Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
This study explored the relations between parental problem drinking, adolescent-parent communication, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Surveys were administered to a diverse sample of 683 15-17-years-old adolescents in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Results indicated that paternal problem drinking directly predicted…
Using Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development, this study tested the hypothesis that family processes contribute more to adolescent adjustment than does family structure. Subjects for the study were 234 adolescents between 12 and 16 years old living in a stepfamily on a regular basis. This sample is a sub-sample of a representative…
Emma K. Adam; P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale
Associations between histories of family disruption (residential moves and separations from parent figures) and adolescent adjustment (including educational, internalizing, externalizing, and sexual behavior outcomes) were examined in a random sample of 267 African American girls from 3 urban poverty neighborhoods. Higher numbers of residential moves and parental separations significantly predicted greater adolescent adjustment problems after household demographic characteristics were controlled.
Objective: To examine the association between frequency of family dinners (FFD) and selected problem behaviors for adolescents after adjusting for family connectedness, parental awareness, other family activities, and other potentially confounding factors. Methods: Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. The primary…
Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.
The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…
Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.
Aggression is associated with a host of behavioral, social, and emotional adjustment difficulties. However, some aggressive youth are perceived as "popular" by peers. Although these perceived popular aggressive youth appear relatively well adjusted, especially in the social domain, the emotional well-being of these youth is understudied. The…
van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R. R. J. M.; Krabbendam, A. A.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Doreleijers, T. A. H.; Jansen, L. M. C.
Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 SD = 0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age = 20.0,…
Castellani, Valeria; Pastorelli, Concetta; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gerbino, Maria; Di Giunta, Laura; Ceravolo, Rosalba; Milioni, Michela
The goal of this longitudinal study was to investigate the relation of adolescents' Big Five factor (BFF) personality to the development of different patterns of mother-adolescent hostile, aggressive conflict (MHAC) from late adolescence to young adulthood. Furthermore, we examined the prediction of Antisocial Problems (AP) and Depressive Problems (DP) in emerging adulthood from BFF and MHAC trajectories. 385 adolescents participated in this study (age 15-16 at Time 1 and 21-22 at Time 4). Using latent growth curve analysis, Low stable (69.1%), Medium Increasing, (23.3%), and High decreasing (7.6%) trajectories were distinguished. Low adolescents' emotional stability was directly related to AP and indirectly related to DP, throughout the mediation of both Medium Increasing and High Decreasing trajectories. Agreeableness was directly negatively related to DP and indirectly throughout the mediation of High Decreasing trajectory. Low Conscientiousness was indirectly related to DP, throughout the mediation of Medium Increasing trajectory. 385 adolescents participated in this study (age 15-16 at Time 1 and 21-22 at Time 4). Using latent growth curve analysis, Low stable (69.1%), Medium Increasing, (23.3%), and High decreasing (7.6%) trajectories were distinguished. Low adolescents' emotional stability was directly related to AP and indirectly related to DP, throughout the mediation of both Medium Increasing and High Decreasing trajectories. Agreeableness was directly negatively related to DP and indirectly throughout the mediation of High Decreasing trajectory. Low Conscientiousness was indirectly related to DP, throughout the mediation of Medium Increasing trajectory. PMID:24388703
Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim
The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…
Hoglund, Wendy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.
Peer victimization has been linked concurrently and over time with multiple adjustment problems. However, the reasons for this multi-finality in victimization are not well understood. The current study examines social-cognitive processes (hostile attributions, social perspective awareness, and interpersonal skills) as mediators of the relations…
Massad, Christopher M.
Examined the relationship between sex role identity and two measures of adjustment--self-acceptance and peer acceptance--among adolescents. Sex differences were discovered regarding factors positively associated with self-acceptance. Findings suggest that a model of sex role differentiation during adolescence must recognize differential pressures…
Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny
Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; ?2?=?17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501
Travers, Lea V; Bohnert, Amy M; Randall, Edin T
Researchers now recognize that affluent youth experience tremendous achievement pressures, yet contributing factors or outcomes are rarely explored. Using a sample of affluent adolescents, the present study investigates the mediating role of goal orientation (GO) on relations between school motivational climate (MC) and adolescent adjustment. Adolescents from four high schools completed measures of MC (i.e., Performance and Mastery), GO (i.e., Ego and Task), and adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, anxiety, and life satisfaction). Performance climates were associated with more adjustment problems while Mastery climates were associated with fewer adjustment problems. Adolescents with higher Ego orientation reported more depressive and anxiety symptoms, while adolescents with higher Task orientation indicated fewer depressive symptoms and greater life satisfaction. Adolescent Task orientation mediated the relations between Mastery climate and two adjustment outcomes (i.e., depressive symptoms and life satisfaction). Results suggest the importance of non-competitive achievement-oriented values and collaborative school contexts in adolescent adjustment. PMID:23351983
Loukas, Alexandra; Ripperger-Suhler, Ken G.; Horton, Karissa D.
This study examined (a) the associations between school connectedness and early adolescent adjustment problems over a 1 year period and (b) the equivalence of these associations across gender. Five hundred middle school students (53.4% female), initially in the 6th and 7th grades, participated in the two-wave study. Results from two-group…
DAVID M. FERGUSSON; MICHAEL T. LYNSKEY
ObjectiveTo estimate the prevalence of attempted suicide during adolescence in a birth cohort of New Zealand children studied to the age of 16 years and to examine the relationships among adolescent problems of adjustment, psychopathology, childhood circumstances, and risks of adolescent suicide attempts.
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F
Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment. PMID:25006024
Fagundes, Christopher P; Diamond, Lisa M; Allen, Kendrick P
Losing a close relationship is highly stressful and a robust predictor of major depression in adolescents. The current study examined relationships between attachment insecurity, parasympathetic nervous system activity, indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and adolescent adjustment to the loss of a close social partner. Adolescents with more attachment anxiety to their mother at age 14 were more likely to report poorer adjustment to a subsequent loss than adolescents with less attachment anxiety. Attachment avoidance interacted with stress-induced changes in RSA to predict loss adjustment. Among adolescents with higher RSA in response to the stressor, those with more attachment avoidance reported better loss adjustment, whereas among adolescents with lower RSA in response to the stressor, those with more attachment avoidance reported poorer loss adjustment. In sum, the combination of attachment insecurity and stress-induced changes in RSA predicted how well adolescents adjusted to a loss. PMID:22399361
Lauren L. Singleton-Winston
The purpose of the present study was to examine potential gender differences in adolescent adjustment to parental remarriage and recoupling, and in the quality of their relationships within the stepfamily. Additionally, gender differences in the salience of family relationships for adjustment were examined as well. The variables included the adolescent's self-reported family happiness, the adolescent's report of the quality of
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the…
Christian E. Mueller; H. Thompson Prout
Issues with adolescents with intellectual disabilities have received little attention in the research literature. This study compared adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities on several indices of psychosocial adjustment. The participants were selected from a large longitudinal database and comparisons were made at three points in time. Analyses indicated that adolescents with intellectual disabilities report mild to moderate depression over
Otterpohl, Nantje; Wild, Elke
Numerous studies have reported substantive correlations between indicators of parenting, children's emotion regulation (ER), and children's psychosocial adjustment. However, studies on underlying mechanisms are scarce. Particularly in early adolescence, it is still unclear whether relations between parenting and ER are caused by adolescent behavior, by parent behavior, or by reciprocal processes. Moreover, it is unclear whether ER can be seen as an antecedent or a consequence of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine predictive relations among parenting and adolescents' ER, and adolescents' ER and psychosocial adjustment, respectively. We collected longitudinal, multiple informant data at two measurement occasions (Grade 6, Grade 7). All told, 1,100 adolescents (10-14 years) and their parents filled out questionnaires assessing responsiveness and psychological control, adolescents' anger regulation, and adolescents' problem and prosocial behavior. Cross-lagged analyses revealed reciprocal effects between parenting, ER, and adjustment for the parent and boys', but not for the girls', report. Moreover, relations were different for adolescents with versus without clinically elevated symptoms of psychopathology. Our findings support the assumption that reciprocal relations between parenting, ER, and psychosocial adjustment are likely to persist until early adolescence. Nevertheless, the moderating role of gender and psychopathology should be taken into account. Possible reasons for the different findings, and practical implications, are discussed. PMID:24320075
Hurtig, Anita Landau; And Others
The study with 70 children and adolescents with sickle cell disease did not support the hypothesis that illness severity (measured by frequency of hospitalization) would affect adjustment (measured by IQ, self-esteem, social and personal adjustment, behavioral problems, school performance, and peer relations). (Author/DB)
Jon E. Grant; R. Andrew Chambers; Marc N. Potenza
Despite the high prevalence rates of pathological gambling in adolescents, research on this disorder is still in its infancy.\\u000a Our understanding of neurodevelopmental changes that occur during adolescence, and their influence on adolescent behaviors,\\u000a is still at an early stage. Longitudinal studies involving neuro-imaging, genetics, and behavioral assessments should help\\u000a advance our understanding of adolescents, and with this understanding should
Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Silk, Jennifer S.
SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms among adolescents from predominantly disadvantaged backgrounds. The indirect effects of psychological control on adolescent adjustment through adolescent emotion regulation (anger and sadness regulation) were examined as well as the moderating effects of adolescent emotion regulation. Design 206 adolescents (ages 10–18) reported on parental psychological control and their own depressive symptoms, and parents and adolescents reported on adolescent emotion regulation and aggressive behavior. Indirect effect models were tested using structural equation modeling; moderating effects were tested using hierarchical multiple regression. Results The associations between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms were indirect through adolescents’ anger regulation. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parental psychological control and adolescent depressive symptoms was stronger among adolescents with poor sadness regulation and the association between psychological control and aggressive behavior was stronger among older adolescents with poor anger regulation. Conclusions Psychological control is negatively associated with adolescent adjustment, particularly among adolescents who have difficulty regulating emotions. Emotion regulation is one mechanism through which psychological control is linked to adolescent adjustment, particularly anger dysregulation, and this pattern holds for both younger and older adolescents and for both boys and girls. PMID:25057264
Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.
This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…
Bradley, Graham L.; Inglis, Brad C.
Leisure provides the context for much of adolescent behaviour and development. While both theory and research point to the benefits of participation in leisure activities that are highly structured, the association between structured leisure and psychosocial adjustment is not uniformly high. This paper presents a model of adolescent leisure…
Mueller, Christian E.; Prout, H. Thompson
Issues with adolescents with intellectual disabilities have received little attention in the research literature. This study compared adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities on several indices of psychosocial adjustment. The participants were selected from a large longitudinal database and comparisons were made at three points in…
Factors related to psychosocial adjustment of 113 adolescent immigrants to the United States from the People's Republic of China were studied. Levels of psychosocial functioning were lower for adolescents with higher family conflict, lower family organization, and higher family authoritarianism. Value orientation mediated the relationship between…
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott
Our study examined discrepancies in Mexican American adolescent-parent perceptions regarding parental autonomy promoting and their associations with adolescents' adjustment. A total of 138 Mexican American sixth graders reported their global self-worth and depressive symptoms. Adolescents and parents also reported their perceptions of parental…
Wyndol Furman; Sabina Low; Martin J. Ho
Concurrent and longitudinal relations between the amount of romantic experience and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a 1-year study of a community based sample of 200 tenth graders. Adolescents, parents, and friends completed measures of psychosocial adjustment. The amount of romantic experience was associated with higher reports of social acceptance, friendship competence, and romantic competence; at the same time, romantic
The Adolescent Problems Inventory (API) and the Problem Inventory for Adolescent Girls (PIAG) are commonly employed in studies of antisocial and delinquent behaviour. This paper offers a review and critique of these inventories. The development and construction of the inventories are detailed, followed by discussion of their psychometric properties. The weight of evidence suggests that the inventories are related to behavioural indices associated with antisocial and delinquent behaviour. More recent studies have considered the factor structure of the API, suggesting several dimensions of social functioning. It is concluded that the API and PIAG are robust instruments that can yield valuable clinical and research data. PMID:9245289
Riina, Elizabeth M; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Racial discrimination has serious negative consequences for the adjustment of African American adolescents. Taking an ecological approach, this study examined the linkages between perceived racial discrimination within and outside of the neighborhood and urban adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and tested whether neighborhood cohesion operated as a protective factor. Data came from 461 African American adolescents (mean age = 15.24 years, SD = 1.56; 50 % female) participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Multilevel models revealed that perceived discrimination within youth's neighborhoods was positively related to externalizing, and discrimination both within and outside of youth's neighborhoods predicted greater internalizing problems. Neighborhood cohesion moderated the association between within-neighborhood discrimination and externalizing. Specifically, high neighborhood cohesion attenuated the association between within-neighborhood discrimination and externalizing. The discussion centers on the implications of proximal stressors and neighborhood cohesion for African American adolescents' adjustment. PMID:22890902
Riina, Elizabeth M.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Racial discrimination has serious negative consequences for the adjustment of African American adolescents. Taking an ecological approach, this study examined the linkages between perceived racial discrimination within and outside of the neighborhood and urban adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and tested whether neighborhood cohesion operated as a protective factor. Data came from 461 African American adolescents (mean age = 15.24 years, SD = 1.56; 50% female) participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Multilevel models revealed that perceived discrimination within youth’s neighborhoods was positively related to externalizing, and discrimination both within and outside of youth’s neighborhoods predicted greater internalizing problems. Neighborhood cohesion moderated the association between within-neighborhood discrimination and externalizing. Specifically, high neighborhood cohesion attenuated the association between within-neighborhood discrimination and externalizing. The discussion centers on the implications of proximal stressors and neighborhood cohesion for African American adolescents’ adjustment. PMID:22890902
East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.
One hundred ten Mexican American adolescents (12 – 17 years) who provide infant care for their older sisters were studied to determine the effects of family caregiving responsibilities on adolescents’ adjustment. Controlling for prior adjustment and family context factors, providing many hours of caregiving predicted an increase in youths’ school absences and disciplinary problems. Frequent conflict surrounding caregiving was associated with increased stress and depression and lower school grades. Older girls appear to select into caregiving and experience the most problematic outcomes. Strong family obligations were not protective against caregiving stress but, rather, further compromised youths’ well-being for those who were highly involved in their family’s care. PMID:24000269
Richardson, S; McCabe, M P
The present study examined the impact of parental divorce during adolescence, interparental conflict, and intimacy with parents on young adult adjustment. One hundred sixty-seven undergraduate students (146 females, 21 males) completed a questionnaire regarding their psychosocial adjustment, their present relationships with their parents, the level of interparental conflict experienced during adolescence, and the marital status of their parents during adolescence. High levels of interparental conflict were found to be negatively associated with adjustment and current intimacy with parents. A poor relationship with both parents was negatively associated with several domains of psychosocial adjustment, while high intimacy with at least one parent was positively associated with adjustment. Intimacy with mother and with father were found to be the most important predictors of psychosocial adjustment. This investigation highlights the importance of maintaining a good parent-young adult relationship, particularly in divorced families. The findings indicate that future research should examine multiple family variables when assessing the impact of parental divorce or conflict on young adult adjustment. PMID:11817629
Gleason, Katie A; Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Ickes, William
This study investigated whether children's empathic accuracy is associated with their peer relationships and adjustment. It also examined whether, and how, empathic accuracy moderated the known influence of peer relations on adjustment. Participants were 116 (58 boys) fifth-through eighth-graders. At school, child participants completed measures assessing their peer relationships. In the lab, child participants completed a performance-based measure of empathic accuracy and measures of adjustment. Teachers and parents also provided assessments. Results revealed that children who were less adept at inferring other people's thoughts and feelings were more likely to experience adjustment problems. Empathic accuracy acted as a buffer against adjustment problems when peer relationships were poor: Previously found links between poor peer relationships and poor adjustment were found for adolescents with low empathic accuracy but not for those with high empathic accuracy. PMID:19498068
Aalsma, Matthew C.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Flannery, Daniel J.
The relationship among three personal fables ("omnipotence," "invulnerability," "personal uniqueness"), narcissism, and mental health variables was assessed in a large, cross-sectional sample of adolescents drawn from Grades 6 (n = 94), 8 (n = 223), 10 (n = 142), and 12 (n = 102). Participants responded to the New Personal Fable Scale, the…
The relationship between gender-role identity (traditional, androgynous, cross-gender, and undifferentiated) and psychological adjustment among adolescents was examined. Hypotheses were derived from theories of gender-role identity development. One hundred and three high school students completed a measure of gender-role identity (the Bem Sex-Role Inventory) and four measures of adjustment (three Offer Self-Image scales and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Findings indicate that
Anna Beth Doyle; Dorothy Markiewicz
Contributions of 3 dimensions of parenting (psychological control, warmth, and behavioural control), marital conflict, and attachment style (anxiety and avoidance) to adjustment from early to middle adolescence were assessed. Mediation of marital conflict effects by parenting, and of parenting effects by attachment were examined. Adolescents (n = 175) initially age 13 years reported parenting practices, attachment styles, school grades, self-esteem,
Slater, Elisa J.; Haber, Joel D.
Addressed the effect of continued familial conflict on adolescents' (N=217) adjustment and self-concept. Results indicated that high conflict produces lower self-esteem, greater anxiety, and less feeling of control regardless of whether or not family dissolution occurred. (LLL)
Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.
Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11-14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a…
McHale, Susan M.
Research on coparenting documents that mothers' and fathers' coordination and mutual support in their parenting roles is linked to their offspring's adjustment in childhood, but we know much less about the coparenting of adolescents. Taking a family systems perspective, this study assessed two dimensions of coparenting, parents' shared decision-making and joint involvement in activities with their adolescents, and examined bidirectional associations between these coparenting dimensions and boys' and girls' risky behaviors and depressive symptoms across four time points (6 years) in adolescence. Participants were 201 mothers, fathers, and adolescents (M = 11.83, SD = .55 years of age at Time 1; 51 % female). Parents of sons shared more decisions, on average, than parents of daughters. On average, shared decision-making followed an inverted U shaped pattern of change, and parents' joint involvement in their adolescents' activities declined. Cross-lagged findings revealed that risky behavior predicted less shared decision-making, and shared decision-making protected against increased risky behavior for boys. For girls and boys, parents' joint involvement predicted fewer risky behaviors, and lower levels of risky behavior predicted higher levels of joint involvement. In contrast, boys' and girls' depressive symptoms predicted less joint involvement. The discussion centers on the nature and correlates of coparenting during adolescence, including the role of child effects, and directions for future research on coparenting during this developmental period. PMID:23539238
Kang, B S
This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on sexual matters. Proposals needing implementation include family life education for parents and their children, sex education and counseling within the school systems, treatment centers for sexually transmitted diseases and pre/post natal care, and youth counseling centers. PMID:12316430
Fosco, Gregory M.; Lippold, Melissa; Feinberg, Mark
This study tests interparental boundary problems (IBPs), parent hostility with adolescents, and adolescent hostility with parents within a reciprocal influence model and tests each as risk factors for adolescent aggression problems. Prospective, longitudinal analyses were conducted with multi-informant data from 768 adolescents and their families, from 6th to 9th grade. Guided by spillover and social learning perspectives, our findings suggest that IBPs have a robust, negative influence on both parent and adolescent hostility. In turn, adolescent hostility was the best predictor of global adolescent aggression problems. Two indirect effects were found that link IBPs and adolescent aggression problems; however, findings indicate that adolescent hostile behavior in the family is the key risk indicator for adolescents' later aggression problems. Model invariance tests revealed that this model was not different for boys and girls, or for adolescents in families with two biological parents and youth in families with two caregivers (e.g. stepparent families).
Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents’ and mothers’ self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth’s academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents’ heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth. PMID:19636729
LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan
The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse. PMID:24252744
Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Jokela, Veikko; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Uhanov, Mihail
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkaranta district in Russia…
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…
Reynolds, Nina; Mrug, Sylvie; Guion, Kimberly
Purpose Spiritual coping is an important determinant of adjustment in youth with chronic illness, but the mechanisms through which it affects outcomes have not been elucidated. It is also unknown whether the role of spiritual coping varies by age or disease group. This study evaluated whether general cognitive attributions explain the effects of spiritual coping on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents with cystic fibrosis and diabetes and whether these relationships vary by age or disease group. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adolescents (N=128; M=14.7 yrs) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes completed measures of spiritual coping and attributional style. Adolescents and their caregivers reported on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Results Overall, positive spiritual coping was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. Negative spiritual coping was related to more externalizing problems, and for adolescents with cystic fibrosis only, also internalizing problems. Optimistic attributions mediated the effects of positive spiritual coping among adolescents with diabetes. The results did not vary by age. Conclusions An optimistic attribution style may help explain the effects of positive, but not negative, spiritual coping on adjustment of youth with diabetes. Youth with progressive, life-threatening illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis, may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of negative spiritual coping. Future research should examine if addressing spiritual concerns and promoting optimistic attributions improves adolescents’ emotional and behavioral functioning. PMID:23298988
Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene
Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…
Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
School bullying incidents, particularly experiences with victimization, are a significant social and health concern among adolescents. The current study extended past research by examining the daily peer victimization experiences of Mexican-American adolescents and examining how chronic (mean-level) and episodic (daily-level) victimization incidents at school are associated with psychosocial, physical and school adjustment. Across a two-week span, 428 ninth and tenth grade Mexican-American students (51 % female) completed brief checklists every night before going to bed. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that, at the individual level, Mexican-American adolescents’ who reported more chronic peer victimization incidents across the two-weeks also reported heightened distress and academic problems. After accounting for adolescent’s mean levels of peer victimization, daily victimization incidents were associated with more school adjustment problems (i.e., academic problems, perceived role fulfillment as a good student). Additionally, support was found for the mediation model in which distress accounts for the mean-level association between peer victimization and academic problems. The results from the current study revealed that everyday peer victimization experiences among Mexican-American high school students have negative implications for adolescents’ adjustment, across multiple domains. PMID:23238764
Xianchen Liu; Zhongtang Zhao; Cunxian Jia; Daniel J. Buysse
OBJECTIVES.Little is known about sleep patterns and problems in Chinese adolescents. This study was designed to examine sleep\\/wake patterns and problems and their associations with parent sleep among adolescents in China. METHODS.This report represents part of an epidemiological study of sleep and health in 6 high schools in Jinan city, China. A total of 1056 adolescents and 838 parents completed
Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E Mark
A growing literature supports the importance of understanding the link between religiosity and youths' adjustment and development, but in the absence of rigorous, longitudinal designs, questions remain about the direction of effect and the role of family factors. This paper investigates the bidirectional association between adolescents' relationship with God and their internalizing adjustment. Results from 2-wave, SEM cross-lag analyses of data from 667 mother/adolescent dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (50% male, M age = 15.75 years old) supports a risk model suggesting that greater internalizing problems predict a weaker relationship with God 1 year later. Significant moderation analyses suggest that a stronger relationship with God predicted fewer depression and anxiety symptoms for youth whose mothers used more religious coping. PMID:24955590
Handal, P J; Le-Stiebel, N; Dicarlo, M; Gutzwiller, J
57 immigrant Asian adolescents were compared with 44 American-born adolescents of Asian descent to investigate differences in perceived family environment and adjustment. Immigrant Asian adolescents were significantly less adjusted, perceived significantly less independence and achievement orientation and significantly more organization in their families than their American-born peers. The family environment differences, unlike adjustment differences, persisted over length of time in the host country (USA). PMID:10710980
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.
Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents' religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents' religiousness and adolescent adjustment outcomes--either directly or indirectly via adolescents' own religiousness--varies depending on relationship context…
Delgado, Melissa Y.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Roosa, Mark W.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
Drawing on Garcia Coll et al.'s integrative framework and the risk and resilience model, this study examined the relationships between adolescents' perceived discrimination and psychosocial adjustment and the moderating roles of adolescents', mothers', and fathers' cultural orientations and values, and adolescent gender in a sample of 246…
Scharf, Miri; Wiseman, Hadas; Farah, Faten
This study examined how parent-adolescent relationships are related to adolescent loneliness, interpersonal difficulties and school adjustment among Israeli Arabs. Two hundred and thirty-one 11th graders (103 boys and 128 girls) and their homeroom teachers participated. Four groups of adolescents were identified according to parenting practice profiles: Adolescents in the harsh parenting group reported the highest levels of loneliness, those in the distant and mixed groups reported midway levels of loneliness, and those in the warm group showed the lowest degree of loneliness and the lowest levels of interpersonal problems. Overall, boys reported higher levels of peer-related loneliness and lower levels of affinity for aloneness than girls. Gender interacted significantly with parenting group, with girls in the harsh parenting group exhibiting greater parent-related loneliness and affinity for loneliness, while boys exhibited more peer-related loneliness. The important role that parents play in their children's social adjustment is discussed in relation to gender and culture. PMID:22044231
East, Patricia L.
The younger siblings of childbearing adolescents have poorer school outcomes and exhibit more internalizing and externalizing problems compared to their peers without a childbearing sister. We test a model where living with an adolescent childbearing sister constitutes a major family stressor that disrupts mothers’ parenting and well-being, and through which, adversely affect youths’ adjustment. Data came from 243 Latino younger siblings (62% female, M age 13.7 years) and their mothers, 121 of whom lived with a childbearing adolescent sister and 122 of whom did not. Individual fixed-effects models controlled for earlier measures of each respective model construct, thereby reducing omitted variable bias from pre-existing group differences. Results show that, for boys, the relationship between living with a childbearing adolescent sister and youth outcomes was sequentially mediated through mothers’ stress and parenting (i.e., monitoring and nurturance). For girls, however, the relationship was mediated through mothers’ monitoring only. Findings elucidate the within-family processes that contribute to the problematic outcomes of youth living with childbearing adolescent older sisters. PMID:21965104
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.
Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents’ religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents’ religiousness and adolescent adjustment outcomes—either directly or indirectly via adolescents’ own religiousness—varies depending on relationship context (e.g., parent-adolescent attachment). This study examined the moderating roles of parent-adolescent attachment on the apparent effects of the intergenerational transmission of religiousness on adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms using data from 322 adolescents (mean age = 12.63 years, 45% girls, and 84% White) and their parents. Structural equation models indicated significant indirect effects suggesting that parents’ organizational religiousness was positively to boys’ organizational religiousness—the latter of which appeared to mediate the negative association of parents’ organizational religiousness with boys’ internalizing symptoms. Significant interaction effects suggested also that, for both boys and girls, parents’ personal religiousness was associated positively with adolescent internalizing symptoms for parent-adolescent dyads with low attachment, whereas parents’ personal religiousness was not associated with adolescent internalizing symptoms for parent-adolescent dyads with high attachment. The findings help to identify the family dynamics by which the interaction of parents’ religiousness and adolescents’ religiousness might differentially influence adolescent adjustment. PMID:22836938
Barber, Bonnie L.
Describes investigation examining whether aspects of father-adolescent relationship accounted for adjustment differences between adolescents from two-parent families and divorced families. Suggests late adolescents in divorced families were more depressed than those in married families but did not differ in self-esteem. Other differences are…
James G. Barber; Paul Delfabbro
A telephone survey of 114 mothers and their sons, 132 mothers and their daughters, 64 fathers and their sons, and 64 fathers and their daughters investigated the predictors of adolescent adjustment, as separately estimated by parents and their children. Results revealed that the best predictors of adolescent adjustment were the level of conflict within the household over mundane domestic matters
The purpose of he study was to extend a previously examined model of emotional adjustment, which suggested that middle adolescents' perceptions of their social skills and relational competence partially mediated the relationship between parental attachment and subsequent emotional adjustment. The present study examined two research questions. First, the initial model is extended to account for a late adolescent (18- to
Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.
Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent…
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; McHale, Susan M.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.
