Sterzer, Philipp; Stadler, Christina
In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for abnormal neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal-directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future. PMID:19862349
Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila
Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493
Glowacz, Fabienne; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Boet, Sylvie; Born, Michel
Aggressive behaviours in adolescence often originate in early development. This study tested three longitudinal pathways starting in early childhood, in a sample of 325 Belgian participants (162 girls) assessed every 1 or 2 years from birth through age 14. Structural equation models supported the "mother early dissatisfaction" pathway…
Fernald, L C; Ani, C; Gardner, J M
Interpersonal violence is a major public health concern throughout the West Indies, particularly in Jamaica. Many factors contribute to a youth's violent or aggressive behaviour, ranging from individual temperament, to family structure, to large sociocultural influences. In Part I, we review the incidence and severity of violence, and discuss the effects of individual characteristics, and of family structure and discipline. In Part II, the reported effects of school structure, peer relationships and interaction, corporal punishment and the media on violent behaviour in children and adolescents are reviewed, and potential policy implications are discussed. PMID:9494402
Canadian Guidelines on Pharmacotherapy for Disruptive and Aggressive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or Conduct Disorder
Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara
Objective: To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. Method: A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (↑↑); conditional, in favour (↑?); conditional, against (↓?); and strong, against (↓↓). Results: For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone’s major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. Conclusion: When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use. PMID:25886657
Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports. PMID:27389748
Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.
We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…
Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.
Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…
Raschle, Nora Maria; Menks, Willeke Martine; Fehlbaum, Lynn Valérie; Tshomba, Ebongo; Stadler, Christina
Recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour (AB) is associated with structural and functional brain abnormalities in processes subserving emotion processing and regulation. However, most neuroimaging studies on AB to date only contain relatively small sample sizes. To objectively investigate the consistency of previous structural and functional research in adolescent AB, we performed a systematic literature review and two coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses on eight VBM and nine functional neuroimaging studies in a total of 783 participants (408 [224AB/184 controls] and 375 [215 AB/160 controls] for structural and functional analysis respectively). We found 19 structural and eight functional foci of significant alterations in adolescents with AB, mainly located within the emotion processing and regulation network (including orbitofrontal, dorsomedial prefrontal and limbic cortex). A subsequent conjunction analysis revealed that functional and structural alterations co-localize in right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left insula. Our results are in line with meta-analytic work as well as structural, functional and connectivity findings to date, all of which make a strong point for the involvement of a network of brain areas responsible for emotion processing and regulation, which is disrupted in AB. Increased knowledge about the behavioural and neuronal underpinnings of AB is crucial for the development of novel and implementation of existing treatment strategies. Longitudinal research studies will have to show whether the observed alterations are a result or primary cause of the phenotypic characteristics in AB. PMID:26339798
Cummings, Anne L.; Hoffman, Sue; Leschied, Alan W.
This article describes an eight-session psychoeducational group for aggressive adolescent girls. The content of the group sessions is based on research that has identified gender-specific issues related to aggression in adolescent girls, such as gender-role socialization, childhood abuse, relational aggression, horizontal violence, and girl…
Schalke, E; Hackbarth, H
Within the population the sensitivity to aggressive behaviour in dogs has increased. The authorities are confronted with a problem: if any incident occurs it is their task to decide whether the dogs involved constitute a threat to other people or whether the charge is only the result of a quarrel between neighbours. For this reason, an examination of the dogs with regard to their aggressive behaviour is necessary. Seen from the biological point of view, aggressive behaviour is one of four possibilities a dog can chose from to solve a conflict. The dog's intention in showing aggressive behaviour is to eliminate disturbances and to maintain a distance in space and time. Aggressive behaviour might also be necessary to acquire or defend resources essential to the dog's life. This is to secure its survival and its success in reproduction. One can see from this that aggressive behaviour is a very important and biologically necessary adjustment factor. However, when living together with man aggressive behaviour might become a problem. For the assessment and the therapy of the problem it is necessary to exa-mine the behaviour shown by the dog with regard to its cause. To be able to do this an exact anamnesis, a medical check, and an examination of the dog on the basis of its display in special situations are necessary. For this reason, exclusively veterinarians with a special further education in the field of behaviour should carry out the examination of dogs. PMID:16669189
Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Jari, Mohsen
Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between leisure time spent watching television (TV) and at a computer and aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Methods: In this nationwide study, 14,880 school students, aged 6-18 years, were selected by cluster and stratified multi-stage sampling method from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization Global School-based Health Survey questionnaire (WHO-GSHS) was used. Results: Overall, 13,486 children and adolescents (50·8% boys, 75·6% urban residents) completed the study (participation rate 90·6%). The risk of physical fighting and quarrels increased by 29% (OR 1·29, 95% CI 1·19-1·40) with watching TV for >2 hr/day, by 38% (OR 1·38, 95% CI 1·21-1·57) with leisure time computer work of >2 hr/day, and by 42% (OR 1·42, 95% CI 1·28-1·58) with the total screen time of >2 hr/day. Watching TV or leisure time spent on a computer or total screen time of >2 hr/day increased the risk of bullying by 30% (OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·18-1·43), 57% (1·57, 95% CI 1·34-1·85) and 62% (OR 1·62, 95% CI 1·43-1·83). Spending >2 hr/day watching TV and total screen time increased the risk of being bullied by 12% (OR 1·12, 95% CI 1·02-1·22) and 15% (OR 1·15, 95% CI 1·02-1·28), respectively. This relationship was not statistically significant for leisure time spent on a computer (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·9-1·27). Conclusions: Prolonged leisure time spent on screen activities is associated with violent and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. In addition to the duration of screen time, the association is likely to be explained also by the media content. PMID:25146837
Fite, Paula J.; Raine, Adrian; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.
There is limited knowledge about the unique relations between adolescent reactive and proactive aggression and later psychosocial adjustment in early adulthood. Accordingly, this study prospectively examined associations between adolescent (mean age = 16) reactive and proactive aggression and psychopathic features, antisocial behavior, negative emotionality, and substance use measured 10 years later in early adulthood (mean age = 26). Study questions were examined in a longitudinal sample of 335 adolescent males. Path analyses indicate that after controlling for the stability of the outcome and the overlap between the two subtypes of aggression, reactive aggression is uniquely associated with negative emotionality, specifically anxiety, in adulthood. In contrast, proactive aggression is uniquely associated with measures of adult psychopathic features and antisocial behavior in adulthood. Both reactive and proactive aggression uniquely predicted substance use in adulthood, but the substances varied by subtype of aggression. Implications for findings are discussed. PMID:20589225
Ammar, Malek M; Borras, L; Eytan, A
Suicide among prisoners is a relatively well documented public health issue. On the other hand, data about self-aggressive behaviours in prisons are scarce, despite the fact that this problem seems to be highly prevalent. We conducted a retrospective study over a fifteen months period in a remand prison situated in the French speaking area of Switzerland. During this time period, 161 self-aggressive behaviours were recorded, corresponding to 80 inmates. The most frequent acts were self-cuttings and self-mutilations, followed by strangulations. All these patients were male and their mean age was 25. Some of these behaviours (ingesting cutting objects and sewing of the lips) were specific to some ethno-cultural groups. Copycat behaviours play a significant role in closed communities such as prisons. These results underline the necessity of taking into account self-aggressive behaviours in penitentiary institutions. PMID:19024369
Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary
Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the individual and those around them. Hence, greater consideration regarding intervention, management, person-centred strategies and prevalence and frequency rates are required in service provision for individuals with intellectual disability and aggressive behaviour. This review presents the context of aggressive behaviour and its prevalence within the five typologies of aggressive behaviour: verbal aggression, aggression against others, sexually inappropriate behaviour, self-injurious behaviour and aggression against property, as identified by Crocker et al. (2007). The focus of this review is to report on the prevalence of aggressive behaviour reported for individuals with intellectual disability and consider the ambiguity in defining aggressive behaviour. PMID:24189373
Werner, Nicole E.; Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rock, Daquarii
The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal predictors of early adolescents' involvement in Internet aggression. Cross-sectional results (N = 330; 57% female) showed that the likelihood of reporting Internet aggression was higher among youth who spent more time using Internet-based technologies to communicate with friends and who were…
Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Shaw, Jon A.; Rothe, Eugenio M.; Castellanos, Daniel; Mesner, Linda
Seventeen aggressive adolescents were assigned to a massage therapy group or a relaxation therapy group to receive 20-minute therapy sessions, twice a week for five weeks. The massaged adolescents had lower anxiety after the first and last sessions. By the end of the study, they also reported feeling less hostile and they were perceived by their…
Csorba, János; Radványi, Katalin; Barthel, Betty; Dinya, Elek
Authors give a detailed overview on aspects of aggressive behaviour in childhood and adolescence especially on the basis of the literature of the last two decades, then. the measurement opportunities of aggression is discussed. The Children's Aggression Scale- parent version (Halperin et al 2002) rated by parents is presented and Hungarian validity data are published. In the second part of the publication, authors focus on the viewpoints of differences between aggressiveness of IQ deficit people and those of having normal intelligence, preliminary experiences are reported about the behavioural dimensions of intellectually disabled (ID) patients rated by the Behaviour Problem Inventory (BPI, Rojahn et al, 2001) suitable for measuring frequency and severity of behavioural qualities of both ID adolescents and adults. PMID:23689433
Kerr, David C. R.; Washburn, Jason J.; Feingold, Alan; Kramer, Anne C.; Ivey, Asha Z.; King, Cheryl A.
The consequences of aggression on problem course and suicide risk were examined in 270 acutely suicidal adolescents (ages 12-17 years; 184 girls). Participants were assessed during psychiatric hospitalization (T1), 6-months post-hospitalization (T2), and 15 or more months post-hospitalization (T3). Study variables included self- and…
Goldstein, Arnold P.; Pentz, MaryAnn
This paper focuses on the structured learning approach to psychological skill training with aggressive adolescents, examining 30 evaluation-oriented studies of skills training with such youth. Emphasized are relevant experimental designs, prescriptive utilization of skills training, means for enhancing trainee motivation, transfer and maintenance,…
Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.
