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|This study explored the relations between parental problem drinking, adolescent-parent communication, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Surveys were administered to a diverse sample of 683 15-17-years-old adolescents in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Results indicated that paternal problem drinking directly predicted…
This 6-year longitudinal study extended earlier findings of contextual influences on adolescentadjustmentproblems by examining relationships between adolescent emotional and behavioral problems and late adolescent personality among more than 400 youths who were followed from 7th grade to the last year of high school. Results suggest that psychological distress and behavioral problems experienced during the adolescent years (7th–10th grades)
Background:? Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method:? Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 (SD?=?0.6)?years later in young adulthood (mean age?=?20.0, SD?=?1.4) on mental health and adjustment outcomes. Associations between these outcomes and detained females' behavior problems and offense history were examined. Results:? In the total sample, 59.0% had one or more mental health problems at follow-up, whereas 96.2% were facing at least one adjustmentproblem. Subjects with a personality disorder (PD) reported more adjustmentproblems compared to subjects without PD. Mental health and adjustmentproblems in young adulthood were predicted by detained adolescent females' behavior problems and offense history. Conclusion:? Detained adolescent females suffered from multiple mental health and adjustmentproblems in young adulthood. Females who developed PD were most impaired. Results of this study underline the compelling need for continued and gender-specific interventions. The identification of predictors during detention for poor adult outcomes can serve as targets for intervention. PMID:23343212
van der Molen, E; Vermeiren, R R J M; Krabbendam, A A; Beekman, A T F; Doreleijers, T A H; Jansen, L M C
The prediction of young-adult adjustment from early adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms was examined for an at-risk sample of approximately 200 males. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms were expected to show stability to young adulthood. It was predicted that early adolescent conduct problems would be associated with a broad range of adjustmentproblems in young adulthood due to cumulative adjustment failures. Early adolescent depressive symptoms were expected particularly to predict poor relationships with parents and peers. Additive and interactive effects of the two predictors were examined. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms showed significant stability to young adulthood. Conduct problems were associated with a broad range of adjustmentproblems including continuing problems in peer associations, substance use, self-esteem, relationships with parents, and new problems in noncompletion of education, unemployment, driver's license suspensions, and causing pregnancies. Depressive symptoms predicted particularly to problems in social relationships. Higher levels of both conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early adolescence did not predict to increased difficulties for any one outcome over either problem alone, either due to main or interaction effects. Such co-occurrence, however, did result in problem outcomes in multiple areas, thus, the poorest adjustment overall. PMID:10208356
The present study investigated patterns in the development of conduct problems (CP), depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence, and relations to adjustmentproblems, over the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Rates of depressive symptoms and CP during this developmental period vary by gender; yet, few studies involving non-clinical samples have examined co-occurring problems and adjustment outcomes across boys and
Erin M. Ingoldsby; Gwynne O. Kohl; Robert J. McMahon; Liliana Lengua
|The present study investigated patterns in the development of conduct problems (CP), depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence, and relations to adjustmentproblems, over the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Rates of depressive symptoms and CP during this developmental period vary by gender; yet, few studies involving…
Ingoldsby, Erin M.; Kohl, Gwynne O.; McMahon, Robert J.; Lengua, Liliana
We have investigated the hypothesis that stress condition will accelerate pubertal maturation in adolescent girls and that faster maturing girls will display more behavioral problems than their on-time or late-maturing peers during pubertal development. Longitudinal data were collected yearly from 1986 to 1997. Parents of 1039 French-speaking Canadian girls completed a questionnaire about their characteristics as well as those of their family. To predict onset of puberty by time and cumulative risk factors, a Hierarchical Regression Analysis and a Survival Regression Analysis were conducted. Results revealed that: (1) anxiety at 8 years old, lower level of anxiety a year earlier and more adverse family condition predict a younger age at first menses; and (2) Body Mass Index, conflicts, and sleep disturbances significantly predict the onset of puberty. Complementary standard regression analyses demonstrated that situational stress mediated the effect of these variables. We concluded that precocious puberty could be an indicator of stress in a child, thus, allowing professionals to intervene early and to prevent later problems in psychosocial adjustment. PMID:16049645
|The purpose of this article is to identify profiles of maltreatment experiences in a sample of high-risk adolescents and to investigate the relationship between the derived profiles and psychological adjustment. Participants are 1,131 youth between the ages of 12 and 18 years involved with publicly funded mental health and social services.…
Hazen, Andrea L.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Roesch, Scott C.; Hough, Richard L.; Landsverk, John A.
Aggression is associated with a host of behavioral, social, and emotional adjustment difficulties. However, some aggressive youth are perceived as “popular” by peers. Although these perceived popular aggressive youth appear relatively well adjusted, especially in the social domain, the emotional well-being of these youth is understudied. The current findings indicate that perceived popularity buffers adolescents who hurt others through relational aggression from internalizing symptoms. In contrast, perceived popularity did not buffer adolescents who engaged in overt verbal and physical aggression from internalizing symptoms. The results suggest that relationally aggressive perceived popular adolescents may be especially resistant to intervention if their aggression helps them manipulate their social worlds but does not contribute to internalizing symptoms.
Considered (1) the relation between peer socioeconomic status and specific negative outcomes; (2) the possibility that sociometric status serves as a marker variable for negative outcomes; (3) the possibility that rejected children experience more types of problems during adolescence than other children; and (4) which of six predictor variables…
|We have investigated the hypothesis that stress condition will accelerate pubertal maturation in adolescent girls and that faster maturing girls will display more behavioral problems than their on-time or late-maturing peers during pubertal development. Longitudinal data were collected yearly from 1986 to 1997. Parents of 1039 French-speaking…
We have investigated the hypothesis that stress condition will accelerate pubertal maturation in adolescent girls and that faster maturing girls will display more behavioral problems than their on-time or late-maturing peers during pubertal development. Longitudinal data were collected yearly from 1986 to 1997. Parents of 1039 French-speaking Canadian girls completed a questionnaire about their characteristics as well as those of
Examined the relations between adolescent boys' social goals of dominance, revenge, avoidance, and affiliation and (1) self-reported negative adolescent outcomes; (2) subjective sense of self-esteem; and (3) externalizing, internalizing, and prosocial behaviors, as rated by peers and teachers. Results indicated that social goal values were related to diverse aspects of self-, teacher-, and peer-reported social and behavioral functioning, with a consistent association found between a range of delinquent, substance-using, and behavioral difficulties, and endorsement of high goal values for dominance and revenge and low goal values for affiliation. Results also indicated that teacher-identified aggressive boys differed from nonaggressive boys in the value they placed on social goals, with aggressive boys placing a higher value on goals of dominance and revenge, and lower value on goals for affiliation. Finally social goal choice had a clear relation to the social problem-solving differences of aggressive and nonaggressive boys. PMID:8491928
|Aggression is associated with a host of behavioral, social, and emotional adjustment difficulties. However, some aggressive youth are perceived as "popular" by peers. Although these perceived popular aggressive youth appear relatively well adjusted, especially in the social domain, the emotional well-being of these youth is understudied. The…
Caucasian stepchildren (aged 10-18) in the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development (NEAD) project rated noncustodial (NC) parents' socioemotional involvement. Stepfamilies had been together at least 5 years. Adolescents with NC mothers (n = 56) reported more phone calls, mail, overnight visits, and social support than adolescents with NC fathers (n = 143). The association between perceived social support and adolescentadjustment was compared for NC mothers versus NC fathers by using structural equation modeling; the association was stronger for NC mothers. No effects for sex of child or interactions of sex of child/sex of NC parent were obtained. NC fathers might increase their influence in adolescents' lives by behaving more like NC mothers (more frequent phone calls, overnights, etc.). PMID:15598161
The prototype problem of hydrostatic adjustment for large-scale atmospheric motions is Presented. When a horizontally infinite layer of compressible fluid, initially at rest, is instantaneously heated, the fluid is no longer in hydrostatic balance since its temperature and pressure in the layer have increased while its density remains unchanged. The subsequent adjustment of the fluid is described in detail for an isothermal base-state atmosphere.The initial imbalance generates acoustic wave fronts with trailing wakes of dispersive acoustic gravity waves. There are two characteristic timescales of the adjustment. The first is the transit time it takes an acoustic front to travel from the source region to a particular location. The second timescale, the acoustic cutoff frequency, is associated with the trailing wake. The characteristic depth scale of the adjustment is the density scale height. If the depth of the heating is small compared with the scale height, the final pressure perturbation tends to zero and the pressure field adjusts to the initial density hold. For larger depths, there is a mutual adjustment of the pressure and density fields.Use of the one-dimensional analogue of the conservation of Ertel's potential vorticity removes hydrostatic degeneracy and determines the final equilibrium state directly. As a result of the adjustment process, the heated layer has expanded vertically. Since the region below the layer is unaltered, the region aloft is displaced upward uniformly. As a consequence of the expansion, the pressure and temperature anomalies in the layer are reduced from their initial values immediately after the heating. Aloft both the pressure and density fields are increased but there is no change in temperature. Since the base-state atmosphere is isothermal, warm advection is absent; since the vertical displacements of air parcels is uniform aloft, compressional warming is also absent.The energetics of the adjustment are documented. Initially all the perturbation energy resides in the heated layer with a fraction [ggr]1 = 71.4% stored as available potential energy, while the remainder is available elastic energy, A fraction = R/Cp = ([ggr] 1)/ = 28.6% of the initial energy is lost to propagating acoustic modes. Here [ggr] = Cp/Cv is the ratio of the specific heats and R is the ideal gas constant. The remainder of the energy is partitioned between the heated layer and the region aloft. The energy aloft appears mostly as elastic energy, and the energy in the layer appears mostly as available potential energy.
|This study analyzed the role of different but interrelated variables in the family and school contexts in relation to problems of violent behavior at school during adolescence. Participants were 1,068 students aged 11 to 16 (47% male) drawn from secondary schools in the Valencian Community (Spain). Statistical analyses were carried out using…
Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu; Lopez, Estefania Estevez; Emler, Nicholas P.
Examined adjustmentproblems from late childhood to early adulthood among 500 Swedish girls. Found a diversified pattern of multisyndrome formation in late childhood. The syndrome structure in early adolescence identified externalizing adjustmentproblems and peer problems. An externalizing syndrome was stable between late childhood and early…
Wangby, Margit; Bergman, Lars R.; Magnusson, David
|The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…
Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim
Recent research has indicated that Chinese adolescents face a variety of challenges and difficulties in socioemotional and school adjustment. It has been found that Chinese adolescents' social and behavioral problems, emotional disturbances, and academic difficulties are highly interrelated and contribute to each other during development. Protective and coping resources that are provided in the culture, including extensive family involvement, support
Xinyin Chen; Huichang Chen; Violet Kaspar; Samuel Noh
A thesis condensation focusing on adolescence, adolescent development and work-play concepts as a basis for assessing and programming the work-play behaviors of the adolescent soldier in the interest of work adjustment. The article also proposes certain goals for extending the services of occupational therapy to the adolescent soldier in the military community by examining the hospitalization versus the non-hospitalization approaches
Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; ?2?=?17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents.
Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny
|Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Furthermore, adolescentadjustmentproblems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescentadjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal…
Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex
Objective: Investigate the hypothesis that family competence in addressing challenges associated with sickle cell disease (SCD) contributes to adolescents' adjustment. Method: During routine clinic appointments, 80 adolescents (M age = 14.4 years) and their parents inde- pendently completed the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI), which assesses family competence, and mea- sures of adolescentadjustmentproblems. Information related to disease severity was
Randi S. Kell; Wendy Kliewer; Marilyn T. Erickson; Kwaku Ohene-Frempong
Researchers now recognize that affluent youth experience tremendous achievement pressures, yet contributing factors or outcomes are rarely explored. Using a sample of affluent adolescents, the present study investigates the mediating role of goal orientation (GO) on relations between school motivational climate (MC) and adolescentadjustment. Adolescents from four high schools completed measures of MC (i.e., Performance and Mastery), GO (i.e., Ego and Task), and adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, anxiety, and life satisfaction). Performance climates were associated with more adjustmentproblems while Mastery climates were associated with fewer adjustmentproblems. Adolescents with higher Ego orientation reported more depressive and anxiety symptoms, while adolescents with higher Task orientation indicated fewer depressive symptoms and greater life satisfaction. Adolescent Task orientation mediated the relations between Mastery climate and two adjustment outcomes (i.e., depressive symptoms and life satisfaction). Results suggest the importance of non-competitive achievement-oriented values and collaborative school contexts in adolescentadjustment. PMID:23351983
The family physician's attention is directed towards the problems of adolescents, which problems are the results of conduct disturbances and diseases. The latter are generally the result of drug abuse, delinquency, suicide, considered as major deviations; disturbances caused by sexual conflicts, family problems as well as problems encountered in their studies and their work. Possibilities of preventive and therapeutic care are briefly presented. Imagesp44-a
This study compared adolescent child molesters (n = 31) with nonsex offending delinquents (n = 34) and normal adolescents (n = 71) on standardized measures of social competence and psychological adjustment. The measures included the Adolescent Assertiveness Scale, the Survey of Heterosocial Interactions, the Self-Consciousness Scale, the Social Anxiety and Distress Scale, the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Norwicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale, and the Jesness Inventory. Results were consistent with predictions. Molesters showed significantly more global maladjustment than normals and were more socially anxious and threatened by heterosocial interactions than nonsex offending delinquents. A discriminant function analysis suggested that molesters, more than delinquents, were likely to perceive themselves as socially inadequate and to be externally oriented in their attributional style. Results support the hypothesis that social skill deficits and social isolation are risk factors that may predispose some adolescents to commit sexual crimes against children. PMID:2289186
The goal of this study was to examine whether adolescent-mother discrepancies in perceptions of the family predict later adolescent externalizing problems and/or whether adolescent externalizing problems predict later adolescent-mother discrepancies in perceptions of the family. In the spring of 2007 (Time 1) and 2008 (Time 2), surveys were administered to 125 15-18 year-old adolescent and their mothers. SEM results indicated that greater discrepancies in adolescent-mother perceptions of the family predicted higher levels of adolescent externalizing symptomatology (as reported by both adolescents and their mothers). In contrast, higher levels of externalizing symptomatology did not predict later discrepancies in adolescent-mother perceptions of the family. These findings suggest that research on adolescentadjustment should not solely rely on perceptions of the adolescent. In addition, the results highlight the importance of taking both directions of effect into consideration when examining the family and adolescentadjustment.
This study explored whether trait competitiveness in late adolescence is more detrimental to females’ than males’ social and\\u000a psychological adjustment. Two types of competitiveness were studied, competing to win (CW; to dominate others) and competing to excel (CE; to surpass personal goals). Questionnaire ratings (by self and others) of 110 (53 females, 57 males, Mage 17.9 years) predominantly Caucasian (88.9%) high
A study employing British adolescents as subjects was conducted to test two hypotheses: (1) In learning to adjust to sex-role prescriptions in adolescence, females are more likely than males to experience conflict over sex-role issues and problems in personal adjustment, with high academically achieving females hypothesized to be most likely to evidence such conflicts. (2) Individuals of both sexes who
Investigated the influence of racial and gender discrimination and difficulties on adolescentadjustment. Found that discrimination and hassles contribute to a general stress context which in turn influences emotional and behavioral problems in adjustment, while racial and gender identity positively affect self-esteem and thus adjustment. Revealed…
DuBois, David L.; Burk-Braxton, Carol; Swenson, Lance P.; Tevendale, Heather D.; Hardesty, Jennifer L.
Examined the impact of parental divorce during adolescence, interparental conflict, and intimacy with parents on young adult adjustment. High levels of interparental conflict were found to be negatively associated with adjustment and current intimacy of parents. (Author)
Relations among kinship support, family management, and adolescentadjustment were examined in 135 African American adolescents 14 to 19 years old. Kin social support was positively related to self-reliance and grades and negatively associated with problem behavior. Poor kin relations were associated with psychological distress. Kinship support was also positively linked to family organization and parental involvement in schooling, which
Background: “Crime” is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa – Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.
Despite the high prevalence rates of pathological gambling in adolescents, research on this disorder is still in its infancy.\\u000a Our understanding of neurodevelopmental changes that occur during adolescence, and their influence on adolescent behaviors,\\u000a is still at an early stage. Longitudinal studies involving neuro-imaging, genetics, and behavioral assessments should help\\u000a advance our understanding of adolescents, and with this understanding should
Recent research indicates that parental work stress has implications for the quality of family interaction and, in turn, children's and adolescents' adjustment. Studies in two distinct genres are reviewed: investigations relying on global reports of work demands, family dynamics, and child and adolescentadjustment and studies focusing on within-person comparisons of family interaction on days characterized by high and low
Communication between children and parents has been the subject of several studies, examining the effects of, for example, disclosure and secrecy on adolescents' social relationships and adjustment. Less attention has paid to adolescent deception. We developed and tested a new instrument on lying behavior in a sample of 671 parent-adolescent…
Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Finkenauer, Catrin; van Kooten, Dyana C.
Career preparation represents a major developmental task of adolescence, which has not received sufficient attention in empirical research on career development. Thus, this study was designed to examine the structure, continuity, and change in adolescent career preparation and its relationships with adjustment. The data were collected from a diverse sample of 389 adolescents on four occasions beginning in Grade 11
|Communication between children and parents has been the subject of several studies, examining the effects of, for example, disclosure and secrecy on adolescents' social relationships and adjustment. Less attention has paid to adolescent deception. We developed and tested a new instrument on lying behavior in a sample of 671 parent-adolescent…
Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Finkenauer, Catrin; van Kooten, Dyana C.
Children with vertically acquired HIV face the challenges of adolescence in addition to the demands of coping with their illness. The relationship between coping and psychological adjustment has been widely studied in adults and children with chronic diseases but it is poorly understood in adolescents with HIV.This study aimed to identify whether a UK sample of adolescents with vertically acquired
Sara Sopeña; Michael Evangeli; Jo Dodge; Diane Melvin
|This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the…
This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample\\u000a of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether\\u000a media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the relationship between parental\\u000a alcoholism and adolescent psychological
|The study with 70 children and adolescents with sickle cell disease did not support the hypothesis that illness severity (measured by frequency of hospitalization) would affect adjustment (measured by IQ, self-esteem, social and personal adjustment, behavioral problems, school performance, and peer relations). (Author/DB)|
|The present study investigated the adjustment of Indian adolescents living in Britain as well as the links between parents' and adolescents' acculturation styles and the adolescents' problem behaviours. The sample consisted of 68 young adolescents (31 Indian and 37 English) between the ages of 10 and 13, and their mothers and fathers. Mothers,…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between dysfunctional relationship beliefs of late adolescence and adjustment to university. The sample was consisted of 228 Turkish university students. Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale and Adjustment to University Scale were administered to individuals. Result indicated that dysfunctional relationship beliefs were associated with adjustment to university. The beliefs, including beliefs concerning
Examined the relations among single mothers' awareness of their adolescents' stressors, mother-adolescent communication, maternal monitoring, and adolescentadjustment. Findings suggest that when adolescent stress increases and family communication and monitoring change, monitoring by single mothers may increase awareness of adolescent stress and…
Psychopathic traits, and specifically callous-unemotional (CU) traits, are associated with a variety of adverse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. The majority of research in this area has focused on men and boys, though there is some evidence that psychopathy is expressed differently in girls and women. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to test if the relationships of callous-unemotional (CU) traits with adjustment differed between girls and boys at risk for antisocial behavior. The sample was composed of children whose biological father had past or current alcohol or drug problems. A total of 234 children (116 boys, 118 girls; ages 10-12) were rated by their parent or guardian on CU traits and overall adjustment. Boys were generally rated higher on measures of CU traits; however, these traits were more prominently related to adjustmentproblems among girls. These results suggest that expression of psychopathic traits may have more negative effects on adjustment for girls than boys. One possible mechanism by which CU traits could be impacting adjustment in girls is by impairing interpersonal relationships. PMID:22933184
Charles, Nora E; Acheson, Ashley; Mathias, Charles W; Michael Furr, R; Dougherty, Donald M
This study utilized cross-lagged longitudinal models to examine prospective, bidirectional relationships between witnessing\\u000a violence and victimization and three adjustment variables—delinquency, conduct problems, and school connectedness. Participants\\u000a included 603 early adolescent boys and girls (78% African American, 20% Caucasian). Witnessing violence was related to subsequent\\u000a lower levels of school connectedness and more conduct problems. For Caucasian but not African American adolescents,
The long-term consequences of early adolescents’ orientation toward peers for their adjustment during high school were assessed. Approximately 1,200 adolescents completed questionnaires in the 7th grade and in the 10th or 12th grades; course grades were also obtained from the students’ school records. Early adolescents who were willing to sacrifice their talents, school performance, and parents’ rules engaged in greater
Andrew J. Fuligni; Jacquelynne S. Eccles; Bonnie L. Barber; Peggy Clements
|Issues with adolescents with intellectual disabilities have received little attention in the research literature. This study compared adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities on several indices of psychosocial adjustment. The participants were selected from a large longitudinal database and comparisons were made at three points in…
|Reflective function (RF) is the capacity to reflect on one's own mental experiences and those of others. This study examined the relationship between parental RF and adolescentadjustment. One hundred and five adolescents, aged 14-18, and their mothers and fathers were interviewed and completed questionnaires during home visits. We measured…
|This study examined whether the widely reported positive relation between "authoritative" parenting and adolescentadjustment is moderated by the ecological context in which adolescents live. A socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of approximately 10,000 high school students provided information about their parents' behavior and their…
|Leisure provides the context for much of adolescent behaviour and development. While both theory and research point to the benefits of participation in leisure activities that are highly structured, the association between structured leisure and psychosocial adjustment is not uniformly high. This paper presents a model of adolescent leisure…
Issues with adolescents with intellectual disabilities have received little attention in the research literature. This study compared adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities on several indices of psychosocial adjustment. The participants were selected from a large longitudinal database and comparisons were made at three points in…
Various studies have reported adjustmentproblems experienced by gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) adolescents. A primary purpose of this paper is to critically review this literature. Difficulties that have been studied include past suicide attempts, substance use and abuse, conduct problems, and academic concerns. For example, a considerable number of GLB youth report a history of suicide attempts, with prevalence
Concurrent and longitudinal relations between the amount of romantic experience and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a 1-year study of a community based sample of 200 tenth graders. Adolescents, parents, and friends completed measures of psychosocial adjustment. The amount of romantic experience was associated with higher reports of social…
Examined associations between several late adolescent separation-individuation issues and psychological adjustment for 428 undergraduates. Findings reveal both quantitative and qualitative differences across the separation-individuation dimensions. Discusses the adjustment outcomes of various approaches to managing closeness and distance in…
A study examined the relationship between self-concept and coping strategies of 457 academically gifted adolescents (ages 10-16). Results found the adolescents used various strategies that assumed responsibility for dealing with stressors and took action-focused approaches rather than ignoring problems. They focused on the positive and on problem…
|Our study examined discrepancies in Mexican American adolescent-parent perceptions regarding parental autonomy promoting and their associations with adolescents' adjustment. A total of 138 Mexican American sixth graders reported their global self-worth and depressive symptoms. Adolescents and parents also reported their perceptions of parental…
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott
|The relationship among three personal fables ("omnipotence," "invulnerability," "personal uniqueness"), narcissism, and mental health variables was assessed in a large, cross-sectional sample of adolescents drawn from Grades 6 (n = 94), 8 (n = 223), 10 (n = 142), and 12 (n = 102). Participants responded to the New Personal Fable Scale, the…
Aalsma, Matthew C.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Flannery, Daniel J.
|As patterns of union formation and dissolution in adult lives become complex, the living arrangements of American children are becoming increasingly fluid. With a sample (N = 12,843) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study attempted to capture this complexity by mapping out children's family structure histories…
The present study examined the impact of parental divorce during adolescence, interparental conflict, and intimacy with parents on young adult adjustment. One hundred sixty-seven undergraduate students (146 females, 21 males) completed a questionnaire regarding their psychosocial adjustment, their present relationships with their parents, the level of interparental conflict experienced during adolescence, and the marital status of their parents during adolescence. High levels of interparental conflict were found to be negatively associated with adjustment and current intimacy with parents. A poor relationship with both parents was negatively associated with several domains of psychosocial adjustment, while high intimacy with at least one parent was positively associated with adjustment. Intimacy with mother and with father were found to be the most important predictors of psychosocial adjustment. This investigation highlights the importance of maintaining a good parent-young adult relationship, particularly in divorced families. The findings indicate that future research should examine multiple family variables when assessing the impact of parental divorce or conflict on young adult adjustment. PMID:11817629
Compared stress, coping, and psychological adjustment in single (divorced or separated) and married mothers and their young adolescent children. Single mothers reported more daily hassles related to economic, family, and personal health problems, and more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism. Single mothers also reported using more coping strategies related to accepting responsibility and positive reappraisal. After controlling for level
This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychological adjustment. Adolescents were surveyed in the spring of 2006, and again one year later. Gender differences in media use were observed with boys spending more time playing video games than girls and girls spending more time talking on the phone than boys. Strikingly, none of the types of media examined was associated with depression or anxiety. Moreover, media use acted as a protective factor for boys. Boys who spent relatively more time playing video games and watching television had the lowest levels of anxiety, especially those from alcoholic homes. The opposite pattern emerged for girls.
