberg, Peter; Hoefer, Bernd; Beckert, Erik

    2005-08-01

    Single-mode diode lasers are well-established light sources for a huge number of applications but suffer from astigmatism, beam ellipticity and large manufacturing tolerances of beam parameters. To compensate for these shortcomings, various approaches like anamorphic prism pairs and cylindrical telescopes for circularization as well as variable beam expanders based on zoomed telescopes for precise adjustment of output beam parameters have been employed in the past. The presented new approach for both beam circularization and expansion is based on the use of microlens arrays with chirped focal length: Selection of lenslets of crossed cylindrical microlens arrays as part of an anamorphic telescope enables circularization, astigmatism correction and divergence tolerance compensation of diode lasers simultaneously. Another promising application of chirped spherical lens array telescopes is stepwise variable beam expansion for circular laser beams of fiber or solid-state lasers. In this article we describe design and manufacturing of beam shaping systems with chirped microlens arrays fabricated by polymer-on-glass replication of reflow lenses. A miniaturized diode laser module with beam circularization and astigmatism correction assembled on a structured ceramics motherboard and a modulated RGB laser-source for photofinishing applications equipped with both cylindrical and spherical chirped lens arrays demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system design approach.

  20. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  1. A Philosophy of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Justification is given for paying relatively large salaries to college administrators, specifically the president or chancellor and the chief academic officer. Three administrative task areas are discussed as criteria: management, administration per se, and leadership. It is contended that only leadership can be used as a criterion for…

  2. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  3. Determinants of G quadruplex-induced epigenetic instability in REV1-deficient cells

    PubMed Central

    Schiavone, Davide; Guilbaud, Guillaume; Murat, Pierre; Papadopoulou, Charikleia; Sarkies, Peter; Prioleau, Marie-Noëlle; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Sale, Julian E

    2014-01-01

    REV1-deficient chicken DT40 cells are compromised in replicating G quadruplex (G4)-forming DNA. This results in localised, stochastic loss of parental chromatin marks and changes in gene expression. We previously proposed that this epigenetic instability arises from G4-induced replication fork stalls disrupting the accurate propagation of chromatin structure through replication. Here, we test this model by showing that a single G4 motif is responsible for the epigenetic instability of the BU-1 locus in REV1-deficient cells, despite its location 3.5 kb from the transcription start site (TSS). The effect of the G4 is dependent on it residing on the leading strand template, but is independent of its in vitro thermal stability. Moving the motif to more than 4 kb from the TSS stabilises expression of the gene. However, loss of histone modifications (H3K4me3 and H3K9/14ac) around the transcription start site correlates with the position of the G4 motif, expression being lost only when the promoter is affected. This supports the idea that processive replication is required to maintain the histone modification pattern and full transcription of this model locus. PMID:25190518

  4. Circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence and electroluminescence of iridium complexes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tian-Yi; Jing, Yi-Ming; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Lin; Tang, Zhiyong; Zheng, You-Xuan; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all the neutral iridium complexes widely used as dopants in PhOLEDs are racemic mixtures; however, this study observed that these complexes can be separated into stable optically active Λ and ∆ isomers and that their chirality is an intrinsic property. The circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence (CPPPL) signals of Λ/Δ isomers are perfect mirror images with opposite polarisation and equal intensity exhibiting a “handedness” for the polarisation. For the first time, we applied the Λ/Δ iridium isomers as emitters in OLEDs, and the circularly polarised phosphorescent electroluminescence (CPPEL) spectra reveal completely positive or negative broad peaks consistent with the CPPPL spectra. The results demonstrate that the Λ/Δ isomers have potential application for 3D OLEDs because they can exhibit high efficiency and luminance, and 3D display technology based on circularly polarised light is the most comfortable for the eyes. PMID:26446521

  5. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-02-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, paleomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures ("8" and "G") located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  6. Circular polarization of light scattered by asymmetrical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirado, D.; Hovenier, J. W.; Moreno, F.

