Farrell, Albert D.; Sullivan, Terri N.; Kliewer, Wendy; Allison, Kevin W.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Meyer, Aleta L.; Esposito, Layla
This study examined the occurrence of problem situations in the peer and school domains and their relation to adjustment among urban adolescents. Students from three urban middle schools ("N"=176) serving a predominantly African American population rated 61 problem situations identified in a previous qualitative study and completed measures of…
Objective: To examine the association between frequency of family dinners (FFD) and selected problem behaviors for adolescents after adjusting for family connectedness, parental awareness, other family activities, and other potentially confounding factors. Methods: Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. The primary…
Park, Irene J. K.; Kim, Paul Youngbin; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Kim, May
Using an ecologically informed, developmental psychopathology perspective, the present study examined contextual and intrapersonal predictors of depressive symptoms and externalizing problems among Korean American adolescents. Specifically, the role of cultural context (self-construals), family processes (family cohesion and conflict), and anger regulation (anger control, anger suppression, and outward anger expression) were examined. Study participants were N = 166 Korean American adolescents ranging from 11-15 (M = 13.0; SD = 1.2) years old. Results showed that depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lower levels of perceived family cohesion, higher levels of perceived family conflict intensity, and higher levels of anger suppression. Externalizing problems were associated with male gender, a weaker interdependent self-construal, higher levels of perceived family conflict, lower levels of anger control, and higher levels of outward anger expression. The distinction between specific vs. common factors associated with depressive symptoms and externalizing problems was discussed with an eye towards prevention or intervention strategies targeting specific coping mechanisms (e.g., generating alternatives to anger suppression) or developing psychoeducational approaches to facilitate family processes. PMID:20553519
Park, Irene J K; Kim, Paul Y; Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Kim, May
Using an ecologically informed, developmental psychopathology perspective, the present study examined contextual and intrapersonal predictors of depressive symptoms and externalizing problems among Korean American adolescents. Specifically, the role of cultural context (self-construals), family processes (family cohesion and conflict), and anger regulation (anger control, anger suppression, and outward anger expression) were examined. Study participants were N = 166 Korean American adolescents ranging from 11 to 15 years old (M = 13.0, SD = 1.2). Results showed that depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lower levels of perceived family cohesion, higher levels of perceived family conflict intensity, and higher levels of anger suppression. Externalizing problems were associated with male gender, a weaker interdependent self-construal, higher levels of perceived family conflict, lower levels of anger control, and higher levels of outward anger expression. The distinction between specific versus common factors associated with depressive symptoms and externalizing problems was discussed with an eye toward prevention or intervention strategies targeting specific coping mechanisms (e.g., generating alternatives to anger suppression) or developing psychoeducational approaches to facilitate family processes. PMID:20553519
van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R. R. J. M.; Krabbendam, A. A.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Doreleijers, T. A. H.; Jansen, L. M. C.
Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 SD = 0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age = 20.0,…
Chapman, Steven F.
Presents a review of attachment theory as it relates to adolescents, and suggests connections between attachment, developmental changes, and adjustment of adolescents in stepfamilies. Includes several propositions for further research. (LLL)
Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex
Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Furthermore, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal…
Xie, Bin; Ishibashi, Keri; Lin, Cindy; Peterson, Darleen V.; Susman, Elizabeth J.
Objectives Few studies have investigated overweight trajectories and psychosocial adjustment among adolescents. We conducted analyses with data from the multisite Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD). Methods Sample included 1,350 youth born in 1991. Data consisted of repeated measures of weight, height, and multiple subscales of internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) from age nine to age 15. Results Three trajectory patterns were identified: never/rarely overweight/obese (59.5%), late start/light overweight/obese (12.1%), and chronically/heavy overweight/obese (28.4%). Youths with chronically/heavy overweight/obese trajectory pattern had significantly higher scores of internalizing problems over time, as well as syndrome subscales of somatic complaints, social problems and social withdrawal over time than youths with the never/rare overweight/obese trajectory pattern. There was no significant difference in either broad-band behavioral problems or narrow-band syndrome subscales between youths with the never/rare overweight/obese trajectory pattern and those with the late start/light overweight/obesity trajectory pattern. Conclusions Study findings may advance knowledge on the distinct developmental trajectory patterns of overweight youth and their linkages to the psychosocial adjustment during the period of pubertal transition. The results highlight the need for future prevention research to improve the physical development and mental well-being of adolescents. PMID:24075819
Cynthia M. Turner; Paula M. Barrett
The cognitive-contextual framework of Grych and Fincham (1990) and the emotional-security framework of Davies and Cummings (1994) were used to explore both the direct and indirect pathways between marital conflict and adolescent adjustment. Two hundred and three non-clinic adolescents (114 females and 89 males) from intact families completed self-report questionnaires concerning their adjustment behavior, perceptions of parental conflict, and attachment
Randi S. Kell; Wendy Kliewer; Marilyn T. Erickson; Kwaku Ohene-Frempong
Objective: Investigate the hypothesis that family competence in addressing challenges associated with sickle cell disease (SCD) contributes to adolescents' adjustment. Method: During routine clinic appointments, 80 adolescents (M age = 14.4 years) and their parents inde- pendently completed the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI), which assesses family competence, and mea- sures of adolescent adjustment problems. Information related to disease severity was
Loukas, Alexandra; Ripperger-Suhler, Ken G; Horton, Karissa D
This study examined (a) the associations between school connectedness and early adolescent adjustment problems over a 1 year period and (b) the equivalence of these associations across gender. Five hundred middle school students (53.4% female), initially in the 6th and 7th grades, participated in the two-wave study. Results from two-group cross-lagged panel analyses were consistent across boys' and girls' data. After controlling for baseline levels of adjustment problems, school connectedness predicted lower levels of early adolescent conduct problems 1 year later. Regarding the opposite direction of associations, and even after baseline levels of school connectedness were taken into account, conduct problems predicted lower levels of subsequent school connectedness. There were no cross-lagged associations between depressive symptoms and school connectedness, although elevated levels of baseline depressive symptoms predicted higher levels of subsequent conduct problems. Findings elaborate previous research by demonstrating that early adolescents actively shape the middle school environment. PMID:19636782
Hetherington, E. Mavis; Henderson, Sandra H.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Insabella, Glendessa M.; Taylor, Lorraine; Anderson, Edward R.; Skaggs, Monica J.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Bridges, Margaret; Kim, Jungmeen E.; Mitchell, Anne S.; Chan, Raymond W.
Examined family relationships and adjustment of two adolescent siblings in non-stepfamilies and in stabilized simple and complex stepfamilies. Found that complex stepfamilies were more different from non-stepfamilies than simple stepfamilies in which all children were fully biologically related siblings from mothers' previous marriage. Adolescents…
Claes, M E
A questionnaire evaluating the friendship network, the expectations towards friends, the level of intimacy and attachment with friends, as well as the presence of conflicts with friends, was administered to 349 adolescents. The sample consisted of both males and females, age ranging from 12 to 18 years. Subjects were also given various personal adjustment indices that were obtained from the Offer Self Image Questionnaire. The results demonstrate that there are small differences in the friendship network across age and gender. Analysis of the qualitative aspects of friendship are generally constant with respect to age, but demonstrate marked differences with respect to gender: girls expect more from their friends than boys and their level of attachment and intimacy with friends is greater. The results also indicate that the number of friends in the network is not significantly correlated with the personal adjustment variables. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the quality of attachment maintained with friends and the absence of conflict experiences in friendship account for a low but significant proportion of the score variance obtained from the personal adjustment scale. The possibility to confer personal problems and the preoccupations to friends seems beneficial for the acquisition of adaptive behavior. Deficiencies in communication with friends or confrontation experiences and feelings of alienation are related to some forms of maladaptive behavior. PMID:1607424
Family process and peer relationships for boys who showed depressive symptoms with or without co-occurring conduct problems in early adolescence were analyzed in this study. Also examined were outcomes in late adolescence and young adulthood including the relationship with parents and peers and graduation from high school for these boys. The…
Bergman, Kathleen N; Cummings, E Mark; Davies, Patrick T
Adolescents exposed to interparental aggression are at increased risk for developing adjustment problems. The present study explored intervening variables in these pathways in a community sample that included 266 adolescents between 12 and 16 years old (M = 13.82; 52.5% boys, 47.5% girls). A moderated mediation model examined the moderating role of adrenocortical reactivity on the meditational capacity of their emotional insecurity in this context. Information from multiple reporters and adolescents' adrenocortical response to conflict were obtained during laboratory sessions attended by mothers, fathers and their adolescent child. A direct relationship was found between marital aggression and adolescents' internalizing behavior problems. Adolescents' emotional insecurity mediated the relationship between marital aggression and adolescents' depression and anxiety. Adrenocortical reactivity moderated the pathway between emotional insecurity and adolescent adjustment. The implications for further understanding the psychological and physiological effects of adolescents' exposure to interparental aggression and violence are discussed. PMID:25360061
David R. Hibbard; Duane Buhrmester
This study explored whether trait competitiveness in late adolescence is more detrimental to females’ than males’ social and\\u000a psychological adjustment. Two types of competitiveness were studied, competing to win (CW; to dominate others) and competing to excel (CE; to surpass personal goals). Questionnaire ratings (by self and others) of 110 (53 females, 57 males, Mage 17.9 years) predominantly Caucasian (88.9%) high
Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex
Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271
Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex
Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271
Davies, Patrick T.; Windle, Michael
Studied interrelationships between dating patterns and trajectories of psychosocial functioning over a year in middle adolescents. Found that increasing casual dating was associated with rising problem behaviors and improved close friendship quality; pathways culminating in steady relationships were accompanied by increasing friendship discord,…
DuBois, David L.; Burk-Braxton, Carol; Swenson, Lance P.; Tevendale, Heather D.; Hardesty, Jennifer L.
Investigated the influence of racial and gender discrimination and difficulties on adolescent adjustment. Found that discrimination and hassles contribute to a general stress context which in turn influences emotional and behavioral problems in adjustment, while racial and gender identity positively affect self-esteem and thus adjustment. Revealed…
Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann
Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25938710
Richardson, Stacey; McCabe, Marita P.
Examined the impact of parental divorce during adolescence, interparental conflict, and intimacy with parents on young adult adjustment. High levels of interparental conflict were found to be negatively associated with adjustment and current intimacy of parents. (Author)
Froese, A. P.
Common emotional problems of adolescence are discussed under three headings: those specific to adolescence; common psychiatric problems of adolescence, and those complicating physical illness in adolescence. Adolescence is a phase of emotional sensitivity and self-centeredness. The whole family is affected and may require professional support. As the adolescent moves towards greater independence, some turbulence and acting out is normal. Some make an impulsive break from their family by running away, others gradually gain their independence and some remain overly dependent. The latter group often become dependent on and demanding of their physician. PMID:20469172
Zhou, Zheng; Peverly, Stephen T.; Xin, Tao; Huang, Annie S.; Wang, Weidong
First-generation Chinese-American adolescents' school adjustment was compared with that of Mainland Chinese and European American adolescents. Results indicated that Chinese-American adolescents reported more negative attitudes toward teachers than European American and Mainland Chinese students, had more negative perceptions of the school…
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the…
Hurtig, Anita Landau; And Others
The study with 70 children and adolescents with sickle cell disease did not support the hypothesis that illness severity (measured by frequency of hospitalization) would affect adjustment (measured by IQ, self-esteem, social and personal adjustment, behavioral problems, school performance, and peer relations). (Author/DB)
Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Silk, Jennifer S.
SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms among adolescents from predominantly disadvantaged backgrounds. The indirect effects of psychological control on adolescent adjustment through adolescent emotion regulation (anger and sadness regulation) were examined as well as the moderating effects of adolescent emotion regulation. Design 206 adolescents (ages 10–18) reported on parental psychological control and their own depressive symptoms, and parents and adolescents reported on adolescent emotion regulation and aggressive behavior. Indirect effect models were tested using structural equation modeling; moderating effects were tested using hierarchical multiple regression. Results The associations between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms were indirect through adolescents’ anger regulation. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parental psychological control and adolescent depressive symptoms was stronger among adolescents with poor sadness regulation and the association between psychological control and aggressive behavior was stronger among older adolescents with poor anger regulation. Conclusions Psychological control is negatively associated with adolescent adjustment, particularly among adolescents who have difficulty regulating emotions. Emotion regulation is one mechanism through which psychological control is linked to adolescent adjustment, particularly anger dysregulation, and this pattern holds for both younger and older adolescents and for both boys and girls. PMID:25057264
Benbassat, Naomi; Priel, Beatriz
Reflective function (RF) is the capacity to reflect on one's own mental experiences and those of others. This study examined the relationship between parental RF and adolescent adjustment. One hundred and five adolescents, aged 14-18, and their mothers and fathers were interviewed and completed questionnaires during home visits. We measured…
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M.
Investigated whether friendships with deviant peers would be related negatively to the emotional and behavioral adjustment of 305 adolescents, 13 years of age. Found that adolescents with deviant friends were more delinquent than those with no mutual friends or nondeviant friends, and showed similarly problematic depression levels as friendless…
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott
Our study examined discrepancies in Mexican American adolescent-parent perceptions regarding parental autonomy promoting and their associations with adolescents' adjustment. A total of 138 Mexican American sixth graders reported their global self-worth and depressive symptoms. Adolescents and parents also reported their perceptions of parental…
Nancy Wu; Suzanne Slocum; Scott Comulada; Patricia Lester; Alan Semaan; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus
Family environment and rates of mental health and behavioral problems in HIV-negative adolescents and their parents living with HIV (PWH) were compared to adolescents and parents from non HIV-affected families living in similar inner-city neighborhoods. Adolescents and their parents were interviewed and a case-control sample was constructed. Data on sixty-two matched pairs of adolescents of PWH and those of neighborhood
Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Leake, Catherine
Examined associations between several late adolescent separation-individuation issues and psychological adjustment for 428 undergraduates. Findings reveal both quantitative and qualitative differences across the separation-individuation dimensions. Discusses the adjustment outcomes of various approaches to managing closeness and distance in…
Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M Brent
Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment among a group of high-achieving adolescents. Drawing on survey data collected on 295 Chinese American and 192 European American 9th graders attending a highly selective magnet school, our findings show that Chinese American adolescents reported significantly lower levels of psychological adjustment (d = -.31), and significantly less family cohesion (d = -.34) and more conflict (d = .56) than their European American peers. Further, the ethnic differences on adjustment disappeared after controlling for perceptions of family cohesion and conflict, indicating that such perceptions may be a key factor in understanding the high academic achievement/low psychological adjustment paradoxical pattern of development among Chinese American adolescents. PMID:22244616
Scharf, Miri; Oshri, Assaf; Eshkol, Varda; Pilowsky, Tammy
The associations between attachment style, ADHD symptoms, and social adjustments were examined in a community sample of adolescents. Five hundred and eight junior high school students completed questionnaires pertaining to attachment style, ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity), and rejection sensitivity, and were rated by homeroom teachers on social adjustment. Analyses supported a 3-profile pattern of attachment styles: secure, dismissing, and preoccupied. The 3 attachment profiles showed differential risk on adolescents' social adjustment, as well as on ADHD symptoms. The secure profile showed the most adaptive outcomes on all of the examined adjustment outcomes, compared with the other 2 profiles. In contrast, the preoccupied attachment profile showed the highest levels of ADHD problems, angry and anxious expectations, while displaying a similar level of maladjustment to the dismissing profile. In addition, structural equation modeling was used and supported a model that tested an indirect link between attachment security and adolescent adjustment via an ADHD latent factor. Findings suggest that clinicians and educators should pay attention to relational patterns (attachment styles) in adolescence, as these may serve as a developmental precursor for ADHD and a range of adjustment problems in school. PMID:24826937
Flory, Kate; Malone, Patrick S.; Lamis, Dorian A.
Although a large body of research suggests that children with ADHD are at increased risk of cigarette smoking during adolescence compared to their non-ADHD peers, much less research has examined why. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by examining middle school adjustment, broadly defined, as a possible mediator of the relation between childhood ADHD symptoms and cigarette smoking during middle adolescence (10th grade). Longitudinal data were collected from a community sample of 754 youth using self- and parent-report along with school records, and a novel statistical technique was used in the process of testing for mediation. Consistent with hypotheses, school adjustment was found to mediate the relation between childhood ADHD symptoms and later cigarette smoking, even after controlling for early externalizing problems. Results have implications for etiological theories of adolescent deviant behavior and suggest that successful smoking prevention programs targeting youth with ADHD should include a school adjustment component. PMID:21401217
Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.
The present study includes externalizing problems, internalizing problems, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and father-adolescent relationship quality in the same structural equation model and tests the longitudinal reciprocal association among all four variables over a 1-year period. A transactional model in which adolescents'…
Linda E. Brody; Camilla Persson Benbow
Perceptions of self-esteem, locus of control, popularity, depression (or unhappiness), and discipline problems as indices of social and emotional adjustment were investigated in highly verbally or mathematically talented adolescents. Compared to a group of students who are much less gifted, the highly gifted students perceive themselves as less popular, but no differences were found in self-esteem, depression, or the incidence
Jerome J Platt
Tested the hypothesis that adolescent psychiatric patients would be deficient with respect to normal controls in their interpersonal problem-solving skills by comparing 33 patients and 53 high school student controls on 7 tasks reflecting different aspects of problem solving. With IQ covaried out, controls obtained significantly higher scores on the tasks evaluating optional thinking, social means-ends thinking, and role taking,
Aalsma, Matthew C.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Flannery, Daniel J.
The relationship among three personal fables ("omnipotence," "invulnerability," "personal uniqueness"), narcissism, and mental health variables was assessed in a large, cross-sectional sample of adolescents drawn from Grades 6 (n = 94), 8 (n = 223), 10 (n = 142), and 12 (n = 102). Participants responded to the New Personal Fable Scale, the…
Cavanagh, Shannon E.
As patterns of union formation and dissolution in adult lives become complex, the living arrangements of American children are becoming increasingly fluid. With a sample (N = 12,843) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study attempted to capture this complexity by mapping out children's family structure histories…
Anna Beth Doyle; Dorothy Markiewicz
Contributions of 3 dimensions of parenting (psychological control, warmth, and behavioural control), marital conflict, and attachment style (anxiety and avoidance) to adjustment from early to middle adolescence were assessed. Mediation of marital conflict effects by parenting, and of parenting effects by attachment were examined. Adolescents (n = 175) initially age 13 years reported parenting practices, attachment styles, school grades, self-esteem,
Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…
Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy
Contributions of 3 dimensions of parenting (psychological control, warmth, and behavioural control), marital conflict, and attachment style (anxiety and avoidance) to adjustment from early to middle adolescence were assessed. Mediation of marital conflict effects by parenting, and of parenting effects by attachment were examined. Adolescents (n =…
Bukowski, William M.; And Others
Discusses a model that suggests that popularity and friendship are linked to different forms of adjustment and emotional well-being and emphasizes that friendship is an important mediator between popularity and loneliness. Results of a study that involved 169 early adolescents in fifth and sixth grades supported the model. (BB)
Ryan, Allison M.
Motivation, engagement, and achievement decline for many children during early adolescence. There is increasing attention to the role peer relationships play in changes in academic adjustment during this stage of life. The articles in this special issue advance knowledge on this topic. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles…
Rose, Amanda J.
The current study examined co-rumination (i.e., extensively discussing, rehashing, and speculating about problems) in the context of mother-adolescent relationships. Fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-graders (N = 516) reported on co-rumination and more normative self-disclosure with mothers, their relationships with mothers, and their own internalizing symptoms. A subset of mothers (N = 200) reported on mother-adolescent co-rumination and self-disclosure. Results from the adolescent-report data indicated greater mother-adolescent co-rumination with daughters than sons and also adjustment trade-offs of mother-adolescent co-rumination. Mother-adolescent co-rumination was related to positive relationship quality but also to enmeshment in the relationship. Whereas the relation with positive relationship quality appeared to be due in part to normative self-disclosure, the relation with enmeshment was unique to co-rumination. Mother-adolescent co-rumination also was related to youth anxiety/depression. The relations with enmeshment and internalizing symptoms were strongest when co-rumination focused on the mothers' problems. Implications of mother-adolescent co-rumination for promoting appropriate relationship boundaries and youth well-being are discussed. PMID:19616839
Kristel, Orie V., IV; And Others
Adults many times misunderstand adolescence and the problems from which adolescents suffer. However, there are few quantitative studies that have evaluated the prevalence of "common" teenage problems. To address this lack of hard data concerning perceived high school/adolescent problems, a study was commissioned to determine student-perceived…
According to current estimates, 40% of young women will get pregnant while they are teenagers. Most teenage pregnancies are unintended, and thus, they often precipitate a personal crisis. This article discusses the psychosocial context of such pregnancies, including emotional and cognitive development during adolescence, family and peer relations, and norms for gender-appropriate sexual expression. In counseling teenagers with problem pregnancies,
Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.
Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11-14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a…
McHale, Susan M.
Research on coparenting documents that mothers' and fathers' coordination and mutual support in their parenting roles is linked to their offspring's adjustment in childhood, but we know much less about the coparenting of adolescents. Taking a family systems perspective, this study assessed two dimensions of coparenting, parents' shared decision-making and joint involvement in activities with their adolescents, and examined bidirectional associations between these coparenting dimensions and boys' and girls' risky behaviors and depressive symptoms across four time points (6 years) in adolescence. Participants were 201 mothers, fathers, and adolescents (M = 11.83, SD = .55 years of age at Time 1; 51 % female). Parents of sons shared more decisions, on average, than parents of daughters. On average, shared decision-making followed an inverted U shaped pattern of change, and parents' joint involvement in their adolescents' activities declined. Cross-lagged findings revealed that risky behavior predicted less shared decision-making, and shared decision-making protected against increased risky behavior for boys. For girls and boys, parents' joint involvement predicted fewer risky behaviors, and lower levels of risky behavior predicted higher levels of joint involvement. In contrast, boys' and girls' depressive symptoms predicted less joint involvement. The discussion centers on the nature and correlates of coparenting during adolescence, including the role of child effects, and directions for future research on coparenting during this developmental period. PMID:23539238
Riina, Elizabeth M; McHale, Susan M
Research on coparenting documents that mothers' and fathers' coordination and mutual support in their parenting roles is linked to their offspring's adjustment in childhood, but we know much less about the coparenting of adolescents. Taking a family systems perspective, this study assessed two dimensions of coparenting, parents' shared decision-making and joint involvement in activities with their adolescents, and examined bidirectional associations between these coparenting dimensions and boys' and girls' risky behaviors and depressive symptoms across four time points (6 years) in adolescence. Participants were 201 mothers, fathers, and adolescents (M = 11.83, SD = .55 years of age at Time 1; 51% female). Parents of sons shared more decisions, on average, than parents of daughters. On average, shared decision-making followed an inverted U shaped pattern of change, and parents' joint involvement in their adolescents' activities declined. Cross-lagged findings revealed that risky behavior predicted less shared decision-making, and shared decision-making protected against increased risky behavior for boys. For girls and boys, parents' joint involvement predicted fewer risky behaviors, and lower levels of risky behavior predicted higher levels of joint involvement. In contrast, boys' and girls' depressive symptoms predicted less joint involvement. The discussion centers on the nature and correlates of coparenting during adolescence, including the role of child effects, and directions for future research on coparenting during this developmental period. PMID:23539238
Karaman, Neslihan G.
Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…
Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents’ and mothers’ self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth’s academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents’ heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth. PMID:19636729
Liu, Lisa L; Benner, Aprile D; Lau, Anna S; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents' heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth. PMID:19636729
Stanik, Christine E.; Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.
Using multi-informant data from 134 two-parent African American families, the goals of this study were to (a) describe parent – adolescent warmth and shared time as a function of parent and youth gender and (b) assess links between these indices of relationship quality and adolescent adjustment. Mixed-model ANCOVAs revealed that mothers reported warmer relationships with adolescents than fathers, and both parents reported warmer relationships with younger versus older offspring. Interparental differences in time spent with sons and daughters and older and younger siblings were also found. Tests of multilevel models indicated that greater maternal warmth was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and less risky behavior for sons, and more paternal warmth and shared time with fathers were associated with less risky behavior in youth. Discussion highlights the utility of cultural ecological and family systems perspectives for understanding parent-adolescent relationships and youth adjustment in African American families. PMID:24532863
Stanik, Christine E; Riina, Elizabeth M; McHale, Susan M
Using multi-informant data from 134 two-parent African American families, the goals of this study were to (a) describe parent - adolescent warmth and shared time as a function of parent and youth gender and (b) assess links between these indices of relationship quality and adolescent adjustment. Mixed-model ANCOVAs revealed that mothers reported warmer relationships with adolescents than fathers, and both parents reported warmer relationships with younger versus older offspring. Interparental differences in time spent with sons and daughters and older and younger siblings were also found. Tests of multilevel models indicated that greater maternal warmth was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and less risky behavior for sons, and more paternal warmth and shared time with fathers were associated with less risky behavior in youth. Discussion highlights the utility of cultural ecological and family systems perspectives for understanding parent-adolescent relationships and youth adjustment in African American families. PMID:24532863
Cummings, E. Mark; George, Melissa R. W.; McCoy, Kathleen P.; Davies, Patrick T.
Advancing the long-term prospective study of explanations for the effects of marital conflict on children’s functioning, relations were examined between interparental conflict in kindergarten, children’s emotional insecurity in the early school years, and subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Based on a community sample of 235 mothers, fathers and children (M = 6.00, 8.02, 12.62 years), and multi-method and multi-reporter assessments, structural equation model (SEM) tests provided support for emotional insecurity in early childhood as an intervening process related to adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems, even with stringent auto-regressive controls over prior levels of functioning for both mediating and outcome variables. Discussion considers implications for understanding pathways between interparental conflict, emotional insecurity and adjustment in childhood and adolescence. PMID:22694264
Fosco, Gregory M.; Lippold, Melissa; Feinberg, Mark
This study tests interparental boundary problems (IBPs), parent hostility with adolescents, and adolescent hostility with parents within a reciprocal influence model and tests each as risk factors for adolescent aggression problems. Prospective, longitudinal analyses were conducted with multi-informant data from 768 adolescents and their families, from 6th to 9th grade. Guided by spillover and social learning perspectives, our findings suggest that IBPs have a robust, negative influence on both parent and adolescent hostility. In turn, adolescent hostility was the best predictor of global adolescent aggression problems. Two indirect effects were found that link IBPs and adolescent aggression problems; however, findings indicate that adolescent hostile behavior in the family is the key risk indicator for adolescents' later aggression problems. Model invariance tests revealed that this model was not different for boys and girls, or for adolescents in families with two biological parents and youth in families with two caregivers (e.g. stepparent families). PMID:25844271
Redd, Zakia; Brooks, Jennifer; McGarvey, Ayelish M.
Given the importance of adolescents' educational adjustment, a key question for those concerned with improving adolescent functioning is what can be done to increase adolescents' levels of educational functioning. This review addresses a number of broad facets of adolescents' educational functioning, including those in the psychological…
Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene
Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…
Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Jokela, Veikko; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Uhanov, Mihail
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkaranta district in Russia…
Sharma, Anu R.; McGue, Matthew K.; Benson, Peter L.
Compared psychological adjustment of adopted adolescents and their siblings born to adoptive parents. Found poorer adoptee adjustment in areas of delinquency, licit drug use, and school adjustment. Nonclinically referred adopted boys were better adjusted than norm subjects on withdrawal; nonreferred adopted girls were better adjusted on social…
Delgado, Melissa Y.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Roosa, Mark W.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
Drawing on Garcia Coll et al.'s integrative framework and the risk and resilience model, this study examined the relationships between adolescents' perceived discrimination and psychosocial adjustment and the moderating roles of adolescents', mothers', and fathers' cultural orientations and values, and adolescent gender in a sample of 246…
Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B
The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture. PMID:25045950
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.
Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents’ religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents’ religiousness and adolescent adjustment outcomes—either directly or indirectly via adolescents’ own religiousness—varies depending on relationship context (e.g., parent-adolescent attachment). This study examined the moderating roles of parent-adolescent attachment on the apparent effects of the intergenerational transmission of religiousness on adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms using data from 322 adolescents (mean age = 12.63 years, 45% girls, and 84% White) and their parents. Structural equation models indicated significant indirect effects suggesting that parents’ organizational religiousness was positively to boys’ organizational religiousness—the latter of which appeared to mediate the negative association of parents’ organizational religiousness with boys’ internalizing symptoms. Significant interaction effects suggested also that, for both boys and girls, parents’ personal religiousness was associated positively with adolescent internalizing symptoms for parent-adolescent dyads with low attachment, whereas parents’ personal religiousness was not associated with adolescent internalizing symptoms for parent-adolescent dyads with high attachment. The findings help to identify the family dynamics by which the interaction of parents’ religiousness and adolescents’ religiousness might differentially influence adolescent adjustment. PMID:22836938
the contribution that peer stressors had on Mexican-origin female adolescents' (n = 153) self-esteem and depressive86 The Role of Peers and Friends on Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents' Psychological Adjustment State University Abstract Despite the importance of peers and friends in adolescence, little work has
Wainright, Jennifer L.; Russell, Stephen T.; Patterson, Charlotte J.
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and relationship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents…
Jordan-Davis, Walter E.; Butler, Douglas M.
This paper outlines a model that could address the interaction between an adolescent's social and personal environment and the impact that this interaction could have on an adolescent's social and psychological adjustment. In addition, a set of mediating variables based on an adolescent's self-concept was presented and discussed. The unique aspect…
Cheung, Cecilia S.-S.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Dong, Wei
The role of adolescents' disclosure to their parents in their academic adjustment was examined in a study of 825 American and Chinese adolescents (mean age = 12.73 years). Four times over the seventh and eighth grades, adolescents reported on their spontaneous disclosure of everyday activities to their parents, the quality of their relationships…
Loehlin, John C.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David
Adolescent adjustment measures may be related to each other and to the social environment in various ways. Are these relationships similar in genetic and environmental sources of covariation, or different? A multivariate behaviorgenetic analysis was made of 6 adjustment and 3 treatment composites from the study Nonshared Environment in Adolescent…
East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.
One hundred ten Mexican American adolescents (12-17 years) who provide infant care for their older sisters were studied to determine the effects of family caregiving responsibilities on adolescents' adjustment. Controlling for prior adjustment and family context factors, providing many hours of caregiving predicted an increase in youths' school…
Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.
The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on their self-consciousness, internalizing problems, and the quality of their best friendship. Results indicated stronger associations between private self-consciousness and internalizing correlates than between public self-consciousness and internalizing problems, suggesting that private self-consciousness may be a stronger risk factor during adolescence. Contrary to expectations, evidence revealed that positive friendship quality may exacerbate some difficulties associated with self-consciousness. Results pertaining to friendship quality add to the growing literature on the ways in which friendships can contribute to adjustment difficulties. PMID:19998530
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.
Two independent prospective longitudinal studies that cumulatively spanned the age interval from 4 years to 14 years used multi-wave designs to investigate developmental associations between language and behavioral adjustment (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Altogether 224 children, their mothers, and teachers provided data. Series of nested path analysis models were used to determine the most parsimonious and plausible paths among the three constructs over and above stability in each across age and their covariation at each age. In both studies, children with poorer language skills in early childhood had more internalizing behavior problems in later childhood and in early adolescence. These developmental paths between language and behavioral adjustment held after taking into consideration children’s nonverbal intellectual functioning, maternal verbal intelligence, education, parenting knowledge, and social desirability bias, as well as family socioeconomic status, and they applied equally to girls and boys. PMID:23880396
Hannah-Lise T. Schofield; Karen L. Bierman; Brenda Heinrichs; Robert L. Nix
Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11–14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment\\u000a problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors,\\u000a early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a meditational model. A longitudinal\\u000a sample of 694 boys and girls from four geographical locations
Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan; Ozdemir, Metin
In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have used measures of parental behavioral control that are questionable because they include measures of parental knowledge. The goals of this study were to determine whether including knowledge items might have affected results of past studies and to test the unidirectional assumption. Data were from 978 adolescents participating in a longitudinal study. Parenting-style and adolescent adjustment measures at 2 time points were used, with a 2-year interval between time points. A variety of internal and external adjustment measures were used. Results showed that including knowledge items in measures of parental behavioral control elevated links between behavioral control and adjustment. Thus, the results and conclusions of many of the most highly cited studies are likely to have been stronger than if the measures had focused strictly on parental behavior. In addition, adolescent adjustment predicted changes in authoritative and neglectful parenting styles more robustly than these styles predicted changes in adolescent adjustment. Adolescent adjustment also predicted changes in authoritativeness more robustly than authoritativeness predicted changes in adjustment. Thus, parenting style cannot be seen as independent of the adolescent. In summary, both the theoretical premises of parenting-style research and the prior findings should be revisited. PMID:22448987
Fosco, Gregory M.; Feinberg, Mark E.
This study examined the longitudinal implications of adolescents’ exposure to interparental conflict for their developmental success. In the proposed developmental cascade model, adolescents’ perceptions of parental conflict as threatening is a risk factor for diminished self-efficacy, which would account for diminished adjustment. This study presents longitudinal data for 768 6th-grade students and their families over four time points, ending in 8th grade. Analyses were conducted in three steps. First, replication of longitudinal support for threat as a mediator of the link between interparental conflict and emotional distress was found; however, findings did not support threat as a mediator of behavior problems or subjective well-being. Second, threat was found to mediate the longitudinal association between interparental conflict and self-efficacy. Finally, a developmental cascade model supported a risk process in which interparental conflict was related to adolescents’ threat appraisals, which undermined self-efficacy beliefs, and was then linked with emotional distress, behavior problems, and subjective well-being. PMID:25017469
Cliff McKinney; Mary Catherine Milone; Kimberly Renk
Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting\\u000a styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting\\u000a styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described\\u000a as emerging adults. Thus,
Gary L. Canivez; Kathy J. Bohan
The present study reports on the replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) for a sample of 229 Native American Indian (Yavapai Apache) children and adolescents from rural north-central Arizona. The six ASCA core syndromes produced the identical two-factor solution as the standardization sample, an independent sample, and a sample of
Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena; Fritjers, Jan
This study used hierarchical linear modeling to compare longitudinal patterns of adolescent religious service attendance and club attendance, and to contrast the longitudinal relations between adolescent adjustment and religious service versus club attendance. Participants included 1050 students (47% girls) encompassing a school district in…
Dempsey, Allison G.; Storch, Eric A.
Although the relationship between relational victimization and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence has been established, it is unknown whether it extends into early adulthood. The current retrospective study investigated the relationship between recall of adolescent relational victimization and symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and…
Lehman, Stephanie Jacobs; Koerner, Susan Silverberg
A study of 62 adolescent girls and their recently divorced mothers examined the relationship between maternal disclosure of financial concerns and difficulties in adolescent daughters' adjustment. Findings revealed a positive direct relationship between family financial hardship and girls' psychological distress, and that financial hardship was…
Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew J.; Stein, Gabriela L.; Gonzalez, Laura M.
Research on the academic adjustment of immigrant adolescents has been predominately conducted in large cities among established migration areas. To broaden the field's restricted focus, data from 172 (58% female) Asian American adolescents who reside within a non-traditional or emerging immigrant community in the Southeastern US were used to…
Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Plomin, Robert; Hetherington, E. Mavis
Examined the genetic and environmental contributions to the predictive association between parenting and adolescent adjustment in identical and fraternal twins, and full, half, and genetically unrelated siblings in nondivorced and stepfamilies. Found that cross-lagged associations between parental conflict-negativity and adolescent antisocial…
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
The current study is an investigation of early adolescents' perceptions of social support from parents, teachers, classmates, and close friends, and how that support is related to measures of students' adjustment on a range of behavioral indices. Data were collected on a sample of 246 students in Grades 6 through 8 using the Child and Adolescent…
Hines, Mack T., III
This study investigated the differences between adolescent boys and girls from divorced families' adjustment to the middle school transition. A middle school transition survey measured the academic and social middle school transitional experiences of 196 adolescent boys and girls from divorced families. T-Test for Independent Means procedures…
Kingery, Julie Newman; Erdley, Cynthia A.; Marshall, Katherine C.
This study examines several aspects of adolescents' pretransition peer relationships as predictors of their adjustment to middle school. Participants were 365 students (175 boys; 99% Caucasian) involved in the Time 1 (the spring of fifth grade) and Time 2 (the fall of sixth grade) assessments. Adolescents completed measures that assessed peer…
Simpkins, Sandra D.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Becnel, Jennifer N.
This investigation addresses the mediational role of friends' characteristics between adolescents' activity breadth (i.e., variety in activity participation) and their later adjustment. Data were drawn from 2 longitudinal studies: the Childhood and Beyond (CAB; N = 925) study and the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study (MADICS; N =…
McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly
Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment…
Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge
Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…
Hamm, Jill V.; Schmid, Lorrie; Farmer, Thomas W.; Locke, Belinda
This study integrates diverse literatures on peer group influence by conceptualizing and examining the relationship of peer group injunctive norms to the academic adjustment of a large and ethnically diverse sample of rural early adolescents' academic adjustment. Results of three-level hierarchical linear modeling indicated that peer groups were…
Martinez, Charles R.; McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark
This study examined behavioral and emotional adjustment in family contexts in which there was high versus low demand for adolescents to serve as language brokers in a sample of 73 recently immigrated Latino families with middle-school-aged adolescents. Language brokering was conceptualized as a family process rather than merely an individual phenomenon. Multiple agents were used to assess language brokering and parent and youth adjustment. Results indicated that high language brokering contexts had negative associations with family stress, parenting effectiveness, and adolescent adjustment in terms of academic functioning, socioemotional health, and substance use. The findings are particularly important given the limited and mixed findings from formative research on language brokering, particularly in areas within the United States with emerging immigrant populations. Findings suggest the need for advancing practices that increase language and cultural supports for immigrant families and support parents’ efforts to foster positive youth and family adjustment. PMID:19898605
Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.
This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…
Bynum, Mia Smith; Kotchick, Beth A.
This study investigated the role of mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy in the psychosocial outcomes in a sample of African American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicated that positive mother-adolescent relationship quality and greater autonomy were associated with higher…
Troxel, Wendy M.; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.
Objectives Sleep is critical for adolescent health and is influenced by the family environment. In our study, we examined if family structure defined as single- vs 2-parent households affected adolescent sleep. Methods Participants were 242 (57% black; 47% boys) healthy adolescents (mean age, 15.7 years). Sleep was measured using self-report and wrist actigraphy over 7 consecutive nights. Outcomes were actigraphy-assessed sleep duration and sleep efficiency (SE) for the full week and weekends and weekdays separately, as well as self-reported sleep-wake problems and variability in bedtimes. Linear regression examined the relationship between family structure and sleep, after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, and depressive symptoms, parental education, family conflict, and financial strain. Race and sex were examined as potential moderators. Results After adjusting for covariates, adolescents from single-parent households had poorer SE across the week and shorter sleep duration on weekends. White adolescents from 2-parent households had the fewer sleep-wake problems and lower bedtime variability, whereas black adolescents from single-parent households had the lowest weekend SE. There were no significant differences in family structure*sex interactions. Conclusion Our findings are the first to demonstrate that single-parent family structure is an independent correlate of sleep problems in adolescents, and they highlight the moderating role of race. PMID:24424100
Glick, Gary C.; Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.; Waller, Erika M.
Little research has examined the association of parents’ friendships with adolescent’s well-being, perhaps because the association was considered too distal. However, developmental theories suggest that contexts in which parents, but not their children, are situated may be related to child development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979; 1986). The current work examined associations between the quality of mothers’ own friendships and their adolescent children’s friendship quality and emotional adjustment. Fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-graders (N = 172) whose mothers’ friendships were characterized by conflict and antagonism reported having friendships that were high in negative friendship qualities as well as elevated internalizing symptoms. These associations held after controlling for mother-child relationship quality, suggesting that mothers’ friendships may have a unique association with adolescents’ adjustment. PMID:24348001
Leidy, Melinda S.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Miller, Marie A.; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott; Braver, Sanford; Cookston, Jeffrey; Fabricius, William; Saenz, Delia; Adams, Michele
The current study investigated how fathering behaviors (acceptance, rejection, monitoring, consistent discipline, and involvement) are related to preadolescent adjustment in Mexican American and European American stepfamilies and intact families. Cross-sectional data from 393 7th graders, their schoolteachers, and parents were used to examine links between different dimensions of fathering and adolescent outcomes. Following an ecological multivariate model, family SES, marital satisfaction, and mothers’ parenting were included as controls. In all contexts, fathering had significant effects on adolescent adjustment. Both mothers’ parenting and adolescent gender moderated the associations, and we uncovered some provocative nonlinear relations between fathering and adolescent outcomes. The importance of ethnicity and family structure in studies of fathering are highlighted. PMID:24235877
Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca
This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A High Functioning (n = 173) group, which exhibited high positive adjustment and academic functioning, an Average Functioning (n = 83) group, who exhibited average psychological and academic functioning, an Academically Oriented and Stressed (n = 19) group, who exhibited high academic motivation, but poor psychological functioning in anxiety and negative affect, and a Low Functioning” (n = 25) group, who exhibited poor adjustment overall. Further, paternal and maternal parenting characteristics (i.e., autonomy granting, parent-adolescent conflict, and supportive parenting) were differentially related to Mexican-origin female adolescents’ profiles, providing further evidence for the existence of the profiles. Results contribute to the current literature on Latino adolescents and highlight the importance of examining psychological and academic domains concurrently to determine how these two domains of adjustment are linked among this population. PMID:23678230
Scholte, Ron H. J.; van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.; de Wit, Cees A. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.
Recent studies have suggested the existence of three personality types: resilients, overcontrollers, and undercontrollers. In this article, we searched for subtypes within each of the three main personality types. Using cluster analysis on the Big Five personality self-descriptions of 3,284 Dutch adolescent boys and girls, we distinguished…
Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.
The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…
Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.
This study investigates shared and unique associations of early adolescent friendship and peer victimization with self reports of school liking and teacher reports of academic competence. Participants were 398 sixth and seventh grade students and their teachers and peers. Measures of friendship included self reports of friendship support and…
Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana
Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…
Johnson, Bret K.; Kenkel, Mary Beth
A study of 45 female adolescent incest victims in treatment found that wishful thinking, tension reduction, a lack of maternal support, appraisals of threat, and "holding self back" accounted for 70 percent of the variance in self-reported distress. Detachment, seeking social support, and appraisal of "holding self back" accounted for 38 percent…
Kliewer, Wendy; Sullivan, Terri N.
Validity data are presented for a new measure of threat appraisals in response to community violence. Adolescents (N = 358; 45% male; 91% African American, M = 12.10 years, SD = 1.63) and their maternal caregivers participated in two waves of a longitudinal interview study focused on the consequences of exposure to community violence. Structural…
Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.
This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…
Reece, Randi S.; Wilborn, Bobbie L.
Assertiveness training programs in the school setting provide a method to work with students with behavior problems. When students can manage their environments more effectively, they view the educational experience more positively and find that their present world and their transition to the adult world proceeds more productively. (Author)
Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara
Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.
Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…
David P. Ausubel; Herbert M. Schiff; Majorie P. Zeleny
Teachers' ratings of adjustment and aspirational traits were obtained for a class of 50 juniors in a University high school and related to various other self-report, objective, and projective measures of the same characteristics.\\
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.
Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661
Ho, Man Yee; Cheung, Fanny M
This study investigated the link between exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment for 442 Chinese secondary school students in Form 1-3. The students completed an inventory assessing exposure to violence through witnessing and through direct victimization in different settings (community, school, and home). Multiple measures and informants (i.e., self-report, teacher report, and school report) were used to assess emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning in adolescents. The results of this study showed that overall exposure to violence was related to emotional and behavior problems. High rates of exposure to violence across multiple contexts were found in this sample. After controlling for the co-occurrence of risk factors (e.g., exposure to violence in other settings), both witnessing school violence and being victimized by domestic violence were associated with emotional problems, whereas being victimized by community violence was related to behavior problems. These results suggest that there are differential effects of risks associated with different forms and settings of exposure. PMID:19752203
Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…
Chien, Nina C.; East, Patricia L.
The younger siblings of childbearing adolescents have poorer school outcomes and exhibit more internalizing and externalizing problems compared to their peers without a childbearing sister. We test a model where living with an adolescent childbearing sister constitutes a major family stressor that disrupts mothers' parenting and well-being, and…
Smith, Donald C.
The study examined similarities and differences in the personal and social adjustment of intellectually gifted and average adolescents along six criteria: independent-dominant and responsible-cooperative interpersonal behavior, moderation of interpersonal behavior, unity or integration of personality, self acceptance, and accuracy of self…
Steward, Robbie J.; Jo, Hanik
In a study of 121 African-American urban adolescents, the use of spiritual support as a means of coping was found to be significantly related to psychological well-being and adjustment. The participants were high school freshmen in a midwestern city in an area where the student attrition rate had ranged from 55 to 65% over a 5-year period.…
Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo
In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…
Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra
Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)
This study extends previous understanding of the association between adolescent extracurricular activity participation and adjustment by asking whether participation in school-based extracurricular activities is associated with lower substance use and depression, higher grades and academic aspirations, and more positive attitude toward school. In…
Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona
This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress.…
Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Snider, J. Blake
Based on the conceptual argument that the European apprenticeship might explain cross-national variability in adolescent adjustment, the current investigation tested the relationships between mentoring experiences, namely joint activities with mentors as well as perceived mentoring behaviors by unrelated adults in the work setting, and measures of…
Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Adams, Ryan E.; Gilman, Rich
Previous research suggests that school-based and electronic victimization have similar negative consequences, yet it is unclear whether these two contexts offer overlapping or unique associations with adolescents' adjustment. 802 ninth-graders (43% male, mean age = 15.84 years), majority being Caucasian (82%), completed measures assessing the…
This digest reviews the issues of identity and adjustment faced by adolescent Southeast Asian refugees in the United States. Most teenagers from all the Southeast Asian ethnic groups have adopted the dress, hairstyles, and manners of American teenagers, yet their ethnic identity remains strong and specific. This is particularly true for refugees…
Sanchez, Bernadette; Colon, Yari; Esparza, Patricia
The aim of this study was to examine the roles of sense of belonging and gender in the academic outcomes of urban, Latino adolescents. It was expected that sense of belonging would play a different role in males' and females' academic adjustment. Participants (N = 143) included mostly Mexican and Puerto Rican seniors from a large, urban high…
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Ruddy, Kyrianna; Kramer, John
Most research uses a family systems level approach to examine the long range impact of parental substance abuse on the family. In this article, a micro-level approach is used to examine the immediate impact of parental substance use on adolescent adjustment. (Contains 1 figure.)
Lee, Steve S.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.
To estimate the prevalence of being well-adjusted in adolescence, boys and girls with (n = 96) and without (n = 26) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were assessed seven times in eight years starting when they were 4-6 years of age. Symptoms of ADHD, ODD/CD, and depression/anxiety in addition to social skills and social preference…
Roche, Kathleen M.; Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Little, Todd D.; Leventhal, Tama
There is considerable debate regarding the extent to which punitive parenting adversely impacts youth well-being. Using an ecological-transactional model of human development, we examined reciprocity and contextual variability in associations between maternal punitive discipline and adolescent adjustment among 1,147 low-income, urban youth…
Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Feldman, S. Shirley
Examined family cohesion and power in relation to depressive affect, social self-concept, and behavioral restraint in young adolescents. Cohesion and power were examined within the context of parent-child and mother-father relationships. The cohesive nature of family relationships affected adjustment more consistently for girls than boys, whereas…
Cydney J. Van Dyke; David S. Glenwick; John J. Cecero; Se-Kang Kim
The present study explored the relation of religious coping and spirituality to adjustment and psychological distress in urban early adolescents. The participants were 76 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students attending Catholic day schools in the New York City area. They completed a set of self-report measures assessing religious coping, daily spiritual experiences, positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and psychological
Kiefer, Sarah M.; Ryan, Allison M.
This study investigated the proposal that social dominance goals are an important, but overlooked, aspect of social goals for young adolescents' academic adjustment. Self-reports of social goals (dominance, intimacy, and popularity goals) early in the school year were used to predict subsequent engagement (self-reports and peer nominations of…
Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age…
Ida, Kenichi; Suga, Ryouhei; Gen, Mitsuo
The greedy algorithm is one of solution methods for knapsack problem. Although this algorithm does not necessarily obtain the optimal solution, it can obtain a good solution in short time. We consider this algorithm is very effective at judging the importance of each item. In this paper, we propose a new genetic algorithm for solving a knapsack problem. The algorithm can adjust a search area in consideration of the stability of each item which can obtain from the greedy algorithm. Moreover, we apply the proposed method to a multi-objective problem and a large-scale problem, and test the effectiveness.
Etkin, R. G.; Koss, K. J.; Cummings, E. M.; Davies, P. T.
Triangulation is a family-wide process in which children are inappropriately involved in interparental conflict, placing them at heightened risk for adjustment problems. A common form of triangulation occurs by parents pressuring their children to take sides, which may result in feelings of being “torn” between parents. Externalizing behaviors in particular may develop as adolescents feel caught in the middle of conflict and forced to choose a side. However, the nature of the triadic process of triangulation may be impacted by dyadic-level relationships within the family. The present study thus explores how positive parenting processes may alter the relations between triangulation and adolescent externalizing problems. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents (n = 301 families) provided assessments of adolescent externalizing problems, triangulation, and maternal and paternal warmth. Analyses revealed a three-way interaction between triangulation and maternal and paternal warmth predicting adolescent externalizing problems; child gender also moderated these relations. Among highly triangulated youth, boys displayed increased externalizing problems when both parents exhibited low or high warmth whereas girls showed increased behavior problems in the context of low maternal but high paternal warmth. These findings indicate the importance of examining the broader family context and gender when considering the impact of triangulation during adolescence. PMID:24796159
Introduction: Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males’ excess risk for conduct problems and females’ susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents’ exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Methods: Adolescents completed baseline (2001–2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007–2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. Results: At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. Conclusions: The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted. PMID:24590388
Cummings, E Mark; Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Koss, Kalsea; Davies, Patrick T
Despite calls for process-oriented models for child maladjustment due to heightened marital conflict in the context of parental depressive symptoms, few longitudinal tests of the mechanisms underlying these relations have been conducted. Addressing this gap, the present study examined multiple factors longitudinally that link parental depressive symptoms to adolescent adjustment problems, building on a conceptual model informed by emotional security theory (EST). Participants were from 320 families (158 boys, 162 girls), including mothers and fathers, who took part when their children were in kindergarten (T1), second (T2), seventh (T3), eighth (T4) and ninth (T5) grades. Parental depressive symptoms (T1) were related to changes in adolescents' externalizing and internalizing symptoms (T5), as mediated by parents' negative emotional expressiveness (T2), marital conflict (T3), and emotional insecurity (T4). Evidence was thus advanced for emotional insecurity as an explanatory process in the context of parental depressive symptoms. PMID:24652484
Rosen, James C.; And Others
Compared the psychological adjustment of high school boys and girls trying to reduce or gain weight. Reducers of both sexes and male gainers exhibited lower physical self-esteem. Girls trying to change weight in either direction showed depression and lower global self-esteem. Girls' decisions to gain or lose weight were influenced by psychological…
Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee
Coercive control is a relationship dynamic that is theorized to be key for understanding physical intimate partner violence (IPV). This research examines how coercive control in the context of physical IPV may influence child adjustment. Participants were 107 mothers and their children, aged 7 to 10 years. In each family, mothers reported the occurrence of at least one act of physical IPV in the past 6 months. Mothers reported on physical IPV and coercive control, and mothers and children reported on children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Coercive control in the context of physical IPV related positively with both mothers' and children's reports of child externalizing and internalizing problems, after accounting for the frequency of physical IPV, psychological abuse, and mothers' education. This research suggests that couple relationship dynamics underlying physical IPV are potentially important for understanding how physical IPV leads to child adjustment problems. PMID:24923886
Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bulbul, Selda Fatma; Tur?ut, Mahmut; A?irta?, Gül?ah
We investigated the sleep problems and sleep habits of adolescents at three public primary schools and two high schools. Our study included 428 Turkish school children (244 girls and 184 boys). We used a questionnaire to determine the time they went to sleep at night; waking time in the morning; incidence of nightmares, snoring, daytime sleepiness, and intrafamilial physical trauma; concentration difficulty in class; and school success. The students were divided into age-related groups (group 1 = 11 to 13 years of age; group 2 = 14 to 15 years; group 3 = 16 to 18 years). The time they went to sleep was mostly between 10 and 11 p.m. in groups 1 and 2, and 11 to 12 p.m. in group 3. Difficulty in falling asleep was reported by 16.8 to 19.6% of the students in the three groups. Difficulty in waking up in the morning was reported by 12.7% of group 1, 16.0% of group 2, and 16.8% of group 3. Snoring was present in 12.1% of females and 22.0% of males. The occurrence of one nightmare in the preceding 3 months was reported by 11.3% of the students; 17.9% of the students reported having nightmares several times. Daytime sleepiness was present in 65.1%, and concentration difficulty was present in 56.8% of the students. We conclude that difficulty in falling asleep, snoring, and daytime sleepiness may be seen in adolescents who are in both primary and high schools. Watching inappropriate programs and movies on television and intrafamilial physical trauma may cause nightmares and sleeping problems in these adolescents. Students and families should be educated about the importance of sleep in academic performance. Countries' public health policies should address sleep problems and related educational activities. PMID:26053990
Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Gonzalez, Laura M
Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and interactive effects at two time points in the same sample of Asian American adolescents-early high school (N = 180 9th-10th graders; 60 % female) and 2 years later in late high school (N = 156 11th-12th graders; 87% of original sample). Results suggest that socioeconomic stress is indeed associated with poor academic adjustment, measured broadly through self-reported GPA, importance of academic success, and educational aspirations and expectations. Family obligation was positively related to adjustment, and also was found to buffer the negative effects of socioeconomic stress, but only during adolescents' later high school years. Adolescents reporting more family obligation experienced less of the negative effects of financial stress on academic outcomes than those reporting lower obligation. Cultural and developmental implications are discussed in light of these direct and moderating effects. PMID:23371003
Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Fabricius, William V.; Saenz, Delia
A mixed-method study identified profiles of fathers who mentioned key dimensions of their parenting and linked profile membership to adolescents’ adjustment using data from 337 European American, Mexican American and Mexican immigrant fathers and their early adolescent children. Father narratives about what fathers do well as parents were thematically coded for the presence of five fathering dimensions: emotional quality (how well father and child get along), involvement (amount of time spent together), provisioning (the amount of resources provided), discipline (the amount and success in parental control), and role modeling (teaching life lessons through example). Next, latent class analysis was used to identify three patterns of the likelihood of mentioning certain fathering dimensions: an emotionally-involved group mentioned emotional quality and involvement; an affective-control group mentioned emotional quality, involvement, discipline and role modeling; and an affective-model group mentioned emotional quality and role modeling. Profiles were significantly associated with subsequent adolescents’ reports of adjustment such that adolescents of affective-control fathers reported significantly more externalizing behaviors than adolescents of emotionally-involved fathers. PMID:24883049
Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen; Levin, Elise
Objectives The purpose of this mixed method study was to characterize the patterns of psychosocial adjustment among adolescent African refugees in U.S. resettlement. Methods A purposive sample of 73 recently resettled refugee adolescents from Burundi and Liberia were followed for two years and qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed using a mixed methods exploratory design. Results Protective resources identified were the family and community capacities that can promote youth psychosocial adjustment through: 1) Finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) Social support networks; 4) Engaged parenting; 5) Family cohesion; 6) Cultural adherence and guidance; 7) Educational support; and, 8) Faith and religious involvement. The researchers first inductively identified 19 thriving, 29 managing, and 25 struggling youths based on review of cases. Univariate analyses then indicated significant associations with country of origin, parental education, and parental employment. Multiple regressions indicated that better psychosocial adjustment was associated with Liberians and living with both parents. Logistic regressions showed that thriving was associated with Liberians and higher parental education, managing with more parental education, and struggling with Burundians and living parents. Qualitative analysis identified how these factors were proxy indicators for protective resources in families and communities. Conclusion These three trajectories of psychosocial adjustment and six domains of protective resources could assist in developing targeted prevention programs and policies for refugee youth. Further rigorous longitudinal mixed-methods study of adolescent refugees in U.S. resettlement are needed. PMID:24205467
Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.
Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11–14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices, The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a meditational model, A longitudinal sample of 694 boys and girls from four geographical locations was utilized, with data collected from kindergarten through high school. Structural equation models revealed that, irrespective of gender or race, high rates of aggressive disruptive behaviors and attention problems at school entry increased risk for a constellation of problem behaviors in middle school (school maladjustment, antisocial activity, and substance use) which, in turn, promoted the early initiation of sexual activity. Implications are discussed for developmental models of early sexual activity and for prevention programming. PMID:18607716
Hsueh-Ling Chang; Hsin-Yi Liang; Hwei-Shioun Wang; Chian-Shan Li; Nai-Chi Ko; Yuan-Pei Hsu
Background: Patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) are at risk of an array of behavioral and emotional problems, resulting in social, academic and vocational func- tion impairments. This study intended to examine the nature and severity of behavioral and emotional problems in Taiwanese TS adolescents. Methods: Forty TS adolescents with normal IQ and thirty age- and gender-matched normal controls were evaluated
Ladouceur, Robert; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Pelletier, Amelie
Prevalence studies indicate that approximately 40% of adolescents participate in regular gambling with rates of problem gambling up to four times greater than that found in adult populations. However, it appears that few adolescents actually seek treatment for such problems. The purpose of this study was to explore potential reasons why…
Tarter, Ralph E.; Kirisci, Levent; Mezzich, Ada; Patton, David
Purpose The factors that distinguish adolescent male and female substance abusers with and without legal problems were investigated. Method Youths (N = 4,071) admitted for substance abuse treatment were administered the revised Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI-R) to measure severity of health, behavior, and social adjustment problems. Results Legal problems were more frequent among boys; however, severity of disturbance was greater in girls on 9 of 10 scales. Substance abusing girls and boys with legal problems reported more severe behavior, substance abuse, family adjustment, and peer relationship problems than substance abusing peers without legal problems. Quality of peer relationship mediated the association of family dysfunction, substance abuse and behavior problems with legal problems in boys only. Conclusions Gender and legal status both need to be taken into account to potentiate treatment prognosis of substance abusing youths. PMID:21686313
Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent; Mezzich, Ada; Patton, David
PURPOSE: The factors that distinguish adolescent male and female substance abusers with and without legal problems were investigated. METHOD: Youths (N = 4,071) admitted for substance abuse treatment were administered the revised Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI-R) to measure severity of health, behavior, and social adjustment problems. RESULTS: Legal problems were more frequent among boys; however, severity of disturbance was greater in girls on 9 of 10 scales. Substance abusing girls and boys with legal problems reported more severe behavior, substance abuse, family adjustment, and peer relationship problems than substance abusing peers without legal problems. Quality of peer relationship mediated the association of family dysfunction, substance abuse and behavior problems with legal problems in boys only. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and legal status both need to be taken into account to potentiate treatment prognosis of substance abusing youths. PMID:21686313
McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly
Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads. PMID:21479509
Susie D. Lamborn; Dang-Giao T. Nguyen
This study examined perceived kinship support and parenting practices for 158 African American adolescents in the 9th and 10th grades. Kinship support showed direct associations with teen outcomes that, for work orientation and school orientation, were partially mediated by parenting practices. With a few exceptions, kinship support was positively associated with youth adjustment for teens from single-parent and 2-parent homes,
Jenae M. Neiderhiser
\\u000a It is clear that the family relationships have important and lasting influences on adolescent adjustment and development.\\u000a Genetically informed studies have provided additional information suggesting that these influences are due, at least in part,\\u000a to the interplay of genetic and environmental factors via genotype–environment correlation and interaction. Understanding\\u000a the relative contributions of genes and environment and how they operate together
Thomas W. Farmer; Cristin M. Hall; Margaret P. Weiss; Robert A. Petrin; Judith L. Meece; Michele Moohr
This study examined the school adjustment of adolescents with disabilities and their nondisabled peers in a national sample\\u000a of rural high school students. The total sample consisted of 7,376 students: 6,704 nondisabled students, 70 students with\\u000a emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), 512 students with learning disabilities (LD), and 90 students identified as English\\u000a language learners (ELL). Teacher ratings on the
Lawrence A. Kurdek; Mark A. Fine; Ronald J. Sinclair
For three independent samples (mean age = 12.33 years, n = 711; mean age = 10.89 years, n = 225; and mean age = 12.05 years, n = 534, respectively), young adolescents who had experienced 0, 1, 2, and multiple parenting transitions were compared on adjustment scores that were derived from self-reports of grades, health, drug abstinence, self-esteem, and self-mastery
and negotiating cultural differences (Kim & Ozio, 2006; Yeh et al., 2005). For many Asian American youths, negotiating between the traditional Asian culture and the mainstream culture often involves a daily processing and making sense of two cultural values... studies on Chinese immigrant families’ generational dissonance and adolescents’ outcomes have rarely examined mediating mechanisms that help explain the processes by which generational dissonance influence adolescent’s adjustment outcomes (Kim, Chen, Li...
Williamson, Sara; Craig, Jaime; Slinger, Richard
This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four…
Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining…
Perkins, Suzanne C.; Cortina, Kai S.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
This article investigates the relation between history of intrafamilial violence and self-regulatory capacity, cognitive processing, and mental health adjustment in incarcerated adolescents. Adolescents were incarcerated at the time of the study for various violent offenses, ranging from persistent delinquency to sexual assault (n = 115). A model…
Enrique Gracia; Fernando Garcia; Marisol Lil
A growing body of research suggests that the authoritative style of parenting is not always necessarily associated with optimum psychological and social outcomes among adolescents. This paper analyzed the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents' psychological adjustment using a two-dimension four-typology model of parenting styles, with the aim to determine which style of parenting Authoritative vs. indulgent was associated with
Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…
Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Wong, Jessie J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Dumka, Larry E.
Existing work has identified perceived discrimination as a risk factor that may contribute to the relatively poorer academic outcomes exhibited by Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. The current study examined the longitudinal associations among perceived discrimination and three indices of adolescent adjustment in the school setting (i.e.,…
A. Sourander; L. Helstelä; H. Helenius
Background: The aim of the study is to report parent\\/youth self-report agreement on emotional and behavioral symptoms among 15- to 16-year-old\\u000a adolescents. Methods: A completed Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self-Report were obtained from 580 subjects. Results: Adolescents reported significantly more problem behaviors than their parents. Adolescent girls reported a significantly\\u000a higher level of distress than boys in most symptom
Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D
Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p < .05, ES = 0.15) related to less engagement in early health-risking sexual behaviors, possibly reflecting selective acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. PMID:26190068
Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.
Objective: The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Method: Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut…
Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.
This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…
Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.
The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal…
Langton, Emma Gore; Collishaw, Stephan; Goodman, Robert; Pickles, Andrew; Maughan, Barbara
Background: While there is considerable evidence of income gradients in child and adolescent behaviour problems, evidence relating to children and young people's emotional difficulties is more mixed. Older studies reported no income differentials, while recent reports suggest that adolescents from low-income families are more likely to experience…
Elgar, Frank J.; Arlett, Christine; Groves, Renee
Rural/urban differences were studied in self-reported stress, coping, and behavioral problems in adolescents. Levels of stress and ways of coping were similar between the two groups. However, urban males reported more conflict and externalizing behaviors than females and rural males. Results suggest that adolescents may utilize many coping…
Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.
This study examines the ways in which different family processes and personal experiences of social contexts are related to the adjustment of adolescents in a subsample of 755 mother-child dyads drawn from the National Survey of Families and Households. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine a model in which joint family contexts…
Sim, Tick Ngee; Ng, Ee Lynn
The current study examined the mediating role of stress in the linkages between attachment to parents and adjustment to attending higher learning institutions in another country. Self-reports from 114 Malaysian late adolescents studying in Singapore supported the primacy of stress for adjustment; more pertinent, stress mediated all the…
Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner
Recollections of physical discipline as absent, age-delimited (ages 2-11), or present into adolescence were associated with youths' evaluations of their mothers' and fathers' parenting styles and their own adjustment. Data were from the Portraits of American Life Study-Youth (PALS-Y) a diverse, national sample of 13- to 18-year-olds (N = 158). The modal experience of youth with authoritative parents was age-delimited spanking; the modal experience of youth with permissive parents was no spanking; the modal experience of youth with authoritarian or disengaged parents was physical discipline into adolescence. The age-delimited group reported the best adjustment (less maladjustment than the adolescent group; greater competence than both other groups). The positive association between fathers' age-delimited spanking and youths' academic rank persisted even after accounting for parenting styles. The eschewing of spanking should not be listed as a distinguishing characteristic of authoritative parenting, which was more often associated with age-delimited spanking than with zero-usage. PMID:24245082
Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…
Epstein, Monica K.; Renk, Kimberly; Duhig, Amy M.; Bosco, Georgetta L.; Phares, Vicky
To address the lack of studies examining the convergent and discriminant validity of cross-informant ratings, several statistical approaches were used in this study to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity for ratings of interparental conflict, adolescent behavioral problems, and adolescent competence. A total of 272…
Tamrouti-Makkink, Ilse D.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.
Background: The present study extends existing studies on the role of differential parental treatment in explaining individual differences in adolescent problem behaviors above the absolute level of parenting and clarifies the function of gender of the child, birth rank and gender constellation of the sibling dyads. Method: The absolute level of…
Waller, Erika M.; Rose, Amanda J.
The current study examined co-rumination (i.e., extensively discussing, rehashing, and speculating about problems) in the context of mother-adolescent relationships. Fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-graders (N = 516) reported on co-rumination and more normative self-disclosure with mothers, their relationships with mothers, and their own…
Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M
This study investigated early adolescent friendship selection and social influence with regard to academic motivation (self-efficacy and intrinsic value), engagement (effortful and disruptive behavior), and achievement (GPA calculated from report card grades) among 6th graders (N = 587, 50% girls at Wave 1; N = 576, 52% girls at Wave 2) followed from fall to spring within 1 academic year. A stochastic actor-based model of social network analysis was used to overcome methodological limitations of prior research on friends, peer groups, and academic adjustment. Evidence that early adolescents sought out friends who were similar to themselves (selection) was found in regard to academic self-efficacy, and a similar trend was found for achievement. Evidence that friends became more similar to their friends over time (influence) was found for all aspects of academic adjustment except academic self-efficacy. Collectively, results indicate that selection effects were not as pervasive as influence effects in explaining similarity among friends in academic adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25221841
Steeger, Christine M; Gondoli, Dawn M
This study examined mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among these variables during a developmental period when children and parents experience significant psychosocial changes. Three years of self-report data were collected from 168 mother-adolescent dyads, beginning when the adolescents (55.4% girls) were in 6th grade. Models were tested using longitudinal path analysis. Results indicated that the connection between adolescent aggression (and depressive symptoms) and maternal psychological control was best characterized as adolescent-driven, indirect, and mediated by mother-adolescent conflict; there were no indications of parent-driven indirect effects. That is, prior adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms were associated with increased conflict. In turn, conflict was associated with increased psychological control. Within our mediation models, reciprocal direct effects between both problem behaviors and conflict and between conflict and psychological control were also found. Additionally, exploratory analyses regarding the role of adolescent gender as a moderator of variable relations were conducted. These analyses revealed no gender-related patterns of moderation, whether moderated mediation or specific path tests for moderation were considered. This study corroborates prior research finding support for child effects on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. PMID:22612432
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. Additionally, secondborns’ social time declined more slowly than firstborns’, and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042
Doan, Stacey N.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Evans, Gary W.
The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinal associations among maternal responsiveness, self-regulation, and behavioral adjustment in adolescents. The authors used structural equation modeling to test a model that demonstrates that the effects of early cumulative risk on behavioral problems is mediated by maternal responsiveness…
Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila
Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493
McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna
Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health…
Heppner, P. Paul; Anderson, Wayne P.
Despite increased interest in real life problem solving with both children and adults, the question of whether problem solving is related to psychological adjustment remains unanswered. To examine whether college students' self-appraisal of their problem solving skills is related to their psychological adjustment, 671 students took the Problem…
Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon
Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families. PMID:19899647
Huygen, A; Kuis, W; Sinnema, G
OBJECTIVE—To assess the psychological, behavioural and social adjustment of children (7-11 years) and adolescents (12-16 years) with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). Higher rates of maladjustment were expected to be found in these patients.?METHODS—Self report questionnaires were used within the context of personal interviews. Family functioning and social support were studied as well. Forty seven patients with JCA, 52 healthy peers and their respective parents participated in the study.?RESULTS—Self esteem, perceived competence and body image in patients with JCA were as positive as they were in healthy participants. There were no differences between ill and healthy youngsters with respect to the incidence of psychopathology. Patients with JCA, in general, perceived themselves as socially competent, but they seemed to have somewhat less opportunity or energy to participate in social activities. Children with JCA showed a high level of aspiration to cope with social expectations. This aspiration seemed to be even stronger in case the disease caused more strains, for example, in periods of inflammation and in the systemic onset type. The high level of social adjustment in children with JCA seemed to be supported by highly cohesive family structures. Generally, adolescents with JCA experienced much social support.?CONCLUSIONS—In contrast with our expectation, children and adolescents with JCA seemeed to cope quite well with the psychological and social consequences of their long term condition. For future studies, it is hypothesised that the high levels of adaptation might imply an enduring psychological strain, which is reflected in an altered function of the autonomic nervous system.?? PMID:10733474
Esther A. M. Westenberg; Nadia Garnefski
This study focused on the self-reported experience of depressive symptomatology and child abuse in a sample of adolescents with severe behavioral problems. The sample comprised 81 adolescents, from 11 to 18 years of age: 46 boys (56.8%) and 35 girls (43.2%), who at the time of the study were placed under supervision of a Family Supervision Agency or were receiving
DesRoches, Andrea; Willoughby, Teena
Although activity involvement has been linked to positive youth development, the value that adolescents place on these activities (i.e., how much they enjoy the activities, find them important, and spend time on them) has received less attention. The purpose of the present study was to examine the bidirectional longitudinal association between engagement in valued activities and adolescent positive adjustment (optimism, purpose in life, and self-esteem), as well as investigate a possible underlying mechanism for this link. High school students (N = 2,270, 48.7% female) from Ontario, Canada completed questionnaires annually in grades 10, 11, and 12. Auto-regressive cross-lagged path analyses were conducted over time, controlling for gender, parental education, and academic grades. Greater engagement in valued activities predicted higher optimism, purpose, and self-esteem over time. Importantly, the results did not support an alternate hypothesis of selection effects, in that adolescents who were better adjusted were not more likely than their peers to engage in valued activities over time. We also found that the longitudinal associations between valued activities and positive adjustment may be due partly to an underlying effect of increased positive mood. Thus, engagement in valued activities appears to be important for adolescent positive adjustment, and may help to foster thriving. Communities, educators, and parents should actively support and encourage adolescents to develop valued activities, and seek to ensure that there are ample opportunities and resources available for them to do so. PMID:23625185
Stephen Ellenbogen; Jeffrey Derevensky; Rina Gupta
Data from five recent studies using self-reports were merged to explore gender differences in the characteristics of adolescent\\u000a problem gambling, including comorbidity with other youth problems. The sample consisted of 2,750 male and 2,563 female participants.\\u000a Male problem gamblers were more likely than females to report signs of psychological difficulties while females were more\\u000a likely to note behavioural problems as
Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.
Background: Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) (ID-adolescents) and adolescents with chronic diseases are both more likely to have emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of this study was to assess the association between chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and emotional and behavioural problems in a large school-based sample.…
Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark
Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…
Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.
This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a…
Self-esteem and adjustment in early adolescence: A social-esteem, and emotional/behavioral problems in early adolescence.esteem, and social activities on experience of stress and depression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,
Nina D. Cole
Spousal adjustment issues, increasingly career related, are a major reason for expatriate assignment failure. Employer-provided spousal assistance programs have been proposed to address this situation. This field study of 238 expatriate spouses found that those who experience a severe disruption or cessation of employment have significantly lower interaction adjustment to the expatriate experience than others. For spouses with a career
Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa
The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point…
Jackson, Lynne M.; Pratt, Michael W.; Hunsberger, Bruce; Pancer, S. Mark
Authoritative parenting has been associated with positive outcomes for children and adolescents, but less is known about the mechanisms responsible for such effects. Two longitudinal studies examined the hypothesis that the relation between authoritative parenting and adolescents' adjustment is mediated by adolescents' level of dispositional…
Pinkney, Christopher J.; Murray, Christopher J.; Lind, John R.
In this investigation, the authors examine the relationship between individual skills (i.e., career locus of control [LOC], social skills [SOC], and social problem-solving skills [SPSS]) and the school- and perceived career-related adjustment of 211 students with disabilities. Data pertaining to individual skills were gathered from student…
De Judicibus, Margaret A.; McCabe, Marita P.
Thirty-one parents with multiple sclerosis (MS) participated in a study to investigate the adjustment of their children, 24 boys and 24 girls aged 4 to 16 years. The majority of parents believed that their illness had an effect on their children. The perception of parents regarding their children's problems in the areas of emotions, concentration,…
Meeus, Wim; Van de Schoot, Rens; Klimstra, Theo; Branje, Susan
We examined change and stability of the 3 personality types identified by Block and Block (1980) and studied their links with adjustment and relationships. We used data from a 5-wave study of 923 early-to-middle and 390 middle-to-late adolescents, thereby covering the ages of 12-20 years. In Study 1, systematic evidence for personality change was…
Hurtig, Anita Landau; Koepke, David
The study examined the effects of social support and family functioning on illness and adjustment in 70 children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Four sources of information were used: patient interview and standardized tests; parent interview and standardized tests; teacher interview; and medical records. Results revealed several…
With the aim of identifying and examining both converging (matched relationship quality across one’s set of relationships) and non-converging (mixed relationship quality across one’s set of relationships), the present study used a pattern-centered approach to examine the different ways adolescent relationships pattern together among a large, national sample of U.S adolescents (aged 13–19). The study also examined how adolescent adjustment and young adult relationship quality varied across the different relationship patterns or constellations. The current study used latent class analysis and data from Add Health (n = 4,233), a national U.S. longitudinal study that spans adolescence and young adulthood, to uncover heterogeneity in adolescent relations with parents, friends, romantic partners, peers, and teachers. As predicted, patterns of both convergence and non-convergence were found, though patterns of non-convergence were more common than expected. Some patterns of non-convergence appear more stable (i.e., similar pattern found during both adolescence and young adulthood) than others. Also, no “high” converging pattern was found, indicating that few adolescents have “first-rate” relations in every relational domain. PMID:22334764
Gillen-O’Neel, Cari; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Studies examining friendships among Mexican-American adolescents have largely focused on their potentially negative influence. The current study examined the extent to which deviant and achievement-oriented friend affiliations are associated with Mexican-American adolescents’ school adjustment and also tested whether support from friends and parents moderates these associations. High school students (N = 412; 49 % male) completed questionnaires and daily diaries; primary caregivers also completed a questionnaire. Although results revealed few direct associations between friend affiliations and school adjustment, several moderations emerged. In general, the influence of friends’ affiliation was strongest when support from friends was high and parental support was low. The findings suggest that only examining links between friend affiliations and school outcomes does not fully capture how friends promote or hinder school adjustment. PMID:24096530
Background It is well documented that both anxiety and depression are associated with headache, but there is limited knowledge regarding the relation between recurrent primary headaches and symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as behavioral problems among adolescents. Assessment of co-morbid disorders is important in order to improve the management of adolescents with recurrent headaches. Thus the main purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of recurrent headache with anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems in a large population based cross-sectional survey among adolescents in Norway. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT1). In Young-HUNT1, 4872 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were interviewed about their headache complaints and completed a comprehensive questionnaire that included assessment of symptoms of anxiety and depression and behavioral problems, i.e. conduct and attention difficulties. Results In adjusted multivariate analyses among adolescents aged 12–14 years, recurrent headache was associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.61-2.61, p?0.001), but not with behavioral problems. A significant association with anxiety and depressive symptoms was evident for all headache categories; i.e. migraine, tension-type headache and non-classifiable headache. Among adolescents aged 15–17 years there was a significant association between recurrent headache and symptoms of anxiety and depression (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.39-1.93, p?0,001) and attention difficulties (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.44, p =0.001). For migraine there was a significant association with both anxiety and depressive symptoms and attention difficulties, while tension-type headache was significantly associated only with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Non-classifiable headache was associated with attention difficulties and conduct difficulties, but not with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Headache frequency was significantly associated with increasing symptoms scores for anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as attention difficulties, evident for both age groups. Conclusions The results from the present study indicate that both anxiety and depressive symptoms and behavioral problems are associated with recurrent headache, and should accordingly be considered a part of the clinical assessment of children and adolescents with headache. Identification of these associated factors and addressing them in interventions may improve headache management. PMID:24925252
The purpose of this study is to examine the components and strategies of counseling and treating adolescents with alcohol and other substance use problems. The study examines the patterns and risk and resistance factors of adolescents with substance use problems and how to assess and diagnose adolescents with substance use problems and comorbid…
Whittaker, Shaun; Bry, Brenna H.
Examined hypothesis that adolescent problems are positively associated with overt and covert forms of parental conflict. Compared observed marital interactions in families of adolescents with problems to those in families of adolescents without problems. Findings suggest that both overt parental conflict and some forms of covert conflict play…
Objective: The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we determined whether sexually abused adolescent boys or girls were more likely to have internalizing behavior scores in the clinical range. Second, after determining boys were more likely than girls to have an internalizing behavior problem, we tested whether this relationship would persist…
Grimes, Jeff, Ed.
This document, intended as a resource for school psychologists, contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of children and adolescents. Each chapter includes the following content: background information concerning the specific topic, approaches for assessing the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities,…
Chiu, Eddie Yu-Wai; Woo, Kent
This preliminary study examined the characteristics and risk factors of problem gambling among Chinese American adolescents. A total of 192 Chinese American students (aged 13-19) from 9th to 12th grades were recruited from three high schools in San Francisco, California. Students were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for…
Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.
The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…
Concurrent and prospective associations between parent-youth dyadic hostility and adolescent externalizing and internalizing problem behavior were examined in a sample of 416 families. Parenting control, parents' well-being, and youths' affiliation with deviant peers were included as integral covariates. Information from multiple sources was…
Yang, Stephanie; Salzman, Michael; Yang, Cheng-Hong
Due to the advance of technology, the American society has become more diverse. A huge population of international students in the U.S. faces unique issues. According to the existing literature, the top-rated anxieties international student faces are generally caused by language anxiety, cultural adjustments, and learning differences and barriers.…
Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others
Of 4,100 adolescents, those who characterized their parents as authoritative scored highest on psychosocial competence and lowest on behavioral dysfunction. The reverse was true for neglected adolescents. Adolescents from authoritarian homes scored high on obedience but low on self-perception. Adolescents from indulgent homes evidenced…
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psychometric support for the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (Malecki et al., A working manual on the development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (2000). Unpublished manuscript, Northern Illinois University, 2003) across gender, and demonstrated gender differences in perceptions of support in early adolescence. In addition, there were significant associations between all sources of support with depressive symptoms, anxiety, self-esteem, and academic adjustment, but fewer significant unique effects of each source. Parental support was a robust unique predictor of adjustment for both boys and girls, and classmates' support was a robust unique predictor for boys. These results illustrate the importance of examining gender differences in the social experience of adolescents with careful attention to measurement and analytic issues. PMID:20091216
Pastore, Valentina; Galbiati, Susanna; Villa, Federica; Colombo, Katia; Recla, Monica; Adduci, Annarita; Avantaggiato, Paolo; Bardoni, Alessandra; Strazzer, Sandra
The aim of this study was to describe psychological, behavioral, and adjustment problems in children and adolescents with acquired brain lesions of different origins. Three groups of patients with acquired brain lesions (15 patients with infectious origin, 37 with vascular origin, and 15 with other origin), ranging in age from 4 to 18 years, received a psychological evaluation, including the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 4 to 18 and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. About half of the total sample (47.8%) showed psychological problems. Difficulties varied according to the cause of the brain lesions. The most problematic patients were children with brain lesions of infectious origin, whereas children with brain lesions of vascular origin scored lower on most of the Child Behavior Checklist scales. The authors conclude that psychological and behavioral difficulties are very common among school-aged children with acquired brain lesions, and their relevance and impact must necessarily be considered. PMID:24453143
Petra Gradinger; Dagmar Strohmeier; Christiane Spiel
We investigated the co-occurrence of traditional bullying, cyberbullying, traditional victimization, and cybervictimization, and analyzed whether students belonging to particular groups of bullies (e.g., traditional, cyber, or both), victims (e.g., traditional, cyber, or both), and bully-victims differed regarding adjustment. Seven hundred sixty-one adolescents (49% boys) aged 14–19 years (M = 15.6 years) were surveyed. More students than expected by chance were
Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.
This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found a small number of temporary effects of transition timing on problem behavior: Spending an additional year in elementary school was associated with higher levels of deviant behavior in the Fall of Grade 6 and higher levels of antisocial peer associations in Grade 8. However, transition effects were not consistent across waves and latent growth curve models found no effects of transition timing on the trajectory of problem behavior. We discuss policy implications and compare our findings with other research on transition timing. PMID:24089584
McLeod, Jane D; Uemura, Ryotaro; Rohrman, Shawna
Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,315). We estimated the associations of depression, attention problems, delinquency, and substance use with two indicators of academic achievement (high school GPA and highest degree received) with controls for academic aptitude. Attention problems, delinquency, and substance use were significantly associated with diminished achievement, but depression was not. Combinations of problems involving substance use were especially consequential. Our results demonstrate that the social consequences of mental health problems are not the inevitable result of diminished functional ability but, rather, reflect negative social responses. These results also encourage a broader perspective on mental health by demonstrating that behavior problems heighten the negative consequences of more traditional forms of distress. PMID:23197485
Rosser, W.; Feldman, W.; McGrath, P.
Injuries are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Approximately 15% of injuries involve the skeleton. The prevalence of injuries and musculoskeletal problems increases with age as growing children achieve higher levels of physical activity. This paper provides brief descriptions of only the most common skeletal problems. The authors describe skeletal injuries seen in battered children; problems that cause painful or immobile arms; limps or immobile legs; and spinal pain problems. The common causes of pain or disability in these four areas are discussed. PMID:21263852
K. Paige Harden; Stacy K. Lynch; Eric Turkheimer; Robert E. Emery; Brian M. DOnofrio; Wendy S. Slutske; Mary D. Waldron; Andrew C. Heath; Dixie J. Statham; Nicholas G. Martin
The present study examines the relations between adolescent motherhood and children's behavior, substance use, and internalizing problems in a sample of 1,368 children of 712 female twins from Australia. Adolescent motherhood remained significantly associated with all mental health problems, even when using a quasiexperimental design capable of controlling for genetic and environmental confounds. However, the relation between adolescent motherhood and
Bimmel, Nicole; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; De Geus, Eco J. C.
