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Sample records for adolescent adjustment problems

  1. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relations between parental problem drinking, adolescent-parent communication, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Surveys were administered to a diverse sample of 683 15-17-years-old adolescents in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Results indicated that paternal problem drinking directly predicted…

  2. Adolescent Adjustment in Stepfamilies: Structural or Process Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Jacques, Marie-Christine

    Using Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development, this study tested the hypothesis that family processes contribute more to adolescent adjustment than does family structure. Subjects for the study were 234 adolescents between 12 and 16 years old living in a stepfamily on a regular basis. This sample is a sub-sample of a representative…

  3. Girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A. J.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; Doreleijers, Theo A.H.; Loeber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. Methods The current study used 9 waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semi-parametric group based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, PTSD, substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Results Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Conclusion Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. PMID:25302849

  4. Conduct Problems, Depressive Symptomatology and Their Co-Occurring Presentation in Childhood as Predictors of Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingoldsby, Erin M.; Kohl, Gwynne O.; McMahon, Robert J.; Lengua, Liliana

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated patterns in the development of conduct problems (CP), depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence, and relations to adjustment problems, over the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Rates of depressive symptoms and CP during this developmental period vary by gender; yet, few studies involving…

  5. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents. PMID:9120405

  6. The Relationship between Frequency of Family Dinner and Adolescent Problem Behaviors after Adjusting for Other Family Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Bisakha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between frequency of family dinners (FFD) and selected problem behaviors for adolescents after adjusting for family connectedness, parental awareness, other family activities, and other potentially confounding factors. Methods: Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. The primary…

  7. Adolescent vulnerability and the distress of rejection: Associations of adjustment problems and gender with control, emotions, and coping.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Skinner, Ellen A

    2015-12-01

    We examined adjustment problems as risks for patterns of emotions, appraisals, and coping with rejection, and explored whether these processes could account for sex (boy/girl) differences in coping. Young adolescents (N = 669, grades 6-8) completed questionnaires, which assessed responses to peer rejection threat with two short scenarios. Using structural equation modeling to test a multivariate process model, adolescents with heightened social anxiety had the most maladaptive responses to rejection threat, including elevated emotional reactions, more self-blame, and coping using more social isolation, rumination and opposition. Adolescents reporting more depressive symptoms felt less control and anticipated using less adaptive coping (less support seeking, distraction, and negotiation), whereas aggressive adolescents responded with more anger and coped via opposition. Moreover, as anticipated, sex differences in coping, symptoms, emotions, and appraisals were found. However, coping differences between boys and girls were mostly nonsignificant after accounting for symptoms, aggression, emotional reactions, and appraisals. PMID:26439867

  8. Precocious Puberty in Adolescent Girls: A Biomarker of Later Psychosocial Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Line; Frigon, Jean-Yves

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the hypothesis that stress condition will accelerate pubertal maturation in adolescent girls and that faster maturing girls will display more behavioral problems than their on-time or late-maturing peers during pubertal development. Longitudinal data were collected yearly from 1986 to 1997. Parents of 1039 French-speaking…

  9. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  10. Conduct problems, depressive symptomatology and their co-occurring presentation in childhood as predictors of adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ingoldsby, Erin M; Kohl, Gwynne O; McMahon, Robert J; Lengua, Liliana

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated patterns in the development of conduct problems (CP), depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence, and relations to adjustment problems, over the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Rates of depressive symptoms and CP during this developmental period vary by gender; yet, few studies involving non-clinical samples have examined co-occurring problems and adjustment outcomes across boys and girls. This study investigates the manifestation and change in CP and depressive symptom patterns in a large, multisite, gender-and ethnically-diverse sample of 431 youth from 5th to 7th grade. Indicators of CP, depressive symptoms, their co-occurrence, and adjustment outcomes were created from multiple reporters and measures. Hypotheses regarding gender differences were tested utilizing both categorical (i.e., elevated symptom groups) and continuous analyses (i.e., regressions predicting symptomatology and adjustment outcomes). Results were partially supportive of the dual failure model (Capaldi, 1991, 1992), with youth with co-occurring problems in 5th grade demonstrating significantly lower academic adjustment and social competence two years later. Both depressive symptoms and CP were risk factors for multiple negative adjustment outcomes. Co-occurring symptomatology and CP demonstrated more stability and was associated with more severe adjustment problems than depressive symptoms over time. Categorical analyses suggested that, in terms of adjustment problems, youth with co-occurring symptomatology were generally no worse off than those with CP-alone, and those with depressive symptoms-alone were similar over time to those showing no symptomatology at all. Few gender differences were noted in the relations among CP, depressive symptoms, and adjustment over time. PMID:16967336

  11. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  12. Structure of the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory Self-Restraint scale and its relation to problem behaviors in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Farrell, A D; Sullivan, T N

    2000-12-01

    The authors examined the structure of the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI) Self-Restraint scale in derivation (n = 1,286) and cross-validation (n = 1,154) samples of mostly African American 6th graders in 3 urban schools. Four models were compared: (a) a 1-factor model; (b) a hierarchical model in which factors representing Impulse Control, Suppression of Aggression, Responsibility, and Consideration of Others were subsumed by a higher order factor; (c) a model that represented these 4 factors as correlated but distinct constructs; and (d) a model that excluded Consideration of Others from the higher order factor. Consistent support was found for the last model based on confirmatory factor analyses and latent-variable analyses examining the relations among self-restraint scales, drug use, delinquency, and aggression. These findings have implications for using the WAI, particularly in studies of adolescent problem behaviors. PMID:11147106

  13. Do Perceived Popular Adolescents Who Aggress against Others Experience Emotional Adjustment Problems Themselves?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.

    2009-01-01

    Aggression is associated with a host of behavioral, social, and emotional adjustment difficulties. However, some aggressive youth are perceived as "popular" by peers. Although these perceived popular aggressive youth appear relatively well adjusted, especially in the social domain, the emotional well-being of these youth is understudied. The…

  14. Problems of Adolescents in Sydney, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.; Harper, Juliet F.

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the problems of 514 male and female adolescents of 14 and 15 years of age using an open-ended questionnaire. Boys reported more problems concerned with educational adjustments, girls more problems concerned with family adjustment. (Author/SDH)

  15. Psychological Adjustment in Young Korean American Adolescents and Parental Warmth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung

    2008-01-01

    Problem: The relation between parental warmth and psychological adjustment is not known for young Korean American adolescents. Methods: 103 adolescents' perceived parental warmth and psychological adjustment were assessed using, respectively, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire and the Child Personality Assessment Questionnaire. Findings: Low perceived maternal and paternal warmth were positively related to adolescents' overall poor psychological adjustment and almost all of its attributes. When maternal and paternal warmth were entered simultaneously into the regression equation, only low maternal warmth was related to adolescents' poor psychological adjustment. Conclusion: Perceived parental warmth is important in predicting young adolescents' psychological adjustment as suggested in the parental acceptance-rejection theory. PMID:19885379

  16. Preadolescent peer status, aggression, and school adjustment as predictors of externalizing problems in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kupersmidt, J B; Coie, J D

    1990-10-01

    The comparative effectiveness of preadolescent aggressive behavior, peer rejection, and school functioning were evaluated in the prediction of adolescent delinquency and school maladjustment. Fifth-grade children (n = 112, 69% white, 53% male, M = 11 years old) were followed forward for 7 years until the end of high school. Rejected children were more likely to have a nonspecific negative outcome and more types of negative outcomes than average, popular, or neglected children, particularly among the white students. However, in regression models containing sex, race, aggression, frequent school absences, low grades, and rejection, the only significant predictor of juvenile delinquency or of a nonspecific negative outcome was aggression toward peers. Both aggression and frequent school absences were significant predictors of early school withdrawal. Analyses for the white children in the sample revealed that both rejection and aggression best predicted to the nonspecific negative outcome, whereas aggression alone best predicted to school dropout and to having one or more police contacts. Implications for future longitudinal outcome research and for risk-group identification in racially heterogeneous samples are discussed. PMID:2245729

  17. Psychological Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood

    2015-01-01

    This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…

  18. The relations of Arab Jordanian adolescents' perceived maternal parenting to teacher-rated adjustment and problems: the intervening role of perceived need satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ikhlas; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Although the effects of important parenting dimensions, such as responsiveness and psychological control, are well documented among Western populations, research has only recently begun to systematically identify psychological processes that may account for the cross-cultural generalization of these effects. A first aim of this study was to examine whether perceived maternal responsiveness and psychological control would relate differentially to teacher ratings of adolescent adjustment in a vertical-collectivist society (i.e., Jordan). The most important aim of this study was to examine, on the basis of self-determination theory, whether these associations would be accounted for by perceived satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Results in a large sample of Jordanian adolescents (N = 545) showed that perceived maternal psychological control and responsiveness yielded, respectively, a positive and negative association with teacher-rated problems, whereas psychological control was negatively related to teacher-rated adjustment. Further, these 2 parenting dimensions related to adjustment and problems via perceived satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy and competence (but not relatedness). The findings are discussed in light of the ongoing debate between universalistic and relativistic perspectives on parenting and adolescent adjustment. PMID:22468568

  19. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Rueter, Martha A.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families. Adolescents in these families were, on average, 16 years of age. The results supported our hypothesis. Adopted adolescents were at significantly greater risk for adjustment problems compared to nonadopted adolescents in families that emphasized conformity orientation without conversation orientation and in families that emphasized neither conformity nor conversation orientation. Adolescents in families emphasizing conversation orientation were at lower risk for adjustment problems, regardless of adoption status. PMID:19649145

  20. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueter, Martha A.; Koerner, Ascan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208…

  1. Early Environmental Support and Elementary School Adjustment as Predictors of School Adjustment in Middle Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Sroufe, L. Alan; Collins, W. Andres; Jimerson, Shane; Weinfield, Nancy; Henninghausen, Katherine; Egeland, Byron; Hyson, Daniel M.; Anderson, Fione; Meyer, Stephanie E.

    1999-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined socioemotional antecedents of adolescent school adjustment. Findings indicated that early and later parental problem-solving support accounted for 13 percent of variance in high school adjustment. Early and later parental problem-solving support, peer competence, externalizing behavior, and emotional…

  2. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati

    2014-01-01

    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  3. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Furthermore, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal…

  4. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  5. Parental resolution and the adolescent's health and adjustment: The case of adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Alon; Wiseman, Hadas

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the association between parents' resolution of their adolescent child's diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and the health and mental adjustment of the adolescents themselves. Parents of 75 adolescents with type 1 diabetes were interviewed using the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview. Parents and adolescents completed questionnaires regarding the child's physical health, self-management of the disease, and behavioral and emotional problems. Physicians reported adolescents' HbA1c levels. Results showed that adolescents whose fathers were resolved with the diagnosis exhibited better diabetes self-management and adolescents whose mothers were resolved with the diagnosis exhibited fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. The findings highlight the different role of mothers and fathers in the treatment of adolescents with diabetes and provide a basis for clinical intervention that focuses not only on adolescent health, but also on parental state of mind regarding the resolution with the disease. PMID:26684497

  6. Family Background, Adolescent Coping Styles, and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schludermann, Shirin; And Others

    This study explored the effects of family background variables on coping styles, and the contribution of coping styles and locus of control to the overall adjustment of older adolescents. The objectives of this study were to develop a Canadian adaptation of the Seiffge-Krenke Adolescent Coping Style Scale; to explore the influences of family and…

  7. Attachment styles, emotion regulation, and adjustment in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M L; Shaver, P R; Collins, N L

    1998-05-01

    Attachment style differences in psychological symptomatology, self-concept, and risky or problem behaviors were examined in a community sample (N = 1,989) of Black and White adolescents, 13 to 19 years old. Overall, secure adolescents were the best-adjusted group, though not necessarily the least likely to engage in risky behaviors. Anxious adolescents were the worst-adjusted group, reporting the poorest self-concepts and the highest levels of symptomatology and risk behaviors. In contrast, avoidant adolescents reported generally high levels of symptomatology and poor self-concepts but similar levels of risk behaviors to those found among secures. Mediation analyses suggested that the observed differences in problem behaviors were at least partially accounted for by the differential experience of distress symptoms (primarily hostility and depression) and by social competence. Finally, patterns of attachment effects were similar across age, gender, and racial groups, with some important exceptions. PMID:9599450

  8. The Differential Effects of Family Violence on Adolescent Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maura

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effects of different types of domestic violence on adolescent adjustment. High school students (n=935) participated in this study. Results revealed the amounts of parent-child violence and interparental violence witnessed were significant predictors of both externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Significant effects were…

  9. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers. PMID:26027850

  10. Community Violence Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Adjustment in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2008-01-01

    Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N=358; 45% male; 91% African American, M=12.10 years, SD=1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural equation modeling revealed that a six-factor correlated model best fit the data, indicating that the six subscales of the threat appraisal measure represent distinct but related constructs. The factor structure was invariant across age and gender. Exposure to violence was associated prospectively with caregiver- and adolescent-rated adjustment problems. Each of the six threat appraisals mediated links between exposure to violence at Wave 1 and adolescent-rated internalizing adjustment problems 1 year later. PMID:18991135

  11. Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents with Myelodysplasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Mary M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The psychosocial development of 20 adolescents with congenital paralysis due to myelodysplasia is compared to 20 age-and gender-matched subjects with no physical handicaps. On many of the measures, the myelodysplasia group showed poorer social and emotional adjustment and lower self esteem than the controls. (Author/GDC)

  12. Adolescent Adjustment Before and After HIV-Related Parental Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weiss, Robert; Alber, Susan; Lester, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    The impact of HIV-related parental death on 414 adolescents was examined over a period of 6 years. The adjustment of bereaved adolescents was compared over 4 time periods relative to parental death and was also compared with the adjustment of nonbereaved adolescents. Bereaved adolescents had significantly more emotional distress, negative life…

  13. Co-Occurring Problems of Early Onset Persistent, Childhood Limited, and Adolescent Onset Conduct Problem Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Edward D.; Oliver, Bonamy R.; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems…

  14. Proactive and reactive sibling aggression and adjustment in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F

    2015-03-01

    Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment. PMID:25006024

  15. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  16. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex

    2012-06-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  17. Mexican-origin parents' work conditions and adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. PMID:25938710

  18. Adult International Students: Problems of Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntley, Helen S.

    This paper examines research findings on adult international students and their adjustment problems while attending U.S. schools of higher education. Specific areas related to the adult student, some of which may also involve related issues of gender and country of origin, are discussed, as well as problem areas and hurdles unique to foreign…

  19. Media Use and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: An Examination of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2009-01-01

    This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the…

  20. Psychological profiles and adolescent adjustment: a person-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Lisa J; Moilanen, Kristin L; Raffaelli, Marcela; Randall, Brandy A

    2006-01-01

    The association between young adolescents' psychological profiles and their subsequent adjustment was examined in a sample of 606 adolescents (ages 12-13) drawn from the mother-child data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of youth based on self-regulation, proneness to risk, self-worth, and perceived academic competence. Five replicable clusters were identified corresponding to optimal, average, behavioral risk, low self-regulation, and emotional risk groups. These clusters were associated with distinct patterns of adjustment 4 years later. At ages 16-17, youth in the optimal group tended to report better academic performance, less problem behavior, and less depression than youth in the three risk groups; however, their functioning did not differ significantly from youth in the average group. The three risk groups differed in self-reported depression symptoms and academic performance but not in levels of problem behavior. Differences among the five groups persisted when demographic and contextual variables were controlled. These results support the existence of different groups of youth who follow distinct developmental trajectories and may experience different patterns of adjustment. PMID:16478559