Drawing from developmental and cultural adaptation perspectives and using a longitudinal design, this study examined: (a) mean-level changes in Mexican-origin adolescents' cultural orientations and adjustment from early to late adolescence and (b) bidirectional associations between cultural orientations and adjustment using a cross-lag panel…
Rachel M. Roberts; Rosalyn H. Shute
This study aimed to examine the role of coping strategy use in concurrent and later adjustment in adolescents with craniofacial anomalies. It was expected that better adjustment at both baseline and 12 months would be related to greater baseline perceived coping efficacy, greater use of active coping and social support seeking and less use of avoidance strategies. Eighty adolescents with
Balkin, Richard S.; Miller, Janeen; Ricard, Richard J.; Garcia, Roberto; Lancaster, Chloe
Court-referred youth participated in an intervention program and completed the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory. Reoffending rates were tracked for 2 years. Antisocial behavior, anger control, and emotional distress were influencing characteristics for recidivism. The Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory may serve…
Mack T. Hines
This study investigated the differences between adolescent boys and girls from divorced families' adjustment to the middle school transition. A middle school transition survey measured the academic and social middle school transitional experiences of 196 adolescent boys and girls from divorced families. T-Test for Independent Means procedures revealed statistically significant differences between the male and female participants' adjustment to the
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.
Two independent prospective longitudinal studies that cumulatively spanned the age interval from 4 years to 14 years used multi-wave designs to investigate developmental associations between language and behavioral adjustment (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Altogether 224 children, their mothers, and teachers provided data. Series of nested path analysis models were used to determine the most parsimonious and plausible paths among the three constructs over and above stability in each across age and their covariation at each age. In both studies, children with poorer language skills in early childhood had more internalizing behavior problems in later childhood and in early adolescence. These developmental paths between language and behavioral adjustment held after taking into consideration children’s nonverbal intellectual functioning, maternal verbal intelligence, education, parenting knowledge, and social desirability bias, as well as family socioeconomic status, and they applied equally to girls and boys. PMID:23880396
René M. Dailey
Two studies examined the relationship between confirmation (i.e., validation, acceptance) by family members and adolescent psychosocial adjustment (i.e., self-esteem, strength of self-concept, and autonomy). Study 1 showed confirmation by parents was positively related to mid-adolescents' psychosocial adjustment. Study 2 showed that although late-adolescents perceived mothers as exhibiting greater confirmation than both fathers and siblings, a simultaneous assessment of mother, father,
Miri Scharf; Hadas Wiseman; Faten Farah
This study examined how parent–adolescent relationships are related to adolescent loneliness, interpersonal difficulties and school adjustment among Israeli Arabs. Two hundred and thirty-one 11th graders (103 boys and 128 girls) and their homeroom teachers participated. Four groups of adolescents were identified according to parenting practice profiles: Adolescents in the harsh parenting group reported the highest levels of loneliness, those in
Olsson, Gunilla Maria; Mårild, Staffan; Alm, Jan; Brodin, Ulf; Rydelius, Per-Anders; Marcus, Claude
Psychosocial development in children with chronic disease is a key issue in paediatrics. This study investigated whether psychosocial adjustment could be reliably assessed with the 42-item Adolescent Adjustment Profile (AAP) instrument. The study mainly focused on adjustment-to-obesity measurement, although it compared three patient groups with chronic conditions. All phenylketonuria (PKU) patients in Sweden between ages 9 and 18 and their parents and teachers were invited to participate. Patients with neurobehavioural syndromes and obesity were age- and gender-matched with PKU patients. Healthy children constituted a reference group. Psychosocial adjustment was measured using the AAP, which is a multi-informant questionnaire that contains four domains. Information concerning parents' socio-economic and civil status was requested separately. Respondents to the three questionnaires judged the PKU patients to be normal in all four domains. Patients with neurobehavioural syndromes demonstrated less competence and the most problems compared with the other three groups. According to the self-rating, the parent rating and the teacher rating questionnaires, obese patients had internalizing problems. The parent rating and the teacher rating questionnaire scored obese patients as having a lower work capacity than the reference group. Compared with the reference group, not only families with obese children but also families with children with neurobehavioural syndromes had significantly higher divorce rates. Obese patients were also investigated with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), another instrument that enables comparison between two measures of adjustment. The AAP had good psychometric properties; it was judged a useful instrument in research on adolescents with chronic diseases. PMID:18389428
King, Kevin M.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Monahan, Kathryn C.
Difficulties with self-regulation are implicated in the development of emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence. Although children’s ability to regulate their behaviors continues to improve throughout childhood and adolescence, it remains unclear how contextual risk factors might influence this development during the transition to adolescence, or how variation in the development of self-regulation predicts adjustment. Using a community sample of 214 8–12 year-olds (T1 M=9.5, SD=1.01), we examined growth trajectories of effortful control and impulsivity over three years and tested predictors and outcomes of these trajectories. Although predictors of initial levels of self-regulation were largely equivalent for both effortful control and impulsivity, contextual risk factors were related to variations in the development of impulsivity but not effortful control. However, increases in effortful control, but not impulsivity, were associated with level and rate of change in adjustment problems and positive adjustment, suggesting that different dimensions of self-regulation have different antecedents and outcomes in pre-adolescence and adolescence. PMID:22865096
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C
This study examined the developmental course and adjustment correlates of time with peers from age 8 to 18. On seven occasions over 8 years, the two eldest siblings from 201 European American, working- and middle-class families provided questionnaire and/or phone diary data. Multilevel models revealed that girls' time with mixed-/opposite-sex peers increased beginning in middle childhood, but boys' time increased beginning in early adolescence. For both girls and boys, time with same-sex peers peaked in middle adolescence. At the within-person level, unsupervised time with mixed-/opposite-sex peers longitudinally predicted problem behaviors and depressive symptoms, and supervised time with mixed-/opposite-sex peers longitudinally predicted better school performance. Findings highlight the importance of social context in understanding peer involvement and its implications for youth development. PMID:24673293
Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and their school and social adjustment (i.e., academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork/teachers/classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problems with peers) were assessed using the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA). Both measures were completed by the mothers of the participants. Results from the linear mixed models demonstrated that autistic-like social deficits were associated with poor academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork, teachers, and classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problematic peer interactions. Moreover, gender and/or age moderated the associations between autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment problems. For example, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to negative school attitude, school social problems, and negative peer relationships in boys than in girls. Further, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to problems with peers in older girls than in older boys or younger children (regardless of gender). In conclusion, the present study suggests that autistic-like social deficits may place children and adolescents at increased risk for social and school maladjustment and that the extent of maladjustment may vary with the child's age and gender and the domains of adjustment under discussion. PMID:22960068
Cheung, Cecilia Sin-Sze; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Dong, Wei
The role of adolescents’ disclosure to their parents in their academic adjustment was examined in a study of 825 American and Chinese adolescents (mean age = 12.73 years). Four times over the seventh and eighth grades, adolescents reported on their spontaneous disclosure of everyday activities to their parents, the quality of their relationships with their parents, and their parents’ autonomy support and control. Information about multiple dimensions of adolescents’ academic adjustment (e.g., learning strategies, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and grades) was also obtained. Both American and Chinese adolescents’ disclosure predicted their enhanced academic adjustment over time. However, when American adolescents disclosed in a negative context (e.g., a poor parent-child relationship or controlling parenting), their autonomous (vs. controlled) motivation was undermined. PMID:23006004
Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan; Ozdemir, Metin
In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have used measures of parental behavioral control that are questionable because they include measures of parental knowledge. The goals of this study were to determine whether including knowledge items might have affected results of past studies and to test the unidirectional assumption. Data were from 978 adolescents participating in a longitudinal study. Parenting-style and adolescent adjustment measures at 2 time points were used, with a 2-year interval between time points. A variety of internal and external adjustment measures were used. Results showed that including knowledge items in measures of parental behavioral control elevated links between behavioral control and adjustment. Thus, the results and conclusions of many of the most highly cited studies are likely to have been stronger than if the measures had focused strictly on parental behavior. In addition, adolescent adjustment predicted changes in authoritative and neglectful parenting styles more robustly than these styles predicted changes in adolescent adjustment. Adolescent adjustment also predicted changes in authoritativeness more robustly than authoritativeness predicted changes in adjustment. Thus, parenting style cannot be seen as independent of the adolescent. In summary, both the theoretical premises of parenting-style research and the prior findings should be revisited. PMID:22448987
Fosco, Gregory M.; Feinberg, Mark E.
This study examined the longitudinal implications of adolescents’ exposure to interparental conflict for their developmental success. In the proposed developmental cascade model, adolescents’ perceptions of parental conflict as threatening is a risk factor for diminished self-efficacy, which would account for diminished adjustment. This study presents longitudinal data for 768 6th-grade students and their families over four time points, ending in 8th grade. Analyses were conducted in three steps. First, replication of longitudinal support for threat as a mediator of the link between interparental conflict and emotional distress was found; however, findings did not support threat as a mediator of behavior problems or subjective well-being. Second, threat was found to mediate the longitudinal association between interparental conflict and self-efficacy. Finally, a developmental cascade model supported a risk process in which interparental conflict was related to adolescents’ threat appraisals, which undermined self-efficacy beliefs, and was then linked with emotional distress, behavior problems, and subjective well-being. PMID:25017469
Surveyed 446 late adolescents concerning their assessment of specific social issues as problems existing in contemporary American society. Subjects overwhelmingly pointed to drug use, pollution, hunger, nuclear war, and poverty as serious to very serious problems, while ageism, and racial and sexual discrimination were regarded as substantially…
Dusek, Jerome B.; Litovsky, Viviana G.
In this investigation of the effects of maternal employment on adolescents, 88 male and 128 female adolescents from grades 7 through 12 completed the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory and the Inventory of Psychosocial Development. Several questions were addressed: (1) Does maternal employment status influence adolescents'…
Mehdizadeh, Narjes; Scott, Gill
Despite the important contribution of the adjustment of international students to successful academic performance in the host country, little research has been done in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to collect factual information about adjustment problems of Iranian international students in Scotland, such as psycho-social and…
Capaldi, D. M.
The hypothesis that children are placed at increased risk for adjustment problems when parents divorce and remarry was tested with a sample of 206 boys in the fourth grade. It was also hypothesized that the relation of parenting transitions and boys' adjustment would be mediated by family management practices. Subjects attended schools in…
Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Elenor; Jacobson, Leanne; Rodriguez, Antoinette U.; Dominguez, Antonio
Social support from kin has been discussed as an important feature of family life among Puerto Rican families. This study examines the association between kinship support, family organization, and adolescent adjustment in Puerto Rican families. (Author)
Jennifer L. Wainright; Stephen T. Russell; Charlotte J. Patterson
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and rela- tionship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. Normative analyses
Inge Vandervalk; Ed Spruijt; Martijn De Goede; W. H. J. Meeus; Cora Maas
This study examined the relationship between adolescent emotional adjustment and the family environment (i.e., family status, family process, and parental resources). This was done by way of multilevel analyses, with a sample of 2,636 parent-child couples of both intact and divorced families. The results indicated that adolescent emotional adjustment was clearly based on the family as well as on the
Rand D. Conger; Katherine J. Conger; Glen H. Elder; Frederick O. Lorenz; Ronald L. Simons; Les B. Whitbeck
KATHERINE J.; ELDER, GLEN H., JR.; L~RENZ, 0.; RONALD L.; and WHITBECK, LESB. A Family Process Model of Economic Hardship and Adjust- ment of Early Adolescent Boys. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1992, 63,526-541. We propose a family process model that links economic stress in family life to prosocial and problematic adolescent adjustment. Employing a sample of 205 seventh-grade boys aged 12 to
Desirée Baolian Qin
Despite their average high levels of educational achievement, Asian American students often report poor psychological and\\u000a social adjustment, suggesting an achievement\\/adjustment paradox. Yet, the reasons for this paradox remain unclear. Drawing\\u000a on 5-year longitudinal qualitative interview data, this paper compares the family dynamics of two groups of adolescents from\\u000a Chinese immigrant families: non-distressed adolescents (n = 20) who have high levels of
Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena; Fritjers, Jan
This study used hierarchical linear modeling to compare longitudinal patterns of adolescent religious service attendance and club attendance, and to contrast the longitudinal relations between adolescent adjustment and religious service versus club attendance. Participants included 1050 students (47% girls) encompassing a school district in…
Lehman, Stephanie Jacobs; Koerner, Susan Silverberg
A study of 62 adolescent girls and their recently divorced mothers examined the relationship between maternal disclosure of financial concerns and difficulties in adolescent daughters' adjustment. Findings revealed a positive direct relationship between family financial hardship and girls' psychological distress, and that financial hardship was…
Kingery, Julie Newman; Erdley, Cynthia A.; Marshall, Katherine C.
This study examines several aspects of adolescents' pretransition peer relationships as predictors of their adjustment to middle school. Participants were 365 students (175 boys; 99% Caucasian) involved in the Time 1 (the spring of fifth grade) and Time 2 (the fall of sixth grade) assessments. Adolescents completed measures that assessed peer…
Hines, Mack T., III
This study investigated the differences between adolescent boys and girls from divorced families' adjustment to the middle school transition. A middle school transition survey measured the academic and social middle school transitional experiences of 196 adolescent boys and girls from divorced families. T-Test for Independent Means procedures…
Riina, Elizabeth M.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Racial discrimination has serious negative consequences for the adjustment of African American adolescents. Taking an ecological approach, this study examined the linkages between perceived racial discrimination within and outside of the neighborhood and urban adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and tested whether neighborhood…
Gentzler, Amy L.; Morey, Jennifer N.; Palmer, Cara A.; Yi, Chit Yuen
This study examined how maximizing and minimizing responses to positive events were associated with sustained positive feelings about the events and adjustment in a community sample of 56 young adolescents (31 boys and 25 girls, 10-14 years of age). On daily reports, adolescents reported their positive emotional reactions to their best event each…
Martinez, Charles R., Jr.; McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark
This study examined behavioral and emotional adjustment in family contexts in which there was high versus low demand for adolescents to serve as language brokers in a sample of 73 recently immigrated Latino families with middle-school-aged adolescents. Language brokering was conceptualized as a family process rather than merely an individual…
Sharma, Anu R.; And Others
Examined whether adolescent adoptees differ from adolescent nonadoptees on indicators of emotional and behavioral adjustment and perceptions of family functioning. Identified areas in which adoptees are at potentially higher risk or have higher levels of functioning than nonadoptees. Investigated the relationship of adoption status to gender,…
Vandervalk, Inge; Spruijt, Ed; De Goede, Martijn; Meeus, Wim; Maas, Cora
This study examined the relationship between adolescent emotional adjustment and the family environment (i.e., family status, family process, and parental resources). This was done by way of multilevel analyses, with a sample of 2,636 parent-child couples of both intact and divorced families. The results indicated that adolescent emotional…
David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood
This research reports on a structural equation model analysis of the relationships between childhood behavioral adjustment, adolescent peer affiliations, and adolescent offending using data gathered during the course of a 16-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealand children. The model developed contained parameters that estimated (a) the continuities between early behavior and later offending, (b) the associations
Stanley, Linda R.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Harkabus, Lindsey C.; Chapin, Laurie A.
This paper examines the effect of a student’s own school adjustment as well as the contextual level of school adjustment (the normative level of school adjustment among students in a school) on student's self-reported use of alcohol. Using a dataset of 43,465 male and female 8th grade students from 349 schools across the contiguous United States who participated in a national study of substance use in rural communities between 1996 and 2000, multilevel latent covariate models were utilized to disentangle the individual-level and contextual effects of three school adjustment variables (i.e., school bonding, behavior at school, and friend’s school bonding) on alcohol use. All three school adjustment factors were significant predictors of alcohol use both within and between schools. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a strong contextual effect; students who attended schools where the overall level of school adjustment was higher reported lower levels of alcohol use even after taking their own school adjustment into account. The results demonstrate the importance of both a student’s own level of school adjustment and the normative level of school adjustment among students in the school on an adolescent’s use of alcohol. Differences in school adjustment across schools were quite strongly related to an adolescent's own alcohol use, indicating that school adjustment is an important aspect of school climate. Initiatives aimed at improving school climate may have beneficial effects on students’ alcohol use. PMID:19242802
To help adolescents resolve problems with self-esteem, communication, conflict resolution, sex roles, and expectations, the author (a former divorce counselor) developed Dynamics of Relationships program allowing youngsters a chance to talk openly about sensitive personal issues. Piloted in Washington, D.C., schools, the program depends on…
Bruce G. Simons-Morton; Aria Davis Crump; Denise L. Haynie; Keith E. Saylor
Adolescent problem behavior, including sub- stance use, school misconduct and delinquency, is a national concern. Implicit in the concept of middle school is the recognition that students who develop positive social bonds with their school are more likely to perform well academic- ally, and refrain from misconduct and other antisocial behavior. However, little scientific attention has been given to the
Delores E. Smith; Cary M. Springer; Sheila Barrett
The study examined the relationship between physical punishment and socioemotional well-being in a sample of Jamaican adolescents.\\u000a The data indicated that the overwhelming majority of adolescent respondents experienced physical punishment within their families.\\u000a Physical punishment was significantly associated with adverse psychological and behavioral consequences, in that adolescents\\u000a reporting being victims of physical punishment also indicated a greater propensity to developmental
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Trempe, Sophie-Caroline; Paiva, Alexandra Oliveira
As children become adolescents, peers assume greater importance in their lives. Peer experiences can either help them thrive or negatively affect their psychosocial adjustment. In this review article definitions for the types of peer experiences are provided followed by an overview of common psychosocial issues encountered by adolescents. Past research that has pointed to risk and protection factors that emerge from peer experiences during adolescence and the role of peer influences in the context of current issues relevant to adolescent education are discussed. Research suggests that friendships with deviant peers, involvement in bullying and the experience of rejection from the overall peer group are related to adjustment problems, whereas friendships with prosocial and academically oriented peers and social acceptance in the peer group are related to healthy development. Friendship quality, popularity among peers, and involvement in friendship cliques cannot be clearly categorized as either positive or negative influences, because they interact with other factors in shaping the development of adolescents. The promotion of social skills and positive youth leadership as an integral part of the student's learning process in school is recommended. PMID:24714885
Rutger C. M. E. Engels; Catrin Finkenauer; Wim Meeus; Maja Dekovi?
Young people learn from their interactions with their parents how to initiate and maintain satisfying and warm friendships. Attachment with parents thereby plays an important role in adolescents' social and emotional adjustment. The model tested in this study proposes that the relation between parental attachment and emotional adjustment is mediated by social skills and relational competence. Structural equation modeling was
McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly
Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment…
Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge
Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…
Rhule, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spieker, Susan J.; Munson, Jeffrey A.
Numerous studies indicate that children of adolescent mothers are at an increased risk for a variety of negative outcomes, even after controlling for diverse social and health factors. However, relatively less research has examined positive adjustment in these children, or protective factors associated with such adjustment. We examined the…
Randall, Edin T; Bohnert, Amy M
The current cross-sectional study investigated the links between various dimensions of organized activity involvement and depressive symptoms, loneliness, and peer victimization in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 152; 58% female). Results indicate that adolescents who were involved in organized activities for more years also reported lower levels of loneliness. There was evidence of diminishing returns when adolescents were very highly involved in organized activities; those who were either under- or over-involved reported the highest levels of depressive symptoms. Conversely, findings indicate that adolescents who participated in a narrow or wide range of activity contexts reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, results suggested that the relation between organized activity involvement and adjustment differs among adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Findings from the current study also underscore the importance of considering multiple indices of activity involvement when assessing its association with adjustment. PMID:19669899
Wacks, Julie M.; Gilman, David Alan
A follow-up investigation evaluated the adolescent outcomes of 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who had been treated 5 or more years earlier at a university school clinic with a multimodal treatment program called the Cognitive Academic Social Treatment program. The study hypothesized that adolescents and parents would…
Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Zeiders, Katharine H; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; De Jesús, Sue A Rodríguez
Late adolescence is a period of substantial risk for unhealthy sleep patterns. This study investigated the contextual correlates and health and adjustment implications of sleep patterns among Mexican American youth (N = 246; 51% female). We focused on Mexican American youth because they represent a large and rapidly increasing subgroup of the US population that is at higher risk for health and adjustment problems; this higher risk may be explained, in part, by sleep patterns. Using data from seven phone diary interviews conducted when youth averaged 18 years of age, we assessed average nighttime sleep duration and night-to-night variability in sleep duration. Guided by socio-ecological models, we first examined how experiences in the family context (time spent and quality of relationships with parents, parents' familism values) and in extra-familial contexts (school, work, peers) were related to sleep duration and variability. The findings revealed that time spent in school, work, and with peers linked to less sleep. Further, conflict with mothers was related to greater sleep variability. Next, we tested the implications of sleep in late adolescence for health (perceived physical health, body mass index) and adjustment (depressive symptoms, risky behaviors) in young adulthood. These findings indicated that more sleep variability predicted relative decreases in health and increases in risky behaviors, and shorter sleep duration predicted relative decreases in poorer perceived health for males. The discussion highlights the significance of the transition to young adulthood as a target for sleep research and the importance of studying sleep within its socio-cultural context. PMID:25047598
Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena; Fritjers, Jan
This study used hierarchical linear modeling to compare longitudinal patterns of adolescent religious service attendance and club attendance, and to contrast the longitudinal relations between adolescent adjustment and religious service versus club attendance. Participants included 1050 students (47% girls) encompassing a school district in Canada, who completed the survey first in grade nine and again in grades 11 and 12. Results demonstrated that patterns of religious service attendance over time were quite different from other clubs. Religious attendance was uniquely associated with several indicators of positive as well as negative adjustment. Club involvement, conversely, was only associated with positive adjustment--particularly for individuals who reported sustained involvement over time. Findings suggest that religious services may provide some unique experiences--both positive and negative--over and above what may be provided in other clubs, and that sustained, rather than sporadic participation in clubs, may be especially important for adolescent adjustment. PMID:19669897
Toomey, Russell B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.
Few studies examine normative developmental processes among teenage mothers. Framed from a risk and resilience perspective, this prospective study examined the potential for ethnic identity status (e.g., diffuse, achieved), a normative developmental task during adolescence, to buffer the detrimental effects of discrimination on later adjustment and self-esteem in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Ethnic discrimination was associated with increases in depressive symptoms and decreases in self-esteem over time, regardless of ethnic identity status. However, ethnic discrimination was only associated with increases in engagement in risky behavior among diffuse adolescents, suggesting that achieved or foreclosed identities buffered the risk of ethnic discrimination on later risky behavior. Findings suggest that ethnic identity resolution (i.e., the component shared by those in foreclosed and achieved statuses) may be a key cultural factor to include in prevention and intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of ethnic discrimination on later externalizing problems. PMID:24011098
de Haan, Amaranta D; Dekovi?, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L; Stoltz, Sabine E M J; Prinzie, Peter
This study examined whether changes in children's self-reported Big Five dimensions are represented by (developmental) personality types, using a cohort-sequential design with three measurement occasions across 5 years (four cohorts, 9-12 years at T1; N = 523). Correlates of, and gender differences in, type membership were examined. Latent class growth modeling yielded three personality types: Resilients (highest initial levels on all Big Five), Overcontrollers (lowest Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Imagination), and Undercontrollers (lowest Benevolence, Conscientiousness). Gender differences in type membership were small. Warm parenting, but not overreactive discipline, in childhood was associated with type membership. The types differed in adjustment problems by the end of middle adolescence. Personality change more likely occurs at the level of dimensions within types than in type membership. PMID:23550902
Tan, Tony X; Rice, Jessica L; Mahoney, E Emily
Internationally adopted (IA) children often have delays at adoption and undergo massive catch-up after adoption. Before achieving developmental catch-up, however, delays at adoption present a risk for IA children's adjustment, but it remains unknown whether such delays foreshadow IA children's outcomes after catch-up development has completed or ceased. In the current analysis, we utilized menarche as a practical marker to indicate the cessation of developmental catch-up. We investigated how delays at arrival predicted long-term outcomes in 132 postmenarcheal teens (M = 14.2 years, SD = 1.7) who were adopted from China at 16.6 months (SD = 17.1). In 2005, adoptive parents provided data of medical evaluation results on their children's delay status in gross motor skills, fine motor skills, social development, emotional development, and cognitive development. Six years later in 2011, data on parent-child relationship quality were collected from parents, and data on the adoptees' academic competence and internalizing problems were also collected from both parents and adoptees. We found that gross motor delay at arrival predicted academic performance (parent-report: b = -.34, p < .01) and internalizing problems (self-report: b = .26, p < .05; parent-report: b = .33, p < .01). Other delays were not significant in predicting any of the outcomes. The impact of early nutritional deprivation on gross motor development was discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25642657
Diana J Fothergill
Many girls tell their general practitioners and paediatricians about problems with their periods. This article focuses on a practical approach to managing menorrhagia, dysmenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and reviews the literature on this topic.
Troxel, Wendy M.; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.
Objectives Sleep is critical for adolescent health and is influenced by the family environment. In our study, we examined if family structure defined as single- vs 2-parent households affected adolescent sleep. Methods Participants were 242 (57% black; 47% boys) healthy adolescents (mean age, 15.7 years). Sleep was measured using self-report and wrist actigraphy over 7 consecutive nights. Outcomes were actigraphy-assessed sleep duration and sleep efficiency (SE) for the full week and weekends and weekdays separately, as well as self-reported sleep-wake problems and variability in bedtimes. Linear regression examined the relationship between family structure and sleep, after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, and depressive symptoms, parental education, family conflict, and financial strain. Race and sex were examined as potential moderators. Results After adjusting for covariates, adolescents from single-parent households had poorer SE across the week and shorter sleep duration on weekends. White adolescents from 2-parent households had the fewer sleep-wake problems and lower bedtime variability, whereas black adolescents from single-parent households had the lowest weekend SE. There were no significant differences in family structure*sex interactions. Conclusion Our findings are the first to demonstrate that single-parent family structure is an independent correlate of sleep problems in adolescents, and they highlight the moderating role of race. PMID:24424100
Wang, Jennifer M.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Laursen, Brett; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
Objective Social withdrawal has been associated with adjustment difficulties across development. Although much is known about shyness, little is known about preference-for-solitude; even less is known about its relations with adjustment across different periods of adolescence. We examined whether preference-for-solitude might be differentially associated with adjustment difficulties in early and late adolescence. Method Self and parent-reports of withdrawal motivations and adjustment were collected from 234 8th graders (113 boys; M age = 13.43) and 204 12th graders (91 boys; M age = 17.25). Results Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that above and beyond the effects of shyness, preference-for-solitude was more strongly associated with adjustment difficulties in 8th grade than in 12th grade. Preference-for-solitude was associated with greater anxiety/depression, emotion dysregulation, and lower self-esteem in 8th grade; these relations were not found in 12th grade. Although preference-for-solitude was associated with lower social competence in both 8th and 12th grades, this relation was significantly stronger in 8th grade than in 12th grade. Conclusion Findings suggest preference-for-solitude has closer ties to maladjustment in early adolescence than in late adolescence. Interventions targeting preferred-solitary youth in early adolescence may be particularly fruitful. PMID:23682608
JoAnn M. Farver; Bakhtawar R. Bhadha; Sonia Narang
Currently, little is known about how child-rearing beliefs change as immigrant families adapt to the host culture and about the extent to which these beliefs begin to approximate the American mainstream. This study examined how parents’ child-rearing beliefs were associated with the psychological well-being of 360 (180 Asian Indian and 180 European American) adolescents. Asian Indian adolescents reported higher family
Glick, Gary C.; Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.; Waller, Erika M.
Little research has examined the association of parents’ friendships with adolescent’s well-being, perhaps because the association was considered too distal. However, developmental theories suggest that contexts in which parents, but not their children, are situated may be related to child development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979; 1986). The current work examined associations between the quality of mothers’ own friendships and their adolescent children’s friendship quality and emotional adjustment. Fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-graders (N = 172) whose mothers’ friendships were characterized by conflict and antagonism reported having friendships that were high in negative friendship qualities as well as elevated internalizing symptoms. These associations held after controlling for mother-child relationship quality, suggesting that mothers’ friendships may have a unique association with adolescents’ adjustment. PMID:24348001
Kieren, Dianne K.; Hurlbut, Nancy L.
A comparative analysis is presented of adolescent participation in three-person family problem-solving groups, involving five families with an adolescent diabetic and three families with an adolescent with no diagnosed illness. Observation and interaction analysis of family problem-solving in a laboratory setting were used, as families were asked…
Gina Marie McSheffrey
The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of personal competence\\/self-acceptance, social connectedness, and family cohesion on the relationship between relational victimization and psychological adjustment among urban female adolescents. The sample was comprised of 130 female adolescent students of diverse ethnicity Ages 12–15 from urban school districts. Students completed a demographic questionnaire and the following self-report scales:
Simons-Morton, Bruce; Chen, Rusan; Hand, Laura Shaffer; Haynie, Denise A.