Concerns of young adolescents with interpersonal relatedness and self-definition assessed by the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire for Adolescents, were examined in relation to measures of maladjustment (internalizing and externalizing problems) and adaptive capacities (multiple dimensions of social competence and quality of relationships with parents and peers). Participants were four hundred ninety nine 6th and 7th grade students attending a large, ethnically
Gabriel P. Kuperminc; Sidney J. Blatt; Bonnie J. Leadbeater
The relationship between gender-role identity (traditional, androgynous, cross-gender, and undifferentiated) and psychological adjustment among adolescents was examined. Hypotheses were derived from theories of gender-role identity development. One hundred and three high school students completed a measure of gender-role identity (the Bem Sex-Role Inventory) and four measures of adjustment (three Offer Self-Image scales and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Findings indicate that
Children of adolescent mothers are at greater risk for the development of behavior problems than are children of adult mothers, even when factors related to social status are controlled. More research is needed, however, because most studies of adolescent...
|Addressed the effect of continued familial conflict on adolescents' (N=217) adjustment and self-concept. Results indicated that high conflict produces lower self-esteem, greater anxiety, and less feeling of control regardless of whether or not family dissolution occurred. (LLL)|
|Motivation, engagement, and achievement decline for many children during early adolescence. There is increasing attention to the role peer relationships play in changes in academic adjustment during this stage of life. The articles in this special issue advance knowledge on this topic. This introductory article provides an overview of the…
Adjustmentproblems and academic achievement among dental students at two universities, one located in Thailand's capital city (Mahidol University) and the other in southern Thailand (Prince of Songkla University), were studied. All first- to sixth-year students at each university completed the Mooney Problem Checklist Thai version, by Supapan, which covers eleven areas of adjustmentproblems. The most severe adjustmentproblems at both schools were related to adjustment to college work. Problems relating to health and physical development, social and recreational activities, and moral and religious adjustment of MU dental students were significantly higher than those of PSU dental students. The checklist showed that, in both universities, the most important adjustmentproblem was the need for advice from staff concerning clinical experience. Stepwise regression indicated that four variables--adjustment to college work, sex, secondary education system and university (MU or PSU)--were associated with the academic achievement of dental students. PMID:10841112
The report consists of a survey of sojourn research, including a recent study of Turkish students in the U.S. Adjustment of Americans in overseas areas is discussed, and policy-oriented recommendations are made with the aim of aiding better adjustment of ...
|This longitudinal study examines the relationships between perceived family functioning and adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that perceived family functioning was concurrently related to measures of adolescent psychological well-being (existential…
Purpose We use full-matching propensity score models to test whether developmentally specific measures of maltreatment, in particular childhood-limited maltreatment versus adolescent maltreatment, are causally related to involvement in crime, substance use, health-risking sex behaviors, and internalizing problems during early adulthood. Methods Our design includes 907 participants (72% male) in the Rochester Youth Development Study, a community sample followed from age 14 to age 31 with 14 assessments, including complete maltreatment histories from Child Protective Services records. Results After balancing the data sets, childhood-limited maltreatment is significantly related to drug use, problem drug use, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts. Maltreatment during adolescence has a significant effect on a broader range of outcomes: official arrest/incarceration, self-reported criminal offending, violent crime, alcohol use, problem alcohol use, drug use, problem drug use, risky sex behaviors, self-reported STD diagnosis, and suicidal thoughts. Conclusion The causal impact of childhood-limited maltreatment is focused on internalizing problems while adolescent maltreatment has a stronger and more pervasive impact on later adjustment. Increased vigilance by mandated reporters, especially for adolescent victims of maltreatment, along with provision of appropriate services may prevent a wide range of subsequent adjustmentproblems.
An important part of a science aimed at the prevention of human dysfunction involves the development of empirically based models that identify processes of risk for or protection from emotional distress or behavioral problems over time. The present study developed and evaluated such a model that proposed two pathways through which family economic pressure was expected to influence change in
Rand D. Conger; Katherine Jewsbury Conger; Lisa S. Matthews; Glen H. Elder
Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkäranta district in Russia and in eastern Finland, in order to develop
Ulla Kemppainen; Kerttu Tossavainen; Erkki Vartiainen; Pekka Puska; Veikko Jokela; Vladimir Pantelejev; Mihail Uhanov
|The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…
The present study examined the effects of different types of domestic violence (i.e., being a victim of parent-child violence and witnessing interparental violence) on adolescentadjustment. The sample included a large, racially\\/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of high school students. Findings revealed that this sample experienced and witnessed high levels of family violence. Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted with
Advancing the long-term prospective study of explanations for the effects of marital conflict on children's functioning, relations were examined between interparental conflict in kindergarten, children's emotional insecurity in the early school years, and subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Based on a community sample of 235 mothers, fathers, and children (Ms=6.00, 8.02, 12.62years), and multimethod and multireporter assessments, structural equation model tests provided support for emotional insecurity in early childhood as an intervening process related to adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems, even with stringent autoregressive controls over prior levels of functioning for both mediating and outcome variables. Discussion considers implications for understanding pathways between interparental conflict, emotional insecurity, and adjustment in childhood and adolescence. PMID:22694264
Cummings, E Mark; George, Melissa R W; McCoy, Kathleen P; Davies, Patrick T
Background Very few prospective studies examine the relationship between childhood sleep problems and subsequent substance use. In this study, we examined how sleep problems at ages 3–8 predicted onset of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence. We also investigated the relationships between childhood sleep problems and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods Study participants were 292 boys and 94 girls from a community sample of high-risk families and controls in an ongoing longitudinal study. Results Controlling for parental alcoholism, sleep problems at ages 3–8 predicted onset of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among boys and onset of alcohol use among girls. Childhood sleep problems were related to maternal ratings of internalizing and externalizing problems during adolescence for both boys and girls. Adjusting for these problems did not weaken the effects of sleep problems on onset of substance use. Conclusions This is to our knowledge the first study that prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between sleep problems and early onset of substance use. Childhood sleep problems predicted early onset of substance use for boys but not girls. If childhood sleep problems indeed increase the probability of substance use onset, greater attention by parents to sleep problems in children and adolescents would potentially have ameliorative long-term effects. Parents are encouraged to explore different ways to help their children sleep better, including obtaining information and suggestions from their primary care physicians.
Wong, Maria M.; Brower, Kirk J.; Zucker, Robert A.
We describe a branch and bound algorithm for the generalized assignment problem in which bounds are obtained from a Lagrangian relaxation with the multipliers set by a heuristic adjustment method. The algorithm was tested on a large sample of small random problems and a number of large problems derived from a vehicle routing application. Computation times were reasonable in all
Marshall L. Fisher; R. Jaikumar; Luk N. Van Wassenhove
|Despite the important contribution of the adjustment of international students to successful academic performance in the host country, little research has been done in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to collect factual information about adjustmentproblems of Iranian international students in Scotland, such as psycho-social and…
This study assessed the relation between religious involvement and multiple indices of competence in 183 eighth- and ninth-grade Indonesian Muslim adolescents (M = 13.3 years). The authors assessed spirituality and religiosity using both parent and adolescent reports, and social competence and adjustment using multiple measures and data sources. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that parent and adolescent reports of religiosity and spirituality yielded a single religious involvement latent variable that was related to peer group status, academic achievement, emotional regulation, prosocial behavior, antisocial/problem behavior, internalizing behavior, and self-esteem. The consistency of relations between religious involvement and competence may be in part attributable to the collectivist context of religion in West Java, Indonesia, within which people exhibit strong beliefs in Islam and religion permeates daily life. PMID:18331147
|The association of kin social support with mothers' adjustment and family relations was assessed among 204 African American mothers and adolescents who were on average 14.45 years of age. Also examined was the association of mothers' adjustment with family relations and adolescents' adjustment. Findings revealed that kin social and emotional…
Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Eleanor; Dominguez, Antonio
Concurrent and longitudinal relations between the amount of romantic experience and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a 1-year study of a community based sample of 200 tenth graders. Adolescents, parents, and friends completed measures of psychosocial adjustment. The amount of romantic experience was associated with higher reports of social acceptance, friendship competence, and romantic competence; at the same time, romantic experience also was associated with greater substance use, more delinquent behavior, and more frequent genital sexual behavior. The amount of romantic experience predicted increased substance use and genital sexual behavior over a 1-year period, whereas social acceptance predicted increased romantic experience. These relations with romantic experience were significant even when genital sexual behavior and social acceptance were taken into account, underscoring the unique contribution of romantic experiences. PMID:19130359
Examines whether differences between adolescentadjustmentproblems in divorced families and intact families can be explained by parental conflicts and parents' level of involvement. Determined the quality of mother's parenting and father's involvement explained the association between divorce and boys' externalizing problems; the quality of…
Simons, Ronald L.; Lin, Kuei-Hsiu; Gordon, Leslie C.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Frederick O.
Mexican–American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices\\u000a that can affect the adjustment of Mexican–American youth, the current study examined parents’ promotion of psychological autonomy\\u000a and parents’ psychological control as perceived by Mexican–American early adolescents, and explored their associations with\\u000a adolescents’ adjustment in the context of acculturation. In 5th grade, 134
Efrat Sher-CensorRoss; Ross D. Parke; Scott Coltrane
Compared stress, coping, and psychological adjustment in single (divorced or separated) and married mothers and their young adolescent children. Single mothers reported more daily hassles related to economic, family, and personal health problems, and more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism. Single mothers also reported using more coping strategies related to accepting responsibility and positive reappraisal. After controlling for level of family income, differences in family hassles and coping strategies remained significant. The two groups did not differ on subtypes of symptoms after controlling for income, but single mothers still reported more total psychological symptoms. No differences were found between children in these two family constellations on maternal reports of emotional/behavioral problems or on children's self-reported emotional/behavioral problems, stressful events, or coping. Implications of these findings for adjustment to life in single-parent families are discussed. PMID:2075890
This study examined how parent-adolescent relationships are related to adolescent loneliness, interpersonal difficulties and school adjustment among Israeli Arabs. Two hundred and thirty-one 11th graders (103 boys and 128 girls) and their homeroom teachers participated. Four groups of adolescents were identified according to parenting practice profiles: Adolescents in the harsh parenting group reported the highest levels of loneliness, those in the distant and mixed groups reported midway levels of loneliness, and those in the warm group showed the lowest degree of loneliness and the lowest levels of interpersonal problems. Overall, boys reported higher levels of peer-related loneliness and lower levels of affinity for aloneness than girls. Gender interacted significantly with parenting group, with girls in the harsh parenting group exhibiting greater parent-related loneliness and affinity for loneliness, while boys exhibited more peer-related loneliness. The important role that parents play in their children's social adjustment is discussed in relation to gender and culture. PMID:22044231
We used data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and latent class analysis to model patterns of maternal depressive symptoms from infant age 1 month to the transition to adolescence (age 12), and then examined adolescentadjustment at age 15 as a function of the course and severity of maternal symptoms. We identified five latent classes of symptoms in these 1357 women while also taking into account sociodemographic measures: never depressed; stable subclinical; early-decreasing; moderately elevated; chronic. Women with few symptoms were more likely to be married, better educated, and in better physical health than women with more elevated symptoms. Family size and whether the pregnancy was planned also differentiated among classes. At age 15, adolescents whose mothers were in the chronic, elevated, and stable subclinical latent classes reported more internalizing and externalizing problems and acknowledged engaging in more risky behavior than did children of never-depressed mothers. Latent class differences in self-reported loneliness and dysphoria were also found. Finally, several significant interactions between sex and latent class suggested that girls whose mothers reported elevated symptoms of depression over time experienced more internalizing distress and dysphoric mood relative to their male counterparts. Discussion focuses on adolescentadjustment, especially among offspring whose mothers report stable symptoms of depression across their childhoods.
Campbell, Susan B.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Cox, Martha J.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
Discusses alienation as a cause of underachievement, antisocial behavior, and indifference among gifted adolescents; suggests educational implications on the basis of a theory that distinguishes between crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence. (MCG)
Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents' religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents' religiousness and adolescentadjustment outcomes--either directly or indirectly via adolescents' own religiousness--varies depending on relationship context…
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.
|Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents' religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents' religiousness and adolescentadjustment outcomes--either directly or indirectly via adolescents' own religiousness--varies depending on relationship context…
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.
Drawing on Garcia Coll et al.'s integrative framework and the risk and resilience model, this study examined the relationships between adolescents' perceived discrimination and psychosocial adjustment and the moderating roles of adolescents', mothers', and fathers' cultural orientations and values, and adolescent gender in a sample of 246…
Delgado, Melissa Y.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Roosa, Mark W.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
The younger siblings of childbearing adolescents have poorer school outcomes and exhibit more internalizing and externalizing problems compared to their peers without a childbearing sister. We test a model where living with an adolescent childbearing sister constitutes a major family stressor that disrupts mothers' parenting and well-being, and through which, adversely affect youths' adjustment. Data came from 243 Latino younger siblings (62% female, M age 13.7 years) and their mothers, 121 of whom lived with a childbearing adolescent sister and 122 of whom did not. Individual fixed-effects models controlled for earlier measures of each respective model construct, thereby reducing omitted variable bias from pre-existing group differences. Results show that, for boys, the relationship between living with a childbearing adolescent sister and youth outcomes was sequentially mediated through mothers' stress and parenting (i.e., monitoring and nurturance). For girls, however, the relationship was mediated through mothers' monitoring only. Findings elucidate the within-family processes that contribute to the problematic outcomes of youth living with childbearing adolescent older sisters. PMID:21965104
Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11–14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment\\u000a problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors,\\u000a early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a meditational model. A longitudinal\\u000a sample of 694 boys and girls from four geographical locations
Hannah-Lise T. Schofield; Karen L. Bierman; Brenda Heinrichs; Robert L. Nix
Two independent prospective longitudinal studies that cumulatively spanned the age interval from 4 years to 14 years used multiwave designs to investigate developmental associations between language and behavioral adjustment (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Altogether 224 children, their mothers, and teachers provided data. Series of nested path analysis models were used to determine the most parsimonious and plausible paths among the three constructs over and above stability in each across age and their covariation at each age. In both studies, children with poorer language skills in early childhood had more internalizing behavior problems in later childhood and in early adolescence. These developmental paths between language and behavioral adjustment held after taking into consideration children's nonverbal intellectual functioning, maternal verbal intelligence, education, parenting knowledge, and social desirability bias, as well as family socioeconomic status, and they applied equally to girls and boys. PMID:23880396
Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T D
Background Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls) out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish) and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps) food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15 ? 0.55), p?0.001). A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06 ? 7.42), p=0.03) and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39 ? 4.98), p=0.003), was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10 ? 0.87), p=0.03). All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.
|Surveyed 446 late adolescents concerning their assessment of specific social issues as problems existing in contemporary American society. Subjects overwhelmingly pointed to drug use, pollution, hunger, nuclear war, and poverty as serious to very serious problems, while ageism, and racial and sexual discrimination were regarded as substantially…
African-American female adolescents living in urban environments are at risk for adverse adjustment outcomes, and thus it is imperative to identify protective factors. Religion has been found to be a significant protective resource against many types of maladaptive adjustment outcomes among adolescent samples. The present study accomplishes the following: (1) Provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American
Joanna Ball; Lisa Armistead; Barbara-jeanne Austin
|Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent…
|Court-referred youth participated in an intervention program and completed the Reynolds AdolescentAdjustment Screening Inventory. Reoffending rates were tracked for 2 years. Antisocial behavior, anger control, and emotional distress were influencing characteristics for recidivism. The Reynolds AdolescentAdjustment Screening Inventory may serve…
Balkin, Richard S.; Miller, Janeen; Ricard, Richard J.; Garcia, Roberto; Lancaster, Chloe
|Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott
|Drawing from developmental and cultural adaptation perspectives and using a longitudinal design, this study examined: (a) mean-level changes in Mexican-origin adolescents' cultural orientations and adjustment from early to late adolescence and (b) bidirectional associations between cultural orientations and adjustment using a cross-lag panel…
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; McHale, Susan M.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.
This investigation addresses the mediational role of friends’ characteristics between adolescents’ activity breadth (i.e., variety in activity participation) and their later adjustment. Data were drawn from 2 longitudinal studies: the Childhood and Beyond (CAB; N = 925) study and the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study (MADICS; N = 1,338). Adolescents at Time 2 in each study (8th, 9th, and
Sandra D. Simpkins; Jacquelynne S. Eccles; Jennifer N. Becnel
Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents' religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents' religiousness and adolescentadjustment outcomes--either directly or indirectly via adolescents' own religiousness--varies depending on relationship context (e.g., parent-adolescent attachment). This study examined the moderating roles of parent-adolescent attachment on the apparent effects of the intergenerational transmission of religiousness on adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms using data from 322 adolescents (mean age = 12.63 years, 45 % girls, and 84 % White) and their parents. Structural equation models indicated significant indirect effects suggesting that parents' organizational religiousness was positively to boys' organizational religiousness--the latter of which appeared to mediate the negative association of parents' organizational religiousness with boys' internalizing symptoms. Significant interaction effects suggested also that, for both boys and girls, parents' personal religiousness was associated positively with adolescent internalizing symptoms for parent-adolescent dyads with low attachment, whereas parents' personal religiousness was not associated with adolescent internalizing symptoms for parent-adolescent dyads with high attachment. The findings help to identify the family dynamics by which the interaction of parents' religiousness and adolescents' religiousness might differentially influence adolescentadjustment. PMID:22836938
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S; McCullough, Michael E
This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality…
|This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality…
Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of conduct problems in a well-documented sample of Barbadian adolescents malnourished as infants and a demographic comparison group and to determine the extent to which cognitive impairment and environmental factors account for this association. Methods Behavioral symptoms were assessed using a 76-item self-report scale in 56 Barbadian youth (11–17 years of age) with histories of protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) limited to the first year of life and 60 healthy classmates. Group comparisons were carried out by longitudinal and cross-sectional multiple regression analyses at 3 time points in childhood and adolescence. Results Self-reported conduct problems were more prevalent among previously malnourished youth (P < 0.01). Childhood IQ and home environmental circumstances partially mediated the association with malnutrition. Teacher-reported classroom behaviors at earlier ages were significantly correlated with youth conduct problems, confirming the continuity of conduct problems through childhood and adolescence. Discussion Self-reported conduct problems are elevated in children and adolescents with histories of early childhood malnutrition. Later vulnerability to increased conduct problems appears to be mediated by the more proximal neurobehavioral effects of the malnutrition on cognitive function and by adverse conditions in the early home environment.
|This study examines interpersonal competence configurations in relation to students' concurrent behavior problems and social risks for later adjustment difficulties. Participants are 648 (345 girls, 303 boys) fourth-grade students (65% White, 6.9% African American, 19.5% Hispanic, 4.6% Asian, and 4.0% Other) from the suburbs of a major Midwestern…
Farmer, Thomas W.; Estell, David B.; Hall, Cristin M.; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study examined how parent–adolescent relationships are related to adolescent loneliness, interpersonal difficulties and school adjustment among Israeli Arabs. Two hundred and thirty-one 11th graders (103 boys and 128 girls) and their homeroom teachers participated. Four groups of adolescents were identified according to parenting practice profiles: Adolescents in the harsh parenting group reported the highest levels of loneliness, those in
The role of adolescents' disclosure to their parents in their academic adjustment was examined in a study of 825 American and Chinese adolescents (mean age = 12.73 years). Four times over the seventh and eighth grades, adolescents reported on their spontaneous disclosure of everyday activities to their parents, the quality of their relationships with their parents, and their parents' autonomy support and control. Information about multiple dimensions of adolescents' academic adjustment (e.g., learning strategies, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and grades) was also obtained. Both American and Chinese adolescents' disclosure predicted their enhanced academic adjustment over time. However, when American adolescents disclosed in a negative context (e.g., a poor parent-child relationship or controlling parenting), their autonomous (vs. controlled) motivation was undermined. PMID:23006004
In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have used measures of parental behavioral control that are questionable because they include measures of parental knowledge. The goals of this study were to determine whether including knowledge items might have affected results of past studies and to test the unidirectional assumption. Data were from 978 adolescents participating in a longitudinal study. Parenting-style and adolescentadjustment measures at 2 time points were used, with a 2-year interval between time points. A variety of internal and external adjustment measures were used. Results showed that including knowledge items in measures of parental behavioral control elevated links between behavioral control and adjustment. Thus, the results and conclusions of many of the most highly cited studies are likely to have been stronger than if the measures had focused strictly on parental behavior. In addition, adolescentadjustment predicted changes in authoritative and neglectful parenting styles more robustly than these styles predicted changes in adolescentadjustment. Adolescentadjustment also predicted changes in authoritativeness more robustly than authoritativeness predicted changes in adjustment. Thus, parenting style cannot be seen as independent of the adolescent. In summary, both the theoretical premises of parenting-style research and the prior findings should be revisited. PMID:22448987
The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of friendships within organized activities. The prevalence of friendships with co-participants, their quality and characteristics, and their associations with adjustment were investigated. A sample of 281 (60% girls) 8th grade adolescents reported their friendships, activities, and adjustment. The results showed that 70% of youths have friends who co-participate with them. Friends in individual sports are more academically oriented whereas friends in team sports are more supportive but display higher levels of problem behavior. Finally, having friends in activities is associated with lower problem behavior and better academic functioning. PMID:23766094
For the well-known Fay-Herriot small area model, standard variance component estimation methods frequently produce zero estimates of the strictly positive model variance. As a consequence, an empirical best linear unbiased predictor of a small area mean, commonly used in the small area estimation, could reduce to a simple regression estimator, which typically has an overshrinking problem. We propose an adjusted maximum likelihood estimator of the model variance that maximizes an adjusted likelihood defined as a product of the model variance and a standard likelihood (e.g., profile or residual likelihood) function. The adjustment factor was suggested earlier by Carl Morris in the context of approximating a hierarchical Bayes solution where the hyperparameters, including the model variance, are assumed to follow a prior distribution. Interestingly, the proposed adjustment does not affect the mean squared error property of the model variance estimator or the corresponding empirical best linear unbiased predictors of the small area means in a higher order asymptotic sense. However, as demonstrated in our simulation study, the proposed adjustment has a considerable advantage in the small sample inference, especially in estimating the shrinkage parameters and in constructing the parametric bootstrap prediction intervals of the small area means, which require the use of a strictly positive consistent model variance estimate.