  1. School Adjustment of First-Generation Chinese-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Zheng; Peverly, Stephen T.; Xin, Tao; Huang, Annie S.; Wang, Weidong

    2003-01-01

    First-generation Chinese-American adolescents' school adjustment was compared with that of Mainland Chinese and European American adolescents. Results indicated that Chinese-American adolescents reported more negative attitudes toward teachers than European American and Mainland Chinese students, had more negative perceptions of the school…

  2. Development of adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Ary, D V; Duncan, T E; Biglan, A; Metzler, C W; Noell, J W; Smolkowski, K

    1999-04-01

    The developmental model of adolescent antisocial behavior advanced by Patterson and colleagues (e.g., Patterson, Reid, & Dishion, 1992) appears to generalize the development of a diverse set of problem behaviors. Structural equation modeling methods were applied to 18-month longitudinal data from 523 adolescents. The problem behavior construct included substance use, antisocial behavior, academic failure, and risky sexual behavior. Families with high levels of conflict were less likely to have high levels of parent-child involvement. Such family conditions resulted in less adequate parental monitoring of adolescent behavior, making associations with deviant peers more likely. Poor parental monitoring and associations with deviant peers were strong predictors of engagement in problem behavior. These constructs accounted for 46% of the variance in problem behavior. Although association with deviant peers was the most proximal social influence on problem behavior, parental monitoring and family factors (conflict and involvement) were key parenting practices that influenced this developmental process. PMID:10400060

  3. Cross-lagged relations among parenting, children's emotion regulation, and psychosocial adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Otterpohl, Nantje; Wild, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported substantive correlations between indicators of parenting, children's emotion regulation (ER), and children's psychosocial adjustment. However, studies on underlying mechanisms are scarce. Particularly in early adolescence, it is still unclear whether relations between parenting and ER are caused by adolescent behavior, by parent behavior, or by reciprocal processes. Moreover, it is unclear whether ER can be seen as an antecedent or a consequence of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine predictive relations among parenting and adolescents' ER, and adolescents' ER and psychosocial adjustment, respectively. We collected longitudinal, multiple informant data at two measurement occasions (Grade 6, Grade 7). All told, 1,100 adolescents (10-14 years) and their parents filled out questionnaires assessing responsiveness and psychological control, adolescents' anger regulation, and adolescents' problem and prosocial behavior. Cross-lagged analyses revealed reciprocal effects between parenting, ER, and adjustment for the parent and boys', but not for the girls', report. Moreover, relations were different for adolescents with versus without clinically elevated symptoms of psychopathology. Our findings support the assumption that reciprocal relations between parenting, ER, and psychosocial adjustment are likely to persist until early adolescence. Nevertheless, the moderating role of gender and psychopathology should be taken into account. Possible reasons for the different findings, and practical implications, are discussed. PMID:24320075

  4. [Evidence against the myth of adjustment problems of people with high intellectual abilities].

    PubMed

    Borges del Rosal, Africa; Hernández-Jorge, Carmen; Rodríguez-Naveiras, Elena

    2011-08-01

    Personal and social adjustment of high-ability children and adolescents is a very important issue in the specialized literature. The differences found between data for and against appropriate adjustment in gifted children and adolescents could be explained by conceptual or methodological biases. In this work, the relation between adjustment and high abilities are contrasted in a sample of teenagers from the Canary Islands, using a screening procedure based on their scores in intelligence tests. Results show that, although gifted adolescents differ significantly from their peers in the control group in socio-economic variables and academic performance, there are no differences in personal, social and educational adjustment. We conclude that adjustment problems and high ability are independent variables, and there is no evidence to support that gifted individuals have adjustment problems. PMID:21774886

  5. CHILDREN WHO EXPERIENCE SIGNIFICANT SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGAHAN, F.E.

    GALENA PARK'S PROGRAM FOR EARLY DETECTION AND INDIVIDUAL PROGRAMING FOR CHILDREN WITH SUSPECTED SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT DIFFICULTIES HAS IDENTIFIED MAJOR PROBLEM AREAS INTO WHICH SUCH CHILDREN USUALLY FALL. APPROXIMATELY 10 PERCENT OF THE CHILDREN EXAMINED ARE THOSE WHOSE MOTOR COORDINATION IS DELAYED OR FAULTY. SUCH CHILDREN ARE THE MOST LIKELY TO BE…

  6. Relation between Severity of Chronic Illness and Adjustment in Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Anita Landau; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study with 70 children and adolescents with sickle cell disease did not support the hypothesis that illness severity (measured by frequency of hospitalization) would affect adjustment (measured by IQ, self-esteem, social and personal adjustment, behavioral problems, school performance, and peer relations). (Author/DB)

  7. The mediational role of adolescents' friends in relations between activity breadth and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Becnel, Jennifer N

    2008-07-01

    This investigation addresses the mediational role of friends' characteristics between adolescents' activity breadth (i.e., variety in activity participation) and their later adjustment. Data were drawn from 2 longitudinal studies: the Childhood and Beyond (CAB; N = 925) study and the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study (MADICS; N = 1,338). Adolescents at Time 2 in each study (8th, 9th, and 11th graders in CAB and 8th graders in MADICS) reported on the breadth of their participation across 5 activity settings: sports, religious, volunteering, community, and school. Friends' characteristics and adolescent adjustment were reported by adolescents at Times 1 and 3. Friends' positive characteristics significantly mediated relations between activity breadth and adolescent depressive affect, self-worth, alcohol use, and problem behavior in both studies. Friends' negative characteristics significantly mediated these relations in CAB, but not in MADICS. PMID:18605836

  8. Psychopathic Traits and Their Association with Adjustment Problems in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Nora E.; Acheson, Ashley; Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Psychopathic traits, and specifically callous-unemotional (CU) traits, are associated with a variety of adverse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. The majority of research in this area has focused on men and boys, though there is some evidence that psychopathy is expressed differently in girls and women. Objectives The purpose of this study was to test if the relationships of callous-unemotional (CU) traits with adjustment differed between girls and boys at risk for antisocial behavior. Methods Children whose biological father had past or current alcohol or drug problems were recruited for this research. A total of 234 children (116 boys, 118 girls; ages 10–12) were rated by their parent or guardian on CU traits and overall adjustment. Results Boys were generally rated higher on measures of CU traits; however, these traits were more prominently related to adjustment problems among girls. Conclusions These results suggest that expression of psychopathic traits may have more negative effects on adjustment for girls than boys. One possible mechanism by which CU traits could be impacting adjustment in girls is by impairing interpersonal relationships. PMID:22933184

  9. Adolescent Temperament: Childhood Problem Precursors and Problem Behavior Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael

    Interrelations between childhood behavior problems and adolescent temperament, and between adolescent temperament and problem behaviors, were studied. A sample of 311 adolescents with an average age of 15.7 years completed self-report measures regarding behavior problems before age 13, temperament, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems,…

  10. Family Emotional Processes and Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Clare M.; Richmond, Melissa K.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Kiang, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This study examined associations between parents' emotion coaching and emotional expressiveness, and adolescents' internalizing and externalizing symptoms. The sample included 131 16-year-olds and their mothers and fathers. Adolescents completed an open-ended interview about their parents' emotion coaching. Adolescents rated parents' negative…

  11. Recent Stressful Life Events among Bahraini Adolescents with Adjustment Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ansari, Ahmed; Matar, Ali M.

    1993-01-01

    Retrospectively examined adolescents from two time periods, diagnosed with adjustment disorder (n=72), for type of life stressors that initiated referrals to child psychiatry unit and compared them to control group of 42 referred adolescents with no psychopathology. Disappointment in relationships with family member or friend of opposite sex was…

  12. Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment: The Role of Parental Reflective Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbassat, Naomi; Priel, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Reflective function (RF) is the capacity to reflect on one's own mental experiences and those of others. This study examined the relationship between parental RF and adolescent adjustment. One hundred and five adolescents, aged 14-18, and their mothers and fathers were interviewed and completed questionnaires during home visits. We measured…

  13. Social-Emotional Adjustment of Integrated Hearing Impaired Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Elizabeth B.; Shade, Maureen

    1985-01-01

    Social-emotional adjustment patterns of eight mainstreamed hearing impaired adolescents were compared with identical measures of a matched group of eight normally hearing adolescents. No statistically significant differences between the groups were found. Results presented a picture of social and emotional well-being similar for both the hearing…

  14. Adolescent Leisure Dimensions, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham L.; Inglis, Brad C.

    2012-01-01

    Leisure provides the context for much of adolescent behaviour and development. While both theory and research point to the benefits of participation in leisure activities that are highly structured, the association between structured leisure and psychosocial adjustment is not uniformly high. This paper presents a model of adolescent leisure…

  15. Culture and Parenting: Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Canadian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…

  16. Lying Behavior, Family Functioning and Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Finkenauer, Catrin; van Kooten, Dyana C.

    2006-01-01

    Communication between children and parents has been the subject of several studies, examining the effects of, for example, disclosure and secrecy on adolescents' social relationships and adjustment. Less attention has paid to adolescent deception. We developed and tested a new instrument on lying behavior in a sample of 671 parent-adolescent…

  17. Parental Psychological Control and Adolescent Adjustment: The Role of Adolescent Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms among adolescents from predominantly disadvantaged backgrounds. The indirect effects of psychological control on adolescent adjustment through adolescent emotion regulation (anger and sadness regulation) were examined as well as the moderating effects of adolescent emotion regulation. Design 206 adolescents (ages 10–18) reported on parental psychological control and their own depressive symptoms, and parents and adolescents reported on adolescent emotion regulation and aggressive behavior. Indirect effect models were tested using structural equation modeling; moderating effects were tested using hierarchical multiple regression. Results The associations between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms were indirect through adolescents’ anger regulation. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parental psychological control and adolescent depressive symptoms was stronger among adolescents with poor sadness regulation and the association between psychological control and aggressive behavior was stronger among older adolescents with poor anger regulation. Conclusions Psychological control is negatively associated with adolescent adjustment, particularly among adolescents who have difficulty regulating emotions. Emotion regulation is one mechanism through which psychological control is linked to adolescent adjustment, particularly anger dysregulation, and this pattern holds for both younger and older adolescents and for both boys and girls. PMID:25057264

  18. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view. PMID:26267767

  19. Adolescent Adjustment in Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, Rinnel Gunnersinda

    2010-01-01

    Early adolescence can be a difficult experience for many youth. This complex phase of development occurs as children transition to middle school. Within middle school, adolescents are faced with new challenges including ever changing peer groups and different educational and behavioral expectations. These challenges have been recognized as having…

  20. Family and school influences on adolescents' adjustment: The moderating role of youth hopefulness and aspirations for the future.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Jean M; Booth, Margaret Zoller

    2015-10-01

    Using a school-based sample of 675 adolescents, this short-term longitudinal investigation examined the relationships among individual, family, and school influences on adolescent adjustment problems. Adolescents' perceptions of school climate and their sense of connectedness to school were negatively associated with conduct problems. A significant interaction between parental academic support and adolescents' academic aspirations was detected for the total sample, boys, and White youth, indicating that parental support serves a protective function against conduct problems for students with low academic expectations. Adolescents' hopefulness, parental academic aspirations, and school connectedness were negatively associated with depression. Adolescents' hopefulness and their academic aspirations moderated associations between both family and school influences on adolescent adjustment with youth gender and race qualifying these interaction effects. PMID:26177519

  1. Romantic Experience and Psychosocial Adjustment in Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Wyndol; Low, Sabina; Ho, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal relations between the amount of romantic experience and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a 1-year study of a community based sample of 200 tenth graders. Adolescents, parents, and friends completed measures of psychosocial adjustment. The amount of romantic experience was associated with higher reports of social…

  2. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  3. Interparental Aggression and Adolescent Adjustment: The Role of Emotional Insecurity and Adrenocortical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Kathleen N.; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents exposed to interparental aggression are at increased risk for developing adjustment problems. The present study explored intervening variables in these pathways in a community sample that included 266 adolescents between 12 and 16 years old (M = 13.82; 52.5% boys, 47.5% girls). A moderated mediation model examined the moderating role of adrenocortical reactivity on the meditational capacity of their emotional insecurity in this context. Information from multiple reporters and adolescents’ adrenocortical response to conflict were obtained during laboratory sessions attended by mothers, fathers and their adolescent child. A direct relationship was found between marital aggression and adolescents’ internalizing behavior problems. Adolescents’ emotional insecurity mediated the relationship between marital aggression and adolescents’ depression and anxiety. Adrenocortical reactivity moderated the pathway between emotional insecurity and adolescent adjustment. The implications for further understanding the psychological and physiological effects of adolescents’ exposure to interparental aggression and violence are discussed. PMID:25360061

  4. Adolescents' ADHD symptoms and adjustment: The role of attachment and rejection sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Miri; Oshri, Assaf; Eshkol, Varda; Pilowsky, Tammy

    2014-03-01

    The associations between attachment style, ADHD symptoms, and social adjustments were examined in a community sample of adolescents. Five hundred and eight junior high school students completed questionnaires pertaining to attachment style, ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity), and rejection sensitivity, and were rated by homeroom teachers on social adjustment. Analyses supported a 3-profile pattern of attachment styles: secure, dismissing, and preoccupied. The 3 attachment profiles showed differential risk on adolescents' social adjustment, as well as on ADHD symptoms. The secure profile showed the most adaptive outcomes on all of the examined adjustment outcomes, compared with the other 2 profiles. In contrast, the preoccupied attachment profile showed the highest levels of ADHD problems, angry and anxious expectations, while displaying a similar level of maladjustment to the dismissing profile. In addition, structural equation modeling was used and supported a model that tested an indirect link between attachment security and adolescent adjustment via an ADHD latent factor. Findings suggest that clinicians and educators should pay attention to relational patterns (attachment styles) in adolescence, as these may serve as a developmental precursor for ADHD and a range of adjustment problems in school. PMID:24826937

  5. Exploring Mexican American adolescent romantic relationship profiles and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Danyel A V; Roosa, Mark W

    2015-08-01

    Although Mexican Americans are the largest ethnic minority group in the nation, knowledge is limited regarding this population's adolescent romantic relationships. This study explored whether 12th grade Mexican Americans' (N = 218; 54% female) romantic relationship characteristics, cultural values, and gender created unique latent classes and if so, whether they were linked to adjustment. Latent class analyses suggested three profiles including, relatively speaking, higher, satisfactory, and lower quality romantic relationships. Regression analyses indicated these profiles had distinct associations with adjustment. Specifically, adolescents with higher and satisfactory quality romantic relationships reported greater future family expectations, higher self-esteem, and fewer externalizing symptoms than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Similarly, adolescents with higher quality romantic relationships reported greater academic self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Overall, results suggested higher quality romantic relationships were most optimal for adjustment. Future research directions and implications are discussed. PMID:26141198