The present longitudinal study examined resting heart rate and heart rate variability and reactivity to a stressful gambling task in adopted adolescents with aggressive, delinquent, or internalizing behavior problems and adopted adolescents without behavior problems (total N=151). Early-onset delinquent adolescents showed heart rate…
Calvete, Esther; Cardenoso, Olga
This study assessed gender differences in cognitive variables as an explanation for gender differences in depression and behavior problems; 856 adolescents (491 females and 365 males), aged 14-17, completed the Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents, the Social Problem Solving Inventory--Revised Short Form, the adolescent version of the Burnett…
Hubbs-Tait, Laura; And Others
Describes longitudinal investigation evaluating additive model of impact of adolescent mothers' parenting practices on children. Suggests infant-mother attachment predicted behavior problems among preschool children of adolescent mothers and adolescent mothers' depression explained significant additional variance in those problems. States mothers'…
Miri Scharf; Ofra Mayseless; Inbal Kivenson-Baron
Adjustment to the transition from high school to military service in Israel was examined in a longitudinal study with a sample of 120 late-adolescent girls. During their senior year in high school (Time 1) the young women were administered the Adult Attachment Interview. Their coping and adjustment to the new environment were assessed (at two further points in time after
This study evaluated the hypothesis that self-perceived gender nonconformity is distressing to children because it undermines a confident sense of gender compatibility. Participants were 357 early adolescents (180 boys, M age = 12.68 years) in England who responded to questionnaires measuring friendship styles (preoccupied, avoidant), gender compatibility (typicality, contentedness), and adjustment (self-esteem, peer social competence, depression, narcissism). Sex differences in friendship styles indicated that preoccupied and avoidant styles were typical for girls and boys, respectively. Gender-atypical friendship styles predicted poor adjustment, and their impact on adjustment was partially mediated by felt gender compatibility. Results suggest that perceiving gender-atypical attributes in the self undermines adjustment partly because it leads children to feel incompatible with their gender collective. PMID:21679168
Jia, Yueming; Way, Niobe; Ling, Guangming; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Chen, Xinyin; Hughes, Diane; Ke, Xiaoyan; Lu, Zuhong
This study explored students' perceptions of 3 dimensions of school climate (teacher support, student-student support, and opportunities for autonomy in the classroom) and the associations between these dimensions and adolescent psychological and academic adjustment in China and the United States. Data were drawn from 2 studies involving 706 middle school students (M = 12.26) from Nanjing, China, and 709 middle school students (M = 12.36) from New York City. Findings revealed that students in China perceived higher levels of teacher support, student-student support, and opportunities for autonomy in the classroom than students in the United States. Furthermore, students' perceptions of teacher support and student-student support were positively associated with adolescents' self-esteem and grade point average but negatively associated with depressive symptoms for both Chinese and American adolescents. PMID:19765015
Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang
Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…
Wiley, Rachel E.; Berman, Steven L.
The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent…
Kogan, Steven M.
The role of disclosing child sexual abuse on adolescent survivors' symptomology and the presence of additional unwanted sexual experiences was investigated in a subsample of 111 adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents who reported child sexual abuse. Results indicated that prompt disclosure of sexual abuse to an adult moderated the…
Forrest, David; McHale, Ian G
International evidence suggests that problem gambling tends to be 2-4 times higher among adolescents as among adults and this proves to be true of Great Britain according to the latest adolescent prevalence survey. 8,958 British children (11-15) were surveyed in 201 schools during late 2008 and 2009. The questionnaire included a standard screen, DSM-IV-MR-J, to test for problem gambling. Our regression models explore influences of demographic, home and school characteristics on probabilities (both unconditional and conditional on being a gambler) of a child testing positive for problem gambling. More than 20% of children participated in gambling and, of these, nearly 8% tested positive. Age-group prevalence of problem gambling was 1.9%, compared with 0.6-0.9% in the most recent official adult surveys. Boys were much more likely than girls to gamble and to exhibit symptoms of problem gambling if they did. Generally, home characteristics, particularly parental attitude and example, dominated school characteristics in accounting for risks. Unanticipated findings included significantly elevated probabilities of problem gambling among Asian children and among children who live in a home without siblings. Child income was also a potent predictor of gambling and problem gambling. PMID:22086668
Ai-Xuan Holterman; Allen Browne; Barney E. Dillard; Lisa Tussing; Veronica Gorodner; Christiane Stahl; Nancy Browne; Sue Labott; James Herdegen; Grace Guzman; Andy Rink; Ifeoma Nwaffo; Carlos Galvani; Santiago Horgan; Mark Holterman
Background: We received the LAP-BAND Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) from the US Food and Drug Administration in December 2004 to conduct a prospective longitudinal trial examining the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) in morbidly obese adolescents ages 14 to 17 years. Objectives: To report the short-term results of LAGB in the first 10 adolescents with complete
Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank
Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…
Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana
Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account the interdependence among family members. Structural equation models showed that, during early adolescence, parent-child American orientation discrepancy is related to parents’ use of unsupportive parenting practices; parents’ use of unsupportive parenting is related to increased sense of alienation between parents and children, which in turn is related to more depressive symptoms and lower academic performance in Chinese American adolescents. These patterns of negative adjustment established in early adolescence persist into middle adolescence. This mediating effect is more apparent among father-adolescent dyads than among mother-adolescent dyads. In contrast, parent-child Chinese orientation discrepancy does not demonstrate a significant direct or indirect effect on adolescent adjustment, either concurrently or longitudinally. The current findings suggest that early adolescence is more susceptible to the negative effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancy; they also underscore the importance of fathering in Chinese immigrant families. PMID:22799587
Dana L. Haggard; Christopher Robert; Amanda J. Rose
Purpose Developmental psychology research finds that when children and adolescents engage in excessive discussion of problems with\\u000a friends, a phenomenon termed “co-rumination,” they experience trade-offs between negative adjustment outcomes (e.g., depression),\\u000a but better friendship quality. This study examines the possibility that adults in the workplace engage in co-rumination about\\u000a workplace problems, and that co-rumination, gender, and the presence of abusive supervision
Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo
Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects. PMID:24999522
Lopez, Cristy; DuBois, David L.
This study investigated an integrative model of the effects of peer victimization (PV) and peer rejection (PR) on youth adjustment using data from 508 middle-school students. In the proposed model, PV and PR each contribute independently to problems in emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment. The adverse consequences of PV and PR are each…
Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Williams, Shannon Tierney; Little, Wendy M.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Shebloski, Barbara
A sense of mastery is an important component of psychological health and well-being across the life-span; however, relatively little is known about the development of mastery during childhood and adolescence. Utilizing prospective, longitudinal data from 444 adolescent sibling pairs and their parents, our conceptual model proposes that family SES in the form of parental education promotes effective family problem solving which, in turn, fosters adolescent mastery. Results show: (1) a significant increase in mastery for younger and older siblings, (2) parental education promoted effective problem solving between parents and adolescents and between siblings but not between the parents themselves, and (3) all forms of effective family problem solving predicted greater adolescent mastery. Parental education had a direct effect on adolescent mastery as well as the hypothesized indirect effect through problem solving effectiveness, suggesting both a social structural and social process influence on the development of mastery during adolescence. PMID:19413137
Schwartz, Seth J.; Mason, Craig A.; Pantin, Hilda; Wang, Wei; Brown, C. Hendricks; Campo, Ana E.; Szapocznik, Jose
The present study was designed to examine (a) family and school functioning and (b) personal and ethnic identity are associated with conduct problems, drug use, and sexual risk taking in a sample of 227 high-risk Hispanic adolescents. Adolescents participated in the study with their primary parents, who were mostly mothers. Adolescents completed…
Fakier, Nuraan; Wild, Lauren G.
This study investigated the relationships among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence. Previous research suggests that these variables share an association with executive functioning deficits, and are intertwined. The sample comprised 427 adolescents (M age = 16 years) attending remedial schools and 276 adolescents…
Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina
We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…
Farrugia, Sylvana; Hudson, Jennifer
This study examined anxiety symptoms in 29 adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) aged 12 to 16 years, compared to 30 nonclinical (NC) adolescents and 34 adolescents with anxiety disorders (AD). Comorbidity between anxiety symptoms and negative thoughts, behavioral problems, and life interference was also examined. Self- and parental reports…
Willoughby, Colleen; Polatajko, Helene; Currado, Catherine; Harris, Kathryn; King, Gillian
Comparison of the self-esteem of 39 adolescents with mental health problems to that of a normative sample for the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents. Results indicate no difference between the two groups' self-esteem following participation in a prevocational program. Dimensions of self-concept that are most important to the adolescent will…
Barnes, Grace M.; Farrell, Michael P.
Sampled 699 adolescents and their families to examine effects of parenting practices on development of adolescent drinking, delinquency, and problem behaviors. Findings confirmed that parental support and monitoring were important predictors of adolescent outcomes even after taking into account critical demographic/family factors. Peer orientation…
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V.; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony
The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related…
Song, Xiaoqin; Wang, Hongxing; Zheng, Lei; Chen, Dingyan; Wang, Zengzhen
This study examined the association of problem behavior with neurotransmitter deficiency in adolescents, which would provide new insights into behavioral problems. A total of 1259 students of the seventh grade from 4 middle schools in Wuhan city located in the central China were recruited. With the approval of school and parents, they were invited to complete the Youth Self-Report (YSR) questionnaire and Symptom Scale of Neurotransmitter Deficiency (SSND) questionnaire. Pearson's bivariate correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients between each subscale of YSR and SSND ranged from 0.24 to 0.61 with all P<0.01. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that anxiety/depression was interrelated with insufficiency of GABA and 5-HT; aggressive behavior was associated with inadequate GABA; famine of DA influenced the attention problems. It was concluded that neurotransmitter deficiency may cause a series of behavioral and mental problems. PMID:21181360
Hardaway, Cecily R; Cornelius, Marie D
Alcohol is the most commonly used substance among adolescents in the United States, and adolescent drinking is associated with various health risk behaviors. Given the prevalence and consequences of adolescent drinking, understanding family factors that contribute to adolescent drinking is an important area for research. This study used three waves of data to evaluate a family stress model in which economic hardship is indirectly related to adolescent problem drinking through maternal psychological distress, parenting behaviors, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. Respondents included 300 mothers (71 % Black, 29 % White) and adolescents (51 % male) who were interviewed when adolescents were ages 10, 14, and 16. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model and findings supported our hypothesized model. Economic hardship was positively related to maternal psychological distress. Maternal psychological distress was negatively associated with supportive parenting, which in turn was negatively associated with externalizing problems. Externalizing problems were positively associated with problem drinking. In support of our hypothesis regarding indirect effects, economic hardship was indirectly related to problem drinking through maternal psychological distress, parenting behaviors, and adolescent externalizing problems. The findings from this study highlight the role of family processes in adolescent problem drinking. PMID:24248327
Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This longitudinal study investigated prospective links between social isolation and adjustment problems among 166 (77 girls, 89 boys) Finnish children ages 7 to 9. Peer nominations for social engagement and self-reports of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected in the spring of the 1st and 2nd grade. Friendship moderated…
Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.
The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…
Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Champagne, Mariette C.
Identity development is a highly salient task for adolescents, especially those from immigrant backgrounds, yet longitudinal research that tracks simultaneous change in ethnic identity and American identity over time has been limited. With a focus on 177 Asian American adolescents recruited from an emerging immigrant community, in the current…
Ryan, Allison M.; Shim, S. Serena
Two studies investigated the proposition that social achievement goals (different orientations toward social competence) are an important aspect of young adolescents' social motivation. Study 1 (N = 153 6th-grade students) established that different orientations toward developing or demonstrating social competence can be seen in young adolescents'…
Cook, Emily C.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.
Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents' behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents' physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175 low-income…
Schwartz, Seth J; Pantin, Hilda; Prado, Guillermo; Sullivan, Summer; Szapocznik, José
The present study investigated the role of identity in the relationship between family functioning and behavior problems in a sample of Hispanic immigrant early adolescents and their families. The sample consisted of 181 Hispanic immigrant adolescents (92 males, 89 females) and their participating caregivers (who were mostly mothers). Identity was measured using adolescent reports, whereas family functioning and early adolescent behavior problems were measured using both adolescent and parent reports. Correlational analyses indicated that previously obtained relationships among family functioning, identity, and behavior problems were replicated in the present sample. Structural equation models indicated that 20% of the relationship between family functioning and behavior problems operated indirectly through identity, and identity confusion partially mediates the relationship between family functioning and early adolescent behavior problems. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:16912809
Boeninger, Daria K.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Conger, Rand D.
Although studies have established associations between parenting characteristics and adolescent suicidality, the strength of the evidence for these links remains unclear, largely because of methodological limitations, including lack of accounting for possible child effects on parenting. This study addresses these issues by using autoregressive cross-lag models with data on 802 adolescents and their parents across 5 years. Observed parenting behaviors predicted change in adolescent suicidal problems across one-year intervals even after controlling for adolescents’ effects on parenting. Nurturant-involved parenting continued to demonstrate salutary effects after controlling for adolescent and parent internalizing psychopathology: over time, observed nurturant-involved parenting reduced the likelihood of adolescent suicidal problems. This study increases the empirical support implicating parenting behaviors in the developmental course of adolescent suicidality. PMID:24244079
Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.
Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents’ behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents’ physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175 low-income urban adolescents (51.8% girls). Findings suggested that heightened reactivity as indicated by cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure was associated with increased interpersonal competence and anger regulation. However, these findings were context dependent such that, for youth high in self-reported child maltreatment, heightened reactivity was associated with decreased interpersonal competence and anger regulation. Results highlight the importance of considering how context may condition the effect of stress reactivity on functioning during adolescence. PMID:22359225
Dekker, Linda P; Hartman, Catharina A; van der Vegt, Esther Jm; Verhulst, Frank C; van Oort, Floor Va; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin
Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general population cohort study (n = 1873; the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)), autistic traits and psychosexual problems were determined. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate whether childhood autistic traits, in individuals displaying no psychosexual problems in childhood, predicted the presence of psychosexual problems in adolescence, while controlling for pubertal development and conduct problems. Higher levels of autistic traits at T1 significantly predicted mild psychosexual problems at T2, above and beyond pubertal development and conduct problems. Particularly two dimensions of autistic traits at T1 were significant predictors; i.e. 'reduced contact/social interest' and 'not optimally tuned to the social situation'. Children with autistic traits - especially those with limited social interest and social regulation problems - showed to have a higher risk to develop psychosexual problems, albeit mild, in early adolescence as reported by parents. Although we showed that autistic traits predict psychosexual problems, it is only one of multiple predictors. PMID:25192861
Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn-Wright, Anne; Klima, Tali
Purpose Adolescent problem behaviors (substance use, delinquency, school dropout, pregnancy, and violence) are costly not only for individuals, but for entire communities. Policymakers and practitioners that are interested in preventing these problem behaviors are faced with many programming options. In this review, we discuss two criteria for selecting relevant parenting programs, and provide five examples of such programs. Design/methodology/approach The first criterion for program selection is theory based. Well-supported theories, such as the social development model, have laid out key family-based risk and protective factors for problem behavior. Programs that target these risk and protective factors are more likely to be effective. Second, programs should have demonstrated efficacy; these interventions have been called “evidence-based programs” (EBP). This review highlights the importance of evidence from rigorous research designs, such as randomized clinical trials, in order to establish program efficacy. Findings Nurse-Family Partnership, The Incredible Years, Positive Parenting Program, Strengthening Families 10–14, and Staying Connected with Your Teen are examined. The unique features of each program are briefly presented. Evidence showing impact on family risk and protective factors, as well as long-term problem behaviors, is reviewed. Finally, a measure of cost effectiveness of each program is provided. Originality/value We propose that not all programs are of equal value, and suggest two simple criteria for selecting a parenting program with a high likelihood for positive outcomes. Furthermore, although this review is not exhaustive, the five examples of EBPs offer a good start for policymakers and practitioners seeking to implement effective programs in their communities. Thus, this paper offers practical suggestions for those grappling with investments in child and adolescent programs on the ground. PMID:24416068
Minnesota, University of
Background Drug addiction is a common problem in this country, especially for adolescents. The detrimental effects of exposure to addictive drugs during adolescence continue to affect individuals throughout their lifetimes (Yucel, Lubman, Solowlj & Brewer, 2007). Understanding the nature of drug
Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya; Colakkadiaglu, Oguzhan
The purpose of this study is to examine subjective well-being with respect to problem solving, self-esteem in decision-making and decision-making styles in adolescents. For this purpose, "Positive and Negative Affect Scale", "Satisfaction with Life Scale", "Adolescent Decision Making Scale" and "Problem Solving…
Based on the results of previous research, multiple factors in several domains (individual attributes of the adolescent, family attributes, and extrafamilial factors) were identified as possible risk and protective factors for development of problem behavior during adolescence. The first aim of this study was to examine the relative importance of these factors for the development of externalizing and internalizing problems.
Buist, Kirsten L.; Dekovic, Maja; Meeus, Wim; van Aken, Marcel A. G.
The aim of the present study is to examine the reciprocal relationship between parental attachment and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problem behaviour. In this longitudinal study, 288 adolescents (mean age 13.5 years) reported on their attachment relationships with their parents and on problem behaviour three times, with…
Dekovic, M.; Buist, K.L.; Reitz, E.
The aim of this study was to examine growth trajectories of externalizing and internalizing problems during adolescence. In addition, we also examined factors that might account for individual differences in the level of problem behavior and in the rate of change: Adolescent gender and the quality of the relationships with parents and peers. The…
Objective: To compare prevalence of serious emotional and behavioral problems and mental health contacts for these problems among American and British children and adolescents. Method: Data on children and adolescents ages 5 to 16 years were drawn from the 2004 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (response rate = 79.4%) and the 2004 survey of…
Garnier, Helen E.; Stein, Judith A.
The influence of different values on adolescent problem behaviors is explored in an 18-year study of 199 families. Drug use, delinquency, dropout, and sexual behavior are identified as risk factors for problem behavior. Maternal, traditional, and humanistic values as predictors of adolescent behaviors were studied. (Author/MMU)
MEMORANDUM No 6:2007 Adolescent conduct problems and later risk of induced abortion: A population://www.iss.uio.no/forskning/memoranda.html #12;ii Adolescent conduct problems and later risk of induced abortion: A population- based) at age 15 and the risk of abortion during the teenage years and throughout the women's twenties Design
Fite, Paula J.; Becker, Stephen P.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Cheatham-Johnson, Randi
Background: Sleep problems are common among adolescents and have a negative impact on functioning. A better understanding of factors that contribute to sleep problems in adolescence can help guide more effective, targeted interventions. Objective: The current study examined the associations between reactive and proactive functions of aggression…
Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael
Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…
Timmons, Adela C; Margolin, Gayla
Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; Mage = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative mood and school problems. Results indicated bidirectional, multiday spillover between parent-adolescent conflict and school problems with daily negative mood statistically accounting for spillover both within and across days. Externalizing symptoms strengthened links between father-adolescent conflict and school problems, whereas depressive and anxious symptoms strengthened links between parent-adolescent conflict and daily negative mood. By demonstrating cross-domain transmission of daily problems, these findings highlight the salience of everyday events as possible intervention targets. PMID:25346538
Baker, Jean A.; Clark, Teresa P.; Crowl, Alicia; Carlson, John S.
Children with significant behaviour problems are at risk for poor classroom adjustment and school failure. Given this likelihood for a poor developmental trajectory, there is a need to better understand environmental influences within classrooms that help to effectively socialize children to those settings. The current study evaluated the effects…
This research is conducted to examine the predictor effects the behavior problem level has on the school adjustment variable. With this objective, the sample research group consists of 136 children (having normal growth) between 5-6 years old attending preschools affiliated with the Ministry of National Education, and located in the city centre of…
Derevensky, Jeffrey L; St-Pierre, Renee A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Gupta, Rina
Despite legislative prohibitions, there is empirical evidence that youth gamble on both regulated and unregulated activities. The current survey was designed to assess teachers' awareness and attitudes regarding adolescent gambling and other high-risk behaviours. Three-hundred and ninety teachers from Ontario and Quebec, with experience teaching students aged 12-18, completed an online survey. Results suggest that teachers are aware of the fact that youth gamble. Furthermore, they recognized the addictive nature of gambling and their subsequent consequences. Despite overestimating the proportion of youth experiencing gambling problems, gambling was viewed as being the least serious of issues affecting youth, with drug use and school violence topping the list. Almost half of respondents indicated that gambling in school can constitute a good learning activity. In regards to prevention, all other risky behaviours and academic problems were perceived as issues needing greater attention than gambling. These results, which are largely consistent with findings from a previous study examining parental perceptions of adolescent risky behaviours, suggest a need for greater awareness and teacher education. PMID:23423729
Mikami, Amori Yee; Hinshaw, Stephen P.
Examined a risk-resilience model of peer rejection and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 5-year longitudinal study of 209 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls aged 6–13 at baseline and 11–18 at follow-up. Risk factors were childhood ADHD diagnosis and peer rejection; hypothesized protective factors were childhood measures of self-perceived scholastic competence, engagement in goal-directed play when alone, and popularity with adults. Adolescent criterion measures were multi-informant composites of externalizing and internalizing behavior plus indicators of academic achievement, eating pathology, and substance use. ADHD and peer rejection predicted risk for all criterion measures except for substance use, which was predicted by ADHD only. ADHD and peer rejection predicted lower adolescent academic achievement controlling for childhood achievement, but they did not predict adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior after controlling for baseline levels of these constructs. Regarding buffers, self-perceived scholastic competence in childhood (with control of academic achievement) predicted resilient adolescent functioning. Contrary to hypothesis, goal-directed play in childhood was associated with poor adolescent outcomes. Buffers were not found to have differential effectiveness among girls with ADHD relative to comparison girls. PMID:17051436
Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanhui
In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents’ problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents’ resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79) and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver), we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents’ problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors. PMID:26010256
Kathryn R. Wentzel
This study examined the utility of parent socialization models for understanding teachers' influence on stu- dent adjustment in middle school. Teachers were assessed with respect to their modeling of motivation and to Baumrind's parenting dimensions of control, maturity demands, democratic communication, and nurturance. Student adjustment was defined in terms of their social and academic goals and interest in class, classroom
Stern, M; Northman, J E; Van Slyck, M R
Among the issues faced by adolescents are problems relating to alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexual behavior. A survey of 813 adolescents found that adolescents are most likely to discuss these problems with peers and least likely to discuss them with parents, especially fathers. However, father absence from the home resulted in greater use of and problems with alcohol, marijuana, and sexual activity. This was the case especially for boys. The results obtained underscore the significance of the father as a key figure in the transmission of values and as a deterrent to certain behaviors. The results point to adolescents from fatherless homes, especially boys, as being at risk for problems in the areas noted. This suggests that community agencies providing services to adolescents should make special efforts to incorporate into their programs specially designed services to meet the particular needs of this group. Aspects of such programs are discussed. PMID:6464814
Harden, K. Paige; Lynch, Stacy K.; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Waldron, Mary D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Statham, Dixie J.; Martin, Nicholas G.
The present study examines the relations between adolescent motherhood and children’s behavior, substance use, and internalizing problems in a sample of 1,368 children of 712 female twins from Australia. Adolescent motherhood remained significantly associated with all mental health problems, even when using a quasiexperimental design capable of controlling for genetic and environmental confounds. However, the relation between adolescent motherhood and offspring behavior problems and substance use was partially confounded by family background variables that influence both generations. The results are consistent with a causal relation between adolescent motherhood and offspring mental health problems, and they highlight the usefulness of behavior genetic designs when examining putative environmental risks for the development of psychopathology. The generalizability of these results to the United States, which has a higher adolescent birth rate, is discussed. PMID:18020715
Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Molgaard, Virginia K.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.
Objectives: The present research addressed the following important question in pediatric medicine: Can participation in a new family-centered preventive intervention, the Strong African American Families–Teen (SAAF–T) program, deter conduct problems, substance use, substance use problems, and depressive symptoms among rural black adolescents across 22 months? Methods: Data were collected from 502 black families in rural Georgia, assigned randomly to SAAF–T or an attention control condition. The prevention condition consisted of 5 consecutive meetings at community facilities with separate, concurrent sessions for caregivers and adolescents followed by a caregiver-adolescent session in which families practiced skills they learned in the separate sessions. Adolescents self-reported conduct problem behaviors, substance use, substance use problems, and depressive symptoms at ages 16 years (pretest) and 17 years 10 months (long-term assessment). Results: Adolescents who participated in SAAF–T evinced lower increases in conduct problem behavior, substance use, substance use problems, and depressive symptom frequencies than did adolescents in the attention control condition across the 22 months between pretest and long-term assessment. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate efficacy in a prevention program designed to deter conduct problems, substance use, substance use problems, and depressive symptoms among rural black adolescents. Because SAAF–T is a manualized, structured program, it can be easily disseminated to public health agencies, schools, churches, boys’ and girls’ clubs, and other community organizations. PMID:22157131
Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.
This study investigated early adolescent friendship selection and social influence with regard to academic motivation (self-efficacy and intrinsic value), engagement (effortful and disruptive behavior), and achievement (GPA calculated from report card grades) among 6th graders (N = 587, 50% girls at Wave 1; N = 576, 52% girls at Wave 2) followed…
Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin; Keijsers, Loes
It is a household notion that secrecy is bad while sharing is good. But what about shared secrets? The present research adopts a functional analysis of sharing secrets, arguing that it should negate harmful consequences generally associated with secrecy and serves important interpersonal functions in adolescence. A survey study among 790 Dutch…
Lamborn, Susie D.; Nguyen, Dang-Giao T.
This study examined perceived kinship support and parenting practices for 158 African American adolescents in the 9th and 10th grades. Kinship support showed direct associations with teen outcomes that, for work orientation and school orientation, were partially mediated by parenting practices. With a few exceptions, kinship support was positively…
Storksen, Ingunn; Roysamb, Espen; Moum, Torbjorn; Tambs, Kristian
This is a prospective Norwegian study of a group of adolescents with an experience of parental divorce or separation (n=413) and a comparison group without this experience (n=1758). Mean age at T1 was 14.4 years and mean age at T2 was 18.4 years. Parental divorce was prospectively associated with a relative change in anxiety and depression,…
Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others
To test Maccoby and Martin's (1983) revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14- to 18-year-olds were classified into one of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and firm control.…
Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan; Ozdemir, Metin
In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have…
Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.
Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…
James K. Luiselli; Denise Dion; Erin Hammil; Andrea Potoczny-Gray; Ronald C. Savage; Donald L. Sherak
There is a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents who have acquired brain injury (ABI). We examined the records of 82 students with ABI who were admitted to a community-based school for education and neurorehabilitation over a three-year period to determine how many experienced one or more psychiatric hospitalizations before admission, and whether hospitalization status was related
Hartley, Sigan L.; Schaidle, Emily M.; Burnson, Cynthia F.