For the well-known Fay-Herriot small area model, standard variance component estimation methods frequently produce zero estimates of the strictly positive model variance. As a consequence, an empirical best linear unbiased predictor of a small area mean, commonly used in the small area estimation, could reduce to a simple regression estimator, which typically has an overshrinking problem. We propose an adjusted maximum likelihood estimator of the model variance that maximizes an adjusted likelihood defined as a product of the model variance and a standard likelihood (e.g., profile or residual likelihood) function. The adjustment factor was suggested earlier by Carl Morris in the context of approximating a hierarchical Bayes solution where the hyperparameters, including the model variance, are assumed to follow a prior distribution. Interestingly, the proposed adjustment does not affect the mean squared error property of the model variance estimator or the corresponding empirical best linear unbiased predictors of the small area means in a higher order asymptotic sense. However, as demonstrated in our simulation study, the proposed adjustment has a considerable advantage in the small sample inference, especially in estimating the shrinkage parameters and in constructing the parametric bootstrap prediction intervals of the small area means, which require the use of a strictly positive consistent model variance estimate. PMID:20161652
Drawing on García Coll et al.’s integrative framework and the risk and resilience model, this study examined the relationships\\u000a between adolescents’ perceived discrimination and psychosocial adjustment and the moderating roles of adolescents’, mothers’,\\u000a and fathers’ cultural orientations and values, and adolescent gender in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Using multilevel\\u000a modeling with data from mothers, fathers, seventh graders (M
Melissa Y. Delgado; Kimberly A. Updegraff; Mark W. Roosa; Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor
Many girls tell their general practitioners and paediatricians about problems with their periods. This article focuses on a practical approach to managing menorrhagia, dysmenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and reviews the literature on this topic.
Background and method Fifty-eight boys and 20 girls with early onset conduct problems whose parents received the Incredible Years (IY) parent treatment program when they were 3–8 years (mean 58.7 months) were contacted and reassessed regarding their social and emotional adjustment 8–12 years later. Assessments included home interviews with parents and teenagers separately. Results and conclusion Adolescent reports indicated that 10% were in the clinical range on internalising behaviours, 23% had engaged in major delinquent acts, and 46% reported some substance use. Eighteen percent of children had criminal justice system involvement and 42% had elevated levels of externalising behaviours (mother report). Post-treatment factors predicting negative outcomes (delinquent acts) were maternal reports of behaviour problems and observed mother–child coercion.
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Rinaldi, Julie; Jamila, M. Reid
|Compared personal and social problems and ambitions of Italian, Spanish, and Greek adolescents living in Germany with those of German adolescents. Found that family and religion played more important role for foreign adolescents than for Germans. While parents appeared to have same importance for all adolescents, emotional relations with siblings…
ObjectiveTo conduct a retrospective follow-up study of psychosocial adjustment and educational outcome in adolescents with a childhood diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and a group of clinical controls.
|This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…
Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.
The study examined the relationship between physical punishment and socioemotional well-being in a sample of Jamaican adolescents.\\u000a The data indicated that the overwhelming majority of adolescent respondents experienced physical punishment within their families.\\u000a Physical punishment was significantly associated with adverse psychological and behavioral consequences, in that adolescents\\u000a reporting being victims of physical punishment also indicated a greater propensity to developmental
Delores E. Smith; Cary M. Springer; Sheila Barrett
Research on the academic adjustment of immigrant adolescents has been predominately conducted in large cities among established\\u000a migration areas. To broaden the field’s restricted focus, data from 172 (58% female) Asian American adolescents who reside\\u000a within a non-traditional or emerging immigrant community in the Southeastern US were used to examine gender differences in\\u000a academic adjustment as well as school, family,
Lisa KiangAndrew; Andrew J. Supple; Gabriela L. Stein; Laura M. Gonzalez
This study examined the relationship between adolescent emotional adjustment and the family environment (i.e., family status, family process, and parental resources). This was done by way of multilevel analyses, with a sample of 2,636 parent-child couples of both intact and divorced families. The results indicated that adolescent emotional adjustment was clearly based on the family as well as on the
Inge Vandervalk; Ed Spruijt; Martijn De Goede; W. H. J. Meeus; Cora Maas
Despite their average high levels of educational achievement, Asian American students often report poor psychological and\\u000a social adjustment, suggesting an achievement\\/adjustment paradox. Yet, the reasons for this paradox remain unclear. Drawing\\u000a on 5-year longitudinal qualitative interview data, this paper compares the family dynamics of two groups of adolescents from\\u000a Chinese immigrant families: non-distressed adolescents (n = 20) who have high levels of
KATHERINE J.; ELDER, GLEN H., JR.; L~RENZ, 0.; RONALD L.; and WHITBECK, LESB. A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjust- ment of Early Adolescent Boys. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1992, 63,526-541. We propose a family process model that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescentadjustment. Employing a sample of 205 seventh-grade boys aged 12 to
Rand D. Conger; Katherine J. Conger; Glen H. Elder; Frederick O. Lorenz; Ronald L. Simons; Les B. Whitbeck
Objectives: Identifying adolescents who are at increased risk for a particularly difficult pregnancy and adjustment into parenthood\\u000a is important, as the physical and psychological development of their infants rest in the well-being of these new mothers.\\u000a This study aims to examine the effects of prenatal stress and parenting stress and the association with: (1) adolescent maternal\\u000a adjustment; and (2) postpartum
Christina K. Holub; Trace S. Kershaw; Kathleen A. Ethier; Jessica B. Lewis; Stephanie Milan; Jeannette R. Ickovics
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and rela- tionship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. Normative analyses
Jennifer L. Wainright; Stephen T. Russell; Charlotte J. Patterson
This study examined the relationship between adolescents 'adjustment and their supportive relations with significant others. It linked the Bowlby concept of social attachment with that of social support (derived from social network theory) in describing the exchange content of adolescents' interactions with parents, peer-friends, and adult nonkin. Within each of these three support systems, only moderate relationships were found between
|Although the relationship between relational victimization and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence has been established, it is unknown whether it extends into early adulthood. The current retrospective study investigated the relationship between recall of adolescent relational victimization and symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and…
|This study assessed the relation between religious involvement and multiple indices of competence in 183 eighth- and ninth-grade Indonesian Muslim adolescents (M = 13.3 years). The authors assessed spirituality and religiosity using both parent and adolescent reports, and social competence and adjustment using multiple measures and data sources.…
|Racial discrimination has serious negative consequences for the adjustment of African American adolescents. Taking an ecological approach, this study examined the linkages between perceived racial discrimination within and outside of the neighborhood and urban adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and tested whether neighborhood…
Riina, Elizabeth M.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The present study reports on the replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) for a sample of 229 Native American Indian (Yavapai Apache) children and adolescents from rural north-central Arizona. The six ASCA core syndromes produced the identical two-factor solution as the standardization sample, an independent sample, and a sample of
The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to model patterns of maternal depressive symptoms, from the period of infants’ age 1 month to adolescence (age 12 years), and then examined adolescentadjustment at age 15 years as a function of the course and severity of
Susan B. Campbell; Antonio A. Morgan-Lopez; Martha J. Cox; Vonnie C. McLoyd
|Compared three groups of young adolescents on adjustment in the school setting. Adolescents from recently divorced families reporting high interparental conflict prior to separation and after the divorce functioned at a lower level than those from intact families or from recently divorced families where high levels of pre-separation interparental…
|This investigation addresses the mediational role of friends' characteristics between adolescents' activity breadth (i.e., variety in activity participation) and their later adjustment. Data were drawn from 2 longitudinal studies: the Childhood and Beyond (CAB; N = 925) study and the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study (MADICS; N =…
Simpkins, Sandra D.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Becnel, Jennifer N.
|Researchers now recognize that affluent youth experience tremendous achievement pressures, yet contributing factors or outcomes are rarely explored. Using a sample of affluent adolescents, the present study investigates the mediating role of goal orientation (GO) on relations between school motivational climate (MC) and adolescentadjustment.…
Travers, Lea V.; Bohnert, Amy M.; Randall, Edin T.
Examines the specificity of marital distress and maternal depressive symptoms as potential mediators of one another in the prediction of adolescentadjustment. Findings show that marital distress mediated effects of maternal depressive symptoms on adolescent externalizing symptoms, and maternal depressive symptomatology mediated effects of marital…
Davies, Patrick T.; Dumenci, Levent; Windle, Michael
This research reports on a structural equation model analysis of the relationships between childhood behavioral adjustment, adolescent peer affiliations, and adolescent offending using data gathered during the course of a 16-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealand children. The model developed contained parameters that estimated (a) the continuities between early behavior and later offending, (b) the associations
|The study examined the unique contribution of both personal characteristics and several types of exposure variables to the adjustment of Israeli adolescents following the Second Lebanon War. Two thousand three hundred and fourteen adolescents, who lived in areas that were the target of multiple missile attacks, completed self-report…
Adolescent female athletes represent unique medical challenges. Although still limited, research and understanding of their particular problems has grown over the past 3 decades as female sports participation has increased dramatically. Despite concerns, however, exercise and athletic activity are safe and beneficial for girls and young women, and may help them develop positive attitudes toward self-image and body satisfaction. Several musculoskeletal injuries fairly common among female athletes may be related to structural development. Iron and calcium deficiencies are frequent nutritional concerns for these girls. Disordered eating, a phenomenon exhibited by many adolescent females, may not be more prevalent in athletes. Amenorrhea is a common problem for female athletes, and may contribute significantly to stress fractures and future osteoporosis. For these and other reasons, physicians must be aware of these issues to better help their female patients safely participate in athletics. PMID:8693752
|Relatively few studies have examined psychological maltreatment as a risk factor for adolescent psychopathology. This cross-sectional study evaluated mother-adolescent conflict frequency, maternal support, and avoidant coping as mediators of relations between mother's degrading parenting and adolescent conduct problems and internalizing. Analyses…
Background: Obesity prevalence is rapidly increasing among children and adolescents worldwide. It is considered one of the most alarming public health issues facing the world today. The adult experience has demonstrated that surgery is the only effective means of achieving persistent weight loss in obese patients. However, little is known about bariatric surgery in children and adolescents. The aim of
Investigation of an adolescent growth problem consists of taking an adequate history and doing a complete physical examination. This procedure, along with a calculation of bone age and height/weight age, will allow family physicians to decide on the cause of the growth variance in most patients. Relatively simple studies can be done in the family physician's office to delineate the major causes of growth problems; the majority will be unrelated to the endocrine system. Further studies may be needed in a hospital-based setting.
|Questionnaires assessed kinship support, psychosocial adjustment, and parenting practices for 125 African-American adolescents. Found that kinship support for adolescents was positively associated with adolescentadjustment and authoritative parenting practices in single- but not two-parent families and that parenting practices mediated the…
|Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…
Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge
|This study integrates diverse literatures on peer group influence by conceptualizing and examining the relationship of peer group injunctive norms to the academic adjustment of a large and ethnically diverse sample of rural early adolescents' academic adjustment. Results of three-level hierarchical linear modeling indicated that peer groups were…
Hamm, Jill V.; Schmid, Lorrie; Farmer, Thomas W.; Locke, Belinda
|Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescentadjustment, less is known about adjustment…
McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly
This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age of 30. Key findings included: 1) There were significant (p < 0.05) and pervasive associations between all measures of attachment and bonding and later outcomes. 2) Structural equation modelling showed that all measures of bonding and attachment loaded on a common factor reflecting the quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence. 3) After adjustment for covariates there were modest relationships (? = 0.16-0.17) between the quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence factor and later adjustment. The study findings suggest that the quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence is modestly related to later psychosocial functioning in adulthood. PMID:23352494
Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John
The current cross-sectional study investigated the links between various dimensions of organized activity involvement and depressive symptoms, loneliness, and peer victimization in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 152; 58% female). Results indicate that adolescents who were involved in organized activities for more years also reported lower levels of loneliness. There was evidence of diminishing returns when adolescents were very highly involved in organized activities; those who were either under- or over-involved reported the highest levels of depressive symptoms. Conversely, findings indicate that adolescents who participated in a narrow or wide range of activity contexts reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, results suggested that the relation between organized activity involvement and adjustment differs among adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Findings from the current study also underscore the importance of considering multiple indices of activity involvement when assessing its association with adjustment. PMID:19669899
There is considerable debate regarding the extent to which punitive parenting adversely impacts youth well being. Using an ecological-transactional model of human development, we examined reciprocity and contextual variability in associations between maternal punitive discipline and adolescentadjustment among 1,147 low-income, urban youth followed through adolescence. Longitudinal SEM results indicated that delinquency and depressive symptoms during pre- and early adolescence (Time 1) were associated with increased punitive discipline about a year later (Time 2). When mothers reported less Time 2 neighborhood disorder, punitive discipline at Time 2 was associated with increased delinquency (for boys) and depressive symptoms (for girls) during mid- to late adolescence (Time 3). The costs of punitive discipline for adolescentadjustment are best understood considering the dynamic, transactional, and contextual nature of development.
We evaluated the efficacy of a social skills training intervention designed to improve adolescents’ social, emotional and\\u000a behavioral adjustment, Social Skills Group Intervention-Adolescent (S.S.GRIN-A). Seventy-four adolescents (ages 13–16 years)\\u000a and their parents were randomly assigned to either the treatment group (N = 40) or a wait-list control group (N = 34). Adolescents in the treatment and control groups were compared on global self-concept, social self-efficacy,
Amanda W. Harrell; Sterett H. Mercer; Melissa E. DeRosier
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a widely practiced therapy for many life-threatening childhood disorders. The authors investigated the psychosocial effects of HSCT on siblings of pediatric HSCT patients (n = 44; 21 donors, 23 nondonors, ages 6 to 18 years). Donor siblings reported significantly more anxiety and lower self-esteem than did nondonors. Nondonors showed significantly more school problems. Approximately one third of all siblings reported moderate to severe posttraumatic stress. The study drew on the developmental theory of Erik Erikson and the psychosocial model of posttraumatic stress. As part of the study, the authors used the Measures of Psychosocial Development (MPD), a self-report measure based on Eriksonian constructs. The MPD was used to assess the psychosocial adjustment of 12 siblings who were adolescents (> or =13 years) at the time the study was conducted. In this article, findings are presented from the MPD as well as salient findings from the larger study. PMID:15490868
Packman, Wendy; Gong, Kimberly; VanZutphen, Kelly; Shaffer, Tani; Crittenden, Mary
|This qualitative research explores, from the perspectives of runaway adolescents, what kind of family responses facilitate and attract a runaway adolescent to return home and what kind of parental characteristics facilitate the adolescents' adjustment to family reunification. The study carried out in-depth interviews with 16 adolescent boys…
Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661
Few studies examine normative developmental processes among teenage mothers. Framed from a risk and resilience perspective, this prospective study examined the potential for ethnic identity status (e.g., diffuse, achieved), a normative developmental task during adolescence, to buffer the detrimental effects of discrimination on later adjustment and self-esteem in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Ethnic discrimination was associated with increases in depressive symptoms and decreases in self-esteem over time, regardless of ethnic identity status. However, ethnic discrimination was only associated with increases in engagement in risky behavior among diffuse adolescents, suggesting that achieved or foreclosed identities buffered the risk of ethnic discrimination on later risky behavior. Findings suggest that ethnic identity resolution (i.e., the component shared by those in foreclosed and achieved statuses) may be a key cultural factor to include in prevention and intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of ethnic discrimination on later externalizing problems. PMID:24011098
Toomey, Russell B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B
|Rational-Emotive Therapy states that maladaptive behaviors and emotional problems are the result of certain irrational beliefs that people hold and a number of empirical investigations with adult subjects have supported this claim. To determine whether the relationship between irrationality and psychological adjustment holds for adolescents, one…
The relations between peer harassment, psychological adjustment, and school functioning were investigated with an ethnically diverse sample of middle school students. A conceptual model, which proposed that self-perceived peer harassment predicts psychological adjustment (loneliness, depression, and self-worth), which in turn predicts school outcomes (GPA and attendance), was tested using concurrent data (n= 244). Structural equation modeling supported the proposed model.
Compared ego identity in adolescents identified as having behavioral problems with those reported not to have behavior problems. Found ego identity achievement, including trust, initiative, and identity, but not autonomy and industry, significantly greater in those without behavior problems. Adolescents who had achieved a higher degree of identity…
|Examined relationships among kinship support, family management, and adolescence in 135 African American adolescents, ages 14 to 19. Found that kin social support was positively related to self-reliance and grades, family organization, and parental involvement in schooling, and negatively associated with problem behavior. Poor kin relations were…
Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report data (n = 218; 49% female; 49% European American, 47% African American) following Grades 5 (M age = 11 years, 11 months), 6, and 7 show that the use of disclosing strategies (e.g., telling all, telling if asked) following misbehavior declined while use of concealing strategies (e.g., omitting details, keeping secrets, lying) increased over time. Longitudinal links between strategies suggest a transactional process wherein infrequent disclosing is a gateway to concealment but concealment also predicts subsequent rank-order reductions in disclosure. Infrequent disclosing was associated with more subsequent antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms, whereas more antisocial behavior was associated with more subsequent concealment. Although absolute declines in disclosure and increases in concealment are normative, individual differences show that adolescents reporting low levels of disclosure, rather than high levels of concealment, appear to experience the most adjustmentproblems. PMID:22686172
Laird, Robert D; Marrero, Matthew D; Melching, Jessica A; Kuhn, Emily S
Background Parental palliative disease is a family affair, however adolescent's well-being and coping are still rarely considered. The objectives of this paper were a) to identify differences in psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adolescents and young adults with parents suffering from palliative cancer or cancers in other disease stages, b) to relate psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life to adolescent coping, and c) to explore significant mediator and predictor variables. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from a multi-site research study of families before child-centered counselling. N=86 adolescents and young adults were included, their mean age 13.78 years (sd 2.45), 56% being female. Performed analyses included ANCOVA, multiple linear regression, and mediation analysis. Results Adolescents with parents suffering from palliative cancers reported significantly less total psychosocial problems, and better overall HRQoL. There were no significant group differences regarding coping frequency and efficacy. Our set of coping items significantly mediated the effect of parental disease stage on psychosocial problems and HRQoL. Further, parental disease status and general family functioning predicted psychosocial problems (R2adj =.390) and HRQoL (R2adj =.239) best. Conclusion The study indicates distress among adolescents throughout the entire parental disease process. Our analysis suggests that counselling services could offer supportive interventions which focus particularly on adolescent coping as well as family functioning.
The emotional health and wellbeing of children and young people is of fundamental importance. Unmet mental health needs during childhood lead to difficulties in adolescence and problems in adulthood. The need to develop comprehensive prevention, early recognition and timely intervention services is essential. Despite this, many mental health problems go unnoticed or are only treated when advanced. Late intervention can often be associated with severe impairments for children and young people as well as their families. This article aims to improve nurses' understanding of children's emotional wellbeing and mental health, and identifies some of the risk and protective factors that combine to produce positive or negative outcomes. Individual and family-based psychological treatments that are available to support children are summarised. The learning activities offer nurses helpful interpersonal and practical strategies to promote emotional wellbeing and mental health in children. PMID:22259969
Employing data from 140 prospectively followed girls with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 88 age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls, we adopted a person-centered analytic approach to assess rates of adolescent positive adjustment (PA) across six domains: ADHD symptoms, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, social skills, peer acceptance, and school achievement. During adolescence, between 19.8% and 61.1% of the girls with childhood ADHD
Elizabeth B. Owens; Stephen P. Hinshaw; Steve S. Lee; Benjamin B. Lahey
Study background and aims: This study investigates the psychosocial adjustment of immigrant adolescents and examines two hypotheses: the ethnicity hypothesis, which suggests that ethnic background determines the psychosocial reactions of immigrant adolescents; and the migration hypothesis, which suggests that the migration experience determines such reactions.Methods: The study compared four groups of respondents: first-generation immigrants (N = 63) and second-generation immigrants
Vered Slonim-Nevo; Yana Sharaga; Julia Mirsky; Vadim Petrovsky; Marina Borodenko
This article reviews the types of adjustments needed to an adult protocol of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN) to make it more acceptable to an adolescent population. Employing developmental principles as well as clinical experience as guidelines, these modifications include the involvement of parents, recognition of the interaction of treatment with normal adolescent developmental tasks, and allowances for typical cognitive and emotional immaturity on treatment procedures. Outcomes from a series of adolescents with BN who were treated with this modified-CBT approach show results similar to those expected in adult populations treated using CBT. PMID:16370133
BackgroundVery few prospective studies examine the relationship between childhood sleep problems and subsequent substance use. In this study, we examined how sleep problems at ages 3–8 predicted onset of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence. We also investigated the relationships between childhood sleep problems and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems.
This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A High Functioning (n = 173) group, which exhibited high positive adjustment and academic functioning, an Average Functioning (n = 83) group, who exhibited average psychological and academic functioning, an Academically Oriented and Stressed (n = 19) group, who exhibited high academic motivation, but poor psychological functioning in anxiety and negative affect, and a Low Functioning” (n = 25) group, who exhibited poor adjustment overall. Further, paternal and maternal parenting characteristics (i.e., autonomy granting, parent-adolescent conflict, and supportive parenting) were differentially related to Mexican-origin female adolescents’ profiles, providing further evidence for the existence of the profiles. Results contribute to the current literature on Latino adolescents and highlight the importance of examining psychological and academic domains concurrently to determine how these two domains of adjustment are linked among this population.
Short stature in adolescence may cause some medical, psychological and social concerns, in addition to specific diagnostic and therapeutical problems. Among the various causes of short stature, the present review will examine in detail some forms such as constitutional delay of growth and puberty, growth hormone deficiency and Turner's syndrome, since these forms will benefit from an appropriate medical approach in adolescence. The diagnostic and therapeutical problems these forms may present in adolescence are also discussed. PMID:12388945
|The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…
|The younger siblings of childbearing adolescents have poorer school outcomes and exhibit more internalizing and externalizing problems compared to their peers without a childbearing sister. We test a model where living with an adolescent childbearing sister constitutes a major family stressor that disrupts mothers' parenting and well-being, and…
|Objective of the study was to examine how cognitive emotion regulation strategies were related to psychological maladjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. The sample consisted of adolescents with a diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). A self-report questionnaire was used to assess Internalizing problems and Quality of Life.…
Garnefski, Nadia; Koopman, Hendrik; Kraaij, Vivian; ten Cate, Rebecca
|The current study examined the unique and interactive relations of 4 aspects of student-perceived school climate (cohesion, friction, and competition among students, and overall satisfaction with classes) and adolescent effortful control in the conduct problems and depressive symptoms of 868 ten- to fourteen-year-old adolescents. Hierarchical…
The current study examined the unique and interactive relations of 4 aspects of student-perceived school climate (cohesion, friction, and competition among students, and overall satisfaction with classes) and adolescent effortful control in the conduct problems and depressive symptoms of 868 ten- to fourteen-year-old adolescents. Hierarchical…
|Compared 11 adolescents with a history of stealing to 11 nonstealers. Results reveal that stealers showed a tendency not to consider the passage of time necessary for solving social problems. Furthermore, adolescents with delinquency tendencies showed a cognitive bias for generating ineffective solutions to hypothetical social problems. Treatment…
|Given the ramifications of difficulties related to externalizing behavior problems, the present study examined the relationships among adolescents' externalizing behavior problems, characteristics of adolescents' families, their perceived neighborhood support, and their acculturation. As part of this study, a culturally diverse sample of…
|Prevalence studies indicate that approximately 40% of adolescents participate in regular gambling with rates of problem gambling up to four times greater than that found in adult populations. However, it appears that few adolescents actually seek treatment for such problems. The purpose of this study was to explore potential reasons why…
Background: Patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) are at risk of an array of behavioral and emotional problems, resulting in social, academic and vocational func- tion impairments. This study intended to examine the nature and severity of behavioral and emotional problems in Taiwanese TS adolescents. Methods: Forty TS adolescents with normal IQ and thirty age- and gender-matched normal controls were evaluated
Thirty-three female college students who scored in the upper 15% on the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) were compared with 33 female students who scored below the mean on the DES on measures of psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90), college adjustment (Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire), and child and adolescent maltreatment. Compared with controls, high-DES subjects reported more psychopathology, poorer college adjustment, and
Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents’ experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents’ experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semi-structured discussions about areas of adolescent-parent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents’ social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents.
Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude
The current study investigated group differences in adolescentadjustment by adoption status and adoption subtype in a national sample, in contrast to group differences based on developmental stage or gender. Secondary analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were performed to describe group differences in a broad range of adjustment measures (a) between adoptees and non-adoptees, (b) between
Anthony L Burrow; Jonathan G Tubman; Gordon E Finley
Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…
Adolescent patients pose a unique challenge to child neurologists. Although there are a number of neurological disorders that present in childhood and persist through adolescence, there are some disorders like juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) that occur more commonly in this age group. We discuss common neurological disorders encountered by adolescent medicine physicians that have been affected by recent advances in the field of adolescent neurology. We also address the challenges of transitioning care to an adult neurologist. PMID:23705516
The aim of this study was to determine the association between temperament and sleep in adolescents. Participants included 516 adolescents and their mothers drawn from the community. Findings indicated that as with younger children, sleep and dimensions of temperament (sociability, impulsivity, and negative affect) are related in adolescents.
Moore, Melisa; Slane, Jennifer; Mindell, Jodi A.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.
This research originated with questions about services to juveniles who committed minor delinquent acts. Research supports the idea that different categories of juvenile offenders exist, with most adolescents only committing minor offenses and only during their adolescent years. The current study suggests that this behavior results from normative adolescent brain development and associated inadequate decision making abilities. It is hypothesized
|In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…
Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo
|This study extends previous understanding of the association between adolescent extracurricular activity participation and adjustment by asking whether participation in school-based extracurricular activities is associated with lower substance use and depression, higher grades and academic aspirations, and more positive attitude toward school. In…
The purpose of this study was to apply an Integrative predictive model to examine interrelationships among parental support, adaptive coping strategies, and psychological adjustment among late adolescents. Findings using new measures of parental support and adaptive coping with 241 eighteen-year-old college freshmen supported hypotheses. Social support from both mother and father and a nonconflictual relationship between parents were positively associated
Charles J. Holahan; David P. Valentiner; Rudolf H. Moos
Four specific schemas of cognitive structures that adolescents may hold concerning interpersonal disagreements with their parents were identified, each reflecting an authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or a neglecting parenting style. To examine the occurrence of such schemas across high and low levels of psychosocial adjustment, 120 Swedish…
|This study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in terms of their school adjustment and whether this homogeneity varies according to peer group type and gender. A total of 1262 peer group members who had recently moved to post-comprehensive education filled in questionnaires measuring their academic…
Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Aunola, Kaisa; Salmela-Aro, Katariina
|This study investigated the proposal that social dominance goals are an important, but overlooked, aspect of social goals for young adolescents' academic adjustment. Self-reports of social goals (dominance, intimacy, and popularity goals) early in the school year were used to predict subsequent engagement (self-reports and peer nominations of…
This study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in terms of their school adjustment and whether this homogeneity varies according to peer group type and gender. A total of 1262 peer group members who had recently moved to post-comprehensive education filled in questionnaires measuring their academic achievement, satisfaction with their educational track, school engagement, and school
Noona Kiuru; Jari-Erik Nurmi; Kaisa Aunola; Katariina Salmela-Aro
|There is considerable debate regarding the extent to which punitive parenting adversely impacts youth well-being. Using an ecological-transactional model of human development, we examined reciprocity and contextual variability in associations between maternal punitive discipline and adolescentadjustment among 1,147 low-income, urban youth…
|This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age…
Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
The present study examined the link between sexual orientation and adjustment in a community sample of 97 sexual minority (gay male, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning) high school students, taking into account their experiences of peer victimization and social support within peer and family contexts. Adolescents were identified in a large-scale survey study conducted at 5 high schools. They were matched
Trish Williams; Jennifer Connolly; Debra Pepler; Wendy Craig
|Previous research suggests that school-based and electronic victimization have similar negative consequences, yet it is unclear whether these two contexts offer overlapping or unique associations with adolescents' adjustment. 802 ninth-graders (43% male, mean age = 15.84 years), majority being Caucasian (82%), completed measures assessing the…
Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Adams, Ryan E.; Gilman, Rich
Junior high school students' perceptions of their friends' influence on their attitudes, behavior, and performance in school were examined in two studies. In the first study, adolescents' perceptions of friends' influence were also compared with their perceptions of parents 'influence. Only a minority of the students in each study perceived their friends as influencing the various aspects of their adjustment
|Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and…
Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Gonzalez, Laura M.
|The development and evaluation of a peer mentoring program for Chinese immigrant adolescents' cultural adjustment is described. Twenty-three high school students who recently immigrated from Mainland China participated in the year-long program and 4 high school students served as their peer mentors. Data analyses revealed that the students who…
Yeh, Christine J.; Ching, Alison M.; Okubo, Yuki; Luthar, Suniya S.
Previous research suggests that school-based and electronic victimization have similar negative consequences, yet it is unclear whether these two contexts offer overlapping or unique associations with adolescents' adjustment. 802 ninth-graders (43% male, mean age = 15.84 years), majority being Caucasian (82%), completed measures assessing the…
Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Adams, Ryan E.; Gilman, Rich
This study investigated prospective relations between older siblings’ support and academic engagement and younger siblings’ academic adjustment from 7th to post-8th grade. The study was unique in that it incorporated a sample of both African American and European American adolescents. Also investigated was the extent to which the gender constellation (same sex vs. mixed sex) of sibling dyads moderated prospective
Heather A. Bouchey; Erin K. Shoulberg; Kathleen M. Jodl; Jacquelynne S. Eccles
This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a romantic partner. Similarly, youth perceived as conventional and unconventional leaders were also more likely to have a romantic partner than were non-leaders. Youth who had a romantic partner drank more alcohol and were more aggressive than were youth who did not have a romantic partner. Among those youth who had romantic partners, those who reported having more deviance-prone partners were themselves more likely to use alcohol and to be more aggressive, and those who engaged in deviant behavior with their partners used more alcohol. However, these associations varied somewhat by gender. These findings underscore the salience of early romantic partner relationships in the adjustment of early adolescents.
Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.
Research on the academic adjustment of immigrant adolescents has been predominately conducted in large cities among established migration areas. To broaden the field's restricted focus, data from 172 (58% female) Asian American adolescents who reside within a non-traditional or emerging immigrant community in the Southeastern US were used to examine gender differences in academic adjustment as well as school, family, and cultural variables as potential mediators of gender differences found. Results suggest that girls report significantly higher educational goals, intrinsic academic motivation, and utility value of school compared to boys. These gender differences are statistically mediated by ethnic exploration and family processes, most prominently, family respect. School connectedness and perceived discrimination are also associated with academic adjustment at the bivariate level, suggesting that academic success may be best promoted if multiple domains of influence can be targeted. PMID:21761261
Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew J; Stein, Gabriela L; Gonzalez, Laura M
Previous studies have confirmed that Facebook, the leading social networking site among young people, facilitates social connections among college students, but the specific activities and motives that foster social adjustment remain unclear. This study examined associations between patterns of Facebook activity, motives for using Facebook, and late adolescents' social adjustment to the college environment. Anonymous self-report survey data from 193 mostly European American students (M age = 20.32; 54 % female) attending a major Midwestern university indicated that motives and activity patterns were associated directly with social adjustment, but the association between one activity, status updating, and social adjustment also was moderated by the motive of relationship maintenance. Findings provide a more comprehensive portrait of how Facebook use may foster or inhibit social adjustment in college. PMID:23076768
Background: The aim of the study is to report parent\\/youth self-report agreement on emotional and behavioral symptoms among 15- to 16-year-old\\u000a adolescents. Methods: A completed Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self-Report were obtained from 580 subjects. Results: Adolescents reported significantly more problem behaviors than their parents. Adolescent girls reported a significantly\\u000a higher level of distress than boys in most symptom
Three hundred thirty Black, Hispanic, Asian, and White high school students reported their reference-group label as mainstream, bicultural, or strongly ethnically identified. Compared with other groups, White students were significantly more likely to be mainstream. Across ethnic groups, students reporting a strong ethnic identification held attitudes that were significantly more separatist, reported more ethnic pride, engaged in less cross-ethnic contact out of school, reported more cross-ethnic conflict, and used English significantly less often than other reference groups. Reference-group label was not associated with significant ethnic differences in self-esteem, social competence, or grade point average. The generational status of minority students is discussed as a potential influence mediating the impact of reference group on adjustment. PMID:2266482
|The objective of the present research study was to understand what benefits the use of audiobooks (both school-books and books of various genres, recorded on digital media) could bring to preadolescents and adolescents with developmental dyslexia. Two groups, each consisting of 20 adolescents, were compared. The experimental group used the…
Milani, Anna; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Molteni, Massimo
In the current study, 466 children completed a peer nomination survey assessing both perceived and sociometric popularity at the end of the 5th grade. Measures of behavior problems were assessed through a composite of peer-, teacher- and self-reports at the end of the 8th grade. Examination of the unique concurrent associations of each popularity…
|This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…
|Objective: The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Method: Survey data from 2,006…
Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.
|This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…
Throughout Western civilization the fundamental unit of society is the family. The union of a couple guarantees their responsibility to future children. Prior to the renaissance, when life expectancy was very low, the preservation of the human species required reproduction at a young age. Since the beginning of the 19th century, life expectancy has increased greatly. The extremes of reproductive age have been noted to be times when pregnancy carries increase risks, and the risks of grand multiparity have been noted. The sexual revolution has resulted in the loss of previous principles of conduct. Youth are incited by pornography in the media, and without the controlling influence of the traditional family, become sexually active at a younger age. In Chile, as elsewhere, there have always been out of wedlock births, but in 1970 these reached 18.5% of all births. By 1980, it had reached 27.6% of all births and 45.7% of births to mothers under age 20. Since the family is the basic unit of society, this number of illegitimate births indicates a grave social problem. This also represents a public health risk due to the increased risks of young mothers. Illegitimate children of adolescent mothers have the added problem that the fathers are usually also young, so both parents are still in school and cannot assume full responsibility for the child. These babies have a much higher infant mortality than those of older mothers. The only solution is education, and legislation requiring paternal responsibility. School teachers often have an inadequate knowledge of reproduction and sexuality, and can not serve as sources of information to the students. Without supportive education and legislation requiring both parents to be responsible for their children, we will not be able to solve this situation. PMID:12315312
Alcohol remains the drug of choice for many adolescents; however, the nature of the relationship between athletic involvement and alcohol misuse remains ambiguous. In this article, we used a longitudinal sample of over 600 Western New York adolescents and their families to explore the gender-specific and race-specific relationships between…
Miller, Kathleen E.; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Barnes, Grace M.; Farrell, Michael P.; Sabo, Don; Melnick, Merrill J.
We examine a contracting problem with asymmetric information in a monopoly pricing setting. Traditionally, the problem is modeled as a one-period Bayesian game, where the incomplete information about the buyers' preferences is handled with some subjective probability distribution. Here we suggest an iterative online method to solve the problem. We show that, when the buyers behave myopically, the seller can
Recent research has emphasized the importance of interpersonal problems with depression. It has been hypothesized that deficits in interpersonal problem-solving skills may account for many of these problems. Three studies that examined the relationship between problem-solving skills and depression are reported. Problem-solving skills among children, adolescents, and adults were assessed by the Means-Ends Problem Solving Test. Contrary to prediction, there
Leonard A. Doerfler; Larry L. Mullins; Nora J. Griffin; Lawrence J. Siegel; C. Steven Richards
BackgroundThe prevalence of medical marijuana diversion among adolescents in substance treatment and the relationship between medical marijuana diversion and marijuana attitudes, availability, peer disapproval, frequency of use and substance-related problems are not known.
Christian Thurstone; Shane A. Lieberman; Sarah J. Schmiege
To estimate the prevalence of being well-adjusted in adolescence, boys and girls with (n?=?96) and without (n?=?126) attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were assessed seven times in eight years starting when they were 4–6 years\\u000a of age. Symptoms of ADHD, ODD\\/CD, and depression\\/anxiety in addition to social skills and social preference were gathered\\u000a using multiple methods and informants. Being well-adjusted was defined by
Steve S. Lee; Benjamin B. Lahey; Elizabeth B. Owens; Stephen P. Hinshaw
Although a large body of research suggests that children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking during adolescence compared with their non-ADHD peers, much less research has examined why. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by examining middle school adjustment, broadly defined, as a possible mediator of the relation between childhood ADHD symptoms
\\u000a It is clear that the family relationships have important and lasting influences on adolescentadjustment and development.\\u000a Genetically informed studies have provided additional information suggesting that these influences are due, at least in part,\\u000a to the interplay of genetic and environmental factors via genotype–environment correlation and interaction. Understanding\\u000a the relative contributions of genes and environment and how they operate together
The present study investigated to what extent the members of adolescents’ peer groups share similar educational expectations,\\u000a and to what extent overall and school-related adjustment are associated with these expectations. Three hundred and ninety-four\\u000a ninth-graders facing the transition to secondary education filled in questionnaires measuring their short-term and long-term\\u000a educational expectations, and their academic achievement, learning difficulties, negative attitudes towards
Noona Kiuru; Kaisa Aunola; Jukka Vuori; Jari-Erik Nurmi
The aim of this study was to examine the roles of sense of belonging and gender in the academic outcomes of urban, Latino\\u000a adolescents. It was expected that sense of belonging would play a different role in males' and females' academic adjustment.\\u000a Participants (N = 143) included mostly Mexican and Puerto Rican seniors from a large, urban high school. The
This study examined perceived kinship support and parenting practices for 158 African American adolescents in the 9th and 10th grades. Kinship support showed direct associations with teen outcomes that, for work orientation and school orientation, were partially mediated by parenting practices. With a few exceptions, kinship support was positively associated with youth adjustment for teens from single-parent and 2-parent homes,
This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations between stability in bullying and victimization, and social\\u000a adjustment in childhood and adolescence. Participants were 189 girls and 328 boys who were studied in primary school and in\\u000a secondary school. The mean age of the participants was 11.1 years in primary school and 14.1 years in secondary school. The\\u000a measures consisted of
Ron H. J. Scholte; Rutger C. M. E. Engels; Geertjan Overbeek; Raymond A. T. de Kemp; Gerbert J. T. Haselager
This qualitative research explores, from the perspectives of runaway adolescents, what kind of family responses facilitate and attract a runaway adolescent to return home and what kind of parental characteristics facilitate the adolescents' adjustment to family reunification. The study carried out in-depth interviews with 16 adolescent boys between the ages of 13-17 in Hong Kong who, at the time of interview, had returned home after a runaway event and had been living together with their parents for considerably long and stable periods of time (from one to four years). Implications are directed toward counsellors and parents who are concerned with intervening with such at-risk adolescents. PMID:16291505
This study examined the role of social problem solving as a moderator and a mediator of the relationship between daily stressful\\u000a events and adjustment in a sample of 259 college students. Problem solving was assessed by the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised,\\u000a which provides scores for global problem-solving ability as well as five specific problem-solving dimensions, namely, positive\\u000a problem orientation, negative problem
Family-based treatments for adolescent substance abuse demonstrate efficacy and are becoming a treatment of choice. Family risk factors for substance abuse may present barriers to or suggest targets for modification during treatment. The sample included 149 adolescents presenting for substance abuse treatment and their parents. Structural equation modeling tested the hypothesis that parent psychological problems, parent substance use, and parenting
Jody L. Kamon; Catherine Stanger; Alan J. Budney; Levent Dumenci
To address the lack of studies examining the convergent and discriminant validity of cross-informant ratings, several statistical approaches were used in this study to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity for ratings of interparental conflict, adolescent behavioral problems, and adolescent competence. A total of 272…
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…
Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans
Objectives This study examined psychosocial characteristics of students who had used a cochlear implant (CI) since preschool and were evaluated when they were in elementary grades and again in high school. The study had four goals: (1) to determine the extent to which psychosocial skills documented in elementary grades were maintained into high school; (2) to assess the extent to which long-term CI users identified with the Deaf community or the hearing world or both; (3) to examine the association between group identification and the student’s sense of self-esteem, preferred communication mode, and spoken language skills; and (4) to describe the extracurricular world of the teenagers who were mainstreamed with hearing age-mates for most of their academic experience. Design As part of a larger study, 112 CI students (aged 15.0 to 18.6 yrs) or their parents completed questionnaires describing their social skills, and a subsample of 107 CI students completed group identification and self-esteem questionnaires. Results were compared with either a control group of hearing teenagers (N = 46) or age-appropriate hearing norms provided by the assessment developer. Results Average psychosocial ratings from both parents and students at both elementary grades and high school indicated a positive self-image throughout the school years. Seventy percent of the adolescents expressed either strong identification with the hearing community (32%) or mixed identification with both deaf and hearing communities (38%). Almost all CI students (95%) were mainstreamed for more than half of the day, and the majority of students (85%) were in the appropriate grade for their age. Virtually all CI students (98%) reported having hearing friends, and a majority reported having deaf friends. More than 75% of CI students reported that they used primarily spoken language to communicate and that good spoken language skills enabled them to participate more fully in all aspects of their lives. Identification with the hearing world was not associated with personal or social adjustmentproblems but was associated with better speech perception and English language skill. Ninety-four percent were active participants in high school activities and sports, and 50% held part-time jobs (a rate similar to that documented for hearing teens). Conclusions The majority of these early-implanted adolescents reported strong social skills, high self-esteem, and at least mixed identification with the hearing world. However, these results must be viewed in light of possible sources of sample selection bias and may not represent the psychosocial characteristics of the entire population of children receiving CIs.
Moog, Jean S.; Geers, Ann E.; Gustus, Chris; Brenner, Chris
Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at Time 1). Method: Growth curve modeling procedures were used to describe the
Grayson N. Holmbeck; Christian DeLucia; Bonnie Essner; Lauren Kelly; Kathy Zebracki; Deborah Friedman; Barbara Jandasek
An assessment carried out on adolescents aged 11-18 who had suffered severe burns in early childhood 10-11 years previously indicated that the levels of problem behavior were similar and the levels of depression lower than those reported by adolescents in comparable reference populations. Adolescents' self-reports revealed higher levels of the personality traits emotional stability, agreeableness and extraversion. Self-reports further revealed lower levels of passive coping than are found in a normative reference population. Regression analyses showed that less emotional stability, less agreeableness and more passive coping styles were related to increased behavioral problems and symptoms of depression. The authors argue that future studies should focus on resilience and within-group differences. PMID:18375068
Liber, J M; Faber, A W; Treffers, Ph D A; Van Loey, N E E
|This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four…
|This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…
Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
A growing body of research suggests that the authoritative style of parenting is not always necessarily associated with optimum psychological and social outcomes among adolescents. This paper analyzed the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents' psychological adjustment using a two-dimension four-typology model of parenting styles, with the aim to determine which style of parenting Authoritative vs. indulgent was associated with
|Existing work has identified perceived discrimination as a risk factor that may contribute to the relatively poorer academic outcomes exhibited by Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. The current study examined the longitudinal associations among perceived discrimination and three indices of adolescentadjustment in the school setting (i.e.,…
Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Wong, Jessie J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Dumka, Larry E.
|The mediation of family and peer social support and self-esteem in the relationship between chronic strain and psychological adjustment in children and adolescents with juvenile diabetes is investigated. Family support is more important than peer support for children, while the opposite holds for adolescents. Self-esteem benefits both groups.…
|A total of 1,170 psychoeducational prescriptions for various major learning and behavior problems of school children are presented. Intended to be of assistance to school, clinical, and educational psychologists and graduate students, the volume assumes a familiarity with childhood exceptionality and psychopathology. The prescriptions…
|The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinal associations among maternal responsiveness, self-regulation, and behavioral adjustment in adolescents. The authors used structural equation modeling to test a model that demonstrates that the effects of early cumulative risk on behavioral problems is mediated by maternal responsiveness…
Doan, Stacey N.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Evans, Gary W.
The objective of this study was to explain why adolescent girls with conduct problems (CP) are more at risk than boys to develop emotional distress (ED) in a sample composed of Israeli-born and immigrant youth from Ethiopia and the former Soviet Union (n = 305, ages 14-18). We tested a structural equation model and found a very good fit to the…
|Advancing the long-term prospective study of explanations for the effects of marital conflict on children's functioning, relations were examined between interparental conflict in kindergarten, children's emotional insecurity in the early school years, and subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Based on a community sample…
Cummings, E. Mark; George, Melissa R. W.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Davies, Patrick T.
Advancing the long-term prospective study of explanations for the effects of marital conflict on children's functioning, relations were examined between interparental conflict in kindergarten, children's emotional insecurity in the early school years, and subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Based on a community sample…
Cummings, E. Mark; George, Melissa R. W.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Davies, Patrick T.
Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing\\u000a world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent.\\u000a Previous research has found that adolescentproblem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined\\u000a the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent
Kerstin PahlDavid; David W. Brook; Neo K. Morojele; Judith S. Brook
This special issue of Behavior Modification is designed to add to the literature on the behavioral assessment and treatment of CP displayed by adolescents. Contained in this issue are six empirical articles dealing with important issues on the topic. They provide examples of the richness of clinical problems classified as "conduct problems"…
|The tendency to defy the world around them, to defy adults, a characteristic trait of adolescents who are members of groups that spend leisure time together, is manifested in a number of demonstrative characteristics of their behavior: symbols of independence such as a certain kind of clothing, jargon, and borrowing vocabulary from the criminal…
We investigated the co-occurrence of traditional bullying, cyberbullying, traditional victimization, and cybervictimization, and analyzed whether students belonging to particular groups of bullies (e.g., traditional, cyber, or both), victims (e.g., traditional, cyber, or both), and bully-victims differed regarding adjustment. Seven hundred sixty-one adolescents (49% boys) aged 14–19 years (M = 15.6 years) were surveyed. More students than expected by chance were
Petra Gradinger; Dagmar Strohmeier; Christiane Spiel
This study investigated prospective relations between (1) older siblings’ support and academic engagement and (2) younger siblings’ academic adjustment from 7th to 8th grade. The study was unique in that it incorporated a sample of both African American and European American adolescents. Also investigated was the extent to which the gender constellation (same-sex vs. mixed-sex) of sibling dyads moderated prospective associations. Findings revealed that, in mixed-sex dyads only, younger siblings’ perceptions of support received from the older sibling and their positive image of the older sibling predicted declines in the younger sibling’s academic self-perceptions and performance over time, even after controlling for younger siblings’ background characteristics and support from parents. Older siblings’ reported support to younger siblings also predicted declines in younger siblings’ academic adjustment, whereas the older siblings’ own level of academic engagement predicted an increase in younger siblings’ academic adjustment over time. Overall, findings did not differ substantially for African and European American adolescents.
Bouchey, Heather A.; Shoulberg, Erin K.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
This study reports the effectiveness of a developmentally based, teacher professional development intervention aimed at improving early adolescent school adjustment. Teachers in rural schools in a Northern Plains state took part in professional development activities across a year. Following a randomized control trial design, Native American and White students’ (N = 165) social, behavioral, and academic adjustment was assessed in
Jill V. Hamm; Thomas W. Farmer; Dylan Robertson; Kimberly A. Dadisman; Allen Murray; Judith L. Meece; Samuel Y. Song
|The current study examined the mediating role of stress in the linkages between attachment to parents and adjustment to attending higher learning institutions in another country. Self-reports from 114 Malaysian late adolescents studying in Singapore supported the primacy of stress for adjustment; more pertinent, stress mediated all the…
Background Panic attacks are a source of individual suffering and are an independent risk factor for later psychopathology. However, much less is known about risk factors for the development of panic attacks, particularly during adolescence when the incidence of panic attacks increases dramatically. We examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in childhood predict the onset of panic attacks in adolescence. Method This study is part of the TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch longitudinal population cohort study (N?=?1,584). Internalizing and Externalizing Problems were collected using the Youth Self-Report (YSR) and the parent-report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at baseline (age 10–12). At age 18–20, DSM-IV defined panic attacks since baseline were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). We investigated whether early adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems predicted panic attacks between ages 10–20 years, using survival analysis in univariate and multivariate models. Results There were N?=?314 (19.8%) cases who experienced at least one DSM-IV defined panic attack during adolescence and N?=?18 (1.2%) who developed panic disorder during adolescence. In univariate analyses, CBCL Total Problems, Internalizing Problems and three of the eight syndrome scales predicted panic attack onset, while on the YSR all broad-band problem scales and each narrow-band syndrome scale predicted panic attack onset. In multivariate analyses, CBCL Social Problems (HR 1.19, p<.05), and YSR Thought Problems (HR 1.15, p<.05) and Social Problems (HR 1.26, p<.01) predicted panic attack onset. Conclusion Risk indicators of panic attack include the wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems. Yet, when adjusted for co-occurring problem behaviors, Social Problems were the most consistent risk factor for panic attack onsets in adolescence.
Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.
The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. In addition, secondborns' social time declined more slowly than firstborns', and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042
Using merged data on adolescents (N=860), research looks at how community resources affect adolescent risk-taking attitudes and problem behavior. Determined that among high-risk adolescents, selected community resources have significant associations with adolescent outcomes. Residential stability decreases both adolescent risk-taking attitudes and…
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three high schools located in low, moderate, and high socioeconomic areas. Participants were in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades, and each completed a self-administered questionnaire. The use of avoidant coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among girls. The use of approach coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among boys. In all cases, coping enhanced this link. No protective role of social support was found. On the contrary, this variable was found to increase the relationship between parental psychological violence and externalized behavior problems among boys. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at strengthening coping skills and social support in adolescents may not be effective in alleviating various behavioral symptoms associated with parental psychological violence. They highlight the importance of prevention of psychologically violent parental practices, instead of only reacting to the problem after it has occurred. PMID:22829215
The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal maternal and early childhood externalizing problems. Social competency and depression during middle childhood moderated the relationship between victimization and violent behaviors for girls, but not boys: Lower levels of social competency and depression served as risk factors for delinquency among teenage girls who experienced victimization during childhood. These findings have important implications for youth violence prevention programs.
Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.
The present study examined whether parental problem drinking affected parenting (i.e., behavioral control, support, rule-setting,\\u000a alcohol-specific behavioral control), and whether parental problem drinking and parenting affected subsequent adolescent alcohol\\u000a use over time. A total of 428 families, consisting of both parents and two adolescents (mean age 13.4 and 15.2 years at Time\\u000a 1) participated in a three-wave longitudinal study with annual
Carmen S. van der Zwaluw; Ron H. J. Scholte; Ad A. Vermulst; Jan K. Buitelaar; Robbert Jan Verkes; Rutger C. M. E. Engels
|Arab-American Muslim adolescents in immigrant families face a number of challenges that put them at risk for behavior problems. This study of Arab-American Muslim Adolescents and their relatively recent immigrant mothers tested a longitudinal family-level model of adolescent behavior problems. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 530) completed measures…
Aroian, Karen J.; Templin, Thomas N.; Hough, Edythe Ellison; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Katz, Anne
Objectives Our purpose was to study psychosocial adjustment and psychiatric morbidity of adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Design All assessment measures were obtained on a single occasion. Clinical data was obtained through the patient's clinical records. Setting A teaching and tertiary care facility in Porto, Portugal. Participants We evaluated 110 CHD patients (62 male) aged from 12 to 26?years (mean=18.00±3.617), 58 cyanotic. All assessment measures were obtained on a single occasion in a tertiary hospital. Demographic information and clinical history were collected. Primary and secondary outcome measures Questionnaires regarded topics such as social support, family educational style, self-image and physical limitations, a standardised psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Lifetime version (SADS-L), and a self-report questionnaire on psychosocial adjustment, youth self-report or adult self-report. One of the relatives completed an observational version of the same questionnaire (child behaviour checklist (CBCL) or ABCL (adult behaviour checklist)). Results We found a 21.8% lifetime prevalence of psychopathology, 31.3%, in females, 14.5% in males, showing a somewhat increased proneness in CHD patients. Females also showed worse psychosocial adjustment, with more somatic complaints (u=260?000; p=0.011), anxiety/depression (u=984?000; p=0.002), aggressive behaviour (u=920?500; p=0.001), attention problems (u=1123?500; p=0.027), thought problems (u=1069?500; p=0.010), internalisation (u=869?000; p=0.0) and externalisation (u=1163?000; p=0.05). Patients with severe CHD (u=939?000; p=0.03) and surgical repair (u=719?000; p=0.037) showed worse psychosocial adjustment. Those with poor social support showed more withdrawal (u=557?500; p=0.0) and social problems (u=748?500; p=0.023), and patients with unsatisfactory school performance revealed more anxiety/depression (u=916?000; p=0.02) and attention problems (u=861?500; p=0.007). Conclusions CHD males with good social support and good academic performance have a better psychosocial adjustment.
Freitas, Isabela Ribeiro; Castro, Marta; Sarmento, Sofia Lourenco; Moura, Claudia; Viana, Victor; Areias, Jose Carlos; Areias, Maria Emilia Guimaraes
The study investigated the following: (1) the relationship of problem solving appraisal to narcissistic vulnerability, locus of control, and depression; (2) the differences in problem solving appraisal, locus of control, and depression in first-time and repeat offenders; and (3) the prediction of problem solving appraisal by narcissistic…
|Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among drivers younger than age 35, making problem driving behavior among young drivers a significant public concern. Effective intervention requires a better understanding of the antecedents of problem driving. Problem behavior theory, social control theory, and Kandel's model of substance use…
The objective of this study was to explain why adolescent girls with conduct problems (CP) are more at risk than boys to develop emotional distress (ED) in a sample composed of Israeli-born and immigrant youth from Ethiopia and the former Soviet Union (n = 305, ages 14–18). We tested a structural equation model and found a very good fit to the data
Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current study, we used hierarchical linear modeling and found that ethnic identity tends to remain fairly stable across the 4 years of high school, whereas American identity increases over time. When ethnic identity and American identity were examined simultaneously, consistent with existing research, ethnic identity was positively associated with positive relationships, high self-esteem, academic motivation, and lower levels of depression over time. Although American identity was not significantly associated with depression, positive links with relationships, self-esteem, and academic motivation were found. Both identities were interactively associated with academic motivation. Acculturative implications and the importance of considering the dual construction of ethnic identity and American identity in light of adolescentadjustment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23231687
Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Champagne, Mariette C
OBJECTIVE—To assess the psychological, behavioural and social adjustment of children (7-11 years) and adolescents (12-16 years) with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). Higher rates of maladjustment were expected to be found in these patients.?METHODS—Self report questionnaires were used within the context of personal interviews. Family functioning and social support were studied as well. Forty seven patients with JCA, 52 healthy peers and their respective parents participated in the study.?RESULTS—Self esteem, perceived competence and body image in patients with JCA were as positive as they were in healthy participants. There were no differences between ill and healthy youngsters with respect to the incidence of psychopathology. Patients with JCA, in general, perceived themselves as socially competent, but they seemed to have somewhat less opportunity or energy to participate in social activities. Children with JCA showed a high level of aspiration to cope with social expectations. This aspiration seemed to be even stronger in case the disease caused more strains, for example, in periods of inflammation and in the systemic onset type. The high level of social adjustment in children with JCA seemed to be supported by highly cohesive family structures. Generally, adolescents with JCA experienced much social support.?CONCLUSIONS—In contrast with our expectation, children and adolescents with JCA seemeed to cope quite well with the psychological and social consequences of their long term condition. For future studies, it is hypothesised that the high levels of adaptation might imply an enduring psychological strain, which is reflected in an altered function of the autonomic nervous system.??
Information from eating disorder clinics across five continents suggests that anorexia nervosa is becoming an increasing problem in children and young adolescents. There is some indication that anxiety disorders in childhood may be a major risk factor for the development of anorexia nervosa. Early recognition and family treatment for this disorder are essential to prevent chronic impairment.
|The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…
Recent advances in the field of prevention have led to a deeper understanding of the causes of adolescentproblem behavior and to the identification of efficacious strategies to prevent delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial conduct. This 2009 Aaron Rosen lecture to members of the "Society for Social Work and Research" traces the evolution of…
|This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…
Information from eating disorder clinics across five continents suggests that anorexia nervosa is becoming an increasing problem in children and young adolescents. There is some indication that anxiety disorders in childhood may be a major risk factor for the development of anorexia nervosa. Early recognition and family treatment for this disorder are essential to prevent chronic impairment. PMID:19432392
Presenting complaints and problems of 28 Southeast Asian adolescent refugees who were seen by therapists at a U.S. hospital psychiatry department are described. Journal Availability: Subscription Department, The Williams Wilkins Co., 428 East Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202. (SEW)
|This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up…
National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011
|Recent advances in the field of prevention have led to a deeper understanding of the causes of adolescentproblem behavior and to the identification of efficacious strategies to prevent delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial conduct. This 2009 Aaron Rosen lecture to members of the "Society for Social Work and Research" traces the evolution…
Concurrent and prospective associations between parent-youth dyadic hostility and adolescent externalizing and internalizing problem behavior were examined in a sample of 416 families. Parenting control, parents' well-being, and youths' affiliation with deviant peers were included as integral covariates. Information from multiple sources was…
|This document contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of adolescents and children and is intended as a resource tool for school psychologists. Articles include background information, approaches regarding assessment of the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities, monitoring methods, and references.…
A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescentproblem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…
Adjustment to the transition from high school to military service in Israel was examined in a longitudinal study with a sample of 120 late-adolescent girls. During their senior year in high school (Time 1) the young women were administered the Adult Attachment Interview. Their coping and adjustment to the new environment were assessed (at two further points in time after
|Adjustment to the transition from high school to military service in Israel was examined in a longitudinal study with a sample of 120 late-adolescent girls. During their senior year in high school (Time 1) the young women were administered the Adult Attachment Interview. Their coping and adjustment to the new environment were assessed (at two…
Adolescence is characterized by dynamic changes in structural brain maturation. At the same time, adolescence is a critical time for the development of affective and anxiety-related disorders. Individual differences in typically developing children and adolescents may prove more valuable for identifying which brain regions correspond with internalizing behavior problems (i.e., anxious/depressive, withdrawal and somatic symptoms) on a continuous scale compared to clinical studies. Participants were 179 (92 males, 87 females) typically developing children and adolescents between ages 8 and 17. Hippocampal and amygdala volumes were measured automatically with FreeSurfer. Internalizing behavior was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) completed by the parent, and associated with hippocampal and amygdala volumes. Hippocampal volume was inversely related with the total internalizing problems scale of the CBCL, irrespective of gender, age, or informant (mother or father). The effects were most prominent for the withdrawal and anxiety/depression subscales and the left hippocampus: more withdrawal and anxiety/depression was related to smaller left hippocampal volume. No associations were found between internalizing behavior and amygdala volume. This study shows that typically developing children and adolescents with high internalizing behavior share some of the neuroanatomical features of adult depression and anxiety-related disorders. PMID:22824414
Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Crone, Eveline A
|This longitudinal study investigated prospective links between social isolation and adjustmentproblems among 166 (77 girls, 89 boys) Finnish children ages 7 to 9. Peer nominations for social engagement and self-reports of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected in the spring of the 1st and 2nd grade. Friendship moderated…
Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The Malaysian government aims to internationalize tertiary education in the country. In order to attract more international students, it is important to understand and develop measures to overcome the various kinds of adjustmentproblems they face. A quantitative survey using the ‘International Student Problem Inventory’ was conducted on randomly selected international students from five major private higher education institutions in
This study examines whether two aspects of mothering—acceptance and consistency of discipline—buffer the effect of divorce stressors on adjustmentproblems in 678 children, ages 8 to 15, whose families had divorced within the past 2 years. Children reported on divorce stressors; both mothers and children reported on mothering and internalizing and externalizing problems. Multiple regressions indicate that for maternal report
Sharlene A. Wolchik; Kathryn L. Wilcox; Jenn-Yun Tein; Irwin N. Sandler
The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children’s Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3—18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences measuring personality, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire measuring problem behavior, and
An earlier study of ours that used data collected in 1972 found that a single common factor accounted for the positive correlations among a number of adolescentproblem behaviors, including problem drinking, marijuana use, delinquent-type behavior, and precocious sexual intercourse. The present maximum-likelihood factor analyses replicated this finding on new samples of male and female 11th- and 12th-grade students tested
This article examines problem recognition across ethnic groups by focusing on parental reports of mental health problems in adolescents. Data were collected from 1 youth (aged 11–17) and 1 caregiver from a community-based sample of households in the Houston metropolitan area. The sample was 4175 youths and their caregivers (37.8% European, 35.00% African, 25.4% Latino, and 1.8% other American). Indicators
Robert E. Roberts; Margarita Alegria; Catherine Ramsay Roberts; Irene Ger Chen
|Thirty-one parents with multiple sclerosis (MS) participated in a study to investigate the adjustment of their children, 24 boys and 24 girls aged 4 to 16 years. The majority of parents believed that their illness had an effect on their children. The perception of parents regarding their children's problems in the areas of emotions,…
Thirty-one parents with multiple sclerosis (MS) participated in a study to investigate the adjustment of their children, 24 boys and 24 girls aged 4 to 16 years. The majority of parents believed that their illness had an effect on their children. The perception of parents regarding their children's problems in the areas of emotions, concentration,…
|In a sample of families with 6- to 18-year-olds, this study found that sons' and daughters' testosterone levels showed little direct connection to risk behavior or depressive symptoms. As parent-child relationship quality increased, testosterone-related adjustmentproblems were less evident. When relationship quality decreased,…
Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan
In this investigation, the authors examine the relationship between individual skills (i.e., career locus of control [LOC], social skills [SOC], and social problem-solving skills [SPSS]) and the school- and perceived career-related adjustment of 211 students with disabilities. Data pertaining to individual skills were gathered from student…
Pinkney, Christopher J.; Murray, Christopher J.; Lind, John R.
|Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment…
Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M. Brent
Theories of social-emotional growth propose that repeatedly-experienced parent–infant interactions shape the individual's adaptation across development, yet few studies examined interactive behaviors repeatedly from infancy to adolescence. This study assessed the trajectories of four mother–child relational behaviors at six time-points from 3 months to 13 years: maternal sensitivity, child social engagement, mother intrusiveness, and dyadic reciprocity. Trajectories were examined separately for
This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four quantitative measures examining self-competencies, social approval, anxiety, depression and self-worth. Findings revealed significant
|Objective: The current study explores three avenues in early young adulthood through which adolescentproblems may be linked to later substance use problems: problematic substance use, failure to assume adult roles and responsibilities, and exposure to pro-drug social influences. Method: Participants (N = 1,986; 49% female) filled out surveys at…
D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven; Klein, David J.
Arab-American Muslim adolescents in immigrant families face a number of challenges that put them at risk for behavior problems.\\u000a This study of Arab-American Muslim Adolescents and their relatively recent immigrant mothers tested a longitudinal family-level\\u000a model of adolescent behavior problems. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 530) completed measures of maternal and adolescent stressors, active and avoidance coping, and social support; maternal\\u000a distress; quality
Karen J. AroianThomas; Thomas N. Templin; Edythe Ellison Hough; Vidya Ramaswamy; Anne Katz
The goal of this study was to examine relationships between several family characteristics and the adjustment (at individual, relational and school levels) of 63 school-aged children and adolescents growing up in families that received psychosocial interventions by Social Services of the Seville Council. The second aim was to explore possible differences in family characteristics between at-risk children non-adapted to their
Background The prevalence of medical marijuana diversion among adolescents in substance treatment and the relationship between medical marijuana diversion and marijuana attitudes, availability, peer disapproval, frequency of use and substance-related problems are not known. Methods 80 adolescents (15-19 years) in outpatient substance treatment in Denver, Colorado, completed an anonymous questionnaire developed for the study and the Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised (DUSI-R). The proportion ever obtaining marijuana from someone with a medical marijuana license was calculated. Those ever obtaining marijuana from someone with a medical marijuana license were compared to those never obtaining medical marijuana with respect to marijuana attitudes, availability, peer disapproval, frequency of use, DUSI-R substance use problem and overall problem score using Chi-Square analyses and independent t-tests. Results 39 (48.8%) reported ever obtaining marijuana from someone with a medical marijuana license. A significantly greater proportion of those reporting medical marijuana diversion, compared to those who did not, reported very easy marijuana availability, no friend disapproval of regular marijuana use and greater than 20 times of marijuana use per month over the last year. The diversion group compared to the no diversion group also reported more substance use problems and overall problems on the DUSI-R. Conclusions Diversion of medical marijuana is common among adolescents in substance treatment. These data support a relationship between medical marijuana exposure and marijuana availability, social norms, frequency of use, substance-related problems and general problems among teens in substance treatment. Adolescent substance treatment should address the impact of medical marijuana on treatment outcomes.
Thurstone, Christian; Lieberman, Shane A.; Schmiege, Sarah J.
The Catcher in the Rye was written by famous American writer J.D.Salinger. This paper mainly analyzes the adolescentproblems Holden Caulfield confronts on the journey from childhood to adulthood. These adolescentproblems include Holden's protection of innocence, his disgust for the phoniness of the adult world, and his alienation from society. This paper concludes that these adolescentproblems produce great
Explores the relationship between sexual abuse and two problem outcomes in adolescents (N=42,568): binge drinking and suicidal ideation. Focused on factors related to problem behaviors among adolescents reporting sexual abuse. Results indicate that adolescents who endured sexual and physical abuse exhibited more problems than those experiencing…
Objectives?The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the association of observed parenting behaviors with adjustment in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their mothers.?Methods?Adolescents with T1D (n = 30) and their mothers provided data on psychosocial adjustment and engaged in a discussion task about diabetes stress, which was coded for parenting behavior. Clinical data (i.e., HbA1c) was obtained from adolescents’ medical records.?Results?Mothers’ symptoms of anxiety and depression were related to lower levels of child-centered parenting. Higher levels of observed child-centered parenting and positive reinforcement and lower levels of maternal hostility and parental influence were related to better psychosocial adjustment in adolescents (i.e., fewer depressive symptoms, better quality of life) and better metabolic control. Conclusions?Results support the use of observational data in this population and provide estimates of effect sizes between parenting variables, maternal and adolescent psychosocial adjustment, and metabolic control.
Objective The internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling amongst adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the internet. Method Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut high-school-student gamblers were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results At-risk/problem gambling was found more frequently in adolescent internet gamblers than in non-internet gamblers. As compared to at-risk/problem gambling in the non-internet gambling group, at-risk/problem gambling in the internet gambling group was more strongly associated with poor academic performance and substance use (particularly current heavy alcohol use; odds ratio=2.99; p=0.03) and less strongly associated with gambling with friends (odds ratio=0.32; p=0.0003). At-risk/problem gambling in both the internet and non-internet gambling groups, respectively, was associated at p<0.05 each with multiple adverse measures including dysphoria/depression (odds ratios=1.76, 1.96), getting into serious fights (odds ratios=2.50, 1.93), carrying weapons (odds ratios=2.11, 1.90), and use of tobacco (odds ratios=2.05, 1.88 for regular use), marijuana (odds ratios=2.02, 1.39) and other drugs (odds ratios=3.24, 1.67). Conclusions Clinically, it is important to assess for teenagers’ involvement in internet gambling, particularly as adolescent at-risk/problem internet gambling appears specifically associated with non-peer involvement, heavy alcohol use and poor academic functioning.
Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.
|Difficulties with self-regulation are implicated in the development of emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence. Although children's ability to regulate their behaviors continues to improve throughout childhood and adolescence, it remains unclear how contextual risk factors might influence this development during the transition to…
King, Kevin M.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Monahan, Kathryn C.
|Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…
Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank
Purpose Developmental psychology research finds that when children and adolescents engage in excessive discussion of problems with\\u000a friends, a phenomenon termed “co-rumination,” they experience trade-offs between negative adjustment outcomes (e.g., depression),\\u000a but better friendship quality. This study examines the possibility that adults in the workplace engage in co-rumination about\\u000a workplace problems, and that co-rumination, gender, and the presence of abusive supervision
Dana L. Haggard; Christopher Robert; Amanda J. Rose
We compared offspring of problem gamblers (n = 42) to offspring of parents without gambling problems (n = 100) to see (1) whether the two groups differed with respect to depressive feelings and conduct\\/antisociality problems\\u000a and (2) whether ineffective parenting or the offspring’s own gambling problems played a mediating role in this context. Participants\\u000a were drawn from a relatively large community-based study (N = 1,872). Parents
Frank Vitaro; Brigitte Wanner; Mara Brendgen; Richard E. Tremblay
The present study explored the relationships among stress, general and religious coping, and mental health in a sample of urban adolescents. The participants included 587 9th- through 12th-grade students attending two Catholic high schools in the New York City area. They completed a set of self-report measures assessing perceived stress, religious coping, general coping, clinical symptomology, positive and negative affect, and life satisfaction. Correlation and regression analyses were used to describe relationships among variables. Perceived stress, negative religious coping, and avoidant coping were significantly associated with indicators of psychological distress. Conversely, positive religious coping and active/engagement coping were significantly associated with indicators of psychological adjustment. Negative religious coping also was found to moderate the relationship between perceived stress and positive affect. Finally, partial correlational analyses revealed significant relationships between religious coping and mental health indicators, even after controlling for the contributions of general coping. Implications of the findings for research and clinical practice with adolescent populations are considered. PMID:22130582
It is well established that adolescents living in father custody are more likely to be involved in antisocial behavior and substance use, as compared to adolescents living in mother custody. This study assessed whether these differences also pertain to a wider spectrum of health-related outcomes. A second aim was to investigate the role of a stepparent on adolescents' health-related adjustment.
|Authoritative parenting has been associated with positive outcomes for children and adolescents, but less is known about the mechanisms responsible for such effects. Two longitudinal studies examined the hypothesis that the relation between authoritative parenting and adolescents' adjustment is mediated by adolescents' level of dispositional…
Jackson, Lynne M.; Pratt, Michael W.; Hunsberger, Bruce; Pancer, S. Mark
This study tested the hypothesis that positive career orientation can prevent adolescents from engaging in or escalating problem behaviour. A 1-year, longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of 234 junior-high and high-school students, who were 14.8 years old on the average in the beginning of the study. Using structural equation modeling, a developmental, two-wave, two-factor empirical model corresponding to
|The study examined the effects of social support and family functioning on illness and adjustment in 70 children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Four sources of information were used: patient interview and standardized tests; parent interview and standardized tests; teacher interview; and medical records. Results revealed several…
The main goal of this study was to examine the direct and moderating effects of trustworthiness and modeling on adolescent siblings' adjustment. Data were collected from 438 families including a mother, a younger sibling in fifth, sixth, or seventh grade (M = 11.6 years), and an older sibling (M = 14.3 years). Respondents completed Web-based…
|This study reports the effectiveness of a developmentally based, teacher professional development intervention aimed at improving early adolescent school adjustment. Teachers in rural schools in a Northern Plains state took part in professional development activities across a year. Following a randomized control trial design, Native American and…
Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Robertson, Dylan; Dadisman, Kimberly A.; Murray, Allen; Meece, Judith L.; Song, Samuel Y.
The study examined: (1) the intergenerational concordance between parents and their adolescent sons using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) categories and state-of-mind scales; and (2) the contribution of parents' state of mind with respect to attachment to their sons' adjustment during a stressful separation, as well as the possibility that sons' AAI mediates the associations between parents' AAI and sons’
|The main goal of this study was to examine the direct and moderating effects of trustworthiness and modeling on adolescent siblings' adjustment. Data were collected from 438 families including a mother, a younger sibling in fifth, sixth, or seventh grade (M = 11.6 years), and an older sibling (M = 14.3 years). Respondents completed Web-based…
This study reports the effectiveness of a developmentally based, teacher professional development intervention aimed at improving early adolescent school adjustment. Teachers in rural schools in a Northern Plains state took part in professional development activities across a year. Following a randomized control trial design, Native American and…
Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Robertson, Dylan; Dadisman, Kimberly A.; Murray, Allen; Meece, Judith L.; Song, Samuel Y.