  6. Personal Fables, Narcissism, and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Flannery, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship among three personal fables ("omnipotence," "invulnerability," "personal uniqueness"), narcissism, and mental health variables was assessed in a large, cross-sectional sample of adolescents drawn from Grades 6 (n = 94), 8 (n = 223), 10 (n = 142), and 12 (n = 102). Participants responded to the New Personal Fable Scale, the…

  7. Family Structure History and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    As patterns of union formation and dissolution in adult lives become complex, the living arrangements of American children are becoming increasingly fluid. With a sample (N = 12,843) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study attempted to capture this complexity by mapping out children's family structure histories…

  8. Toward a Transactional Model of Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2008-01-01

    The present study includes externalizing problems, internalizing problems, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and father-adolescent relationship quality in the same structural equation model and tests the longitudinal reciprocal association among all four variables over a 1-year period. A transactional model in which adolescents'…

  9. Media Use and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: An Examination of Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2011-01-01

    This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychological adjustment. Adolescents were surveyed in the spring of 2006, and again one year later. Gender differences in media use were observed with boys spending more time playing video games than girls and girls spending more time talking on the phone than boys. Strikingly, none of the types of media examined was associated with depression or anxiety. Moreover, media use acted as a protective factor for boys. Boys who spent relatively more time playing video games and watching television had the lowest levels of anxiety, especially those from alcoholic homes. The opposite pattern emerged for girls. PMID:21359124

  10. Media Use and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: An Examination of Gender Differences.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2009-08-01

    This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychological adjustment. Adolescents were surveyed in the spring of 2006, and again one year later. Gender differences in media use were observed with boys spending more time playing video games than girls and girls spending more time talking on the phone than boys. Strikingly, none of the types of media examined was associated with depression or anxiety. Moreover, media use acted as a protective factor for boys. Boys who spent relatively more time playing video games and watching television had the lowest levels of anxiety, especially those from alcoholic homes. The opposite pattern emerged for girls. PMID:21359124

  11. The Relation between Parenting Transitions and Adjustment in Young Adolescents: A Multisample Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated the effects of and relationship between the number of parenting transitions (divorce, remarriage) and adjustment in three samples of adolescent girls and boys not identified as being at risk for problems. Found qualified evidence of a negative linear relationship between the number of parenting transitions experienced and child…

  12. Direct and Relational Bullying among Children and Adolescents: Coping and Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Hayer, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Previous research highlighted that pupils actively involved in bullying and victimization are prone to develop diverse psychological problems. The overall aim of our study was to investigate effects of different forms of bullying and victimization on coping with interpersonal stressors and psychological adjustment among children and adolescents.…

  13. Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11-14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a…

  14. Identifying Russian and Finnish Adolescents' Problem Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Jokela, Veikko; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Uhanov, Mihail

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkaranta district in Russia…

  15. Coping and Self-Concept: Adjustment Patterns in Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomchin, Ellen Menaker; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study examined the relationship between self-concept and coping strategies of 457 academically gifted adolescents (ages 10-16). Results found the adolescents used various strategies that assumed responsibility for dealing with stressors and took action-focused approaches rather than ignoring problems. They focused on the positive and on problem…

  16. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

  17. Comparing Adolescents in Diverging Family Structures: Investigating Whether Adoptees Are More Prone to Problems than Their Nonadopted Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigelman, William

    2001-01-01

    Used National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data to compare adolescent adjustment problems in two-parent adoptive families, two-parent biologic families, and step- or single-parent biologic families. Found that adjustment difficulties were far more common among adolescents in step- and single-parent families than in other groups.…

  18. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Schneider, Ashley; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students' adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents' academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects…

  19. Peer Relationships and Academic Adjustment during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation, engagement, and achievement decline for many children during early adolescence. There is increasing attention to the role peer relationships play in changes in academic adjustment during this stage of life. The articles in this special issue advance knowledge on this topic. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles…

  20. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment among Chinese American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…

  1. Parenting, Marital Conflict and Adjustment from Early- To Mid-Adolescence: Mediated by Adolescent Attachment Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Contributions of 3 dimensions of parenting (psychological control, warmth, and behavioural control), marital conflict, and attachment style (anxiety and avoidance) to adjustment from early to middle adolescence were assessed. Mediation of marital conflict effects by parenting, and of parenting effects by attachment were examined. Adolescents (n =…

  2. Economic hardship and Mexican-origin adolescents' adjustment: examining adolescents' perceptions of hardship and parent-adolescent relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Melissa Y; Killoren, Sarah E; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-10-01

    Studies examining economic hardship consistently have linked family economic hardship to adolescent adjustment via parent and family functioning, but limited attention has been given to adolescents' perceptions of these processes. To address this, the authors investigated the intervening effects of adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship and of parent-adolescent warmth and conflict on the associations between parental economic hardship and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, risky behaviors, and school performance) in a sample of 246 Mexican-origin families. Findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' reports of economic hardship were positively related to adolescents' reports of economic hardship, which in turn, were negatively related to parent-adolescent warmth and positively related to parent-adolescent conflict with both mothers and fathers. Adolescents' perceptions of economic hardship were indirectly related to (a) depressive symptoms through warmth with mothers and conflict with mothers and fathers, (b) involvement in risky behaviors through conflict with mothers and fathers, and (c) GPA through conflict with fathers. Our findings highlight the importance of adolescents' perceptions of family economic hardship and relationships with mothers and fathers in predicting adolescent adjustment. PMID:23937419

  3. Parent-adolescent relationships, physical disciplinary history, and adjustment in adolescents.

    PubMed

    DeVet, K A

    1997-09-01

    Physical discipline occurs within the context of the parent-child relationship, yet it is often not examined within this important context. The current study examined whether negative effects of physical discipline on older adolescent adjustment are mediated by the overall parent-child relationship. The sample consisted of 253, mostly Caucasian, middle-class, adolescent participants (mean age = 18.4, 67% female). Physical punishment history, parent-adolescent relationships, and adjustment were assessed with self-report instruments. For females, relationships with parents partially mediated the association between physical punishment and adjustment. Physical punishment was negatively associated with both adjustment and parent-adolescent relationships. For males, physical punishment was not related to adjustment. Parent-adolescent relationships were positively associated with adjustment for both females and males. Physical punishment by fathers was negatively associated with father-son relationships. The results suggest the importance of exploring links between physical punishment and adjustment within the context of parent-child relationship, as well as examining males, females, mothers, and fathers separately. PMID:9439941

  4. Parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment: bidirectionality and the moderation effects of child ethnicity and parental warmth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal physical punishment and adolescent misconduct and depressive symptoms, while accounting for stability in both physical punishment and adjustment problems over time. Data were drawn from a sample of 862 two-parent families and their adolescent children (52 % males; 54 % European American; 44 % African American; 2 % other ethnic backgrounds). Mothers' and fathers' physical punishment of their adolescents' ages 12 and 14 predicted increased misconduct and depressive symptoms among these adolescents at ages 14 and 16. Adolescent misconduct, but not depressive symptoms, at ages 12 and 14 predicted increased physical punishment by their parents at ages 14 and 16. Neither parental warmth nor child ethnicity moderated the longitudinal relationship between parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment. Patterns of findings were similar across mothers and fathers. PMID:24384596

  5. Features of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Adolescents' Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repinski, Daniel J.; Zook, Joan M.

    Seven features of adolescents' relationships with mothers and with fathers (time together per day, number of activities, degree of influence, subjective closeness, and frequency of experiencing positive, hostile, and sad emotions in the relationship) were used to predict adolescents' problem behavior and chemical use. Using a sample of 64 seventh-…

  6. Bidirectional Influences Between Dimensions of Coparenting and Adolescent Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on coparenting documents that mothers' and fathers' coordination and mutual support in their parenting roles is linked to their offspring's adjustment in childhood, but we know much less about the coparenting of adolescents. Taking a family systems perspective, this study assessed two dimensions of coparenting, parents' shared decision-making and joint involvement in activities with their adolescents, and examined bidirectional associations between these coparenting dimensions and boys' and girls' risky behaviors and depressive symptoms across four time points (6 years) in adolescence. Participants were 201 mothers, fathers, and adolescents (M = 11.83, SD = .55 years of age at Time 1; 51 % female). Parents of sons shared more decisions, on average, than parents of daughters. On average, shared decision-making followed an inverted U shaped pattern of change, and parents' joint involvement in their adolescents' activities declined. Cross-lagged findings revealed that risky behavior predicted less shared decision-making, and shared decision-making protected against increased risky behavior for boys. For girls and boys, parents' joint involvement predicted fewer risky behaviors, and lower levels of risky behavior predicted higher levels of joint involvement. In contrast, boys' and girls' depressive symptoms predicted less joint involvement. The discussion centers on the nature and correlates of coparenting during adolescence, including the role of child effects, and directions for future research on coparenting during this developmental period. PMID:23539238

  7. Stability and Change in Adjustment Profiles Among Chinese American Adolescents: The Role of Parenting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Asian American adolescents are often depicted as academically successful but psychologically distressed, a pattern known as the achievement/adjustment paradox. In a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents (54 % females), we identified three distinct patterns of adjustment in early adolescence, middle adolescence, and emerging adulthood: the well-adjusted group, which was the largest, exhibited high achievement and low psychological distress; the poorly-adjusted group exhibited poor achievement and moderate distress; and the paradox group exhibited relatively high achievement and high distress. More than half of the adolescents remained in the same profile over time. Adolescents with supportive parents were more likely to stay well-adjusted, and those with "tiger" parents were more likely to stay in the paradox group over time. The present study focused on the critical role of parenting in early adolescence, highlighting variations in Chinese American adolescents' adjustment in multiple domains over time. PMID:26022414

  8. Interparental Conflict in Kindergarten and Adolescent Adjustment: Prospective Investigation of Emotional Security as an Explanatory Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; George, Melissa R. W.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Davies, Patrick T.

    2012-01-01

    Advancing the long-term prospective study of explanations for the effects of marital conflict on children’s functioning, relations were examined between interparental conflict in kindergarten, children’s emotional insecurity in the early school years, and subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Based on a community sample of 235 mothers, fathers and children (M = 6.00, 8.02, 12.62 years), and multi-method and multi-reporter assessments, structural equation model (SEM) tests provided support for emotional insecurity in early childhood as an intervening process related to adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems, even with stringent auto-regressive controls over prior levels of functioning for both mediating and outcome variables. Discussion considers implications for understanding pathways between interparental conflict, emotional insecurity and adjustment in childhood and adolescence. PMID:22694264

  9. Daily Cybervictimization Among Latino Adolescents: Links with Emotional, Physical and School Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines how Latino adolescents’ daily cybervictimization experiences are associated with their emotional and physical well-being and school adjustment. Latino high school students (N = 118) completed daily checklists across five consecutive school days. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that daily cybervictimization experiences were associated with greater feelings of distress, anger, shame and physical symptoms. Moderation analyses showed gender differences such that the daily level associations with distress and anger were significant for Latinas but not Latino adolescents. Daily cybervictimization experiences were also related to increased school attendance problems such as arriving late to class or skipping a class. Mediation models indicated that daily feelings of distress accounted for the association between single episodes of cybervictimization and attendance problems. The results address several voids in the cybervictimization literature and demonstrate that a discrete encounter of victimization online is associated with compromised well-being and school adjustment among Latino adolescents. PMID:27307652

  10. Parent – Adolescent Relationship Qualities and Adolescent Adjustment in Two-Parent African American Families

    PubMed Central

    Stanik, Christine E.; Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Using multi-informant data from 134 two-parent African American families, the goals of this study were to (a) describe parent – adolescent warmth and shared time as a function of parent and youth gender and (b) assess links between these indices of relationship quality and adolescent adjustment. Mixed-model ANCOVAs revealed that mothers reported warmer relationships with adolescents than fathers, and both parents reported warmer relationships with younger versus older offspring. Interparental differences in time spent with sons and daughters and older and younger siblings were also found. Tests of multilevel models indicated that greater maternal warmth was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and less risky behavior for sons, and more paternal warmth and shared time with fathers were associated with less risky behavior in youth. Discussion highlights the utility of cultural ecological and family systems perspectives for understanding parent-adolescent relationships and youth adjustment in African American families. PMID:24532863

  11. Parents who hit and scream: interactive effects of verbal and severe physical aggression on clinic-referred adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan

    2014-05-01

    The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse. PMID:24252744

  12. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  13. Adolescent-Mother Agreement about Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Direction and Predictors of Disagreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2007-01-01

    Correlations between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent problems are low in magnitude. In community samples adolescents tend to report "more" problems than parents and in clinical samples adolescents tend to report "fewer" problems than parents. Indices of agreement may be biased if some adolescents in a given sample report more problems…

  14. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  15. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  16. Background for Community Level Work on Educational Adjustment in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Zakia; Brooks, Jennifer; McGarvey, Ayelish M.

    Given the importance of adolescents' educational adjustment, a key question for those concerned with improving adolescent functioning is what can be done to increase adolescents' levels of educational functioning. This review addresses a number of broad facets of adolescents' educational functioning, including those in the psychological…

  17. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    PubMed Central

    WORMINGTON, STEPHANIE V.; ANDERSON, KRISTEN G.; SCHNEIDER, ASHLEY; TOMLINSON, KRISTIN L.; BROWN, SANDRA A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students’ adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents’ academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects through school belonging. Adolescents from two large samples (middle school: N = 2,808; high school: N = 6,821) self-reported on peer victimization, school belonging, academic outcomes (GPA, school truancy), and alcohol use (lifetime, past 30 days). Two-group structural equation models revealed (a) direct and indirect paths from peer victimization to academic functioning; (b) indirect, but not direct, effects through school belonging for lifetime drinking; and (c) direct and indirect effects from peer victimization to current drinking. Findings implicate school belonging as a mediator between peer victimization and important outcomes in adolescence. PMID:27087793

  18. Adolescents' relationship with God and internalizing adjustment over time: the moderating role of maternal religious coping.

    PubMed

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E Mark

    2014-12-01

    A growing literature supports the importance of understanding the link between religiosity and youths' adjustment and development, but in the absence of rigorous, longitudinal designs, questions remain about the direction of effect and the role of family factors. This paper investigates the bidirectional association between adolescents' relationship with God and their internalizing adjustment. Results from 2-wave, SEM cross-lag analyses of data from 667 mother/adolescent dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (50% male, M age = 15.75 years old) supports a risk model suggesting that greater internalizing problems predict a weaker relationship with God 1 year later. Significant moderation analyses suggest that a stronger relationship with God predicted fewer depression and anxiety symptoms for youth whose mothers used more religious coping. PMID:24955590

  19. Explaining the Higher Incidence of Adjustment Problems among Children of Divorce Compared with Those in Two-Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Lin, Kuei-Hsiu; Gordon, Leslie C.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Frederick O.