This research examined the relationship between parenting practices and adolescent conduct problems and the mediation of these relationships by two parent-adolescent relationship variables, conflict and psychological autonomy. Autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) analyses were used to assess relationships over time between parent practices and adolescent conduct problems. Participants were 2,453 students recruited from 7 public middle schools and assessed 5 times between fall of 6th and 9th grades on the following measures: Parent Monitoring; Parent Knowledge; adolescent Psychological Autonomy; parent-adolescent Conflict; and adolescent Conduct Problems. Adolescent Conduct Problems and parenting practices were associated in both cross-sectional and prospective analyses. In time-lagged autoregressive modeling as a part of ALT analyses, adolescent Conduct Problems and parenting practices were reciprocally related from Time 1 to Time 2, but there after only Parent Monitoring was consistently associated with adolescent Conduct Problems over time. Adolescent Psychological Autonomy positively mediated the relationships between adolescent Conduct Problems and Parent Monitoring, but not the relationship between Parental Knowledge and Conduct Problems; while Conflict partially mediated the relationships between the slope of Conduct Problems and the slopes of both parenting behaviors and the relationship between the slopes of Conduct Problems and Psychological Autonomy. The findings provide evidence of reciprocal relationships between Conduct Problems and parenting behaviors and parent-teen relationship variables. Mediational analyses indicated relationships with Conduct Problems unmediated by Autonomy and partially mediated by Conflict. The findings provide support for the hypothesis that associations over time between parenting practices and adolescent Conduct Problems depend in part on the parent-adolescent relationship. PMID:19777074
Farmer, Thomas W.; Estell, David B.; Hall, Cristin M.; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C.
This study examines interpersonal competence configurations in relation to students' concurrent behavior problems and social risks for later adjustment difficulties. Participants are 648 (345 girls, 303 boys) fourth-grade students (65% White, 6.9% African American, 19.5% Hispanic, 4.6% Asian, and 4.0% Other) from the suburbs of a major Midwestern…
Delany-Brumsey, Ayesha; Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D
Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390
Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.
Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390
Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca
This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A High Functioning (n = 173) group, which exhibited high positive adjustment and academic functioning, an Average Functioning (n = 83) group, who exhibited average psychological and academic functioning, an Academically Oriented and Stressed (n = 19) group, who exhibited high academic motivation, but poor psychological functioning in anxiety and negative affect, and a Low Functioning” (n = 25) group, who exhibited poor adjustment overall. Further, paternal and maternal parenting characteristics (i.e., autonomy granting, parent-adolescent conflict, and supportive parenting) were differentially related to Mexican-origin female adolescents’ profiles, providing further evidence for the existence of the profiles. Results contribute to the current literature on Latino adolescents and highlight the importance of examining psychological and academic domains concurrently to determine how these two domains of adjustment are linked among this population. PMID:23678230
Johnson, Bret K.; Kenkel, Mary Beth
A study of 45 female adolescent incest victims in treatment found that wishful thinking, tension reduction, a lack of maternal support, appraisals of threat, and "holding self back" accounted for 70 percent of the variance in self-reported distress. Detachment, seeking social support, and appraisal of "holding self back" accounted for 38 percent…
Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.
The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…
Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.
This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…
Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana
Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…
Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.
Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N = 358; 45% male; 91% African American, M = 12.10 years, SD = 1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural…
Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara
Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.
Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…
Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude
Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. PMID:22946461
Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude
Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents’ experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents’ experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semi-structured discussions about areas of adolescent-parent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents’ social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. PMID:22946461
Loukas, Alexandra; Robinson, Sheri
The current study examined the unique and interactive relations of 4 aspects of student-perceived school climate (cohesion, friction, and competition among students, and overall satisfaction with classes) and adolescent effortful control in the conduct problems and depressive symptoms of 868 ten- to fourteen-year-old adolescents. Hierarchical…
Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona
This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress.…
Morrison Gutman, Leslie; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Tokoyawa, Teru
Using latent variable structural equation modeling, we tested a theoretical model linking financial strain, neighborhood stress, parenting behavior, and adolescent adjustment. The sample consisted of 305 African American families living in inner city neighborhoods. Of the families, 40% were living at or below the U.S. poverty threshold. The…
Canivez, Gary L.
Independent examination and replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Marston, & Stott, 1993) is reported. A sample of 1,020 children were randomly selected from their classroom and rated on the ASCA by their teacher. The six ASCA core syndromes produced a two-factor…
Liu, Junsheng; Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; French, Doran
The market-oriented economic reform in China over the past two decades has resulted in considerable changes in social attitudes regarding youth's behaviors. This study examined the relations of shyness and aggression to adjustment in Chinese adolescents at different historical times. Participants came from two cohorts (1994 and 2008) of…
Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age…
Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Adams, Ryan E.; Gilman, Rich
Previous research suggests that school-based and electronic victimization have similar negative consequences, yet it is unclear whether these two contexts offer overlapping or unique associations with adolescents' adjustment. 802 ninth-graders (43% male, mean age = 15.84 years), majority being Caucasian (82%), completed measures assessing the…
Roche, Kathleen M.; Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Little, Todd D.; Leventhal, Tama
There is considerable debate regarding the extent to which punitive parenting adversely impacts youth well-being. Using an ecological-transactional model of human development, we examined reciprocity and contextual variability in associations between maternal punitive discipline and adolescent adjustment among 1,147 low-income, urban youth…
Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra
Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)
Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Gonzalez, Laura M.
Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and…
Kiefer, Sarah M.; Ryan, Allison M.
This study investigated the proposal that social dominance goals are an important, but overlooked, aspect of social goals for young adolescents' academic adjustment. Self-reports of social goals (dominance, intimacy, and popularity goals) early in the school year were used to predict subsequent engagement (self-reports and peer nominations of…
Adjustable Speed AC Motor Drives Applications Problems by Dr. P. Enjeti Power Quality Laboratory Department ofElectrical Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843 Tel: 409-845-7466 Fax: 409-845-6259 Email..., it generates side effects, some which have been recognized only recently. This paper presents a comprehensive coverage of application issues of PWM inverter controlled ac motor drives which include damage to motor insulation due to reflected voltages caused...
Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena
This study investigated the interaction between religiosity (defined as church attendance) and spirituality (defined as personal beliefs in God or a higher power) on psychosocial adjustment. Four groups were created capturing 4 different religious/spiritual orientations. Differences were assessed between the groups on a wide range of psychosocial…
James C. Rosen; Janet Gross; Linda Vara
The psychological adjustment of high school boys and girls who were trying to reduce or gain weight was compared in a large sample. Reducers of both sexes and male gainers exhibited lower physical self-esteem. Girls who were trying to change weight in either direction showed depression and lower global self-esteem, but male reducers and gainers did not differ on these
Ellickson, Phyllis L.; And Others
This monograph presents an overview of adolescent health in the United States. Section 1 provides a brief introduction to the monograph. Section 2 presents one view of what constitutes adolescence and the threat to adolescent health, conceptualizing the latter to include health-compromising behaviors that put adolescents at risk for future…
Kelly N. Rogers; Christy M. Buchanan; Megan E. Winchell
The present study examined the association between adolescent perceptions of parental psychological control and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms across four dyadic relationships (mother\\/daughter, mother\\/son, father\\/daughter, and father\\/eson) cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Participants were 306 sixth- and seventh-grade students,287 mothers, and 115 fathers, interviewed at two time points one year apart. Cross-sectionally, father psychological control predicted higher adolescent-reported internalizing both for
John E. Donovan; Richard Jessor
Earlier bivariate findings suggested that diverse problem behaviors, including problem drinking, illicit drug use, delinquent-type behavior, and precocious sexual intercourse, may comprise a single behavioral syndrome in samples of normal adolescents. A multivariate test of this possible syndrome was carried out through a series of maximum likelihood factor analyses based on self-report data from several samples of adolescents and youth.
Ladouceur, Robert; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Pelletier, Amelie
Prevalence studies indicate that approximately 40% of adolescents participate in regular gambling with rates of problem gambling up to four times greater than that found in adult populations. However, it appears that few adolescents actually seek treatment for such problems. The purpose of this study was to explore potential reasons why…
Hsueh-Ling Chang; Hsin-Yi Liang; Hwei-Shioun Wang; Chian-Shan Li; Nai-Chi Ko; Yuan-Pei Hsu
Background: Patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) are at risk of an array of behavioral and emotional problems, resulting in social, academic and vocational func- tion impairments. This study intended to examine the nature and severity of behavioral and emotional problems in Taiwanese TS adolescents. Methods: Forty TS adolescents with normal IQ and thirty age- and gender-matched normal controls were evaluated
Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Fabricius, William V.; Saenz, Delia
A mixed-method study identified profiles of fathers who mentioned key dimensions of their parenting and linked profile membership to adolescents’ adjustment using data from 337 European American, Mexican American and Mexican immigrant fathers and their early adolescent children. Father narratives about what fathers do well as parents were thematically coded for the presence of five fathering dimensions: emotional quality (how well father and child get along), involvement (amount of time spent together), provisioning (the amount of resources provided), discipline (the amount and success in parental control), and role modeling (teaching life lessons through example). Next, latent class analysis was used to identify three patterns of the likelihood of mentioning certain fathering dimensions: an emotionally-involved group mentioned emotional quality and involvement; an affective-control group mentioned emotional quality, involvement, discipline and role modeling; and an affective-model group mentioned emotional quality and role modeling. Profiles were significantly associated with subsequent adolescents’ reports of adjustment such that adolescents of affective-control fathers reported significantly more externalizing behaviors than adolescents of emotionally-involved fathers. PMID:24883049
Milani, Anna; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Molteni, Massimo
The objective of the present research study was to understand what benefits the use of audiobooks (both school-books and books of various genres, recorded on digital media) could bring to preadolescents and adolescents with developmental dyslexia. Two groups, each consisting of 20 adolescents, were compared. The experimental group used the…
Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen; Levin, Elise
Objectives The purpose of this mixed method study was to characterize the patterns of psychosocial adjustment among adolescent African refugees in U.S. resettlement. Methods A purposive sample of 73 recently resettled refugee adolescents from Burundi and Liberia were followed for two years and qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed using a mixed methods exploratory design. Results Protective resources identified were the family and community capacities that can promote youth psychosocial adjustment through: 1) Finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) Social support networks; 4) Engaged parenting; 5) Family cohesion; 6) Cultural adherence and guidance; 7) Educational support; and, 8) Faith and religious involvement. The researchers first inductively identified 19 thriving, 29 managing, and 25 struggling youths based on review of cases. Univariate analyses then indicated significant associations with country of origin, parental education, and parental employment. Multiple regressions indicated that better psychosocial adjustment was associated with Liberians and living with both parents. Logistic regressions showed that thriving was associated with Liberians and higher parental education, managing with more parental education, and struggling with Burundians and living parents. Qualitative analysis identified how these factors were proxy indicators for protective resources in families and communities. Conclusion These three trajectories of psychosocial adjustment and six domains of protective resources could assist in developing targeted prevention programs and policies for refugee youth. Further rigorous longitudinal mixed-methods study of adolescent refugees in U.S. resettlement are needed. PMID:24205467
Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.
This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a romantic partner. Similarly, youth perceived as conventional and unconventional leaders were also more likely to have a romantic partner than were non-leaders. Youth who had a romantic partner drank more alcohol and were more aggressive than were youth who did not have a romantic partner. Among those youth who had romantic partners, those who reported having more deviance-prone partners were themselves more likely to use alcohol and to be more aggressive, and those who engaged in deviant behavior with their partners used more alcohol. However, these associations varied somewhat by gender. These findings underscore the salience of early romantic partner relationships in the adjustment of early adolescents. PMID:20076773
Hongjie Liu; Shuli Yu; Lesley Cottrell; Sonja Lunn; Lynette Deveaux; Nanika V Brathwaite; Sharon Marshall; Xiaoming Li; Bonita Stanton
BACKGROUND: Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1) describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2) examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and
Peacock, A; Alvi, N S; Mushtaq, T
Adolescence is a time of great psychological and physical change. In the UK, girls enter puberty around the age of 10 years with a median age of menarche of 12.9 years; thereafter, it may be several years before regular menstrual cycles are established. Variations in the type and the frequency of periods may create anxiety regarding ill health or serious underlying disorders. With the increase in childhood obesity and subsequent polycystic ovary syndrome, there is a greater awareness and presentation of girls with disorders of menstruation. This review focuses on normal variations of menses and common pathological causes of menstrual problems, including amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea and menorrhagia. Further consideration is given to the variations of presentation of polycystic ovary syndrome. It provides a guide to evaluate the various symptoms, investigations and management options. PMID:20576661
Chun, Heejung; Mobley, Michael
We investigated the "immigrant paradox" phenomenon by examining differences in problem behavior engagement and exposure to risk factors across four adolescent groups: 1,157 first-generation, 1,498 second-generation, and 3,316 White and minority third or higher generations. Latent mean differences in problem behavior engagement (i.e., academic failure, aggression, and substance use) and risk factors (i.e., low socioeconomic status, poor family relationship, and low sense of school belonging) were associated with significant differences across adolescent groups. Results supported the generational status effect by demonstrating sequentially greater adolescent problem behavior engagement. However, the difference in exposure to risk factors across adolescent groups only partially supported the immigrant paradox. Further, the multiple group analysis of the relationships between risk factors and engagement in problem behaviors showed increased susceptibility among second generation immigrants for substance use, White natives for academic failure and substance use, and minority natives for physical aggression. Study findings have implications for understanding how the immigrant paradox leads to different adjustment patterns and problem behavior manifestations among immigrant and native adolescents. PMID:25037844
McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly
Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads. PMID:21479509
Kate Flory; Patrick S. Malone; Dorian A. Lamis
Although a large body of research suggests that children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking during adolescence compared with their non-ADHD peers, much less research has examined why. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by examining middle school adjustment, broadly defined, as a possible mediator of the relation between childhood ADHD symptoms
Sandstrom, Marlene J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
In the current study, 466 children completed a peer nomination survey assessing both perceived and sociometric popularity at the end of the 5th grade. Measures of behavior problems were assessed through a composite of peer-, teacher- and self-reports at the end of the 8th grade. Examination of the unique concurrent associations of each popularity…
Chang, Yiting; Halgunseth, Linda C
According to many public health experts, obesity is the most serious health threat facing today's early adolescents. This study examined the relationship between psychosocial adjustment (i.e., internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, interpersonal skills) and weight status change during early adolescence and possible moderating roles of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation. Data came from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a US nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. The current study was initiated in the fifth grade (n = 6,860; 51 % female). At fifth grade, parents reported on household routines; children and teachers reported on indicators of psychosocial adjustment. At fifth and eighth grade, children's weight was measured. Girls' weight status stability and change was more likely than boys' to be associated with psychosocial adjustment, after accounting for household/child routines and demographic variables. Compared to non-Hispanic White, Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of externalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay obese at eighth grade. Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of internalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay at a healthy weight at eighth grade, especially if they reported lower levels of acculturation. Lastly, African American girls with better interpersonal skills at fifth grade were more likely to stay obese at eighth grade. Implications for obesity prevention programs with early adolescents are discussed in the contexts of gender, ethnicity and acculturation. PMID:25107487
Christine McCauley Ohannessian; Richard M. Lerner; Alexander von Eye; Jacqueline V. Lerner
The direct and indirect relations between perceived parental acceptance, perceptions of the self, and emotional adjustment were examined in a sample of 214 sixth-and seventh-grade students in the fall and the spring of the 1990-1991 academic year. These relations were examined separately by the gender of the adolescent and the parent. Results indicated that adolescent boys were better adjusted than
Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…
Jennifer L. Maggs; Pamela M. Frome; Jacquelynne S. Eccles; Bonnie L. Barber
Longitudinal analyses examined the extent to which adolescent alcohol use, illegal drug use, and antisocial behaviour predicted adjustment and risk behaviour during young adulthood, and whether psychosocial resources buffered any impact of risk-taking. American adolescents completed questionnaires in Grade 12 and 2 years later (n=694). Personal and social resources predicted success in occupational, relational, and health domains. High school risk
Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Wong, Jessie J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Dumka, Larry E.
Existing work has identified perceived discrimination as a risk factor that may contribute to the relatively poorer academic outcomes exhibited by Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. The current study examined the longitudinal associations among perceived discrimination and three indices of adolescent adjustment in the school setting (i.e.,…
Perkins, Suzanne C.; Cortina, Kai S.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
This article investigates the relation between history of intrafamilial violence and self-regulatory capacity, cognitive processing, and mental health adjustment in incarcerated adolescents. Adolescents were incarcerated at the time of the study for various violent offenses, ranging from persistent delinquency to sexual assault (n = 115). A model…
Suzanne C. Perkins; Kai S. Cortina; Joanne P. Smith-Darden; Sandra A. Graham-Bermann
This article investigates the relation between history of intrafamilial violence and self-regulatory capacity, cognitive processing, and mental health adjustment in incarcerated adolescents. Adolescents were incarcerated at the time of the study for various violent offenses, ranging from persistent delinquency to sexual assault (n = 115). A model is proposed that posits that self-regulation, cognitive ability, and cognitive processing are integral
ROBERT E. LONGO
This article promotes the use of experiential exercises in treating adolescents with sexual behavior problems. Even when exploring compulsive, impulsive, and addictive behaviors, experiential and expressive therapies can open up thinking and emotions in ways that may not occur with traditional talk therapies. Adolescents have a variety of learning styles, and some may not be easily engaged in treatment through
Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins
This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…
Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.
This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…
Langton, Emma Gore; Collishaw, Stephan; Goodman, Robert; Pickles, Andrew; Maughan, Barbara
Background: While there is considerable evidence of income gradients in child and adolescent behaviour problems, evidence relating to children and young people's emotional difficulties is more mixed. Older studies reported no income differentials, while recent reports suggest that adolescents from low-income families are more likely to experience…
Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.
Objective: The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Method: Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut…
Lawrence A. Kurdek; Ronald J. Sinclair
This study examined differences in the psychological adjustment (self-reports of global severity of psychopathology, goal directedness, and school-related problems) and correlates of the psychological adjustment of 234 seventh- and ninth-grade students who resided in two-parent nuclear (intact) families, stepfather families, or mother-custody divorced families. These three family structures were equivalent, or were equated statistically, on demographic and socioeconomic variables. Adjustment
Milani, Anna; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Molteni, Massimo
The objective of the present research study was to understand what benefits the use of audiobooks (both school-books and books of various genres, recorded on digital media) could bring to preadolescents and adolescents with developmental dyslexia. Two groups, each consisting of 20 adolescents, were compared. The experimental group used the audiobooks, while the control group continued to use normal books. After 5 months of experimental training, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in reading accuracy, with reduced unease and emotional-behavioural disorders, as well as an improvement in school performance and a greater motivation and involvement in school activities. PMID:19725019
Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena
Spirituality/religiosity is hypothesized to promote positive adjustment among adolescents. The goals of this study were to assess the unique and joint associations between two dimensions of spirituality/religiosity--institutional and personal--and a range of domains of psychosocial adjustment (intrapersonal well-being, quality of parent-child relationship, substance use, and academic orientation) and to evaluate the direction of effects in these associations. Participants included 803 predominately Canadian-born adolescents (53 % female) from Ontario, Canada, who completed a survey in grade 11 and grade 12. At the concurrent level, higher personal spirituality/religiosity consistently and uniquely predicted more positive adjustment in terms of well-being, parental relationship, and academic orientation. Higher institutional spirituality/religiosity uniquely and consistently predicted lower substance use, particularly when personal spirituality/religiosity also was high. With regard to the direction of effects (i.e., longitudinal associations), institutional spirituality/religiosity predicted lower future substance use. The results imply that the personal and institutional dimensions of spirituality/religiosity may be associated differentially with psychosocial adjustment, and it may be only in the domain of substance use that spirituality/religiosity predicts change in behavior over time. PMID:23955323
Moog, Jean S.; Geers, Ann E.; Gustus, Chris; Brenner, Chris
Objectives This study examined psychosocial characteristics of students who had used a cochlear implant (CI) since preschool and were evaluated when they were in elementary grades and again in high school. The study had four goals: (1) to determine the extent to which psychosocial skills documented in elementary grades were maintained into high school; (2) to assess the extent to which long-term CI users identified with the Deaf community or the hearing world or both; (3) to examine the association between group identification and the student’s sense of self-esteem, preferred communication mode, and spoken language skills; and (4) to describe the extracurricular world of the teenagers who were mainstreamed with hearing age-mates for most of their academic experience. Design As part of a larger study, 112 CI students (aged 15.0 to 18.6 yrs) or their parents completed questionnaires describing their social skills, and a subsample of 107 CI students completed group identification and self-esteem questionnaires. Results were compared with either a control group of hearing teenagers (N = 46) or age-appropriate hearing norms provided by the assessment developer. Results Average psychosocial ratings from both parents and students at both elementary grades and high school indicated a positive self-image throughout the school years. Seventy percent of the adolescents expressed either strong identification with the hearing community (32%) or mixed identification with both deaf and hearing communities (38%). Almost all CI students (95%) were mainstreamed for more than half of the day, and the majority of students (85%) were in the appropriate grade for their age. Virtually all CI students (98%) reported having hearing friends, and a majority reported having deaf friends. More than 75% of CI students reported that they used primarily spoken language to communicate and that good spoken language skills enabled them to participate more fully in all aspects of their lives. Identification with the hearing world was not associated with personal or social adjustment problems but was associated with better speech perception and English language skill. Ninety-four percent were active participants in high school activities and sports, and 50% held part-time jobs (a rate similar to that documented for hearing teens). Conclusions The majority of these early-implanted adolescents reported strong social skills, high self-esteem, and at least mixed identification with the hearing world. However, these results must be viewed in light of possible sources of sample selection bias and may not represent the psychosocial characteristics of the entire population of children receiving CIs. PMID:21832891
Christian Thurstone; Shane A. Lieberman; Sarah J. Schmiege
BackgroundThe prevalence of medical marijuana diversion among adolescents in substance treatment and the relationship between medical marijuana diversion and marijuana attitudes, availability, peer disapproval, frequency of use and substance-related problems are not known.
Jody L. Kamon; Catherine Stanger; Alan J. Budney; Levent Dumenci
Family-based treatments for adolescent substance abuse demonstrate efficacy and are becoming a treatment of choice. Family risk factors for substance abuse may present barriers to or suggest targets for modification during treatment. The sample included 149 adolescents presenting for substance abuse treatment and their parents. Structural equation modeling tested the hypothesis that parent psychological problems, parent substance use, and parenting
Epstein, Monica K.; Renk, Kimberly; Duhig, Amy M.; Bosco, Georgetta L.; Phares, Vicky
To address the lack of studies examining the convergent and discriminant validity of cross-informant ratings, several statistical approaches were used in this study to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity for ratings of interparental conflict, adolescent behavioral problems, and adolescent competence. A total of 272…
Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…
Miller, Kathleen E.; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Barnes, Grace M.; Farrell, Michael P.; Sabo, Don; Melnick, Merrill J.
Alcohol remains the drug of choice for many adolescents; however, the nature of the relationship between athletic involvement and alcohol misuse remains ambiguous. In this article, we used a longitudinal sample of over 600 Western New York adolescents and their families to explore the gender-specific and race-specific relationships between…
Leonard A. Doerfler; Larry L. Mullins; Nora J. Griffin; Lawrence J. Siegel; C. Steven Richards
Recent research has emphasized the importance of interpersonal problems with depression. It has been hypothesized that deficits in interpersonal problem-solving skills may account for many of these problems. Three studies that examined the relationship between problem-solving skills and depression are reported. Problem-solving skills among children, adolescents, and adults were assessed by the Means-Ends Problem Solving Test. Contrary to prediction, there
Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner
Recollections of physical discipline as absent, age-delimited (ages 2-11), or present into adolescence were associated with youths' evaluations of their mothers' and fathers' parenting styles and their own adjustment. Data were from the Portraits of American Life Study-Youth (PALS-Y) a diverse, national sample of 13- to 18-year-olds (N = 158). The modal experience of youth with authoritative parents was age-delimited spanking; the modal experience of youth with permissive parents was no spanking; the modal experience of youth with authoritarian or disengaged parents was physical discipline into adolescence. The age-delimited group reported the best adjustment (less maladjustment than the adolescent group; greater competence than both other groups). The positive association between fathers' age-delimited spanking and youths' academic rank persisted even after accounting for parenting styles. The eschewing of spanking should not be listed as a distinguishing characteristic of authoritative parenting, which was more often associated with age-delimited spanking than with zero-usage. PMID:24245082
Sim, Tick Ngee; Ng, Ee Lynn
The current study examined the mediating role of stress in the linkages between attachment to parents and adjustment to attending higher learning institutions in another country. Self-reports from 114 Malaysian late adolescents studying in Singapore supported the primacy of stress for adjustment; more pertinent, stress mediated all the…
Jill V. Hamm; Thomas W. Farmer; Dylan Robertson; Kimberly A. Dadisman; Allen Murray; Judith L. Meece; Samuel Y. Song
This study reports the effectiveness of a developmentally based, teacher professional development intervention aimed at improving early adolescent school adjustment. Teachers in rural schools in a Northern Plains state took part in professional development activities across a year. Following a randomized control trial design, Native American and White students’ (N = 165) social, behavioral, and academic adjustment was assessed in
Doan, Stacey N.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Evans, Gary W.
The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinal associations among maternal responsiveness, self-regulation, and behavioral adjustment in adolescents. The authors used structural equation modeling to test a model that demonstrates that the effects of early cumulative risk on behavioral problems is mediated by maternal responsiveness…
Waller, Erika M.; Rose, Amanda J.
The current study examined co-rumination (i.e., extensively discussing, rehashing, and speculating about problems) in the context of mother-adolescent relationships. Fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-graders (N = 516) reported on co-rumination and more normative self-disclosure with mothers, their relationships with mothers, and their own…
Cummings, E. Mark; George, Melissa R. W.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Davies, Patrick T.
Advancing the long-term prospective study of explanations for the effects of marital conflict on children's functioning, relations were examined between interparental conflict in kindergarten, children's emotional insecurity in the early school years, and subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Based on a community sample…
Paul Karoly; Linda S. Ruehlman
Gender differences among adolescents in patterns of endorsement of self-control problems were examined. Eleven potential problem areas were assessed. In six areas, significant departures from expected frequencies were observed. Proportionally more females than males reported difficulty in controlling their behavior in five out of six of the endorsed problem areas.
Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M
This study investigated early adolescent friendship selection and social influence with regard to academic motivation (self-efficacy and intrinsic value), engagement (effortful and disruptive behavior), and achievement (GPA calculated from report card grades) among 6th graders (N = 587, 50% girls at Wave 1; N = 576, 52% girls at Wave 2) followed from fall to spring within 1 academic year. A stochastic actor-based model of social network analysis was used to overcome methodological limitations of prior research on friends, peer groups, and academic adjustment. Evidence that early adolescents sought out friends who were similar to themselves (selection) was found in regard to academic self-efficacy, and a similar trend was found for achievement. Evidence that friends became more similar to their friends over time (influence) was found for all aspects of academic adjustment except academic self-efficacy. Collectively, results indicate that selection effects were not as pervasive as influence effects in explaining similarity among friends in academic adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25221841
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. Additionally, secondborns’ social time declined more slowly than firstborns’, and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042
Forehand, R; Wierson, M; McCombs, A; Brody, G; Fauber, R
The purpose of the present study was to examine several competing hypotheses which have been utilized to explain the negative relationship between interparental conflict and child/adolescent problems. These mechanisms of operation have included modelling, genetic transmission, disrupted parenting, the role of perceptual/appraisal processes of the conflict, and an inhibition hypothesis. One hundred and forty-two young adolescents and their mothers served as subjects. Eighty were from intact families and 62 from recently divorced families. Data were collected from the perspective of the adolescent, mother, behavioral observer, and social studies teacher. The results indicated that intact and divorced samples had to be considered separately as different pathways contributed to adolescent behavior problems in the two samples. For externalizing problems, a direct path between interparental conflict and problem behavior existed for the divorced sample whereas an indirect path through the adolescent's perceptions of the conflict existed for the intact sample. The different context in which the interparental conflict occurred for the two samples was offered as an explanation of this difference. For internalizing problems a significant direct path existed between conflict and problem behavior for both samples; however, the indirect paths through the adolescent's perceptions and through poor parenting skills contributed only for the divorced sample. The results suggest that various mechanisms appear to operate in influencing how interparental conflict influences behavior problems of young adolescents. Both the type of problem examined and the marital status of the parents appear important in determining the relative impact of the mechanisms. Implications for the behavior therapist are noted. PMID:2775145
D. Russell Crane; So Wa Ngai; Jeffry H. Larson; McArthur Hafen
The present study investigated the associations between family functioning, acculturation between parents and their adolescents, and adolescent adjustment problems. Chinese adolescents and their parents (N ¼ 41) living in the United States and Canada participated in this study. Results showed that differences in acculturation between parents and adolescents were related to adolescent depression and that family functioning was related to
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa
The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point…
Kerstin PahlDavid; David W. Brook; Neo K. Morojele; Judith S. Brook
Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing\\u000a world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent.\\u000a Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined\\u000a the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent
Miranda, Robert; Monti, Peter M.; Ray, Lara; Treloar, Hayley R.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Ramirez, Jason; Chun, Thomas; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Justus, Alicia; Tidey, Jennifer; Blanchard, Alexander; Magill, Molly
Theoretical models of alcoholism emphasize the acute reinforcing properties of alcohol as chief determinants of drinking, and animal research suggests adolescents are uniquely sensitive to these effects. Human studies of these phenomena, however, are virtually nonexistent. We used ecological momentary assessment methods to capture adolescents' subjective responses to alcohol in real time in their natural environments. Adolescent participants were 22 problem drinkers, ages 15 to 19 years (M = 18.3, SD = 0.09; 55% female; 55% alcohol dependent). Participants consumed alcohol on 38% of days during a one-week monitoring period, with an average of 5 drinks per occasion. Momentary data revealed that adolescents experience decreased stimulation and increased sedation and ‘high’ across the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve. Notably, greater craving predicted higher volumes of subsequent alcohol consumption during the episode, whereas greater ‘high’ attenuated use. To test for developmental differences in these effects, we pooled these data with data from a similarly ascertained sample of 36 adult heavy drinkers, ages 24 to 64 years (M = 38.1, SD = 11.8; 50% female; 61% alcohol dependent). Adolescents were more sensitive to the stimulant effects of alcohol than adults. This study provides novel data on how adolescent problem drinkers experience alcohol in their natural contexts and illustrates how these effects, which appear to differ from adult problem drinkers, confer liability for future drinking. PMID:24661164
Background Although most children and adolescents exhibit some kindof postdisaster reactions, their symptoms vary depending on the age, gender, parental social support, disaster and postdisaster contextual factors. Objective This study examined adolescents’ postdisaster experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and behavior problems 13 months after the 1999 Marmara earthquake in Turkey. Design Participants included 695 adolescents aged 12-17 years, who resided in three districts of Izmit at varying distances from the epicenter (e.g., high (HI), medium (MI), and low impact (LI) areas). Measures included demographics, earthquake exposure experiences, ChildPTSD Reaction Index, and Behavior Problems Index. Results Findings revealed that 76% of the adolescents reported moderate to very severe levels of PTSD symptoms (82% HI, 70% MI, and 70% LI) after the devastating earthquake. As expected, the HI group reported more symptoms than did members of MI and LI groups. Overall, 39% of the variance in adolescents’ PTSD symptoms was accounted for by the degree of exposure and gender. Analyses also indicated an increase in the frequency of adolescents’ behavior problems following the earthquake. Conclusions The findings of this study have clinical implications for designing and implementing effective, developmentally appropriate, and culturally sensitive intervention programs for the victims of major disasters. PMID:22893811
Stephen Ellenbogen; Jeffrey Derevensky; Rina Gupta
Data from five recent studies using self-reports were merged to explore gender differences in the characteristics of adolescent\\u000a problem gambling, including comorbidity with other youth problems. The sample consisted of 2,750 male and 2,563 female participants.\\u000a Male problem gamblers were more likely than females to report signs of psychological difficulties while females were more\\u000a likely to note behavioural problems as
Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.
This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a…
Evelien A. P. Poelen; Rutger C. M. E. Engels; Ron H. J. Scholte; Dorret I. Boomsma; Gonneke Willemsen
j Abstract We examined drink- ing behavior of parents, siblings, and friends of twins as predictors of adolescent and young adult problem drinking over a period of 2 and a period of 7 years. Data of 12 to 30-year-old twins and their family members from the Nether- lands Twin Register were ana- lyzed. Problem drinking in twins was assessed in
John P. Hoffmann
A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the association between family structure and problem behaviors. A community context model also suggests
Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.
Background: Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) (ID-adolescents) and adolescents with chronic diseases are both more likely to have emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of this study was to assess the association between chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and emotional and behavioural problems in a large school-based sample.…
Doreen A. Rosenthal; Susan M. Moore; Meredith J. Taylor
Two measures of adjustment, the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory and the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, were administered to a sample of 450 working class Anglo-, Greek-, and Italian-Australian adolescents in years 9 and 11 of 9 Melbourne high schools. Anglo- and Greek-Australian adolescents scored similarly and significantly higher than Italian-Australians on a number of subscales, suggesting that culture conflict may be
Theories of social-emotional growth propose that repeatedly-experienced parent–infant interactions shape the individual's adaptation across development, yet few studies examined interactive behaviors repeatedly from infancy to adolescence. This study assessed the trajectories of four mother–child relational behaviors at six time-points from 3 months to 13 years: maternal sensitivity, child social engagement, mother intrusiveness, and dyadic reciprocity. Trajectories were examined separately for
Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri
Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…
The tendency to defy the world around them, to defy adults, a characteristic trait of adolescents who are members of groups that spend leisure time together, is manifested in a number of demonstrative characteristics of their behavior: symbols of independence such as a certain kind of clothing, jargon, and borrowing vocabulary from the criminal…
Lin, Wen-Hsu; Yi, Chin-Chun
Although sleep has been linked to activities in various domains of life, one under-studied link is the relationship between unhealthy sleep practices and conduct problems among adolescents. The present study investigates the influence of adolescents' unhealthy sleep practices-short sleep (e.g., less than 6 h a day), inconsistent sleep schedule (e.g., social jetlag), and sleep problems-on conduct problems (e.g., substance use, fighting, and skipping class). In addition, this study examines unhealthy sleep practices in relationship to adolescent emotional well-being, defiant attitudes, and academic performance, as well as these three domains as possible mediators of the longitudinal association between sleep practices and conduct problems. Three waves of the Taiwan Youth Project (n = 2,472) were used in this study. At the first time-point examined in this study, youth (51% male) were aged 13-17 (M = 13.3). The results indicated that all three measures of unhealthy sleep practices were related to conduct problems, such that short sleep, greater social jetlag, and more serious sleep problems were concurrently associated with greater conduct problems. In addition, short sleep and sleep problems predicted conduct problems one year later. Furthermore, these three unhealthy sleep practices were differently related to poor academic performance, low levels of emotional well-being, and defiant attitudes, and some significant indirect effects on later conduct problems through these three attributes were found. Cultural differences and suggestions for prevention are discussed. PMID:25148793
Carmen S. van der Zwaluw; Ron H. J. Scholte; Ad A. Vermulst; Jan K. Buitelaar; Robbert Jan Verkes; Rutger C. M. E. Engels
The present study examined whether parental problem drinking affected parenting (i.e., behavioral control, support, rule-setting,\\u000a alcohol-specific behavioral control), and whether parental problem drinking and parenting affected subsequent adolescent alcohol\\u000a use over time. A total of 428 families, consisting of both parents and two adolescents (mean age 13.4 and 15.2 years at Time\\u000a 1) participated in a three-wave longitudinal study with annual
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal design study consists of 7th and 8th graders (n = 670, 50% male) from an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse middle school. Victimization was measured using 10 items that assessed frequency of verbal, physical, and relational victimization experiences, and outcomes were assessed with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (2nd ed.) and school records. There was support for gender differences in frequency of peer victimization experiences based on type of victimization. More specifically, boys reported higher levels of physical and verbal victimization, and girls reported higher levels of relational victimization. In addition, there were statistically significant differences between boys and girls on the relation between victimization and anxiety, attendance, and grades, with girls experiencing more maladjustment than boys in response to peer victimization. Finally, results demonstrated no gender differences in indirect effects of psychological adjustment on the relation between peer victimization and academic outcomes, whether victimization was physical, verbal, and relational. These findings highlight the importance of addressing social-emotional functioning as well as peer victimization in the schools for both boys and girls, as both affect students' academic functioning. PMID:24015982
Background Families are the primary source of support and care for most children. In Western societies, 4 to 12% of children live in households where a parent has a chronic illness. Exposure to early-life stressors, including parenting stress, parental depression and parental chronic disease could lead to harmful changes in children’s social, emotional or behavioural functioning. Little is known about the child living with a parent who has Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We systematically reviewed the literature regarding possible effects of having a parent with MS on the child’s or adolescent's psychosocial adjustment. Methods The following databases: MEDLINE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, ERIC, and ProQuest Digital Dissertations were searched (from 1806 to December 2012). References from relevant articles were also manually searched. Selected studies were evaluated using the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology (GATE). Results The search yielded 3133 titles; 70 articles were selected for full text review. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria. Fourteen studies employed quantitative techniques, of which 13 were cross-sectional and one was longitudinal. Four studies were both qualitative and cross-sectional in design. Only 2 of 18 studies were rated as having high methodological quality. Overall, eight studies reported that children of MS patients exhibited negative psychosocial traits compared with children of “healthy” parents. Specifically for adolescents, greater family responsibilities were linked to lower social relationships and higher distress. Three studies indicated that parental MS was associated with positive adjustment in children and adolescents, such as higher personal competence, while four found no statistically significant differences. Conclusion Although having a parent with MS was often reported to have negative psychosocial effects on children and adolescents, there was a lack of consensus and some positive aspects were also found. However, few high quality studies were identified which makes it difficult to draw evidence-based conclusions at this point. There are potentially important, long-term impacts of early life stressors, such as having a parent with a chronic disease, on subsequent life chances and health, and thus more extensive and higher quality research in this area is greatly needed. PMID:24886162
Lengua, Liliana J.
The author examined relations among demographic risk (income, maternal education, single-parent status), growth in temperament (fear, irritability, effortful control), and parenting (rejection, inconsistent discipline) across 3 years and the prediction of children's adjustment problems in a community sample (N=190; ages 8-12 years at Time 1).…
De Judicibus, Margaret A.; McCabe, Marita P.
Thirty-one parents with multiple sclerosis (MS) participated in a study to investigate the adjustment of their children, 24 boys and 24 girls aged 4 to 16 years. The majority of parents believed that their illness had an effect on their children. The perception of parents regarding their children's problems in the areas of emotions, concentration,…
Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M. Brent
Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment…
Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan
In a sample of families with 6- to 18-year-olds, this study found that sons' and daughters' testosterone levels showed little direct connection to risk behavior or depressive symptoms. As parent-child relationship quality increased, testosterone-related adjustment problems were less evident. When relationship quality decreased, testosterone-linked…
Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Judith A. Stein; Ying-Ying Lin
The impact of parental death and the efficacy of a coping-skills intervention were examined on the adjustment of 211 adolescent children of parents with HIV\\/AIDS (PWH) over a 2-year period. During the follow-up period, 35% of the PWH died. Using longitudinal structural equation model, controlling for prior measures of adjustment at baseline, the authors found that children of deceased PWH
Blake, Andrew C.
Although many studies have looked at adjustment problems of foreign students, there is very little literature on African students studying specifically at a historically black institution. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences and investigate the factors that cause adjustment problems for African students enrolled in the Spring…
Loukas, Alexandra; Ripperger-Suhler, Ken G.; Herrera, Denise E.
The present study tested two competing models to assess whether psychosocial adjustment problems mediate the associations between peer victimization and school connectedness one year later, or if peer victimization mediates the associations between psychosocial adjustment problems and school connectedness. Participants were 500 10- to 14-year-old…
King, Kevin M.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Monahan, Kathryn C.
Difficulties with self-regulation are implicated in the development of emotional and behavioral problems during adolescence. Although children's ability to regulate their behaviors continues to improve throughout childhood and adolescence, it remains unclear how contextual risk factors might influence this development during the transition to…
Byck, Gayle R; Swann, Gregory; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian
There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13 to 18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599
Karen J. AroianThomas; Thomas N. Templin; Edythe Ellison Hough; Vidya Ramaswamy; Anne Katz
Arab-American Muslim adolescents in immigrant families face a number of challenges that put them at risk for behavior problems.\\u000a This study of Arab-American Muslim Adolescents and their relatively recent immigrant mothers tested a longitudinal family-level\\u000a model of adolescent behavior problems. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 530) completed measures of maternal and adolescent stressors, active and avoidance coping, and social support; maternal\\u000a distress; quality
Harrison, Lee; Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of musculoskeletal chronic pain in adolescents is estimated to be approximately 4% to 40%. The development of musculoskeletal pain during teenage years could have a marked impact on physical, psychological and social well-being. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether sleep problems during adolescence are associated with musculoskeletal pain, particularly chronic regional pain and chronic widespread pain. METHODS: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children, the relationship between sleep problems at 15 years of age and the presence of chronic regional and widespread pain at 17 years of age was explored. Pain data were not available at 15 years of age. A total of 2493 participants with complete data were identified. Relationships among sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain were examined using logistic regression. ORs were calculated after adjusting for sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic position and depression (15 years of age). RESULTS: Sleep disturbance (usually wakes up more than two or three times), difficulties with hypersomnolence and poor subjective sleep perception were associated with the presence of both musculoskeletal regional and widespread pain. Finally, using ordered logistic regression, poor subjective sleep perception was also found to be associated with greater pain severity in participants with chronic musculoskeletal regional and widespread pain. DISCUSSION: The results of the present study suggest an association between sleep problems during adolescence and the presence of musculoskeletal pain at a later stage. These findings are consistent with adult literature suggesting a link between sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain. Given these associations, sleep problems in adolescence may be an important risk factor for musculoskeletal pain. PMID:25299477
Anabela Araújo Pedrosa; Raquel Pires; Paula Carvalho; Maria Cristina Canavarro; Frank Dattilio
Adolescent pregnancy appears today as an intricate tapestry where different dimensions interact. In our study we examined\\u000a the associations between individual, sociodemographic, familial, and relational variables and their impact on the occurrence\\u000a of pregnancy and adolescents’ adjustment to it. Participants were Portuguese pregnant and non-pregnant adolescents (N = 833). Ecological contexts were characterized, and individual and relational adjustment (depressive symptoms and quality
Hurtig, Anita Landau; Koepke, David
The study examined the effects of social support and family functioning on illness and adjustment in 70 children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Four sources of information were used: patient interview and standardized tests; parent interview and standardized tests; teacher interview; and medical records. Results revealed several…
Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Fine, Mark A.
Assessed the relationship between social adjustment and perceptions of both family acceptance and family control in two samples of young adolescents. One group completed, among other measures, self-reports of psychosocial competence and self-regulation, whereas the second group completed peer ratings of likability. In both samples, family…
Meeus, Wim; Van de Schoot, Rens; Klimstra, Theo; Branje, Susan
We examined change and stability of the 3 personality types identified by Block and Block (1980) and studied their links with adjustment and relationships. We used data from a 5-wave study of 923 early-to-middle and 390 middle-to-late adolescents, thereby covering the ages of 12-20 years. In Study 1, systematic evidence for personality change was…
Burrell, Ginger Lockhart; Roosa, Mark W.
Concerns about the heightened prevalence of behavior problems among adolescents from low-income families have prompted researchers to understand processes through which economic variables influence functioning within multiple domains. Guided by a stress process framework and social contextual theory, this study examines processes linking perceived…
National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011
This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up call…
Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent
This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…
Hoffman, John P.
A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…
Grimes, Jeff, Ed.
This document, intended as a resource for school psychologists, contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of children and adolescents. Each chapter includes the following content: background information concerning the specific topic, approaches for assessing the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities,…
Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.
The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…
Background It is well documented that both anxiety and depression are associated with headache, but there is limited knowledge regarding the relation between recurrent primary headaches and symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as behavioral problems among adolescents. Assessment of co-morbid disorders is important in order to improve the management of adolescents with recurrent headaches. Thus the main purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of recurrent headache with anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems in a large population based cross-sectional survey among adolescents in Norway. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT1). In Young-HUNT1, 4872 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were interviewed about their headache complaints and completed a comprehensive questionnaire that included assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression and behavioral problems, i.e. conduct and attention difficulties. Results In adjusted multivariate analyses among adolescents aged 12–14 years, recurrent headache was associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.61-2.61, p?0.001), but not with behavioral problems. A significant association with anxiety and depressive symptoms was evident for all headache categories; i.e. migraine, tension-type headache and non-classifiable headache. Among adolescents aged 15–17 years there was a significant association between recurrent headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.39-1.93, p?0,001) and attention difficulties (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.44, p =0.001). For migraine there was a significant association with both anxiety and depressive symptoms and attention difficulties, while tension-type headache was significantly associated only with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Non-classifiable headache was associated with attention difficulties and conduct difficulties, but not with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Headache frequency was significantly associated with increasing symptoms scores for anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as attention difficulties, evident for both age groups. Conclusions The results from the present study indicate that both anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems are associated with recurrent headache, and should accordingly be considered a part of the clinical assessment of children and adolescents with headache. Identification of these associated factors and addressing them in interventions may improve headache management. PMID:24925252
Alvarez, Alvin A.
Objectives. We examined racial/ethnic discrimination experiences of Chinese American adolescents to determine how discrimination is linked to poor adjustment (i.e., loneliness, anxiety, and somatization) and how the context of the family can buffer or exacerbate these links. Methods. We collected survey data from 181 Chinese American adolescents and their parents in Northern California. We conducted hierarchical regression analyses to examine main effects and 2-way interactions of perceived discrimination with family conflict and family cohesion. Results. Discrimination was related to poorer adjustment in terms of loneliness, anxiety, and somatization, but family conflict and cohesion modified these relations. Greater family conflict exacerbated the negative effects of discrimination, and greater family cohesion buffered the negative effects of discrimination. Conclusions. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying family-level moderators to help adolescents and their families handle experiences of discrimination. PMID:20966371
Alissa C. Bell; Thomas J. D’Zurilla
This study examined the role of social problem solving as a moderator and a mediator of the relationship between daily stressful\\u000a events and adjustment in a sample of 259 college students. Problem solving was assessed by the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised,\\u000a which provides scores for global problem-solving ability as well as five specific problem-solving dimensions, namely, positive\\u000a problem orientation, negative problem
Donguk Kim; Deok-Soo Kim; Kokichi Sugihara
The Apollonius Tenth Problem, as defined by Apollonius of Perga circa 200 B.C., has been useful for various applications in addition to its theoretical interest. Even though particular cases have been handled previously, a general framework for the problem has never been reported. Presented in this paper is a theory to handle the Apollonius Tenth Problem by characterizing the spatial
Donguk Kim; Deok-soo Kim; Kokichi Sugihara
Abstract The Apollonius Tenth Problem, as defined by Apollonius of Perga circa 200 B.C., has been useful for various applications in addition to its theoretical interest. Even though particular cases have been handled previously, a general framework for the problem has never been reported. Presented in this paper is a theory to handle the Apollonius Tenth Problem by characterizing the
Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake; Strathearn, Lane
Objective To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods The participants were 7223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in Brisbane, Australia. Exposure to suspected child maltreatment was measured by linkage with state child protection agency data. The primary outcomes were the internalizing and externalizing scales of the Youth Self Report (YSR) at approximately 14 years of age. Results The YSR was completed by 5172 subjects (71.6%), with increased attrition of cases of notified maltreatment. After adjustment for potential confounders, notified maltreatment was significantly associated with both internalizing behavior and externalizing behavior at 14. When evaluated as non-exclusive categories of maltreatment, physical abuse, neglect, and emotional abuse were each significantly associated with both internalizing and externalizing behavior after adjustment. When evaluated using an expanded hierarchical scheme that included combinations of multi-type maltreatment, the following groups had significantly higher internalizing behavior after adjustment: emotional abuse (with or without neglect), and multi-type maltreatment including physical (but not sexual) abuse with neglect and/or emotional abuse. The following groups were associated with externalizing behavior after adjustment: emotional abuse (with or without neglect), and multi-type maltreatment including physical abuse (with neglect and/or emotional abuse), or sexual abuse (with neglect and/or emotional abuse, and/or physical abuse). Conclusions This study suggests that child neglect and emotional abuse have serious adverse effects on adolescent mental health and warrant the attention given to other forms of child maltreatment. Additionally, it confirms that young people who are notified for more than one type of maltreatment are at particular risk of adolescent mental health problems. PMID:23380430
John E. Donovan; Richard Jessor; Frances M. Costa
An earlier study of ours that used data collected in 1972 found that a single common factor accounted for the positive correlations among a number of adolescent problem behaviors, including problem drinking, marijuana use, delinquent-type behavior, and precocious sexual intercourse. The present maximum-likelihood factor analyses replicated this finding on new samples of male and female 11th- and 12th-grade students tested
Evelien A. P. Poelen; Rutger C. M. E. Engels; Ron H. J. Scholte; Dorret I. Boomsma; Gonneke Willemsen
We examined drinking behavior of parents, siblings, and friends of twins as predictors of adolescent and young adult problem\\u000a drinking over a period of 2 and a period of 7 years. Data of 12 to 30-year-old twins and their family members from the Netherlands\\u000a Twin Register were analyzed. Problem drinking in twins was assessed in 1995 and 2000 and was defined
Petra Gradinger; Dagmar Strohmeier; Christiane Spiel
We investigated the co-occurrence of traditional bullying, cyberbullying, traditional victimization, and cybervictimization, and analyzed whether students belonging to particular groups of bullies (e.g., traditional, cyber, or both), victims (e.g., traditional, cyber, or both), and bully-victims differed regarding adjustment. Seven hundred sixty-one adolescents (49% boys) aged 14–19 years (M = 15.6 years) were surveyed. More students than expected by chance were
Fuligni, Andrew J.
Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans reported higher search for meaning than Latin and European Americans. Presence of meaning was positively associated with self-esteem, academic adjustment, daily well-being, and ethnic belonging and exploration, whereas search for meaning was related to lower self-esteem and less stability in daily well-being. Presence of meaning mediated associations between ethnic identity and adjustment, explaining 28–52% of ethnic identity’s protective effect on development. Ethnic identity thus appears to affect adjustment, in part, through its role in fostering a positive sense of meaning in adolescents’ lives. PMID:19915965
Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J
Studies examining friendships among Mexican-American adolescents have largely focused on their potentially negative influence. The current study examined the extent to which deviant and achievement-oriented friend affiliations are associated with Mexican-American adolescents' school adjustment and also tested whether support from friends and parents moderates these associations. High school students (N = 412; 49 % male) completed questionnaires and daily diaries; primary caregivers also completed a questionnaire. Although results revealed few direct associations between friend affiliations and school adjustment, several moderations emerged. In general, the influence of friends' affiliation was strongest when support from friends was high and parental support was low. The findings suggest that only examining links between friend affiliations and school outcomes does not fully capture how friends promote or hinder school adjustment. PMID:24096530
Eisenberg, Nancy; Castellani, Valeria; Panerai, Laura; Eggum, Natalie D.; Cohen, Adam B.; Pastorelli, Concetta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio
Little is known about changes in religious coping and their relations to adolescents’ and young adults’ functioning. In 686 Italian youths, trajectories of religious coping were identified from age 16–17 years to age 22–23 years; cohorts of youths reported at three of the four assessments. Four trajectories of religious coping were identified: decreasing, low stable, high stable, and increasing. A decline in religious coping was associated with high levels of externalizing problems at age 16–17, whereas an increase in religious coping was associated with higher externalizing problems at ages 18–19 and 20–21 years, and with relatively high involvement with deviant peers. High stable religious copers were high in prosocial behavior at three ages; low stable religious copers were higher than people undergoing change in their religious coping from mid-adolescence into early adulthood. These results can expand our current thinking about religious coping and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21682728
Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.
This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found a small number of temporary effects of transition timing on problem behavior: Spending an additional year in elementary school was associated with higher levels of deviant behavior in the Fall of Grade 6 and higher levels of antisocial peer associations in Grade 8. However, transition effects were not consistent across waves and latent growth curve models found no effects of transition timing on the trajectory of problem behavior. We discuss policy implications and compare our findings with other research on transition timing. PMID:24089584
Valdez, Carmen R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This investigation examined profiles of individual, academic, and social risks in elementary school, and their association with mental health and academic difficulties in adolescence. Latent profile analyses of data from 574 urban youth revealed three risk classes. Children with the “well-adjusted” class had assets in the academic and social domains, low aggressive behavior, and low depressive symptoms in elementary school, and low rates of academic and mental health problems in adolescence. Children in the “behavior-academic-peer risk” class, characterized by high aggressive behavior, low academic achievement, and low peer acceptance, had conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use in adolescence. Children with the “academic-peer risk” class also had academic and peer problems but they were less aggressive and had higher depressive symptoms than the “behavior-academic-peer risk” class in the first grade; the “academic-peer risk” class had depression, conduct problems, academic difficulties, and increased mental health service use during adolescence. No differences were found between the risk classes with respect to adolescent outcomes. PMID:21538121
Alexandra Loukas; Hazel M. Prelow
The current investigation examined the role of cumulative risk, family routines, maternal monitoring, mother-child relationship quality, and youth socioemotional competence in adjustment outcomes of 521 10- to 14-year-old low-income Latino early adolescents. Results showed that, as the number of risk factors increased, levels of externalizing and internalizing problems also increased. Furthermore, findings indicated that socio-emotional competence was predictive of fewer
Orenstein, Alan; And Others
Surveyed eleventh-grade students (n=262) to compare two measures of parental drinking problems. Students who were distressed or discomforted by their parents' drinking did not differ from other youth on measured outcomes. Students who said their parents had been treated for alcohol and drug problems differed on several variables, including…
C. Raymond Bingham; Jean T. Shope
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among drivers younger than age 35, making problem driving behavior among young drivers a significant public concern. Effective intervention requires a better understanding of the antecedents of problem driving. Problem behavior theory, social control theory, and Kandel’s model of substance use development were used to predict young-adult problem driving (i.e., drug-,
Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among drivers younger than age 35, making problem driving behavior among young drivers a significant public concern. Effective intervention requires a better understanding of the antecedents of problem driving. Problem behavior theory, social control theory, and Kandel's model of substance use…
K. Paige Harden; Stacy K. Lynch; Eric Turkheimer; Robert E. Emery; Brian M. DOnofrio; Wendy S. Slutske; Mary D. Waldron; Andrew C. Heath; Dixie J. Statham; Nicholas G. Martin
The present study examines the relations between adolescent motherhood and children's behavior, substance use, and internalizing problems in a sample of 1,368 children of 712 female twins from Australia. Adolescent motherhood remained significantly associated with all mental health problems, even when using a quasiexperimental design capable of controlling for genetic and environmental confounds. However, the relation between adolescent motherhood and
Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.