Using data provided by a panel of non-Hispanic white respondents, this study explored whether aggressive response to severe role stress during early adulthood depends on gender and on an adolescent history of aggression. Logistic regression analysis yielded these findings: Men who reported aggression during early adolescence were significantly…
Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna; Stephenson, Pamela; Risko, Judy; Heckman, Terri; Sheehan, Denice; Perkins, Shannon; Washington, Kalisha; Cook, Christina; Ferguson, Candice
This purpose of this paper is to present a typology of common aggressive events that occur in the context of adolescent dating violence. The typology is based on 42 transcripts of interviews with young adults, ages 18 to 21, who described dating violence they had experienced when adolescents (ages 13-18). One-hundred and eighty-four text units that contained a description of an event involving aggression or violence between the participant and a dating partner were extracted from the transcripts. Cross-case analysis was used to create categories of events that shared similar characteristics. The analysis yielded eight types of aggressive events: (a) tumultuous, (b) explosive, (c) scuffling, (d) violating, (e) threatening, (f) controlling, (g) disparaging, and (h) rejecting, ignoring, or disrespecting. The typology can provide a foundation for further research on adolescent dating violence from a situational perspective and can be used as a tool to promote discussion of dating violence with victimized or at-risk youth. PMID:20701423
Malki, Karim; Pain, Oliver; Du Rietz, Ebba; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Paya-Cano, Jose; Sandnabba, Kenneth N; de Boer, Sietse; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Sluyter, Frans
Aggressive behaviour is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite of moderate heritability estimates, progress in identifying the genetic factors underlying aggressive behaviour has been limited. There are currently three genetic mouse models of high and low aggression created using selective breeding. This is the first study to offer a global transcriptomic characterization of the prefrontal cortex across all three genetic mouse models of aggression. A systems biology approach has been applied to transcriptomic data across the three pairs of selected inbred mouse strains (Turku Aggressive (TA) and Turku Non-Aggressive (TNA), Short Attack Latency (SAL) and Long Attack Latency (LAL) mice and North Carolina Aggressive (NC900) and North Carolina Non-Aggressive (NC100)), providing novel insight into the neurobiological mechanisms and genetics underlying aggression. First, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify modules of highly correlated genes associated with aggression. Probe sets belonging to gene modules uncovered by WGCNA were carried forward for network analysis using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). The RankProd non-parametric algorithm was then used to statistically evaluate expression differences across the genes belonging to modules significantly associated with aggression. IPA uncovered two pathways, involving NF-kB and MAPKs. The secondary RankProd analysis yielded 14 differentially expressed genes, some of which have previously been implicated in pathways associated with aggressive behaviour, such as Adrbk2. The results highlighted plausible candidate genes and gene networks implicated in aggression-related behaviour. PMID:25142712
Foa, Chiara; Brugman, Daniel; Mancini, Tiziana
The school moral atmosphere refers to informal norms and values that regulate the relationships in school and their degree of sharing among students. We tested whether the school moral atmosphere is a mediating variable between adolescents' normative orientation and their self-reported aggressive and transgressive behaviours. A total of 664…
Simons, Kevin J.; Paternite, Carl E.; Shore, Cecilia
Examined association between adolescents' perception of parent-adolescent attachment quality and adolescent aggression, as mediated by social cognition and self-esteem. Found that higher social cognition was associated with lower self-reported aggression when parent-adolescent attachments and adolescent self-esteem were controlled. When…
Kumar, Tarun; Kathpal, Archana; Demer, James
Use of Second Generation Antipsychotics (SGAs) in children and adolescents has grown more significantly in recent years. Clozapine has shown good results for the treatment of aggression in adult population but no case has been reported about the use of clozapine for treatment of aggression in non-psychotic adolescents. We present cases of 2 adolescents in which clozapine was used primarily to treat their aggressive behavior and suicidal ideation. PMID:27520908
Crotty, Gerard; Doody, Owen; Lyons, Rosemary
Crucial to understanding an individual, presenting with intellectual disability and the management of their challenging behaviours, is the knowledge of the types of those specific behaviours. The term aggressive behaviour is a universal term that embraces many aspects of behaviour that vary in terms of severity, frequency and seriousness for the…
Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E
The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence. PMID:24215954
Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G
The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents' gender and their friends' levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; M age = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F
Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment. PMID:25006024
Mathias, Charles W.; Stanford, Matthew S.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Frick, Paul J.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Swann, Alan C.; Dougherty, Donald M.
This study extends the use of the Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale for subtyping aggressive behavior among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. Of the Conduct Disorder symptoms, aggression has the strongest prognostic and treatment implications. While aggression is a complex construct, convergent evidence supports a dichotomy of impulsive and premeditated aggressive subtypes that are qualitatively different from one another in terms of phenomenology and neurobiology. Previous attempts at measuring subtypes of aggression in children and adults are not clearly generalizable to adolescents. Sixty-six adolescents completed a questionnaire for characterizing aggression (Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression Scale), along with standard measures of personality and general functioning. Principal components analysis demonstrated two stable factors of aggression with good internal consistency and construct validity. Compared to the premeditated aggression factor, the impulsive aggression factor was associated with a broader range of personality, thought, emotional, and social problems. As in the adult and child literature, characterization of aggressive behavior into two subtypes appears to be relevant to understanding individual differences among adolescents with Conduct Disorder. PMID:17383014
Fung, Annis L. C.
Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …
Valois, Robert F.; MacDonald, John M.; Bretous, Lena; Fischer, Megan A.; Drane, J. Wanzer
Reviews relevant research to examine risk factors and behaviors associated with adolescent aggression and violence. Adolescent aggression and violence develop and manifest within a complex constellation of factors (individual, family, school/academic, peer-related, community and neighborhood, and situational). Different risk factors are more…
Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.
Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…
Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Wodka, Ericka L.
Aggression is a clinically significant problem for many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there have been few large-scale studies addressing this issue. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical aggression in a sample of 1584 children and adolescents with ASD enrolled in the Autism…
Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.
The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents’ gender and their friends’ levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; Mage = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377
Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.
Similarity in early adolescent friends' general aggressiveness is well known, but questions remain regarding the degree to which friends aggress against the same victims. The authors examined this by administering the newly created Dyadic Aggression and Victimization Inventory to 417 sixth- through eighth-grade boys and girls (53%). Friends …
Baar, Deborah E.
The interpersonal conditions which may maintain a child's aggression in the family were investigated by observing immediate, ongoing interactions in families of normal and aggressive adolescent sons. Normal-son families (N=6) and aggressive-son families (N=6) were videotaped engaging in a 50-minute discussion of questionnaire items designed to…
Moretti, Marlene M.; Obsuth, Ingrid
Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. "Connect" is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment:…
James, Andrew I. W.; Böhnke, Jan R.; Young, Andrew W.; Lewis, Gary J.
Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury. PMID:26136449
Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy
The emergence of romantic relationships is one of the most striking features of adolescence. By the late adolescent years, most teenagers have been in a romantic relationship at least once and roughly half of teens are dating currently. Alarmingly though, in many of these relationships adolescents act aggressively toward each other and this…
Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal
Elevated levels of uric acid have been linked with impulsive and disinhibited behavior in clinical and community populations of adults, but no studies have examined uric acid in relation to adolescent aggression. This study examined the prospective role of uric acid in aggressive behavior among urban, low income adolescents, and whether this relationship varies by gender. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36years; 50% male; 95% African American) self-reported on their physical aggression at baseline and 1.5years later. At baseline, the youth also completed a 12-h (overnight) urine collection at home which was used to measure uric acid excretion. After adjusting for baseline aggression and age, greater uric acid excretion predicted more frequent aggressive behavior at follow up, with no significant gender differences. The results suggest that lowering uric acid levels may help reduce youth aggression. PMID:27180134
Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James
Prospective longitudinal birth cohort data was used to examine the association between peer aggression at 14 years and mental health and substance use at 17 years. A sample of 1590 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories (victims, perpetrators, victim-perpetrators and uninvolved). Involvement in any type of peer aggression as a victim (10.1%), perpetrator (21.4%), or a victim-perpetrator (8.7%) was reported by 40.2% of participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, those who were a victim of peer aggression had increased odds of later depression and internalising symptoms whilst perpetrators of peer aggression were found to be at increased risk of depression and harmful alcohol use. Victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to have externalising behaviours at 17 years. These results show an independent temporal relationship between peer aggression and later mental health and substance use problems in adolescence. PMID:24331300
Li, Yan; Wang, Mo; Wang, Cixin; Shi, Junqi
This study examined the relations between cultural values (i.e., individualism and collectivism) and aggression among 460 (234 girls) Chinese adolescents. Conflict level and social status insecurity were examined as potential explaining mechanisms for these relations. The results showed that adolescents' endorsement of collectivism was negatively related to their use of overt and relational aggression as reported by teachers and peers, whereas positive associations were found between the endorsement of individualism and adolescent aggression. Adolescents' conflict level and social status insecurity accounted for a significant part of these associations. Findings of this study demonstrate the importance of examining intracultural variations of cultural values in relation to adolescent aggression as well as the process variables in explaining the relations. PMID:20205262
Avci, Dilek; Kilic, Mahmut; Tari Selcuk, Kevser; Uzuncakmak, Tugba
Aggression, an increasing problem among adolescents, is a potential threat to public health as it can lead to violence. Determining the factors causing aggression plays an important role in taking measures to reduce violence. This study aimed at determining the level of aggression among adolescents and at identifying the factors associated with high levels of aggression. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2,409 Turkish adolescents. Data were collected with the Socio-demographic Questionnaire, Aggression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, and Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The participants' mean aggression score was 91.83 ± 24.05, and 24.0% of the adolescents' aggression levels rated high. According to the logistic regression model, aggression was 1.26 times higher among males, 1.92 times higher among those who perceived their mental health as poor, 1.58 times higher among those with suicidal ideation, 1.29 times higher among those who did not get prepared for university entrance exams, and 1.62 times higher among those who perceived their school performance as poor. Perceived family social support was a protective factor against high aggression. Approximately one out of every four adolescents in the two Turkish high schools where the study was conducted was determined to display high levels of aggression. Therefore, in order to reduce aggression among adolescents, programs such as coping management and coping with anger should be applied by nurses. Programs should include not only students but also families. PMID:27111434
Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan
In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826
Li, Zhenhui; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ye, Qiao; Xu, Haiping; Luo, Wei; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan
In the poultry industry, aggressive behaviour is a large animal welfare issue all over the world. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the aggressive behaviour. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore the genetic mechanism associated with aggressive behaviour in chickens. The GWAS results showed that a total of 33 SNPs were associated with aggressive behaviour traits (P < 4.6E-6). rs312463697 on chromosome 4 was significantly associated with aggression (P = 2.10905E-07), and it was in the intron region of the sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2 (SORCS2) gene. In addition, biological function analysis of the nearest 26 genes around the significant SNPs was performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. An interaction network contained 17 genes was obtained and SORCS2 was involved in this network, interacted with nerve growth factor (NGF), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), dopa decarboxylase (L-dopa) and dopamine. After knockdown of SORCS2, the mRNA levels of NGF, L-dopa and dopamine receptor genes DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, our data indicated that SORCS2 might play an important role in chicken aggressive behaviour through the regulation of dopaminergic pathways and NGF. PMID:27485826
Gordis, Elana B.; Margolin, Gayla; Spies, Lauren; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Granger, Douglas A.