Objective The authors examined parental attributions for child behavior problems in 63 married couples of children and adolescents (aged 3–20 years) with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Both child-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the child or adolescent) and parent-referent attributions (i.e., beliefs about causes related to the parent) were examined along the dimensions of locus, stability, and controllability. Parent and child/adolescent factors related to parental attributions were identified, and the associations between parental attributions and parenting burden were explored. Method Mothers and fathers independently completed self-reported measures of parental attributions, parenting burden, and child behavior problems. Couples jointly reported on their son or daughter’s severity of autism symptoms, intellectual disability status, age, and gender. Results Parents tended to attribute the behavior problems of their child/adolescent with an ASD to characteristics that were not only internal to and stable in the child/adolescent but also controllable by the child/adolescent. Mothers were more likely to attribute their son or daughter’s behavior problems to characteristics that were less internal to and less stable in the child/adolescent with an ASD than were fathers. In addition, parents with a higher level of symptoms of the broader autism phenotype, parents of younger children, and parents of children/adolescents with intellectual disability, a higher severity of autism symptoms, and a higher severity of overall behavior problems were more likely to attribute their son or daughter’s behavior problems to characteristics that were more internal to and stable in the child/adolescent and factors that were less controllable by the child/adolescent. Parental attributions were related to parents’ level of parenting burden. Implications Findings have implications for designing appropriate interventions and services for families of children and adolescents with ASDs. PMID:24217029
Sivertsen, Børge; Harvey, Allison G; Pallesen, Ståle; Hysing, Mari
The aim of the current study was to compare mental health problems, resilience and family characteristics in adolescents with and without delayed sleep phase (DSP) in a population-based sample. Data were taken from the youth@hordaland-survey, a large population-based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012. In all, 9338 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls) provided self-reported data on a wide range of instruments assessing mental health symptoms, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive behaviours, attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms, perfectionism, resilience and sleep. Measures of socioeconomic status were also included. Three hundred and six adolescents (prevalence 3.3%) were classified as having DSP [according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-2 (ICSD-2)] criteria. Adolescents with DSP reported higher levels of depression, anxiety and ADHD symptoms. Adolescents with DSP also exhibited significantly lower levels of resilience. The Cohen's d effect sizes ranged from small [obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): d = 0.15] to moderate (inattention: d = 0.71). In the fully adjusted model, the significant predictors of DSP included inattention [odds ratio (OR): 2.11], lack of personal structure (OR: 2.07), low (OR: 1.85) and high (OR: 1.91) paternal education, parents not living together (OR: 1.81), hyperactivity/inattention (OR: 1.71) and poorer family economy (OR: 1.59). In conclusion, the high symptom load across a range of mental health measures suggests that a broad and thorough clinical approach is warranted when adolescents present with DSP. PMID:25358244
Benjamin M. Ogles; Bruce Carlson; Derek Hatfield; Veronika Karpenko
Outcome data collection systems provide the opportunity for comparing agencies, programs, and therapists. However, the political\\u000a stakes of comparisons raise important issues regarding their perceived validity. The goal of case-mix adjustment is to eliminate\\u000a potential biasing factors that might render comparisons as inappropriate or irrelevant. In this paper, case-mix adjustment\\u000a variables are identified using regression analysis followed by developing models
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Penn, Joseph V; Stein, L A R; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony
The purpose of this study is to examine the problem behavior and self-medication models of alcohol abuse in incarcerated male adolescents. Male adolescents (N = 56) incarcerated in a juvenile correction facility were administered a battery of psychological measures. Approximately 84% of adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related problems prior to incarceration indicated use of alcohol for purposes of self-medication and 73% indicated that their alcohol use was associated with aggressive and rebellious behavior. Further, adolescents with clinically significant alcohol-related problems prior to incarceration reported higher levels of affective symptoms, mood-related cognitive distortion, and less use of social support during incarceration than adolescents without clinically significant alcohol-related problems. They also reported more symptoms associated with oppositional defiant but not conduct disorder. For the majority of incarcerated male adolescents in this sample, alcohol-related problems appeared to be associated with both self-medication and problem behavior. Incarcerated adolescents with a history of alcohol-related problems may require skills training in addition to substance abuse services to address affective symptoms and coping skill deficits. PMID:20148192
The incidence of people living with congenital heart disease (CHD) has been increasing every year owing to remarkable advances in surgical and catheter intervention techniques and devices, and improved knowledge of critical care for patients with CHD. However, these patients continue to face physical, psychosocial, and environmental challenges, and a number of studies have shown higher rates of depression and anxiety disorders than the general population. To improve psychosocial functioning and quality of life for adults with CHD, health care providers are recommended to inform CHD patients of an accurate diagnosis, and overall treatment process, beginning in adolescence to facilitate a smooth transition from adolescence to adulthood. Active cooperation with psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, chaplains, and family members is highly recommended to help CHD patients feel normal and optimistic and to promote good social interactions, close family relationships, and a strong sense of coherence. PMID:25076970
Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi
This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…
Reitz, Ellen; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
In this longitudinal study, the bidirectional relations between parenting and friends' deviance, on one hand, and early adolescent externalizing and internalizing problem behavior, on the other hand, are examined. Of the 650 adolescents (13- to 14-year-olds) who filled out the Youth Self-Report and questionnaires about their parents at two times…
Po-Hsiu Kuo; Hao-Jan Yang; Wei-Tsuen Soong; Wei J Chen
Background: Despite that adolescent substance use is increasingly prevalent throughout the world and leads to increased risk of progression to illicit drug use, few studies have examined in detail individual features that are associated with such use. We aimed to examine personality traits, incompetence, and behavioral\\/emotional problems in relation to adolescent substance use and possible interactions between these factors. Methods:
Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.
In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…
Michael S. Robbins; Charles W. Turner; James F. Alexander; Gonzalo A. Perez
This study examined the relationship between alliance and retention in family therapy. Alliance was examined at the individual (parent and adolescent) and family levels (within-family differences). Participants were 34 families who received functional family therapy for the treatment of adolescent (aged 12–18 years) behavior problems. Families were classified as treatment dropouts (n = 14) or completers (n = 20). Videotapes
Walcott, Christy M.; Music, Ajlana
Extensive research suggests that adolescence is a critical developmental period, especially when it comes to factors that influence mental health problems. Systematic efforts to promote adolescent help-seeking are essential for improving long-term mental health outcomes. Defined as a "behavior of actively seeking help from other people,"…
Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Brand, Ann E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara; Hastings, Paul D.; Kendziora, Kimberly; Garside, Rula B.
There is a paucity of research on how mothers and fathers socialize emotion in their adolescent sons and daughters. This study was based on 220 adolescents (range 11- to 16-years-old) who exhibit a range of emotional and behavioral problems and their parents. Parental responses to their children's displays of sadness, anger and fear were assessed.…
McWey, Lenore M.; Cui, Ming; Pazdera, Andrea L.
Using a developmental psychopathology framework, this study aimed to examine changes in externalizing and internalizing problems of adolescents in foster care and to determine whether type of maltreatment, gender, and age influenced trajectories. Authors used 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Growth-curve…
Butters, Jennifer E.
Estimates the direct impact of family stressors on the progression to problem cannabis use among adolescents in Ontario. Results suggest that family stressors have direct and indirect effects increasing the probability of cannabis use outcomes. The implications of these more complex associations between factors believed to influence adolescent…
Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.
To explore the link between interparental hostility and adolescent problem behaviors, the current study examines four important maternal parenting dimensions as potential mediators: acceptance, harshness, inconsistency, and psychological intrusiveness. With a primary sample of 1,893 sixth-grade students, the measures included adolescent and…
Jennifer A. Epstein; Gilbert J. Botvin; Tracy Diaz; Christopher Williams; Kenneth Griffin
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among problem behaviors during early adolescence. Specifically this investigation examined the association between drug use and aggression among a sample of inner-city adolescents. Eighth graders (N = 517; 49% boys) attending three New York City schools completed an anonymous questionnaire. Self-reported aggressive and unsafe behavior were associated with initiation of
Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Oort, Frans Jeroen; Meijer, Anne Marie
A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (102 chronically ill parents and 83 healthy spouses). Linear mixed model analyses were used, enabling separation of variance attributable to individual factors and variance attributable to family membership (i.e., family cluster effect). Predictors were child, parent, illness-related and family characteristics. The results showed that almost half of the variance in internalizing problem scores was explained by family membership, while externalizing problems were mainly explained by individual factors. Roughly 60 % of the variance in internalizing problems was predicted by illness duration, adolescents' feeling of isolation, daily hassles affecting personal life and alienation from the mother. Approximately a third of the variance in externalizing problems was predicted by adolescents' male gender, daily hassles concerning ill parents and alienation from both parents. In conclusion, the variance in adolescent problem behavior is largely accounted for by family membership, children's daily hassles and parent-child attachment. To prevent marginalization of adolescents with a chronically ill parent, it is important to be alert for signs of problem behavior and foster the peer and family support system. PMID:22543962
Renee McDonald; John H. Grych
The present study investigated 2 questions pertinent to understanding developmental aspects of children's conflict appraisals: (a) Do 7- to 9-year-old children make reliable distinctions between their perceptions of conflict and their appraisals of threat and self-blame? (b) Do threat and blame appraisals mediate the association between exposure to interparental conflict and adjustment problems in this age group? Factor analysis of
Way, Niobe; Robinson, Melissa G.
Examined the influence over time of demographic variables and perceived family and friend support and school climate on changes in psychological adjustment among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents from low-income families. Found a greater increase in self-esteem in students reporting more positive perceptions of school climate and,…
Canivez, Gary L.; Neitzel, Ryan; Martin, Blake E.
The present study reports data supporting the construct validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT; Kaufman & Kaufman, 1990), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; Wechsler, 1991), and the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Marston, & Stott, 1993) through convergent and…
Poulin, Francois; Denault, Anne-Sophie
The goal of this study was to provide an in-depth examination of friendships within organized activities. The prevalence of friendships with co-participants, their quality and characteristics, and their associations with adjustment were investigated. A sample of 281 (60% girls) 8th grade adolescents reported their friendships, activities, and…
The outcome of patients completing 12 months of follow-up in a prospective longitudinal trial of the safety/efficacy of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), for morbidly obese adolescents aged 14 to 17 years using a Food and Drug Administration Institutional Device Exemption for the use o...
Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul
Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time. PMID:25119729
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across…
Lopez, Veronica; Sotillo, Maria
Do gifted students adjust poorly to their social environment? There are currently two competing positions: one that sustains that giftedness is by itself a risk factor for social adaptation, and another that holds that high cognitive abilities involve distinctive features that are protective and hence increase individual resilience. Empirical…
Sonderegger, Robi; Barrett, Paula M.; Creed, Peter A.
Building on previous cultural adjustment profile work by Sonderegger and Barrett (2004), the aim of this study was to propose an organised structure for a number of single risk factors that have been linked to acculturative-stress in young migrants. In recognising that divergent situational characteristics (e.g., school level, gender, residential…
Ho, Man Yee; Cheung, Fanny M.
This study investigated the link between exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment for 442 Chinese secondary school students in Form 1-3. The students completed an inventory assessing exposure to violence through witnessing and through direct victimization in different settings (community, school, and home). Multiple measures and informants…
Wentzel, Kathryn R.
Examined the utility of parent socialization models for understanding effects of middle school teachers on student adjustment. Found that five teaching dimensions (modeling of motivation, and parenting dimensions of control, maturity demands, democratic communication, and nurturance) predicted student motivation, social behavior, and achievement.…
Roney, James E.
DISCUSSION. 34 Outcome Hypotheses Regarding Predicted Differences between NPAs and NONPAs. . Outcome Hypotheses Regarding Predicted Differences within the NPA Group. Relationship of Level of Attachment to Parents and NPA Attachment. 34 35 35.... 12 Descriptive Statistics for NPAs and NONPAs on Measures. . . . . 20 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analyses Predicting COA Psychological Adjustment. 22 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analyses Predicting COA Alcohol Involvement. . 23...
Gustafsson, Per E.; Janlert, Urban; Theorell, Töres; Westerlund, Hugo; Hammarström, Anne
While the importance of social relations for health has been demonstrated in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, few studies have examined the prospective importance of peer relations for adult health. The aim of this study was to examine whether peer problems in the school setting in adolescence relates to the metabolic syndrome in middle-age. Participants came from the Northern Swedish Cohort, a 27-year cohort study of school leavers (effective n?=?881, 82% of the original cohort). A score of peer problems was operationalized through form teachers’ assessment of each student’s isolation and popularity among school peers at age 16 years, and the metabolic syndrome was measured by clinical measures at age 43 according to established criteria. Additional information on health, health behaviors, achievement and social circumstances were collected from teacher interviews, school records, clinical measurements and self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression was used as the main statistical method. Results showed a dose-response relationship between peer problems in adolescence and metabolic syndrome in middle-age, corresponding to 36% higher odds for the metabolic syndrome at age 43 for each SD higher peer problems score at age 16. The association remained significant after adjustment for health, health behaviors, school adjustment or family circumstances in adolescence, and for psychological distress, health behaviors or social circumstances in adulthood. In analyses stratified by sex, the results were significant only in women after adjustment for covariates. Peer problems were significantly related to all individual components of the metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that unsuccessful adaption to the school peer group can have enduring consequences for metabolic health. PMID:22761778
Talebi Joybari, Masoud
Objective: The aim of the present research was to determine whether depression and interpersonal problems had relationships with alexithymia and coping styles in adolescents. Methods: The study population was randomly selected from all of the adolescent students in the schools of Sari in Iran; 441 adolescents (228 boys and 213 girls) were included in the study. The participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and was expressed in means, standard deviations, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: Alexithymia was related to depression and interpersonal problems; the adolescents who defined themselves as more alexithymic obtained higher scores in depression and interpersonal problems than the adolescents who classified themselves as less- and non-alexithymic. Furthermore, coping styles were related to depression and interpersonal problems. Regression analyses showed that both alexithymia and coping styles accounted for a unique and significant proportion of the variance in depression and interpersonal problems in adolescents. Conclusion: These findings support the positive correlation of alexithymia and maladaptive coping styles with depression and interpersonal problems. PMID:25798172
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents’ mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and psychopathology. As hypothesized, latent class growth analysis approximated four developmental trajectories of family conflict during high school for 681 African American adolescents (49% boys). Trajectory classes differed in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior at age 20, supporting expectations that adolescents demonstrating elevated levels and atypical trajectories of family conflict in high school would report greater mental health problems as young adults. Family conflict jeopardizes African American adolescents’ transition to young adulthood by contributing to mental health problems. PMID:24294879
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A
Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and psychopathology. As hypothesized, latent class growth analysis approximated 4 developmental trajectories of family conflict during high school for 681 African American adolescents (49% boys). Trajectory classes differed in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior at age 20, supporting expectations that adolescents demonstrating elevated levels and atypical trajectories of family conflict in high school would report greater mental health problems as young adults. Family conflict jeopardizes African American adolescents' transition to young adulthood by contributing to mental health problems. PMID:24294879
Lee, Young Mun; Shin, Ok Ja
Objective As the number of North Korean adolescent refugees drastically increased in South Korea, there is a growing interest in them. Our study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods The subjects of this study were 102 North Korean adolescent refugees in Hangyeore middle and high School, the public educational institution for the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea, and 766 general adolescents in the same region. The Korean version of Child Behavior Check List (K-CBCL) standardized in South Korea was employed as the mental health evaluation tool. Results The adolescent refugees group showed a significantly different score with that of the normal control group in the K-CBCL subscales for sociality (t=29.67, p=0.000), academic performance (t=17.79, p=0.000), total social function (t=35.52, p=0.000), social withdrawal (t=18.01, p=0.000), somatic symptoms (t=28.85, p=0.000), depression/anxiety (t=13.08, p=0.000), thought problems (t=6.24, p=0.013), attention problems (t=4.14, p=0.042), internalized problems (t=26.54, p=0.000) and total problems (t=5.23, p=0.022). Conclusion The mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees was severe particularly in internalized problems when compared with that of the general adolescents in South Korea. This result indicates the need for interest in not only the behavior of the North Korean adolescent refugees but also their emotional problem. PMID:22993519
Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.
The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on…
Adolescent prostitution is a particular social phenomenon characterized by the fact that adolescents (those under the age of eighteen), either females or males, engage more than once (at least two times) in extramarital sexual relations with a large number of people for some particular (material) consideration owing to social, economic,…
Lewis, Gary J; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert
Background Understanding the etiology of adolescent problem behavior has been of enduring interest. Only relatively recently, however, has this issue been examined within a normal personality trait framework. Research suggests that problem behaviors in adolescence and beyond may be adequately explained by the taxonomy provided by the basic dimensions of normal personality: Such problem behaviors are suggested to be extreme points on a distribution of the full range of the underlying traits. We extend work in this field examining the extent to which genetic factors underlying the five-factor model of personality are common with genetic influences on adolescent behavior problems (namely, anxiety, peer problems, conduct, hyperactivity, and low prosociality). Method A nationally representative twin sample (Twins Early Development Study) from the general population of England and Wales, including 2031 pairs of twins aged 16 years old, was used to decompose variation into genetic and environmental components. Behavioral problems in adolescence were assessed by self-report with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Adolescent behavior problems were moderately associated with normal personality: Specifically, a fifth to a third of phenotypic variance in problem behaviors was accounted for by five-factor model personality traits. Of central importance here, genetic influences underpinning personality were entirely overlapping with those genetic factors underlying adolescent behavior problems. Conclusions These findings suggest that adolescent behavior problems can be understood, at least in part, within a model of normal personality trait variation, with the genetic bases of these behavior problems the same as those genetic influences underpinning normal personality. Read the Commentary for this article on doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12292 PMID:24256444
Cory Bolkan; Yoshie Sano; Jennifer De Costa; Alan C. Acock; Randal D. Day
We investigated early adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles in mother–father–adolescent triads along with child self-reported problem behaviors (substance abuse and delinquency). We also examined the various combinations of mothers' and fathers' parenting styles by child gender in relation to problem behavior. Participants included 3,353 children (aged 12 to 14) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth—97. Results from our structural
Min, Meeyoung O; Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Short, Elizabeth J; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T
The effect of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on externalizing behavior and substance use related problems at 15 years of age was examined. Participants consisted of 358 adolescents (183 PCE, 175 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study from birth. Regression analyses indicated that the amount of PCE was associated with higher externalizing behavioral problems (? = .15, p = .02). Adolescents with PCE were also 2.8 times (95% CI = 1.38-5.56) more likely to have substance use related problems than their NCE counterparts. No differences between PCE adolescents in non-kinship adoptive/foster care (n = 44) and PCE adolescents in maternal/relative care (n = 139) were found in externalizing behavior or in the likelihood of substance use related problems. Findings demonstrate teratologic effects of PCE persisting into adolescence. PCE is a reliable marker for the potential development of problem behaviors in adolescence, including substance use related problems. PMID:24636687
Thomas, April Gile; Monahan, Kathryn C; Lukowski, Angela F; Cauffman, Elizabeth
Problematic sleep can be detrimental to the development of important cognitive functions, such as working memory, and may have the potential for negative behavioral consequences, such as risk-taking. In this way, sleep problems may be particularly harmful for youth-whose cognitive abilities are still developing and who are more susceptible to risky behavior. Using data from a large, national, longitudinal study, continuity and change in sleep problems were examined from 2 to 15 years of age and associated with deficits in working memory at age 15 and risk taking behaviors at age 18. Participants (N = 1,364 children; 48.3% female) were assessed for sleep problems (parent-report), working memory (behavioral task), and risk taking behavior (youth self-report). The sample was predominantly White (80.4%); additional races represented in the sample included Black/African American (12.9%), Asian/Pacific Islander (1.6%), American Indian/Eskimo/Aleut (.4%), and Other (4.7%). The findings suggest that sleep problems are likely to cascade across development, with sleep problems demonstrating continuity from infancy to early childhood, early childhood to middle childhood, and middle childhood to adolescence. Although sleep problems in infancy, early childhood, and middle childhood were not directly related to adolescent working memory, sleep problems during adolescence were associated with poorer adolescent working memory. In turn, these deficits in working memory were related to greater risk taking in late adolescence. In summary, the present results suggest that sleep problems in earlier periods are indicative of risk for sleep problems later in development, but that sleep problems in adolescence contribute uniquely to deficits in working memory that, in turn, lead to risky behavior during late adolescence. PMID:25213135
Background Although several studies have reported findings concerning the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems, little research has investigated this association after controlling for confounding factors which have been found to be significantly correlated with both cigarette smoking and emotional/behavioural problems and may have a strong effect on the relationship between adolescents' mental health and smoking. The present study attempted to assess the association between adolescents' smoking status and their emotional/behavioural problems after controlling for a number of possible confounders (i.e. age, gender, parental smoking status, exposure to family smoking, family socioeconomic status, adolescents' leisure time) in a Greek nation-wide school-based sample. Methods Participants completed a questionnaire which retrieved information about age, gender, family socioeconomic status, smoking status, parental smoking, adolescents' leisure time and emotional/behavioural problems. Data were modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis with adolescents' smoking status as the dependent variable. Results A total of 1194 (i.e. 63% response rate) of self-reported questionnaires (40.1% boys, 59.9% girls; 12-18 years old) were returned. Data from 1030 participants with full data were analyzed. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with higher levels of emotional/behavioural problems (p < 0.001) and the association was not moderated (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.18) after controlling for the effects of other covariates. Emotional symptoms, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention were all significantly associated with adolescents' current smoking. Conclusions This study supports the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems among adolescents. Addressing adolescents' needs regarding their emotional/behavioural health could be helpful in the development of effective anti-smoking strategies in school environment and elsewhere. PMID:20128920
Bos, Henny; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Sandfort, Theo
This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from 1,546 high school students (802 boys and 744 girls; M age = 13.57 years) by means of standardized measurements. SSA was found to predict lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of psychological distress. Further analyses showed that passive coping style partly mediated these associations. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. The findings suggest that in understanding and addressing mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexual youth attention should be paid to intrapersonal psychological factors such as coping styles. PMID:24938587
Fleck, J R; Fuller, C C; Malin, S Z; Miller, D H; Acheson, K R
Until recently, research efforts have neglected the father as a significant influence on female personality development. This study proposed that the psychological absence of the father is related to a greater frequency and extent of heterosexual behaviors, increased anxiety as a personality trait and increased anxiety in a dating situation. A positive psychological presence of the father was hypothesized to correlate with androgyny in adolescent females. Measures of perceived parental behavior, extent and frequency of heterosexual behaviors, manifest anxiety and sex-role identification were obtained from 160 single female college students. Results indicated a significant relationship between father psychological absence and a greater extent and frequency of heterosexual behaviors. Father psychologically absent girls also exhibited greater manifest anxiety as a personality trait and in a dating situation. Significant correlations between androgyny and a positive father-daughter relationship were not found. Also reported were additional findings relating several variables to self-rating of attractiveness. PMID:7211544
Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah
This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. PMID:24001259
Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah
This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. PMID:24001259
Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo
Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335
Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo
Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335
Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.
This study examined mother-adolescent conflict as a mediator of longitudinal reciprocal relations between adolescent aggression and depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control. Motivated by family systems theory and the transactions that occur between individual and dyadic levels of the family system, we examined the connections among…
Eastwood, Matthew; And Others
Presents a family therapy model for working with "no problem problem" families of first offense adolescent substance abusers. Illustrates applications of this model through a case example. Describes the model as a practical therapy approach that is present- and future-oriented and seeks to build on family strengths. (Author/ABB)
Campa, Mary I.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Eckenrode, John; Zielinski, David S.
Several studies have indicated that an early onset of delinquent and problem behaviors is associated with a greater risk of subsequent behavioral and mental health problems. This study builds on that literature by examining histories of behavior problems in relation to indicators of thriving and precocious behavior during late adolescence. Using…
Mitchell, Paul; Smedley, Kirsty; Kenning, Cassandra; McKee, Amy; Woods, Debbie; Rennie, Charlotte E.; Bell, Rachel V.; Aryamanesh, Mitra; Dolan, Mairead
Many studies have identified high levels of mental health problems among adolescents in custody and there is increasing evidence that mental health problems in this population are associated with further offending and mental health problems into adulthood. Despite recent improvements in mental health provision within custodial settings there is…
Muthupalaniappen, Leelavathi; Omar, Juslina; Omar, Khairani; Iryani, Tuti; Hamid, Siti Norain
We carried out a cross sectional study to detect emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents who smoke and their help-seeking behavior. This study was conducted in Sarawak, East Malaysia, between July and September 2006. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR/11-18) questionnaire; help seeking behavior was assessed using a help-seeking questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-nine students participated in the study; the smoking prevalence was 32.8%. The mean scores for emotional and behavioral problems were higher among smokers than non-smokers in all domains (internalizing, p = 0.028; externalizing, p = 0.001; other behavior, p = 0.001). The majority of students who smoked (94.7%) did not seek help from a primary health care provider for their emotional or behavioral problems. Common barriers to help-seeking were: the perception their problems were trivial (60.3%) and the preference to solve problems on their own (45.8%). Our findings suggest adolescent smokers in Sarawak, East Malaysia were more likely to break rules, exhibit aggressive behavior and have somatic complaints than non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent smokers preferred to seek help for their problems from informal sources. Physicians treating adolescents should inquire about smoking habits, emotional and behavioral problems and offer counseling if required. PMID:23431837
Roney, James E.
) 65. 9% (29) 34 1% (15) 0. 0% (0) 0. 0% (0) No-NP s M SD 18. 82 1. 92 2. 70 1. 17 ' x'(3, /V=95) = 8. 61, p = . 035; likelihood ratio = 9. 452, u =. 02; phi coefficient = . 3011, p = . 04. 13 Measures Perception of Parental Drinking (PPD..., and whether or not the COA had a NPA mentor (Table 3). Parents' marital status did not emerge as a significant predictor of psychological adjustment. Parental attachment did, however, produce a significant change in R', F, ?, . ?(2, 89) = 10. 45, p & . 001...
Stoneman, Zolinda; Gavidia-Payne, Susana
A family systems framework was used to examine associations between stressors/hassles, problem-focused coping, and marital adjustment in 67 families of young children with disabilities. Most of the couples were experiencing average to above average marital adjustment. When daily stressors/hassles were higher, husbands and wives viewed their…
Chen, Rusan; Simons-Morton, Bruce
The co-occurrence of conduct problems (CP) and depressive symptoms (DS) is an important topic in developmental psychopathology; however, research in this area is still in its early stages. Using data from a school-based longitudinal sample of 2,453 adolescents with five waves from Grade 6 to 9, we examined the prevalence, etiology, and consequences of the co-occurrence of CP and DS. A person-centered approach, general growth mixture modeling, was applied to obtain CP and DS trajectory groups. The risk factors and consequences of the co-occurrence problem were examined using the trajectory groups. As hypothesized in a nonclinical sample, a small proportion of boys (8.8%) and girls (3.7%) reported to be high in both CP and DS over time. Among the adolescents with the highest level of CP, only 6.3% of the boys and 6.0% of the girls experienced the highest level of DS. However, among those with the highest level of DS trajectories, 42.9% of the boys and 10.2% of the girls reported the highest level of CP, indicating a gender-specific risk of the co-occurrence problem for depressed boys. Psychosocial and family factors were identified as vulnerable precursors to co-occurring CP and DS, a finding in line with the multiple domain risk model for CP and the transactional model for DS. The study also found that adolescents with the co-occurrence problem were more similar to those with "pure DS" than those with "pure CP" in academic adjustment at the ninth grade. PMID:19144234
Isralowitz, Richard E; Reznik, Alex
Studies on immigration and adolescence show that youth experience a variety of emotional and cognitive adjustments as well as conflicts related to acculturation and the realities of life in their new country. Such conditions place many of them at increased risk for psychosocial problems including personal stress, interpersonal conflicts, mental illness, school failure, delinquency, substance use, and other risk-taking behavior. This prospective study compares the patterns of substance use and problem behaviors among 365 at-risk adolescents born in Israel and those who immigrated to that country from the Former Soviet Union. Findings show that Former Soviet Union youth tend to have higher levels of last 30-day alcohol and ecstasy use and binge drinking. Multiple regression shows binge drinking behavior related to trading property to obtain drugs; deterioration of school achievement; selling drugs; and time spent when being absent from school and hanging around during the day. Country of origin was not found related to this behavior. Further research is needed to study substance use and related problem behavior among immigrant youth controlling for the impact of acculturation and other factors. PMID:17430820
Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Fitzmaurice, Shannon; Black, Maureen M.