The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…
Calvete, Esther; Cardenoso, Olga
This study assessed gender differences in cognitive variables as an explanation for gender differences in depression and behavior problems; 856 adolescents (491 females and 365 males), aged 14-17, completed the Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents, the Social Problem Solving Inventory--Revised Short Form, the adolescent version of the Burnett…
McKelvey, Lorraine M; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Mesman, Glenn R; Pemberton, Joy R; Casey, Patrick H
This study examined the moderating effects of family cohesion on the relationship between community violence and child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program, an intervention study for low-birthweight, preterm infants. Six of eight sites in the Infant Health and Development Program were in large metropolitan areas; two served rural and urban areas. About half of the sample was African American. Research teams collected data from caregivers multiple times in the first 3 years of the target child's life, and at 4, 5, 6½, 8, and 18 years. Caregivers reported on community violence, neighborhood problems with (a) drug users/sellers; (b) delinquent gangs; and (c) crime, assaults, and burglaries reports when children were 4, 5, and 8 years of age. Family cohesion was assessed twice, at ages 6½ and 8 years, using caregiver reports on the Family Environment Scale. Adolescent self-report of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems at age 18 were assessed using the Behavior Problems Index. In this study, the association between adolescent psychosocial outcomes and community violence were moderated by family cohesion and gender such that being in a highly cohesive family as a child protected male children from the negative effects of community violence. Findings demonstrate the long-term protective effects of family cohesion on child behavioral development for male children but suggest a need to examine additional supports for females exposed to community violence during childhood. PMID:24787626
Forehand, R; Neighbors, B; Wierson, M
The differential change of boys and girls across pre-adolescence, early adolescence, and middle adolescence was examined. The participants were 259 children, their mothers, and their social studies teachers. The children completed a measure of internalizing problems and adults completed measures of the child's externalizing and internalizing problems and competence. Relative to girls, boys had more problems and less competence at pre-adolescence and/or less problems and more competence by mid-adolescence. A stressor, parental divorce, did not exacerbate the gender by developmental age period interaction. The differential vulnerability of boys and girls at different developmental periods is considered. PMID:1744196
Uchiyama, S.; Doshida, S.; Oyagi, N.; Shimizu, F.; Inokuchi, T.
Information on the distribution of landslides is a basic type of data used by countries for disaster prevention. Since 1972, 1:50,000 landslide maps have been produced at the Japanese National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention. From October 2000, the institute has been producing landslide GIS data and transmitting these data over the web. The area that has been published so far covers over 80% of Japan. Presently, the number of diagrams printed are 980 (March 2012). In addition, 350,000 landslide GIS data graphs have been digitized with the same diagrams as a base. Twelve years have passed since this GIS data acquisition program was launched, and in that time, several problems have been identified. These problems are listed below. 1) Scarps do not become polygonized. 2) Landslides which extend over the boundaries of the printed graphs are divided into separate elements. 3) When the time taken to read and interpret the landslide data differs, the shape of the landslides can vary between diagrams. 4) There have been cases of inaccurate positions and shapes in landslide GIS data produced since 2005. 5) Obvious mistakes are present in the attribute data. The causes of such problems are as follows: 1) Lack of technical examination at the time of the start of the production of the landslide GIS data. 2) Limitations of the landslide GIS data editing systems which were developed separately. 3) Program bugs which occur during the conversion of information input to an individual editing system into general-purpose GIS data. 4) Problems which arise during the process of the production of landslide GIS data. This project at the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention is planned to be completed in 2013. By the end of the project, we hope to present a catalogue of all identified problems and formulate a plan to resolve them, and pass them on to the next generation.; Problems: For the diagram, scarps are presented by polylines and cannot be treated as polygons (topography area). Example of limitations of the individual editing system. Both the moving mass or scarp and other features are divided by the printing boundaries of the diagrams. Another example of the limitations of the editing system. When a scarp is present within the moving mass, the scarp area is hollowed out.
Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank
Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…
Esther Calvete; Olga Cardeñoso
This study assessed gender differences in cognitive variables as an explanation for gender differences in depression and behavior problems; 856 adolescents (491 females and 365 males), aged 14–17, completed the Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents, the Social Problem Solving Inventory—Revised Short Form, the adolescent version of the Burnett Self-Talk Inventory, and the Youth Self Report. Female adolescents’ lower levels of
This study evaluated the hypothesis that self-perceived gender nonconformity is distressing to children because it undermines a confident sense of gender compatibility. Participants were 357 early adolescents (180 boys, M age = 12.68 years) in England who responded to questionnaires measuring friendship styles (preoccupied, avoidant), gender compatibility (typicality, contentedness), and adjustment (self-esteem, peer social competence, depression, narcissism). Sex differences in friendship styles indicated that preoccupied and avoidant styles were typical for girls and boys, respectively. Gender-atypical friendship styles predicted poor adjustment, and their impact on adjustment was partially mediated by felt gender compatibility. Results suggest that perceiving gender-atypical attributes in the self undermines adjustment partly because it leads children to feel incompatible with their gender collective. PMID:21679168
Jia, Yueming; Way, Niobe; Ling, Guangming; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Chen, Xinyin; Hughes, Diane; Ke, Xiaoyan; Lu, Zuhong
This study explored students' perceptions of 3 dimensions of school climate (teacher support, student-student support, and opportunities for autonomy in the classroom) and the associations between these dimensions and adolescent psychological and academic adjustment in China and the United States. Data were drawn from 2 studies involving 706 middle school students (M = 12.26) from Nanjing, China, and 709 middle school students (M = 12.36) from New York City. Findings revealed that students in China perceived higher levels of teacher support, student-student support, and opportunities for autonomy in the classroom than students in the United States. Furthermore, students' perceptions of teacher support and student-student support were positively associated with adolescents' self-esteem and grade point average but negatively associated with depressive symptoms for both Chinese and American adolescents. PMID:19765015
Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A
This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed. PMID:23889017
Sandra Yu Rueger; Christine Kerres Malecki; Michelle Kilpatrick Demaray
The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher,\\u000a classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students.\\u000a Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psychometric support for the\\u000a Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale
Wiley, Rachel E.; Berman, Steven L.
The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent…
Wang, Ming-Te; Brinkworth, Maureen; Eccles, Jacquelynne
This study examined relations between effortful control, parent-adolescent conflict, and teacher-student relationships and the concurrent and longitudinal impact of these factors on adolescent depression and misconduct. In particular, we examined whether the risks of low effortful control and parent-adolescent conflict could be buffered by…
Kogan, Steven M.
The role of disclosing child sexual abuse on adolescent survivors' symptomology and the presence of additional unwanted sexual experiences was investigated in a subsample of 111 adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents who reported child sexual abuse. Results indicated that prompt disclosure of sexual abuse to an adult moderated the…
Summers, P; Forehand, R; Armistead, L; Tannenbaum, L
The relationship between parental divorce occurring during adolescence and young adult psychosocial adjustment was examined, as was the role of family process variables in clarifying this relationship. Participants were young Caucasian adults from divorced (n = 119) and married (n = 123) families. Assessments were conducted during adolescence and 6 years later during early adulthood. Young adults from married families reported more secure romantic attachments than those from divorced families; however, differences were not evident in other domains of psychosocial adjustment after demographic variables were controlled. Three family process variables (parent-adolescent relationship, interparental conflict, and maternal depressive symptoms) were examined as potential mediators and moderators of the association between parental divorce and young adult adjustment. No evidence supporting mediation or moderation was found; however, the parent-adolescent and parent-young adult relationships, particularly when the identified parent was the father, emerged as significant predictors of young adult psychosocial adjustment. PMID:9583336
This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese American counterparts. Many of these differences remained after adjusting for parental education. Controlling for immigrant status explained only some of the subgroup differences. The results suggest several shortcomings to the "model minority" stereotype that is often applied to API American youth. Research and practice should not overlook the higher risk for problem behaviors among certain API American subgroups. The findings highlight the need for more resources for API Americans, especially for the API subgroups facing higher risks. PMID:18645632
Lazaratou, E; Dikeos, D; Anagnostopoulos, D; Soldatos, C
The evaluation of sleep habits and sleep related problems in high school adolescent students in the Athens area and the assessment of these problems' relation to demographic and other variables was investigated by the Athens Insomnia Scale - 5 item version (AIS-5), which was administered to 713 adolescent Senior High School students in the Greater Athens Area. Data such as age, sex, school records, and time spent per week in school-related and extracurricular activities were collected. The sample's mean sleep duration was 7,5 hours, mean bedtime 12:20 am and wake-up time 7:15 am. Total sleep time was not affected by gender, but was influenced by time spent in various activities. Sleep complaints were related to delayed sleep, onset latency and insufficient total duration of sleep. Girls complained more than boys, while correlations showed that students with lower academic per formance and those in second grade were more likely to have higher AIS-5 scores. The results show that sleep time of high school students is dependent on practical matters such as school schedule and other activities, while sleep complaints are related to female gender, bad school performance as well as to the second grade. The difference between actual sleep time and sleep complaints should be considered when studying the sleep of adolescents. PMID:22218005
Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi
Background: Many researchers believe that adolescents’ problem behaviors are indicators of a deficiency in social skills. This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a prevention program on reducing problem behaviors in male adolescents. Materials and Methods: In a preposttest design with randomized control group, 49 students received social skills training (SST). Follow-up assessment of outcomes took place 5 months post baseline. The SST program was administered over the course of 10 weeks (10 sessions of 1 h). The main tools were multiple problem behaviors index (MPBI) and Social Skills Rating System – student form (SSRS-S). The control group (57 students) did not receive any intervention. Intervention effects were evaluated with t-test, univariate ANCOVA, and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Significant difference between groups founded on SSRS at posttest (t = 2.5, P = 0.014) by univariate ANCOVA. In addition, the findings indicated that variation trend of mean scores of SSRS in the intervention group was significant (F = 225.3, P < 0.0001). The intervention group reported Lower levels of MPBI at posttest and follow-up compared to the control group. Significant difference between the two groups did not achieved on MPBI scores in the posttest after adjusting for the pretest scores; however, this difference was significant at the follow up (F = 5.3, P = 0.020). Conclusion: The results suggest that SST was effective in improving social competence and preventing problem behaviors among male adolescent. Future researches must be examined the role of peer and family. PMID:25884000
Sharlene A. Wolchik; Kathryn L. Wilcox; Jenn-Yun Tein; Irwin N. Sandler
This study examines whether two aspects of mothering—acceptance and consistency of discipline—buffer the effect of divorce stressors on adjustment problems in 678 children, ages 8 to 15, whose families had divorced within the past 2 years. Children reported on divorce stressors; both mothers and children reported on mothering and internalizing and externalizing problems. Multiple regressions indicate that for maternal report
Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana
Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account the interdependence among family members. Structural equation models showed that, during early adolescence, parent-child American orientation discrepancy is related to parents’ use of unsupportive parenting practices; parents’ use of unsupportive parenting is related to increased sense of alienation between parents and children, which in turn is related to more depressive symptoms and lower academic performance in Chinese American adolescents. These patterns of negative adjustment established in early adolescence persist into middle adolescence. This mediating effect is more apparent among father-adolescent dyads than among mother-adolescent dyads. In contrast, parent-child Chinese orientation discrepancy does not demonstrate a significant direct or indirect effect on adolescent adjustment, either concurrently or longitudinally. The current findings suggest that early adolescence is more susceptible to the negative effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancy; they also underscore the importance of fathering in Chinese immigrant families. PMID:22799587
Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina
We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony
The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…
Defoe, Ivy N.; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T.; Branje, Susan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Buist, Kirsten; Frijns, Tom; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim
Background: It is well documented that friends' externalizing problems and negative parent-child interactions predict externalizing problems in adolescence, but relatively little is known about the role of siblings. This four-wave, multi-informant study investigated linkages of siblings' externalizing problems and sibling-adolescent…
Carlo C. DiClemente; Marilyn Story; Kenneth Murray
As gambling becomes more accessible and acceptable in society, problems associated with gambling and gaming have begun to affect ever increasing numbers of adolescents. Although restricted from most forms of gambling by law, many adolescents are finding a path into problem gambling. Some are becoming compulsive gamblers early in their gambling career, facing a future filled with consequences and problems.
Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B
The current study examined the longitudinal relations of socio-cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stressors, enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination) and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors. Utilizing an idiographic and nomothetic approach, we conducted lagged analyses to examine how individuals' fluctuations in stressors predicted subsequent adjustment. Further, we investigated potential threshold effects by examining if the impact of fluctuations in stressors differed at varying levels of stressors. Mexican-origin adolescent females (N?=?184) participated in yearly in-home assessments across 5 years and reported on their experiences of acculturative and enculturative stressors, ethnic discrimination, depressive symptoms, and risk-taking behaviors. Findings revealed that within-person fluctuations in acculturative stressors and, to a lesser extent, perceived discrimination related to youths' depressive symptoms. For risk-taking behaviors, however, only within-person fluctuations in enculturative stressors emerged as significant. Further, a threshold effect emerged in the link between enculturative stressors and risk-taking behaviors, suggesting that fluctuations in enculturative stressors predicted changes in risk-taking behaviors at high levels of enculturative stressors but not low levels. Our findings highlight the differential relations between socio-cultural stressors and adolescent females' adjustment and suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing depressive symptoms should attend to any degree of change in socio-cultural stressors, whereas programs focused on risk-taking behaviors should be especially attuned to levels of enculturative stress. PMID:25099084
Cook, Emily C.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.
Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents' behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents' physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175 low-income…
Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Champagne, Mariette C.
Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current…
Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.
This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…
Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.
The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…
Lisa Farnell; Liz Jones; Jennifer Rowe; Nicola Sheeran
This study examined the psychological impact of preterm birth among adolescent mothers and how it compared to the psychological impact of preterm birth among adult mothers and full term birth among adolescent mothers. Fifty two mothers completed a survey immediately prior to the discharge of their infant from hospital and approximately three months later. Contrary to our hypotheses, adult mothers
Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (?=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194
Calvete, Esther; Cardeñoso, Olga
This study assessed gender differences in cognitive variables as an explanation for gender differences in depression and behavior problems; 856 adolescents (491 females and 365 males), aged 14-17, completed the Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents, the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Short Form, the adolescent version of the Burnett Self-Talk Inventory, and the Youth Self Report. Female adolescents' lower levels of positive thinking and higher scores on negative problem orientation, need for approval and success, and self-focused negative cognitions partially mediated gender differences in depressive symptoms. Males' higher scores on justification of violence beliefs and the impulsivity/carelessness style of problem solving partially accounted for differences in delinquent behavior. The influence of need for approval and success on depressive symptoms was higher among adolescents at ages 14-15 than among older adolescents. Justification of violence did not influence delinquent behavior among girls at age 14-15. PMID:15839496
Boeninger, Daria K.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Conger, Rand D.
Although studies have established associations between parenting characteristics and adolescent suicidality, the strength of the evidence for these links remains unclear, largely because of methodological limitations, including lack of accounting for possible child effects on parenting. This study addresses these issues by using autoregressive cross-lag models with data on 802 adolescents and their parents across 5 years. Observed parenting behaviors predicted change in adolescent suicidal problems across one-year intervals even after controlling for adolescents’ effects on parenting. Nurturant-involved parenting continued to demonstrate salutary effects after controlling for adolescent and parent internalizing psychopathology: over time, observed nurturant-involved parenting reduced the likelihood of adolescent suicidal problems. This study increases the empirical support implicating parenting behaviors in the developmental course of adolescent suicidality. PMID:24244079
Marceau, Kristine; Horwitz, Briana N; Narusyte, Jurgita; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, Erica L; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M
Studies of adolescent or parent-based twins suggest that gene-environment correlation (rGE) is an important mechanism underlying parent-adolescent relationships. However, information on how parents' and children's genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors is needed to distinguish types of rGE. The present study used the novel Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of rGE underlying associations between negative parenting and adolescent (age 11-22 years) externalizing problems with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a U.S.-based sample of 405 adolescent siblings and their parents. Results suggest that evocative rGE, not passive rGE or direct environmental effects of parenting on adolescent externalizing, explains associations between maternal and paternal negativity and adolescent externalizing problems. PMID:23573986
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.
The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…
Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael
Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…
Galambos, Nancy L.; Barker, Erin T.; Almeida, David M.
Examined relative influence of parenting behaviors (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and deviant peers on trajectories of externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence. Found that parents' firm behavioral control seemed to halt the upward trajectory in externalizing problems among adolescents with deviant…
Kieren, Dianne K.; And Others
An educational program was developed to assist family groups with adolescent diabetics to improve their problem-solving skills. The program is based on theoretical assumptions and research findings from a study of family problem-solving, which involved nine intact, well-functioning families (five families with a diabetic adolescent and four…
Chun, Heejung; Mobley, Michael
Based on Jessor's theory (1987) the comparability of a second-order problem behavior model (SPBM) was investigated across gender and grade-level among adolescents. In addition, gender and grade-level differences in problem behavior engagement were addressed examining latent mean differences. Using a sample of 6504 adolescents drawn from the…
MEMORANDUM No 6:2007 Adolescent conduct problems and later risk of induced abortion: A population://www.iss.uio.no/forskning/memoranda.html #12;ii Adolescent conduct problems and later risk of induced abortion: A population- based) at age 15 and the risk of abortion during the teenage years and throughout the women's twenties Design
Henderson, Craig E.; Dakof, Gayle A.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Liddle, Howard A.
We investigated direct and shared effects of family functioning and self-concept on the severity of adolescent externalizing problems in a sample of 224 clinically referred adolescents. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed strong, direct relationships between problem behaviors and both family functioning and self-concept. Using R. M. Baron…
Based on the results of previous research, multiple factors in several domains (individual attributes of the adolescent, family attributes, and extrafamilial factors) were identified as possible risk and protective factors for development of problem behavior during adolescence. The first aim of this study was to examine the relative importance of these factors for the development of externalizing and internalizing problems.
Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya; Colakkadiaglu, Oguzhan
The purpose of this study is to examine subjective well-being with respect to problem solving, self-esteem in decision-making and decision-making styles in adolescents. For this purpose, "Positive and Negative Affect Scale", "Satisfaction with Life Scale", "Adolescent Decision Making Scale" and "Problem Solving…
Collishaw, Stephan; Maughan, Barbara; Natarajan, Lucy; Pickles, Andrew
Background: Evidence about trends in adolescent emotional problems (depression and anxiety) is inconclusive, because few studies have used comparable measures and samples at different points in time. We compared rates of adolescent emotional problems in two nationally representative English samples of youth 20 years apart using identical symptom…
Dekker, Linda P; Hartman, Catharina A; van der Vegt, Esther Jm; Verhulst, Frank C; van Oort, Floor Va; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin
Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general population cohort study (n = 1873; the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)), autistic traits and psychosexual problems were determined. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate whether childhood autistic traits, in individuals displaying no psychosexual problems in childhood, predicted the presence of psychosexual problems in adolescence, while controlling for pubertal development and conduct problems. Higher levels of autistic traits at T1 significantly predicted mild psychosexual problems at T2, above and beyond pubertal development and conduct problems. Particularly two dimensions of autistic traits at T1 were significant predictors; i.e. 'reduced contact/social interest' and 'not optimally tuned to the social situation'. Children with autistic traits - especially those with limited social interest and social regulation problems - showed to have a higher risk to develop psychosexual problems, albeit mild, in early adolescence as reported by parents. Although we showed that autistic traits predict psychosexual problems, it is only one of multiple predictors. PMID:25192861
Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.
Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents’ behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents’ physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175 low-income urban adolescents (51.8% girls). Findings suggested that heightened reactivity as indicated by cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure was associated with increased interpersonal competence and anger regulation. However, these findings were context dependent such that, for youth high in self-reported child maltreatment, heightened reactivity was associated with decreased interpersonal competence and anger regulation. Results highlight the importance of considering how context may condition the effect of stress reactivity on functioning during adolescence. PMID:22359225
Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L
Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25345480
Derevensky, Jeffrey L; St-Pierre, Renee A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Gupta, Rina
Despite legislative prohibitions, there is empirical evidence that youth gamble on both regulated and unregulated activities. The current survey was designed to assess teachers' awareness and attitudes regarding adolescent gambling and other high-risk behaviours. Three-hundred and ninety teachers from Ontario and Quebec, with experience teaching students aged 12-18, completed an online survey. Results suggest that teachers are aware of the fact that youth gamble. Furthermore, they recognized the addictive nature of gambling and their subsequent consequences. Despite overestimating the proportion of youth experiencing gambling problems, gambling was viewed as being the least serious of issues affecting youth, with drug use and school violence topping the list. Almost half of respondents indicated that gambling in school can constitute a good learning activity. In regards to prevention, all other risky behaviours and academic problems were perceived as issues needing greater attention than gambling. These results, which are largely consistent with findings from a previous study examining parental perceptions of adolescent risky behaviours, suggest a need for greater awareness and teacher education. PMID:23423729
Moed, Anat; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Eisenberg, Nancy; Hofer, Claire; Losoya, Sandra; Spinrad, Tracy L; Liew, Jeffrey
Although conflict is a normative part of parent-adolescent relationships, conflicts that are long or highly negative are likely to be detrimental to these relationships and to youths' development. In the present article, sequential analyses of data from 138 parent-adolescent dyads (adolescents' mean age was 13.44, SD = 1.16; 52 % girls, 79 % non-Hispanic White) were used to define conflicts as reciprocal exchanges of negative emotion observed while parents and adolescents were discussing "hot," conflictual issues. Dynamic components of these exchanges, including who started the conflicts, who ended them, and how long they lasted, were identified. Mediation analyses revealed that a high proportion of conflicts ended by adolescents was associated with longer conflicts, which in turn predicted perceptions of the "hot" issue as unresolved and adolescent behavior problems. The findings illustrate advantages of using sequential analysis to identify patterns of interactions and, with some certainty, obtain an estimate of the contingent relationship between a pattern of behavior and child and parental outcomes. These interaction patterns are discussed in terms of the roles that parents and children play when in conflict with each other, and the processes through which these roles affect conflict resolution and adolescents' behavior problems. PMID:25358960
Diane M. Enos; Paul J. Handal
This study examined two contrasting views of how divorce relates to the long-term adjustment of children. The physical-wholeness position views divorce as the salient explanatory variable to adversely affect children's later adjustment through the physical dissolution of the two-parent family; the psychological-wholeness position views perceived current family conflict as the critical variable that influences adjustment, regardless of parental marital status.
Weis, Robert; Wilson, Nicole L.; Whitemarsh, Savannah M.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a military-style residential treatment program for adolescents with academic and conduct problems. Two hundred twelve referred adolescents were separated into 3 groups for analyses: (a) adolescents who completed the 22-week program, (b) adolescents who prematurely withdrew, and (c) wait-list controls.…
Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Molgaard, Virginia K.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.
Objectives: The present research addressed the following important question in pediatric medicine: Can participation in a new family-centered preventive intervention, the Strong African American Families–Teen (SAAF–T) program, deter conduct problems, substance use, substance use problems, and depressive symptoms among rural black adolescents across 22 months? Methods: Data were collected from 502 black families in rural Georgia, assigned randomly to SAAF–T or an attention control condition. The prevention condition consisted of 5 consecutive meetings at community facilities with separate, concurrent sessions for caregivers and adolescents followed by a caregiver-adolescent session in which families practiced skills they learned in the separate sessions. Adolescents self-reported conduct problem behaviors, substance use, substance use problems, and depressive symptoms at ages 16 years (pretest) and 17 years 10 months (long-term assessment). Results: Adolescents who participated in SAAF–T evinced lower increases in conduct problem behavior, substance use, substance use problems, and depressive symptom frequencies than did adolescents in the attention control condition across the 22 months between pretest and long-term assessment. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate efficacy in a prevention program designed to deter conduct problems, substance use, substance use problems, and depressive symptoms among rural black adolescents. Because SAAF–T is a manualized, structured program, it can be easily disseminated to public health agencies, schools, churches, boys’ and girls’ clubs, and other community organizations. PMID:22157131
Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin; Keijsers, Loes
It is a household notion that secrecy is bad while sharing is good. But what about shared secrets? The present research adopts a functional analysis of sharing secrets, arguing that it should negate harmful consequences generally associated with secrecy and serves important interpersonal functions in adolescence. A survey study among 790 Dutch adolescents showed that, in line with hypotheses, shared secrets (1) were kept by more adolescents than private secrets, (2) were not linked to maladjustment and (3) were linked to higher interpersonal functioning. Whereas private secrecy was associated with increased delinquency, physical complaints, depressive mood, loneliness, and with lower quality relationships, shared secrecy was associated only with more interpersonal competence. Moreover, sharing a secret was specifically linked to a higher quality relationship with the confidant, and sharing with parents was linked with less delinquency, whereas sharing with a best friend was linked with less loneliness and more interpersonal competence. PMID:23040399
Qin, Desiree Baolian
Despite their average high levels of educational achievement, Asian American students often report poor psychological and social adjustment, suggesting an achievement/adjustment paradox. Yet, the reasons for this paradox remain unclear. Drawing on 5-year longitudinal qualitative interview data, this paper compares the family dynamics of two groups…
Sharma, Anu R.; And Others
Examined the extent to which age at adoption affects the behavioral and emotional adjustment of adoptees. Also examined whether gender, race, and age at assessment interact with age at adoption to influence adoptee adjustment. Confirmed observations made by practitioners and researchers that as age of adoption increases, behavioral and emotional…
Sivertsen, Børge; Harvey, Allison G; Pallesen, Ståle; Hysing, Mari
The aim of the current study was to compare mental health problems, resilience and family characteristics in adolescents with and without delayed sleep phase (DSP) in a population-based sample. Data were taken from the youth@hordaland-survey, a large population-based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012. In all, 9338 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls) provided self-reported data on a wide range of instruments assessing mental health symptoms, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive behaviours, attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms, perfectionism, resilience and sleep. Measures of socioeconomic status were also included. Three hundred and six adolescents (prevalence 3.3%) were classified as having DSP [according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-2 (ICSD-2)] criteria. Adolescents with DSP reported higher levels of depression, anxiety and ADHD symptoms. Adolescents with DSP also exhibited significantly lower levels of resilience. The Cohen's d effect sizes ranged from small [obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): d = 0.15] to moderate (inattention: d = 0.71). In the fully adjusted model, the significant predictors of DSP included inattention [odds ratio (OR): 2.11], lack of personal structure (OR: 2.07), low (OR: 1.85) and high (OR: 1.91) paternal education, parents not living together (OR: 1.81), hyperactivity/inattention (OR: 1.71) and poorer family economy (OR: 1.59). In conclusion, the high symptom load across a range of mental health measures suggests that a broad and thorough clinical approach is warranted when adolescents present with DSP. PMID:25358244
Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C; Tucker, Abigail S; McCoy, Leah; Menard, Scott
Evidence on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence (AEV) with adult physical and mental health problems is limited, with studies often focusing on earlier childhood rather than adolescence, and also on short term rather than long term outcomes. Information specifically on the relationship of AEV to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood from either formal sources such as mental health professionals or informal sources such as friends and clergy is even more difficult to find. The present study investigates how adolescent exposure to violence (AEV), in the form of parental physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and exposure to violence in the neighborhood, are related to self-reported adult physical problems and seeking formal or informal assistance with mental health, controlling for more general adolescent violent victimization and for self-reports and parent reports of mental health problems in adolescence. This study adds to the literature on AEV and adult physical problems, and provides a rare look at the relationship of AEV to adult help-seeking for mental health problems. The results suggest that AEV is associated with mental health problems in adolescence for both females and males, that for females AEV is related to physical problems and to seeking help for mental health problems in adulthood, but for males the only significant relationship involves inconsistent reports of witnessing parental violence and adult physical problems. PMID:25466428
Mary I. Campa; Catherine P. Bradshaw; John Eckenrode; David S. Zielinski
Several studies have indicated that an early onset of delinquent and problem behaviors is associated with a greater risk of\\u000a subsequent behavioral and mental health problems. This study builds on that literature by examining histories of behavior\\u000a problems in relation to indicators of thriving and precocious behavior during late adolescence. Using longitudinal data from\\u000a 289 high-risk adolescents, participants were classified
Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jacqueline; Woolgar, Matthew; Humayun, Sajid; O'Connor, Thomas G.
Background: Attachment theory was conceptualized by Bowlby as relevant across the life span, from "cradle to grave". The research literature on attachment in infants and preschool-aged children is extensive, but it is limited in adolescence. In particular, it is unclear whether or not attachment security is distinguishable from other qualities of…
Denise R. Nelson; Constance Hammen; Patricia A. Brennan; Jodie B. Ullman
The present study evaluated the role of expressed emotion (EE) as a predictor of child symptomatology and functional impairment in a sample of nearly 800 adolescent children of mothers with varying histories of depression or who were nondepressed. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized associations in half of the sample, and all models were cross-validated on the
Kalil, Ariel; DeLeire, Thomas
This study examined the effects of paternal and maternal job loss on changes in Black and White early adolescents' academic achievement, school attendance, locus of control, and self-concept. It also investigated whether the effects of parental job loss could be explained by contemporaneous changes in parental behavior. Analysis of data on 8th…
Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.