The present study examined salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a putative marker of adrenergic activity, in family members engaging in family conflict discussions. We examined symmetry among family members' sAA levels at baseline and in response to a conflict discussion. The relation between a history of interparental aggression on parent-adolescent sAA symmetry also was examined. Participants were 62 families with a mother, father, and biological child age 13-18 (n = 29 girls). After engaging in a relaxation procedure, families participated in a 15-minute triadic family conflict discussion. Participants provided saliva samples at post-relaxation/pre-discussion, immediately post-discussion, and at 10 and 20 min post-discussion. Participants also reported on interparental physical aggression during the previous year. Across the sample we found evidence of symmetry between mothers' and adolescents' sAA levels at baseline and around the discussion. Interparental aggression was associated with lower sAA levels among fathers. Interparental aggression also affected patterns of parent-child sAA response symmetry such that families reporting interparental aggression exhibited greater father-adolescent sAA symmetry than did those with no reports of interparental aggression. Among families with no interparental aggression history, we found consistent mother-adolescent symmetry. These differences suggest different patterns of parent-adolescent physiological attunement among families with interparental aggression. PMID:20096715
Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan
Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocated and unreciprocated friendships as well as larger, meso-level peer groups. We anticipate that peer group effects are magnified by both size and boundedness as measured by Freeman's (1972) Segregation Index. We find that, net of the adolescent's aggression at time 1, both the aggressive behaviors and the status valuations of friends independently increase the likelihood of aggression at time 2, six months later. The aggressive behavior of friends who do not reciprocate the adolescent's friendship nomination has particular impact. The average status valuation of peer groups increases their members' likelihood of aggression, even after controlling for their own attitudes about status, their friends' attitudes, and their friends' aggressive behavior. This effect is magnified in large groups and groups with high Freeman segregation scores. PMID:25152562
Background Aggressive behaviour is an important aspect in the daily lives of animals living in groups. Aggressive animals have advantages, such as better access to food or territories, and they produce more offspring than low ranking animals. The social hierarchy in chickens is measured using the 'pecking order' concept, which counts the number of aggressive pecks given and received. To date, little is known about the underlying genetics of the 'pecking order'. Results A total of 60 hens from a high feather pecking selection line were divided into three groups: only receivers (R), only peckers (P) and mixed peckers and receivers (P&R). In comparing the R and P groups, we observed that there were 40 differentially expressed genes [false discovery rate (FDR) P < 0.10]. It was not fully clear how the 40 genes regulated aggressive behaviour; however, gene set analysis detected a number of GO identifiers, which were potentially involved in aggressive behavioural processes. These genes code for synaptosomes (GO:0019797), and proteins involved in the regulation of the excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential (GO:0060079), the regulation of the membrane potential (GO:0042391), and glutamate receptor binding (GO:0035254). Conclusion In conclusion, our study provides new insights into which genes are involved in aggressive behaviours in chickens. Pecking and receiving hens exhibited different gene expression profiles in their brains. Following confirmation, the identification of differentially expressed genes may elucidate how the pecking order forms in laying hens at a molecular level. PMID:19925670
Coyne, Sarah M
Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence. PMID:26595354
Although eliminating school violence is no easy task, understanding the biological basis of aggressive adolescent behavior and discussing it with colleagues is essential. Societal influences can trigger a predisposition for aggressive response in alienated, testosterone-elevated teens. Early-intervention programs that stress social and coping…
De la Torre-Cruz, M. J.; García-Linares, M. C.; Casanova-Arias, P. F.
Introduction: Physical and aggressive behavior which children and adolescents show toward peers is associated to parenting styles. The aim of this research was to examine the relation between perceived parenting styles (from mothers and fathers) and the level of physical and verbal aggressive behavior, anger and hostility showed towards the peers.…
Ding, Cody S.; Nelsen, Edward A.; Lassonde, Cynthia T.
Investigated adolescents' aggressiveness in relation to their experiences, beliefs, and attitudes concerning gun use, also noting family composition, relationships with parents, and emotionality as correlates of gun involvement and aggression. Student surveys indicated links between gun ownership and recreational use, beliefs about gun use, and…
In this study, it was aimed to determine the linear and curvilinear relationships between adolescent aggression and sociometric popularity. 524 adolescents randomly selected from 20 elementary schools in Nigde city center formed the study group. The participants were from 8th grade in 20 different classrooms. The research data were collected by…
Card, Noel A; Hodges, Ernest V E
Similarity in early adolescent friends' general aggressiveness is well known, but questions remain regarding the degree to which friends aggress against the same victims. The authors examined this by administering the newly created Dyadic Aggression and Victimization Inventory to 417 sixth- through eighth-grade boys and girls (53%). Friends were found to share more targets for aggression than nonfriends, even after general levels of aggression were controlled (all ps < .05). Moreover, greater sharing of targets with friends relative to nonfriends was more pronounced among aggressive youths than nonaggressive youths, especially among aggressive youths' best friends relative to their other friends. Generally, these findings were similar across boys and girls as well as among older and younger youths. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17087564
Zahrt, Dawn M; Melzer-Lange, Marlene D
After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the developmental stages of aggressive behavior in children.2. Know how to provide parents with support and resources in caring for a child who displays aggressive behavior.3. Delineate the prognosis for children who have aggressive behaviors. PMID:21807873
Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei
This exploratory study investigated Mainland Chinese children's social networks and peer group affiliations with a particular emphasis on their aggressive behaviour. The participants were 294 elementary school students in Tianjin, P. R. China (mean age 11.5 years; 161 boys). Social network analysis identified relatively large and gender-specific…
Coyne, Sarah M.
Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…
de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo
Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts. PMID:25749197
Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Jokela, Veikko; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Uhanov, Mihail
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkaranta district in Russia…
Sullman, M. J. M.; Gras, M. E.; Font-Mayolas, S.; Masferrer, L.; Cunill, M.; Planes, M.
Adolescent pedestrians are a particularly vulnerable group of road users. This research tested the applicability of the recently developed Adolescent Road user Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) amongst a sample of 2006 Spanish adolescents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the full scale found that the original three factors did not adequately fit the…
Watson, Malcolm W.; Fischer, Kurt W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Smith, Kevin W.
In this article, Malcolm Watson, Kurt Fischer, Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, and Kevin Smith describe and compare two approaches to assessing risk factors that lead to aggression in children. The first, the severe risks approach, focuses on how risk factors form a pathway that leads to aggressive behavior. Within this approach, an inhibited…
Purwati; Japar, Muhammad
This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…
Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…
Sittner, Kelley J; Hautala, Dane
Aggressive delinquency is a salient social problem for many North American Indigenous (American Indian, Canadian First Nations) communities, and can have deleterious consequences later in life. Yet there is a paucity of research on Indigenous delinquency. Group-based trajectory modeling is used to prospectively examine trajectories of aggressive delinquency over the course of adolescence using data from 646 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture, spanning the ages of 10-19. Five aggression trajectory groups were identified, characterized by different levels and ages of onset and desistence: non-offenders (22.1%), moderate desistors (19.9%), adolescent-limited offenders (22.2%), high desistors (16.7%), and chronic offenders (19.2%). Using the social development model of antisocial behavior, we selected relevant risk and protective factors predicted to discriminate among those most and least likely to engage in more aggressive behavior. Higher levels of risk (i.e., parent rejection, delinquent peers, substance use, and early dating) in early adolescence were associated with being in the two groups with the highest levels of aggressive delinquency. Positive school adjustment, the only significant protective factor, was associated with being in the lowest aggression trajectory groups. The results provide important information that could be used in developing prevention and intervention programs, particularly regarding vulnerable ages as well as malleable risk factors. Identifying those youth most at risk of engaging in higher levels of aggression may be key to preventing delinquency and reducing the over-representation of Indigenous youth in the justice system. Aggr. Behav. 42:274-286, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26350331
Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia
Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. PMID:26599529
Leavitt, Chelom E; Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Hart, Craig H
This longitudinal study assessed the association between prior (preschool) and concurrent physical and relational aggression as they relate to Russian adolescents' disclosure and concealment patterns with their parents. In the initial preschool study, there were 106 boys and 106 girls (mean age = 60.24 months, SD = 7.81). Both peer nominations and teacher ratings of aggression were obtained for these children. Ten years later, the majority of these children (72.2%; n = 153) completed a longitudinal follow-up battery of assessments. Included in these measures was a self-reported measure of aggression as well as an assessment of the extent to which these adolescents disclosed to and concealed information from their parents. Separate models were estimated by gender of child for the 153 children who participated in both Time 1 and Time 2 data collections. Preschool physical aggression proved an important longitudinal predictor of adolescent disclosure and concealment for girls. Concurrently, self-rated relational aggression was also significantly associated with concealment for both boys and girls. PMID:23720152
Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
Although numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across Grades 8 through 12, controlling for shared risk factors…
Netrawati; Furqon; Yusuf, Syamsu; Rusmana, Nandang
This study aimed at helping school counselors in solving issues related to adolescent verbal aggressions through implementing Transactional Analysis (TA) counseling, which was particularly given to the students in public vocational schools (SMKs) in Padang city who were majoring in engineering. Recent phenomena in Padang had revealed that among…
Cillessen, Antonius H N; Mayeux, Lara; Ha, Thao; de Bruyn, Eddy H; LaFontana, Kathryn M
This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the association between early adolescents' popularity and their aggressive, leadership, and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were 288 14-year-olds from The Netherlands who completed a sociometric instrument and an assessment of how much they prioritized popularity over other personal goals. Results indicated that prioritizing popularity was distinct from actual popularity in the peer group. Further, prioritizing popularity moderated the association of popularity with aggressive and leadership behaviors, with adolescents who were both popular and who prioritized popularity being particularly aggressive and scoring high on leadership behaviors. This trend was especially true for boys. The same moderating effect was not found for prosocial behaviors. Motivational and social-cognitive factors in the dynamics of peer popularity are highlighted. PMID:24338722
Baird, Abigail A; Silver, Shari H; Veague, Heather B
Relational aggression is a type of aggression that aims to hurt others through relationships and includes behaviors such as gossip and ostracism. This type of aggression is very common among adolescent girls, and in its more intense forms has been linked with poor psychosocial outcomes, including depression and suicide. In the present study we investigated whether individual differences in sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls predicted recruitment of neural networks associated with executive function and cognitive control. Neural response was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affect recognition task that included unfamiliar peer faces. A finding of relatively fewer reports of being victimized by relational aggression was associated with increased recruitment of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices in response to the affect recognition task, as well as with greater competence on behavioral measures of executive function. Our results suggest that girls who are able to recruit specific frontal networks to improve cognitive and executive control are less sensitive to relational aggression. PMID:20614370
Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura
The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…
Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
While numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 controlling for shared risk factors (common causes) that predict both behaviors. Associations between trajectories of alcohol use and dating aggression were reduced substantially when common causes were controlled. Concurrent associations between the two behaviors were significant across nearly all grades but no evidence was found for prospective connections from prior alcohol use to subsequent dating aggression or vice versa. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should target common causes of alcohol use and dating aggression. PMID:23589667
Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Reichenberg, Raymond; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L
This article examined the role of caregiver messages about violence and exposure to neighborhood violence on adolescent aggression in light of research regarding discrepancies between parents and their children. Drawing upon data from an urban African American sample of 144 caregiver/early adolescent dyads (M = 12.99; SD = 0.93; 58.7 % female) we examined covariates of discrepancies between caregiver and adolescent reports of perceptions of violence as well as their association with adolescent aggression. Analyses suggested that concordance in perceptions of violence was associated with children's attitudes about violence and caregivers' perceptions of family communication. Structural equation modeling indicated a unique role for individual perceptions and suggested that agreement in awareness of neighborhood violence could be protective for early adolescent involvement in aggression. PMID:27230117
Wiegman, O; van Schie, E G
In this study of 278 children from the seventh and eighth grade of five elementary schools in Enschede, The Netherlands, the relationship between the amount of time children spent on playing video games and aggressive as well as prosocial behaviour was investigated. In addition, the relationship between the preference for aggressive video games and aggressive and prosocial behaviour was studied. No significant relationship was found between video game use in general and aggressive behaviour, but a significant negative relationship with prosocial behaviour was supported. However, separate analyses for boys and girls did not reveal this relationship. More consistent results were found for the preference for aggressive video games: children, especially boys, who preferred aggressive video games were more aggressive and showed less prosocial behaviour than those with a low preference for these games. Further analyses showed that children who preferred playing aggressive video games tended to be less intelligent. PMID:9738313
Amore, M.; Bertelli, M.; Villani, D.; Tamborini, S.; Rossi, M.