    1999-01-01

    Examines whether differences between adolescent adjustment problems in divorced families and intact families can be explained by parental conflicts and parents' level of involvement. Determined the quality of mother's parenting and father's involvement explained the association between divorce and boys' externalizing problems; the quality of…

  20. Father's and mother's psychological violence and adolescent behavioral adjustment.

    PubMed

    Melançon, Claudiane; Gagné, Marie-Hélène

    2011-03-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A sample of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three public schools located in low to high socioeconomic areas. Participants were in the 7th, 8th, and 9th grades, and each completed a self-administered questionnaire. Frequency of current psychological violence is about the same for each parental figure. The three most frequent and least frequent psychologically violent parental practices were also the same for both parental figures. Psychological violence of both parents was related to internalized and externalized behavior problems over and above family structure, childhood family violence, and current extrafamily violence. PMID:20460552

  1. Stress, coping, and adjustment in mothers and young adolescents in single- and two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Compas, B E; Williams, R A

    1990-08-01

    Compared stress, coping, and psychological adjustment in single (divorced or separated) and married mothers and their young adolescent children. Single mothers reported more daily hassles related to economic, family, and personal health problems, and more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism. Single mothers also reported using more coping strategies related to accepting responsibility and positive reappraisal. After controlling for level of family income, differences in family hassles and coping strategies remained significant. The two groups did not differ on subtypes of symptoms after controlling for income, but single mothers still reported more total psychological symptoms. No differences were found between children in these two family constellations on maternal reports of emotional/behavioral problems or on children's self-reported emotional/behavioral problems, stressful events, or coping. Implications of these findings for adjustment to life in single-parent families are discussed. PMID:2075890

  2. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality as a Moderator for the Influences of Parents' Religiousness on Adolescents' Religiousness and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents' religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents' religiousness and adolescent adjustment outcomes--either directly or indirectly via adolescents' own religiousness--varies depending on relationship context…

  3. Discrimination and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Adolescents', Mothers', and Fathers' Cultural Orientations and Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Melissa Y.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Roosa, Mark W.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Garcia Coll et al.'s integrative framework and the risk and resilience model, this study examined the relationships between adolescents' perceived discrimination and psychosocial adjustment and the moderating roles of adolescents', mothers', and fathers' cultural orientations and values, and adolescent gender in a sample of 246…

  4. Parent-adolescent relationships and social adjustment: the case of a collectivistic culture.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Miri; Wiseman, Hadas; Farah, Faten

    2011-06-01

    This study examined how parent-adolescent relationships are related to adolescent loneliness, interpersonal difficulties and school adjustment among Israeli Arabs. Two hundred and thirty-one 11th graders (103 boys and 128 girls) and their homeroom teachers participated. Four groups of adolescents were identified according to parenting practice profiles: Adolescents in the harsh parenting group reported the highest levels of loneliness, those in the distant and mixed groups reported midway levels of loneliness, and those in the warm group showed the lowest degree of loneliness and the lowest levels of interpersonal problems. Overall, boys reported higher levels of peer-related loneliness and lower levels of affinity for aloneness than girls. Gender interacted significantly with parenting group, with girls in the harsh parenting group exhibiting greater parent-related loneliness and affinity for loneliness, while boys exhibited more peer-related loneliness. The important role that parents play in their children's social adjustment is discussed in relation to gender and culture. PMID:22044231

  5. Interparental Relationship Sensitivity Leads to Adolescent Internalizing Problems: Different Genotypes, Different Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Fosco, Gregory M.; Cleveland, H. H.; Vandenbergh, David J.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have established that child interparental conflict evaluations link parent relationship functioning and adolescent adjustment. Using differential susceptibility theory and its vantage sensitivity complement as their framework, the authors examined differences between adolescents who vary in the DRD4 7 repeat genotype (i.e. 7+ vs. 7−) in how both interparental conflict and positivity affect adolescents’ evaluations of interparental conflict (i.e., threat appraisals) and how these evaluations affect internalizing problems. Results from longitudinal multiple-group path models using PROSPER data (N = 452) supported the hypothesis that threat appraisals for 7+ adolescents would be more affected by perceptions of interparental positivity compared to 7− adolescents; however, threat appraisals for 7+ adolescents were also less affected by interparental conflict. Among 7− adolescents, interparental conflict perceptions were associated with higher threat appraisals, and no association was found for perceptions of positivity. For adolescents of both genotypes, higher threat was associated with greater internalizing problems. PMID:25843974

  6. Problemes de Developpement et D'Adaptation Sociale. [Problems of Development and Social Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardif, Genevieve; Coutu, Sylvain; Lavigueur, Susanne; Dubeau, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Reviews and summarizes the literature on developmental and behavior problems displayed by young children. Focuses on the definition and classification of problems found in family or child care settings, prevalence of problems as reported by epidemiological studies, and the relative stability of behavior problems from preschool to adolescence.…

  7. The younger siblings of childbearing adolescents: parenting influences on their academic and social-emotional adjustment.

    PubMed

    Chien, Nina C; East, Patricia L

    2012-10-01

    The younger siblings of childbearing adolescents have poorer school outcomes and exhibit more internalizing and externalizing problems compared to their peers without a childbearing sister. We test a model where living with an adolescent childbearing sister constitutes a major family stressor that disrupts mothers' parenting and well-being, and through which, adversely affect youths' adjustment. Data came from 243 Latino younger siblings (62% female, M age 13.7 years) and their mothers, 121 of whom lived with a childbearing adolescent sister and 122 of whom did not. Individual fixed-effects models controlled for earlier measures of each respective model construct, thereby reducing omitted variable bias from pre-existing group differences. Results show that, for boys, the relationship between living with a childbearing adolescent sister and youth outcomes was sequentially mediated through mothers' stress and parenting (i.e., monitoring and nurturance). For girls, however, the relationship was mediated through mothers' monitoring only. Findings elucidate the within-family processes that contribute to the problematic outcomes of youth living with childbearing adolescent older sisters. PMID:21965104

  8. Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2014-07-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture. PMID:25045950

  9. Language and Internalizing and Externalizing Behavioral Adjustment: Developmental Pathways from Childhood to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Two independent prospective longitudinal studies that cumulatively spanned the age interval from 4 years to 14 years used multi-wave designs to investigate developmental associations between language and behavioral adjustment (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Altogether 224 children, their mothers, and teachers provided data. Series of nested path analysis models were used to determine the most parsimonious and plausible paths among the three constructs over and above stability in each across age and their covariation at each age. In both studies, children with poorer language skills in early childhood had more internalizing behavior problems in later childhood and in early adolescence. These developmental paths between language and behavioral adjustment held after taking into consideration children’s nonverbal intellectual functioning, maternal verbal intelligence, education, parenting knowledge, and social desirability bias, as well as family socioeconomic status, and they applied equally to girls and boys. PMID:23880396

  10. Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…

  11. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment Among Chinese American Families

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents’ and mothers’ self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth’s academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents’ heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth. PMID:19636729

  12. Common sexual problems of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, S

    1975-08-01

    The pediatrician is often expected by families to deal with sexual problems of children and adolescents. The physician should be able to identify problems and to guide parents in more meaningful communication and education of their children. Hopefully, he will be able to identify family conflicts and make the appropriate intervention or referral. He should be aware of his own sexual attitudes so as to avoid having his bias interfere with treatment. The childs behavior should not be isolated, but considered in the context of his family, his peers, and his own growth and development. Often, it is more useful to advise the family than to work with a young child. Adolescents present particular problems because of their conflicts over sexual identity, their reluctance to admit to problems, and frequently a mistrust of adults. They often feel a need for a trusting relationship with an adult, however, and are able to relate to a sensitive, non-judgmental professional. PMID:1101177

  13. Spiritual Coping and Psychosocial Adjustment of Adolescents with Chronic Illness: The Role of Cognitive Attributions, Age, and Disease Group

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Nina; Mrug, Sylvie; Guion, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Spiritual coping is an important determinant of adjustment in youth with chronic illness, but the mechanisms through which it affects outcomes have not been elucidated. It is also unknown whether the role of spiritual coping varies by age or disease group. This study evaluated whether general cognitive attributions explain the effects of spiritual coping on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents with cystic fibrosis and diabetes and whether these relationships vary by age or disease group. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adolescents (N=128; M=14.7 yrs) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes completed measures of spiritual coping and attributional style. Adolescents and their caregivers reported on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Results Overall, positive spiritual coping was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. Negative spiritual coping was related to more externalizing problems, and for adolescents with cystic fibrosis only, also internalizing problems. Optimistic attributions mediated the effects of positive spiritual coping among adolescents with diabetes. The results did not vary by age. Conclusions An optimistic attribution style may help explain the effects of positive, but not negative, spiritual coping on adjustment of youth with diabetes. Youth with progressive, life-threatening illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis, may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of negative spiritual coping. Future research should examine if addressing spiritual concerns and promoting optimistic attributions improves adolescents’ emotional and behavioral functioning. PMID:23298988

  14. Does Adolescents' Disclosure to their Parents Matter for their Academic Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Cecilia S.-S.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Dong, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The role of adolescents' disclosure to their parents in their academic adjustment was examined in a study of 825 American and Chinese adolescents (mean age = 12.73 years). Four times over the seventh and eighth grades, adolescents reported on their spontaneous disclosure of everyday activities to their parents, the quality of their relationships…

  15. Cumulative Family Risk Predicts Increases in Adjustment Difficulties across Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent…

  16. Parents' Promotion of Psychological Autonomy, Psychological Control, and Mexican-American Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…

  17. Mexican-Origin Youth's Cultural Orientations and Adjustment: Changes from Early to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; McHale, Susan M.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from developmental and cultural adaptation perspectives and using a longitudinal design, this study examined: (a) mean-level changes in Mexican-origin adolescents' cultural orientations and adjustment from early to late adolescence and (b) bidirectional associations between cultural orientations and adjustment using a cross-lag panel…

  18. Impact of Socio-Emotional Adjustment on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…

  19. Assessing Factors in Adolescent Adjustment as Precursors to Recidivism in Court-Referred Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Miller, Janeen; Ricard, Richard J.; Garcia, Roberto; Lancaster, Chloe

    2011-01-01

    Court-referred youth participated in an intervention program and completed the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory. Reoffending rates were tracked for 2 years. Antisocial behavior, anger control, and emotional distress were influencing characteristics for recidivism. The Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory may serve…

  20. Differential impact of fathers' authoritarian parenting on early adolescent adjustment in conservative protestant versus other families.

    PubMed

    Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner; Hetherington, E Mavis; Reiss, David

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether well-established associations between authoritarian parenting and adolescent adjustment pertain to conservative Protestant (CP) families. Structural equation modeling was used to test paths from biological fathers' authoritarian parenting to adolescent adjustment in 65 CP versus 170 comparison families in the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development Study (NEAD; D. Reiss et al., 1994). The hypothesis that adolescents in CP families would be less harmed by authoritarian parenting than would adolescents in control families was partially supported: Authoritarian parenting directly predicted greater externalizing and internalizing for adolescents in control families but not for adolescents in CP families. In contrast, parents' religious affiliation failed to moderate the negative associations between authoritarian parenting and positive adjustment. Understanding family processes specific to the CP subculture is important for helping these families raise competent children. PMID:17176193

  1. Effect of Race and Marital Status on Mothers’ Observed Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mackenzie T.; Gruhn, Meredith A.; Grey, Margaret; Delamater, Alan M.; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine demographic differences in parenting behaviors and adjustment in youth with type 1 diabetes. Methods Adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment was assessed via self-reports and parent reports, and clinical data were obtained from adolescents’ medical records. Mother–adolescent dyads (N = 93) engaged in a videotaped discussion task, which was coded for observed parenting behaviors. Results Single and non-White mothers exhibited significantly more overinvolved and less collaborative parenting behaviors. Higher levels of overinvolved parenting and lower levels of collaborative parenting were associated with poorer adolescent adjustment (i.e., higher levels of externalizing problems). Observed parenting was not significantly associated with glycemic control. There was an indirect effect of marital status and race/ethnicity on externalizing behaviors through parenting. Conclusions The current study highlights parenting as a potential target for interventions, especially in single and minority mothers, to improve adjustment in this population. PMID:25248850

  2. Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Mental Health Problems: Behaviour, Self-Concept, Quality of Life and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, R. A.; Hunter, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality…

  3. The Adolescent Adjustment Profile (AAP) in comparisons of patients with obesity, phenylketonuria or neurobehavioural disorders.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Gunilla Maria; Mårild, Staffan; Alm, Jan; Brodin, Ulf; Rydelius, Per-Anders; Marcus, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Psychosocial development in children with chronic disease is a key issue in paediatrics. This study investigated whether psychosocial adjustment could be reliably assessed with the 42-item Adolescent Adjustment Profile (AAP) instrument. The study mainly focused on adjustment-to-obesity measurement, although it compared three patient groups with chronic conditions. All phenylketonuria (PKU) patients in Sweden between ages 9 and 18 and their parents and teachers were invited to participate. Patients with neurobehavioural syndromes and obesity were age- and gender-matched with PKU patients. Healthy children constituted a reference group. Psychosocial adjustment was measured using the AAP, which is a multi-informant questionnaire that contains four domains. Information concerning parents' socio-economic and civil status was requested separately. Respondents to the three questionnaires judged the PKU patients to be normal in all four domains. Patients with neurobehavioural syndromes demonstrated less competence and the most problems compared with the other three groups. According to the self-rating, the parent rating and the teacher rating questionnaires, obese patients had internalizing problems. The parent rating and the teacher rating questionnaire scored obese patients as having a lower work capacity than the reference group. Compared with the reference group, not only families with obese children but also families with children with neurobehavioural syndromes had significantly higher divorce rates. Obese patients were also investigated with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), another instrument that enables comparison between two measures of adjustment. The AAP had good psychometric properties; it was judged a useful instrument in research on adolescents with chronic diseases. PMID:18389428

  4. Time with Peers from Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental course and adjustment correlates of time with peers from age 8 to 18. On 7 occasions over 8 years, the two eldest siblings from 201 European American, working- and middle-class families provided questionnaire and/or phone diary data. Multilevel models revealed that girls’ time with mixed/opposite-sex peers increased beginning in middle childhood, but boys’ time increased beginning in early adolescence. For both girls and boys, time with same-sex peers peaked in mid-adolescence. At the within-person level, unsupervised time with mixed/opposite-sex peers longitudinally predicted problem behaviors and depressive symptoms, and supervised time with mixed/opposite-sex peers longitudinally predicted better school performance. Findings highlight the importance of social context in understanding peer involvement and its implications for youth development. PMID:24673293

  5. Individual differences in the development of self-regulation during pre-adolescence: Connections to context and adjustment

    PubMed Central

    King, Kevin M.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2012-01-01

    Difficulties with self-regulation are implicated in the development of emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence. Although children’s ability to regulate their behaviors continues to improve throughout childhood and adolescence, it remains unclear how contextual risk factors might influence this development during the transition to adolescence, or how variation in the development of self-regulation predicts adjustment. Using a community sample of 214 8–12 year-olds (T1 M=9.5, SD=1.01), we examined growth trajectories of effortful control and impulsivity over three years and tested predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Although predictors of initial levels of self-regulation were largely equivalent for both effortful control and impulsivity, contextual risk factors were related to variations in the development of impulsivity but not effortful control. However, increases in effortful control, but not impulsivity, were associated with level and rate of change in adjustment problems and positive adjustment, suggesting that different dimensions of self-regulation have different antecedents and outcomes in pre-adolescence and adolescence. PMID:22865096

  6. Individual differences in the development of self-regulation during pre-adolescence: connections to context and adjustment.