A 2-wave longitudinal study of personality in adolescence was conducted with data obtained at ages 12 and 17 years from approximately 60 European American and 60 second-generation Chinese American youth. At Time 1 they completed the Children's Personality Questionnaire and at Time 2 they completed the High School Personality Questionnaire and…
Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan; Ozdemir, Metin
In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have…
Jean E. Rhodes; Jean B. Grossman; Nancy L. Resch
A conceptual model was tested in which the effects of mentoring relationships on adolescents' academic out- comes were hypothesized to be mediated partially through improvements in parental relationships. The pa- rameters of the model were compared with those of an alternative, in which improved parental relationships were treated as an outcome variable rather than a mediator. The study included 959
Campione-Barr, Nicole; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Kruse, Anna
Issues of equality and fairness and invasion of the personal domain, 2 previously identified topic areas of adolescent sibling conflict (N. Campione-Barr & J. G. Smetana, 2010), were examined in 145 dyads ("M" [subscript first-born] = 14.97, "SD" = 1.69 years; "M" [subscript second-born] = 12.20, "SD" = 1.90 years) for their differential effects…
Lamborn, Susie D.; Nguyen, Dang-Giao T.
This study examined perceived kinship support and parenting practices for 158 African American adolescents in the 9th and 10th grades. Kinship support showed direct associations with teen outcomes that, for work orientation and school orientation, were partially mediated by parenting practices. With a few exceptions, kinship support was positively…
Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.
Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…
Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.
This study investigated early adolescent friendship selection and social influence with regard to academic motivation (self-efficacy and intrinsic value), engagement (effortful and disruptive behavior), and achievement (GPA calculated from report card grades) among 6th graders (N = 587, 50% girls at Wave 1; N = 576, 52% girls at Wave 2) followed…
Storksen, Ingunn; Roysamb, Espen; Moum, Torbjorn; Tambs, Kristian
This is a prospective Norwegian study of a group of adolescents with an experience of parental divorce or separation (n=413) and a comparison group without this experience (n=1758). Mean age at T1 was 14.4 years and mean age at T2 was 18.4 years. Parental divorce was prospectively associated with a relative change in anxiety and depression,…
Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Brand, Ann E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara; Hastings, Paul D.; Kendziora, Kimberly; Garside, Rula B.
There is a paucity of research on how mothers and fathers socialize emotion in their adolescent sons and daughters. This study was based on 220 adolescents (range 11- to 16-years-old) who exhibit a range of emotional and behavioral problems and their parents. Parental responses to their children's displays of sadness, anger and fear were assessed.…
Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi
This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…
Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.
In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…
Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter; Heaven, Patrick C. L.
Past research has documented a link between negative problem orientation (NPO) and poor emotional well-being, but little of this research has focused on adolescence or has collected multiple waves of data. The authors conducted a 3-wave longitudinal survey of 841 adolescents in Grades 8, 9, and 10 (428 boys, 411 girls, 2 unidentified). The survey…
Maguire, Edward R.; Wells, William; Katz, Charles M.
Most published research on community risk and protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors has been carried out in developed nations. This article examines community risk and protective factors in a sample of more than 2,500 adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago, a developing Caribbean nation. The authors examine the construct and concurrent…
Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.
This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…
Dandreaux, Danielle M.; Frick, Paul J.
This study tested several theoretically important differences between youth with a childhood-onset and youth with an adolescent-onset to their severe conduct problems. Seventy-eight pre-adjudicated adolescent boys (ranging in age from 11 to 18) housed in two short-term detention facilities and one outpatient program for youth at risk for…
Stadler, Christina; Feifel, Julia; Rohrmann, Sonja; Vermeiren, Robert; Poustka, Fritz
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and effects of peer-victimization on mental health problems among adolescents. Parental and school support were assumed as protective factors that might interact with one another in acting as buffers for adolescents against the risk of peer-victimization. Besides these protective factors, age…
Susman, Elizabeth J.; And Others
Examined blood cortisol levels, at three 6-month intervals, for young adolescent outpatients in relation to psychological measures derived from patient interviews preceding clinic visits and observed stress behaviors during visits. Found that adolescents in the increased cortisol reactivity group reported more behavior problems and depression…
Cavendish, Wendy; Nielsen, Amie L.; Montague, Marjorie
The purpose of this study was to examine the growth trajectories from early to late adolescence of teacher ratings of students' behavior problems from 9th through 11th grade and student self-reports of alcohol use in a sample of predominately minority adolescents (n = 179, 90% African-American and/or Hispanic, 43% boys, 57% girls) in a large,…
Walcott, Christy M.; Music, Ajlana
Extensive research suggests that adolescence is a critical developmental period, especially when it comes to factors that influence mental health problems. Systematic efforts to promote adolescent help-seeking are essential for improving long-term mental health outcomes. Defined as a "behavior of actively seeking help from other people,"…
Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.
To explore the link between interparental hostility and adolescent problem behaviors, the current study examines four important maternal parenting dimensions as potential mediators: acceptance, harshness, inconsistency, and psychological intrusiveness. With a primary sample of 1,893 sixth-grade students, the measures included adolescent and…
Guarneri-White, Maria E; Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Knack, Jennifer M
Co-rumination, or the tendency to revisit and endlessly discuss problems and negative events, has been linked to depression and other emotional difficulties (Rose, Carson, & Waller, 2007). The current study examined the moderating effect of co-rumination on the relationship between peer victimization and depression, anxiety, PTSD symptoms, and health problems in 108 adolescents aged 10-15 years. Adolescents and a parent completed measures of adolescents' peer victimization, co-rumination, depression, and health problems. Results indicate that adolescents who are both peer victimized and engaged in high levels of co-rumination were at highest risk for psychological problems. Co-rumination also moderated the relationship between peer victimization and physical health problems via general depressive symptoms (i.e., moderated mediation). PMID:25544426
Alyanak, Behiye; K?l?nçaslan, Ay?e; Harmanc?, Halime Sözen; Demirkaya, Sevcan Karakoç; Yurtbay, Tülin; Vehid, Hayriye Ertem
The present study investigated emotional and behavioral problems in children with selective mutism (SM) along with the psychological adjustment and parenting attitudes of their mothers and fathers. Participants included 26 children with SM (mean age = 8.11 ± 2.11 years), 32 healthy controls (mean age = 8.18 ± 2.55 years) and the parents of all children. Children with SM displayed higher problem scores than controls in a variety of emotional and behavioral parameters. They predominantly displayed internalizing problems, whereas aggressive and delinquent behavior was described among a subsample of the children. Significant differences existed between the SM and control groups only in paternal psychopathology, which included anxiety and depression. They did not differ with respect to maternal psychological distress or mother or father reported parental attitudes. Another important result of the present study was that the severity of emotional and behavioral problems of children with SM was correlated with maternal psychopathology but not paternal psychopathology. PMID:23247199
Smith, Peggy B.; Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.
Examined the frequency and nature of mental health problems and symptoms among a group of 51 inner city male adolescents attending a teen health clinic. Results indicated participants experienced significant mental health problems and symptoms, such as relationship problems, problems with time and money, and symptoms of anger, depression, and…
Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul
Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time. PMID:25119729
Rescorla, Leslie A.; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Begovac, Ivan; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chahed, Myriam; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Minaei, Asghar; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Petot, Djaouida; Petot, Jean-Michel; Pomalima, Rolando; Rudan, Vlasta; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.
We used population sample data from 25 societies to answer the following questions: (a) How consistently across societies do adolescents report more problems than their parents report about them? (b) Do levels of parent-adolescent agreement vary among societies for different kinds of problems? (c) How well do parents and adolescents in different…
Loukas, Alexandra; Prelow, Hazel M.
The current investigation examined the role of cumulative risk, family routines, maternal monitoring, mother-child relationship quality, and youth socioemotional competence in adjustment outcomes of 521 10- to 14-year-old low-income Latino early adolescents. Results showed that, as the number of risk factors increased, levels of externalizing and…
Bogart, Laura M.; Elliott, Marc N.; Kanouse, David E.; Klein, David J.; Davies, Susan L.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Schuster, Mark A.
Objectives We examined the contribution of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination to disparities in problem behaviors among pre-adolescent Black, Latino, and White youth. Methods We used cross-sectional data from Healthy Passages, a three-community study of 5,119 fifth-graders and their parents. Multivariate regressions were used to examine the relationships of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and race/ethnicity to problem behaviors (physical and non-physical aggression, retaliatory behaviors, and delinquency). We used values from these regressions to calculate the percentage of disparities in problem behaviors associated with the discrimination effect. Results In multivariate models, perceived discrimination was associated with greater problem behaviors among Black and Latino youth. Compared to Whites, Blacks were significantly more likely to report problem behaviors, whereas Latinos were significantly less likely (a “reverse disparity”). When Blacks’ and Latinos’ discrimination experiences were set to zero, the adjusted disparity between Blacks and Whites was reduced by an estimated one-third to two-thirds; the reverse adjusted disparity favoring Latinos widened by about one-fifth to one-half. Conclusions Results suggest that the elimination of discrimination could lead to considerable reductions in mental health issues, including problem behaviors, among Black and Latino youth. PMID:23597387
The incidence of people living with congenital heart disease (CHD) has been increasing every year owing to remarkable advances in surgical and catheter intervention techniques and devices, and improved knowledge of critical care for patients with CHD. However, these patients continue to face physical, psychosocial, and environmental challenges, and a number of studies have shown higher rates of depression and anxiety disorders than the general population. To improve psychosocial functioning and quality of life for adults with CHD, health care providers are recommended to inform CHD patients of an accurate diagnosis, and overall treatment process, beginning in adolescence to facilitate a smooth transition from adolescence to adulthood. Active cooperation with psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, chaplains, and family members is highly recommended to help CHD patients feel normal and optimistic and to promote good social interactions, close family relationships, and a strong sense of coherence. PMID:25076970
Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann; Helmut Remschmidt
This study investigated depressive psychopathology and psychosocial functioning in adolescent anorexia nervosa patients at a three year follow-up in comparison to healthy age-matched controls. Three standardized rating instruments (HRSD, SDS, BDI) were used for assessing depression and the Morgan-Russell scales for defining the outcome of the eating disorder. Our findings suggest 1) a highly positive correlation between eating disorder and
Brunnberg, Elinor; Bostrom, Margareta Linden; Berglund, Mats
This survey, "Life and Health--Young People 2005," included all 15/16-year-old adolescents in mainstream schools in the county of Orebro, Sweden. Just students with a slight/mild or moderate hearing loss were included. There were 56 (1.9%) "hard-of-hearing (HH) students with multiple disabilities," 93 (3.1%) students who were "just HH," 282 (9.7%)…
Talebi Joybari, Masoud
Objective: The aim of the present research was to determine whether depression and interpersonal problems had relationships with alexithymia and coping styles in adolescents. Methods: The study population was randomly selected from all of the adolescent students in the schools of Sari in Iran; 441 adolescents (228 boys and 213 girls) were included in the study. The participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and was expressed in means, standard deviations, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: Alexithymia was related to depression and interpersonal problems; the adolescents who defined themselves as more alexithymic obtained higher scores in depression and interpersonal problems than the adolescents who classified themselves as less- and non-alexithymic. Furthermore, coping styles were related to depression and interpersonal problems. Regression analyses showed that both alexithymia and coping styles accounted for a unique and significant proportion of the variance in depression and interpersonal problems in adolescents. Conclusion: These findings support the positive correlation of alexithymia and maladaptive coping styles with depression and interpersonal problems. PMID:25798172
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A
Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and psychopathology. As hypothesized, latent class growth analysis approximated 4 developmental trajectories of family conflict during high school for 681 African American adolescents (49% boys). Trajectory classes differed in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior at age 20, supporting expectations that adolescents demonstrating elevated levels and atypical trajectories of family conflict in high school would report greater mental health problems as young adults. Family conflict jeopardizes African American adolescents' transition to young adulthood by contributing to mental health problems. PMID:24294879
The outcome of patients completing 12 months of follow-up in a prospective longitudinal trial of the safety/efficacy of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), for morbidly obese adolescents aged 14 to 17 years using a Food and Drug Administration Institutional Device Exemption for the use o...
Way, Niobe; Robinson, Melissa G.
Examined the influence over time of demographic variables and perceived family and friend support and school climate on changes in psychological adjustment among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents from low-income families. Found a greater increase in self-esteem in students reporting more positive perceptions of school climate and,…
in prevalence of adolescent depression. American Journal ofa ssociation with depression. Journal of Adolescent Health,and depression subscales of the Profile of Moods States (POMS; Lorr and McNair, 1971). Each evening, adolescents
in prevalence of adolescent depression. American Journal ofa ssociation with depression. Journal of Adolescent Health,depression subscales of the Profile of Moods States (POMS; Lorr and McNair, 1971). Each evening, adolescents
This paper aims to explore factors influencing the parenting of adolescents and investigate what constitutes a helpful therapeutic intervention for a parent whose adolescent refuses or fails to engage in therapeutic treatment. Three areas of research and theory are explored: findings from the socialization approach to parenting and from attachment…
Adolescent prostitution is a particular social phenomenon characterized by the fact that adolescents (those under the age of eighteen), either females or males, engage more than once (at least two times) in extramarital sexual relations with a large number of people for some particular (material) consideration owing to social, economic,…
Lewis, Gary J; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert
Background Understanding the etiology of adolescent problem behavior has been of enduring interest. Only relatively recently, however, has this issue been examined within a normal personality trait framework. Research suggests that problem behaviors in adolescence and beyond may be adequately explained by the taxonomy provided by the basic dimensions of normal personality: Such problem behaviors are suggested to be extreme points on a distribution of the full range of the underlying traits. We extend work in this field examining the extent to which genetic factors underlying the five-factor model of personality are common with genetic influences on adolescent behavior problems (namely, anxiety, peer problems, conduct, hyperactivity, and low prosociality). Method A nationally representative twin sample (Twins Early Development Study) from the general population of England and Wales, including 2031 pairs of twins aged 16 years old, was used to decompose variation into genetic and environmental components. Behavioral problems in adolescence were assessed by self-report with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Adolescent behavior problems were moderately associated with normal personality: Specifically, a fifth to a third of phenotypic variance in problem behaviors was accounted for by five-factor model personality traits. Of central importance here, genetic influences underpinning personality were entirely overlapping with those genetic factors underlying adolescent behavior problems. Conclusions These findings suggest that adolescent behavior problems can be understood, at least in part, within a model of normal personality trait variation, with the genetic bases of these behavior problems the same as those genetic influences underpinning normal personality. Read the Commentary for this article on doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12292 PMID:24256444
Margaret R. Beam; Virginia Gil-Rivas; Ellen Greenberger; Chuansheng Chen
This study examined risk and protection for adolescent problem behavior and depressive symptomatology in an average-risk sample of 11th graders. Using a socioecological perspective, we aggregated risk factors for adolescent problem behavior and depressed mood by 3 social contexts: i.e., family and peer contexts, and a context comprising the most important nonparental adult (“VIP”) in respondents' lives. Protective factors associated
Gender differences in the relations among patriarchal beliefs, parenting and teen relationship violence in Mexican adolescents.adolescents’ demographic characteristics, including gender, grade or generational status differences
Kouros, Chrystyna D; El-Sheikh, Mona
Children's sleep problems are common and associated with increased risk for adjustment problems. We examined daily links between children's sleep and mood, using a daily diary method and actigraphy. We also tested children's daily mood as a mediator of relations among sleep and children's broader internalizing and externalizing symptoms. A community sample of 142 children (mean age = 10.69 years; 57% girls; 69% European American, 31% African American) and their parents participated. For 1 week, children wore actigraphs and parents completed a daily telephone interview about their child's mood. Following the week of actigraphy, mothers and fathers reported on their child's adjustment. Multi-level models indicated within-person relations between children's mood and subsequent sleep fragmentation (indicated by increased activity) and sleep latency, and between-person relations between sleep latency and subsequent mood on the next day. Significant indirect effects were found such that a more negative daily mood (aggregated across diary days) mediated relations between poor sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Findings extend previous research by highlighting disruptions to children's daily mood as a potential mechanism linking sleep problems to children's mental health. PMID:25212526
Min, Meeyoung O; Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Short, Elizabeth J; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T
The effect of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on externalizing behavior and substance use related problems at 15 years of age was examined. Participants consisted of 358 adolescents (183 PCE, 175 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study from birth. Regression analyses indicated that the amount of PCE was associated with higher externalizing behavioral problems (? = .15, p = .02). Adolescents with PCE were also 2.8 times (95% CI = 1.38-5.56) more likely to have substance use related problems than their NCE counterparts. No differences between PCE adolescents in non-kinship adoptive/foster care (n = 44) and PCE adolescents in maternal/relative care (n = 139) were found in externalizing behavior or in the likelihood of substance use related problems. Findings demonstrate teratologic effects of PCE persisting into adolescence. PCE is a reliable marker for the potential development of problem behaviors in adolescence, including substance use related problems. PMID:24636687
Diaz, Joseph O. Prewitt; Seilhamer, Emily Stella
Reviews research literature on Puerto Rican youth and summarizes findings on factors influencing return migration and the cultural and physical adjustment of return migrants. Presents findings of a survey of Puerto Rican students, non-migrants and return migrants, which attempted to determine whether there was a relationship between reading…
Yang, Chia-chen; Brown, B. Bradford
Previous studies have confirmed that Facebook, the leading social networking site among young people, facilitates social connections among college students, but the specific activities and motives that foster social adjustment remain unclear. This study examined associations between patterns of Facebook activity, motives for using Facebook, and…
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across…
Thomas, April Gile; Monahan, Kathryn C; Lukowski, Angela F; Cauffman, Elizabeth
Problematic sleep can be detrimental to the development of important cognitive functions, such as working memory, and may have the potential for negative behavioral consequences, such as risk-taking. In this way, sleep problems may be particularly harmful for youth-whose cognitive abilities are still developing and who are more susceptible to risky behavior. Using data from a large, national, longitudinal study, continuity and change in sleep problems were examined from 2 to 15 years of age and associated with deficits in working memory at age 15 and risk taking behaviors at age 18. Participants (N = 1,364 children; 48.3% female) were assessed for sleep problems (parent-report), working memory (behavioral task), and risk taking behavior (youth self-report). The sample was predominantly White (80.4%); additional races represented in the sample included Black/African American (12.9%), Asian/Pacific Islander (1.6%), American Indian/Eskimo/Aleut (.4%), and Other (4.7%). The findings suggest that sleep problems are likely to cascade across development, with sleep problems demonstrating continuity from infancy to early childhood, early childhood to middle childhood, and middle childhood to adolescence. Although sleep problems in infancy, early childhood, and middle childhood were not directly related to adolescent working memory, sleep problems during adolescence were associated with poorer adolescent working memory. In turn, these deficits in working memory were related to greater risk taking in late adolescence. In summary, the present results suggest that sleep problems in earlier periods are indicative of risk for sleep problems later in development, but that sleep problems in adolescence contribute uniquely to deficits in working memory that, in turn, lead to risky behavior during late adolescence. PMID:25213135
Stoneman, Zolinda; Gavidia-Payne, Susana
A family systems framework was used to examine associations between stressors/hassles, problem-focused coping, and marital adjustment in 67 families of young children with disabilities. Most of the couples were experiencing average to above average marital adjustment. When daily stressors/hassles were higher, husbands and wives viewed their…
Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan
Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in…
Mitchell, Paul; Smedley, Kirsty; Kenning, Cassandra; McKee, Amy; Woods, Debbie; Rennie, Charlotte E.; Bell, Rachel V.; Aryamanesh, Mitra; Dolan, Mairead
Many studies have identified high levels of mental health problems among adolescents in custody and there is increasing evidence that mental health problems in this population are associated with further offending and mental health problems into adulthood. Despite recent improvements in mental health provision within custodial settings there is…
Mason, Michael J.
This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…
Muthupalaniappen, Leelavathi; Omar, Juslina; Omar, Khairani; Iryani, Tuti; Hamid, Siti Norain
We carried out a cross sectional study to detect emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents who smoke and their help-seeking behavior. This study was conducted in Sarawak, East Malaysia, between July and September 2006. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR/11-18) questionnaire; help seeking behavior was assessed using a help-seeking questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-nine students participated in the study; the smoking prevalence was 32.8%. The mean scores for emotional and behavioral problems were higher among smokers than non-smokers in all domains (internalizing, p = 0.028; externalizing, p = 0.001; other behavior, p = 0.001). The majority of students who smoked (94.7%) did not seek help from a primary health care provider for their emotional or behavioral problems. Common barriers to help-seeking were: the perception their problems were trivial (60.3%) and the preference to solve problems on their own (45.8%). Our findings suggest adolescent smokers in Sarawak, East Malaysia were more likely to break rules, exhibit aggressive behavior and have somatic complaints than non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent smokers preferred to seek help for their problems from informal sources. Physicians treating adolescents should inquire about smoking habits, emotional and behavioral problems and offer counseling if required. PMID:23431837
Aspan, Nikoletta; Vida, Peter; Gadoros, Julia
Background. In adults with antisocial personality disorder, marked alterations in the recognition of facial affect were described. Less consistent data are available on the emotion recognition in adolescents with externalization problems. The aim of the present study was to assess the relation between the recognition of emotions and conduct symptoms in adolescent boys with externalization problems. Methods. Adolescent boys with externalization problems referred to Vadaskert Child Psychiatry Hospital participated in the study after informed consent (N = 114, 11–17 years, mean = 13.4). The conduct problems scale of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (parent and self-report) was used. The performance in a facial emotion recognition test was assessed. Results. Conduct problems score (parent and self-report) was inversely correlated with the overall emotion recognition. In the self-report, conduct problems score was inversely correlated with the recognition of anger, fear, and sadness. Adolescents with high conduct problems scores were significantly worse in the recognition of fear, sadness, and overall recognition than adolescents with low conduct scores, irrespective of age and IQ. Conclusions. Our results suggest that impaired emotion recognition is dimensionally related to conduct problems and might have importance in the development of antisocial behavior. PMID:24302873
Background Most studies about informant agreements on adolescents’ emotional and behavioral problems have been conducted in Western countries, but this subject has not been well researched in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of parent–adolescent agreement on adolescents’ problems and its associated factors among school-age adolescents in China. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2010. A questionnaire including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self-Report (YSR), the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the characteristics of the child (age and gender), parents (parent–adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and family (family structure, negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 2,199 Chinese adolescents (aged 11–18) from 15 public schools in Liaoning Province, who completed the questionnaire, became our final participants. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess parent–adolescent agreement, and linear regression analysis was used to explore the associated factors of parent–adolescent discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems. Results The parent–adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was high (mean r?=?0.6). The scores of YSR were higher than those of CBCL. Factors that increased informant discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems were boys, older age, the experience of negative life events, low levels of cohesion and organization, and high levels of conflict in the family. Conclusions A high level of parent–adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was found. Adolescents reported more problems than their parents did. Family environment is an important factor to be considered when interpreting informant discrepancies on the mental health of Chinese adolescents. PMID:24735388
Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.
This study examined mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among…
Bos, Henny; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Sandfort, Theo
This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from 1,546 high school students (802 boys and 744 girls; M age = 13.57 years) by means of standardized measurements. SSA was found to predict lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of psychological distress. Further analyses showed that passive coping style partly mediated these associations. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. The findings suggest that in understanding and addressing mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexual youth attention should be paid to intrapersonal psychological factors such as coping styles. PMID:24938587
Kari Trost; Gretchen Biesecker; Håkan Stattin; Margaret Kerr
The present study investigated whether adolescents' desires to manage their own free time, without parents' involvement, reflected problems or healthy independence. Participants were 1057 adolescents, their parents, and teachers. Initially, wanting parental involvement was related to disclosure, parental knowledge, and positive adjustment across contexts and wanting low parental involvement was related to negative adjustment. With closer examination of adolescents, two
Sullivan, Summer; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Shi Huang,; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose
This study examined the relationships of adolescent acculturation orientations to adolescent and parent reports of family functioning and behavior problems in a sample of 338 Hispanic families. Acculturation orientations are derived from the model proposed by Berry. Results indicate that integrated adolescents, who both maintain heritage culture…
Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Fitzmaurice, Shannon; Black, Maureen M.
This study extends the "determinants of parenting model" to adolescent mothers by examining how adolescent mother-grandmother psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness from birth through age 2 years relate to children's problem behaviors at age 7. Participants were 181 adolescent mother, child, and grandmother triads living in…
Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo
Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335
van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R; de Bruin, Esther I; Bögels, Susan M
The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8 weeks after and 16 weeks after training. Adolescents reported on their attention and behavioral problems and mindful awareness, and were administered two computerized sustained attention tasks. Parents as well as tutors reported on adolescents' attention and behavioral problems and executive functioning. Parents further reported on their own parenting, parenting stress and mindful awareness. Both the mindfulness training for the adolescents and their parents was delivered in group format. First, after mindfulness training, adolescents' attention and behavior problems reduced, while their executive functioning improved, as indicated by self-report measures as well as by father and teacher report. Second, improvements in adolescent' actual performance on attention tests were found after mindfulness training. Moreover, fathers, but not mothers, reported reduced parenting stress. Mothers reported reduced overreactive parenting, whereas fathers reported an increase. No effect on mindful awareness of adolescents or parents was found. Effects of mindfulness training became stronger at 8-week follow-up, but waned at 16-week follow-up. Our study adds to the emerging body of evidence indicating that mindfulness training for adolescents with ADHD (and their parents) is an effective approach, but maintenance strategies need to be developed in order for this approach to be effective in the longer term. PMID:22993482
Dandreaux, Danielle M; Frick, Paul J
This study tested several theoretically important differences between youth with a childhood-onset and youth with an adolescent-onset to their severe conduct problems. Seventy-eight pre-adjudicated adolescent boys (ranging in age from 11 to 18) housed in two short-term detention facilities and one outpatient program for youth at risk for involvement in the juvenile justice system participated in the current study. The sample was divided into those with a childhood-onset to their serious conduct problem behavior (n = 47) and those with an adolescent-onset (n = 31). The childhood-onset group showed greater levels of dysfunctional parenting, callous-unemotional traits, and affiliation with delinquent peers. The only variable more strongly associated with the adolescent-onset group was lower scores on a measure of traditionalism. PMID:18670873
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice
This study used a 3-wave longitudinal design to investigate developmental cascades among social competence and externalizing and internalizing behavioral adjustment in a normative sample of 117 children seen at 4, 10, and 14 years. Children, mothers, and teachers provided data. A series of nested path analysis models was used to determine the most parsimonious and plausible cascades across the three constructs over and above their covariation at each age and stability across age. Children with lower social competence at age 4 years exhibited more externalizing and internalizing behaviors at age 10 years and more externalizing behaviors at age 14 years. Children with lower social competence at age 4 years also exhibited more internalizing behaviors at age 10 years and more internalizing behaviors at age 14 years. Children who exhibited more internalizing behaviors at age 4 years exhibited more internalizing behaviors at age 10 years and more externalizing behaviors at age 14 years. These cascades among social competence and behavioral adjustment obtained independent of child intelligence and maternal education and social desirability of responding. PMID:20883577
Aaron Hogue; Craig E. Henderson; Sarah Dauber; Priscilla C. Barajas; Adam Fried; Howard A. Liddle
This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake, discharge, and 6-month follow-up. Observational ratings of adherence and competence were collected on
Diane Marcotte; Michel Alain; Marie-Josee Gosselin
This study explored gender differences indepressive symptoms during adolescence in relation withgender-typed characteristics, problem-solving abilities,and stressful life events. Participants were 306 white French-speaking adolescents (142 men and164 women) from upper middle-class families enrolled ina high school in the Trois-Rivières area ofQuebec. Participants ranged in age from 14 to 17 years, with a mean age of 15.3 years (SD = .95).