Background: Aggressive behaviour represents a frequent symptom in people with intellectual disability (PWID). Despite uncertain evidence of effectiveness, the use of antipsychotics (APs) drugs to treat aggressive behaviour is very common. Antipsychotic medication of aggressivity in PWID has recently become one of the most debated issues in mental…
Baeza, Immaculada; Saito, Ema; Amanbekova, Dinara; Ramani, Meena; Kapoor, Sandeep; Chekuri, Raja; De Hert, Marc; Carbon, Maren
Abstract Background Inpatient aggression is a serious challenge in pediatric psychiatry. Methods A chart review study in adolescent psychiatric inpatients consecutively admitted over 24 months was conducted, to describe aggressive events requiring an intervention (AERI) and to characterize their management. AERIs were identified based on specific institutional event forms and/or documentation of as-needed (STAT/PRN) medication administration for aggression, both recorded by nursing staff. Results Among 408 adolescent inpatients (age: 15.2±1.6 years, 43.9% male), 1349 AERIs were recorded, with ≥1 AERI occurring in 28.4% (n=116; AERI+). However, the frequency of AERIs was highly skewed (median 4, range: 1–258). In a logistical regression model, the primary diagnosis at discharge of disruptive behavior disorders and bipolar disorders, history of previous inpatient treatment, length of hospitalization, and absence of a specific precipitant prior to admission were significantly associated with AERIs (R2=0.32; p<0.0001). The first line treatment of patients with AERIs (AERI+) was pharmacological in nature (95.6%). Seclusion or restraint (SRU) was used at least once in 59.4% of the AERI+ subgroup (i.e., in 16.9% of all patients; median within-group SRU frequency: 3). Treatment and discharge characteristics indicated a poorer prognosis in the AERI+ (discharge to residential care AERI+: 22.8%, AERI−: 5.6%, p<0.001) and a greater need for psychotropic polypharmacy (median number of psychotropic medications AERI+: 2; AERI−: 1, p<0.001). Conclusions Despite high rates of pharmacological interventions, SRU continue to be used in adolescent inpatient care. As both of these approaches lack a clear evidence base, and as adolescents with clinically significant inpatient aggression have increased illness acuity/severity and service needs, structured research into the most appropriate inpatient aggression management is sorely needed. PMID:23647136
Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Stockdale, Laura; Coutts, Holly; Collier, Kevin M
Manga, a type of graphic novel, represent a widely popular literary genre worldwide and are one of the fastest growing areas of the publishing arena aimed at adolescents in the United States. However, to our knowledge, there has been almost no empirical research examining content or effects of reading manga. This article consists of 2 studies. Study 1 represents a content analysis of aggressive behavior in best-selling manga aimed at adolescents. Results revealed that aggression was common and was often portrayed in ways that may influence subsequent behavior. Study 2 examined the relationship between reading manga and aggressive behavior in 223 adolescents. Manga readers were more physically aggressive than non-manga readers and also reported more peer relationships with lonely individuals and smaller groups. In addition, reading manga with particularly high levels of aggression was associated with physical aggression even after controlling for media violence exposure in other media. Implications regarding these findings are discussed. PMID:25929138
Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce
This study examined the associations between adolescent self-report of aggression and adolescents’ perceptions of parenting practices in a sample of African American early adolescents living in low-income, urban communities. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers’ parenting practices at two time points during the school year. Path model findings reveal that adolescent-reported aggression at Time 1 predicted higher levels of perceived parent psychological control and perceived parent expectations for aggressive solutions to conflicts at Time 2. Findings suggest that early adolescent aggression elicits negative parenting behaviors at a subsequent time point. PMID:27087729
Forty adolescents were observed at McDonald's restaurants in Paris and Miami to assess the amount of touching and aggression during their peer interactions. The American adolescents spent less time leaning against, stroking, kissing, and hugging their peers than did the French adolescents. Instead, they showed more self-touching and more aggressive verbal and physical behavior. PMID:10730699
Regan, Aine; Heary, Caroline
Engagement in excessive sedentary behaviour represents a health risk for adolescents. The current study aimed to investigate patterns of sedentary behaviour amongst Irish female adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years old. 314 adolescents completed a questionnaire on their sedentary behaviour habits, health behaviours (physical activity, smoking,…
Smith, Sandy; Mullis, Fran; Kern, Roy M.; Brack, Greg
Investigates perceived parental rejection, family cohesion and adaptability, and levels of trait anger and anxiety in adolescents and their relationship to the etiology of aggression in adolescents who have been adjudicated for assaultive crimes. Study supports Adler's aggression theory, which established that aggression might begin with feelings…
Amedahe, Francis K.; Owusu-Banahene, Nana Opoku
A number of studies have investigated sex differences in the forms of aggression exhibited by adolescent students, particularly in the Western world. No such study has been done among sub-Saharan Africa students. The aim was to examine the sex differences in forms of aggression among adolescent students in Ghana. A total of 800 adolescent students…
Shuster, Michael M.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi
Interrelations among cultural values, parenting practices, and adolescent aggression were examined using longitudinal data collected from Chinese adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents' overt and relational aggression were assessed using peer nominations at Time 1 (7th grade) and Time 2 (9th grade). Mothers reported endorsement of cultural…
Moffat, Thecla Kudakwashe
A single subject design was used to investigate the effectiveness of an increase in teacher behaviour-specific praise statements to address anti-social behaviours demonstrated by a student who displays aggressive behaviours. Researchers agree that praise is effective in improving problem behaviours. They also agree that training teachers to use…
Inoff-Germain, Gale; And Others
Relations between hormone levels and aggressive behavior of adolescents in family interactions were examined. Higher estradiol and androstenedione levels were associated with higher degrees of aggressive behaviors in girls. Findings for boys were sparse. (PCB)
Tremmery, S; Danckaerts, M; Bruckers, L; Molenberghs, G; De Hert, M; Wampers, M; De Varé, J; de Decker, A
Although aggression is part of daily life in psychiatric units for adolescents, empirical data on its prevalence are sparse. Only few studies have described prevalence of aggressive incidents in adolescent psychiatric wards, and data in forensic psychiatric care are even more limited. Available studies reported high prevalence rates of aggression, ranging from 0.4 to 2.4 incidents of aggression per day across (forensic) child and adolescent psychiatric units. Between 27 and 78 % of all admitted youth committed an aggressive act. In this study, we collected systematically registered data of all aggressive incidents from the first 2 years (2010-2012) on a newly established forensic adolescent psychiatric unit, which used a formal aggression management program embedded in the social competence model, which is based on early intervention in the 'chain of behavior' to prevent any further escalation. The inclusion of also minor aggressive incidents is unique in the literature and the clinical relevance is highlighted. A mean of one incident a day took place, with each adolescent involved in at least one incident. Notably, 1.7 aggressive incidents per month made seclusion of restraint use necessary. Based on the social competence theory, the aggression management model suggests intervening early in the cascade of aggression, in order to prevent further escalation and reduce the need for intrusive interventions. Evidence supported that aggression is a contextual event, as external factors clearly influence the incidence of aggression. Aggression management should be built on both relational and structural security. PMID:24682593
van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.
Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…
Wildeboer, Andrea; Thijssen, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.