    PubMed

    King, Kevin M; Lengua, Liliana J; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties with self-regulation are implicated in the development of emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence. Although children's ability to regulate their behaviors continues to improve throughout childhood and adolescence, it remains unclear how contextual risk factors might influence this development during the transition to adolescence, or how variation in the development of self-regulation predicts adjustment. Using a community sample of 214 8-12 year-olds (T1 M = 9.5, SD = 1.01), we examined growth trajectories of effortful control and impulsivity over three years and tested predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Although predictors of initial levels of self-regulation were largely equivalent for both effortful control and impulsivity, contextual risk factors were related to variations in the development of impulsivity but not effortful control. However, increases in effortful control, but not impulsivity, were associated with level and rate of change in adjustment problems and positive adjustment, suggesting that different dimensions of self-regulation have different antecedents and outcomes in pre-adolescence and adolescence. PMID:22865096

  7. Effects of autistic traits on social and school adjustment in children and adolescents: the moderating roles of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and their school and social adjustment (i.e., academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork/teachers/classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problems with peers) were assessed using the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA). Both measures were completed by the mothers of the participants. Results from the linear mixed models demonstrated that autistic-like social deficits were associated with poor academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork, teachers, and classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problematic peer interactions. Moreover, gender and/or age moderated the associations between autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment problems. For example, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to negative school attitude, school social problems, and negative peer relationships in boys than in girls. Further, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to problems with peers in older girls than in older boys or younger children (regardless of gender). In conclusion, the present study suggests that autistic-like social deficits may place children and adolescents at increased risk for social and school maladjustment and that the extent of maladjustment may vary with the child's age and gender and the domains of adjustment under discussion. PMID:22960068

  8. EARLY DETECTION AND PROGRAMING FOR CHILDREN WITH SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGAHAN, F.E.

    THE GALENA PARK SPECIAL PROGRAM IS AN EFFORT ON THE PART OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION TO DETECT, AT THE EARLIEST TIME, ANY STUDENT PROBLEM WHICH MAY LEAD TO DIFFICULTIES IN SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT. ALL PHASES OF PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES ARE PLACED UNDER ONE COORDINATOR TO EXPEDITE SERVICES TO THE CHILD IN DIFFICULTY. EARLY DETECTION OF POTENTIAL PROBLEM…

  9. Problems, Plans, and Ambitions of German and Foreign Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, M. K.

    1989-01-01

    Compared personal and social problems and ambitions of Italian, Spanish, and Greek adolescents living in Germany with those of German adolescents. Found that family and religion played more important role for foreign adolescents than for Germans. While parents appeared to have same importance for all adolescents, emotional relations with siblings…

  10. Intimate partner violence, coercive control, and child adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee

    2015-02-01

    Coercive control is a relationship dynamic that is theorized to be key for understanding physical intimate partner violence (IPV). This research examines how coercive control in the context of physical IPV may influence child adjustment. Participants were 107 mothers and their children, aged 7 to 10 years. In each family, mothers reported the occurrence of at least one act of physical IPV in the past 6 months. Mothers reported on physical IPV and coercive control, and mothers and children reported on children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Coercive control in the context of physical IPV related positively with both mothers' and children's reports of child externalizing and internalizing problems, after accounting for the frequency of physical IPV, psychological abuse, and mothers' education. This research suggests that couple relationship dynamics underlying physical IPV are potentially important for understanding how physical IPV leads to child adjustment problems. PMID:24923886

  11. Perceived parenting style and adolescent adjustment: revisiting directions of effects and the role of parental knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan; Ozdemir, Metin

    2012-11-01

    In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have used measures of parental behavioral control that are questionable because they include measures of parental knowledge. The goals of this study were to determine whether including knowledge items might have affected results of past studies and to test the unidirectional assumption. Data were from 978 adolescents participating in a longitudinal study. Parenting-style and adolescent adjustment measures at 2 time points were used, with a 2-year interval between time points. A variety of internal and external adjustment measures were used. Results showed that including knowledge items in measures of parental behavioral control elevated links between behavioral control and adjustment. Thus, the results and conclusions of many of the most highly cited studies are likely to have been stronger than if the measures had focused strictly on parental behavior. In addition, adolescent adjustment predicted changes in authoritative and neglectful parenting styles more robustly than these styles predicted changes in adolescent adjustment. Adolescent adjustment also predicted changes in authoritativeness more robustly than authoritativeness predicted changes in adjustment. Thus, parenting style cannot be seen as independent of the adolescent. In summary, both the theoretical premises of parenting-style research and the prior findings should be revisited. PMID:22448987

  12. Cascading effects of interparental conflict in adolescence: Linking threat appraisals, self-efficacy, and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the longitudinal implications of adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict for their developmental success. In the proposed developmental cascade model, adolescents' perceptions of parental conflict as threatening is a risk factor for diminished self-efficacy, which would account for diminished adjustment. This study presents longitudinal data for 768 sixth-grade students and their families over four time points, ending in eighth grade. Analyses were conducted in three steps. First, replication of longitudinal support for threat as a mediator of the link between interparental conflict and emotional distress was found; however, findings did not support threat as a mediator of behavior problems or subjective well-being. Second, threat was found to mediate the longitudinal association between interparental conflict and self-efficacy. Third, a developmental cascade model supported a risk process in which interparental conflict was related to adolescents' threat appraisals, which undermined self-efficacy beliefs, and was then linked with emotional distress, behavior problems, and subjective well-being. PMID:25017469

  13. The Relation of Parental Marital Status and Perceived Family Conflict to Adjustment in White Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enos, Diane M.; Handal, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Examined two contrasting views of divorce and long-term adjustment of children. Failed to support physical-wholeness position; parental marital status was not significantly related to psychological adjustment or social life satisfaction. Results provided strong support for psychological-wholeness position: adolescents' psychological adjustment and…

  14. Emotion regulation profiles, temperament, and adjustment problems in preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Wilson, Anna C; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N=196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point occurring 1 year apart. LPA identified 5 frustration and 4 anxiety regulation profiles based on children's physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. The relation of effortful control to conduct problems was mediated by frustration regulation profiles, as was the relation of effortful control to depression. Anxiety regulation profiles did not mediate relations between temperament and adjustment. PMID:21413935

  15. School and Cognitive Functioning Problems in Adolescent Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Freidl, Eve Khlyavich; Sysko, Robyn; Devlin, Michael J.; Zitsman, Jeffrey L.; Kaplan, Simona C.; Timothy Walsh, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies have found that students with overweight and obesity have impairments in performance IQ and executive function, and worse school functioning in comparison to normal weight peers. Objectives The current study assessed school and cognitive functioning in a sample of adolescents with severe obesity being evaluated for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Setting: Psychiatry Department, University Medical Center, United States. Methods Eligible candidates for bariatric surgery were referred for psychiatric evaluation which included a semi-structured clinical interview measuring school functioning and the vocabulary and matrix reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). Results Self-reported school problems were common, with 55.5% of adolescents failing a grade or subject, 38.7% attending summer school, and 17.8% failing a citywide exam. A significant relationship was observed between body mass index (BMI),estimated WASI IQ(r= −0.250, p=0.005), and the vocabulary subtest (r= −0.241, p=0.006), but not matrix reasoning (r= −0.126, p=NS). Conclusions Even among a sample of adolescents with severe obesity, increased BMI was associated with lower WASI IQ and vocabulary subtest scores. Increasing awareness of potential cognitive and school problems in bariatric candidates among teachers, school counselors, and other mental health providers is an important first step to improving academic support and educational systems deficiencies for students with overweight and obesity. PMID:23932993

  16. Does Welfare Affect Family Processes and Adolescent Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated parenting behavior, parent/adolescent relationship, and adolescent attitudes and behaviors in three family types. Results showed minimal support for the hypothesis that welfare is negatively related to family processes and adolescent attitudes and behavior, although mothers receiving welfare reported fewer effective parent-management…

  17. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Adjustment and Perceptions of Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusek, Jerome B.; Litovsky, Viviana G.

    In this investigation of the effects of maternal employment on adolescents, 88 male and 128 female adolescents from grades 7 through 12 completed the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory and the Inventory of Psychosocial Development. Several questions were addressed: (1) Does maternal employment status influence adolescents'…

  18. Single-parent family structure and sleep problems in black and white adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep is critical for adolescent health and is influenced by the family environment. In our study, we examined if family structure defined as single- vs 2-parent households affected adolescent sleep. Methods Participants were 242 (57% black; 47% boys) healthy adolescents (mean age, 15.7 years). Sleep was measured using self-report and wrist actigraphy over 7 consecutive nights. Outcomes were actigraphy-assessed sleep duration and sleep efficiency (SE) for the full week and weekends and weekdays separately, as well as self-reported sleep-wake problems and variability in bedtimes. Linear regression examined the relationship between family structure and sleep, after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, and depressive symptoms, parental education, family conflict, and financial strain. Race and sex were examined as potential moderators. Results After adjusting for covariates, adolescents from single-parent households had poorer SE across the week and shorter sleep duration on weekends. White adolescents from 2-parent households had the fewer sleep-wake problems and lower bedtime variability, whereas black adolescents from single-parent households had the lowest weekend SE. There were no significant differences in family structure*sex interactions. Conclusion Our findings are the first to demonstrate that single-parent family structure is an independent correlate of sleep problems in adolescents, and they highlight the moderating role of race. PMID:24424100

  19. Relationship of cognitive function and adjustment difficulties among children and adolescents with dissociative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Mehta, Manju; Sagar, Rajesh; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Although it has been suggested that children and adolescents with dissociative disorder have some cognitive deficits, the association of these cognitive impairments with adjustment difficulties has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive functioning and adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents with dissociative disorder. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive assessment was carried out in the outpatient setting of child and adolescent psychiatric service in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty newly diagnosed children and adolescents with dissociative disorder were included. The cognitive functions were assessed by varied neuropsychological tests, and Bell's adjustment inventory was used for assessing various domains of adjustment. Results: The mean age of the sample which comprised 40% males was 13.0 (±2.4) years. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of the sample was 90.6. Impairment in cognitive test was maximum for verbal working memory followed by sustained attention, visual learning and memory, and verbal retention and recall. Adjustment difficulties were greatest in the domains of self, followed by domains of health, school, and family. Significant association was found between the IQ and adjustment in school; visual learning and memory and adjustments in school and overall adjustment; and sustained attention and adjustment of health. Conclusions: Dissociative children have poor cognitive ability which may be related to poor adjustment scores. PMID:27114655

  20. A Brief Overview of Adolescent Developmental Problems in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  1. A brief overview of adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C F

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  2. Goal adjustment strategies operationalised and empirically examined in adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Janse, Moniek; Sulkers, Esther; Tissing, Wim Je; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam Ag; Ranchor, Adelita V; Fleer, Joke

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents facing cancer may need to adjust their personal life goals. Theories identified several goal adjustment strategies, but their use has not been tested. Therefore, this study operationalises goal adjustment strategies and examines their use. Adolescent cancer patients listed their goals 3 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Goals received scores on five goal characteristics: life domain, level of abstraction, importance, attainability and effort. Results showed that adolescents with cancer (N = 30, mean age: 14.2 years, 60% female) used four of five strategies described in theory, while one additional strategy was found. These findings suggest that adolescents with cancer use goal adjustment strategies as measured by goal characteristics over time. PMID:25476574

  3. Latino Adolescents' Adjustment, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…

  4. Young Adolescents' Responses to Positive Events: Associations with Positive Affect and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentzler, Amy L.; Morey, Jennifer N.; Palmer, Cara A.; Yi, Chit Yuen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how maximizing and minimizing responses to positive events were associated with sustained positive feelings about the events and adjustment in a community sample of 56 young adolescents (31 boys and 25 girls, 10-14 years of age). On daily reports, adolescents reported their positive emotional reactions to their best event each…

  5. Adolescent Adjustment to the Middle School Transition: The Intersection of Divorce and Gender in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the differences between adolescent boys and girls from divorced families' adjustment to the middle school transition. A middle school transition survey measured the academic and social middle school transitional experiences of 196 adolescent boys and girls from divorced families. T-Test for Independent Means procedures…

  6. Are Small Schools and Private Schools Better for Adolescents' Emotional Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Toni Terling

    2003-01-01

    Uses National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health 1994 to determine whether adolescents benefit from small and/or private schools. Examines depression, suicide and violent dispositions. Refutes claims that students attending these schools are more emotionally adjusted. Discovers these small and/or private schools may actually be detrimental to…

  7. Relationships between Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment Over Time: Genetic and Environmental Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Plomin, Robert; Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1999-01-01

    Examined the genetic and environmental contributions to the predictive association between parenting and adolescent adjustment in identical and fraternal twins, and full, half, and genetically unrelated siblings in nondivorced and stepfamilies. Found that cross-lagged associations between parental conflict-negativity and adolescent antisocial…

  8. The Contribution of Personal and Exposure Characteristics to the Adjustment of Adolescents Following War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavi, T.; Green, O.; Dekel, R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the unique contribution of both personal characteristics and several types of exposure variables to the adjustment of Israeli adolescents following the Second Lebanon War. Two thousand three hundred and fourteen adolescents, who lived in areas that were the target of multiple missile attacks, completed self-report questionnaires…

  9. Peer Acceptance and Friendship as Predictors of Early Adolescents' Adjustment across the Middle School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Julie Newman; Erdley, Cynthia A.; Marshall, Katherine C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines several aspects of adolescents' pretransition peer relationships as predictors of their adjustment to middle school. Participants were 365 students (175 boys; 99% Caucasian) involved in the Time 1 (the spring of fifth grade) and Time 2 (the fall of sixth grade) assessments. Adolescents completed measures that assessed peer…

  10. Context Matters: Links between Neighborhood Discrimination, Neighborhood Cohesion and African American Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Racial discrimination has serious negative consequences for the adjustment of African American adolescents. Taking an ecological approach, this study examined the linkages between perceived racial discrimination within and outside of the neighborhood and urban adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and tested whether neighborhood…

  11. Psychosocial Adjustment, School Outcomes, and Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With Same-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainright, Jennifer L.; Russell, Stephen T.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and relationship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents…

  12. Correlates of Psychosocial Adjustment in Deaf Adolescents with and without Cochlear Implants: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Irene W.; Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Bat-Chava, Yael; Christiansen, John B.