Christine E. Grella; Judith A. Stein; Lisa Greenwell
This article explores relationships among exposure to childhood abuse and traumatic events, adolescent conduct problems and substance abuse, and adult psychological distress and criminal behaviors in a sample of substance-abusing women offenders (N = 440). Latent variable structural equation models revealed direct relationships between several childhood traumatic events and greater adolescent conduct problems and substance abuse. Conduct problems predicted more
Colder, Craig R.; Scalco, Matthew; Trucco, Elisa M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wieczorek, William F.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.
The literature is equivocal regarding the role of internalizing problems in the etiology of adolescent substance use. In this study, we examined the association of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and their co-occurrence with early adolescent substance use to help clarify whether internalizing problems operate as a risk or…
Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo
The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…
Roney, James E.
The present study examined the effect adult social support outside of the family has on subjects' outcome scores in the areas of interpersonal problems, alcohol use and psychological functioning. Results indicate that children of alcoholics who had...
Heron, Jon; Maughan, Barbara; Dick, Danielle M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Munafò, Marcus; Hickman, Matthew
Background We consider the strength of the relationship between types of conduct problems in early life and pattern of alcohol use during adolescence. Methods Children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK birth-cohort, had their level of conduct problems assessed repeatedly from 4 to 13 years using the maternal report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Developmental trajectories derived from these data were subsequently related to (i) patterns of alcohol use from 13 to 15 years, and (ii) hazardous alcohol used at age 16. Results Boys with ‘Adolescent Onset’ or ‘Early Onset Persistent’ conduct problems were much more likely to be high frequency drinkers between 13 and 15 years (OR 5.00 95% CI = [2.4, 10.6] and 3.9 95% CI = [2.1, 7.3] respectively) compared with those with Low or ‘Childhood Limited’ conduct. Adolescent Onset/Early Onset Persistent girls also had greater odds of this high-alcohol frequency drinking pattern (2.67 [1.4, 5.0] and 2.14 [1.2, 4.0] respectively). Associations were more moderate for risk of hazardous alcohol use at age 16. Compared to 32% among those with low conduct problems, over 40% of young people classified as showing Adolescent Onset/Early Onset Persistent conduct problems were drinking hazardously (OR 1.52 [1.09, 2.11] and 1.63 [1.22, 2.18] respectively). Conclusions Whilst persistent conduct problems greatly increase the risk of adolescent alcohol problems, the majority of adolescents reporting hazardous use at age 16 lack such a history. It is important, therefore, to undertake alcohol prevention among all young people as a priority, as well as target people with manifest conduct problems. PMID:23787037
Schlundt, David G.; Flannery, Mary Ellen; Davis, Dianne L.; Kinzer, Charles K.; Pichert, James W.
Examines a two-week summer program using problem-based learning and behavior therapy to help adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes improve their ability to cope with obstacles to dietary management. Improvements were observed in self-efficacy, problem-solving skills, and self-reported coping strategies. No significant changes were observed…
Reitz, E.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A. M.
The first aim of this study was to examine the structure of externalizing and internalizing problem behavior during early adolescence. Our second aim was to determine the stability of these problems for boys and for girls over time. A total of 650, 13-14-year-olds filled out (an expanded version of) the Youth Self-Report [YSR; "Manual for the…
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study tests whether the relationship between academic achievement and problem behaviors is the same across racial and ethnic groups. Some have suggested that academic achievement may be a weaker predictor of problem behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American (API)…
Renea Nilsson; Soo Hyun Rhee; Robin P. Corley; Sally-Ann Rhea; Sally J. Wadsworth; John C. DeFries
The present study compared the level of conduct problems at age 17 in a large nonclinical sample of adopted participants placed in infancy and children in non-adoptive families matched to the adoptive families on demographic characteristics. Higher levels of adolescent and parent adoption satisfaction were associated with lower levels of conduct problems. Gender by adoption status interactions were not significant.
Susan H. Spence; Jeanie K. Sheffield; Caroline L. Donovan
This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Problem Solving For Life program as a universal approach to the prevention of adolescent depression. Short-term results indicated that participants with initially elevated depressions scores (high risk) who received the intervention showed a significantly greater decrease in depressive symptoms and increase in life problem-solving scores from pre- to postinterven- tion compared with a
Dirkzwager, Anja J. E.; Kerssens, Jan J.; Yzermans, C. Joris
Objective: The aims of this study were to examine health problems of children (4-12 years old at the time of the disaster) and adolescents (13-18 years old at the time of the disaster) before and after exposure to a fireworks disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000), to compare these health problems with a control group, and to identify risk factors…
Douglas Symons; Catherine Greene; Sonya Syntons
Ratings of behavioral and emotional problems at the start of a school year were used to predict referral for mental health assistance. Participants were 63 11- to 16-year-old adolescents with learning disabilities who attended a residential school. Reports of problem behavior consisted of internalizing and externalizing behavior on the parent and teacher reports of the Child Behavior Checklist, ADHD behaviors
Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara A.
Behavioral responses to stress and challenge are based in emotional and physiological arousal reactions. Adolescents with maladaptive or problematic behavior patterns, such as internalizing or externalizing problems, are likely to show atypical emotional and physiological reactions to stress. Relations between problems and reactions to stress were…
O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis; McKeague, Lynn
Background: Children and adolescents with mental health problems are widely reported to have problems with peer relationships; however, few studies have explored the way in which these children are regarded by their peers. For example, little is known about the nature of peer stigmatisation, and no published research has investigated implicit…
Mager, Wendy; Milich, Richard; Harris, Monica J.; Howard, Anne
Past research has suggested that the aggregation of deviant peers during treatment may cause harmful effects (T. J. Dishion, J. McCord, & F. Poulin, 1999). This study compared the effectiveness of problem-solving skills training groups in which all members had conduct problems ("pure" group condition) with groups that consisted of adolescents with…
Coughlin, Judy; Montague, Marjorie
This study investigated the effects of cognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of three adolescents with spina bifida. Conditions of the multiple-baseline across-individuals design included baseline, two levels of treatment, posttesting, and maintenance. Treatment 1 focused on one-step math problems, and Treatment 2…
Muna Ahmead; Peter Bower
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a transition period that involves physiological, psychological, and social changes. Emotional problems such as symptoms of anxiety and depression may develop due to these changes. Although many of these problems may not meet diagnostic thresholds, they may develop into more severe disorders and may impact on functioning. However, there are barriers that may make it difficult for
O'Brien, Natalie; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Shelley-Tremblay, John
This study examined the prevalence of reading problems and self-reported symptoms of attentional deficits in a sample of adjudicated adolescent males (N = 101) aged 12 to 18 years who were residing in an alternative sentencing residential program. Thirty-four percent of the youth had reading problems while only 9% of the boys had self-reported…
Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Berkowitz, Robert I.
The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) recognizes that feeding problems of infants and children are not typically the same as eating problems of adolescents, thus the addition of a broad diagnostic category, "Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood." Subtypes are proposed for anorexia…
Feibelman, Barbara; Hamrick, Michael
The rising incidence of teenage sexual activity and the subsequent growth in numbers of teenage parents provide the rationale for this problem-solving curriculum guide on family life education. This model curriculum for adolescents aged 15-19 is designed to promote problem-solving skills, self-confidence, self-awareness, self-control, and…
Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim
Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method: The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher…
Laird, R D; Jordan, K Y; Dodge, K A; Pettit, G S; Bates, J E
A longitudinal, prospective design was used to examine the roles of peer rejection in middle childhood and antisocial peer involvement in early adolescence in the development of adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Both early starter and late starter pathways were considered. Classroom sociometric interviews from ages 6 through 9 years, adolescent reports of peers' behavior at age 13 years, and parent, teacher, and adolescent self-reports of externalizing behavior problems from age 5 through 14 years were available for 400 adolescents. Results indicate that experiencing peer rejection in elementary school and greater involvement with antisocial peers in early adolescence are correlated but that these peer relationship experiences may represent two different pathways to adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Peer rejection experiences, but not involvement with antisocial peers. predict later externalizing behavior problems when controlling for stability in externalizing behavior. Externalizing problems were most common when rejection was experienced repeatedly. Early externalizing problems did not appear to moderate the relation between peer rejection and later problem behavior. Discussion highlights multiple pathways connecting externalizing behavior problems from early childhood through adolescence with peer relationship experiences in middle childhood and early adolescence. PMID:11393650
Hou, Jinqin; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Zhang, Jianxin; Guo, Fei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Mianbo; Chen, Zhiyan
Theoretical and empirical research has shown that adolescent romantic relationships are associated with a wide range of developmental outcomes, including adverse consequences. The present study used a hierarchical linear model to examine the moderating effect of classroom romantic context on the association between adolescent romantic…
Bos, Henny; Goldberg, Naomi; Gelderen, Loes Van; Gartrell, Nanette
adolescent self- report c Anxiety M SD Anger M SD Depressionadolescent gender) MANOVA using the four STPI subscales (anxiety, anger, depression,adolescent reports, four trait subscales of the STPI were used: anxiety, anger, depression,
Bos, Henny; Goldberg, Naomi; Gelderen, Loes Van; Gartrell, Nanette
Koestner. 2000. Gender differences in adolescent depressivedifferences in feminine/masculine gender role traits between the NLLFS adolescentsdifferences in feminine/masculine gender role traits and psychological well-being between NLLFS adolescents
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Ostensible psychiatric comorbidity can sometimes be explained by shared relations between diagnostic constructs and higher order internalizing and externalizing dimensions. However, this possibility has not been explored with regard to comorbidity between personality pathology and other clinical constructs in adolescents. In this study,…
Thompson, Laetitia L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth A.; Raymond, Kristen M.; Crowley, Thomas J.
Adolescents with substance use and conduct disorders have high rates of aggression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), all of which have been characterized in part by impulsivity. Developing measures that capture impulsivity behaviorally and correlate with self-reported impulsivity has been difficult. One promising behavioral…
Ascherman, Lee I.; Lamps, Christopher
OBJECTIVE: The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Match was instituted in 1996 to establish fair and uniform resident recruitment practices. METHOD: The impetus for its use was the desire to protect applicants and training programs from premature decisions based on fears of not securing a training position or not filling a program. RESULTS: However,…
In this issue of the Jornal de Pediatria, Silva et al. compared the growth patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. The Silva et al. study has significant public health implications...
McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly
Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…
Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Harris, Charlene; Terveer, Agnes M; Pagava, Karaman; Phagava, Helen; Michaud, Pierre-Andre
Previous research has documented the importance of parenting on adolescent health and well-being; however, some of the underlying mechanisms that link the quality of parent-child relationship to health, adjustment, and well-being are not clearly understood. The current study seeks to address this gap by examining the extent to which sleep functioning mediates the effects by parental warmth on different measures of adolescent problem behaviors. Specifically, we test whether sleep functioning, operationalized by sleep quality and sleep quantity, mediates the relationship between the parental warmth and three measures of problem behaviors, namely alcohol use, illegal drug use, and deviance, in two nationally representative samples of Georgian (N = 6,992; M = 15.83, 60% females, and Swiss (N = 5,575; M = 17.17, 50% females) adolescents. Based on tests for parallel mediating effects by sleep functioning of parental warmth on problem behaviors in the MEDIATE macro in SPSS, the findings provided evidence that both sleep quality and sleep quantity independently and cumulatively mediated the effects of parental warmth on each of the three problem behaviors in both samples, with one exception. These results highlight the salience of positive parenting on sleep functioning among teens in two different cultural contexts, and, in turn, on measures of problem behaviors. PMID:25148792
Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J.
Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems. PMID:24014896
Minnesota, University of
Background Drug addiction is a common problem in this country, especially for adolescents. The detrimental effects of exposure to addictive drugs during adolescence continue to affect individuals addiction and dependence requires us to refine measures of emotional states and use these measures
Craig A. Mason; Ana Mari Cauce; Nancy Gonzales; Yumi Hiraga
Examined the effect of peer problem behavior, the absence of a father or equivalent in the home, and the mother-adolescent\\u000a relationship as predictors of adolescent problem behavior in a sample of 112 African American adolescents. Statistical analyses\\u000a compared a moderator model to a mediational model and a cumulative risk model. As predicted, the moderator model was superior\\u000a to the alternative
Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent
The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent psychopathology and family functioning problems by parent gender. Participants included 242 parents in treatment for substance abuse and/or dependence and 59 of their coparents (16.9% in treatment for substance-abuse/dependence) from middle income households (SES: M = 4.7; SD = 2.1). Ratings were obtained for 325 adolescents (48% female; 27.8% non-Caucasian) between the ages of 10 and 18 years (M = 13.5 years; SD = 2.5 years). Parent psychopathology, family functioning problems, and adolescent problems were assessed with parent and coparent ratings on the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90)/Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Family Relationship Measure, and the Child Behavior Checklist, respectively. Results indicated that maternal psychopathology was directly related to adolescent internalizing problems and substance use, but maternal perceptions of family functioning problems failed to mediate relations between maternal psychopathology and adolescent problems. By contrast, paternal perceptions of family functioning problems uniquely mediated relations between paternal psychopathology and adolescent externalizing problems. Findings underscore the importance of examining how mothers and fathers may differentially impact adolescent problems in substance-abusing families. PMID:22392413
Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent
The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substanceabusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent psychopathology and family functioning problems by parent gender. Participants included 242 parents in treatment for substance abuse and/or dependence and 59 of their coparents (16.9% in treatment for substance-abuse/dependence) from middle income households (SES: M = 4.7; SD = 2.1). Ratings were obtained for 325 adolescents (48% female; 27.8% non-Caucasian) between the ages of 10 and 18 years (M = 13.5 years; SD = 2.5 years). Parent psychopathology, family functioning problems, and adolescent problems were assessed with parent and coparent ratings on the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90)/Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Family Relationship Measure, and the Child Behavior Checklist, respectively. Results indicated that maternal psychopathology was directly related to adolescent internalizing problems and substance use, but maternal perceptions of family functioning problems failed to mediate relations between maternal psychopathology and adolescent problems. By contrast, paternal perceptions of family functioning problems uniquely mediated relations between paternal psychopathology and adolescent externalizing problems. Findings underscore the importance of examining how mothers and fathers may differentially impact adolescent problems in substance-abusing families. PMID:22392413
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton
The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099
Nie, Yan-Gang; Li, Jian-Bin; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min
Self-consciousness is considered as a multifaceted and hierarchical construct that includes self-evaluation, self-experience, and self-control. This study assumes that self-consciousness is a preventative factor of internalizing and externalizing problems among Chinese adolescents. 1202 Chinese adolescents from grade 7 to grade 12 participated in this study by completing a battery of questionnaires that assessed self-consciousness and internalizing/externalizing problems. The results showed that, after controlling demographic variables, some lower-order factors (i.e., sense of satisfaction, sense of anxiety, social self, self-restraint, self-esteem, and self-monitoring) and higher-order subscales (i.e., self-evaluation and self-experience) of self-consciousness significantly predicted internalizing problems, while externalizing problems were predicted by several lower-order factors (i.e., self-restraint, sense of satisfaction, and self-monitoring) and higher-order subscales (i.e., self-control and self-experience). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Chinese adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems are related with different aspects of self-consciousness, which sheds light on the prevention into adolescents' problem behaviors. PMID:24931553
Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan
Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy® (BSFT®) model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents’ problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented. PMID:23731415
Junker, Asbjørn; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Gunnell, David; Bjerkeset, Ottar
Objectives: To investigate the association between sleeping problems in adolescence and subsequent hospital admission for self-harm (SH). Design: Prospective cohort study, linking health survey information on sleep problems to hospital-based patient records. Setting: Residents of Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, aged 13-19 years in 1995-97. Patients or Participants: 10,202 adolescents were invited to participate in the Young-HUNT study; 8,983 (88%) completed the health survey. Measurements and Results: 10% of participants reported difficulties initiating sleep, 4% reported early morning wakening. Ninety-eight participants (27% male) were hospitalized following SH over a mean 12 years follow-up. Difficulties initiating sleep/early morning wakening were associated with increased risk of SH (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.29-3.46, sex- and age-adjusted) compared with no problems, yet coexistent symptoms of combined anxiety/depression explained most of the association with sleep problems (fully adjusted HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.66-2.16). The HR of combined difficulties initiating sleep/early morning wakening differed in those with and without anxiety/depression at baseline (P interaction = 0.03); among those without caseness symptoms of anxiety/depression it was 5.58 (95% CI 2.02-15.40), while in those with caseness symptoms of anxiety/ depression it was 0.82 (95% CI 0.19-3.44). Conclusions: Sleep problems are common among Norwegian adolescents. The strong association between sleep problems and subsequent hospitalization for self-harm could mainly be related to coexistent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Prevention of adolescent sleep problems, anxiety and depression should be targeted when seeking to reduce and prevent self-harm. Citation: Junker A; Bjørngaard JH; Gunnell D; Bjerkeset O. Sleep problems and hospitalization for self-harm: a 15-year follow-up of 9,000 Norwegian adolescents. the Young-HUNT study. SLEEP 2014;37(3):579-585. PMID:24587581
Robert J. Lueger
The transgression behavior (cheating) of 60 behavior-problem adolescents was observed in experimentally defined high-arousal and control situations. Congruent with predictions, more Ss exposed to a high-arousal situation transgressed. Scores on the Behavior Problem Checklist personality dimensions were compared for transgressors (34 Ss) and nontransgressors (26 Ss). As predicted, Conduct-Problem and Socialized-Delinquency subscale scores were significantly higher for transgressors than for
Ugo Pace; Carla Zappulla
In this study we examined the relations between insecure attachment styles, commitment and behavioral problems, focusing on\\u000a the unique and common contribution that avoidant and anxious styles and commitment made to internalizing and externalizing\\u000a problems. 535 adolescents, 267 boys and 268 girls, aged from 16 to 18 years, completed self-report measures of attachment,\\u000a identity and problem behaviors. The data showed that
Christina M. Mitchell; Janette Beals
Using Problem-Behavior Theory as a framework, the latent structure of problem and positive behaviors was examined within a sample of 1,894 American Indian adolescents. Support was found for a two-factor second-order structure in which problem behaviors (antisocial behavior, alcohol use, drug use, and risky sexual behavior) and positive behaviors (school success, cultural activities, competencies, and community-mindedness) represented two relatively uncorrelated
Gavidia-Payne, Susana; Stoneman, Zolinda
A family systems framework was used to examine associations between stressors/hassles, problem-focused coping, and marital adjustment in 67 families of young children with disabilities. Most of the couples were experiencing average to above average marital adjustment. When daily stressors/hassles were higher, husbands and wives viewed their marriages more negatively. After variance contributed by stressors/hassles was statistically controlled, fathers who employed more problem-focused coping strategies were more positive about their marriages. For wives (but not husbands), a cross-spousal partner effect was found; women reported higher marital adjustment when their husbands employed more problem-focused coping strategies. We reaffirmed the systemic nature of family processes and highlighted the role of parent gender in understanding the relationships among stressors, coping, and marital well-being. PMID:16332152
Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…
Zach-Vanhorn, Sara M.
This research was conducted to explore predictors and moderators of bullying involvement, social and emotional problems, vocabulary knowledge, and crimes. There was one main research question: (1) Is there a the relationship between adolescents with social and emotional problems as measured by the SDQ (Goodman, 1997) and adolescents'…
Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud
Background Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. Methods This was a descriptive-correlative study on 384 randomly chosen male guidance school students. They were asked to answer the researcher's questionnaire about computer games and Achenbach’s Youth Self-Report (YSR). Findings The Results of this study indicated that there was about 95% direct significant correlation between the amount of playing games among adolescents and anxiety/depression, withdrawn/depression, rule-breaking behaviors, aggression, and social problems. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the amount of computer game usage and physical complaints, thinking problems, and attention problems. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the students’ place of living and their parents’ job, and using computer games. Conclusion Computer games lead to anxiety, depression, withdrawal, rule-breaking behavior, aggression, and social problems in adolescents. PMID:24494157
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.
This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents’ perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grades (54% female; 76% European American). Findings indicated that all the dimensions of school climate declined and behavioral problems and deviant peer affiliation increased. Declines in each of the dimensions were associated with increases in behavioral problems. The prediction of problem behavior from peer affiliation was moderated by adolescents’ perceptions of school climate. PMID:22822296
Toumbourou, John W.; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Smith, Rachel; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F
Aims To examine: rates of young adult alcohol and drug use and alcohol problems; adolescent predictors of young adult alcohol problems; and correlations with young adult social, work, and recreational environments. Design Adolescents were longitudinally followed into young adulthood. Predictors were measured in grade 9 (av., age 15), and environmental correlates and outcomes in young adulthood (av., age 21). Setting Students recruited in Victoria, Australia in 2002, were resurveyed in 2010/11. Participants Analytic N = 2,309, 80% retention. Measurements Adolescent self-report predictors included past-month alcohol use. Young adults completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) together with reports of environmental influences. Findings Comparisons to United States of America (U.S.) national school graduate samples revealed higher rates of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use (other than cannabis) in Victoria. For example rates of past month use at age 21–22 were: alcohol 69.3% U.S. vs 84.9% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) 81.3 – 88.6% Victoria; illicit drugs (other than cannabis) 8.8% vs 12.7%, CI 9.7 – 15.7%. AUDIT alcohol problems (scored 8+) were identified for 41.2%, CI 38.8 – 43.6% of young adults in Victoria. The likelihood of young adult alcohol problems was higher for frequent adolescent alcohol users, and those exposed to environments characterised by high alcohol use and problems in young adulthood. Conclusions High rates of alcohol problems are evident in over two in five Australian young adults and these problems appear to be influenced both by earlier patterns of adolescent alcohol use and by young adult social work, and recreational environments. PMID:24321051
Perfect, Michelle M; Elkins, Gary R
Inadequate sleep among adolescents frequently contributes to obesity and reduced academic performance, along with symptoms of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and attention deficits. The etiological bases of sleep quality has been associated with both stress and sleep habits. These problems tend to be especially important for adolescents with diabetes as the effects of poor sleep complicate health outcomes. This case example concerns a 14-year-old adolescent girl with a history of type I diabetes and stress-related sleep difficulties. Treatment included cognitive-behavioral methods and hypnotic relaxation therapy. Results of this case example and other controlled research suggest that hypnotic relaxation therapy is well accepted, results in good compliance, and serves as a useful adjunctive to cognitive-behavioral intervention for sleep problems. PMID:20865769
Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Lopez, Barbara; Huang, Shi; Tapia, Maria I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Sabillon, Eduardo; Brown, C. Hendricks; Branchini, Jennifer
Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Familias Unidas, a Hispanic-specific, parent-centered intervention, in preventing/reducing adolescent substance use, unsafe sexual behavior, and externalizing disorders. Methods A total of 213 8th grade Hispanic adolescents with behavior problems and their primary caregivers were assigned randomly to one of two conditions: Familias Unidas or Community Control. Participants were assessed at baseline and at 6, 18, and 30 months post baseline. Results Results showed that, relative to a Community Control condition, Familias Unidas was efficacious in preventing or reducing externalizing disorders, preventing and reducing substance use, and in reducing unsafe sexual behavior. The effects of Familias Unidas on these outcomes were partially mediated by improvements in family functioning. Conclusions These findings suggest that parent-centered intervention is an efficacious strategy for preventing/reducing specific health risk behaviors in Hispanic adolescents with behavior problems. PMID:19834053
Perfect, Michelle M.; Elkins, Gary R.
Inadequate sleep among adolescents frequently contributes to obesity and reduced academic performance, along with symptoms of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and attention deficits. The etiological bases of sleep quality has been associated with both stress and sleep habits. These problems tend to be especially important for adolescents with diabetes as the effects of poor sleep complicate health outcomes. This case example concerns a 14-year-old adolescent girl with a history of type I diabetes and stress-related sleep difficulties. Treatment included cognitive–behavioral methods and hypnotic relaxation therapy. Results of this case example and other controlled research suggest that hypnotic relaxation therapy is well accepted, results in good compliance, and serves as a useful adjunctive to cognitive–behavioral intervention for sleep problems. PMID:20865769
Feenstra, Dine J; Hutsebaut, Joost; Verheul, Roel; Busschbach, Jan J V
The Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008) is a self-report questionnaire focusing on core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning. The SIPP-118 was developed and validated in an adult population. In adult populations, the 16 facets of the SIPP-118 fit into 5 higher order domains: self-control, identity integration, relational capacities, social concordance, and responsibility. In this study we present the 1st psychometric properties of the SIPP-118 in adolescents. We compared the SIPP-118 scores of a patient and a nonpatient sample of adolescents, and compared personality disordered and non-personality disordered adolescents. In addition, the relationship between scores on the SIPP-118 and other clinical instruments (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised; SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1975; Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Personality; DAPP-BQ; Livesley & Jackson, 2002) was investigated. The questionnaires were completed by 378 adolescent patients and 389 adolescents in the community. Facets appeared to be homogeneous, as alpha coefficients ranged from .62 to .89, indicating moderate to acceptable reliability. Also, more pathological SIPP-118 scores were found in the patient sample, and more specifically in the personality disordered sample, suggesting that the facet scores of the SIPP-118 can discriminate between various populations (divergent validity). Correlation with other clinical instruments was moderate to high (-.82 to .10). Taken together, the SIPP-118 seems to be a promising instrument measuring personality pathology in adolescents. PMID:21500921
Leanne Lester; Donna Cross; Thérèse Shaw
Problem Behaviour Theory suggests that young people's problem behaviours tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between traditional bullying, cyberbullying and engagement in problem behaviours using longitudinal data from approximately 1500 students. Levels of traditional victimisation and perpetration at the beginning of secondary school (grade 8, age 12) predicted levels of engagement in problem behaviours at the end of
Chan, Chia-Hua; Ting, Te-Tien; Chen, Yen-Tyng; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Wei J
This study aimed to investigate the relations of adolescent sexual experiences (particularly early initiation) to a spectrum of emotional/behavioral problems and to probe possible gender difference in such relationships. The 10th (N = 8,842) and 12th (N = 10,083) grade students, aged 16-19 years, participating in national surveys in 2005 and 2006 in Taiwan were included for this study. A self-administered web-based questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual experience, substance use, and the Youth Self-Report Form. For the sexually experienced adolescents, their sexual initiation was classified as early initiation (<16 years) or non-early initiation (16-19 years). Gender-specific multivariate response profile regression was used to examine the relationship between sexual experience and the behavioral syndromes. Externalizing problems, including Rule-breaking Behavior and Aggressive Behavior, were strongly associated with sexual initiation in adolescence; the magnitude of the association increased for earlier sexual initiation, especially for females. As to internalizing problems, the connection was rather heterogeneous. The scores on some syndromes, such as Somatic Complaints and Anxious/Depressed, were higher only for females with early or non-early sexual initiation whereas the score on Withdrawn, along with Social Problems that is neither internalizing nor externalizing, was lower for the sexually experienced adolescents than for the sexually inexperienced ones. We concluded that earlier sexual initiation was associated with a wider range of behavioral problems in adolescents for both genders, yet the increased risk with emotional problems was predominately found in females. PMID:24590627
Buehler, Cheryl; Benson, Mark J.; Gerard, Jean M.
This study examines how parenting helps explain the contemporaneous association between interparental hostility and adolescent problem behavior. A theoretical model of spillover was tested specifying five aspects of mothers' and fathers' parenting that might be associated with parents' hostile interactions with one another: harshness,…
Stice, Eric; Kirz, Josh; Borbely, Christina
Tested whether psychosocial variables showed direct relations to substance use, and direct, indirect, and interactive relations to use-related negative consequences in adolescents. Found psychosocial variables relate to problem use beyond the simple indirect effect from consumption level. (Author/DLH)
Nangle, Douglas W.; Carr, Rebecca E.; Hansen, David J.