    2007-07-01

    We present calculations of the degree of circular polarization of light singly scattered by some kinds of asymmetrical particles in random orientation as a function of the scattering angle, using the T-matrix method. To clarify the possible contribution of asymmetry of particles to circular polarization we considered aggregates of optically inactive homogeneous identical spheres. We analysed the effect of changing the size of the monomers and the refractive index. We also performed calculations for two different geometries. The values of the computed degree of circular polarization are generally in the range of the observed ones for light scattered by dust particles in comets P/Halley, C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/1999 S4 (LINEAR), in the interplanetary medium and in the interstellar medium of our galaxy.

  7. Synthetic-Aperture Coherent Imaging From A Circular Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Michael Y.

    1995-01-01

    Imaging algorithms based on exact point-target responses. Developed for use in reconstructing image of target from data gathered by radar, sonar, or other transmitting/receiving coherent-signal sensory apparatus following circular observation path around target. Potential applications include: Wide-beam synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) from aboard spacecraft in circular orbit around target planet; SAR from aboard airplane flying circular course at constant elevation around central ground point, toward which spotlight radar beam pointed; Ultrasonic reflection tomography in medical setting, using one transducer moving in circle around patient or else multiple transducers at fixed positions on circle around patient; and Sonar imaging of sea floor to high resolution, without need for large sensory apparatus.

  8. Shear transmission mechanical model of circular plate MR clutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Huang, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Liu, J. N.

    2003-09-01

    The operational principle of a circular plate magnetorheological (MR) clutch is introduced. The Bingham model is used to describe the constitutive characteristics of the MR fluids between two circular plates subject to an applied magnetic field. Associated with geometric shape and applied magnetic field onto the clutch, the mathematical model to transmit the torque is established. The expressions of the torque and the output speed are derived to provide the theoretical foundation for the analysis of the clutch. The numerical results indicate that the MR clutch transmits the torque by the shear stress of the fluid. The torque and the output speed can be controlled continuously by changing the strength of the applied magnetic field. With the increase of the gap between two circular plates, the torque decreases.

  9. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-05-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, palaeomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures (`8' and `G') located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  10. Circular paraboloid reflection cell for laser spectroscopic trace gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Markus; Tuzson, Béla; Hundt, Morten; Jágerská, Jana; Looser, Herbert; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2016-05-01

    Absorption cells with circular geometry are a class of multipass reflection cells consisting of a single, circular mirror. They can be particularly favorable for trace gas measurements because of their mechanical robustness, simplicity, and their optical versatility. In this article, we present detailed theoretical considerations and ray tracing simulations for the optimization of the optical design of circular multipass reflection cells. A parabolic mirror shape in a confocal arrangement is found to be most suitable for long optical paths in a small volume. We experimentally demonstrate more than 12 m optical path in a 14.5 cm diameter gas cell and NO2 concentration measurements in ambient air with a measurement precision better than 0.1 ppb. PMID:27140888

  11. Circular cylinder wakes and vortex-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearman, P. W.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a selective review of recent research on vortex-induced vibrations of isolated circular cylinders and the flow and vibration of circular cylinders in a tandem arrangement; a common thread being that the topics raised are of particular interest to the author. The influence of Reynolds number on the response of isolated cylinders is presented and recent developments using forced vibration are discussed. The response of a cylinder free to respond in the in-line and transverse directions is contrasted with that of a cylinder responding in only one direction. The interference between two circular cylinders is discussed and prominence given to the case of cylinders in a tandem arrangement. The origin of the time-mean lift force on the downstream cylinder is considered together with the cause of the large amplitude transverse vibration experienced by the cylinder above vortex resonance. This wake-induced vibration is shown to be a form of vortex-induced vibration.

  12. Frequency-reconfigurable water antenna of circular polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Meng; Shen, Zhongxiang; Pan, Jin

    2016-01-01

    A circularly polarized frequency-reconfigurable water antenna with high radiation efficiency is proposed based on the design concept of combining a frequency-reconfigurable radiating structure with a frequency-independent feeding structure. In this letter, a resonator made of distilled water and an Archimedean spiral slot are employed as the radiating and feeding structures, respectively. The operating frequency of the antenna can be continuously tuned over a very wide range while maintaining good impendence matching and circular polarization by changing the dimensions of the water resonator. A prototype antenna is designed, fabricated, and measured. Simulated and measured results demonstrate that the designed antenna exhibits a wide tuning frequency range from 155 MHz to 400 MHz with an average radiation efficiency of about 90% and good circular polarization.