    2009-01-01

    The number of children who have received cochlear implants (CIs) has increased dramatically in the past two decades. In view of potential concerns about their psychosocial adjustment, our aim was to assess the effect of implants on the adolescents' psychosocial functioning among a group of 57 deaf adolescents with and without CIs, using published…

  13. Relational Victimization: The Association between Recalled Adolescent Social Experiences and Emotional Adjustment in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Allison G.; Storch, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Although the relationship between relational victimization and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence has been established, it is unknown whether it extends into early adulthood. The current retrospective study investigated the relationship between recall of adolescent relational victimization and symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and…

  14. The Mediational Role of Adolescents' Friends in Relations between Activity Breadth and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Becnel, Jennifer N.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation addresses the mediational role of friends' characteristics between adolescents' activity breadth (i.e., variety in activity participation) and their later adjustment. Data were drawn from 2 longitudinal studies: the Childhood and Beyond (CAB; N = 925) study and the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study (MADICS; N =…

  15. Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents and Native American Indians: Factorial Validity Generalization for Ojibwe Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    Replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the "Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents" (ASCA; P.A. McDermott, N.C. Marston, & D.H. Stott, 1993) is reported for a sample of 183 Native American Indian (Ojibwe) children and adolescents from North Central Minnesota. The six ASCA core syndromes produced an identical two-factor…

  16. Gendered Academic Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents in an Emerging Immigrant Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew J.; Stein, Gabriela L.; Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the academic adjustment of immigrant adolescents has been predominately conducted in large cities among established migration areas. To broaden the field's restricted focus, data from 172 (58% female) Asian American adolescents who reside within a non-traditional or emerging immigrant community in the Southeastern US were used to…

  17. Marital Status, Marital Process, and Parental Resources in Predicting Adolescents' Emotional Adjustment: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandervalk, Inge; Spruijt, Ed; De Goede, Martijn; Meeus, Wim; Maas, Cora

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adolescent emotional adjustment and the family environment (i.e., family status, family process, and parental resources). This was done by way of multilevel analyses, with a sample of 2,636 parent-child couples of both intact and divorced families. The results indicated that adolescent emotional…

  18. Language Brokering Contexts and Behavioral and Emotional Adjustment among Latino Parents and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R., Jr.; McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2009-01-01

    This study examined behavioral and emotional adjustment in family contexts in which there was high versus low demand for adolescents to serve as language brokers in a sample of 73 recently immigrated Latino families with middle-school-aged adolescents. Language brokering was conceptualized as a family process rather than merely an individual…

  19. Social surrogacy and adjustment: exploring the correlates of having a "social helper" for shy and non-shy young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    A social surrogate is an individual who offers help and comfort in social situations or makes social events more exciting. In this study of 157 young adolescents (55% female; Mage = 13.84 years, SD = 0.75 years), the authors examined whether the linear and curvilinear associations between self-reported social surrogate use and adjustment outcomes (social problems, loneliness, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms) varied as a function of shyness and gender, after accounting for the effects of positive friendship quality. Regression analyses revealed that low and high levels of social surrogate use were related to greater social problems for all adolescents. In addition, shyness emerged as a moderator for several curvilinear effects. Specifically, results indicated that (a) high levels of social surrogate use were associated with greater anxiety for adolescents high in shyness; and (b) low levels of social surrogate use were associated with greater depressive symptoms for adolescents low in shyness. Findings highlight the developmental importance of specific types of relationship experiences during early adolescence and point to different implications of social surrogate use for shy and non-shy young adolescents. PMID:25775369

  20. Emotional closeness to parents and grandparents: A moderated mediation model predicting adolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2015-09-01

    Warm and emotionally close relationships with parents and grandparents have been found in previous studies to be linked with better adolescent adjustment. The present study, informed by Family Systems Theory and Intergenerational Solidarity Theory, uses a moderated mediation model analyzing the contribution of the dynamics of these intergenerational relationships to adolescent adjustment. Specifically, it examines the mediating role of emotional closeness to the closest grandparent in the relationship between emotional closeness to a parent (the offspring of the closest grandparent) and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The model also examines the moderating role of emotional closeness to parents in the relationship between emotional closeness to grandparents and adjustment difficulties. The study was based on a sample of 1,405 Jewish Israeli secondary school students (ages 12-18) who completed a structured questionnaire. It was found that emotional closeness to the closest grandparent was more strongly associated with reduced adjustment difficulties among adolescents with higher levels of emotional closeness to their parents. In addition, adolescent adjustment and emotional closeness to parents was partially mediated by emotional closeness to grandparents. Examining the family conditions under which adolescents' relationships with grandparents is stronger and more beneficial for them can help elucidate variations in grandparent-grandchild ties and expand our understanding of the mechanisms that shape child outcomes. PMID:26237053

  1. A Developmental Study of the Relationship Among Irrational Beliefs, Behavior Problems, and Neuroticism in Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirito, Anthony; Erickson, Marilyn T.

    Rational-Emotive Therapy states that maladaptive behaviors and emotional problems are the result of certain irrational beliefs that people hold and a number of empirical investigations with adult subjects have supported this claim. To determine whether the relationship between irrationality and psychological adjustment holds for adolescents, one…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Stress Buffering for Adolescent Problem Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael

    1992-01-01

    In a study of middle adolescents, the interrelationships between stressful events, perceived social support, internalization of problems, and externalization of problems were examined. Social support did not act as a buffer of stress. Stressful events and low family support predicted problem behaviors for adolescent girls. (BC)

  3. Does Neighborhood Social Capital Buffer the Effects of Maternal Depression on Adolescent Behavior Problems?

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390

  4. Risk and protection factors in the peer context: how do other children contribute to the psychosocial adjustment of the adolescent?

    PubMed

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Trempe, Sophie-Caroline; Paiva, Alexandra Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    As children become adolescents, peers assume greater importance in their lives. Peer experiences can either help them thrive or negatively affect their psychosocial adjustment. In this review article definitions for the types of peer experiences are provided followed by an overview of common psychosocial issues encountered by adolescents. Past research that has pointed to risk and protection factors that emerge from peer experiences during adolescence and the role of peer influences in the context of current issues relevant to adolescent education are discussed. Research suggests that friendships with deviant peers, involvement in bullying and the experience of rejection from the overall peer group are related to adjustment problems, whereas friendships with prosocial and academically oriented peers and social acceptance in the peer group are related to healthy development. Friendship quality, popularity among peers, and involvement in friendship cliques cannot be clearly categorized as either positive or negative influences, because they interact with other factors in shaping the development of adolescents. The promotion of social skills and positive youth leadership as an integral part of the student's learning process in school is recommended. PMID:24714885

  5. Premature adolescent autonomy: parent disengagement and deviant peer process in the amplification of problem behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Nelson, Sarah E; Bullock, Bernadette Marie

    2004-10-01

    Premature autonomy describes a developmental dynamic where parents of high-risk adolescents reduce their involvement and guidance when confronted with challenges of problem behaviour and the influence of deviant friendships. This dynamic was tested on the sample of Oregon Youth Study boys (N=206), whose family management practices and friendships were observed on videotaped interaction tasks. Latent growth curve models were used to examine longitudinal trends between deviant friendship interactions and family management. Direct observations of deviant friendship process at age 14 were associated with degradation in family management during adolescence. A comparison of antisocial and well-adjusted boys clarified that parents of antisocial boys (started early and persisted) decreased family management around puberty, in comparison to parents of well-adjusted boys who maintained high levels of family management through adolescence. In predicting late adolescent problem behaviour, there was a statistically reliable interaction between family management degradation and deviant peer involvement in adolescence in support of the premature autonomy hypothesis. Adolescent males involved in deviant friendships, and whose parents decreased their family management, were most likely to use marijuana and commit antisocial acts at age 18. The implications for interventions that target adolescents are discussed. PMID:15475044

  6. Adjustment and Sex-Role Orientation in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamke, Leanne K.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between sex-role orientation and self-esteem in adolescence was reexamined. The results revealed that androgynous individuals had higher levels of self-esteem than masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated adolescents. When the independent contributions of masculinity and femininity were assessed, both significantly predicted…

  7. Psychological adjustment in adolescents conceived by assisted reproduction techniques: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ilioi, Elena Cristiana; Golombok, Susan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adolescence is a transitional time for identity formation and relationships with parents. While people born through assisted reproduction techniques (ART) appear to be well adjusted in childhood, it is unclear whether these findings carry into adolescence, and whether diverse ART have different psychological outcomes. This review summarizes what is known about the psychological adjustment and family relationships of the growing number of children born through ART who are reaching adolescence. METHODS The Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and Scopus databases were searched systematically for peer reviewed papers focusing on adolescent psychological adjustment and parent–adolescent relationships in families created by ART. Key search inclusion criteria included all papers published in English relating to adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years. RESULTS Seventeen publications with varied methodologies were identified by this review. Only papers relating to in vitro fertilization (IVF), egg donation and donor insemination were identified. Results were categorized according to ART that used the parents' own gametes (IVF) and those that involved reproductive donation (egg donation, and donor insemination). Compared with naturally conceived adolescents and standardized normative samples, adolescents born through all ARTs seemed to be equally well adjusted, and to have positive parent–adolescent relationships. Some differences were however identified based on the type of ART used. In particular, the sex of the parent and child, along with age and process of disclosure of the adolescent's conception were identified as key mediators of parent–adolescent relationships in families created by donor insemination. CONCLUSIONS The studies in this review indicate that children born through ART have positive parent–adolescent relationships and are well adjusted, with some slight differences based on different ART. The generalizability of findings may be limited

  8. Mother-adolescent relationship quality as a moderator of associations between racial socialization and adolescent psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sharon F; Roche, Kathleen M; Saleem, Farzana T; Henry, Jessica S

    2015-09-01

    Parents' racial socialization messages, including messages focused on awareness, preparation, and strategies for managing racial discrimination, are necessary to help African American youth successfully navigate their daily lives. However, mixed findings regarding the utility of preparation for bias messages for African American youth's mental health adjustment raise questions about the conditions under which these protective racial socialization messages are most beneficial to African American youth. The current study examined the degree to which communication and trust as well as anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship moderated associations between 2 types of preparation for bias messages, cultural alertness to discrimination and cultural coping with antagonism, and adolescent mental health. Participants were 106 African American adolescents (57% female; mean age = 15.41) who reported about their receipt of racial socialization messages, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive associations between cultural alertness to racial discrimination and youth depressive symptoms were weaker for boys in the context of higher mother-adolescent communication and trust; communication and trust were not similarly protective for girls. For boys, the positive associations between cultural coping with antagonism messages and depressive symptoms were stronger in the context of high anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship. Findings suggest that qualities of the mother-adolescent relationship, in which preparation for bias messages are delivered, are important for understanding the mental health adjustment of African American adolescents. PMID:26460701

  9. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…

  10. Effects of Peer Victimization on Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal…

  11. Positive Adjustment and Associated Protective Factors in Children of Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhule, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spieker, Susan J.; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that children of adolescent mothers are at an increased risk for a variety of negative outcomes, even after controlling for diverse social and health factors. However, relatively less research has examined positive adjustment in these children, or protective factors associated with such adjustment. We examined the…

  12. Injunctive and Descriptive Peer Group Norms and the Academic Adjustment of Rural Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Schmid, Lorrie; Farmer, Thomas W.; Locke, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    This study integrates diverse literatures on peer group influence by conceptualizing and examining the relationship of peer group injunctive norms to the academic adjustment of a large and ethnically diverse sample of rural early adolescents' academic adjustment. Results of three-level hierarchical linear modeling indicated that peer groups were…

  13. Autonomy, Attachment and Psychosocial Adjustment during Adolescence: A Double-Edged Sword.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noom, Marc J.; Dekovic, Maja; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the assumption that a high level of autonomy within a context of attachment provides the best constellation for psychosocial adjustments with adolescents (N=400). Results show that attitudinal, emotional, and functional autonomy were connected with attachment to father, mother, and peers to predict indices of psychosocial adjustment:…

  14. Genetic and Environmental Components of Adolescent Adjustment and Parental Behavior: A Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loehlin, John C.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent adjustment measures may be related to each other and to the social environment in various ways. Are these relationships similar in genetic and environmental sources of covariation, or different? A multivariate behaviorgenetic analysis was made of 6 adjustment and 3 treatment composites from the study Nonshared Environment in Adolescent…

  15. Family Correlates of Adjustment Profiles in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A "High Functioning" (n = 173) group, which exhibited high…

  16. Developmental delays at arrival and postmenarcheal Chinese adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony X; Rice, Jessica L; Mahoney, E Emily

    2015-01-01

    Internationally adopted (IA) children often have delays at adoption and undergo massive catch-up after adoption. Before achieving developmental catch-up, however, delays at adoption present a risk for IA children's adjustment, but it remains unknown whether such delays foreshadow IA children's outcomes after catch-up development has completed or ceased. In the current analysis, we utilized menarche as a practical marker to indicate the cessation of developmental catch-up. We investigated how delays at arrival predicted long-term outcomes in 132 postmenarcheal teens (M = 14.2 years, SD = 1.7) who were adopted from China at 16.6 months (SD = 17.1). In 2005, adoptive parents provided data of medical evaluation results on their children's delay status in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social development, emotional development, and cognitive development. Six years later in 2011, data on parent-child relationship quality were collected from parents, and data on the adoptees' academic competence and internalizing problems were also collected from both parents and adoptees. We found that gross motor delay at arrival predicted academic performance (parent-report: b = -.34, p < .01) and internalizing problems (self-report: b = .26, p < .05; parent-report: b = .33, p < .01). Other delays were not significant in predicting any of the outcomes. The impact of early nutritional deprivation on gross motor development was discussed. PMID:25642657

  17. Physiological reactivity moderates the association between parental directing and young adolescent friendship adjustment.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress. Participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years at Time [T]1; 50% boys; 58.5% European Americans). At T1 (summer before the transition to middle school), parents reported on the extent to which they directed adolescents toward or away from certain peers, and adolescents' SCLR was assessed during a lab-based peer evaluation task. At T1 and T2 (spring of the first year of middle school), adolescents reported on the quality of their friendships and positive peer affiliations. Controlling for T1 friendship adjustment, parental directing predicted higher friendship quality and more positive peer affiliations, but only among young adolescents with lower SCLR, which was conceptualized as a marker of underarousal and insensitivity to stress. Results are discussed with reference to the developmental period of early adolescence and related research on interactions between parental control and child characteristics as predictors of adolescent adjustment. PMID:25365119

  18. Mexican American adolescents' sleep patterns: contextual correlates and implications for health and adjustment in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Zeiders, Katharine H; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; De Jesús, Sue A Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    Late adolescence is a period of substantial risk for unhealthy sleep patterns. This study investigated the contextual correlates and health and adjustment implications of sleep patterns among Mexican American youth (N = 246; 51% female). We focused on Mexican American youth because they represent a large and rapidly increasing subgroup of the US population that is at higher risk for health and adjustment problems; this higher risk may be explained, in part, by sleep patterns. Using data from seven phone diary interviews conducted when youth averaged 18 years of age, we assessed average nighttime sleep duration and night-to-night variability in sleep duration. Guided by socio-ecological models, we first examined how experiences in the family context (time spent and quality of relationships with parents, parents' familism values) and in extra-familial contexts (school, work, peers) were related to sleep duration and variability. The findings revealed that time spent in school, work, and with peers linked to less sleep. Further, conflict with mothers was related to greater sleep variability. Next, we tested the implications of sleep in late adolescence for health (perceived physical health, body mass index) and adjustment (depressive symptoms, risky behaviors) in young adulthood. These findings indicated that more sleep variability predicted relative decreases in health and increases in risky behaviors, and shorter sleep duration predicted relative decreases in poorer perceived health for males. The discussion highlights the significance of the transition to young adulthood as a target for sleep research and the importance of studying sleep within its socio-cultural context. PMID:25047598

  19. Understanding links between punitive parenting and adolescent adjustment: The relevance of context and reciprocal associations

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Little, Todd D.; Leventhal, Tama

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable debate regarding the extent to which punitive parenting adversely impacts youth well being. Using an ecological-transactional model of human development, we examined reciprocity and contextual variability in associations between maternal punitive discipline and adolescent adjustment among 1,147 low-income, urban youth followed through adolescence. Longitudinal SEM results indicated that delinquency and depressive symptoms during pre- and early adolescence (Time 1) were associated with increased punitive discipline about a year later (Time 2). When mothers reported less Time 2 neighborhood disorder, punitive discipline at Time 2 was associated with increased delinquency (for boys) and depressive symptoms (for girls) during mid- to late adolescence (Time 3). The costs of punitive discipline for adolescent adjustment are best understood considering the dynamic, transactional, and contextual nature of development. PMID:21647241