This case study illustrates the contributions of continuous data monitoring to clinical decision making in the treatment of an adolescent with severe conduct problems. Use of a comprehensive point system that required monitoring and graphing and frequent review provided the client and parents with visual feedback of progress. An additional…
This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese…
Olson, Cheryl K.; Kutner, Lawrence A.; Baer, Lee; Beresin, Eugene V.; Warner, Dorothy E.; Nicholi, Armand M., II
This research examined the potential relationship between adolescent problem behaviors and amount of time spent with violent electronic games. Survey data were collected from 1,254 7th and 8th grade students in two states. A "dose" of exposure to Mature-rated games was calculated using Entertainment Software Rating Board ratings of titles children…
Davidson, Shannon; Adams, Jennifer
Throughout the developing world, adolescents living in rural poverty face multiple and inter-related adaptive challenges. Using longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, we adopt an approach grounded in resilience theory to investigate the relationship between cumulative adversity and internalizing problems among 1,659…
Marcotte, Diane; Alain, Michel; Gosselin, Marie-Josee
Examined gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence related to gender-typed characteristics, problem solving abilities, and stressful life events in Canada. Surveys of high school students indicated that girls reported more depressive symptoms and scored higher on expressivity, whereas boys reported more instrumental attributes.…
Rickwood, Debra; White, Angela; Eckersley, Richard
This paper provides an overview of current trends in the mental health problems of Australia's youth and adolescents. It presents information derived from the most recent and comprehensive Australian surveys of youth mental health, and provides international comparisons and views from professional practice where relevant. An update of trends for…
Gregory M. Fosco; Elizabeth A. Stormshak; Thomas J. Dishion; Charlotte E. Winter
The middle school years are a period of increased risk for youths’ engagement in antisocial behaviors, substance use, and affiliation with deviant peers (Dishion & Patterson, 2006). This study examined the specific role of parental monitoring and of family relationships (mother, father, and sibling) that are all critical to the deterrence of problem behavior in early adolescence. The study sample
Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Bullock, Bernadette Marie
Premature autonomy describes a developmental dynamic where parents of high-risk adolescents reduce their involvement and guidance when confronted with challenges of problem behaviour and the influence of deviant friendships. This dynamic was tested on the sample of Oregon Youth Study boys (N=206), whose family management practices and friendships…
The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…
Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E.; Zucker, Robert A.
The identification of developmentally specific windows at which key predictors of adolescent substance use are most influential is a crucial task for informing the design of appropriately targeted substance use prevention and intervention programs. The current study examined effects of conduct problems and depressive symptomatology on changes in…
Stewart, Sherry Heather; McGonnell, Melissa; Wekerle, Christine; Adlaf, Ed
Four specific personality factors have been theorized to put adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse: hopelessness (HOP), anxiety sensitivity (AS), sensation seeking (SS), and impulsivity (IMP). We examined relations of these personality factors to various alcohol-related indices in a sample at high risk for alcohol problems--specifically, a child…
Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.
Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…
Sewell, Trevor E.; And Others
Examined relationships among self-regulatory behaviors, perceptions of social reinforcement from significant persons, and problem-solving performance of Black adolescents (N=33). Components of self-regulatory processes--self-reinforcement, self-evaluation, and self-monitoring--were interrelated highly. Perceptions of neither positive nor negative…
Bertino, Melanie D.; Connell, Gabrielle; Lewis, Andrew J.
Background: This study investigated the relationship between parental personality patterns and internalising and externalising behaviour problems in a clinically referred sample of children (aged 4-8) and adolescents (aged 12-18). Methods: Data from families involved in two clinical trials in Victoria, Australia were analysed (n = 59). Families…
William W. Latimer; Michael Newcomb; Ken C. Winters; Randy D. Stinchfield
A structural equation model incorporating substance abuse problem severity, psychosocial risk and protection, and treatment variables examined adolescent drug abuse treatment outcome pathways across 6- and 12-month follow-up points. Findings on resiliency factors and an empirical method adapted from previous research were used to select and assign 10 psychosocial factors to either a multiple protective factor index or a risk
Selfhout, M. H. W.; Branje, S. J. T.; Meeus, W. H. J.
This study examined friendship types in developmental trajectories of perceived closeness and balanced relatedness. In addition, differences between friendship types in the development of constructive problem solving and depression were examined. Questionnaire data of five annual waves were used from two adolescent cohorts (cohort 1: M = 12.41…
Hartos, Jessica L.; Eitel, Patricia; Haynie, Denise L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.
Examined relationships among parenting practices and problem-driving practices among licensed adolescents with less than 2 years of driving experience. Found that factors significantly related to risky driving behaviors, traffic violations, and motor vehicle crashes included lower levels of parental monitoring and control, lenient parental…
Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren
Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…
Weisz, Arlene N.; Tolman, Richard M.; Callahan, Michelle R.; Saunders, Daniel G.; Black, Beverly M.
This study examines the responses of informal helpers to adolescents who disclose dating violence or upsetting but non-violent experiences in their romantic relationships. Based on a survey of 224 Midwestern high school students, the study found that youths were more likely to disclose problems to friends rather than others. A factor analysis of…
Lifshitz, Hefziba; Weiss, Itzhak; Tzuriel, David; Tzemach, Moran
The main goal of the study was to map the difficulties and cognitive processes among adolescents (aged 13-21, N = 30) and adults (aged 25-66, N = 30) with mild and moderate intellectual disability (ID) when solving analogical problems. The participants were administered the "Conceptual and Perceptual Analogical Modifiability" test. A three-fold…
Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.
The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…
Turkum, Ayse Sibel
This study examined whether adolescents' perceptions of problem solving skills differ according to their sex, experiences of exposure to violence, age and grade, and the variables predicting their experiences of exposure to violence. Data were collected from 600(298 females, 302 males) 14-19 year-old students attending various types of high…
Laetitia L. Thompson; Paula D. Riggs; Susan K. Mikulich; Thomas J. Crowley
We examined adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) and substance problems to determine if those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology had more severe delinquency and substance involvement. ADHD symptomatology was assessed in two ways: (1) by self-reports using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) and (2) by use of DISC plus reports of others (parents, program staff, and
Speckens, Anne E. M.; Hawton, Keith
There is an increasing focus on deficiencies in problem solving as a vulnerability factor for suicidal behavior in general and hence a target for treatment in suicide attempters. In view of the uncertainty of evidence for this in adolescents we conducted a systematic review of the international research literature examining the possible…
Piotrowski, Caroline C; Tailor, Ketan; Cormier, Damien C
Although the majority of families that experience intimate partner violence (IPV) have more than one child, most research to date has focused upon a single child within these families. A significant body of research has indicated siblings play an important role in children's adjustment and well-being. To address this gap, the three main goals of the present study were to compare the adjustment of older and younger siblings exposed to IPV, to describe and compare the quality of these sibling relationships from multiple perspectives, and to investigate how sibling adjustment and relationship quality influence children's adjustment. Forty-seven sibling pairs and their mothers were recruited from the community. Mothers self-reported on their violent experiences using the Conflict Tactics Scale, and also estimated the length of time their children were exposed to IPV. Mothers and children completed assessments of child adjustment and the quality of sibling relationships. Observers also assessed the quality of sibling interaction. Results indicated that adjustment between siblings was highly inter-related. On average, mothers reported sibling relationships as less positive but also as less hostile than did siblings themselves. Higher levels of sibling hostility, lower levels of sibling warmth and higher levels of disengagement each significantly predicted child adjustment; however, these effects were predicated upon the adjustment of the other sibling. The sibling relationships of children exposed to IPV made a difference in their individual adjustment, and their adjustment issues influenced how they feel about and interacted with their sibling. Sibling hostility played a stronger role in adjustment issues than sibling warmth. The nature of sibling influences and the direction of future research were discussed. PMID:24021818
Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E; Zucker, Robert A
The identification of developmentally specific windows at which key predictors of adolescent substance use are most influential is a crucial task for informing the design of appropriately targeted substance use prevention and intervention programs. The current study examined effects of conduct problems and depressive symptomatology on changes in alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana from 8th through 12th grade. We examined the effects of relatively developmentally distal versus proximal mental health problems on adolescent substance use and tested for gender differences. With a national, longitudinal sample from the Monitoring the Future study (N = 3,014), structural equation modeling was used to test the effects of 8th and 10th grade conduct problems and depressive symptomatology on subsequent changes in alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use from 8th through 12th grade. Results indicated that relatively distal (8th grade) mental health problems were stronger predictors of increases in alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use than were relatively more proximal (10th grade) mental health problems. Eighth grade conduct problems had the strongest effects on alcohol and marijuana use, and 8th grade depressive symptomatology had the strongest effects on cigarette use. Few gender differences were observed. These results suggest that intervening in earlier appearing conduct problems and depressive symptomatology may lead to a reduction in adolescent substance use in 10th and 12th grades and beyond. PMID:24274728
Jessor, Richard; Chase, James A.; Donovan, John E.
Personality, environmental, and behavioral variables representing psychosocial risk factors for adolescent problem behavior were assessed in a 1974 national sample study of over 10,000 junior and senior high school students. Significant correlations were found with marijuana use, and the relationships held across differences in age, sex, and ethnic group membership. Greater involvement in marijuana use was associated with greater value on independence than on academic achievement, lower expectations for academic achievement, lesser religiosity, greater tolerance of deviance, less compatibility between friends and parents, greater influence of friends relative to parents, greater models and support for problem behavior, greater actual involvement in other problem behaviors such as drunkenness, and less involvement in conventional behavior such as attending church. Multiple regression analyses show that this pattern of psychosocial correlates accounts for over 50 per cent of the variation in marijuana use. The pattern is nearly identical to the pattern that accounts for problem drinking in these same adolescents. The similarity of the patterns of psychosocial risk, and the substantial correlations of marijuana use with problem drinking and with other problem behaviors, suggest that marijuana use is best seen as part of a syndrome of adolescent problem behavior. (Am J Public Health 70:604- 613,1980.) PMID:7377436
Williams, Joah L; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Knowlton, Alice W; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of physical injuries and mortality among children and adolescents in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between having an MVC and mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and drug and alcohol misuse in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. A sample of 3,604 adolescents, aged 12-17 years, was assessed as part of the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (NSA-R) study. Data were weighted according to the 2005 U.S. Census estimates. Within this sample, 10.2% of adolescents reported having at least 1 serious MVC. The prevalence of current PTSD and depression among adolescents having an MVC was 7.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Analyses revealed that an MVC among adolescents aged 15 years and younger was independently associated with depression (OR = 2.17) and alcohol abuse (OR = 2.36) after adjusting for other risk factors, including a history of interpersonal violence. Among adolescents aged 16 years and older, an MVC was associated only with alcohol abuse (OR = 2.08). This study was the first attempt to explore adverse mental health outcomes associated with MVCs beyond traumatic stress symptoms among adolescents in a nationally representative sample. PMID:25613484
Undheim, Anne Mari; Wichstrom, Lars; Sund, Anne Mari
In the present study of Norwegian adolescents aged 12-15 years, adolescents with reading difficulties (RD) were compared with adolescents without RD on emotional and behavioral problems. Of this group, 191 (7.8%) adolescents reported having RD at T[subscript 1]. At both time points, when compared with the non-RD group, those in the RD group had…
Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher; Stawski, Robert S.
Using daily diary methods, mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 86) were contrasted with a nationally representative comparison group of mothers of similarly-aged unaffected children (n = 171) with respect to the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. Mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD were found to have significantly lower levels of cortisol throughout the day. Within the ASD sample, the son or daughter’s history of behavior problems interacted with daily behavior problems to predict the morning rise of the mother’s cortisol. A history of elevated behavior problems moderated the effect of behavior problems the day before on maternal cortisol level. Implications for interventions for both the mother and the individual with ASD are suggested. PMID:19890706
McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.
Objective: This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women's intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children's adjustment problems in families characterized by men's severe violence toward women. Methods: Participants were 258 children and their mothers…
Soo Hyun Rhee; John K. Hewitt; Susan E. Young; Robin P. Corley; Thomas J. Crowley; Michael C. Stallings
Background:Weconductedasibling\\/twin\\/adoptionstudy of substance initiation, use, and problem use, estimating the relative contribution of genetic and environmental in- fluences on these phenotypes in adolescents. Methods:The participants were 345 monozygotic twin pairs,337dizygotictwinpairs,306biologicalsiblingpairs, and 74 adoptive sibling pairs assessed by the Colorado CenterfortheGeneticsandTreatmentofAntisocialDrug Dependence,DenverandBoulder.Theinitiation,use,and problem use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs were assessed. Tetrachoric correlations were computed for each group,
Lester, Leanne; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Therese
Problem Behaviour Theory suggests that young people's problem behaviours tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between traditional bullying, cyberbullying and engagement in problem behaviours using longitudinal data from approximately 1500 students. Levels of traditional victimisation and perpetration at the beginning of secondary…
Charles Barone; Roger P. Weissberg; Wesley J. Kasprow; Charlene K. Voyce; Michael W. Arthur; Timothy P. Shriver
This paper examines four areas of “problem behavior” (i.e., delinquency, high-risk sexual behavior, school failure, and substance abuse) in a sample of urban sixth and seventh grade students. We report descriptive statistics regarding rates of problem behaviors in each of the four categories and examine their interrelationships. The results suggest that the prevalence of problem behaviors in this sample is
165 students, from the fifth, seventh and ninth grades were asked to solve written problems involving fractions. In the problems a reference quantity (RQ) was multiplied by a fraction (FR), yielding the value of a compared quantity (CQ). The fraction expressed either an part-whole ratio (PW), or a part-part ratio (PP). Six type of problems were…
DeLeire, Thomas; Kalil, Ariel
This research used data from the 1998 National Educational Longitudinal Study to investigate the development of outcomes for adolescents living with single mothers in multigenerational families compared with adolescents living in married families (as well as a disaggregated set of other family structures). The study measured family structure when…
Cho, Su-Je; Hudley, Cynthia; Back, Hye Joo
This study investigated the appropriateness of the Self-Report of Personality (SRP) of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) with a sample of Korean American adolescents. The study further explored the extent to which Korean American adolescents experience social and emotional difficulties and how these difficulties might be related…
Dwairy, Marwan; Achoui, Mustafa
Connectedness between children and their family is a major factor that distinguishes between collective and individualistic cultures. The "Multigenerational Interconnectedness Scale", measuring adolescents-family connectedness was administered to adolescents in nine western and eastern countries. The findings show that connectedness in eastern…
ANSARY, NADIA S.; LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.
The main objectives of this study were to prospectively examine the relationship between externalizing (substance use and delinquency) and internalizing (depression and anxiety) dimensions and academic achievement (grades and classroom adjustment), as well as continuity over time in these domains, within a sample of wealthy adolescents followed from 10th to 12th grades (n = 256). In both parts of the study, cluster analyses were used to group participants at 10th grade and then group differences were evaluated on adjustment outcomes over time. In Part 1, problem behavior clusters revealed differences on academic indices with the two marijuana using groups—marijuana users and multiproblem youth—exhibiting the worst academic outcomes at all three waves. For Part 2, the two lowest achieving groups reported the highest distress across all externalizing dimensions over time. Stability across the three waves was found for both personal and academic competence as well as the associations between these two domains. Results are discussed in relation to intervention efforts targeting wealthy students at risk. PMID:19144236
Prieto, Luis; Sacristán, José A
The quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) is a measure of the value of health outcomes. Since health is a function of length of life and quality of life, the QALY was developed as an attempt to combine the value of these attributes into a single index number. The QALY calculation is simple: the change in utility value induced by the treatment is multiplied by the duration of the treatment effect to provide the number of QALYs gained. QALYs can then be incorporated with medical costs to arrive at a final common denominator of cost/QALY. This parameter can be used to compare the cost-effectiveness of any treatment. Nevertheless, QALYs have been criticised on technical and ethical grounds. A salient problem relies on the numerical nature of its constituent parts. The appropriateness of the QALY arithmetical operation is compromised by the essence of the utility scale: while life-years are expressed in a ratio scale with a true zero, the utility is an interval scale where 0 is an arbitrary value for death. In order to be able to obtain coherent results, both scales would have to be expressed in the same units of measurement. The different nature of these two factors jeopardises the meaning and interpretation of QALYs. A simple general linear transformation of the utility scale suffices to demonstrate that the results of the multiplication are not invariant. Mathematically, the solution to these limitations happens through an alternative calculation of QALYs by means of operations with complex numbers rooted in the well known Pythagorean theorem. Through a series of examples, the new calculation arithmetic is introduced and discussed. PMID:14687421
López-Fernández, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Ma Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat
Problematic use of the mobile telephone is an emerging phenomenon in our society, and one which particularly affects the teenage population. Knowledge from research on the problematic use of this technology is necessary, since such use can give rise to a behavioural pattern with addictive characteristics. There are hardly any scales for measuring possible problematic use of mobile phones, and none at all adapted exclusively for the Spanish adolescent population. The scale most widely used internationally is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS). The aim of the present study is to adapt the MPPUS for use with Spanish adolescents. The Spanish version of the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1132 adolescents aged 12 to 18. Reliability and factorial validity were comparable to those obtained in adult population, so that the measure of problematic mobile phone use in Spanish teenagers is one-dimensional. A prevalence of 14.8% of problematic users was detected. PMID:22648315
Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer
Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.
HAMMOND, CHRISTOPHER J.; PILVER, COREY E.; RUGLE, LOREEN; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; MAYES, LINDA C.; MALISON, ROBERT T.; KRISHNAN-SARIN, SUCHITRA; HOFF, RANI A.; POTENZA, MARC N.
Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: ARPG was found more frequently in adolescents with lifetime marijuana use than in adolescents denying marijuana use. Marijuana use was associated with more severe and a higher frequency of gambling-related behaviors and different motivations for gambling. Multiple health/functioning impairments were differentially associated with problem-gambling severity amongst adolescents with and without marijuana use. Significant marijuana-use-by-problem-gambling-severity-group interactions were observed for low-average grades (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.77]), cigarette smoking (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = [0.17, 0.83]), current alcohol use (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.91]), and gambling with friends (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.77]). In all cases, weaker associations between problem-gambling severity and health/functioning correlates were observed in the marijuana-use group as compared to the marijuana-non-use group. Conclusions: Some academic, substance use, and social factors related to problem-gambling severity may be partially accounted for by a relationship with marijuana use. Identifying specific factors that underlie the relationships between specific attitudes and behaviors with gambling problems and marijuana use may help improve intervention strategies. PMID:25215219
Hoglund, Wendy L. G.; Hosan, Naheed E.
The current study bridges research on peer relational and physical victimization with research on ethnic victimization and situates this research in the context of ethnic diversity. Specifically, the authors investigate how ethnic, relational, and physical victimization relate to concurrent levels of depression/anxiety and physical aggression and…
MUN, EUN YOUNG; WINDLE, MICHAEL; SCHAINKER, LISA M.
Data from a community-based sample of 1,126 10th- and 11th-grade adolescents were analyzed using a model-based cluster analysis approach to empirically identify heterogeneous adolescent subpopulations from the person-oriented and pattern-oriented perspectives. The model-based cluster analysis is a new clustering procedure to investigate population heterogeneity utilizing finite mixture multivariate normal densities and accordingly to classify subpopulations using more rigorous statistical procedures for the comparison of alternative models. Four cluster groups were identified and labeled multiproblem high-risk, smoking high-risk, normative, and low-risk groups. The multiproblem high risk exhibited a constellation of high levels of problem behaviors, including delinquent and sexual behaviors, multiple illicit substance use, and depressive symptoms at age 16. They had risky temperamental attributes and lower academic functioning and educational expectations at age 15.5 and, subsequently, at age 24 completed fewer years of education, and reported lower levels of physical health and higher levels of continued involvement in substance use and abuse. The smoking high-risk group was also found to be at risk for poorer functioning in young adulthood, compared to the low-risk group. The normative and the low risk groups were, by and large, similar in their adolescent and young adult functioning. The continuity and comorbidity path from middle adolescence to young adulthood may be aided and abetted by chronic as well as episodic substance use by adolescents. PMID:18211739
Barbarin, Oscar A.; And Others
Examined adjustment problems for children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Parents provided information on social, emotional, academic, and family adjustment of 327 children with SCA. Over 25% of children had emotional adjustment problems in form of internalizing symptoms (anxiety and depression); at least 20% had problems related to…
Marie T. Banich; Thomas J. Crowley; Laetitia L. Thompson; Benjamin L. Jacobson; Xun Liu; Kristen M. Raymond; Eric D. Claus
BackgroundAlthough many neuroimaging studies have examined changes in brain function in adults with substance use disorders, far fewer have examined adolescents. This study investigated patterns of brain activation in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems (SCP) compared to controls.
Christine McCauley Ohannessian; Victor M. Hesselbrock
This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk-taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse. © 2008 Society for Adolescent Medicine. All rights reserved. Negative affect
Emam, Mahmoud M.
The association between attributional style (AS), problem-solving orientation (PSO), and gender on depressive symptoms was investigated in Egyptian adolescents with visual impairment (VI). After being written in Braille, measures of AS, PSO, and depression were administered to 110 adolescents with VI, ages 12-17 years, from a residential school…
Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay
The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…
Pan, En-ling; Farrell, Michael P.
This study examines whether the effects of single-mother families (SMFs) on adolescent problem behavior are buffered by supportive mothering and the involvement of nonresident fathers and whether the effectiveness of these two buffers varies by ethnicity. Based on the data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors find…
Guilamo-Ramos; Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida
A framework for the analysis of adolescent problem behaviors was explicated that draws on five major theories of human behavior. The framework emphasizes intentions to perform behaviors and factors that influence intentions as well as moderate the impact of intentions on behavior. The framework was applied to the analysis of adolescent sexual risk…
Ludden, Alison Bryant
The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…
Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.
This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…
LeBlanc, Monique; Self-Brown, Shannon; Shepard, Desti; Kelley, Mary Lou
Although many adolescents exposed to violence evidence negative outcomes, some report few deleterious effects, indicating the presence of moderating variables. This study examined the moderating role of family communication and problem solving on positive and negative outcomes in adolescents exposed to school and neighborhood violence.…
Timmons, Adela C.; Margolin, Gayla
Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; M[subscript age] = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative…
Simonoff, Emily; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Pickles, Andrew; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony
Introduction: Severe mood dysregulation and problems (SMP) in otherwise typically developing youth are recognized as an important mental health problem with a distinct set of clinical features, family history and neurocognitive characteristics. SMP in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have not previously been explored. Method: We…
Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.
Objective While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages 10–19 years. Methods We obtained longitudinal data on 2,230 adolescents during ages 10–19 from four measurements regarding use of general care and specialized care (youth social care and mental healthcare) in the preceding 6 months, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report, and child and family characteristics. We analyzed data by multilevel logistic regression. Results Overall rates of use increased from 20.1% at age 10/11 to 32.2% at age 19: general care was used most. At age 10/11 use was higher among boys, at age 19 among girls. Use of general care increased for both genders, whereas use of specialized care increased among girls but decreased among boys. This differential change was associated with CBCL externalizing and internalizing problems, school problems, family socioeconomic status, and parental divorce. Preceding CBCL problems predicted more use: most for mental health care and least for general care. Moreover, general care was used more frequently by low and medium socioeconomic status families, with odds ratios (95%-confidence intervals): 1.52 (1.23;1.88) and 1.40 (1.17;1.67); youth social care in case of parental divorce, 2.07 (1.36;3.17); and of special education, 2.66 (1.78;3.95); and mental healthcare in case of special education, 2.66 (1.60;4.51). Discussion Adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems use general care most frequently. Overall use increases with age. Determinants of use vary per type. PMID:24699408
Moseley, Lynette; Gradisar, Michael
Study Objectives: The present study investigated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention in increasing sleep knowledge and improving adolescent sleep problems. Design: A randomized, controlled trial using 2 groups (program class, classes-as-usual: [CAU]) assessed over 3 time points (pre-program, post-program, 6-week follow-up). Participants/Setting: Eighty-one students (mean age = 15.6 ± 0.6 y; 33% male) from 2 schools in South Australia. Schools provided one class to participate in the sleep intervention program (N = 41) and a second class to act as a control class (N = 40). Intervention: Four 50-minute classes across a 4-week period. Classes consisted of educating adolescents on promoting and maintaining a healthy lifestyle based on a cognitive-behavior therapy framework. Measurements and Results: Data were collected pre-program, post-program, and at 6-week follow-up using an online questionnaire. Qualitative student and teacher data were collected at post-program. Baseline data indicated sleep problems were prevalent (53.1% insufficient sleep on school nights [ < 8 h] and 77.8% discrepant school/weekend rise times [ > 2 h]). These 2 criteria identified 36 adolescents with a delayed sleep timing (DST; Program, N = 21; CAU, N = 15). The program increased sleep knowledge (P = 0.001); however, analyses revealed no significant effects on target sleep variables as compared with the CAU class for the entire group (all P > 0.05). For DST adolescents, there was a significant interaction for reducing the discrepancy between school and weekend out of bed times (P = 0.002). There was no impact on other sleep parameters or depressed mood. Conclusions: School-based sleep interventions for adolescents are a novel method for addressing a prevalent problem. Future programs should develop ways to motivate adolescents to change sleep practices. Citation: Moseley L; Gradisar M. Evaluation of a school-based intervention for adolescent sleep problems. SLEEP 2009;32(3):334–341. PMID:19294953
Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi
BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items) of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire) and interrelations among them based on Jessor’s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory). METHODS: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. RESULTS: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The ? range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. CONCLUSIONS: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents. PMID:21526075
Dishion, Thomas J; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Myers, Michael W
This study examined the peer dynamics linking early adolescent problem behavior, school marginalization, and low academic performance to multiple indices of late adolescent violence (arrests, parent report, and youth report) in an ethnically diverse sample of 998 males and females. A cascade model was proposed in which early adolescent risk factors assessed at age 11 to 12 predict gang involvement at age 13 to 14, which in turn, predicts deviancy training with friends at age 16 to 17, which then predicts violence by age 18 to 19. Each construct in the model was assessed with multiple measures and methods. Structural equation modeling revealed that the cascade model fit the data well, with problem behavior, school marginalization, and low academic performance significantly predicting gang involvement 2 years later. Gang involvement, in turn, predicted deviancy training with a friend, which predicted violence. The best fitting model included an indirect and direct path between early adolescent gang involvement and later violence. These findings suggest the need to carefully consider peer clustering into gangs in efforts to prevent individual and aggregate levels of violence, especially in youths who may be disengaged, marginalized, or academically unsuccessful in the public school context. PMID:20576182
Bos, Henny; Goldberg, Naomi; Gelderen, Loes Van; Gartrell, Nanette
adolescent reports, four trait subscales of the STPI were used: anxiety, anger, depression, andadolescent self- report c Anxiety M SD Anger M SD Depressionadolescent gender) MANOVA using the four STPI subscales (anxiety, anger, depression,
Background: The Iran-Iraq war during the 1980-1988 has left many consequences on veterans and their families that persist long after the war ended. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of psychological problems and marital adjustment of Iranian veterans on their children's quality of life and happiness 24 years after the war ended. Patients and Methods: The sample was all children of veterans in Isfahan city that registered by Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF). One hundred sixty-three veterans were selected by systematic randomized sampling and the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and dyadic adjustment scale (DAS) were administered for them. Their wives filled out the DAS and their children answered to World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). The data from questionnaires completed by 149 families were analyzed using the multiple regressions analysis. Results: Global Severity Index (GSI) scores of veterans and veteran's age were inversely correlated with the scores of children's quality of life, while marital adjustment of parents and number of rooms in house were positively correlated. Mother's age was inversely correlated with the scores of children's happiness, while marital adjustment of the parents, the number of rooms in their house and the number of children were positively correlated. Conclusions: In veterans' family, psychological health of the veterans and marital adjustment of the parents have a significant relationship with their children's quality of life and happiness. PMID:25599063
Bonnie J. Leadbeater; Elizabeth M. Banister; Wendy E. Ellis; Rachel Yeung
Consistent with the view that adolescent relationships are established in the context of important characteristics of their\\u000a social networks, we examined the effects of adolescents’ experiences of parenting (psychological control and positive monitoring)\\u000a and of peer aggression and victimization, on their self reports of dating victimization and aggression. We also examined the\\u000a effects of individual differences in emotional and behavioral
Willoughby, Teena; Hamza, Chloe A.
This longitudinal study investigated the importance of parental monitoring to the deterrence of adolescent problem behavior by examining bidirectional associations among perceived parental monitoring, adolescent disclosure and problem behaviors across the high school years. Adolescents (N = 2,941; 50.3% female) were surveyed each year from grades…