This study extends the "determinants of parenting model" to adolescent mothers by examining how adolescent mother-grandmother psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness from birth through age 2 years relate to children's problem behaviors at age 7. Participants were 181 adolescent mother, child, and grandmother triads living in…
van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R; de Bruin, Esther I; Bögels, Susan M
The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8 weeks after and 16 weeks after training. Adolescents reported on their attention and behavioral problems and mindful awareness, and were administered two computerized sustained attention tasks. Parents as well as tutors reported on adolescents' attention and behavioral problems and executive functioning. Parents further reported on their own parenting, parenting stress and mindful awareness. Both the mindfulness training for the adolescents and their parents was delivered in group format. First, after mindfulness training, adolescents' attention and behavior problems reduced, while their executive functioning improved, as indicated by self-report measures as well as by father and teacher report. Second, improvements in adolescent' actual performance on attention tests were found after mindfulness training. Moreover, fathers, but not mothers, reported reduced parenting stress. Mothers reported reduced overreactive parenting, whereas fathers reported an increase. No effect on mindful awareness of adolescents or parents was found. Effects of mindfulness training became stronger at 8-week follow-up, but waned at 16-week follow-up. Our study adds to the emerging body of evidence indicating that mindfulness training for adolescents with ADHD (and their parents) is an effective approach, but maintenance strategies need to be developed in order for this approach to be effective in the longer term. PMID:22993482
Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo
The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…
Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Stattin, Håkan
Ethnically harassed immigrant youth are at risk for experiencing a wide range of school adjustment problems. However, it is still unclear why and under what conditions experiencing ethnic harassment leads to school adjustment difficulties. To address this limitation in the literature, we examined two important questions. First, we investigated whether self-esteem and/or depressive symptoms would mediate the associations between ethnic harassment and poor school adjustment among immigrant youth. Second, we examined whether immigrant youths' perception of school context would play a buffering role in the pathways between ethnic harassment and school adjustment difficulties. The sample (n = 330; M age = 14.07, SD = .90; 49% girls at T1) was drawn from a longitudinal study in Sweden. The results revealed that experiencing ethnic harassment led to a decrease in immigrant youths' self-esteem over time, and that youths' expectations of academic failure increased. Further, youths' relationships with their teachers and their perceptions of school democracy moderated the mediation processes. Specifically, when youth had poor relationships with their teachers or perceived their school context as less democratic, being exposed to ethnic harassment led to a decrease in their self-esteem. In turn, they reported low school satisfaction and perceived themselves as being unsuccessful in school. Such indirect effects were not observed when youth had high positive relationships with their teachers or perceived their school as offering a democratic environment. These findings highlight the importance of understanding underlying processes and conditions in the examination of the effects of ethnic devaluation experiences in order to reach a more comprehensive understanding of immigrant youths' school adjustment. PMID:24132501
Richmond, Melanie J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Metzger, Aaron
Adolescent friendship groups are often heterogeneous and thus involve exposure to both deviant and nondeviant influences. This longitudinal study examined whether the addition of nondeviant peer influences in early high school protected against the negative socialization effects of deviant affiliation on both concurrent and future smoking, alcohol problems, and depressive symptomatology. Adolescents (9th and 10th grade students, N = 1,128) completed self-report questionnaires at both a baseline and 24-month assessment. Nondeviant affiliation consistently reduced the effects of deviant influences on smoking and alcohol problems but not on depressive symptoms. Findings reinforce the complexity of adolescent friendship influences and the notion that distinct mechanisms may drive the associations between deviant affiliations and behavioral and emotional outcomes throughout adolescence. Implications for prevention are also discussed. PMID:22207411
Tebbi, C K; Bromberg, C; Piedmonte, M
Long-term vocational achievements of 40 survivors of cancer diagnosed during adolescence were examined and compared with 40 healthy sex-matched and age-matched controls. Patients' ages at diagnosis ranged from 13 to 19 years (mean, 16.15). Study subjects had survived cancer for over 5 years and were on no cancer therapy. Assessment measures included the Rand General Well-Being Scale, the Rand Functional Limitations and Physical Abilities Batteries, and a semistructured interview. The relation of physical disability and limitations caused by cancer to patients' achievements also was evaluated. Although cancer patients, on the average, were more concerned about their health and reported lower general spirits than controls, no differences were found between control and study groups with regard to overall general well-being. More cancer patients than controls reported that their health limited their ability to engage in vigorous activities. A greater functional deficit was found among unemployed than employed cancer patients. Employers and co-workers often were aware of the patient's diagnosis (85% and 67%, respectively). Cancer patients reported disease-related discrimination in hiring (7.4%), induction into the military (66.7%), and obtaining health, life, and disability insurance (31.5%). There was no significant relationship between health status and employment. Nevertheless, cancer patients had a higher average income than controls. Sixty-four percent of patients believed that changes in certain physical features of the workplace were necessary to facilitate readjustment to the job. Despite the disabilities experienced by cancer patients and generally negative public attitudes, long-term survivors have a good outlook on life and are competitive members of the workplace and society. PMID:2910420
Sidney J. Blatt; Beth Hart; Donald M. Quinlan; Bonnie Leadbeater; John Auerbach
Clinical evidence suggests that various problem behaviors in adolescence can be expressions of dysphoria that have not reached threshold for the diagnosis of depressive disorders. Formulations of two major types of dysphoria distinguish between disruptions of interpersonal relatedness (e.g., feelings of loss or abandonment) and diminished self-esteem (e.g., feelings of self-criticism, failure, or guilt). Adolescents in a suburban high school
Colder, Craig R.; Scalco, Matthew; Trucco, Elisa M.; Read, Jennifer P.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wieczorek, William F.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.
The literature is equivocal regarding the role of internalizing problems in the etiology of adolescent substance use. In this study, we examined the association of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and their co-occurrence with early adolescent substance use to help clarify whether internalizing problems operate as a risk or…
Koyawala, Neel; Stevens, Jack; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Cannon, Elizabeth A; Bridge, Jeffrey A
This study used a case-control design to compare sleep disturbances in 40 adolescents who attempted suicide with 40 never-suicidal adolescents. Using hierarchical logistic regression analyses, we found that self-reported nighttime awakenings were significantly associated with attempted suicide, after controlling for antidepressant use, antipsychotic use, affective problems, and being bullied. In a separate regression analysis, the parent-reported total sleep problems score also predicted suicide attempt status, controlling for key covariates. No associations were found between suicide attempts and other distinct sleep problems, including falling asleep at bedtime, sleeping a lot during the day, trouble waking up in the morning, sleep duration, and parent-reported nightmares. Clinicians should be aware of sleep problems as potential risk factors for suicide attempts for adolescents. PMID:24654933
Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Montgomery, Judy; Rezac, Cynthia; Keller, Harold
Qualitative methodology was used to explore communication behaviors of 13 female adolescents with language problems residing in a correctional facility. Most participants expressed feeling dumb, disliked by friends, put down in school, and having trouble understanding jokes, and problems related to understanding the vocabulary in their texts used…
ObjectiveTo examine (1) the extent to which negative perceptions of support from family, school, and peers differ with regard to their impact on emotional and behavioral problems and (2) the extent to which negative perceptions of multiple social support systems are related to the presence of multiple emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence.
Muna Ahmead; Peter Bower
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a transition period that involves physiological, psychological, and social changes. Emotional problems such as symptoms of anxiety and depression may develop due to these changes. Although many of these problems may not meet diagnostic thresholds, they may develop into more severe disorders and may impact on functioning. However, there are barriers that may make it difficult for
Schlundt, David G.; Flannery, Mary Ellen; Davis, Dianne L.; Kinzer, Charles K.; Pichert, James W.
Examines a two-week summer program using problem-based learning and behavior therapy to help adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes improve their ability to cope with obstacles to dietary management. Improvements were observed in self-efficacy, problem-solving skills, and self-reported coping strategies. No significant changes were observed…
Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Berkowitz, Robert I.
The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) recognizes that feeding problems of infants and children are not typically the same as eating problems of adolescents, thus the addition of a broad diagnostic category, "Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood." Subtypes are proposed for anorexia…
O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis; McKeague, Lynn
Background: Children and adolescents with mental health problems are widely reported to have problems with peer relationships; however, few studies have explored the way in which these children are regarded by their peers. For example, little is known about the nature of peer stigmatisation, and no published research has investigated implicit…
Examined the relations between aggressive problem-solving strategies and aggressive behavior and the intervening role of social acceptance in that relation in early and late adolescents. Subjects were 1,655 11- and 17-year-olds in Finland. Results show that aggressive problem-solving strategies were significantly, but not very highly, associated…
Mager, Wendy; Milich, Richard; Harris, Monica J.; Howard, Anne
Past research has suggested that the aggregation of deviant peers during treatment may cause harmful effects (T. J. Dishion, J. McCord, & F. Poulin, 1999). This study compared the effectiveness of problem-solving skills training groups in which all members had conduct problems ("pure" group condition) with groups that consisted of adolescents with…
Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla
This study examined the relationship of emotional detachment from parents, parental support, and problem behaviors and focused on the unique and common contribution that detachment and parental support made to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. A total of 461 young adolescents, 13 to 14 years old ("M" = 13.4;…
Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla
In this study we examined the relations between insecure attachment styles, commitment and behavioral problems, focusing on the unique and common contribution that avoidant and anxious styles and commitment made to internalizing and externalizing problems. 535 adolescents, 267 boys and 268 girls, aged from 16 to 18 years, completed self-report…
Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara A.
Behavioral responses to stress and challenge are based in emotional and physiological arousal reactions. Adolescents with maladaptive or problematic behavior patterns, such as internalizing or externalizing problems, are likely to show atypical emotional and physiological reactions to stress. Relations between problems and reactions to stress were…
Coughlin, Judy; Montague, Marjorie
This study investigated the effects of cognitive strategy instruction on the mathematical problem solving of three adolescents with spina bifida. Conditions of the multiple-baseline across-individuals design included baseline, two levels of treatment, posttesting, and maintenance. Treatment 1 focused on one-step math problems, and Treatment 2…
Dirkzwager, Anja J. E.; Kerssens, Jan J.; Yzermans, C. Joris
Objective: The aims of this study were to examine health problems of children (4-12 years old at the time of the disaster) and adolescents (13-18 years old at the time of the disaster) before and after exposure to a fireworks disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000), to compare these health problems with a control group, and to identify risk factors…
Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Blatt, Sidney J.; Hertzog, Christopher
Tested model of gender's moderating effects on behavior problems among early adolescents. Found that increasing girls' internalizing symptoms were partly explained by greater stability in girls' interpersonal vulnerabilities and greater magnitude in coefficients linking girls' relationships with parents and peers and internalizing problems. Boys'…
Reitz, E.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A. M.
The first aim of this study was to examine the structure of externalizing and internalizing problem behavior during early adolescence. Our second aim was to determine the stability of these problems for boys and for girls over time. A total of 650, 13-14-year-olds filled out (an expanded version of) the Youth Self-Report [YSR; "Manual for the…
David L. Burton
This article compares responses of three groups of incarcerated adolescents who admitted to sexual offending in an anonymous survey project on measures of trauma, sexual offending, the relationship between trauma and perpetration, and adjudication status. The first group admitted to sexual offending before the age of 12 only (n = 48), the second after the age of 12 only (n
In this issue of the Jornal de Pediatria, Silva et al. compared the growth patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. The Silva et al. study has significant public health implications...
This paper, in its first part, gives an overview of research on "problem behavior" in adolescence. Adolescence is considered to be a stage in life characterized by more experimentation, exploration, risk-taking, and rebellion than any other stages. Many health-damaging behaviors (drug consumption, precocious sexual activity, riskful driving, aggressive behavior, etc.) have important psychosocial functions in adolescents' developments. Some of these behaviors can be signals of "stress", defined as a bio-psycho-social state of tension resulting from a variety of stressors which confront adolescents daily in modern industrial societies. In the second part of the paper, the implications of this research for strategies of intervention are discussed. The systematic analysis distinguishes between different stages in the process by which problem behavior emerges and separates "preventive" from "corrective" forms of intervention. Additionally, the analysis differentiates between the dimensions targeted by the measures: interventions addressed toward individual behavior ("personal resources") on the one hand, and living conditions ("social resources") on the other hand. The resulting types of intervention approaches are illustrated with examples and discussed in view of how appropriate they are for health promotion in adolescence. Implications for "social policy for adolescents" are discussed. PMID:2262607
McDonald, Renee; Grych, John H
The present study investigated 2 questions pertinent to understanding developmental aspects of children's conflict appraisals: (a) Do 7- to 9-year-old children make reliable distinctions between their perceptions of conflict and their appraisals of threat and self-blame? (b) Do threat and blame appraisals mediate the association between exposure to interparental conflict and adjustment problems in this age group? Factor analysis of a new version of the Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC-Y) designed for younger children showed that 179 7- to 9-year-old children distinguished properties of conflict from their appraisals of it. Moreover, as predicted by the cognitive-contextual framework, threat and self-blame appraisals mediated the link between conflict and internalizing problems but not externalizing problems. This study provides compelling evidence that appraisals of interparental conflict can be reliably measured at relatively young ages and suggests that perceptions of threat and self-blame function similarly in 7- to 9-year-olds as they do in older children. PMID:16569093
Greenberg, Jan; Seltzer, Marsha; Baker, Jason; Smith, Leann; Warren, Steven F; Brady, Nancy; Hong, Jinkuk
We examine how the family environment is associated with aspects of the Fragile X syndrome phenotype during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Mothers of children (n ?=? 48), adolescents (n ?=? 85), and adults (n ?=? 34) with Fragile X syndrome participated in a multisite study. For children and adults with Fragile X syndrome, the presence of warmth and positivity and the absence of criticism were associated with fewer behavior problems. Although a higher level of criticism was significantly associated with greater behavior problems, there were only trend-level associations between levels of warmth and positivity and behavior problems during the adolescent years. The provision of family psychoeducation programs, which can reduce parental criticism, would likely benefit both the individual with Fragile X syndrome and the family. PMID:22809078
Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J.
Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems. PMID:24014896
Mason, C A; Cauce, A M; Gonzales, N; Hiraga, Y
Examined the effect of peer problem behavior, the absence of a father or equivalent in the home, and the mother-adolescent relationship as predictors of adolescent problem behavior in a sample of 112 African American adolescents. Statistical analyses compared a moderator model to a mediational model and a cumulative risk model. As predicted, the moderator model was superior to the alternative models. Specifically, whereas the mediational model predicted that the effect of father absence and the mother-child relationship upon adolescent problem behavior would be mediated by peer problem behavior, neither effected peer problem behavior or adolescent problem behavior. Similarly, a cumulative risk index did not predict either child or parent reports of problem behavior and was not sensitive to specific contingencies that existed between the predictor variables. In contrast, an interactive, moderator model described the data quite well. This model suggested that father or equivalent absence magnifies the negative impact of peer problem behavior, while a positive mother-adolescent relationship attenuates this risk. A strong mother-adolescent relationship also served to protect adolescents in father-absent homes from the risk of peer problem behavior. PMID:7639200
Aikaterini Kapi; Alexandra Veltsista; George Kavadias; Vasso Lekea; Chryssa Bakoula
Objective This study aimed to assess the social factors associated with self-reported emotional and behavioral problems among Greek\\u000a adolescents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods At age 18, a population-based sample of 3373 Greek adolescents completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR) questionnaire.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results The results from the multivariate analysis indicated that both lack of intimate friendships and not having parental monitoring\\u000a were independently associated with problem behavior among both
Szapocznik, José; Zarate, Monica; Duff, Johnathan; Muir, Joan
Despite the efficacy of family-based interventions for improving outcomes for adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, engaging and retaining whole families in treatment is one of the greatest challenges therapists confront. This article illustrates how the Brief Strategic Family Therapy® (BSFT®) model, a family-based, empirically validated intervention designed to treat children and adolescents’ problem behaviors, can be used to increase engagement, improve retention, and bring about positive outcomes for families. Research evidence for efficacy and effectiveness is also presented. PMID:23731415
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton
The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099
Murray M. Kappelman
The rapidly increasing social temptations and arenas for honest but occasionally misguided rebellion have created a treacherous path between childhood and adult maturity for today's adolescents. The moral dilemmas, possible solutions, and potential dangers to person ality faced today by America's teenage population are discussed.
Zach-Vanhorn, Sara M.
This research was conducted to explore predictors and moderators of bullying involvement, social and emotional problems, vocabulary knowledge, and crimes. There was one main research question: (1) Is there a the relationship between adolescents with social and emotional problems as measured by the SDQ (Goodman, 1997) and adolescents'…
Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…
Michael J. Mason
This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with\\u000a a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection\\u000a in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and relations with parents,\\u000a on substance use. Results
Sandoval, Marta; Lemos, Serafín; Vallejo, Guillermo
The aim of the study was to provide a standardization of self-reported competences and emotional/behavioural problems in Spanish adolescents, using the Achenbach's Youth Self-Report (YSR), and to compare our results to those from other countries. The YSR was completed by 2822 adolescents aged 11-18 years, recruited from secondary schools in two regions of Spain. There were significant differences in Total behaviour problems and in most problem scales in boys and girls, scoring boys higher on externalizing syndromes, whereas girls score higher on internalizing syndromes . Males' mean scores were higher than females' scores for social competence. Age effects also showed significant differences with respect to internalizing problems, thought problems, social problems and depression. Cut-off points based on the 90th and 98th percentile developed from this sample are presented for the competences and the problem scales. To test the overall range of variations across cultures, comparisons were made between broad band and narrow band measures of the YSR in Spanish adolescents and those from other countries. Gender differences in the YSR were similar to those found across different cultures; there is a consistent trend to increase behavioural problems with age; and social competence seem to be a relevant protective factor against behavioural problems. PMID:17296121
Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud
Background Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. Methods This was a descriptive-correlative study on 384 randomly chosen male guidance school students. They were asked to answer the researcher's questionnaire about computer games and Achenbach’s Youth Self-Report (YSR). Findings The Results of this study indicated that there was about 95% direct significant correlation between the amount of playing games among adolescents and anxiety/depression, withdrawn/depression, rule-breaking behaviors, aggression, and social problems. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the amount of computer game usage and physical complaints, thinking problems, and attention problems. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the students’ place of living and their parents’ job, and using computer games. Conclusion Computer games lead to anxiety, depression, withdrawal, rule-breaking behavior, aggression, and social problems in adolescents. PMID:24494157
Wong, Maria M.; Brower, Kirk J.; Zucker, Robert A.
Objective Previous research has found an association between sleep problems and suicidal behavior. However, it is still unclear whether the association can be largely explained by depression. In this study, we prospectively examined relationships between sleep problems when participants were 12–14 years old and subsequent suicidal thoughts and self-harm behaviors —including suicide attempts— at ages 15–17 while controlling for depressive symptoms at baseline. Methods Study participants were 280 boys and 112 girls from a community sample of high-risk alcoholic families and controls in an ongoing longitudinal study. Results Controlling for gender, parental alcoholism and parental suicidal thoughts, and prior suicidal thoughts or self-harm behaviors when participants were 12–14 years old, having trouble sleeping at 12–14 significantly predicted suicidal thoughts and self-harm behaviors at ages 15–17. Depressive symptoms, nightmares, aggressive behavior, and substance-related problems at ages 12–14 were not significant predictors when other variables were in the model. Conclusions Having trouble sleeping was a strong predictor of subsequent suicidal thoughts and self-harm behaviors in adolescence. Sleep problems may be an early and important marker for suicidal behavior in adolescence. Parents and primary care physicians are encouraged to be vigilant and screen for, sleep problems in young adolescents. Future research should determine if early intervention with sleep disturbances reduces the risk for suicidality in adolescents. PMID:20889165
Toumbourou, John W.; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Smith, Rachel; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F
Aims To examine: rates of young adult alcohol and drug use and alcohol problems; adolescent predictors of young adult alcohol problems; and correlations with young adult social, work, and recreational environments. Design Adolescents were longitudinally followed into young adulthood. Predictors were measured in grade 9 (av., age 15), and environmental correlates and outcomes in young adulthood (av., age 21). Setting Students recruited in Victoria, Australia in 2002, were resurveyed in 2010/11. Participants Analytic N = 2,309, 80% retention. Measurements Adolescent self-report predictors included past-month alcohol use. Young adults completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) together with reports of environmental influences. Findings Comparisons to United States of America (U.S.) national school graduate samples revealed higher rates of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use (other than cannabis) in Victoria. For example rates of past month use at age 21–22 were: alcohol 69.3% U.S. vs 84.9% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) 81.3 – 88.6% Victoria; illicit drugs (other than cannabis) 8.8% vs 12.7%, CI 9.7 – 15.7%. AUDIT alcohol problems (scored 8+) were identified for 41.2%, CI 38.8 – 43.6% of young adults in Victoria. The likelihood of young adult alcohol problems was higher for frequent adolescent alcohol users, and those exposed to environments characterised by high alcohol use and problems in young adulthood. Conclusions High rates of alcohol problems are evident in over two in five Australian young adults and these problems appear to be influenced both by earlier patterns of adolescent alcohol use and by young adult social work, and recreational environments. PMID:24321051
Morris, Amanda Sheffield; John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L.; Morris, Michael D. S.; Robinson, Lara R.; Myers, Sonya S.; Aucoin, Katherine J.; Keyes, Angela W.; Terranova, Andrew
This study examined the role of effortful control, behavior problems, and peer relations in the academic adjustment of 74 kindergarten children from primarily low-income families using a short-term longitudinal design. Teachers completed standardized measures of children’s effortful control, internalizing and externalizing problems, school readiness, and academic skills. Children participated in a sociometric interview to assess peer relations. Research Findings: Correlational analyses indicate that children’s effortful control, behavior problems in school, and peer relations are associated with academic adjustment variables at the end of the school year, including school readiness, reading skills, and math skills. Results of regression analyses indicate that household income and children’s effortful control primarily account for variation in children’s academic adjustment. The associations between children’s effortful control and academic adjustment did not vary across sex of the child or ethnicity. Mediational analyses indicate an indirect effect of effortful control on school readiness, through children’s internalizing problems. Practice or Policy: Effortful control emerged as a strong predictor of academic adjustment among kindergarten children from low-income families. Strategies for enhancing effortful control and school readiness among low-income children are discussed. PMID:24163572
Utens, E M; Verhulst, F C; Meijboom, F J; Duivenvoorden, H J; Erdman, R A; Bos, E; Roelandt, J T; Hess, J
Behavioural/emotional problems were assessed at least nine years after surgical correction for congenital heart disease (ConHD) in childhood. Parents of 144 10-15-year-old ConHD-children completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and 179, 11-17-year-old, ConHD-adolescents completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR). On the CBCL and YSR ConHD-children and adolescents obtained significantly higher problem scores than same-aged peers from normative reference groups. No significant differences were found between problem scores for different cardiac diagnostic groups. A negative correlation was found between CBCL total problem scores and IQ-scores of ConHD-children; for YSR total problem scores no such relationship was found. PMID:8332658
Dwairy, Marwan; Achoui, Mustafa
Connectedness between children and their family is a major factor that distinguishes between collective and individualistic cultures. The "Multigenerational Interconnectedness Scale", measuring adolescents-family connectedness was administered to adolescents in nine western and eastern countries. The findings show that connectedness in eastern…
Adams, Zachary W.; McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sawyer, Genelle K.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
Objective This study examined the prevalence of and associations between specific psychiatric disorders, substance use problems, and trauma exposure in a sample of delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents. Method A nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 3,614; mean age = 14.5 years, SD = 1.7; 51% male; 71% White, non-Hispanic, 13.3% African American, non-Hispanic, 10.7% Hispanic) was interviewed via telephone about engagement in delinquent acts and their experience of posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, substance use, interpersonal violence, and other forms of trauma exposure. Results Delinquent adolescents were more likely than non-delinquent adolescents to experience trauma; they were also more likely to report past-year posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, alcohol abuse, and non-experimental drug use. After accounting for the effects of demographics and trauma exposure, delinquency was associated with increased likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder and problematic substance use in both genders and increased likelihood of major depressive episode in girls. Conclusions Findings highlight substantial overlap among delinquency, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depressive episode in adolescents and the need for interventions that address these varied clinical problems. Future work should examine the factors underlying the development of these relations over time. PMID:23236966
Williams, Joah L; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Knowlton, Alice W; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of physical injuries and mortality among children and adolescents in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between having an MVC and mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and drug and alcohol misuse in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. A sample of 3,604 adolescents, aged 12-17 years, was assessed as part of the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (NSA-R) study. Data were weighted according to the 2005 U.S. Census estimates. Within this sample, 10.2% of adolescents reported having at least 1 serious MVC. The prevalence of current PTSD and depression among adolescents having an MVC was 7.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Analyses revealed that an MVC among adolescents aged 15 years and younger was independently associated with depression (OR = 2.17) and alcohol abuse (OR = 2.36) after adjusting for other risk factors, including a history of interpersonal violence. Among adolescents aged 16 years and older, an MVC was associated only with alcohol abuse (OR = 2.08). This study was the first attempt to explore adverse mental health outcomes associated with MVCs beyond traumatic stress symptoms among adolescents in a nationally representative sample. PMID:25613484
Montague, Marjorie; Cavendish, Wendy; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha
The purpose of this study was to investigate the trajectories of behavioral problems for a sample of predominately minority adolescents (n = 212, 91% African-American and/or Hispanic, 45% boys, 55% girls) in a large, urban school district and to determine the impact of parental and peer relationships, gender, and risk status on their development…
Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel
The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger…
Winstanley, Erin L.; Steinwachs, Donald M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Fishman, Marc J.
The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with adolescent alcohol or drug (AOD) abuse/dependence, mental health and co-occurring problems, as well as factors associated with access to treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2000. The 12-month prevalence rate of…
Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.; Kunimatsu, Melissa M.; Fassnacht, Gregory M.
The present study examined associations between narcissism (total, adaptive, and maladaptive), self-esteem, and externalizing and internalizing problems in 157 non-referred adolescents (aged 14 to 18). Consistent with previous research, narcissism was positively associated with self-reported delinquency, overt aggression, and relational…
HAO-JAN YANG; WEI-TSUEN SOONG; CHANG-NING CHIANG; WEI J. CHEN
ObjectiveTo investigate competence and behavioral\\/emotional problems among nonreferred adolescents in Taiwan, using a Chinese version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-C) and the Teacher's Report Form (TRF-C). The psychometric properties of these instruments and cross-cultural differences were also examined.
Olson, Cheryl K.; Kutner, Lawrence A.; Baer, Lee; Beresin, Eugene V.; Warner, Dorothy E.; Nicholi, Armand M., II
This research examined the potential relationship between adolescent problem behaviors and amount of time spent with violent electronic games. Survey data were collected from 1,254 7th and 8th grade students in two states. A "dose" of exposure to Mature-rated games was calculated using Entertainment Software Rating Board ratings of titles children…
Pettit, Gregory S.; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Criss, Michael M.
Examined early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control during early adolescence. Found that monitoring was anteceded by proactive parenting style and advantageous family-ecological characteristics. Psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and mothers' report of earlier child…
Ronnlund, Michael; Karlsson, Erika
The authors examined the relation between dimensions of attachment and internalizing and externalizing problems in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 62) who completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ; J. Feeney, P. Noller, & M. Hanrahan, 1994) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR; T. M. Achenbach, 1991). In total, the ASQ dimensions accounted…
Marcotte, Diane; Alain, Michel; Gosselin, Marie-Josee
Examined gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence related to gender-typed characteristics, problem solving abilities, and stressful life events in Canada. Surveys of high school students indicated that girls reported more depressive symptoms and scored higher on expressivity, whereas boys reported more instrumental attributes.…
Bertino, Melanie D.; Connell, Gabrielle; Lewis, Andrew J.