  20. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use: Findings From a Cross-sectional Survey of 82,812 Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use.We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use.All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38-1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60-11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12-2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators.Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers. PMID:26717391

  1. The Differential Impact of Parental Warmth on Externalizing Problems among Triangulated Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Etkin, R. G.; Koss, K. J.; Cummings, E. M.; Davies, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Triangulation is a family-wide process in which children are inappropriately involved in interparental conflict, placing them at heightened risk for adjustment problems. A common form of triangulation occurs by parents pressuring their children to take sides, which may result in feelings of being “torn” between parents. Externalizing behaviors in particular may develop as adolescents feel caught in the middle of conflict and forced to choose a side. However, the nature of the triadic process of triangulation may be impacted by dyadic-level relationships within the family. The present study thus explores how positive parenting processes may alter the relations between triangulation and adolescent externalizing problems. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents (n = 301 families) provided assessments of adolescent externalizing problems, triangulation, and maternal and paternal warmth. Analyses revealed a three-way interaction between triangulation and maternal and paternal warmth predicting adolescent externalizing problems; child gender also moderated these relations. Among highly triangulated youth, boys displayed increased externalizing problems when both parents exhibited low or high warmth whereas girls showed increased behavior problems in the context of low maternal but high paternal warmth. These findings indicate the importance of examining the broader family context and gender when considering the impact of triangulation during adolescence. PMID:24796159

  2. Psychosocial adjustment of adolescent siblings of hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Packman, Wendy; Gong, Kimberly; VanZutphen, Kelly; Shaffer, Tani; Crittenden, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a widely practiced therapy for many life-threatening childhood disorders. The authors investigated the psychosocial effects of HSCT on siblings of pediatric HSCT patients (n = 44; 21 donors, 23 nondonors, ages 6 to 18 years). Donor siblings reported significantly more anxiety and lower self-esteem than did nondonors. Nondonors showed significantly more school problems. Approximately one third of all siblings reported moderate to severe posttraumatic stress. The study drew on the developmental theory of Erik Erikson and the psychosocial model of posttraumatic stress. As part of the study, the authors used the Measures of Psychosocial Development (MPD), a self-report measure based on Eriksonian constructs. The MPD was used to assess the psychosocial adjustment of 12 siblings who were adolescents (> or =13 years) at the time the study was conducted. In this article, findings are presented from the MPD as well as salient findings from the larger study. PMID:15490868

  3. Ethnic Identity Development and Ethnic Discrimination: Examining Longitudinal Associations with Adjustment for Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies examine normative developmental processes among teenage mothers. Framed from a risk and resilience perspective, this prospective study examined the potential for ethnic identity status (e.g., diffuse, achieved), a normative developmental task during adolescence, to buffer the detrimental effects of discrimination on later adjustment and self-esteem in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Ethnic discrimination was associated with increases in depressive symptoms and decreases in self-esteem over time, regardless of ethnic identity status. However, ethnic discrimination was only associated with increases in engagement in risky behavior among diffuse adolescents, suggesting that achieved or foreclosed identities buffered the risk of ethnic discrimination on later risky behavior. Findings suggest that ethnic identity resolution (i.e., the component shared by those in foreclosed and achieved statuses) may be a key cultural factor to include in prevention and intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of ethnic discrimination on later externalizing problems. PMID:24011098

  4. Growth in temperament and parenting as predictors of adjustment during children's transition to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J

    2006-09-01

    The author examined relations among demographic risk (income, maternal education, single-parent status), growth in temperament (fear, irritability, effortful control), and parenting (rejection, inconsistent discipline) across 3 years and the prediction of children's adjustment problems in a community sample (N=190; ages 8-12 years at Time 1). Family income was related to higher initial levels of fear, irritability, rejection, and inconsistency and lower effortful control but was not related to changes in these variables. Higher initial rejection predicted increases in child fear and irritability. Higher initial fear predicted decreases in rejection and inconsistency. Higher initial irritability predicted increases in inconsistency, and higher initial effortful control predicted decreases in rejection. When growth of parenting and temperament were considered simultaneously, increases in effortful control and decreases in fear and irritability predicted lower Time 3 internalizing and externalizing problems. Increases in rejection and inconsistent discipline predicted higher Time 3 externalizing, although sometimes the effect appeared to be indirect through temperament. The findings suggest that temperament and parenting predict changes in each other and predict adjustment during the transition to adolescence. PMID:16953689

  5. Daily School Peer Victimization Experiences Among Mexican-American Adolescents: Associations with Psychosocial, Physical and School Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    School bullying incidents, particularly experiences with victimization, are a significant social and health concern among adolescents. The current study extended past research by examining the daily peer victimization experiences of Mexican-American adolescents and examining how chronic (mean-level) and episodic (daily-level) victimization incidents at school are associated with psychosocial, physical and school adjustment. Across a two-week span, 428 ninth and tenth grade Mexican-American students (51 % female) completed brief checklists every night before going to bed. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that, at the individual level, Mexican-American adolescents’ who reported more chronic peer victimization incidents across the two-weeks also reported heightened distress and academic problems. After accounting for adolescent’s mean levels of peer victimization, daily victimization incidents were associated with more school adjustment problems (i.e., academic problems, perceived role fulfillment as a good student). Additionally, support was found for the mediation model in which distress accounts for the mean-level association between peer victimization and academic problems. The results from the current study revealed that everyday peer victimization experiences among Mexican-American high school students have negative implications for adolescents’ adjustment, across multiple domains. PMID:23238764

  6. Externalizing Behavior Problems during Adolescence: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rachel; Renk, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Given the ramifications of difficulties related to externalizing behavior problems, the present study examined the relationships among adolescents' externalizing behavior problems, characteristics of adolescents' families, their perceived neighborhood support, and their acculturation. As part of this study, a culturally diverse sample of…

  7. Adolescents' Perceptions of Kinship Support and Family Management Practices: Association with Adolescent Adjustment in African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationships among kinship support, family management, and adolescence in 135 African American adolescents, ages 14 to 19. Found that kin social support was positively related to self-reliance and grades, family organization, and parental involvement in schooling, and negatively associated with problem behavior. Poor kin relations were…

  8. Preference-for-solitude and Adjustment Difficulties in Early and Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jennifer M.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Laursen, Brett; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Objective Social withdrawal has been associated with adjustment difficulties across development. Although much is known about shyness, little is known about preference-for-solitude; even less is known about its relations with adjustment across different periods of adolescence. We examined whether preference-for-solitude might be differentially associated with adjustment difficulties in early and late adolescence. Method Self and parent-reports of withdrawal motivations and adjustment were collected from 234 8th graders (113 boys; M age = 13.43) and 204 12th graders (91 boys; M age = 17.25). Results Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that above and beyond the effects of shyness, preference-for-solitude was more strongly associated with adjustment difficulties in 8th grade than in 12th grade. Preference-for-solitude was associated with greater anxiety/depression, emotion dysregulation, and lower self-esteem in 8th grade; these relations were not found in 12th grade. Although preference-for-solitude was associated with lower social competence in both 8th and 12th grades, this relation was significantly stronger in 8th grade than in 12th grade. Conclusion Findings suggest preference-for-solitude has closer ties to maladjustment in early adolescence than in late adolescence. Interventions targeting preferred-solitary youth in early adolescence may be particularly fruitful. PMID:23682608

  9. Does welfare affect family processes and adolescent adjustment?

    PubMed

    Kalil, A; Eccles, J S

    1998-12-01

    Recent welfare reform legislation requires increased parental work effort and imposes time limits on the receipt of federal assistance. These changes were based in part on assumptions that parental welfare receipt may be negatively related to family processes and children's attitudes and behaviors. Currently, researchers know little about the effects of welfare by itself relative to the effects of related variables such as family demographic characteristics, economic strain, and neighborhood factors on processes among families with adolescent children. This study investigates parenting behaviors, parent-adolescent relationships, and adolescent attitudes and behaviors in three family types. Families of adolescents ages 11-15 who received income from Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in the previous 12 months are compared with poor families who have not received AFDC in the last year and with families who are neither poor nor welfare dependent. We found minimal support for the hypothesis that welfare is negatively related to family processes and adolescent attitudes and behaviors, although mothers receiving welfare report fewer effective parent management practices than their poor non-welfare counterparts. Implications of the findings for current social policy debates are discussed. PMID:9914641

  10. Adolescent RSA responses during an anger discussion task: Relations to emotion regulation and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W; Larzelere, Robert E; Criss, Michael M; Houltberg, Benjamin J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents' emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years of age, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA values and respiration rates were computed. Adolescents reported on their own emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Multilevel latent growth modeling was employed to capture RSA responses across time (i.e., linear and quadratic changes; time course approach), and adolescent emotion regulation and adjustment variables were included in the model to test their links to RSA responses. Results indicated that high RSA baseline was associated with more adolescent prosocial behavior. A pattern of initial RSA decreases (RSA suppression) in response to angry event recall and subsequent RSA increases (RSA rebound) were related to better anger and sadness regulation and more prosocial behavior. However, RSA was not significantly linked to adolescent aggressive behavior. We also compared the time course approach with the conventional linear approach and found that the time course approach provided more meaningful and rich information. The implications of adaptive RSA change patterns are discussed. PMID:25642723

  11. Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Autonomy as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Kotchick, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy in the psychosocial outcomes in a sample of African American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicated that positive mother-adolescent relationship quality and greater autonomy were associated with higher…

  12. Virtual Environments, Online Racial Discrimination, and Adjustment among a Diverse, School-Based Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tynes, Brendesha M.; Rose, Chad A.; Hiss, Sophia; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Mitchell, Kimberly; Williams, David

    2015-01-01

    Given the recent rise in online hate activity and the increased amount of time adolescents spend with media, more research is needed on their experiences with racial discrimination in virtual environments. This cross-sectional study examines the association between amount of time spent online, traditional and online racial discrimination and adolescent adjustment, including depressive symptoms, anxiety and externalizing behaviors. The study also explores the role that social identities, including race and gender, play in these associations. Online surveys were administered to 627 sixth through twelfth graders in K-8, middle and high schools. Multiple regression results revealed that discrimination online was associated with all three outcome variables. Additionally, a significant interaction between online discrimination by time online was found for externalizing behaviors indicating that increased time online and higher levels of online discrimination are associated with more problem behavior. This study highlights the need for clinicians, educational professionals and researchers to attend to race-related experiences online as well as in traditional environments. PMID:27134698

  13. Parent Discrimination Predicts Mexican-American Adolescent Psychological Adjustment 1 Year Later.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents 1 year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them. PMID:27224903

  14. Mexican-Origin Youth's Cultural Orientations and Adjustment: Changes from Early to Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; McHale, Susan M.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Perez-Brena, Norma

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from developmental and cultural adaptation perspectives and using a longitudinal design, this study examined: (a) mean-level changes in Mexican-origin adolescents’ cultural orientations and adjustment from early to late adolescence; and (b) bidirectional associations between cultural orientations and adjustment using a cross-lag panel model. Participants included 246 Mexican-origin, predominantly immigrant families that participated in home interviews and a series of nightly phone calls when target adolescents were 12 years and 18 years of age. Girls exhibited more pronounced declines in traditional gender role attitudes than did boys, and all youth declined in familism values, time spent with family, and involvement in Mexican culture. Bidirectional relations between cultural orientations and adjustment emerged, and some associations were moderated by adolescent nativity and gender. PMID:22966929

  15. Racial-Ethnic Identity and Adjustment in Canadian Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

    2013-01-01

    This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…

  16. Community Violence Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Adjustment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2008-01-01

    Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N = 358; 45% male; 91% African American, M = 12.10 years, SD = 1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural…

  17. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  18. Ethnic identity and gender as moderators of the association between discrimination and academic adjustment among Mexican-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Dumka, Larry E

    2012-08-01

    Existing work has identified perceived discrimination as a risk factor that may contribute to the relatively poorer academic outcomes exhibited by Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. The current study examined the longitudinal associations among perceived discrimination and three indices of adolescent adjustment in the school setting (i.e., grade point average, teacher reports of externalizing, adolescents' deviant peer associations) among 178 Mexican-origin adolescents (53% female). Ethnic identity affirmation was examined as a protective factor expected to reduce the negative effects of discrimination on adolescents' adjustment, and gender was examined as a potential moderator of the associations of interest. Findings indicated that the deleterious effects of discrimination on adolescents' adjustment in school were particularly salient for Mexican-origin male adolescents. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation emerged as a protective factor for Mexican-origin male adolescents by buffering the negative effects of discrimination on their externalizing behaviors in school. PMID:22152761

  19. Physiological Reactivity Moderates the Association between Parental Directing and Young Adolescent Friendship Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents’ friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends’ positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress. Participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years at T1; 50% boys; 58.5% European Americans). At T1 (summer before the transition to middle school), parents reported on the extent to which they directed adolescents toward or away from certain peers, and adolescents’ SCLR was assessed during a lab-based peer evaluation task. At T1 and T2 (spring of the first year of middle school), adolescents reported on the quality of their friendships and positive peer affiliations. Controlling for T1 friendship adjustment, parental directing predicted higher friendship quality and more positive peer affiliations, but only among young adolescents with lower SCLR, which was conceptualized as a marker of under-arousal and insensitivity to stress. Results are discussed with reference to the developmental period of early adolescence and related research on interactions between parental control and child characteristics as predictors of adolescent adjustment. PMID:25365119

  20. The differential effects of forms and settings of exposure to violence on adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Ho, Man Yee; Cheung, Fanny M

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the link between exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment for 442 Chinese secondary school students in Form 1-3. The students completed an inventory assessing exposure to violence through witnessing and through direct victimization in different settings (community, school, and home). Multiple measures and informants (i.e., self-report, teacher report, and school report) were used to assess emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning in adolescents. The results of this study showed that overall exposure to violence was related to emotional and behavior problems. High rates of exposure to violence across multiple contexts were found in this sample. After controlling for the co-occurrence of risk factors (e.g., exposure to violence in other settings), both witnessing school violence and being victimized by domestic violence were associated with emotional problems, whereas being victimized by community violence was related to behavior problems. These results suggest that there are differential effects of risks associated with different forms and settings of exposure. PMID:19752203

  1. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  2. Mapping the academic problem behaviors of adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M

    2014-12-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a sample of 324 adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosed ADHD (age M = 13.07, SD = 1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, interrater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  3. Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment: Longitudinal Associations in Two-Parent African American Families.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings [at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48 % female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52 % female] and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for 3 years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents' adjustment. PMID:25893573

  4. Adolescent RSA Responses during an Anger Discussion Task: Relations to Emotion Regulation and Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W.; Larzelere, Robert E.; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents’ emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10–18 years old, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA values and respiration rates were computed. Adolescents reported on their own emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Multi-level latent growth modeling was employed to capture RSA responses across time (i.e., linear and quadratic changes; time course approach), and adolescent emotion regulation and adjustment variables were included in the model to test their links to RSA responses. Results indicated that high RSA baseline was associated with more adolescent prosocial behavior. A pattern of initial RSA decreases (RSA suppression) in response to angry event recall and subsequent RSA increases (RSA rebound) were related to better anger and sadness regulation and more prosocial behavior. However, RSA was not significantly linked to adolescent aggressive behavior. We also compared the time course approach with the conventional linear approach and found that the time course approach provided more meaningful and rich information. The implications of adaptive RSA change patterns are discussed. PMID:25642723