  13. Circularly polarized unidirectional emission via a coupled plasmonic spiral antenna.

    PubMed

    Rui, Guanghao; Nelson, Robert L; Zhan, Qiwen

    2011-12-01

    In this Letter, we study the emission properties of an electric dipole emitter coupled to a plasmonic spiral structure. The plasmonic spiral structure functions as an optical antenna, coupling the electric dipole emission into circularly polarized unidirectional emission in the far field. Increasing number of turns of the spiral leads to narrower angular width of the emission pattern in the far field. For a spiral antenna with six turns, antenna directivity of 23.5 dB with a directional emission into a narrow angular cone of 4.3° can be achieved. The emitted photons carry spin that is essentially determined by the handedness of the spiral antenna. By reversing the spiral, one can switch the polarization of the emission field between left-hand and right-hand circular polarizations. The spiral antenna may be used as a nanoscale circular polarization source in single molecule sensing, single-photo sources, and integrated photonic circuits. PMID:22139233

  14. Chiral plasmonic DNA nanostructures with switchable circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Robert; Luong, Ngoc; Fan, Zhiyuan; Kuzyk, Anton; Nickels, Philipp C.; Zhang, Tao; Smith, David M.; Yurke, Bernard; Kuang, Wan; Govorov, Alexander O.; Liedl, Tim

    2013-12-01

    Circular dichroism spectra of naturally occurring molecules and also of synthetic chiral arrangements of plasmonic particles often exhibit characteristic bisignate shapes. Such spectra consist of peaks next to dips (or vice versa) and result from the superposition of signals originating from many individual chiral objects oriented randomly in solution. Here we show that by first aligning and then toggling the orientation of DNA-origami-scaffolded nanoparticle helices attached to a substrate, we are able to reversibly switch the optical response between two distinct circular dichroism spectra corresponding to either perpendicular or parallel helix orientation with respect to the light beam. The observed directional circular dichroism of our switchable plasmonic material is in good agreement with predictions based on dipole approximation theory. Such dynamic metamaterials introduce functionality into soft matter-based optical devices and may enable novel data storage schemes or signal modulators.

  15. Energy harvesting with piezoelectric circular membrane under pressure loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Changki; Davidson, Joseph; Clark, William W.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical model for predicting the energy generating performance of an energy harvesting device that uses a piezoelectric circular membrane subject to pressure fluctuation. PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) film is adopted for the membrane. In order to predict the power generating performance due to stretching and bending of the membrane, the total stress on the membrane, rather than the stress at the center point of the circular membrane, is determined using the energy method. Analytical results indicate that the theoretically predicted generated power of the device under normal blood pressure variation is close to experimental results available in the literature. This comprehensive model provides a useful design tool during parameter optimization for energy harvesters that use piezoelectric circular membranes for a pressure fluctuating system.

  16. Bending and buckling behavior analysis of foamed metal circular plate.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian Ling; Ma, Lian Sheng; Zhang, Lu; De Su, Hou

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes a density gradient model along the thickness direction of a circular plate made of foamed material. Based on the first shear deformation plate theory, the result is deduced that the foamed metal circular plate with graded density along thickness direction yields axisymmetric bending problem under the action of uniformly distributed load, and the analytical solution is obtained by solving the governing equation directly. The analyses on two constraint conditions of edge radial clamping and simply supported show that the density gradient index and external load may affect the axisymmetric bending behavior of the plate. Then, based on the classical plate theory, the paper analyzes the behavior of axisymmetric buckling under radial pressure applied on the circular plate. Shooting method is used to obtain the critical load, and the effects of gradient nature of material properties and boundary conditions on the critical load of the plate are analyzed. PMID:27339281