Parental monitoring has been conceptualized as tracking and surveillance but operationalized as knowledge of daily activities. This study tested the tracking and surveillance explanation of why parental knowledge is linked to better adolescentadjustment. Participants were 1,186 14-year-olds in central Sweden and their parents. The results supported and extended a reinterpretation of parental monitoring (H. Stattin & M. Kerr, in
|This study distinguishes different patterns of friendship quality in terms of support from and conflict with friends, and reciprocity. Associations between friendship patterns and adolescents' adjustment (self-perception, expectations for the future, depressive feelings, sense of alienation, lying, disobedience, and aggression) were hypothesized…
|This study explored students' perceptions of 3 dimensions of school climate (teacher support, student-student support, and opportunities for autonomy in the classroom) and the associations between these dimensions and adolescent psychological and academic adjustment in China and the United States. Data were drawn from 2 studies involving 706…
This study examined whether college students' self-appraisal of their problem-solving effectiveness (i.e., perceived confidence, personal control, approach-avoidance) is related to their psychological adjustment, as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Subjects (N = 671) were initially given the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI; Heppner & Petersen, 1982), with 40 subjects who scored in the top 16% and 40 in
The present study investigated the associations between family functioning, acculturation between parents and their adolescents, and adolescentadjustmentproblems. Chinese adolescents and their parents (N ¼ 41) living in the United States and Canada participated in this study. Results showed that differences in acculturation between parents and adolescents were related to adolescent depression and that family functioning was related to
D. Russell Crane; So Wa Ngai; Jeffry H. Larson; McArthur Hafen
Objective: The authors examined the relation of caregiver problem-solving abilities to patient adjustment. Design: Correlational methods were used to test the hypothesis. Participants: Data from 11 male and 55 female caregivers were matched with data from 38 men and 18 women with recent spinal cord injuries. Main Outcome Measures: The Acceptance of Disability Scale score and pressure sore diagnosis were
Timothy R. Elliott; Richard M. Shewchuk; J. Scott Richards
The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustmentproblems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.
|This longitudinal study utilized a community sample of children (N = 91, 45% female, 8-11 years at time 1) to investigate physiological responses (heart rate reactivity [HRR] and electrodermal responding [EDR]) during delay of gratification in relation to emotionality, self-regulation, and adjustmentproblems. Cluster analyses identified three…
In clinical trials we always expect some missing data. If data are missing completely at random, then missing data can be ignored for the purpose of statistical inference. In most situation, however, ignoring missing data will introduce bias. Adjustment is possible for missing data if the missing mechanism is known, which is rare in real problems. Our approach is to
Large numbers of foreign students attend United States colleges and universities, and the institutions can play a major role in facilitating the students' adjustment to life in a new culture. The foreign students' most common problems include homesickness, finances, housing and food, English language proficiency, understanding lectures and…
This longitudinal study utilized a community sample of children (N = 91, 45% female, 8-11 years at time 1) to investigate physiological responses (heart rate reactivity [HRR] and electrodermal responding [EDR]) during delay of gratification in relation to emotionality, self-regulation, and adjustmentproblems. Cluster analyses identified three…
|Children with significant behaviour problems are at risk for poor classroom adjustment and school failure. Given this likelihood for a poor developmental trajectory, there is a need to better understand environmental influences within classrooms that help to effectively socialize children to those settings. The current study evaluated the effects…
Baker, Jean A.; Clark, Teresa P.; Crowl, Alicia; Carlson, John S.
|The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustmentproblems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1…
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.
|Examines whether there are gender differences in changes in the aggregate level and individual stability of conduct problems from early adolescence to early adulthood. Analyzes self-reported data from a study of Norwegian adolescents. Analyses showed that involvement in conduct problems for both genders peaked in mid-adolescence. In the long…
|The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…
Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.
|Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…
Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando
Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and witnessing community violence. In a sample of 589 ethnically diverse early adolescents, gang
The present study examines the relations between adolescent motherhood and children's behavior, substance use, and internalizing problems in a sample of 1,368 children of 712 female twins from Australia. Adolescent motherhood remained significantly associated with all mental health problems, even when using a quasiexperimental design capable of controlling for genetic and environmental confounds. However, the relation between adolescent motherhood and
K. Paige Harden; Stacy K. Lynch; Eric Turkheimer; Robert E. Emery; Brian M. DOnofrio; Wendy S. Slutske; Mary D. Waldron; Andrew C. Heath; Dixie J. Statham; Nicholas G. Martin
|Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…
Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang
|Of 4,100 adolescents, those who characterized their parents as authoritative scored highest on psychosocial competence and lowest on behavioral dysfunction. The reverse was true for neglected adolescents. Adolescents from authoritarian homes scored high on obedience but low on self-perception. Adolescents from indulgent homes evidenced…
At-risk adolescents experience troubling levels of depression but there is a dearth of research related to the levels of depression\\u000a and associated psychosocial problems experienced by adolescent abortion patients. The relationship between depression and\\u000a 16 other psychosocial life problems is examined in a sample of adolescent pregnancy termination patients. Using the Multidimensional\\u000a Adolescent Assessment Scale (MAAS), depression and related psychosocial
Gretchen E. Ely; Chris Flaherty; Gary S. Cuddeback
This study identified personality clusters among a community sample of adolescents of Haitian decent and related cluster subgroup membership to problems in the areas of substance abuse, mental and physical health, family and peer relationships, educational and vocational status, social skills, leisure and recreational pursuits, aggressive behavior-delinquency, and to sexual risk activity. Three cluster subgroups were identified: dependent/conforming (N = 68), high pathology (N = 30); and confident/extroverted/conforming (N = 111). Although the overall sample was relatively healthy based on low average endorsement of problems across areas of expressed concern, significant physical health, mental health, relationship, educational, and HIV risk problems were identified in a MACI identified high psychopathology cluster subgroup. A confident/extraverted/conforming cluster subgroup revealed few problems and appears to reflect a protective style. PMID:22362195
McMahon, Robert C; Bryant, Vaughn E; Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Malow, Robert M
This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, “other” API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese American counterparts. Many of these differences remained after adjusting for parental education. Controlling for immigrant status explained only some of the subgroup differences. The results suggest several shortcomings to the “model minority” stereotype that is often applied to API American youth. Research and practice should not overlook the higher risk for problem behaviors among certain API American subgroups. The findings highlight the need for more resources for API Americans, especially for the API subgroups facing higher risks.
This study tested the hypothesis that positive career orientation can prevent adolescents from engaging in or escalating problem behaviour. A 1-year, longitudinal study was conducted on a sample of 234 junior-high and high-school students, who were 14.8 years old on the average in the beginning of the study. Using structural equation modeling, a developmental, two-wave, two-factor empirical model corresponding to the predicted relationships between career orientation and problem behaviour was found to fit the data well. According to the fitted model, positive career orientation had a significant negative longitudinal effect on problem behaviour. In contrast, we found no evidence in support of the assumption that career orientation can be affected by problematic behavioural tendencies. PMID:16626800
Objective: To examine the relation of social problem-solving abilities to psychological and physical adjustment of persons with recent spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Design: Correlational procedures were used. Participants: One hundred eighty-six persons with recent SCI completed self-report measures during inpatient rehabilitation; 94 returned for an annual evaluation. Main Outcome Measures: Acceptance of disability, career needs, and pressure sore diagnoses. Results:
Analyses addressing two sets of hypotheses were examined. First, it was hypothesized that the number of parenting transitions would define a continuum that would covary with the magnitude of the adjustmentproblems experienced by boys in the family. Intact, single-mother, stepfather, and multiple-transition families were selected from 206 predominantly lower- and working-class families in the Oregon Youth Study and compared
A sense of mastery is an important component of psychological health and well-being across the life-span; however, relatively little is known about the development of mastery during childhood and adolescence. Utilizing prospective, longitudinal data from 444 adolescent sibling pairs and their parents, our conceptual model proposes that family SES in the form of parental education promotes effective family problem solving which, in turn, fosters adolescent mastery. Results show: (1) a significant increase in mastery for younger and older siblings, (2) parental education promoted effective problem solving between parents and adolescents and between siblings but not between the parents themselves, and (3) all forms of effective family problem solving predicted greater adolescent mastery. Parental education had a direct effect on adolescent mastery as well as the hypothesized indirect effect through problem solving effectiveness, suggesting both a social structural and social process influence on the development of mastery during adolescence.
Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Williams, Shannon Tierney; Little, Wendy M.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Shebloski, Barbara
This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed. PMID:23889017
Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A
This survey, “Life and Health—Young People 2005,” included all 15/16-year-old adolescents in mainstream schools in the county of Örebro, Sweden. Just students with a slight/mild or moderate hearing loss were included. There were 56 (1.9%) “hard-of-hearing (HH) students with multiple disabilities,” 93 (3.1%) students who were “just HH,” 282 (9.7%) students with some “other disability than HH,” and 2,488 (85.2%) students with “no disability.” “HH with multiple disabilities” reported considerably higher scores for mental symptoms, substance use, and school problems than the “no disability” group. Those with “just HH” and those with “other disability than HH” had more mental symptoms and school problems than the “no disability” group but no significant differences in substance use. In conclusion, the combination of a hearing loss and some other disability strongly increases the risk for mental symptoms, school problems, and substance use. This group, thus, is an important target for preventive measures.
Objective To investigate the cross-sectional relationship between maternal parenting style and indicators of well-being among adolescents with diabetes. Methods Seventy-eight adolescents (ages 11.58-17.42 years, M ¼14.21) with type 1 diabetes and their mothers separately reported perceptions of maternal parenting style. Adolescents reported their own depressed mood, self-efficacy for managing diabetes, and diabetes regimen adherence. Results Adolescents' perceptions of maternal psychological
Jorie M. Butler; Michelle Skinner; Donna Gelfand; Cynthia A. Berg; Deborah J. Wiebe
The association between perceived economic stress (current economic hardship and future economic worry) and adolescentadjustment was examined in 229 Chinese adolescents using children and parental reports of perceived economic stress. Parents displayed higher levels of current economic hardship and future economic worry than their children did and mothers had more worry about their children's economic conditions in future than
|The role of disclosing child sexual abuse on adolescent survivors' symptomology and the presence of additional unwanted sexual experiences was investigated in a subsample of 111 adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents who reported child sexual abuse. Results indicated that prompt disclosure of sexual abuse to an adult moderated the…
|The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent…
|This study examined relations between effortful control, parent-adolescent conflict, and teacher-student relationships and the concurrent and longitudinal impact of these factors on adolescent depression and misconduct. In particular, we examined whether the risks of low effortful control and parent-adolescent conflict could be buffered by…
The present study investigated emotional and behavioral problems in children with selective mutism (SM) along with the psychological adjustment and parenting attitudes of their mothers and fathers. Participants included 26 children with SM (mean age = 8.11 ± 2.11 years), 32 healthy controls (mean age = 8.18 ± 2.55 years) and the parents of all children. Children with SM displayed higher problem scores than controls in a variety of emotional and behavioral parameters. They predominantly displayed internalizing problems, whereas aggressive and delinquent behavior was described among a subsample of the children. Significant differences existed between the SM and control groups only in paternal psychopathology, which included anxiety and depression. They did not differ with respect to maternal psychological distress or mother or father reported parental attitudes. Another important result of the present study was that the severity of emotional and behavioral problems of children with SM was correlated with maternal psychopathology but not paternal psychopathology. PMID:23247199
As gambling becomes more accessible and acceptable in society, problems associated with gambling and gaming have begun to affect ever increasing numbers of adolescents. Although restricted from most forms of gambling by law, many adolescents are finding a path into problem gambling. Some are becoming compulsive gamblers early in their gambling career, facing a future filled with consequences and problems.
Carlo C. DiClemente; Marilyn Story; Kenneth Murray
This study attempted to validate a modified version of Heppner & Petersen's (1982) Problem Solving Inventory, (PSI) for a younger adolescent population with specific emphasis on its potential uses with Learning Disabled adolescents.^ Results indicate the Problem Solving Inventory was not useful in differentiating Learning Disabled from non-Learning Disabled youngsters. Since the self-appraisal of interpersonal problem solving ability of Learning
|The present study was designed to examine (a) family and school functioning and (b) personal and ethnic identity are associated with conduct problems, drug use, and sexual risk taking in a sample of 227 high-risk Hispanic adolescents. Adolescents participated in the study with their primary parents, who were mostly mothers. Adolescents completed…
Schwartz, Seth J.; Mason, Craig A.; Pantin, Hilda; Wang, Wei; Brown, C. Hendricks; Campo, Ana E.; Szapocznik, Jose
This study was designed to explore the relationships between adolescent alcohol abuse and other problem behaviors. Parental socialization practices, particularly support\\/nurturance, were also examined for common influences on both alcohol abuse and other youthful deviance. Interviews were conducted with a representative household sample of adolescents aged 12–17 years and their parents. The findings support the theory that adolescent alcohol abuse
Alcohol use becomes more frequent during adolescence, with the percentage of youth who drink doubling from 8th grade to 12th grade. The escalation in drinking behavior during adolescence is often associated with increased problems and other risk behavior, such as drunk driving. In this study, adolescents (N = 557) were recruited from an emergency department to assess their alcohol use,
Elizabeth J. DAmico; Nancy P. Barnett; Peter M. Monti; Suzanne M. Colby; Anthony Spirito; Damaris J. Rohsenow
We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…
Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina
This study investigated interrelations among conditions of household socioeconomic disadvantage, proximal environmental experiences, and adaptational outcomes in a sample of 398 middle grade, early adolescents from a predominantly poor, rural area. Findings indicated that levels of disadvantage were related to both socioemotional and academic adjustment, with those from relatively disadvantaged backgrounds faring most poorly. Specifically, youth from homes in which adults were employed in low-income, unskilled occupations were found to have lower levels of school performance and achievement compared to those from homes in which adults were employed in higher paying semi-skilled or skilled/professional occupations. Further, youth from families in which neither parent had graduated from high school exhibited significantly worse socioemotional and academic adjustment than did those whose parents had higher educational levels. Youth who lived in relatively disadvantaged homes also reported more negative experiences of proximal environmental conditions relating to family and school contexts and greater exposure to stressful life events. Most notably, findings provided support for employing an ecological-mediational perspective to understand patterns of linkage between socioeconomic disadvantage and levels of adjustment. Support for this viewpoint included the finding that proximal environmental experiences were significant predictors of adolescentadjustment, independent of shared variance with conditions of household disadvantage, whereas conditions of disadvantage in several instances were no longer related significantly to indices of adjustment once their association with proximal environmental conditions was taken into account. The discussion considers implications for the targeting and scope of ecologically oriented approaches to preventive intervention. PMID:7789201
Felner, R D; Brand, S; DuBois, D L; Adan, A M; Mulhall, P F; Evans, E G
Considerable research in the U.S. has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problems have a negative influence on adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, although these behaviors appear in other cultures, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in countries other than the U.S.. This study contributes to our understanding of personality and parenting factors associated with adolescentproblem behaviors using an international sample. Data are from a NIDA-funded study of 884 community-dwelling adolescents in Santiago, Chile (Mean age=14, SD=1.4, 48% females) of mid-to-low socioeconomic status. Results revealed that rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors were both associated with greater levels of adolescent drive but lower levels of parental monitoring and positive parenting by both parents. Adolescents who reported more attention problems were more likely to exhibit driven behavior, more behavioral inhibition, to report lower levels of parental monitoring, and positive parenting by mother and father. Results of interactions revealed that the influences of positive parenting and parental monitoring on adolescent aggressive behaviors varied as a function of the gender of the adolescent. Helping parents build on their parenting skills may result in important reductions in adolescentproblem behaviors among U.S. and international adolescents.
Bares, Cristina B.; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew
The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher,\\u000a classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students.\\u000a Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psychometric support for the\\u000a Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale
It was examined whether early adolescents’ involvement in a romantic relationship would be differentially related to adjustment, depending on their relations with the same-sex peer group. Three hundred and twelve 7th graders were assessed with respect to their social acceptance by same-sex peers, involvement in reciprocal same-sex friendships, involvement in romantic relationships, selfesteem, antisocial behavior, and academic performance. Social acceptance
Mara Brendgen; Frank Vitaro; Anna-Beth Doyle; Dorothy Markiewicz; William M. Bukowski
Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother’s emotional support, behavioral control\\/monitoring, family organization\\u000a and psychological control with adolescent’s internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged,\\u000a African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother’s psychological control were positively associated\\u000a with adolescent’s internalizing problems. Demanding kin relations also moderated the association of control\\/monitoring, family\\u000a organization, and psychological
Ronald D. Taylor; Elizabeth I. Lopez; Mia Budescu; Rebecca Kang McGill
This study investigated the relationships among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence. Previous research suggests that these variables share an association with executive functioning deficits, and are intertwined. The sample comprised 427 adolescents (M age = 16 years) attending remedial schools and 276 adolescents (M age = 15 years) attending a mainstream school in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that adolescents without learning difficulties were more likely to use tobacco, methamphetamine and cannabis, whereas those with learning difficulties engaged in more inhalant use. Adolescents who had more sleep problems were more likely to use tobacco, alcohol, methamphetamine, cannabis, inhalants, cocaine, ecstasy and any other illegal drug. Adolescents with learning difficulties had more sleep problems than those without learning difficulties. However, sleep problems remained independently associated with tobacco, cannabis and inhalant use when learning difficulties were taken into account. PMID:20952052
The current cross-sectional study investigated the links between various dimensions of organized activity involvement and\\u000a depressive symptoms, loneliness, and peer victimization in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 152; 58% female). Results indicate that adolescents who were involved in organized activities for more years also reported\\u000a lower levels of loneliness. There was evidence of diminishing returns when adolescents
Evaluations of self-efficacy in carrying out social tasks that underlie successful personal relations have been highlighted as an important component of social competence in childhood and adolescence. An examination of social self-efficacy in two samples of high school students and a sample of emotionally disturbed adolescents is reported. The Adolescent Social Self-Efficacy Scale, a 25-item scale which elicits self-ratings of
This study examined whether current sexual behavior and sexual adjustment in a sample of 433 college students differed as a function of having engaged in sexual activity with other children during preadolescence (prior to age 13) and\\/or early adolescence (ages 13–15). Four groups were compared: subjects who only had an early adolescent sexual experience; subjects who had both preadolescent and
Harold Leitenberg; Evan Greenwald; Matthew J. Tarran
The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of Internet addiction and interpersonal problems, explore the relationship between the two, and identify the relevant factors of Internet addiction in Korean middle school students. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The participants were 676 middle school students. A Korean version of the Internet addiction self-test scale and a Korean version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems were used. Among the participants, 547 (80.9%) were identified as general users, 108 (16%) were potential risk users, and 21 (3.1%) were high-risk users. There were statistically significant positive correlations between Internet addiction and interpersonal problems (r = 0.425, P = .000). There were significant positive correlations between Internet addiction and hours spent playing games. Internet-addicted adolescents also had more interpersonal problems. It is important to raise awareness about Internet addiction, and close attention must be paid not only to students at risk of Internet addiction but also to students at low risk to prevent students from becoming addicted to the Internet. PMID:19574748
Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the authors of the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account the interdependence among family members. Structural equation models showed that during early adolescence, parent-child American orientation discrepancy is related to parents' use of unsupportive parenting practices; parents' use of unsupportive parenting is related to increased sense of alienation between parents and children, which in turn is related to more depressive symptoms and lower academic performance in Chinese American adolescents. These patterns of negative adjustment established in early adolescence persist into middle adolescence. This mediating effect is more apparent among father-adolescent dyads than among mother-adolescent dyads. In contrast, parent-child Chinese orientation discrepancy does not demonstrate a significant direct or indirect effect on adolescentadjustment, either concurrently or longitudinally. The current findings suggest that during early adolescence, children are more susceptible to the negative effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancy; they also underscore the importance of fathering in Chinese immigrant families. PMID:22799587
Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana
The current study assessed the relative importance of conduct problems and depressive symptoms, measured at two ages (11 and 15), for predicting substance use at age 15 in an unselected birth cohort of New Zealand adolescents. Among males, when the relative predictive utility of both conduct problems and depressive symptoms was assessed, only pre-adolescent depressive symptoms were found to predict
Bill Henry; Mike Feehan; Rob McGee; Warren Stanton; Terrie E. Moffitt; Phil Silva
|Examined how externalizing as well as internalizing behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence predict young adults' personalities as represented by Loevinger's (1976) model of ego development. Demonstrated that behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence predict young adults' ego-level attainment in unique and meaningful ways.…
Krettenauer, Tobias; Ullrich, Manuela; Hofmann, Volker; Edelstein, Wolfgang
Aims: To study the influences of parental alcohol problems on adolescents' alcohol consumption and motivations to drink alcohol. Methods: A community sample of 1744 adolescents from schools in South Wales completed the 6-item Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, Drinking Motives Questionnaire, and survey measures of alcohol consumption. Results: Children of parents with alcohol problems constituted almost one-fifth of the sample
We tested hypotheses that adolescent behaviors indicating difficulty with individuation from mothers predict current internalizing and increases in internalizing problems a year later. Seventy-eight rural, primarily White working-class adolescents used video recall methods to rate their behaviors with their mothers during a conflict resolution task. Multiple regression and sequential analyses revealed that girls, particularly those with prior internalizing problems, evidenced
Sally I. Powers; Cynthia L. Battle; Kristen Dorta; Deborah P. Welsh
|Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…
A cross-sectional investigation of 59 Swedish 7-9-year-olds with asthma and their parents was undertaken to study family factors of importance to the children's psychological adjustment. Children scored the I Think I Am questionnaire, a measure of global self-worth, parents the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Parents' report of family cohesion was assessed with the Family Climate questionnaire, perceived parental capacity with a combination of a short form of the Parental Locus of Control questionnaire and the Parenting Efficacy questionnaire. High family cohesion and high perceived parental capacity were both associated with a high average child-reported global self-worth and children having on average few emotional and behavioural problems according to parental ratings. We found no support for the often-held view that high family cohesion (i.e. enmeshment) is associated with poor psychological adjustment of the child. The study, although small and limited by its cross-sectional design, supports the association between family cohesion and perceived parental capacity on the one hand and psychological adjustment of children with asthma on the other. PMID:16195093
|Studied the relationship of African American adolescents' fears of calamity, kinship social support, and neighborhood social capital to aspects of depression. Results with 160 urban adolescents indicate that those with neighbors who looked out for them and who were interested in them were less likely to be depressed than those whose neighborhoods…
|Ethnic and generation differences in the frequency and types of ethnic socialization messages that 524 eleventh-grade adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds received from their parents were examined. Results indicated that adolescents from both Mexican and Chinese backgrounds reported more cultural socialization and…
Hurricane Katrina ripped through Louisiana and the Gulf Coast in late August 2005. This devastating storm left thousands of people homeless and forever changed the lives of those who lived in these areas. Adolescents in the storm-impacted areas continue to be affected by life events brought about by this natural catastrophe. Many adolescents moved to another parish or state and
This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…
This study explores how acculturation is related to adaptation across different life spheres for 162 Soviet Jewish refugee adolescents in a suburban community in Maryland. Because the different contexts of refugee adolescents' lives vary in acculturative demands, different patterns of acculturation should be related to adaptation in different life spheres. The study uses a multidimensional measure of acculturation and assesses
|The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…
Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.
|The current cross-sectional study investigated the links between various dimensions of organized activity involvement and depressive symptoms, loneliness, and peer victimization in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 152; 58% female). Results indicate that adolescents who were involved in organized activities for…
|Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents' behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents' physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175…
Cook, Emily C.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.