Background: This study investigated the relationship between parental personality patterns and internalising and externalising behaviour problems in a clinically referred sample of children (aged 4-8) and adolescents (aged 12-18). Methods: Data from families involved in two clinical trials in Victoria, Australia were analysed (n = 59). Families…
Buehler, Cheryl; Benson, Mark J.; Gerard, Jean M.
This study examines how parenting helps explain the contemporaneous association between interparental hostility and adolescent problem behavior. A theoretical model of spillover was tested specifying five aspects of mothers' and fathers' parenting that might be associated with parents' hostile interactions with one another: harshness,…
Manders, Willeke A.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Cook, William L.; Oud, Johan H. L.; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.
Considerable research has focused on the reliability and validity of informant reports of family behavior, especially maternal reports of adolescent problem behavior. None of these studies, however, has based their orientation on a theoretical model of interpersonal perception. In this study we used the social relations model (SRM) to examine…
Rickwood, Debra; White, Angela; Eckersley, Richard
This paper provides an overview of current trends in the mental health problems of Australia's youth and adolescents. It presents information derived from the most recent and comprehensive Australian surveys of youth mental health, and provides international comparisons and views from professional practice where relevant. An update of trends for…
Ashford, Janka; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Timmermans, Maartje; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.
A study was conducted to evaluate whether prenatal smoking was only related to externalizing or both internalizing and externalizing problems in children from childhood to early adolescence. Results indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is an accurate predictor of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among children.
Lifshitz, Hefziba; Weiss, Itzhak; Tzuriel, David; Tzemach, Moran
The main goal of the study was to map the difficulties and cognitive processes among adolescents (aged 13-21, N = 30) and adults (aged 25-66, N = 30) with mild and moderate intellectual disability (ID) when solving analogical problems. The participants were administered the "Conceptual and Perceptual Analogical Modifiability" test. A three-fold…
Stewart, Sherry Heather; McGonnell, Melissa; Wekerle, Christine; Adlaf, Ed
Four specific personality factors have been theorized to put adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse: hopelessness (HOP), anxiety sensitivity (AS), sensation seeking (SS), and impulsivity (IMP). We examined relations of these personality factors to various alcohol-related indices in a sample at high risk for alcohol problems--specifically, a child…
Jessica L. Hartos; Patricia Eitel; Denise L. Haynie; Bruce G. Simons-Morton
The goal of this study was to examine relations among problem-driving practices and parenting practices. Three hundred adolescents licensed 2 years or less were interviewed about driving behaviors, parenting practices, and orientations toward deviance. Factors significantly related to risky driving behaviors, traffic violations, and motor vehicle crashes included lower levels of parental monitoring and control, and lenient parental restrictions on
Weisz, Arlene N.; Tolman, Richard M.; Callahan, Michelle R.; Saunders, Daniel G.; Black, Beverly M.
This study examines the responses of informal helpers to adolescents who disclose dating violence or upsetting but non-violent experiences in their romantic relationships. Based on a survey of 224 Midwestern high school students, the study found that youths were more likely to disclose problems to friends rather than others. A factor analysis of…
The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…
Magid, Viktoriya; Moreland, Angela D.
A systematic review was conducted on the role of substance use initiation in subsequent use and substance-related problems among adolescents. Specifically, we examine previous studies to identify whether age of onset predicts subsequent levels of misuse; we also posit reasons for this association that have been suggested within the literature. In…
Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E.; Zucker, Robert A.
The identification of developmentally specific windows at which key predictors of adolescent substance use are most influential is a crucial task for informing the design of appropriately targeted substance use prevention and intervention programs. The current study examined effects of conduct problems and depressive symptomatology on changes in…
Jessor, R; Chase, J A; Donovan, J E
Personality, environmental, and behavioral variables representing psychosocial risk factors for adolescent problem behavior were assessed in a 1974 national sample study of over 10,000 junior and senior high school students. Significant correlations were found with marijuana use, and the relationships held across differences in age, sex, and ethnic group membership. Greater involvement in marijuana use was associated with greater value on independence than on academic achievement, lower expectations for academic achievement, lesser religiosity, greater tolerance of deviance, less compatibility between friends and parents, greater influence of friends relative to parents, greater models and support for problem behavior, greater actual involvement in other problem behaviors such as drunkenness, and less involvement in conventional behavior such as attending church. Multiple regression analyses show that this pattern of psychosocial correlates accounts for over 50 per cent of the variation in marijuana use. The pattern is nearly identical to the pattern that accounts for problem drinking in these same adolescents. The similarity of the patterns of psychosocial risk, and the substantial correlations of marijuana use with problem drinking and with other problem behaviors, suggest that marijuana use is best seen as part of a syndrome of adolescent problem behavior. (Am J Public Health 70:604- 613,1980.) PMID:7377436
Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher; Stawski, Robert S.
Using daily diary methods, mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 86) were contrasted with a nationally representative comparison group of mothers of similarly-aged unaffected children (n = 171) with respect to the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. Mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD were found to have significantly lower levels of cortisol throughout the day. Within the ASD sample, the son or daughter’s history of behavior problems interacted with daily behavior problems to predict the morning rise of the mother’s cortisol. A history of elevated behavior problems moderated the effect of behavior problems the day before on maternal cortisol level. Implications for interventions for both the mother and the individual with ASD are suggested. PMID:19890706
Waldrip, Amy M.; Malcolm, Kenya T.; Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A.
The unique contributions of peer acceptance, friendship, and victimization to adjustment were examined. How these relational systems moderate the influence of one another to influence adjustment was also investigated. Friendship quality, a unique aspect of friendship, was expected to be especially important for adjustment when other relational…
Inge VanderValk; Ed Spruijt; Martijn de Goede; Cora Maas; Wim Meeus
In the present longitudinal 3-wave study of 1274 adolescents and young adults, aged 12–24 at the 1st wave, it is examined\\u000a whether youngsters from intact versus postdivorce families show long-term differences in internalizing and externalizing problems.\\u000a Furthermore, possible differences in the development of this problem behavior between offspring from intact and postdivorce\\u000a families are examined, i.e., possible differences in growth
Kerrie Glass; Kate Flory; Amber Martin; Benjamin L. Hankin
Attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent disorder that is associated with negative\\u000a outcomes (e.g., emotional and behavioral problems, substance use) and is often comorbid with Conduct Problems (CP). Research\\u000a findings are mixed as to whether youth with ADHD alone or comorbid ADHD\\/CP suffer from low self-esteem. Research has also\\u000a shown links between low self-esteem and ADHD (alone
Jennifer C. Wolff; Thomas H. Ollendick
An extensive body of research documents the high prevalence of comorbidity among child and adolescent disorders in general\\u000a and between conduct problems and depression in particular. These problems co-occur at significantly higher rates than would\\u000a be expected by chance and their comorbidity may have significant implications for nosology, treatment, and prognosis. Four\\u000a main hypotheses have been put forth to account
The aims of this study were to investigate the degree of mental health problems among adolescents with immigrant background in Portugal and the factors that may predict mental health problems. The study sample consisted of 755 immigrant adolescents from seven ethnocultural groups (Cape Verdeans, Angolans, Indians, Mozambicans, East Timorese, Sao Tomese, and Guineans) and 320 native Portuguese adolescents. Generally, most respondents did not report major psychological adjustment problems. Adolescents from immigrant families reported fewer mental health problems than their native Portuguese counterparts, and girls reported more mental health problems than did boys. Predictive factors-sociodemographic, intercultural contact, and psychosocial adjustment variables-were significantly linked to youths' mental health. Major predictors of poor psychological adjustment were perceived discrimination, social difficulties, and behavioral problems. As expected, different factors explained the psychological adaptation of adolescents by gender. Implications of the study for counselors are discussed. PMID:19586200
Pierce, John P; James, Lisa E; Messer, Karen; Myers, Mark G; Williams, Rebecca E; Trinidad, Dennis R
There is considerable suggestive evidence that parents can protect their adolescents from developing problem behaviors if they implement recommended best parenting practices. These include providing appropriate limits on adolescent free time, maintaining a close personal relationship with the adolescent, and negotiating and providing incentives for positive behavior patterns. However, retention of the study samples has limited conclusions that can be drawn from published studies. This randomized controlled trial recruited and randomized a national population sample of 1036 families to an intensive parenting intervention using telephone counseling or to a no-contact control group. At enrollment, eligible families had an eldest child between the ages of 10-13 years. The intervention included an initial training program using a self-help manual with telephone counselor support. Implementation of best parenting practices was encouraged using quarterly telephone contacts and a family management check-up questionnaire. A computer-assisted structured counseling protocol was used to aid parents who needed additional assistance to implement best practices. This, along with a centralized service, enabled implementation of quality control procedures. Assessment of problem behavior is undertaken with repeated telephone interviews of the target adolescents. The study is powered to test whether the intervention encouraging parents to maintain best parenting practices is associated with a reduction of 25% in the incidence of problem behaviors prior to age 18 years and will be tested through a maximum likelihood framework. PMID:17964223
Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike
The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:19290687
Lester, Leanne; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Therese
Problem Behaviour Theory suggests that young people's problem behaviours tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between traditional bullying, cyberbullying and engagement in problem behaviours using longitudinal data from approximately 1500 students. Levels of traditional victimisation and perpetration at the beginning of secondary…
Goldstein, Sara E.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
This study examined longitudinal relations among adolescents' family relationships, peer relationships, and problem behavior. Participants were 1,357 African American and European American adolescents who were interviewed at 3 time points: 7th grade (mean age=12.7 years), the summer after 8th grade (mean age=14.2 years), and 11th grade (mean…
Donnermeyer, Joseph F.; Korsching, Peter F.
The long-term adjustment problems of individuals who were removed by force from their place of residence due to the government acquisition of their property are examined. Data were derived from a study of 185 families and individuals displaced by the construction of the Carr Fork Reservoir project in rural, eastern Kentucky. Although many of the…
Sullivan, Terri N.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Lotze, Geri M.; Helms, Sarah W.; Wright, Stephen A.; Ulmer, Lisa J.
A mixed methods approach was used to identify problem situations in peer and school contexts experienced by urban middle school students with high incidence disabilities that may impact their emotional and behavioral adjustment. A survey and semi-structured interview were conducted with a predominantly African American sample (95%) of 74…
McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.
Objective: This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women's intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children's adjustment problems in families characterized by men's severe violence toward women. Methods: Participants were 258 children and their mothers…
Barbarin, Oscar A.; And Others
Examined adjustment problems for children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Parents provided information on social, emotional, academic, and family adjustment of 327 children with SCA. Over 25% of children had emotional adjustment problems in form of internalizing symptoms (anxiety and depression); at least 20% had problems related to…
for research at both the societal and individual levels. This study examined academic achievement and depressive symptoms among a group of Chinese American adolescents and their immigrant parents. Moreover, this study examined whether the parental practice...
Bonnie J. Leadbeater; Elizabeth M. Banister; Wendy E. Ellis; Rachel Yeung
Consistent with the view that adolescent relationships are established in the context of important characteristics of their\\u000a social networks, we examined the effects of adolescents’ experiences of parenting (psychological control and positive monitoring)\\u000a and of peer aggression and victimization, on their self reports of dating victimization and aggression. We also examined the\\u000a effects of individual differences in emotional and behavioral
Katherine H. Shelton; Gordon T. Harold
Using a three-wave longitudinal design, the present study examined adolescents' cognitive appraisals and coping strategies following exposure to interparental conflict and their long-term symptoms of emotional and behavioral distress. Participants were 252 adolescents (122 boys, 130 girls; ages 11 to 12 years in the 1st year of the study), their parents, and their teachers. Controlling for initial symptom levels (Time
Robin, Arthur L
Adolescents with ADHD frequently argue with their parents about a variety of issues, especially when they also have Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder. Family interventions have proven effective for ameliorating such conflicts in two independent investigations. After a comprehensive assessment including family interviews and self-report inventories, the therapist first teaches the parents contingency management techniques and then teaches the parents and adolescent problem solving communication skills. Contingency management techniques include one-on-one time, effective commands, positive incentive systems, and punishment systems. Problem solving involves discussing a specific dispute by defining the problem, generating a list of solutions, evaluating the solutions, and reaching a compromise. Communication training involves identifying specific negative communication skills and replacing them with positive communication skills. This article reviews research and provides practitioners with specific guidelines for implementing these family interventions. PMID:18822832
Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren
Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061
Douglas K. Novins; Misty L. Boyd; Devan T. Brotherton; Alexandra Fickenscher; Laurie Moore; Paul Spicer
High rates of substance use and related problems have been long recognized as critical health issues for Native American adolescents. Unfortunately, no manualized interventions address the specific needs of Native American adolescents in a culturally appropriate manner. In 2006, the Cherokee Nation partnered with the University of Colorado to employ a community-based participatory research process to develop an intervention for
Emam, Mahmoud M.
The association between attributional style (AS), problem-solving orientation (PSO), and gender on depressive symptoms was investigated in Egyptian adolescents with visual impairment (VI). After being written in Braille, measures of AS, PSO, and depression were administered to 110 adolescents with VI, ages 12-17 years, from a residential school…
Marie T. Banich; Thomas J. Crowley; Laetitia L. Thompson; Benjamin L. Jacobson; Xun Liu; Kristen M. Raymond; Eric D. Claus
BackgroundAlthough many neuroimaging studies have examined changes in brain function in adults with substance use disorders, far fewer have examined adolescents. This study investigated patterns of brain activation in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems (SCP) compared to controls.
Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay
The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…
Van Dyke, Catherine A.
The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the complex and growing problem of adolescent suicide. The annotated bibliography consists of 7 articles on recent facts and data, 10 articles on causes determined by research, 11 items on indicators seen in adolescents, and 14 documents on how educators can help. A lack of secure social…
Timmons, Adela C.; Margolin, Gayla
Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; M[subscript age] = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative…
Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.
This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…
Guilamo-Ramos; Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida
A framework for the analysis of adolescent problem behaviors was explicated that draws on five major theories of human behavior. The framework emphasizes intentions to perform behaviors and factors that influence intentions as well as moderate the impact of intentions on behavior. The framework was applied to the analysis of adolescent sexual risk…
Bry, Brenna H.; And Others
Analyzes behavior of three adolescents following three months of targeted family problem solving training. Findings reflect incomplete understanding of the controlling variables and suggest systematic study of the variables during intervention to reduce behavioral variability and to increase understanding of adolescent drug use. (SA)
Zimmermann, Friederike; Schütte, Kerstin; Taskinen, Päivi; Köller, Olaf
Student misbehavior is a pervasive problem and may seriously affect academic achievement. Previous research hints at different effects depending on whether achievement tests or achievement judgments are used as academic outcomes. Previous research also indicates that low achievement can conversely contribute to problem behavior and that low…
Michael Canute Lambert; Mikhail Lyubansky; Thomas M. Achenbach
Nonreferred adolescent samples for ages 12 to 18 from Jamaica and the United States were compared via syndromes, syndrome groupings, and total problem scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Teacher's Report Form, and Youth Self-Report. No significant total problem score differences were found between Jamaican and U.S. adolescents in reports by any informants. However, adolescents in both societies reported
Willoughby, Teena; Hamza, Chloe A.
This longitudinal study investigated the importance of parental monitoring to the deterrence of adolescent problem behavior by examining bidirectional associations among perceived parental monitoring, adolescent disclosure and problem behaviors across the high school years. Adolescents (N = 2,941; 50.3% female) were surveyed each year from grades…
Background: The Iran-Iraq war during the 1980-1988 has left many consequences on veterans and their families that persist long after the war ended. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of psychological problems and marital adjustment of Iranian veterans on their children's quality of life and happiness 24 years after the war ended. Patients and Methods: The sample was all children of veterans in Isfahan city that registered by Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF). One hundred sixty-three veterans were selected by systematic randomized sampling and the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and dyadic adjustment scale (DAS) were administered for them. Their wives filled out the DAS and their children answered to World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). The data from questionnaires completed by 149 families were analyzed using the multiple regressions analysis. Results: Global Severity Index (GSI) scores of veterans and veteran's age were inversely correlated with the scores of children's quality of life, while marital adjustment of parents and number of rooms in house were positively correlated. Mother's age was inversely correlated with the scores of children's happiness, while marital adjustment of the parents, the number of rooms in their house and the number of children were positively correlated. Conclusions: In veterans' family, psychological health of the veterans and marital adjustment of the parents have a significant relationship with their children's quality of life and happiness. PMID:25599063
Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T D
A developmental cascade describes a longitudinal cross-domain unique relation. Here, a 3-wave multivariate design and developmental cascade analysis were used to investigate pathways among adaptive functioning and externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems in a community sample of 134 children seen at 4, 10, and 14 years. Children, mothers, and teachers provided data. Nested path analytic models tested the plausible cascades among the three domains apart from their covariation at each age and rank-order stability across age. Adaptive functioning in early adolescence was predicted by early childhood adaptive functioning and externalizing behavioral problems, with both effects mediated by late childhood adaptive functioning and internalizing behavioral problems; externalizing behavioral problems in early adolescence were predicted by early childhood internalizing behavioral problems with the effect mediated by late childhood externalizing behavioral problems. These developmental cascades obtained independent of child intelligence; child age and maternal education and social desirability were also considered but were not related to any outcome variables. The findings suggest that strategically timed and targeted interventions designed to address young children's behavioral problems may return investment in terms of an enhanced epidemiology of adaptively functioning teens. PMID:23585713
Sarver, Dustin E.; McCart, Michael R.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.
Background Recent studies have linked attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to elevated rates of risky sexual behavior (RSB) in adult samples. The current study tested whether ADHD symptoms were associated with RSB among adolescents, and examined comorbid conduct problems and problematic substance use as joint mediators of this association. Methods ADHD symptoms, conduct problems (oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms), problematic alcohol use (alcohol use disorder symptoms, alcohol use frequency), problematic marijuana use (marijuana use disorder symptoms, marijuana use frequency), and RSB were assessed among an ethnically diverse cross-sectional sample of adolescents (N=115; mean age=14.9 years) involved in the juvenile justice system. Results Bootstrapped mediation models revealed an initial association between ADHD symptoms and RSB that was accounted for fully by the influence of problematic alcohol and marijuana use, but not conduct problems. A follow-up multiple groups mediation analysis demonstrated that the relationship between ADHD symptoms and RSB emerged only among youth with clinically elevated conduct problems, and that problematic marijuana use fully accounted for this relationship. Hyperactive/impulsive but not inattentive symptoms were related to RSB, although the pattern of indirect effects was consistent with the multiple groups analysis. Conclusions The association between ADHD and adolescent RSB is restricted to youth with elevated comorbid conduct problems and reflects the contributions of comorbid marijuana use problems, and to a lesser extent alcohol use problems. Early identification and treatment of these comorbid conditions may be important for the prevention of negative sexual health outcomes among youth with ADHD. PMID:24813803
Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike
The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother's responsiveness and for adolescent's school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19290687
Cavendish, Wendy; Nielsen, Amie L; Montague, Marjorie
The purpose of this study was to examine the growth trajectories from early to late adolescence of teacher ratings of students' behavior problems from 9th through 11th grade and student self-reports of alcohol use in a sample of predominately minority adolescents (n = 179, 90% African-American and/or Hispanic, 43% boys, 57% girls) in a large, urban school district. The study investigated whether parent attachment, school commitment, gender, race/ethnicity, and educational placement influenced these outcomes. Multi-level growth modeling was the primary statistical procedure used. Results indicated that increased parent attachment was associated with reduced levels of alcohol use and school commitment was not associated with growth trajectories of problem behavior in the multilevel models, although gender, race/ethnicity and special education placement were significant predictors. Our findings suggest that teachers perceive greater levels of behavior problems for minority students and youth in special education. Student self reports also indicate adolescent frequency of alcohol use increases over time. PMID:22938710
Niv, Sharon; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.
Purpose This twin study examined the structure of genetic and environmental influences on aggression and rule-breaking in order to examine change and stability across the span of childhood to mid-adolescence. Methods Behavioral assessments were conducted at two time points: age 9–10 years and 14–15 years. Using behavioral genetics biometric modeling, the longitudinal structure of influences was investigated. Results Aggression and rule-breaking were found to be influenced by a latent common factor of antisocial behavior (ASB) within each wave of data collection. The childhood-age common factor of ASB was influenced by 41% genetics, 40% shared environment and 19% nonshared environment. In adolescence, 41% of influences on the common factor were novel and entirely genetic, while the remainder of influences were stable across time. Additionally, both aggression and rule-breaking within each wave were found to have unique influences not common across subscales or across waves, highlighting specificity of influences on different problem behaviors at both ages. Conclusions This research sheds light on the commonality of influences on etiology of different forms of antisocial behavior, and suggests future directions for research into intervention for antisocial behavior problems in youth, such as investigation of adolescence-specific environmental influences on the development of antisocial behavior problems. PMID:24347737
Fletcher, Anne C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay
High school students (approximately 14-18 years old; N=2,568) completed questionnaires in which they reported on their involvement in substance use and delinquency, and their perceptions of parental warmth, control, monitoring, and knowledge. Three alternative models were compared describing the nature of relations among these variables. Problem…
Rybakova, L. N.
Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.
Smolak, Linda; Levine, Michael P.
It is important for adults who work with youth to know how to address the issues of eating disorders and steroid use. This article provides signs and symptoms for both, and then gives practical suggestions for talking with youth about a potential problem. It ends with prevention strategies for adults who work with youth. (Contains 3 tables.)
This study evaluated the hypothesis that self-perceived gender nonconformity is distressing to children because it undermines a confident sense of gender compatibility. Participants were 357 early adolescents (180 boys, M age = 12.68 years) in England who responded to questionnaires measuring friendship styles (preoccupied, avoidant), gender…
Maria E. Parente; Adam Sheppard; Joseph L. Mahoney
Through secondary data analysis of a nationally representative sample, the study explored the relations between adolescent summer arrangements and associated developmental outcomes (well-being, externalizing behavior, body mass index, and academic performance). The study also examined if these relations were mediated by parental knowledge of youth whereabouts and activities, as well as if these relations differed for subgroups of youth regularly
Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Lopez, Barbara
Acculturative stress in relation to anxiety symptoms has not been examined empirically in young Hispanic populations. The present study, conducted with 138 pre-adolescent Hispanic youngsters, investigated this relationship. The findings suggested that acculturative stress was related to physiological, concentration, and worrisome symptoms of…
Bos, Henny; Goldberg, Naomi; Gelderen, Loes Van; Gartrell, Nanette
dren’s sex role inventory. Developmental Psychology 27:505-Sex-role attributes, perceived competence and the development of depression in adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology andSex-Role Inventory: Validation of a short version for French teenagers. European Review of Applied Psychology
Carothers, Shannon S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.
Children born to adolescent mothers have heightened vulnerability for exposure to multiple stressful life events owing to factors associated with teenaged parenthood such as poverty and low levels of maternal education. This study investigated whether early exposure to negative life events such as parental divorce, residential instability, and…
Parente, Maria E.; Sheppard, Adam; Mahoney, Joseph L.
Through secondary data analysis of a nationally representative sample, the study explored the relations between adolescent summer arrangements and associated developmental outcomes (well-being, externalizing behavior, body mass index, and academic performance). The study also examined if these relations were mediated by parental knowledge of youth…
Mona El-Sheikh; Elizabeth Flanagan
We examined marital conflict, parent–child conflict, and maternal and paternal depression symptoms as mediators and moderators in the associations between fathers' and mothers' problem drinking and children's adjustment. A community sample of 6–12-year-old boys and girls and their mothers, fathers, and teachers participated. Marital conflict, parent–child conflict, and maternal depression symptomatology each functioned as a mediator of the association between
Shelton, Katherine H.; Boivin, Jacky; Hay, Dale; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Rice, Frances J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita
The aim of this study was to examine whether there was variation in levels of psychological adjustment among children conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technologies using the parents' gametes (homologous), sperm donation, egg donation, embryo donation and surrogacy. Information was provided by parents about the psychological functioning of…
Skowron, Elizabeth A.
This study focused on examining the cross-cultural validity of Bowen family systems theory (M. Bowen, 1978), namely differentiation of self for individuals of color. Ethnic minority men and women completed measures of differentiation of self, ethnic group belonging, and 3 indices of personal adjustment. Initial support for the cross-cultural…
Kevin F. Collis; Jane M. Watson; K. Jennifer Campbell
Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of\\u000a thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place\\u000a of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and\\u000a intuitive processes in the
Zangeneh, Masood; Mann, Robert E.; McCready, John; Oseni, Lola
Problem gambling is a growing concern among adolescents today. According to recent studies, rates of problem gambling among youth are higher than those reported by adults. Though few in number, studies have also shown certain ethnic communities to be prone to gambling-related problems and related problematic behaviours. As yet, there is no…
Song, Sunmi; Graham, Jennifer E.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Sohn, Young-Woo
This study examined the role of emotion regulation (ER) strategies and emotional disposition in problem drinking of adolescent offenders (n = 303) and non-offending peers (n = 287) from South Korea. The participants completed a questionnaire assessing problem drinking, positive and negative emotion, emotional intensity, and use of problem solving,…
Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent
The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…
Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Fine, Sarah E.
The present meta-analytic review examined the magnitude of the relation between discrete emotion knowledge and three of its most commonly studied correlates in childhood and adolescence: social competence, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Emotion knowledge demonstrated small to medium-sized relations with each correlate. Moderators of effect size were also examined and included multiple sample and methodological characteristics. Using random effects models, significant moderators of effect size for relations between emotion knowledge and externalizing problems included sample recruitment, sample age, and the source of externalizing problems ratings. Moderators of effect size were not found for emotion knowledge and social competence, and the effect sizes across samples for emotion knowledge and internalizing problems were homogeneous. Results highlight the relatively consistent yet modest relations between emotion knowledge and its correlates. Implications for applied research and new directions for research on emotion knowledge using innovative methods are discussed. PMID:21072259
Weiss, Bahr; Han, Susan; Harris, Vicki; Catron, Tom; Ngo, Victoria K.; Caron, Annalise; Gallop, Robert; Guth, Carol
Objective Adolescent conduct problems exact serious social as well as personal costs, and effective treatments are essential. One of the most widely disseminated and effective programs for the treatment of serious conduct problems in adolescents is Multisystemic Therapy (MST). However, most evaluations of MST have involved the developers of MST. The purpose of the present study was to conduct an independent evaluation of MST, with non-court-referred adolescents with conduct problems. Method Participants were 164 adolescents aged 11 to 18 years who were recruited from self-contained behavior intervention classrooms in public schools. Adolescents and their families were randomly assigned to receive MST or services as usual. Outcome measures assessed conduct problems, school functioning, and court records of criminal behavior. Participants were followed for 18 months after baseline using parent, adolescent, and teacher reports; arrest data were collected for 2.5 years post-baseline. Results Two of four primary outcome measures focused on externalizing problems showed significant treatment effects favoring MST. Several secondary and intervention targets pertaining to family functioning and parent psychopathology showed positive effects of MST, and no negative effects were identified. Conclusions Results provide some further support for the effectiveness of MST, although smaller effect sizes than previous studies also suggest the complexity of successful dissemination, particularly to non-court-referred populations. PMID:23937347
Rabbani, Ali; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Mohammad, Kazem; Ardalan, Gelayol; Maftoon, Farzaneh; Shahryari, Safiyeh; Khodaei, Shahnaz; Sotoudeh, Aria; Ziaaldini, Hassan; Kamali, Kobra; Motaghian, Molouk
Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 ± 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 ± 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8%) adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodman's cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%). According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle. PMID:22418985
Olga Reyes; Karen Gillock; Kimberly Kobus
Described an intervention program designed to prepare elementary school (K-8) eighth-grade students for their transition to\\u000a high school the following year. Participants in the study were 145, predominantly Hispanic, inner-city public school adolescents.\\u000a The experimental group received an augmented condition, consisting of Education and Peer Support Components. The control group\\u000a received a minimal condition consisting of only the Education Component.