High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of…
Kuay, Hue San; Lee, Sarah; Centifanti, Luna C M; Parnis, Abigail C; Mrozik, Jennifer H; Tiffin, Paul A
Although family violence perpetrated by juveniles has been acknowledged as a potentially serious form of violence for over 30years, scientific studies have been limited to examining the incidence and form of home violence. The present study examined the prevalence of family aggression as perpetrated by youths; we examined groups drawn from clinic-referred and forensic samples. Two audits of case files were conducted to systematically document aggression perpetrated by referred youths toward their family members. The purpose of the first audit was fourfold: i) to identify the incidence of the perpetration of family aggression among clinical and forensic samples; ii) to identify whether there were any reports of weapon use during aggressive episodes; iii) to identify the target of family aggression (parents or siblings); and iv) to identify the form of aggression perpetrated (verbal or physical). The second audit aimed to replicate the findings and to show that the results were not due to differences in multiple deprivation indices, clinical diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders, and placement into alternative care. A sampling strategy was designed to audit the case notes of 25 recent forensic Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) cases and 25 demographically similar clinic-referred CAMHS cases in the first audit; and 35 forensic cases and 35 demographically similar clinic-referred CAMHS cases in the second audit. Using ordinal chi-square, the forensic sample (audit 1=64%; audit 2=82.9%) had greater instances of family violence than the clinical sample (audit 1=32%; audit 2=28.6%). They were more likely to use a weapon (audit 1=69%; audit 2=65.5%) compared to the clinical sample (audit 1 and 2=0%). Examining only the aggressive groups, there was more perpetration of aggression toward parents (audit 1, forensic=92%, clinical=75%; audit 2, forensic=55.17%, clinical=40%) than toward siblings (audit 1, forensic=43%, clinical=50%; audit 2, forensic=27
Crocker, A. G.; Mercier, C.; Lachapelle, Y.; Brunet, A.; Morin, D.; Roy, M. -E.
Background: Aggressive behaviours represent major obstacles to the integration into society of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and pose significant management issues for carers. Methods: The present study assessed the prevalence and severity of five types of aggressive behaviours in 3165 adult men and women with ID receiving services…
Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Devapriam, J.; Raju, L. B.; Tin, N. N.; Kiani, R.; Talbott, L.; Parker, R.; Moore, L.; Majumdar, S. K.; Ganghadaran, S. K.; Dixon, K.; Gupta, A. Das; Barrett, M.; Tyrer, F.
Background: Aggressive challenging behaviour is common in adults with intellectual disability (ID) in long-term care facilities. The government's commitment to the closure of all facilities in England has led to concerns over how to manage this behaviour in the community. The aim of this study was to assess changes in aggressive challenging…
Almeida, David; Merino-Aguirre, Raquel; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H.
Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (L.) are successful invaders in Europe, where this species exerts multiple ecological effects, mainly through trophic interactions. Behavioural interference represents a potential impact for native fauna and this is of particular conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula because of the highly valuable endemic fauna inhabiting streams of this region. However, aggressive interactions have not previously been examined under natural conditions in Iberian fresh waters. To address this gap in knowledge, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pumpkinseed aggression on endemic fauna of an Iberian stream, the River Bullaque (central Spain). In September 2009, we analysed the aggression and environmental contexts of these behavioural interactions by snorkelling: aggressor size, aggression type, shoal size, previous activity to aggression, recipient species, response to aggression, microhabitat structure and prey availability. Small pumpkinseed displayed more threat and fewer pursuit behaviours relative to medium and large individuals, reflecting an ontogenetic behavioural shift from low to high aggression intensity. Small aggressors came from large shoals, with bottom feeding being the most frequently observed activity prior to an aggressive interaction; whereas large pumpkinseed were less gregarious and they were mostly ambulating within the water column prior to aggression. Recipient species of aggression included non-native crayfish and fishes, and more importantly, endemic fishes and frogs. Retreat was the most common response to aggression, irrespective of aggressor size. Small pumpkinseed displayed aggressive behaviours over coarse substrata containing elevated macrobenthos biomass; whereas aggression by large individuals was observed in deeper waters. These findings suggest that small and large pumpkinseed exert a high impact on other stream residents through aggression in competition for food and territory defence
Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T.; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin
Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab. PMID:26806870
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Denning, Donna J.; McHale, Susan M.
This study examined the links between sibling relational aggression and other sibling relationship qualities (i.e., intimacy, negativity, and temporal involvement) and broader parenting dynamics. Participants included 185 adolescent sibling pairs and their mothers and fathers. Data were gathered during home interviews and a series of nightly phone…
Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Vincke, John
While there exists increasing evidence of a relationship between testosterone (T) and risk-taking (RT), many issues remain unsolved. This paper tries to address two main-questions: (i) does T influence aggressive risk-taking (ART) and/or non-aggressive risk-taking (NART) behavior and (ii) is this relationship stable throughout age and pubertal development and how is the relationship affected by affiliations with peers that are highly involved in RT, referred to as differential association (DA)? For a sample of 301 third-grade adolescent boys (mean age 14.4 years), we assessed the relationship between serum levels of T and estradiol (E2), DA and ART/NART. Significant effects of SHBG (Beta=-0.15; p<0.029) and free testosterone (FT) (Beta=0.23; p<0.003) on NART were shown. No significant effects were found with respect to ART. Further analyses showed that the FT-NART and the FT-ART relations differed as to age but not as to pubertal development (PD) and that the relationship between FT and RT is mediated by DA as such that individuals with higher levels of FT have friends that are more involved in RT and their influence contributes to increased levels of RT. Our results indicate that hormone-related interests and predispositions may influence the development of affiliations with risk-taking peers, a factor which is crucial in understanding adolescent RT. PMID:18234200
Xie, Hongling; Swift, Dylan J.; Cairns, Beverley D.; Cairns, Robert B.
Investigated interactional properties and developmental functions of the following four types of aggressive behaviors in adolescents: social aggression, direct relational aggression, physical aggression, and verbal aggression. Found that the majority of conflict interactions involved more than a dyad, and that social aggression was an initiating…
Jackson, D; Burns, R; Trksak, G; Simeone, B; DeLeon, K R; Connor, D F; Harrison, R J; Melloni, R H
Repeated low-dose cocaine treatment (0.5 mg/kg/day) during adolescence induces offensive aggression in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). This study examines the hypothesis that adolescent cocaine exposure predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of aggressive behavior by increasing the activity of the anterior hypothalamic-vasopressinergic neural system. In a first experiment, adolescent male hamsters were treated with low-dose cocaine and then scored for offensive aggression in the absence or presence of vasopressin receptor antagonists applied directly to the anterior hypothalamus. Adolescent cocaine-treated hamsters displayed highly escalated offensive aggression that could be reversed by blocking the activity of vasopressin receptors within the anterior hypothalamus. In a second set of experiments, adolescent hamsters were administered low-dose cocaine or vehicle, tested for offensive aggression, and then examined for differences in vasopressin innervation patterns and expression levels in the anterior hypothalamus, as well as the basal- and stimulated-release of vasopressin in this same brain region. Aggressive, adolescent cocaine-treated hamsters showed no differences in vasopressin afferent innervation and/or peptide levels in the anterior hypothalamus compared with non-aggressive, saline-treated littermates. Conversely, significant increases in stimulated, but not basal, vasopressin release were detected from the anterior hypothalamus of aggressive, cocaine-treated animals compared with non-aggressive, saline-treated controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent cocaine exposure increases aggression by increasing stimulated release of vasopressin in the anterior hypothalamus, providing direct evidence for a causal role of anterior hypothalamic-vasopressin activity in adolescent cocaine-induced offensive aggression. A model for how alterations in anterior hypothalamic-vasopressin neural functioning may facilitate the development of the
Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike; Liechty, Toni
Different types of aggressive behavior (both physical and relational) by boys and girls have been shown to be perceived differently by observers. However, most research has focused on adult perceptions of very young children, with little research examining other ages. The aim of this study is to establish any sex differences in adolescent perceptions of indirect forms of relational aggression enacted by boys and girls. One hundred and sixty adolescents were shown one of the two videos involving relational aggression and completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of the aggression. The videos were identical except for the sex of the aggressor and the victim; one condition portrayed boy-to-boy aggression, the other showed girl-to-girl aggression. Results indicated that participants viewed boy-to-boy relational aggression as more justified. This study revealed that stereotypes about aggressive boys are perpetuated even when the aggression is a type that is not commonly associated with boys. PMID:18481272
Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Hartos, Jessica L; Haynie, Denise L
The research examined the influence of parent and school variables on minor aggression among early adolescents. Sixth-grade students (N = 1,081) were interviewed at the beginning of the school year (Time 1) about aggressive behaviors and selected psychosocial variables and at the end of the year (Time 2) about aggressive behaviors. Aggression increased over time and was greater for boys than girls at both time points. In path analyses, Time 1 aggression was directly associated with Time 2 aggression and indirectly associated through affiliation with Time 2 problem-behaving friends. School engagement was associated indirectly with Time 2 aggression through affiliation with problem-behaving friends. Parenting behavior was negatively and directly associated with Time 2 aggression and indirectly through Time 2 affiliation with problem-behaving friends. The findings indicated that selection and previous behavior predicted peer affiliation and parenting and school engagement protected against early adolescent aggression. PMID:14768655
Banny, Adrienne M.; Heilbron, Nicole; Ames, Angharad; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Two longitudinal studies examined associations between relational aggression and friendship quality during adolescence. In Study 1, 62 adolescents in Grades 6 (25.8%), 7 (32.3%), and 8 (41.9%) completed assessments of friendship affiliations, relational and overt aggression, and friendship quality at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Results using…
Goldstein, Sara E..; Tisak, Marie S.