Despite the rapidly growing Mexican American population, no studies to date have attempted to explain the underlying relations between family instability and Mexican American children's development. Using a diverse sample of 740 Mexican American adolescents (49% female; 5th grade, M age = 10.4 years; 7th grade, M age = 12.8 years) and their mothers, we prospectively examined the relations between family instability and adolescent academic outcomes and mental health in the 7th grade. The model fit the data well and results indicated that family instability between 5th and 7th grade was related to increased 7th-grade mother-adolescent conflict, and, in turn, mother-adolescent conflict was related to decreased school attachment and to increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms in the 7th grade. Results also indicated that 7th-grade mother-adolescent conflict mediated the relations between family instability and 7th-grade academic outcomes and mental health. Further, we explored adolescent familism values as a moderator and found that adolescent familism values served as a protective factor in the relation between mother-adolescent conflict and grades. Implications for future research and intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:23750521
Vargas, Danyel A; Roosa, Mark W; Knight, George P; O'Donnell, Megan
|This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression…
|AWOL behavior of adolescents residing in residential treatment is an issue requiring examination, especially in light of the variety of dangers these adolescents may be exposed to while away from treatment. This study assessed AWOL behavior of three consecutive entry cohorts (n = 234) of adolescents at a large long-term RTC in New York State.…
Guest, Kimberly M.; Baker, Amy J. L.; Storaasli, Ragnar
The present study examines the relations between adolescent motherhood and children’s behavior, substance use, and internalizing problems in a sample of 1,368 children of 712 female twins from Australia. Adolescent motherhood remained significantly associated with all mental health problems, even when using a quasiexperimental design capable of controlling for genetic and environmental confounds. However, the relation between adolescent motherhood and offspring behavior problems and substance use was partially confounded by family background variables that influence both generations. The results are consistent with a causal relation between adolescent motherhood and offspring mental health problems, and they highlight the usefulness of behavior genetic designs when examining putative environmental risks for the development of psychopathology. The generalizability of these results to the United States, which has a higher adolescent birth rate, is discussed.
Harden, K. Paige; Lynch, Stacy K.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Waldron, Mary D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Statham, Dixie J.; Martin, Nicholas G.
Objectives: The present research addressed the following important question in pediatric medicine: Can participation in a new family-centered preventive intervention, the Strong African American Families–Teen (SAAF–T) program, deter conduct problems, substance use, substance use problems, and depressive symptoms among rural black adolescents across 22 months? Methods: Data were collected from 502 black families in rural Georgia, assigned randomly to SAAF–T or an attention control condition. The prevention condition consisted of 5 consecutive meetings at community facilities with separate, concurrent sessions for caregivers and adolescents followed by a caregiver-adolescent session in which families practiced skills they learned in the separate sessions. Adolescents self-reported conduct problem behaviors, substance use, substance use problems, and depressive symptoms at ages 16 years (pretest) and 17 years 10 months (long-term assessment). Results: Adolescents who participated in SAAF–T evinced lower increases in conduct problem behavior, substance use, substance use problems, and depressive symptom frequencies than did adolescents in the attention control condition across the 22 months between pretest and long-term assessment. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate efficacy in a prevention program designed to deter conduct problems, substance use, substance use problems, and depressive symptoms among rural black adolescents. Because SAAF–T is a manualized, structured program, it can be easily disseminated to public health agencies, schools, churches, boys’ and girls’ clubs, and other community organizations.
Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Molgaard, Virginia K.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.
This study examined the utility of the newly developed Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale (AFAS) for the prediction of adolescent psychological health and school attitude. High school students (266 males, 229 females) were recruited from private and public schools in the Australian Capital Territory with ages of participants ranging from 13 to 19 years. Self-report measures of depression, self-esteem, self-competence and
The present study examined the utility of a stress and coping model of adaptation to a homeless shelter among homeless adolescents. Seventy-eight homeless adolescents were interviewed and completed self-administered scales at Time 1 (day of shelter entry) and Time 2 (day of discharge). The mean duration of stay at the shelter was 7.23 days (SD = 7.01). Predictors included appraisal
A longitudinal design was employed to test the main and stress-moderating effects of young adolescents'perceived family environment (Family Environment Scales; FES; Moos & Moos, 1981) on their depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. This study was part of a larger Iongitudinal project (L. Cohen, Burt, & Bjorck, 1987) that demonstrated the significant cross-sectional effects of the young adolescents' controllable and uncontrollable negative
Charles E. Burt; Lawrence H. Cohen; Jeffrey P. Bjorck
Examined the relative and combined associations among relational and overt forms of aggression and victimization and adolescents'concurrent depression symptoms, lone-liness, self-esteem, and externalizing behavior. An ethnically diverse sample of 566 adolescents (55% girls) in Grades 9 to 12 participated. Results replicated prior work on relational aggression and victimization as distinct forms of peer behavior that are uniquely associated with concurrent
Mitchell J. Prinstein; Julie Boergers; Eric M. Vernberg
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among risk factors, cultural assets, and Latino adolescent mental health outcomes. We extend past research by using a longitudinal design and evaluating direct and moderated acculturation effects across a range of internalizing, externalizing, and academic engagement outcomes. The sample…
Smokowski, Paul; Buchanan, Rachel L.; Bacallao, Martica L.
The objective of this study was to test our alternative interpretation of the separation-individuation hypothesis. This interpretation states that separation from the parents is not a precondition for individuation, but rather separation and individuation are two parallel processes of development during adolescence. We investigated our…
OBJECTIVE: Routine alcohol screening of adolescents in pediatric settings is recommended, and could be facilitated by a very brief empirically validated alcohol screen based on alcohol consumption. This study used national sample data to test the screening performance of 3 alcohol consumption items (ie, frequency of use in the past year, quantity per occasion, frequency of heavy episodic drinking) in identifying youth with alcohol-related problems. METHODS: Data were from youth aged 12 to 18 participating in the annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2000 to 2007. The screening performance of 3 alcohol consumption items was tested, by age and gender, against 2 outcomes: any Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition alcohol use disorder symptom (“moderate”-risk outcome), and a diagnosis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition alcohol dependence (“high”-risk outcome). RESULTS: Prevalence of the 2 outcomes increased with age: any alcohol use disorder symptom ranged from 1.4% to 29.2%; alcohol dependence ranged from 0.2% to 5.3%. Frequency of drinking had higher sensitivity and specificity in identifying both outcomes, compared with quantity per occasion and heavy episodic drinking frequency. For both outcomes, results indicate the utility of similar cut points for drinking frequency for males and females at each age. Age-specific frequency cut points, however, are recommended for both moderate- and high-risk outcomes to maximize screening performance. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking frequency provides an empirically supported brief screen to efficiently identify youth with alcohol-related problems.
Smith, Gregory T.; Donovan, John E.; Windle, Michael; Faden, Vivian B.; Chen, Chiung M.; Martin, Christopher S.
Several studies have indicated that an early onset of delinquent and problem behaviors is associated with a greater risk of\\u000a subsequent behavioral and mental health problems. This study builds on that literature by examining histories of behavior\\u000a problems in relation to indicators of thriving and precocious behavior during late adolescence. Using longitudinal data from\\u000a 289 high-risk adolescents, participants were classified
Mary I. Campa; Catherine P. Bradshaw; John Eckenrode; David S. Zielinski
This study examined the dynamic relations between adolescentproblem behaviors (alcohol, marijuana, deviance, academic failure)\\u000a over time and predictors of these behaviors. Data from the National Youth Survey (1) included 1,044 adolescents (53.5% male;\\u000a mean age at year 1=13.20). Dependent measures were adolescent alcohol use, marijuana use, deviance, and academic failure,\\u000a assessed annually over 4 years. Independent measures included age,
Susan C. Duncan; Terry E. Duncan; Lisa A. Strycker
This study examined two contrasting views of how divorce relates to the long-term adjustment of children. The physical-wholeness position views divorce as the salient explanatory variable to adversely affect children's later adjustment through the physical dissolution of the two-parent family; the psychological-wholeness position views perceived current family conflict as the critical variable that influences adjustment, regardless of parental marital status.
This paper examines the effect of a student’s own school adjustment as well as the contextual level of school adjustment (the\\u000a normative level of school adjustment among students in a school) on students’ self-reported use of alcohol. Using a dataset\\u000a of 43,465 male and female 8th grade students from 349 schools across the contiguous United States who participated in a
Kimberly L. Henry; Linda R. Stanley; Ruth W. Edwards; Lindsey C. Harkabus; Laurie A. Chapin
We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Indicators of SEP were mother’s education and household income. CA was estimated with IQ scores, derived from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Internalising and externalising problems were measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in ALSPAC and with the Child Behavior Checklist in TRAILS. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) for each outcome; the RII provides the odds ratio comparing the most to least deprived for each measure of SEP. In fully adjusted models an association of mother’s education with externalising problems was observed [ALSPAC RII 1.42 (95%CI: 1.01–1.99); TRAILS RII 2.21 (95%CI: 1.37–3.54)], and of household income with internalising and externalising problems [pooled ALSPAC & TRAILS internalising RII 1.30 (95%CI: 0.99–1.71); pooled ALSPAC & TRAILS externalising RII 1.38 (95%CI: 1.03–1.84)]. No consistent associations were observed between mother’s education and internalising problems. Results of stratified analyses and interaction-terms showed no evidence that CA moderated the association of SEP with internalising or externalising problems.
Araya, Ricardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (102 chronically ill parents and 83 healthy spouses). Linear mixed model analyses were used, enabling separation of variance attributable to individual factors and variance attributable to family membership (i.e., family cluster effect). Predictors were child, parent, illness-related and family characteristics. The results showed that almost half of the variance in internalizing problem scores was explained by family membership, while externalizing problems were mainly explained by individual factors. Roughly 60 % of the variance in internalizing problems was predicted by illness duration, adolescents' feeling of isolation, daily hassles affecting personal life and alienation from the mother. Approximately a third of the variance in externalizing problems was predicted by adolescents' male gender, daily hassles concerning ill parents and alienation from both parents. In conclusion, the variance in adolescentproblem behavior is largely accounted for by family membership, children's daily hassles and parent-child attachment. To prevent marginalization of adolescents with a chronically ill parent, it is important to be alert for signs of problem behavior and foster the peer and family support system. PMID:22543962
Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Oort, Frans Jeroen; Meijer, Anne Marie
|Examined the frequency and nature of mental health problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mental health problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…
Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.
Examined the frequency and nature of mental health problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mental health problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…
Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.
Multiple problem behaviors, stress, and personal resources were assessed over 2 years among 136 mainly Black and Hispanic gay and bisexual male adolescents age 14–19 years. Whereas sexual risk acts, substance abuse, conduct problems, and emotional distress were common, the risk acts did not form a multiple problem behavior cluster, compared with previous findings with heterosexual youths. Problem behaviors were
Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Margaret Rosario; Ronan Van Rossem; Helen Reid; Roy Gillis
Adolescent offenders have high levels of mental health problems leading to poor short-term and long-term outcomes. However, many problems still go undetected despite recent screening initiatives, and little is known about the factors affecting recognition of their problems. A random sample of 115 detained boys was interviewed following reception into custody to compare the differences between those whose problems were
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among risk factors, cultural assets, and Latino adolescent mental\\u000a health outcomes. We extend past research by using a longitudinal design and evaluating direct and moderated acculturation\\u000a effects across a range of internalizing, externalizing, and academic engagement outcomes. The sample consisted of 281 Latino\\/a\\u000a youths and one of their parents in
Paul Smokowski; Rachel L. Buchanan; Martica L. Bacallao
|Assessed links between free-time activities in middle childhood and school grades, conduct, and depression symptoms concurrently and 2 years later; also explored 2 mechanisms that might underlie activity-adjustment links. Found links between the nature of children's free-time activities and their adjustment. Social contexts of free-time…
McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Tucker, Corinna J.
|Despite their average high levels of educational achievement, Asian American students often report poor psychological and social adjustment, suggesting an achievement/adjustment paradox. Yet, the reasons for this paradox remain unclear. Drawing on 5-year longitudinal qualitative interview data, this paper compares the family dynamics of two…
This study examined the utility of parent socialization models for understanding teachers' influence on stu- dent adjustment in middle school. Teachers were assessed with respect to their modeling of motivation and to Baumrind's parenting dimensions of control, maturity demands, democratic communication, and nurturance. Student adjustment was defined in terms of their social and academic goals and interest in class, classroom
It is a household notion that secrecy is bad while sharing is good. But what about shared secrets? The present research adopts a functional analysis of sharing secrets, arguing that it should negate harmful consequences generally associated with secrecy and serves important interpersonal functions in adolescence. A survey study among 790 Dutch adolescents showed that, in line with hypotheses, shared secrets (1) were kept by more adolescents than private secrets, (2) were not linked to maladjustment and (3) were linked to higher interpersonal functioning. Whereas private secrecy was associated with increased delinquency, physical complaints, depressive mood, loneliness, and with lower quality relationships, shared secrecy was associated only with more interpersonal competence. Moreover, sharing a secret was specifically linked to a higher quality relationship with the confidant, and sharing with parents was linked with less delinquency, whereas sharing with a best friend was linked with less loneliness and more interpersonal competence. PMID:23040399
This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…
Adolescence has been described as a period where normal developmental stresses are dealt with depending on past experiences and current demands. Foster care inherently brings with it many additional stresses which must be dealt with at a period where many young people find even normal developmental tasks overpowering. This study examines problem disclosure and coping strategies in 21 foster adolescents.
|Background: Little is known about changes in ethnic disparities in mental health during the development of adolescents into young adults. The aim of this study was to study the development of disparities in internalizing and externalizing problems between Dutch natives and Turkish migrant children from adolescence into adulthood. Methods: Turkish…
Van Oort, Floor V.A.; Joung, Inez M. A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Bengi-Arslan, Leyla; Crijnen, Alfons A. M.; Van Der Ende, Jan
This paper examines the association between adolescent pregnancy and socioenvironmental, physical, and mental health problems in 1590 inner-city females aged 13–18 who use health clinics. Adolescents who have become pregnant, those who are sexually active but never have been pregnant, and those who are sexually inactive are compared. The sexually active youngsters come from more psychosocially disadvantaged backgrounds than their
Arlene Rubin Stiffman; Felton Earls; Lee N. Robins; Kenneth G. Jung; Pamela Kulbok
|The present study investigated the role of identity in the relationship between family functioning and behavior problems in a sample of Hispanic immigrant early adolescents and their families. The sample consisted of 181 Hispanic immigrant adolescents (92 males, 89 females) and their participating caregivers (who were mostly mothers). Identity…
|Extensive research suggests that adolescence is a critical developmental period, especially when it comes to factors that influence mental health problems. Systematic efforts to promote adolescent help-seeking are essential for improving long-term mental health outcomes. Defined as a "behavior of actively seeking help from other people,"…
Adolescent delinquency and academic underachievement are both linked with child and adolescent behavior problems. However, little is known about behavioral pathways leading to these adverse outcomes. Children's aggression, opposition, status violations, and property violations scores were collected at ages 5, 10, and 18. Delinquency and academic functioning was rated at age 18. Age 18 status violations were linked to delinquency,
Maartje Timmermans; Pol A. C. van Lier; Hans M. Koot
|This study investigated the relationships among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence. Previous research suggests that these variables share an association with executive functioning deficits, and are intertwined. The sample comprised 427 adolescents (M age = 16 years) attending remedial schools and 276…
|Estimates the direct impact of family stressors on the progression to problem cannabis use among adolescents in Ontario. Results suggest that family stressors have direct and indirect effects increasing the probability of cannabis use outcomes. The implications of these more complex associations between factors believed to influence adolescent…
|The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and effects of peer-victimization on mental health problems among adolescents. Parental and school support were assumed as protective factors that might interact with one another in acting as buffers for adolescents against the risk of peer-victimization. Besides these protective factors, age…
Stadler, Christina; Feifel, Julia; Rohrmann, Sonja; Vermeiren, Robert; Poustka, Fritz
|Adolescent delinquency and academic underachievement are both linked with child and adolescent behavior problems. However, little is known about behavioral pathways leading to these adverse outcomes. Children's aggression, opposition, status violations, and property violations scores were collected at ages 5, 10, and 18. Delinquency and academic…
Timmermans, Maartje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.
|This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among problem behaviors during early adolescence. Specifically this investigation examined the association between drug use and aggression among a sample of inner-city adolescents. Eighth graders (N = 517; 49% boys) attending three New York City schools completed an anonymous questionnaire. Self-reported aggressive and unsafe behavior were associated with initiation of
Jennifer A. Epstein; Gilbert J. Botvin; Tracy Diaz; Christopher Williams; Kenneth Griffin
The mental health of twenty siblings of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was compared with a matched group of siblings of healthy children and adolescents. No significant differences were found as regards general psychopathology or behaviour problems. However, significant differences were found in certain areas, especially with regard to peer relations, mood and reliance. Self-esteem was also
Adolescent delinquency and academic underachievement are both linked with child and adolescent behavior problems. However, little is known about behavioral pathways leading to these adverse outcomes. Children's aggression, opposition, status violations, and property violations scores were collected at ages 5, 10, and 18. Delinquency and academic…
Timmermans, Maartje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.
We investigated whether changes in loneliness during middle childhood as well as from middle childhood into adolescence were associated with adolescent self-harm behaviors and suicidal thoughts using a community sample of 889 participants. Multivariate logistic regressions indicate that the relationship between changes in loneliness and suicidality is no longer statistically significant once depression and externalizing behavior problems are included as
Angela C. Jones; Katherine C. Schinka; Manfred H. M. van Dulmen; Robert M. Bossarte; Monica H. Swahn
Outcome data collection systems provide the opportunity for comparing agencies, programs, and therapists. However, the political stakes of comparisons raise important issues regarding their perceived validity. The goal of case-mix adjustment is to eliminate potential biasing factors that might render comparisons as inappropriate or irrelevant. In this paper, case-mix adjustment variables are identified using regression analysis followed by developing models of case mix adjustment using a sample of youth participants in the Ohio Mental Health Consumer Outcomes System. Results indicate that certain client level variables do predict outcomes. The total variance accounted for by variables other than baseline ratings of the outcome measure was small. When comparing agencies using adjusted and unadjusted models, some agencies did vary relative to other agencies. As with previous studies, however, the rank order of agencies was largely unchanged and the correlation between adjusted and unadjusted outcomes among agencies was significant. PMID:18491225
Ogles, Benjamin M; Carlson, Bruce; Hatfield, Derek; Karpenko, Veronika
|Presents a family therapy model for working with "no problemproblem" families of first offense adolescent substance abusers. Illustrates applications of this model through a case example. Describes the model as a practical therapy approach that is present- and future-oriented and seeks to build on family strengths. (Author/ABB)|
|The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on…
The concept of drug–nutrient interactions is not new, but it has only recently gained currency in medicine. Although the elderly are normally considered to be at particular risk, other groups may also be at risk: infants, adolescents, pregnant women, alcohol and tobacco users, etc.In infants and adolescents there are several factors that may influence the possible interactions: firstly, nutrient needs
Adolescent prostitution is a particular social phenomenon characterized by the fact that adolescents (those under the age of eighteen), either females or males, engage more than once (at least two times) in extramarital sexual relations with a large number of people for some particular (material) consideration owing to social, economic,…
Poverty, illiteracy and school dropout are among the factors that leave adolescents at risk of engaging in unprotected sex and substance use. Adolescent women are especially at risk for sexual exploitation and lack of power in decision making about substance use. Gender?specific consequences of high risk behaviors are unintended pregnancies, lifelong maternal and child poverty, developmental disabilities and poor school
Compared conceptual models examining the role of improved parent-child relationships in the relations between mentoring partnerships and academic outcomes of adolescent applicants to Big Brothers Big Sisters programs. Found that mentoring led to reduced unexcused absences and improved perceived scholastic competence. Mentoring effects were…
Rhodes, Jean E.; Grossman, Jean B.; Resch, Nancy L.
PurposeDisorders of sex development (DSD) are a heterogeneous group of congenital conditions characterized by an atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex. Particularly at the time of expected puberty, adolescents with DSD may become aware of being different from peers. This study explores the effect of DSD on psychosocial well-being and sexual development.
Eva Kleinemeier; Martina Jürgensen; Anke Lux; Pia-Marie Widenka; Ute Thyen
|It is a household notion that secrecy is bad while sharing is good. But what about shared secrets? The present research adopts a functional analysis of sharing secrets, arguing that it should negate harmful consequences generally associated with secrecy and serves important interpersonal functions in adolescence. A survey study among 790 Dutch…
This study examined the longterm effects of the socialization of emotion in a sample of European American families. Late adolescents, whose families had been more emotionally expressive and accepting of emotions when they were in fifth grade, were more likely to report showing emotions not traditionally associated with their gender roles—specifically, males reported a greater propensity for crying, and females
Phyllis Bronstein; Maria Briones; Teri Brooks; Brookes Cowan
|A 2-wave longitudinal study of personality in adolescence was conducted with data obtained at ages 12 and 17 years from approximately 60 European American and 60 second-generation Chinese American youth. At Time 1 they completed the Children's Personality Questionnaire and at Time 2 they completed the High School Personality Questionnaire and…
|The links between changes in sibling conflict and intimacy and changes in perceived peer social competence and depression symptoms were examined from middle childhood through adolescence. Participants were mothers, fathers and first- and second-born siblings from 197 White, working/middle class, two-parent families. Peer competence peaked in …
Kim, Ji-Yeon; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Osgood, D. Wayne
This is a prospective Norwegian study of a group of adolescents with an experience of parental divorce or separation (n=413) and a comparison group without this experience (n=1758). Mean age at T1 was 14.4 years and mean age at T2 was 18.4 years. Parental divorce was prospectively associated with a relative change in anxiety and depression,…
Storksen, Ingunn; Roysamb, Espen; Moum, Torbjorn; Tambs, Kristian
|To test Maccoby and Martin's (1983) revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14- to 18-year-olds were classified into one of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and firm control.…
|This study applies the family--systems concept of differentiation (the balance of autonomy-granting and connectedness) to another primary system of adolescent development--school. This study assessed the relationships among levels of family and school differentiation to the externalizing and internalizing behaviors, peer group membership, and…
Lohman, Brenda J.; Kaura, Shelby A.; Newman, Barbara M.
Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…
Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.
|This is a prospective Norwegian study of a group of adolescents with an experience of parental divorce or separation (n=413) and a comparison group without this experience (n=1758). Mean age at T1 was 14.4 years and mean age at T2 was 18.4 years. Parental divorce was prospectively associated with a relative change in anxiety and depression,…
Storksen, Ingunn; Roysamb, Espen; Moum, Torbjorn; Tambs, Kristian
This investigation examined longitudinal relationships among childhood risk and protective factors and academic, social, and mental health outcomes in late adolescence. Data were drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a research project that has tracked a cohort of 1539 impoverished inner-city youth from birth to young adulthood. An ecological model containing information on child characteristics, family processes, early childhood intervention
Paul R. Smokowski; Emily A. Mann; Arthur J. Reynolds; Mark W. Fraser
|Study provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens and examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Results reveal that greater overall religiosity was associated with greater…
There is a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents who have acquired brain injury (ABI). We examined the records of 82 students with ABI who were admitted to a community-based school for education and neurorehabilitation over a three-year period to determine how many experienced one or more psychiatric hospitalizations before admission, and whether hospitalization status was related
James K. Luiselli; Denise Dion; Erin Hammil; Andrea Potoczny-Gray; Ronald C. Savage; Donald L. Sherak
Thirty-three adolescents (aged 12 to 20 years; median, 15) with a corrected low (n = 17) or high (n = 16) anorectal anomaly were assessed using anorectal physiological examination, semistructured interviews (Child Assessment Schedule [CAS]), and questionnaires (Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL], Youth Self-Report [YSR]). Seven patients, all of whom had low malformations, were totally continent. Twenty-three (70%) had persistent dysfunction
|Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…
Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.