  17. Development of a real-time quantitative RT-PCR to detect REV contamination in live vaccine.

    PubMed

    Luan, Huaibiao; Wang, Yixin; Li, Yang; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Based on the published Avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) whole genome sequence, primers and TaqMan probes were designed and synthesized, and the TaqMan probe fluorescence real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) method for detecting the REV pol gene was established by optimizing the reaction conditions. Sensitivity analysis showed that the qRT-PCR method had a sensitivity that was 1,000-fold higher than conventional PCR. Additionally, no amplification signals were obtained when we attempted to detect DNA or cDNA of ALV-A/B/J, MDV, CIAV, IBDV, ARV, NDV, AIV, or other viruses, suggesting a high specificity for our method. Various titers of REV were artificially "spiked" into the FPV and MDV vaccines to simulate REV contamination in attenuated vaccines to validate this qRT-PCR method. Our findings indicated that this qRT-PCR method could detect REV contamination at a dose of 1 TCID50/1,000 feathers, which was 10,000-fold more sensitive than the regular RT-PCR detection (10(4) TCID50/1000 feathers). PMID:27122388

  18. CSA: An efficient algorithm to improve circular DNA multiple alignment

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Francisco; Pereira, Luísa; Freitas, Ana T

    2009-01-01

    Background The comparison of homologous sequences from different species is an essential approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of species and of the genes they harbour in their genomes. Several complete mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are now available, increasing the importance of using multiple sequence alignment algorithms in comparative genomics. MtDNA has long been used in phylogenetic analysis and errors in the alignments can lead to errors in the interpretation of evolutionary information. Although a large number of multiple sequence alignment algorithms have been proposed to date, they all deal with linear DNA and cannot handle directly circular DNA. Researchers interested in aligning circular DNA sequences must first rotate them to the "right" place using an essentially manual process, before they can use multiple sequence alignment tools. Results In this paper we propose an efficient algorithm that identifies the most interesting region to cut circular genomes in order to improve phylogenetic analysis when using standard multiple sequence alignment algorithms. This algorithm identifies the largest chain of non-repeated longest subsequences common to a set of circular mitochondrial DNA sequences. All the sequences are then rotated and made linear for multiple alignment purposes. To evaluate the effectiveness of this new tool, three different sets of mitochondrial DNA sequences were considered. Other tests considering randomly rotated sequences were also performed. The software package Arlequin was used to evaluate the standard genetic measures of the alignments obtained with and without the use of the CSA algorithm with two well known multiple alignment algorithms, the CLUSTALW and the MAVID tools, and also the visualization tool SinicView. Conclusion The results show that a circularization and rotation pre-processing step significantly improves the efficiency of public available multiple sequence alignment algorithms when used in the

  19. Marginally stable circular orbits in stationary axisymmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti, Shabnam; Gasperín, Edgar

    2016-07-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of marginally stable circular orbits (MSCOs) of test particles in a stationary axisymmetric (SAS) spacetime which possesses a reflection symmetry with respect to the equatorial plane; photon orbits and marginally bound orbits (MBOs) are also addressed. Energy and angular momentum are shown to decouple from metric quantities, rendering a purely geometric characterization of circular orbits for this general class of metrics. The subsequent system is analyzed using resultants, providing an algorithmic approach for finding MSCO conditions. MSCOs, photon orbits and MBOs are explicitly calculated for concrete examples of physical interest.

  20. An invisible medium for circularly polarized electromagnetic waves.

    PubMed

    Tamayama, Y; Nakanishi, T; Sugiyama, K; Kitano, M

    2008-12-01

    We study the no reflection condition for a planar boundary between vacuum and an isotropic chiral medium. In general chiral media, elliptically polarized waves incident at a particular angle satisfy the no reflection condition. When the wave impedance and wavenumber of the chiral medium are equal to the corresponding parameters of vacuum, one of the circularly polarized waves is transmitted to the medium without reflection or refraction for all angles of incidence. We propose a circular polarizing beam splitter as a simple application of the no reflection effect. PMID:19065225