The purpose of the present research is to compare early adolescents beliefs about parental and friend jurisdiction over relational aggression to their beliefs about parental and friend jurisdiction over physical aggression and personal behaviors. One hundred three adolescents (X age = 12 years, 11 months; SD = 12.46 months) are individually…
Zschoche, Maria; Schlarb, Angelika Anita
Purpose Sleep disturbances are a common problem during adolescence. Often there is a relationship with the mental health of the affected person. The existing literature concerning the link between sleep disturbances and aggressive behavior and sleep disturbances and suicidality during adolescence shows no clear results. The present study tested a mediation model to prove the relation between sleep problems, aggressive behavior, and suicidality during adolescence. To take the link between suicidality and depression into account, the amount of depressive symptoms was included into the mediation model. Methods A sample of 93 adolescents aged 14–18 years (30% male) was studied. A survey was conducted to interview the adolescents about their mental health, sleep-related behaviors, aggressive behavior, and suicidality. Results Sleep problems and suicidality measures were significantly related to each other. Furthermore, aggressive behavior and suicidality showed a significant relationship. The expected link between sleep problems and aggressive behavior was not significant. For the mediation model, no significant influence of aggressive behavior on the relationship between the amount of sleep problems and suicidality was found. However, the impact of depressive symptoms on the relationship between sleep problems and suicidality was significant. Conclusion Sleep problems and overall suicidality in adolescents are significantly connected, even after adjusting for several possible influencing factors. Aggressive behavior could not be confirmed as a mediator for the association between sleep problems and suicidality in adolescents. Further studies to examine the link between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents are necessary. PMID:25767409
Lemola, Sakari; Schwarz, Beate; Siffert, Andrea
We investigated whether (a) short and irregular sleep are related to aggressive behavior in early adolescence and (b) whether they moderate the relation between interparental conflict and aggressive behavior. 176 early adolescents (mean age 11.6 years, 89 girls) reported their bed and wake times on weekdays and on weekends and their aggressive…
Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Angela D. A.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy
Children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome occasionally exhibit aggressive behavior against peers and parents. In a multiple baseline design across subjects, three adolescents with Asperger syndrome were taught to use a mindfulness-based procedure called "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet" to control their physical aggression in the family…
Burt, Isaac; Butler, S. Kent
Aggression in adolescents is harmful and emotionally devastating to youth and surrounding communities. This article integrates martial arts and therapeutic principles into a culturally sensitive model that cultivates change in the aggressive behaviors of disenfranchised adolescents. The art form of Capoeira is proposed for promoting positive…
Arim, Rubab G.; Dahinten, V. Susan; Marshall, Sheila K.; Shapka, Jennifer D.
This study examined reciprocal relationships between adolescents' perceptions of parental nurturance and two types of adolescent aggressive behaviors (indirect and direct aggression) using a transactional model. Three waves of longitudinal data were drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. The sample included…
dosReis, Susan; Davarya, Sarah
Face-to-face, semistructured interviews with 18 staff in a public psychiatric adolescent residential treatment facility were conducted to obtain an inductive approach to their understanding of what leads to aggressive behavior among adolescents. Staff's views of the precipitants of aggressive behavior centered on three themes: understanding of the…
LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan
The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse. PMID:24252744
Hensel, Jennifer M; Lunsky, Yona; Dewa, Carolyn S
Many direct support providers (DSPs) are exposed to aggressive behaviour in their work supporting adults with developmental disabilities service recipients. This is a work environment factor that has been linked to job burnout. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of positive work factors on emotional exhaustion (EE) among DSPs who are exposed to aggressive behaviour. Survey responses from 671 DSPs who were working in community service settings for adults with developmental disabilities, and were exposed to aggressive behaviour at least monthly were examined. Hierarchical linear regression examined the direct contribution and moderating role of positive work factors (self-efficacy for dealing with aggression and work contributions) on EE measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, after controlling for demographics, occupational variables, exposure to aggression and negative emotional reactions to aggression. Results showed that younger age, more experience, more depression/anger emotions in response to aggression, lower self-efficacy and low positive work contributions were significantly associated with EE. Positive work motivation was a moderator of exposure to aggression and EE. When work motivations were low, DSPs were more negatively affected by higher exposure to aggression. These findings suggest that in addition to addressing the negative emotional reactions to the aggressive behaviour encountered at work, it is also important to foster positive work factors which may be protective against EE. PMID:25462500
Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Heinecke, Armin; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Knutson, Kristine M.; van der Meer, Elke
Aggressive behavior is common during adolescence. Although aggression-related functional changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and frontopolar cortex (FPC) have been reported in adults, the neural correlates of aggressive behavior in adolescents, particularly in the context of structural neurodevelopment, are obscure. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the blood oxygenation level-depended signal and cortical thickness. In a block-designed experiment, 14–17-year old adolescents imagined aggressive and non-aggressive interactions with a peer. We show reduced vmPFC activation associated with imagined aggressive behavior as well as enhanced aggression-related activation and cortical thinning in the FPC with increasing age. Changes in FPC activation were also associated with judgments of the severity of aggressive acts. Reduced vmPFC activation was associated with greater aggression indicating its normal function is to exert inhibitory control over aggressive impulses. Concurrent FPC activation likely reflects foresight of harmful consequences that result from aggressive acts. The correlation of age-dependent activation changes and cortical thinning demonstrates ongoing maturation of the FPC during adolescence towards a refinement of social and cognitive information processing that can potentially facilitate mature social behavior in aggressive contexts. PMID:19770220
Farrell, Albert D.; Bettencourt, Amie; Mays, Sally; Kramer, Alison; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy
This study examined adolescents' patterns of beliefs about aggression, and how these patterns relate to aggressive and prosocial behavior, and to risk factors associated with aggression. A sample of 477 sixth graders from two urban schools and a school in a nearby county completed measures of beliefs, behavior, and individual, peer and parental…
Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Hartos, Jessica L.; Haynie, Denise L.
The research examined the influence of parent and school variables on minor aggression among early adolescents. Sixth-grade students (N = 1,081) were interviewed at the beginning of the school year (Time 1) about aggressive behaviors and selected psychosocial variables and at the end of the year (Time 2) about aggressive behaviors. Aggression…
Wright, Michelle F.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi
This study examined two social status goals in relation to aggressive and prosocial behaviors as well as attributions for relational aggression among 477 (244 girls) Chinese early adolescents. Findings indicate that, after controlling for each other, the social preference goal was negatively related to self-reported overt aggression, and…
Tisak, Marie S.; Wichorek, Michele George; Tisak, John
Adolescents, 12 to 18 years (N = 962), were asked how often they worried about, heard about, witnessed, were victimized by, and committed aggression at or near their schools. Social, moderate physical, and violent aggression were assessed. Females heard, worried, and witnessed more social aggression than males, but both were victims and/or…
Badaly, Daryaneh; Kelly, Brynn M.; Schwartz, David; Dabney-Lieras, Karen
Prior empirical work has documented that the dynamics of social standing can play a critical role in the perpetration and receipt of aggression during adolescence. Recently, investigators have emphasized the emergence of new, electronic modalities for aggressive acts. Our longitudinal project therefore considered electronic forms of aggression and…
Boone, Sherle L.; Flint, Charley
Tested effectiveness of Conflict Tactics Scales and adaption of Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory to differentiate between aggressive and nonaggressive inner-city black adolescent males. Subjects (N=83) were classified as either institutionalized aggressive, noninstitutionalized aggressive, or noninstitutionalized nonaggressive. Results indicated…
Gerardy, Haeli; Mounts, Nina S; Luckner, Amy E; Valentiner, David P
The authors examined the relation between adolescents' reports of mothers' management of peer relationships and adolescents' reports of their own aggressive, prosocial, and playful behaviors. The sample comprised 92 adolescents (M age = 15.41 years, SD = 1.81 years) enrolled in a residential summer camp. Higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of adolescents' relational aggression, physical aggression, playful teasing, and rough-and-tumble play. Higher levels of consulting were related to higher levels of prosocial behavior. Higher levels of guiding were related to higher levels of adolescents' relational aggression and social inclusion. Higher levels of granting access to peers were related to higher levels of adolescents' prosocial behavior and social inclusion. Moderate levels of granting access to peers were related higher levels of playful teasing. PMID:26244710
Forty adolescents were observed at McDonald's restaurants in Miami and Paris to assess the amount of touching and aggression during their peer interactions. The American adolescents spent less time leaning against, stroking, kissing, and hugging their peers than did the French adolescents. Instead, they showed more self-touching and more…
Arron, K.; Oliver, C.; Moss, J.; Berg, K.; Burbidge, C.
Background: Self-injurious and aggressive behaviours are reported as components of some behavioural phenotypes but there are few studies comparing across syndrome groups. In this study we examined the prevalence of these behaviours and the associated person characteristics in seven genetic syndromes. Methods: Questionnaire data on self-injury and…
Wright, Michelle F
Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace. PMID:24724731
Bondü, Rebecca; Krahé, Barbara
Individual differences in justice sensitivity and rejection sensitivity have been linked to differences in aggressive behavior in adults. However, there is little research studying this association in children and adolescents and considering the two constructs in combination. We assessed justice sensitivity from the victim, observer, and perpetrator perspective as well as anxious and angry rejection sensitivity and linked both constructs to different forms (physical, relational), and functions (proactive, reactive) of self-reported aggression and to teacher- and parent-rated aggression in N = 1,489 9- to 19-year olds in Germany. Victim sensitivity and both angry and anxious rejection sensitivity showed positive correlations with all forms and functions of aggression. Angry rejection sensitivity also correlated positively with teacher-rated aggression. Perpetrator sensitivity was negatively correlated with all aggression measures, and observer sensitivity also correlated negatively with all aggression measures except for a positive correlation with reactive aggression. Path models considering the sensitivity facets in combination and controlling for age and gender showed that higher victim justice sensitivity predicted higher aggression on all measures. Higher perpetrator sensitivity predicted lower physical, relational, proactive, and reactive aggression. Higher observer sensitivity predicted lower teacher-rated aggression. Angry rejection sensitivity predicted higher proactive and reactive aggression, whereas anxious rejection sensitivity did not make an additional contribution to the prediction of aggression. The findings are discussed in terms of social information processing models of aggression in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25136820
Ellis, Wendy E.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Dumas, Tara M.
Past research has shown that adolescent peer groups make a significant contribution to shaping behavior but less is known about the role of peer groups in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of aggressive peer group norms on relationship quality and dating violence among dating adolescents. At the…
Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica L.