Jean E. Rhodes; Josefina M. Contreras; Sarah C. Mangelsdorf
Investigated the antecedents, effects, and underlying characteristics of natural mentor relationships in a sample of 54 inner-city,\\u000a Latina adolescent mothers. Women with mentors reported significantly lower levels of depression and anxiety than those without\\u000a mentors despite similar levels of stress exposure and overall support resources. Young women with natural mentors were also\\u000a more satisfied with their support resources and appeared
Freeborn, D K; Polen, M R; Mullooly, J P
Research on adults has documented that use of medical services decreases after initiation of treatment for alcohol problems, but little is known about this relationship among adolescents. We studied utilization and costs of care following participation in the Adolescent Chemical Health Program (ACHP) of Kaiser Permanente, Northwest Region, in 1986-88. Three groups of adolescents (and their parents) were identified: adolescents who were assessed and initiated treatment in ACHP (n = 561), adolescents who were assessed and recommended for treatment but did not return for treatment (n = 278), and adolescents with no known substance use problems (n = 381). Medical records were reviewed for 1 year pre- and 1.5 years postassessment. After adjusting for preassessment medical visits, severity of alcohol and drug use, gender, and age, analyses suggested that substance user treatment was not associated with reduced use of medical services or costs by either adolescents or parents. PMID:7558471
Harty, Seth C.; Galanopoulos, Stavroula; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Objective To measure the degree to which childhood and adolescent ratings of aggression, attention, and delinquency are related to adolescent substance use outcomes in youth diagnosed with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Background Childhood externalizing disorders have been shown to predict adolescent maladaptive substance use, but few studies have examined the differential predictive utility of two distinct dimensions of externalizing behavior; aggression and delinquency. Methods Ninety-seven clinically referred children with ADHD initially took part in this research protocol when they were on average 9.05 years of age, and were seen again on average 9.30 years later. Participants’ parents were administered the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at baseline and follow-up, and youth completed the Youth Self Report (YSR) in adolescence. At follow-up, substance use severity and diagnosis were assessed using semi-structured psychiatric interviews administered separately to parents and adolescents. Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to determine the association of CBCL- and YSR-rated attention problems, aggression and delinquency to adolescent substance use. Results Childhood and adolescent delinquency, but not aggression, as rated by parents and youths, predicted adolescent substance use disorders (SUD) and substance use severity (all p <.05). After accounting for the associations of delinquency and aggression with adolescent substance use, ratings of attention problems in childhood and adolescence were negatively associated with substance use outcome. Conclusions Children with ADHD who exhibit high rates of delinquency are at risk for later substance and may require targeted prevention, intervention, and follow-up services. PMID:24131161
Fernandez-Parra, A.; Lopez-Rubio, S.; Mata, S.; Calero, M. D.; Vives, M. C.; Carles, R.; Navarro, E.
Introduction: Conduct problems arising in infancy are one of the main reasons for which parents seek psychological assistance. Although these problems usually begin when the child has started school, in recent years a group of children has been identified who begin to manifest such problems from their earliest infancy and whose prognosis seems to…
Guo, Xiamei; Slesnick, Natasha
This study examined the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' problem behaviors, moderated by adolescent gender, as well as the association between maternal depressive symptoms and the family environment characteristics above and beyond child variables. Data were collected from 137 mothers of runaway adolescents with…
Shelton, Katherine H.; Harold, Gordon T.; Fowler, Tom A.; Rice, Frances J.; Neale, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.
This study investigated genetic and environmental influences on the associations between mother-child relationship quality (warmth and hostility) and adolescent conduct problems and cigarette use. Participants included 601 mothers and adolescent twin pairs (aged 12-17 years). Mothers and adolescents provided separate reports of mother-to-child…
Khor, Angela S; Melvin, Glenn A; Reid, Sophie C; Gray, Kylie M
Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in adolescents with HFASD. Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed questionnaires assessing their coping and behavior and emotional problems, and completed an Ecological Momentary Assessment run via a mobile phone application on their coping and daily hassles. Parents completed questionnaires of the adolescents' daily hassles, coping, and behavior and emotional problems. The disengagement coping style was associated with significantly higher levels of behavior and emotional problems regardless of respondent or methodology, suggesting it may be a valuable target for intervention. PMID:23933998
Leitenberg, H; Detzer, M J; Srebnik, D
A comparison of male and female masturbation practices was undertaken in a sample of university students to determine if the long-standing finding that young adult men in this country masturbate more than young adult women was still evident in the 1980s. Despite the efforts in the past quarter century to encourage women in our society to take greater responsibility for their own bodies and their own sexuality and to engage in more sexual self-exploration and self-stimulation, results show that women continue to masturbate much less than men. Twice as many men as women had ever masturbated and the men who masturbated did so three times more frequently during early adolescence and young adulthood than the women who masturbated during these same age periods. A second purpose of this study was to determine whether having masturbation experience during preadolescence and/or early adolescence was related to intercourse experience, sexual satisfaction, sexual arousal, or sexual difficulties in relationships during young adulthood. No such linkage was observed, suggesting that early masturbation experience is neither beneficial nor harmful to sexual adjustment in young adulthood. PMID:8476336
Plenty, Stephanie; Ostberg, Viveca; Almquist, Ylva B; Augustine, Lilly; Modin, Bitte
This study explored how psychosocial features of the schoolwork environment are associated with students' mental health. Data was drawn from 3699 ninth grade (15 year-old) Swedish students participating in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Using Structural Equation Modelling, perceived school demands, decision control and social support from teachers, classmates and parents were examined in relation to students' emotional and conduct problems. Higher demands were associated with greater emotional symptoms and conduct problems. Although weaker social support predicted emotional symptoms and conduct problems, the relative influence of teachers, classmates and parents differed. Teacher support was more closely associated with conduct problems, particularly for girls, while classmate support was more strongly related to emotional symptoms. The findings indicate that while excessive school pressure is associated with poorer mental health, social support can assist in optimising adolescents' emotional health and adaptive behaviour, as well as shaping perceptions of demands. PMID:24793388
Teena WilloughbyChloe; Chloe A. Hamza
This longitudinal study investigated the importance of parental monitoring to the deterrence of adolescent problem behavior\\u000a by examining bidirectional associations among perceived parental monitoring, adolescent disclosure and problem behaviors across\\u000a the high school years. Adolescents (N = 2,941; 50.3% female) were surveyed each year from grades 9 through 12. There was a reciprocal association between problem\\u000a behavior and parental knowledge, such that
Montague, Marjorie; Cavendish, Wendy; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha
The purpose of this study was to investigate the trajectories of behavioral problems for a sample of predominately minority adolescents (n = 212, 91% African-American and/or Hispanic, 45% boys, 55% girls) in a large, urban school district and to determine the impact of parental and peer relationships, gender, and risk status on their development during middle and high school. Multi-level growth modeling was the primary statistical procedure used to track internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems across time. Results indicated that behavioral problems as rated by students' teachers declined significantly for both boys and girls, a finding that is in direct contrast to previous studies of adolescent behavior. The quality of parental relationships was a strong predictor of both types of behavior whereas the quality of peer relationships predicted only internalizing behavioral symptoms. These findings suggest that behavioral trajectories may be somewhat unique for this population underscoring the need for additional research in this area. The findings also have implications for intervening with children and youth who display behavioral problems during critical developmental periods. PMID:19657727
Background An accurate weight perception has been associated with motivation to change eating habits in the case of under- or overweight. However, recent studies have reported frequent misperceptions among parents and their offspring, both in the form of under- and overestimation of weight status. The aim of the present study was to investigate weight perception accuracy among parents of young adolescents in relation to reports on disturbed eating patterns and mental health problems. Methods Weight perception accuracy was assessed among parents of young adolescents (N?=?5,781, aged 11 - 13 years) who participated in the ongoing Bergen Child Study (BCS). Parental weight perception was classified in overestimation, underestimation and accurate. Other measures included demographic variables, the parents’ evaluations of disturbed eating patterns and mental health problems among their offspring as well as the adolescents’ own weight perception accuracy. Results The parents accurately perceived more than 80% of normal weight adolescents, but nearly 60% of the underweight adolescents were overestimated, and a substantial proportion of overweight girls (34. 8%) and boys (12.8%) were underestimated. In general, parents who were aware of deviations from average weight in their child also reported higher levels of disturbed eating patterns, emotional problems, and behavioral problems. After controlling for demographic factors, the risk of parental over- and underestimation was significantly predicted by weight status, the adolescents’ weight perception accuracy as well as disturbed eating patterns reported by the parents (p < .05). Conclusions Adolescents with under- or overweight proved most likely to be misperceived by their parents in this study. The pattern of perceptually correcting deviations from normal weight was interpreted as a positivity bias among the parents. These results suggest that weight perception accuracy should be targeted in family-focused interventions in order to strengthen adequate weight control among young adolescents. PMID:24666691
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick
The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided…
Caldwell, Roslyn M.; Wiebe, Richard P.; Cleveland, H. Harrington
This study examined the ability of future certainty--an individual's perception of future stability, operationalized as the likelihood of certain life outcomes--to explain variance in delinquency and school adjustment, while controlling for economic, neighborhood, and family factors, among a cross-sectional sample of 1422 male and 1562 female…
Salman Elbedour; Michael R. Van Slyck; Marilyn Stern
The relationship between extreme social changeand the psychological adjustment of adolescentsundergoing such change was examined. The impact ofextreme social change relative to other conditions ofcatastrophic social disorganization such as chronic socialconflict and violent war-like conditions was alsoconsidered. The results indicate that Bedouinadolescents in Israel, members of a community that hasexperienced drastic social upheaval, show elevated rates ofpsychopathology. Comparisons of Bedouin
Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S
This study investigates the different roles played by protective factors and risk factors-and by particular protective and risk factors-when the concern is with accounting for adolescent problem behavior than when the concern is with accounting for adolescent pro-social behavior. The protective and risk factor literature on adolescent problem behavior reveals considerable conceptual and operational ambiguity; an aim of the present study was to advance understanding in this domain of inquiry by providing a systematic conceptualization of protection and risk and of their measurement. Within the systematic framework of Problem Behavior Theory, four protective and four risk factors are assessed in a cross-national study of both problem behavior and pro-social behavior involving large adolescent samples in China (N = 1,368) and the US (N = 1,087), in grades 9, 10, and 11; females 56 %, US; 50 %, China. The findings reveal quite different roles for protection and risk, and for particular protective and risk factors, when the outcome criterion is problem behavior than when it is pro-social behavior. The protective factor, Controls Protection, which engages rule and regulations and sanctions in the adolescent's ecology, emerges as most important in influencing problem behavior, but it plays a relatively minor role in relationship to pro-social behavior. By contrast, Models Protection, the presence of pro-social models in the adolescent's ecology, and Support Protection, the presence of interest and care in that same ecology, have no significant relationship to problem behavior variation, but they are both the major predictors of variation in pro-social behavior. The findings are robust across the samples from the two very diverse societies. These results suggest that greater attention be given to protection in problem behavior research and that a more nuanced perspective is needed about the roles that particular protective and risk factors play in reducing problem behavior and in promoting pro-social behavior. PMID:24797283
Connolly, Jennifer; Nguyen, Hien N T; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy; Jiang, Depeng
Normative romantic development is theorized to progress through a series of stages: affiliative activities, group-based dating, and romantic relationships. The objectives of this research were threefold: empirically examine this progression of romantic stages during adolescence, determine normative and atypical trajectories, and examine links with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. An eight-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 698 adolescents (53.6% female; M(age) = 11.8 years at start of study). A group-based trajectory approach was employed to identify prototypical trajectories of romantic development and a model with three distinct romantic trajectories (i.e., On-time, Early Starters and Late Bloomers) was identified. Both timing and sequencing of romantic activity differed among trajectory groups. Analysis of Variance (ANOVAs) identified associations between Early Starters and externalizing behaviours in early, middle and later adolescence. The findings support progression through theorized stages of romantic activity and highlight the problems that are linked to early-starting and non-sequenced romantic development. PMID:24215948
Janssens, Annelies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine; Colpin, Hilde; De Laet, Steven; Claes, Stephan; Van Leeuwen, Karla
Molecular gene-by-environment studies primarily have focuses on the parent-child relationship as an environmental factor, whereas studies including peer relationships as environmental factor are rare. However, the effects of the peer context may not be the same for all adolescents due to biological characteristics. This study examined whether the effects of peer rejection and acceptance on externalizing behavior depend upon adolescents' genotype for the dopamine transporter (DAT1) or receptor D4 (DRD4) gene. In a sample of 563 adolescents (52 % girls; M age = 13.81), saliva samples, within-classroom peer nominations, and multi-informant behavior ratings were collected. Peer rejection, but not acceptance, was associated with externalizing problems. One out of eight models tested for rule-breaking behavior showed genetic moderation. According to the Roisman criteria, there was evidence for the differential susceptibility hypothesis. DAT1 10R carriers showed more rule-breaking behavior according to parents when experiencing high peer rejection, but less rule-breaking behavior when experiencing low peer rejection. The long DRD4 variant was associated with less aggression, but no moderation effects were found. The results are discussed in light of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and the reward sensitivity mechanism. PMID:26006708
Keller, Peggy S.; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.
Background: Research suggests that children exposed to parental drinking problems are at risk for maladjustment. However, the potential impact of drinking problems in a community sample and the processes involved in the relationship between parental drinking and child outcomes have rarely been examined. Method: A community sample of 235 mothers…
Piersel, Wayne C.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.
Self-observation as a behavior change technique was implemented through behavioral consultation in a public elementary school system. The self-observation procedures were introduced to two subjects with academic problems (assignment completion) and two subjects with behavioral problems (disruptive talk and interruptions, respectively).…
Kliewer, Wendy; Lepore, Stephen J
Exposure to violence is associated with elevated levels of sleep problems in adolescence, which contributes to poor mental and physical health and impaired academic performance. However, reasons underlying the associations between exposure to violence and sleep difficulty have not been examined. This study tested a social cognitive processing path model linking experiences of witnessing and directly experiencing community violence and sleep problems. Participants were 362 early adolescents (M age = 12.45 years, SD = 0.59; range 11-14 years; 48.9% male; 51% Latino/a; 34% black) from urban communities enrolled in a middle-school-based intervention study on the east coast of the United States that was designed to reduce the negative effects of exposure to violence. All youth in the current study reported witnessing or directly experiencing community violence. Adolescents completed four school-based assessments over an 18-month period, reporting on their exposure to community violence, sleep problems, intrusive thoughts about and social constraints in talking about violence, and life events. A path model that included both victimization and witnessing violence revealed that wave 1 witnessing violence, but not victimization, was associated with elevated social constraints in talking about violence at wave 2, which was associated with elevated intrusive thoughts at wave 3, which was associated with poor sleep quality at wave 4. Prior levels of all constructs were controlled in the analysis, in addition to life events, single parent household status, children's age and sex, intervention condition, and school. Youth exposed to violence may benefit from help in processing their experiences, thus reducing social constraints in talking about their experiences and associated intrusive thoughts. This is turn may improve sleep outcomes. PMID:25218396
Shao, Aihui; Liang, Lichan; Yuan, Chunyong; Bian, Yufang
This study used the latent class analysis (LCA) to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1) Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2) There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3) Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionaires. (4) As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children. PMID:24740096
Background A growing body of evidence from countries around the world suggests that school-based peer victimisation is associated with worse health outcomes among adolescents. So far, however, there has been little systematic research on this phenomenon in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between peer victimisation at school and a range of different psychological and somatic health problems among Russian adolescents. Methods This study used data from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) – a cross-sectional survey undertaken in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was collected from 2892 adolescents aged 12–17 about their experiences of school-based peer victimisation and on a variety of psychological and somatic health conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between victimisation and health. Results Peer victimisation in school was commonplace: 22.1% of the students reported that they had experienced frequent victimisation in the current school year (girls – 17.6%; boys – 28.5%). There was a strong relationship between experiencing victimisation and reporting worse health among both boys and girls with more victimisation associated with an increased risk of experiencing worse health. Girls in the highest victimisation category had odds ratios ranging between 1.90 (problems with eyes) and 5.26 (aches/pains) for experiencing somatic complaints when compared to their non-victimised counterparts, while the corresponding figures for boys were 2.04 (headaches) and 4.36 (aches/pains). Girls and boys who had the highest victimisation scores were also 2.42 (girls) and 3.33 (boys) times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety, over 5 times more likely to suffer from posttraumatic stress and over 6 times more likely to experience depressive symptoms. Conclusion Peer victimisation at school has a strong association with poor health outcomes among Russian adolescents. Effective school-based interventions are now urgently needed to counter the negative effects of victimisation on adolescents’ health in Russia. PMID:23672615
Stevenson, Matthew M; Fabricius, William V; Cookston, Jeffrey T; Parke, Ross D; Coltrane, Scott; Braver, Sanford L; Saenz, Delia S
We evaluated maternal gatekeeping attitudes as a mediator of the relation between marital problems and father-child relationships in 3 waves when children were in Grades 7-10. We assessed each parent's contribution to the marital problems experienced by the couple. Findings from mediational and cross-lagged structural equation models revealed that increased marital problem behaviors on the part of mothers at Wave 1 predicted increased maternal gatekeeping attitudes at Wave 2, which in turn predicted decreased amounts of father-adolescent interaction at Wave 3. Decreased amounts of interaction with either parent were associated within each wave with adolescents' perceptions that they mattered less to that parent. Amount of interaction with fathers at Wave 2 positively predicted changes in boys' perceptions of how much they mattered to their fathers at Wave 3, and amount of interaction with mothers at Wave 2 positively predicted changes in girls' perceptions of how much they mattered to their mothers at Wave 3. The findings did not differ for European American versus Mexican American families or for biological fathers versus step-fathers. PMID:24364832
Robbins, Michael S; Horigian, Viviana E; Szapocznik, José
Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is an empirically-supported treatment for children and adolescents with behavior problems and substance use problems. For three decades, the efficacy and effectiveness of BSFT has been established through the results of rigorous clinical trials studies conducted at the University of Miami's Center for Family Studies. BSFT is based on family systems approaches, most notably the work of Salvador Minuchin and Jay Haley, but has been refined to meet the pressing needs of youth with behavior problems. BSFT theory and interventions cover four broad domains: joining with family members and the family system, assessing problematic family interactions, creating a motivational context for change, and restructuring family interactions. PMID:18605440
Fosco, Gregory M.; Stormshak, Elizabeth a.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Winter, Charlotte
The middle school years are a period of increased risk for youths' engagement in antisocial behaviors, substance use, and affiliation with deviant peers (Dishion & Patterson, 2006). This study examined the specific role of parental monitoring and of family relationships (mother, father, and sibling) that are all critical to the deterrence of problem behavior in early adolescence. The study sample comprised 179 ethnically diverse 6th grade (46% female) students who were followed through 8th grade. Results indicated that parental monitoring and father–youth connectedness were associated with reductions in problem behavior over time, and conflict with siblings was linked with increases in problem behaviors. No associations were found for mother–youth connectedness. These findings did not differ for boys and for girls, or for families with resident or nonresident fathers. PMID:22417193
Reitz, E.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A. M.
In this longitudinal study we investigated relations between parenting and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviour during early adolescence. First, we examined parenting effects on problem behaviour, including child behaviour as a moderator. Second, we examined child behaviour as predictor of parenting, also including moderator effects.…
Winston J. Hagborg
This study explored the relationship among the subscales of the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist and intelligence, academic achievement, and sociometric ratings for a sample of 62 severely emotionally disturbed adolescents enrolled in a special school. A relationship of the Attention Problems-Immaturity subscale with intelligence scores and mathematics achievement was found. Four of six subscales were found to be related to
Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Dishion, Thomas J.
The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the…
Baker, J. K.; Seltzer, M. M.; Greenberg, J. S.
Background: Studies have linked the behaviour problems of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) to maternal well-being, but less is known about how behaviour problems relate to important family factors such as marital satisfaction and family cohesion. Methods: Married mothers of 115 adolescents and adults with FXS completed questionnaires and…
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and…
Paalman, Carmen; van Domburgh, Lieke; Stevens, Gonneke; Vermeiren, Robert; van de Ven, Peter; Branje, Susan; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol; Jansen, Lucres; Doreleijers, Theo
This longitudinal study explores differences between native Dutch and immigrant Moroccan adolescents in the relationship between internalizing and externalizing problems across time. By using generalized estimating equations (GEE), the strength and stability of associations between internalizing and externalizing problems in 159 Moroccan and 159…
Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Veenstra, Rene; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ormel, Johan
This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 plus or minus 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We assessed peer status with respect to…
In this macroeconomics problem, students check to see whether they understand the role nominal aggregate demand and inflation expectations play in determining the economy's output level and inflation rate.
Lansford, Jennifer E; Laird, Robert D; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A
The goal of this study was to advance the understanding of separate and joint effects of mothers' and fathers' autonomy-relevant parenting during early and middle adolescence. In a sample of 518 families, adolescents (49 % female; 83 % European American, 16 % African American, 1 % other ethnic groups) reported on their mothers' and fathers' psychological control and knowledge about adolescents' whereabouts, friends, and activities at ages 13 and 16. Mothers and adolescents reported on adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors at ages 12, 14, 15, and 17. Adolescents perceived their mothers as using more psychological control and having more knowledge than their fathers, but there was moderate concordance between adolescents' perceptions of their mothers and fathers. More parental psychological control predicted increases in boys' and girls' internalizing problems and girls' externalizing problems. More parental knowledge predicted decreases in boys' externalizing and internalizing problems. The perceived levels of behavior of mothers and fathers did not interact with one another in predicting adolescent adjustment. The results generalize across early and late adolescence and across mothers' and adolescents' reports of behavior problems. Autonomy-relevant mothering and fathering predict changes in behavior problems during early and late adolescence, but only autonomy-relevant fathering accounts for unique variance in adolescent behavior problems. PMID:24337705
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Laird, Robert D.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.
The goal of this study was to advance the understanding of separate and joint effects of mothers’ and fathers’ autonomy-relevant parenting during early and middle adolescence. In a sample of 518 families, adolescents (49% female; 83% European American, 16% African American, 1% other ethnic groups) reported on their mothers’ and fathers’ psychological control and knowledge about adolescents’ whereabouts, friends, and activities at ages 13 and 16. Mothers and adolescents reported on adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing behaviors at ages 12, 14, 15, and 17. Adolescents perceived their mothers as using more psychological control and having more knowledge than their fathers, but there was moderate concordance between adolescents’ perceptions of their mothers and fathers. More parental psychological control predicted increases in boys’ and girls’ internalizing problems and girls’ externalizing problems. More parental knowledge predicted decreases in boys’ externalizing and internalizing problems. The perceived levels of behavior of mothers and fathers did not interact with one another in predicting adolescent adjustment. The results generalize across early and late adolescence and across mothers’ and adolescents’ reports of behavior problems. Autonomy-relevant mothering and fathering predict changes in behavior problems during early and late adolescence, but only autonomy-relevant fathering accounts for unique variance in adolescent behavior problems. PMID:24337705
Monahan, Kathryn C; Lee, Joanna M; Steinberg, Laurence
The impact of part-time employment on adolescent functioning remains unclear because most studies fail to adequately control for differential selection into the workplace. The present study reanalyzes data from L. Steinberg, S. Fegley, and S. M. Dornbusch (1993) using multiple imputation, which minimizes bias in effect size estimation, and 2 types of propensity score matching, to account for selection effects. In this sample (N = 1,792; Grades 10-11, M = 16.26), youth who begin working more than 20 hr per week evince declines in school engagement and increases in substance use and delinquency compared with youth who remain unemployed. Conversely, working 20 hr or less a week has negligible effects, positive or negative, on academic, psychological, or behavioral outcomes. PMID:21291431
Miller, Adam B.; Esposito-Smythers, Chrstianne
Objective The present study, informed by the cognitive-behavioral theory of suicide, is among the first studies to examine cognitive distortions and substance related problems as potential mediators and moderators of the relation between child maltreatment (CM) and suicidal ideation (SI) in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Method The sample included 185 adolescents (71.4% female; 84% White) admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Participants completed self-report measures assessing cognitive errors, negative cognitive triad, substance related problems, and SI. Participants and their parents completed a semi-structured diagnostic interview assessing CM history. Results In this clinical sample, we found that child maltreatment was associated with suicidal ideation only for youth with current substance abuse problems, indicating moderation. Contrary to predictions, substance related problems did not mediate the association between child maltreatment and adolescent SI. Further, cognitive errors and negative cognitive triad did not mediate or moderate the association between CM and SI. However, there were significant unique effects for both cognitive errors and negative cognitive triad on SI, suggesting that adolescents with more severe cognitive distortions report greater SI, regardless of CM history. Conclusions Clinically, results suggest that practitioners should carefully screen for and address any substance misuse among victims of maltreatment to prevent clinically significant SI. Study results also suggest that interventions that incorporate cognitive restructuring may help decrease risk for severe SI in adolescent clinical samples in general. PMID:25419473
Spas, Jayson; Ramsey, Susan; Paiva, Andrea L.; Stein, L.A.R.
Considerable evidence from the literature on treatment outcomes indicates that substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems varies widely. Treatments commonly used among this population are cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 12-step facilitation, multisystemic therapy (MST), psychoeducation (PE), and motivational interviewing (MI). This manuscript thoroughly and systematically reviews the available literature to determine which treatment is optimal for substance-abusing adolescents with conduct problems. Results suggest that although there are several evidence-based and empirically supported treatments, those that incorporate family-based intervention consistently provide the most positive treatment outcomes. In particular, this review further reveals that although many interventions have gained empirical support over the years, only one holds the prize as being the optimal treatment of choice for substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems. PMID:23170066
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Leung, Hildie
This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies), life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior). Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families. PMID:24400264
Ter Wolbeek, Maike; Kavelaars, Annemieke; de Vries, Willem B; Tersteeg-Kamperman, Marijke; Veen, Sylvia; Kornelisse, René F; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam; Baerts, Wim; Liem, Kian D; van Bel, Frank; Heijnen, Cobi J
Neonatal glucocorticoid (GC) treatment is used to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in prematurely born babies. In the 1990s, treatment regimens with relatively high doses of dexamethasone (DEX) were common. As an alternative, hydrocortisone (HC) was used. Earlier, we compared long-term effects of both GCs in children aged 7-10 and detected adverse effects of neonatal DEX treatment, but not of HC, on a range of outcomes. The aim of the current cohort study was to investigate whether long-term effects of neonatal DEX were maintained and whether effects of HC remained absent at adolescent age (14-17years). We compared 71 DEX-treated and 67 HC-treated adolescents. In addition, 71 adolescents who were not neonatally treated with GCs participated. All were born <32weeks of gestation. DEX-treated girls showed increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol responses in the Trier Social Stress Test. The cortisol awakening response was lower in HC-treated participants compared to untreated participants. Negative feedback function of the HPA-axis in the dexamethasone suppression test did not differ between groups. In contrast to our observations at the age of 7-10years, we did not observe group differences in mitogen-induced cytokine production at the age of 14-17years. DEX-treated girls showed more social problems and anxious/depressed behavior than HC-treated girls. Untreated girls showed more problem behavior as well. In conclusion, our results suggest that, especially in girls, neonatal DEX has a programming effect on the HPA-axis and on the ability to adjust to the environment. The loss of group differences on immune system measures indicate that potentially negative effects detected at a younger age subsided. PMID:25449580
Ross, Penelope; Cuskelly, Monica
Background: Siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) express more problem behaviours and experience more difficulties in their relationships than do children in families where all children are developing typically. We know little about what contributes to these difficulties. Method: Mothers of a child with ASD completed the…