  5. Parental Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment: The Role of Coping and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane

    2013-01-01

    The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…

  6. Brief Report: Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with a Chronic Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnefski, Nadia; Koopman, Hendrik; Kraaij, Vivian; ten Cate, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objective of the study was to examine how cognitive emotion regulation strategies were related to psychological maladjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. The sample consisted of adolescents with a diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). A self-report questionnaire was used to assess Internalizing problems and Quality of Life.…

  7. Adjustment and sex-role orientation in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lamke, L K

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to reexamine the relationship between sex-role orientation and self-esteem in adolescence. One hundred and six senior high school students completed the Rosenberg self-esteem measure (Rosenberg, 1965) and two measures of sex-role orientation, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, Short Form (BSRI; Bem, 1981), and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire Short Form (PAQ; Spence et al., 1975). The relationship between sex-role orientation and self-esteem was found to vary depending on the sex-role measure employed. Results of the BSRI revealed that androgynous individuals had higher levels of self-esteem than masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated adolescents. PAQ results indicated that androgynous individuals had higher levels of self-esteem than feminine and undifferentiated individuals. When the independent contributions of masculinity and femininity were assessed, both BSRI and PAQ masculinity and femininity significantly predicted self-esteem. Analyses also revealed that the effects of sex-role orientation on self-esteem varied by sex across both the BSRI and PAQ. Implications of the present findings for previous work on sex-role development in adolescence are discussed. PMID:24310777

  8. The "immigrant paradox" phenomenon: assessing problem behaviors and risk factors among immigrant and native adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chun, Heejung; Mobley, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the "immigrant paradox" phenomenon by examining differences in problem behavior engagement and exposure to risk factors across four adolescent groups: 1,157 first-generation, 1,498 second-generation, and 3,316 White and minority third or higher generations. Latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement (i.e., academic failure, aggression, and substance use) and risk factors (i.e., low socioeconomic status, poor family relationship, and low sense of school belonging) were associated with significant differences across adolescent groups. Results supported the generational status effect by demonstrating sequentially greater adolescent problem behavior engagement. However, the difference in exposure to risk factors across adolescent groups only partially supported the immigrant paradox. Further, the multiple group analysis of the relationships between risk factors and engagement in problem behaviors showed increased susceptibility among second generation immigrants for substance use, White natives for academic failure and substance use, and minority natives for physical aggression. Study findings have implications for understanding how the immigrant paradox leads to different adjustment patterns and problem behavior manifestations among immigrant and native adolescents. PMID:25037844

  9. Family and Personal Adjustment of Economically Disadvantaged Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Tsui, Pik Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage. PMID:22919290

  10. Adolescents' Emotion Regulation Strategies, Self-Concept, and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…

  11. An Emerging Income Differential for Adolescent Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Emma Gore; Collishaw, Stephan; Goodman, Robert; Pickles, Andrew; Maughan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable evidence of income gradients in child and adolescent behaviour problems, evidence relating to children and young people's emotional difficulties is more mixed. Older studies reported no income differentials, while recent reports suggest that adolescents from low-income families are more likely to experience…

  12. Adolescent Health Problems: Behavioral Perspectives. Advances in Pediatric Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…

  13. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found…

  14. Correlates of At-Risk/Problem Internet Gambling in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Method: Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut…

  15. Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

  16. The Acceleration into College and Emotional Adjustment of the Academically Gifted Adolescent: A Synthesis and Critique of Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, William; Brounstein, Paul J.

    The literature on the emotional adjustment of intellectually gifted adolescents and the literature on adjustment of students admitted at younger than normal ages into college are reviewed. The review on gifted adolescents is divided into the following sections: background (acceleration in elementary and secondary grades); personality and…

  17. Same-Sex Peer Relations and Romantic Relationships during Early Adolescence: Interactive Links to Emotional, Behavioral, and Academic Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…

  18. Individual and Contextual Effects of School Adjustment on Adolescent Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Linda R.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Harkabus, Lindsey C.; Chapin, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a student’s own school adjustment as well as the contextual level of school adjustment (the normative level of school adjustment among students in a school) on student's self-reported use of alcohol. Using a dataset of 43,465 male and female 8th grade students from 349 schools across the contiguous United States who participated in a national study of substance use in rural communities between 1996 and 2000, multilevel latent covariate models were utilized to disentangle the individual-level and contextual effects of three school adjustment variables (i.e., school bonding, behavior at school, and friend’s school bonding) on alcohol use. All three school adjustment factors were significant predictors of alcohol use both within and between schools. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a strong contextual effect; students who attended schools where the overall level of school adjustment was higher reported lower levels of alcohol use even after taking their own school adjustment into account. The results demonstrate the importance of both a student’s own level of school adjustment and the normative level of school adjustment among students in the school on an adolescent’s use of alcohol. Differences in school adjustment across schools were quite strongly related to an adolescent's own alcohol use, indicating that school adjustment is an important aspect of school climate. Initiatives aimed at improving school climate may have beneficial effects on students’ alcohol use. PMID:19242802

  19. Replication of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents Core Syndrome Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    Independent examination and replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Marston, & Stott, 1993) is reported. A sample of 1,020 children were randomly selected from their classroom and rated on the ASCA by their teacher. The six ASCA core syndromes produced a two-factor…

  20. Understanding Links between Punitive Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment: The Relevance of Context and Reciprocal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Little, Todd D.; Leventhal, Tama

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable debate regarding the extent to which punitive parenting adversely impacts youth well-being. Using an ecological-transactional model of human development, we examined reciprocity and contextual variability in associations between maternal punitive discipline and adolescent adjustment among 1,147 low-income, urban youth…

  1. The Role of Sense of School Belonging and Gender in the Academic Adjustment of Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Bernadette; Colon, Yari; Esparza, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the roles of sense of belonging and gender in the academic outcomes of urban, Latino adolescents. It was expected that sense of belonging would play a different role in males' and females' academic adjustment. Participants (N = 143) included mostly Mexican and Puerto Rican seniors from a large, urban high…

  2. Parental Substance Use and Adolescent Adjustment: A Micro-Level Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Ruddy, Kyrianna; Kramer, John

    2006-01-01

    Most research uses a family systems level approach to examine the long range impact of parental substance abuse on the family. In this article, a micro-level approach is used to examine the immediate impact of parental substance use on adolescent adjustment. (Contains 1 figure.)

  3. Social Relationships among Adolescents with Disabilities: Unique and Cumulative Associations with Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Yen K.; Murray, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated linkages between parent, peer, teacher, and mentor relationships and adjustment among adolescents with disabilities. The sample included 228 high school students with disabilities (65% male, 50% White) across four states. Overall findings indicate that students' social relationships were significantly associated…

  4. Development of a Mentoring Program for Chinese Immigrant Adolescents' Cultural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine J.; Ching, Alison M.; Okubo, Yuki; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2007-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a peer mentoring program for Chinese immigrant adolescents' cultural adjustment is described. Twenty-three high school students who recently immigrated from Mainland China participated in the year-long program and 4 high school students served as their peer mentors. Data analyses revealed that the students who…

  5. Personal and Social Adjustment of Gifted Adolescents. CEC Research Monograph, Series A, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald C.

    The study examined similarities and differences in the personal and social adjustment of intellectually gifted and average adolescents along six criteria: independent-dominant and responsible-cooperative interpersonal behavior, moderation of interpersonal behavior, unity or integration of personality, self acceptance, and accuracy of self…

  6. Striving for Social Dominance over Peers: The Implications for Academic Adjustment during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Sarah M.; Ryan, Allison M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the proposal that social dominance goals are an important, but overlooked, aspect of social goals for young adolescents' academic adjustment. Self-reports of social goals (dominance, intimacy, and popularity goals) early in the school year were used to predict subsequent engagement (self-reports and peer nominations of…

  7. Peer Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Adjustment of Sexual Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the link between sexual orientation and adjustment in a community sample of 97 sexual minority (gay male, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning) high school students, taking into account their experiences of peer victimization and social support within peer and family contexts. Adolescents were identified in a large-scale…

  8. Stability in Bullying and Victimization and Its Association with Social Adjustment in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Overbeek, Geertjan; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Haselager, Gerbert J. T.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations between stability in bullying and victimization, and social adjustment in childhood and adolescence. Participants were 189 girls and 328 boys who were studied in primary school and in secondary school. The mean age of the participants was 11.1 years in primary school and 14.1 years…

  9. The Quality of Parent/Child Relationships in Adolescence Is Associated with Poor Adult Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2013-01-01

    This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age…

  10. The Contribution of Maternal Care and Control to Adolescents' Adjustment Following War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekel, Rachel; Solomon, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of maternal bonding to the adjustment of Israeli adolescents following the 2006 Lebanon War. In all, 2,858 seventh and eighth graders who lived in areas that were exposed to missile attacks completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (assessing maternal care and control) and questionnaires evaluating…

  11. Physiological Reactivity Moderates the Association between Parental Directing and Young Adolescent Friendship Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress.…

  12. Self-Esteem and Adjustment in Early Adolescence: A Social-Contextual Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, David L.; Bull, Catherine A.; Sherman, Michelle D.; Roberts, Magie

    1998-01-01

    Global self-esteem and social-contextual incongruity in factors contributing to the development and maintenance of self-esteem were studied as predictors of the emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment of 213 young adolescents. Higher reported levels of global self-esteem were associated with more favorable scores on most measures of…

  13. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Perceived Social Support and Student Adjustment during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2008-01-01

    The current study is an investigation of early adolescents' perceptions of social support from parents, teachers, classmates, and close friends, and how that support is related to measures of students' adjustment on a range of behavioral indices. Data were collected on a sample of 246 students in Grades 6 through 8 using the Child and Adolescent…

  14. Socio-Emotional Adjustment in Adolescence and the Perception of Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    This paper presents results of a study of how family dysfunction contributes to adjustment of adolescents. The question is considered from two disciplinary vantage points: (1) structural anthropology, which considers dysfunction in terms of the affirmation of kinship relations; and (2) a family systems approach which emphasizes the role of factors…

  15. Electronic and School-Based Victimization: Unique Contexts for Adjustment Difficulties during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Adams, Ryan E.; Gilman, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that school-based and electronic victimization have similar negative consequences, yet it is unclear whether these two contexts offer overlapping or unique associations with adolescents' adjustment. 802 ninth-graders (43% male, mean age = 15.84 years), majority being Caucasian (82%), completed measures assessing the…

  16. Acculturation and Social Support in Relation to Psychosocial Adjustment of Adolescent Refugees Resettled in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacev, Lydia; Shute, Rosalyn

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how different modes of acculturation and perceived social support are related to adolescent refugee psychosocial adjustment, as measured by global self-worth and peer social acceptance. The 83 participants, aged between 12 and 19 and now resident in Australia, were from the former Republic of Yugoslavia. Those who had the most…

  17. Trinidad and Tobago National Standardization of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Paul A.; Watkins, Marley W.; Rhoad, Anna M.; Chao, Jessica L.; Worrell, Frank C.; Hall, Tracey E.

    2015-01-01

    Given relevant cultural distinctions across nations, it is important to determine the dimensional structure and normative characteristics of psychological assessment devices in each focal population. This article examines the national standardization and validation of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) with a nationally…

  18. The Moderating Role of Friendship Quality on Associations between Autonomy and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collibee, Charlene; LeTard, Amanda J.; Aikins, Julie Wargo

    2016-01-01

    Both autonomy and friendship quality have consistently been associated with adolescent adjustment. To date, the potentially moderating role of peer relationships in the context of autonomy achievement has received less attention. The present study used observational and quantitative data, as well as multiple reporters, to examine interactions…

  19. Peer Group Homogeneity in Adolescents' School Adjustment Varies According to Peer Group Type and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Aunola, Kaisa; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in terms of their school adjustment and whether this homogeneity varies according to peer group type and gender. A total of 1262 peer group members who had recently moved to post-comprehensive education filled in questionnaires measuring their academic achievement,…

  20. Few Preschool Boys and Girls with ADHD Are Well-Adjusted during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Steve S.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of being well-adjusted in adolescence, boys and girls with (n = 96) and without (n = 26) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were assessed seven times in eight years starting when they were 4-6 years of age. Symptoms of ADHD, ODD/CD, and depression/anxiety in addition to social skills and social preference…

  1. Shyness-Sensitivity, Aggression, and Adjustment in Urban Chinese Adolescents at Different Historical Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Junsheng; Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; French, Doran

    2012-01-01

    The market-oriented economic reform in China over the past two decades has resulted in considerable changes in social attitudes regarding youth's behaviors. This study examined the relations of shyness and aggression to adjustment in Chinese adolescents at different historical times. Participants came from two cohorts (1994 and 2008) of…

  2. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  3. The Potential Role of Conflict Resolution Schemas in Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutengren, Goran; Palmerus, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Four specific schemas of cognitive structures that adolescents may hold concerning interpersonal disagreements with their parents were identified, each reflecting an authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or a neglecting parenting style. To examine the occurrence of such schemas across high and low levels of psychosocial adjustment, 120 Swedish…

  4. The Pathways from Parents' Marital Quality to Adolescents' School Adjustment in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Yu-Jin; Chun, Young-Ju

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesized pathways from parents' marital quality to Korean adolescents' school adjustment through the perception of self and parent-child relations. Based on previous literature and two major family theories, the authors hypothesized a path model to explain the process of how parents' marital quality influenced school…

  5. Longitudinal Links between Older Sibling Features and Younger Siblings' Academic Adjustment during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchey, Heather A.; Shoulberg, Erin K.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated prospective relations between older siblings' support and academic engagement and younger siblings' academic adjustment from 7th to post-8th grade. The study was unique in that it incorporated a sample of both African American and European American adolescents. Also investigated was the extent to which the gender…

  6. Southeast Asian Adolescents: Identity and Adjustment. ERIC/CUE Digest No. 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol

    This digest reviews the issues of identity and adjustment faced by adolescent Southeast Asian refugees in the United States. Most teenagers from all the Southeast Asian ethnic groups have adopted the dress, hairstyles, and manners of American teenagers, yet their ethnic identity remains strong and specific. This is particularly true for refugees…

  7. Fostering Emotional Adjustment among Nigerian Adolescents with Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of Albert Ellis' Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) in fostering emotional adjustment among Nigerian adolescents. Fifty senior secondary school students were randomly selected and divided equally into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was treated with REBT twice a week for six weeks.…

  8. Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Adjustment: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    This study extends previous understanding of the association between adolescent extracurricular activity participation and adjustment by asking whether participation in school-based extracurricular activities is associated with lower substance use and depression, higher grades and academic aspirations, and more positive attitude toward school. In…

  9. Socioeconomic Stress and Academic Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents: The Protective Role of Family Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and…

  10. Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents: Factorial Validity in a Canadian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Beran, Tanya N.

    2009-01-01

    The core syndrome factor structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) was examined with a sample of 375 randomly selected Canadian youths in a large western city. The 6 ASCA core syndrome raw scores produced an identical two-factor solution as observed in samples of American youths. Principal axis exploratory factor…