The specific aim of this investigation was to map cultural factors associated with aggressive behavior in Latino adolescents. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 481 foreign- and U.S.-born Latino adolescents living in North Carolina and Arizona. Structural Equation Modeling was used to validate a conceptual model linking adolescent and…
Mikami, Amori Y; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Lee, Steve S; Mullin, Benjamin C
This study investigated the relationship between social information processing and both relational and physical aggression in a longitudinally-followed sample of 228 adolescent girls (ages 11-18; 140 with ADHD and 88 comparison girls). During childhood, girls participated in naturalistic summer camps where peer rejection, overt physical aggression, and relational aggression were assessed via multiple informants and methods. Approximately 4.5 years later, these girls participated in follow-up assessments during which they completed a commonly-used vignette procedure to assess social information processing; overt and relational aggression were again assessed through multiple informants. Correlations between (a) overt and relational aggression and (b) maladaptive social information processing were modest in this female adolescent sample. However, relationships between aggression and social information processing were stronger for the comparison girls than for the girls with ADHD. The relevance of social information processing models for adolescent girls and clinical implications of findings are discussed. PMID:21399756
Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Mahoney, Annette
Physical aggression directed toward parents by their adolescents is a serious issue both practically and scientifically. In contrast to the extensive literature on other forms of aggression within families (e.g., marital violence, child physical abuse) as well as youth aggression construed broadly, a major gap exists in our knowledge of youth-to-parent physical aggression (YPA). In this study, we analyzed data on three forms of physical aggression (YPA, interparental, and parent-to-youth) from 232 mother-adolescent dyads drawn from a database of families referred for the clinical treatment of emotional and behavioral problems in their adolescent children. Analyses indicated that YPA is prevalent (57% by sons and 49% by daughters in 1 year) and significantly likely to co-occur with interparental and parent-to-youth aggression in the family. Follow-up analyses suggested important sex differences in these relations. PMID:19130361
Dou, Chunxia; Wei, Zhen; Jin, Ke; Wang, He; Wang, Xiulan; Peng, Ziwen
Family and school environments are assumed to be associated with and influence aggressive behaviors. However, which specific risk factors within these environments that are associated with aggressive behavior are unclear. The goal of this study is to identify family and social environmental qualities that are related to aggression among Chinese adolescents. Survey data were obtained from 3,213 randomly selected urban high school students ages 10 through 18 in southern China. Lower parental attachment, higher family income, mother's higher education levels, father's parenting goals, rough or changeable parenting styles, unsuitable peer relationships, and inadequate social atmospheres at school serve as risk factors for aggression among Chinese adolescents. Our findings provide some implications for understanding aggression among adolescents and suggests possible interventions to help overcome potential environmental risk factors and thus to prevent aggressive behavior in school. PMID:25496506
Mikami, Amori Y.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Lee, Steve S.; Mullin, Benjamin C.
This study investigated the relationship between social information processing and both relational and physical aggression in a longitudinally-followed sample of 228 adolescent girls (ages 11–18; 140 with ADHD and 88 comparison girls). During childhood, girls participated in naturalistic summer camps where peer rejection, overt physical aggression, and relational aggression were assessed via multiple informants and methods. Approximately 4.5 years later, these girls participated in follow-up assessments during which they completed a commonly-used vignette procedure to assess social information processing; overt and relational aggression were again assessed through multiple informants. Correlations between (a) overt and relational aggression and (b) maladaptive social information processing were modest in this female adolescent sample. However, relationships between aggression and social information processing were stronger for the comparison girls than for the girls with ADHD. The relevance of social information processing models for adolescent girls and clinical implications of findings are discussed. PMID:21399756
Wright, Michelle F
Extensive research has examined face-to-face aggression within adolescents' romantic relationships, but little attention has been given to the role of electronic technologies in adolescents' perpetuation of these behaviors. Thus, this study examined the relationship of anxious and avoidant partner attachments to partner-directed cyber aggression, assessed 1 year later among 600 adolescents (54% female). After accounting for gender and previous behaviors, anxious partner attachment was related to later partner-directed cyber aggression. In addition, insecure parental attachment from adolescents' mothers was related positively to insecure partner attachment and had an indirect effect on their partner-directed cyber aggression through the mediation of anxious partner attachment. This study provides insight into the impact of electronic technologies on adolescents' romantic relationships. PMID:25008295
Doumen, Sarah; Verschueren, Karine; Buyse, Evelien
Background: Research repeatedly showed young children's aggressive behaviour to predict relationship difficulties with the teacher. Aims: To examine a possible mediating variable in this process and in the stability of relationship difficulties across the school year, namely teacher perceived control over child behaviour. Sample: The sample…
Werner, Rebecca Stetson; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Juliano, Mariel
This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's social-cognitive abilities (theory of mind and social information processing; SIP) and their observed physical and relational aggressive behaviour. Children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities engaged in fewer acts of physical aggression; however, much of the ability…
Crocker, A. G.; Mercier, C.; Allaire, J.-F.; Roy, M.-E.
Background: Despite the heterogeneity in aggressive behaviours observed among individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), little attention has been paid to the identification of typologies of aggression among individuals with mild or moderate ID and their associated factors. Objective: The goal of the present study was to identify profiles of…
Fruhen, Laura S; Flin, Rhona
The interaction of car drivers and cyclists is one of the main causes of cycle incidents. The role of attitudes and social norms in shaping car drivers' aggressive behaviour towards cyclists, is not well understood and merits investigation. A sample of 276 drivers completed an online questionnaire concerning their attitudes towards cyclists, attitudes towards risky driving, perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, and the frequency with which they engage in such aggressive driving behaviours. The results showed that attitudes towards cyclists, as well as social norm perceptions concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, were associated with aggressive driving towards cyclists. Negative attitudes towards cyclists were more pronounced in non-cyclists than cyclists and their association with aggressive driving behaviour was stronger in cyclists than non-cyclists. The perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists had a stronger association with aggressive driving in non-cyclists than cyclists. Attitudes towards risk taking did not affect aggressive driving towards cyclists. These findings can inform campaigns that aim to improve cyclist and car driver interaction on the roads, making them safer to use for cyclists. PMID:26275525
Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won
Abstract Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State–Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners–Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD. PMID:25902276
Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok
Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD. PMID:25902276
Al-Sagarat, Ahmad Y; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Al-Sarayreh, Faris; Nawafleh, Hani; Moxham, Lorna
In this study, we investigated the correlates of aggression among consumers with mental illness within two psychiatric hospitals in Jordan. This was a descriptive, cross sectional study carried out by auditing consumers' medical records in regards to incidents of aggression before and during admission. Approval was gained from 203 next of kins to review the consumers' medical records. Results from this case analysis, found the prevalence of aggressive behaviours among psychiatric inpatient's in Jordan to be 23.6%, the most common form of aggression was consumer to consumer and that the aggressive act was more likely to be perpetrated by younger consumers. Such findings contribute to the discourse about aggression and understanding who and what causes aggression can go toward identify strategies for early intervention and management. After all, mental health units should be places of safety, that is, an asylum, and everyone who enters that environment deserves to be safe. PMID:26538486
Morpurgo, B; Gvaryahu, G; Robinzon, B
This study presents five aspects of aggressive behaviour in juvenile Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus, as observed in five cohorts of 6-18 month-old animals. During this period, the animals grew from a range of 35-55 cm, to a range of 65-115 cm. 1) Stock density related to aggression: decrease in density resulted in significant decrease in the frequency of agonistic events, with 0.64 events/100 crocodiles/min observed in a density of 6.7 crocodiles/m2, compared to 0.26 events/100 crocodiles/min observed in a density of 4.7 crocodiles/m2. 2) Aggression during feeding: in all five groups, there was a significantly higher level of aggression during feeding times. 3) Aggression related to body size: the largest crocodiles were the most aggressive group in agonistic events, mainly against the smallest ones. The largest group, the medium sized, was the least involved in agonistic events. 4) Aggression related to food preference: crocodile food preference was live fish > live chicks > dead fish > ground meat. Except for one food type (live chicks), a significant (p < 0.05) correlation was found between food preference and feeding related aggression in the prey diet groups. 5) Aggression related to an artificial selection for size: removal of the largest crocodiles (which formed 30% of the stock) from the population caused a dramatic decrease in all forms of aggressive behaviour. PMID:8346299
Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel
Exposure to deviant friends has been found to be a powerful source of influence on children's and adolescents' aggressive behavior. However, the contribution of deviant friends may have been overestimated because of a possible non-accounted gene-environment correlation (rGE). In this study, we used a cross-lagged design to test whether friends'…
Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.
Objective This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Method Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual’s demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother’s and adolescents’ behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Results Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Conclusions Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context. PMID:25914852
Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J
In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster. PMID:25047293
Van Baaren, Joan; Deleporte, Pierre; Vimard, Aurélie; Biquand, Véronique; Pierre, Jean-Sebastien
This paper describes aggressive behaviour in the cockroach Schultesia nitor, a tropical forest species living in bird nests. Young S. nitor nymphs are known to show active dispersal while old nymphs and adults are contrastingly strongly gregarious, a combination of features never observed in other cockroach species. Our laboratory experiments using video recording of confrontations between pairs show that aggressive behaviour towards conspecific nymphs is not exhibited towards nymphs of the species Phoetalia pallida, and thus can be considered species specific in S. nitor. But, it is not kin oriented: the mother and all adults of both sexes in different physiological states exhibit this behaviour as well. Six types of aggressive interactions were discriminated, occurring in age-symmetric pairs of nymphs and adults. Even more frequent aggression was exhibited by adults and last instar nymphs towards younger nymphs of all instars. The frequency of aggressive acts and types of aggressive interactions varied according to sex and size of the two interacting individuals. The possible function and evolution of this behaviour is discussed, with emphasis on the difficulty of interpreting obvious but weak and not kin-biased aggression. PMID:17918279
Bergman, Kathleen N.; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.
Adolescents exposed to interparental aggression are at increased risk for developing adjustment problems. The present study explored intervening variables in these pathways in a community sample that included 266 adolescents between 12 and 16 years old (M = 13.82; 52.5% boys, 47.5% girls). A moderated mediation model examined the moderating role of adrenocortical reactivity on the meditational capacity of their emotional insecurity in this context. Information from multiple reporters and adolescents’ adrenocortical response to conflict were obtained during laboratory sessions attended by mothers, fathers and their adolescent child. A direct relationship was found between marital aggression and adolescents’ internalizing behavior problems. Adolescents’ emotional insecurity mediated the relationship between marital aggression and adolescents’ depression and anxiety. Adrenocortical reactivity moderated the pathway between emotional insecurity and adolescent adjustment. The implications for further understanding the psychological and physiological effects of adolescents’ exposure to interparental aggression and violence are discussed. PMID:25360061
Blain-Arcaro, Christine; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Aggressive girls, more so than aggressive boys, are at an increased risk for depression. Despite disconcerting outcomes, few researchers have examined factors that may attenuate or exacerbate the relation between aggression and depression. Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of worry in the relation between aggressive behaviour and depressive symptoms, commonly co-occurring problems in girls, have been proposed. In the present study, we examined worry as a possible moderator in the relation between girls nominated as aggressive by their peers and self-reported depressive symptoms in a sample of 226 girls aged 13 (M = 12.92, SD = 1.28) at Time 1. We found that worry exacerbated the risk of depressive symptoms concurrently and one year later for physically aggressive girls, but not relationally aggressive girls. These results suggest that worry plays an important role in the prediction of depression for aggressive girls, which varies by the form aggression takes. PMID:26986843
MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell
The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families. PMID:25086461
Wheatley, Anna; Murrihy, Rachael; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wuthrich, Viviana; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; Dadds, Mark; Kidman, Antony
A 16-week, bi-weekly, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based aggression management training course was conducted with a limited sample of behavioural school students in New South Wales. Attendance, withdrawal and suspension rates over the training period were compared to those of a control period. Parent and teacher feedback, assessed at pre-…
Tsiouris, J. A.