The relations between moral reasoning and six dimensions of peer relationships were examined. Participants were 108 adolescents, age 10 through 13 years, who completed sociometric measures of acceptance, peer behavioral assessment items, a measure to assess the number of their close friendships, a questionnaire on the features of their very best friendship, a measure to assess the frequency of their
This study examined perceived kinship support and parenting practices for 158 African American adolescents in the 9th and 10th grades. Kinship support showed direct associations with teen outcomes that, for work orientation and school orientation, were partially mediated by parenting practices. With a few exceptions, kinship support was positively…
|In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have…
Psychoanalytic treatment of adolescents has a long tradition and is currently one of the most frequent treatments in this age group. However, not many studies document the efficacy of psychoanalytic treatments of adolescents. This article analyses the background of this deficit by focusing on recent changes in symptomatology, the widespread diagnostic insecurity and the special challenges, which such treatment demands of the therapist. The task of researching the efficacy of adolescent psychotherapy is of considerable complexity. Recent own studies about efficacy of adolescent therapy will be presented. The evidence suggests that different approaches in therapy (psychoanalytic vs. psychodynamic) are of similar efficacy. However, long-term treatments ensure a consolidation of symptom reduction. The inclusion of different perspectives (adolescent, parents, therapist) and work with parents may be effective. PMID:22145422
Studies show that both low physical activity (PA) and adiposity are associated with a higher risk of hypertension. However, the relationship between PA and blood pressure in adolescents is controversial and other studies have reported that no association was observed. Of particular interest is the evaluation of whether the association between PA and high blood pressure is independent of adiposity. A sample of 3764 Brazilian adolescents who attend high schools was selected using random cluster sampling. Data were collected using the Global School-based Student Health Survey, anthropometry, and blood pressure readings. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 14.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 13.5-15.7), higher amongst males (20.0%; 95%CI 18.0-22.1) compared with females (10.9%; 95%CI 9.7-12.3). Sixty-six per cent of the adolescents were reported to be insufficiently active. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 12.8% (95%CI 11.0-14.7) amongst active compared with 15.4% (95%CI 14.0-16.9) amongst insufficiently active adolescents. The association between PA and high blood pressure was observed only amongst females after adjusting for waist circumference (odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95%CI 1.21-2.31) and body mass index (OR 1.71; 95%CI 1.23-2.37). Notwithstanding levels of adiposity, higher PA levels are associated with a lower prevalence of high blood pressure amongst females, although not amongst males. PMID:23121561
Barros, Mauro V G; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Honda Barros, Simone Storino; Mota, Jorge; Andersen, Lars Bo
Background Alcohol abuse is associated with sleep problems, which are often linked to circadian rhythm disturbances. Previous studies have separately examined the effects of mutations in the clock gene PER2 on alcohol consumption and sleep problems. Here we hypothesized that an allelic variation in the PER2 gene is associated with alcohol consumption in interaction with sleep problems among adolescents. Methods The Survey of Adolescent Life and Health in Västmanland 2006, a Swedish county, including 1254 students 17–18 years old, was used as a population-representative sample of adolescents. We investigated the PER2 Single Nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 10870 (A/G) in the cohort together with an assessment of alcohol consumption according to the AUDIT-C questionnaire, and sleep problems using a survey consisting of 18 items. Furthermore, we carried out an exploratory analysis on the PER2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism 10870 polymorphism in a group of severely alcoholic females. Results We found a significant association of the SNP 10870 in adolescent boys, where the genotype AA, in the presence of several and frequent sleep problems, was associated with increased alcohol consumption. Among adolescent girls, only sleep problems were related to alcohol consumption. A non-significant trend was observed among the severely alcoholic females, with the G allele being over-represented in the severely alcoholic females group in comparision to the control females. Conclusion These results indicate that PER2 gene variation is associated with alcohol consumption in interaction with sleep problems among Swedish adolescent boys.
Nordquist, Niklas; Gokturk, Camilla; Aslund, Cecilia; Hallman, Jarmila; Oreland, Lars; Nilsson, Kent W.
The authors examined relations among motivational styles and school adjustment in a sample of 786 7th and 8th grade U.S. students. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that agency beliefs mediate relations between styles of motivational self-regulation (i.e., intrinsic, identified, introjected, and extrinsic) and school adjustment (school grades, school well-being, and positive and negative affect). A structural equation model testing
This study examined the relations between aggressive problem-solving strategies and aggressive behavior, and the intervening role of social acceptance in that relation in early and late adolescence. The subjects were 1655 11- and 17-year-old adolescents (863 girls and 792 boys). They completed a questionnaire measuring aggressive problem-solving strategies, while assessments of aggressive behavior and social acceptance were obtained by peer
Several recent studies have found an association between conduct problems and bipolar disorder in adolescents. However, prospective\\u000a studies are rare and most do not apply multivariable analysis strategies to control for important variables (e.g. socio-demographics).\\u000a The aim of this study was to test the association between certain conduct problems and bipolar disorders. The sample consisted\\u000a of 591 adolescents (male and
Jérôme Endrass; Stefan Vetter; Alex Gamma; William T. Gallo; Astrid Rossegger; Frank Urbaniok; Jules Angst
We investigated early adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles in mother–father–adolescent triads along with child self-reported problem behaviors (substance abuse and delinquency). We also examined the various combinations of mothers' and fathers' parenting styles by child gender in relation to problem behavior. Participants included 3,353 children (aged 12 to 14) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth—97. Results from our structural
Cory Bolkan; Yoshie Sano; Jennifer De Costa; Alan C. Acock; Randal D. Day
|The current investigation examined the role of cumulative risk, family routines, maternal monitoring, mother-child relationship quality, and youth socioemotional competence in adjustment outcomes of 521 10- to 14-year-old low-income Latino early adolescents. Results showed that, as the number of risk factors increased, levels of externalizing and…
Background It is important for prevention of social class disparities to know how ethnic disparities in social class arise among migrant\\u000a children. We contribute to this understanding by examining the role of problem behaviour in adolescence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Prospective observational study with 753 Dutch native and 217 Turkish migrant adolescents (11–18 year) followed for 10 years.\\u000a Internalising and externalising problems were assessed in adolescence and
Floor V. A. van Oort; Jan van der Ende; Alfons A. M. Crijnen; Frank C. Verhulst; Johan P. Mackenbach; Inez M. A. Joung
Many studies have identified high levels of mental health problems among adolescents in custody and there is increasing evidence that mental health problems in this population are associated with further offending and mental health problems into adulthood. Despite recent improvements in mental health provision within custodial settings there is…
|Several studies have indicated that an early onset of delinquent and problem behaviors is associated with a greater risk of subsequent behavioral and mental health problems. This study builds on that literature by examining histories of behavior problems in relation to indicators of thriving and precocious behavior during late adolescence. Using…
Campa, Mary I.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Eckenrode, John; Zielinski, David S.
|Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…
|Many studies have identified high levels of mental health problems among adolescents in custody and there is increasing evidence that mental health problems in this population are associated with further offending and mental health problems into adulthood. Despite recent improvements in mental health provision within custodial settings there is…
|This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…
A model of problematic adolescent behavior that expands current theories of social skill deficits in delinquent behavior to consider both social skills and orientation toward the use of adaptive skills was examined in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 113 male and female adolescents. Adolescents were selected on the basis of moderate to serious risk for difficulties in social
BACKGROUND: Excessive obesity in children and adolescents is increasing in western countries all over the world. Treatment of those young subjects is extremely difficult. In cases who do not respond in any regard to conservative treatment regimens, it is worthwhile to also offer bariatric surgical procedures.METHODS: In eight young subjects with a mean age of 16.0±1.3 y, mean BMI 49.1±5.2
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of weight-based teasing, and evaluate its association with depression, anxiety and unhealthy eating behaviour in a large sample of adolescents in the Ottawa (Ontario) area. METHODS: A total of 1491 adolescents from public and private middle schools and high schools in rural and urban areas of Ottawa responded confidentially to surveys. RESULTS: More girls than boys reported that they experienced weight-based teasing (33% versus 18%). The prevalence of weight-based teasing by peers was significantly higher among overweight and obese youth than among normal weight youth (45% versus 22%). Teasing about body weight was consistently associated with anxiety, psychological distress and disordered eating, and these associations held for both boys and girls, and were independent of weight status. CONCLUSIONS: Weight-based teasing is a common experience among Ottawa-area adolescents, especially among overweight girls, and was found to be associated with psychological morbidity. Effective interventions are needed to help victims cope with and prevent further weight-based teasing and its harmful psychological sequelae.
Background Although several studies have reported findings concerning the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems, little research has investigated this association after controlling for confounding factors which have been found to be significantly correlated with both cigarette smoking and emotional/behavioural problems and may have a strong effect on the relationship between adolescents' mental health and smoking. The present study attempted to assess the association between adolescents' smoking status and their emotional/behavioural problems after controlling for a number of possible confounders (i.e. age, gender, parental smoking status, exposure to family smoking, family socioeconomic status, adolescents' leisure time) in a Greek nation-wide school-based sample. Methods Participants completed a questionnaire which retrieved information about age, gender, family socioeconomic status, smoking status, parental smoking, adolescents' leisure time and emotional/behavioural problems. Data were modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis with adolescents' smoking status as the dependent variable. Results A total of 1194 (i.e. 63% response rate) of self-reported questionnaires (40.1% boys, 59.9% girls; 12-18 years old) were returned. Data from 1030 participants with full data were analyzed. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with higher levels of emotional/behavioural problems (p < 0.001) and the association was not moderated (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.18) after controlling for the effects of other covariates. Emotional symptoms, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention were all significantly associated with adolescents' current smoking. Conclusions This study supports the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems among adolescents. Addressing adolescents' needs regarding their emotional/behavioural health could be helpful in the development of effective anti-smoking strategies in school environment and elsewhere.
Accepted 10 August 2005 Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 3139 children and adolescents from poor areas of the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. We employed the child behaviour checklist for estimating BP. We performed multivariable analysis using Poisson's regression for confounder control. Results The proportion of workers was 13.8% (7.3% among children and 20.7% among adolescents). Prevalence of
Luis Antonio Benvegnu; Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa; Luiz Augusto Facchini; David H Wegman; Marinel Mor Dall
This study investigated the efficacy of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) with Hispanic behavior problem and drug using youth, an underrepresented population in the family therapy research literature. One hundred twenty-six Hispanic families with a behavior problemadolescent were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: BSFT or group treatment control (GC). Results showed that, compared to GC cases, BSFT cases showed significantly greater pre- to post-intervention improvement in parent reports of adolescent conduct problems and delinquency, adolescent reports of marijuana use, and observer ratings and self reports of family functioning. These results extend prior findings on the efficacy of family interventions to a difficult to treat Hispanic adolescent sample.
Santisteban, Daniel A.; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Kurtines, William M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; LaPerriere, Arthur; Szapocznik, Jose
Background The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescentproblem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. Methods We used the data from 398 adolescent participants who were in middle school. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate the FACES III and Youth Self Report. Results According to the level of family adaptability, significant differences were evident in internalizing problems (P = 0.014). But, in externalizing problems, the results were not significant (P = 0.305). Also, according to the level of family cohesion, significant differences were in internalizing problems (P = 0.002) and externalizing problems (P = 0.004). Conclusion The relationship between the dimensions of adaptability, cohesion and adolescentproblem behaviors was not curvilinear. In other words, adolescents with high adaptability and high cohesion showed low problem behaviors.
Objective Elevated rates of psychopathology are noted among severely obese youth presenting for weight loss surgery. The role of mental health providers in this population is not well defined, and the selection of candidates is often the result of clinical judgment alone. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate psychiatric symptoms among a large sample of adolescents receiving laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) by: (1) examining changes in depressive symptoms and quality of life in the year following surgery, (2) evaluating the interaction between patterns of change in depression, quality of life, and weight post-surgery, and (3) identifying pre-surgical psychological predictors of initial weight change. Method Participants were 101 severely obese adolescents aged 14 to 18. Measures of height, weight, depressive symptoms, and quality of life were obtained in the first year following surgery. Changes in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), and body mass index were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Results Significant changes in total BDI [?slope=?0.885 SE=0.279, p<0.01; ?quadratic=0.054 SE=0.021, p<.001] and PedsQL [?slope=?0.885 SE=0.279, p<0.001] scores were observed following LAGB, and comparable post-operative changes between psychosocial variables and body mass index were also noted [BDI: COV=0.21, SE=0.06, p<0.001; PedsQL: COV=?0.41, SE=0.10, p<0.01]. Two variables (family conflict/loss of control eating) were found to be significant predictors of weight change over the year following surgery (p<0.05). Conclusion Adolescents experienced notable improvements in initial depressive symptoms and quality of life after LAGB, and measures of pre-operative binge eating and family conflict affected post-surgery body mass index among youth.
Sysko, Robyn; Devlin, Michael J.; Hildebrandt, Tom B.; Brewer, Stephanie K.; Zitsman, Jeffrey L.; Walsh, B. Timothy
The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple regression analyses within gender groups indicated that among girls and boys, racial discrimination and gender discrimination predicted higher depressive symptoms and school importance and racial discrimination predicted self-esteem. Racial and gender discrimination were also negatively associated with grade point average among boys but were not significantly associated in girls’ analyses. Significant gender discrimination X racial discrimination interactions resulted in the girls’ models predicting psychological outcomes and in boys’ models predicting academic achievement. Taken together, findings suggest the importance of considering gender- and race-related experiences in understanding academic and psychological adjustment among African American adolescents.
Thirty-three adolescents (aged 12 to 20 years; median, 15) with a corrected low (n = 17) or high (n = 16) anorectal anomaly were assessed using anorectal physiological examination, semistructured interviews [Child Assessment Schedule [CAS]), and questionnaires (Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL], Youth Self-Report [YSR]). Seven patients, all of whom had low malformations, were totally continent. Twenty-three (70%) had persistent dysfunction with staining (n = 12) or intermittent/constant soiling (n = 11). Twenty-four (73%) had flatus incontinence. Fecal incontinence correlated negatively with anal canal resting pressure (r = - .58, P = <.001) and squeeze pressure (r = -.54, P < .01). Three adolescents had a permanent colostomy. Nineteen patients (58%) met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis, and impairment of psychosocial function was found in 24 (73%). The degree of psychosocial impairment correlated significantly with fecal incontinence (F = -.37, P < .05) and flatus incontinence (r = -.49, P < .01). Continence of flatus correlated significantly with mental health symptom scores (YSR: r = .52, P < .01; CAS:r = .53, P < .01). The findings indicated that, in addition to soiling, staining as well as fear of flatus are associated with psychiatric and psychosocial dysfunction among patients with anorectal malformations. Optimal treatment of patients with low and high anorectal anomalies requires somatic and psychological care and follow-up into adulthood. PMID:8861471
|This study examined mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among…
|This article reviews and synthesizes more than 120 studies from 20 years (1982-2002) of research that has examined problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). The goals of the article are fourfold: (a) introduce the construct of problem-solving appraisal and the PSI within the applied problem-solving literature,…
Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.
|Objective: This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women's intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children's adjustmentproblems in families characterized by men's severe violence toward women. Methods: Participants were 258 children and their mothers…
McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.
A 2-year study evaluated the relationship among psychosocial adjustment, changes in academic skills, and contextual factors in 100 children (ages 7-11) with learning problems. Contextual variables were significantly associated with psychosocial adaptation, including the effectiveness of the clinical assessment, extent of academic support, and the…
Sorensen, Lisa G.; Forbes, Peter W.; Bernstein, Jane H.; Weiler, Michael D.; Mitchell, William M.; Waber, Deborah P.
Studies on immigration and adolescence show that youth experience a variety of emotional and cognitive adjustments as well as conflicts related to acculturation and the realities of life in their new country. Such conditions place many of them at increased risk for psychosocial problems including personal stress, interpersonal conflicts, mental illness, school failure, delinquency, substance use, and other risk-taking behavior. This prospective study compares the patterns of substance use and problem behaviors among 365 at-risk adolescents born in Israel and those who immigrated to that country from the Former Soviet Union. Findings show that Former Soviet Union youth tend to have higher levels of last 30-day alcohol and ecstasy use and binge drinking. Multiple regression shows binge drinking behavior related to trading property to obtain drugs; deterioration of school achievement; selling drugs; and time spent when being absent from school and hanging around during the day. Country of origin was not found related to this behavior. Further research is needed to study substance use and related problem behavior among immigrant youth controlling for the impact of acculturation and other factors. PMID:17430820
Compared to other cognitive measures, social problem solving has received little attention in research on gender differences. In the present study, the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Procedure and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) were administered to 207 adolescents to examine social problem-solving skills as a function of subject gender, PAQ type, and gender of protagonist. Hypotheses were that superior problem solving would
This study investigates the prevalence and subtypes of conduct disorder (CD) and behavioral problems among youth in two communities characterized by prolonged parent-child separation upon immigration. CD and problem behaviors were assessed in 252 Caribbean-Canadian and Filipino-Canadian adolescents (12-19-year-old) using the DISC-C, the YSR and the CBCL cross-informant construct. Adolescents reported less problem behaviors than their host country peers, despite immigrant background or parent-child separation. The high adolescent-onset CD rate supports the hypothesis that psychosocial stressors play a role in the emergence of the disorder. Specifically, high levels of perceived racism and low collective self-esteem predicted problem behaviors in these youngsters. PMID:18431540
In this study, 2787 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 years living in inner-city communities were interviewed about their mental and physical health and their clinic use. The patients used consolidated mental and physical health clinics located in neighborhoods, hospitals, or schools; or traditional neighborhood or hospital health clinics. Analyses of selected patient problems reveal that less than one third of adolescent patients with suicide ideation, conduct disorder, and substance abuse or dependency sought or received care for those problems. Only half of the adolescents with major depression sought or received care for depression, and only two thirds of the sexually active females sought or received help with birth control. A special effort needs to be made to attract troubled youth to clinics and to identify and treat their problems, particularly when those problems involve mental health concerns. PMID:3417505
This study investigates the prevalence and subtypes of conduct disorder (CD) and behavioral problems among youth in two communities\\u000a characterized by prolonged parent–child separation upon immigration. CD and problem behaviors were assessed in 252 Caribbean–Canadian\\u000a and Filipino–Canadian adolescents (12–19-year-old) using the DISC-C, the YSR and the CBCL cross-informant construct. Adolescents\\u000a reported less problem behaviors than their host country peers, despite
Adolescent eveningness is associated with age, parental monitoring, daytime sleepiness, sleep problems, moodiness, and the use of coffee. This study investigated the association between adolescent morningness-eveningness and psychopathology, substance use, and suicidality in 1332 students ages 12 to 13. Each student-participant completed the Chinese version of the Child Morningness\\/Eveningness Scale (CMES), the Pubertal Development Scale, and a questionnaire about their
Susan Shur-Fen Gau; Chi-Yung Shang; Kathleen R. Merikangas; Yen-Nan Chiu; Wei-Tsuen Soong; Andrew Tai-Ann Cheng
Clinical evidence suggests that various problem behaviors in adolescence can be expressions of dysphoria that have not reached threshold for the diagnosis of depressive disorders. Formulations of two major types of dysphoria distinguish between disruptions of interpersonal relatedness (e.g., feelings of loss or abandonment) and diminished self-esteem (e.g., feelings of self-criticism, failure, or guilt). Adolescents in a suburban high school
Sidney J. Blatt; Beth Hart; Donald M. Quinlan; Bonnie Leadbeater; John Auerbach
The present study examined a) the associations between adolescent-reported maternal psychological control and self-reported\\u000a internalizing problems one year later, while simultaneously examining the opposite direction of effects and b) the equivalence\\u000a of these associations across gender. Participants were 479 10-to-14-year old adolescents (55% female) participating in two\\u000a waves of a study. Results from multi-group, cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that although
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and effects of peer-victimization on mental health problems among adolescents.\\u000a Parental and school support were assumed as protective factors that might interact with one another in acting as buffers for\\u000a adolescents against the risk of peer-victimization. Besides these protective factors, age and gender were additionally considered\\u000a as moderating factors. The
Christina Stadler; Julia Feifel; Sonja Rohrmann; Robert Vermeiren; Fritz Poustka
This study explored gender differences indepressive symptoms during adolescence in relation withgender-typed characteristics, problem-solving abilities,and stressful life events. Participants were 306 white French-speaking adolescents (142 men and164 women) from upper middle-class families enrolled ina high school in the Trois-Rivières area ofQuebec. Participants ranged in age from 14 to 17 years, with a mean age of 15.3 years (SD = .95).
Diane Marcotte; Michel Alain; Marie-Josee Gosselin
This study tested several theoretically important differences between youth with a childhood-onset and youth with an adolescent-onset\\u000a to their severe conduct problems. Seventy-eight pre-adjudicated adolescent boys (ranging in age from 11 to 18) housed in two\\u000a short-term detention facilities and one outpatient program for youth at risk for involvement in the juvenile justice system\\u000a participated in the current study. The
This study focused on support and conflict in parent–child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n = 182; M age = 12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesized to moderate the effects of experiences in the other relationship context. Adolescent-reported antisocial behavior was low when either
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between binge eating, behavioural problems and family-meal patterns in a sample of adolescents. Two hundred and fifty-nine adolescents from a public secondary school completed the Bulimic Investigatory test, Edinburgh (BITE) [Henderson, M., & Freeman, C. P. (1987). A self-rating scale for bulimia. The “BITE”. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 18–24.
This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake, discharge, and 6-month follow-up. Observational ratings of adherence and competence were collected on
Aaron Hogue; Craig E. Henderson; Sarah Dauber; Priscilla C. Barajas; Adam Fried; Howard A. Liddle
The present study compared the level of conduct problems at age 17 in a large nonclinical sample of adopted participants placed in infancy and children in non-adoptive families matched to the adoptive families on demographic characteristics. Higher levels of adolescent and parent adoption satisfaction were associated with lower levels of conduct problems. Gender by adoption status interactions were not significant.
Renea Nilsson; Soo Hyun Rhee; Robin P. Corley; Sally-Ann Rhea; Sally J. Wadsworth; John C. DeFries
|The rising incidence of teenage sexual activity and the subsequent growth in numbers of teenage parents provide the rationale for this problem-solving curriculum guide on family life education. This model curriculum for adolescents aged 15-19 is designed to promote problem-solving skills, self-confidence, self-awareness, self-control, and…
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a transition period that involves physiological, psychological, and social changes. Emotional problems such as symptoms of anxiety and depression may develop due to these changes. Although many of these problems may not meet diagnostic thresholds, they may develop into more severe disorders and may impact on functioning. However, there are barriers that may make it difficult for
|In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age…
Authors of this qualitative descriptive study interviewed 21 adolescent siblings of children with Down syndrome (DS) who also had additional health problems rated as requiring extensive care by parents. Analysis revealed positive\\/negative aspects of the experience; however, participants emphasized the positive rather than negative experiences and focused more on the fact that the child had DS rather than health problems
Carol Graff; Barbara Mandleco; Tina Taylor Dyches; Catherine R. Coverston; Susanne Olsen Roper; Donna Freeborn
Using prospective longitudinal data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, this article examined the relationship between children's peer relationship problems in middle childhood and their subsequent risk of forming deviant peer affiliations in adolescence. The analysis proceeded in three steps. First, a structural equation model demonstrated a moderate association between early peer relationship problems and later deviant peer affiliations
David M. Fergusson; Lianne J. Woodward; L. John Horwood
ObjectiveTo examine (1) the extent to which negative perceptions of support from family, school, and peers differ with regard to their impact on emotional and behavioral problems and (2) the extent to which negative perceptions of multiple social support systems are related to the presence of multiple emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence.
There is an increasing focus on deficiencies in problem solving as a vulnerability factor for suicidal behavior in general and hence a target for treatment in suicide attempters. In view of the uncertainty of evidence for this in adolescents we conducted a systematic review of the international research literature examining the possible relationship between deficiencies in social problem-solving skills and
The personality traits of behavioral undercontrol (BU) and negative emotionality (NE) are associated with alcohol problems. The authors examined gender differences in the associations of BU and NE with alcohol problems in 710 adolescents recruited from community and treatment sources. Multiple measures were used to characterize each construct, and the specified 2-factor model provided a reasonably good fit to the
Christopher S. Martin; Kevin G. Lynch; Nancy K. Pollock; Duncan B. Clark
|Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests whether the relationship between academic achievement and problem behaviors is the same across racial and ethnic groups. Some have suggested that academic achievement may be a weaker predictor of problem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American (API)…