Background: Antipsychotic medications have been used extensively to treat aggressive behaviours in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) when the main psychiatric diagnoses given to them in the past were schizophrenia, childhood psychoses and ID with behaviour problems. Today, antipsychotics are still estimated to comprise 30-50% of all the…
Shepperd, James A; Miller, Wendi A; Smith, Colin Tucker
Although people have used religion to justify aggression, evidence suggests that greater religiousness corresponds with less aggression. We explored two explanations for the religion-aggression link. First, most major religions teach self-control (e.g., delaying gratification, resisting temptation), which diminishes aggression. Second, most major religions emphasize compassionate beliefs and behavior (i.e., perspective taking, forgiveness, a broader love of humanity) that are incompatible with aggression. We tested whether self-control and compassion mediated the relationship between religion and aggression (direct and indirect) in a longitudinal study of 1,040 adolescents in the United States. Structural equation analyses revealed that self-control and compassion together completely mediated the religion-aggression relationship for both types of aggression. PMID:26205757
Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.
This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…
Amann, Birgit H.
Abstract Objective: This article examines the characteristics of impulsive aggression (IA) as a comorbidity in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on its incidence, impact on ADHD outcomes, need for timely intervention, and limitations of current treatment practices. Methods: Relevant literature was retrieved with electronic searches in PubMed and PsycINFO using the search strategy of “ADHD OR attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” AND “impulsive aggression OR reactive aggression OR hostile aggression OR overt aggression” AND “pediatric OR childhood OR children OR pre-adolescent OR adolescent” with separate searches using review OR clinical trial as search limits. Key articles published before the 2007 Expert Consensus Report on IA were identified using citation analysis. Results: More than 50% of preadolescents with ADHD combined subtype reportedly display clinically significant aggression, with impulsive aggression being the predominant subtype. Impulsive aggression is strongly predictive of a highly unfavorable developmental trajectory characterized by the potential for persistent ADHD, increasing psychosocial burden, accumulating comorbidities, serious lifelong functional deficits across a broad range of domains, delinquency/criminality, and adult antisocial behavior. Impulsive aggression, which triggers peer rejection and a vicious cycle of escalating dysfunction, may be a key factor in unfavorable psychosocial outcomes attributed to ADHD. Because severe aggressive behavior does not remit in many children when treated with primary ADHD therapy (i.e., stimulants and behavioral therapy), a common practice is to add medication of a different class to specifically target aggressive behavior. Conclusions: Impulsive aggression in children and adolescents with ADHD is a serious clinical and public health problem. Although adjunctive therapy with an aggression-targeted agent is widely recommended when
Narayan, Angela J.; Chen, Muzi; Martinez, Pedro P.; Gold, Philip W.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of parental mood disorders on offspring maladjustment, studies have not identified whether elevated interparental violence (IPV) may be an exacerbating influence in this pathway. This study examined levels of physical IPV perpetration and victimization in mothers with unipolar depression or Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the processes by which maternal physical IPV moderated adolescents’ physical aggression in families with maternal mood disorders. Mothers with lifetime mood disorders were predicted to have elevated IPV compared to well mothers, and maternal IPV was expected to moderate the association between lifetime mood disorders and adolescent aggression. Participants included 61 intact families with maternal depression (n = 24), BD (n = 13), or well mothers (n = 24) and two siblings (ages 10 to 18 years). Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, mothers reported on IPV perpetration and victimization, and adolescents reported on physical aggression. Mothers with BD reported significantly higher IPV perpetration, but not victimization, than depressed or well mothers. An interaction between maternal BD and IPV perpetration was a significant predictor of adolescent aggression. Main effects of maternal IPV victimization and interaction effects of maternal depression and either type of IPV on adolescent aggression were not significant. Adolescents of mothers who have BD and perpetrate IPV may be particularly vulnerable to being aggressive. Prevention and policy efforts to deter transmission of aggression in high-risk families should target families with maternal BD and intervene at the level of conflict resolution within the family. PMID:25418790
Kozlowski, Karen Phelan; Warber, Kathleen M.
Girls respond to peer attacks of indirect social aggression in various ways. This study explores when and how victims retaliate against their aggressors. Qualitative interviews with 15 adolescent girls ages 10-16 suggest that victims of social aggression are likely to retaliate when their aggressors communicate the following: identity attacks,…
Su, Wei; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael
This study examined aggressive fantasies, violence-approving attitudes, and empathy as mediators of the effects of violence exposure and parental nurturance on aggression. A total of 603 early adolescents (M age = 11.8 years; SD = 0.8) participated in a two-wave study, reporting on violence exposure and parental nurturance at Wave 1 and the three…
Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Fuertes, Antonio
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine three aspects of romantic relationships of Spanish adolescents: the prevalence of verbal-emotional and physical aggressive behaviors, correlates of dating violence perpetration (both verbal-emotional and physical aggression), and consequences of violence for victims' well-being. Method: A…
Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Koops, Willem; van Boxtel, Herman W.; Merk, Welmoet W.
The present meta-analytic review aimed to clarify divergent findings concerning the relation between reactive and proactive aggression in children and adolescents. Fifty-one studies with 17,965 participants were included in the analysis. A significant correlation between reactive and proactive aggression was found. The strength of this relation…
Roberto, Anthony J.; Meyer, Gary; Boster, Franklin J.; Roberto, Heather L.
Examines the ability of the theory of reasoned action to explain and predict adolescents' verbal (i.e., insulting) and physical (i.e., fighting) aggression, as well as behaviors that encourage aggression such as watching a fight or telling others about a fight that is going to happen. Reveals that attitudes and subjective norms predicted…
Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Manikam, Ramasamy; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.
Some individuals with autism engage in physical aggression to an extent that interferes with not only their quality of life, but also that of their parents and siblings. Behavioral and psychopharmacological treatments have been the mainstay of treatments for aggression in children and adolescents with autism. We evaluated the effectiveness of a…
Williams, Tricia S.; Connolly, Jennifer; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy; Laporte, Lise
The present study examined physical dating aggression in different adolescent relationships and assessed linear, threshold, and moderator risk models for recurrent aggressive relationships. The 621 participants (59% girls, 41% boys) were drawn from a 1-year longitudinal survey of Canadian high school youths ranging from Grade 9 through Grade 12.…
Herts, Kate L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.
Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to…
Wright, Michelle F.; Kamble, Shanmukh V.; Soudi, Shruti P.
Although research on cyberbullying and cyber aggression is growing, little attention has been given to examinations of these behaviors among adolescents in Asian countries, particularly in India. The present study examined the relationships among cyber aggression involvement and cultural values (i.e. individualism, collectivism), along with peer…
Low, Sabina; Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Despite the veritable influence of the peer context on the elaboration of adolescent aggression, few studies of relational aggression have directly identified and measured peer groups, limiting our ability to draw formal conclusions about the level and nature of peer influence. The current study used a developmental framework to examine peer group…
McCarthy-Tucker, Sherri; Gold, Andrew; Garcia, Enemencio III
Investigates the impact of Anger Management Training on reducing aggressive behavior in court-referred adolescent males (N=20) in a residential treatment facility. Participants were involved in 12 anger management training sessions. Results show that anger management may be an effective treatment strategy for reducing aggressiveness among…
Herrmann, D. Scott; McWhirter, J. Jeffries
A study examined the validity of the SCARE program; an anger management program developed with high school students. Adolescents (n=207) exposed to the SCARE program had significantly lower levels of anger and aggression, slightly higher anger control, and lower scores on aggressive and violent attitudes a year after exposure. (Contains…
Yeager, David Scott; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Dweck, Carol S.
Adolescents are often resistant to interventions that reduce aggression in children. At the same time, they are developing stronger beliefs in the fixed nature of personal characteristics, particularly aggression. The present intervention addressed these beliefs. A randomized field experiment with a diverse sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (ages…
Fritz, Patti A. Timmons; Slep, Amy M. Smith
This study examined the stability of adolescent physical and psychological dating aggression across both time and partners in a sample of 664 high school students using both nonparametric and growth curve (GC) modeling techniques. Nonparametric and GC modeling tests demonstrated moderate levels of stability of all forms of aggression.…
Gallarin, Miriam; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar
The aim of this study was twofold: a) to test the mediation role of attachment between parenting practices and aggressiveness, and b) to clarify the differential role of mothers and fathers with regard to aggressiveness. A total of 554 adolescents (330 girls and 224 boys), ages ranging between 16 and 19, completed measures of mothers' and fathers'…
Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J. C.; Good, Marie
In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school…
Williford, Anne Powell; Brisson, Daniel; Bender, Kimberly A.; Jenson, Jeffrey M.; Forrest-Bank, Shandra
The developmental period characterized by the transition from childhood and elementary school to early adolescence and middle school has been associated with increases in aggressive behavior and peer victimization. Few longitudinal studies, however, have examined the stability of aggression and victimization during this critical transition. This…
Santos, Teresa; Ferreira, Mafalda; Simões, Maria Celeste; Machado, Maria Céu; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar
Living with a chronic condition (CC) in adolescence has been historically considered protective for risk behaviours. However, research from the last decade suggest that when compared with healthy peers, adolescents living with a chronic condition can engage in risky behaviours in a similar if not higher rate than their counterparts living with out a CC. This study aims to characterize and evaluate the impact of 1) living with a chronic condition (CC), and 2) how the perception of living with a CC affects school participation, and its association with risk/protective behaviours (drunkenness, physical fight, sadness and self-harm). For this purpose 4 groups were identified: adolescents with mostly healthy behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk-internalizing behaviours and adolescents with mostly risk-externalizing behaviours. A large sample was included in this study, composed by 3494 Portuguese adolescents with an average age of 15 years, who participated in the Portuguese Survey of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children/WHO (HBSC). Main results show that adolescents living with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours when compared to adolescents without CC, who present more healthy behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents that report that having a CC affects school participation show more risky behaviours than those not affected by a CC who present more healthy behaviours. Boys with a CC show more healthy behaviours, and those who feel that the CC affects school participation present more risky behaviours. On the other hand, girls with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours and less healthy behaviours It is important to point out that dolescents living with a CC represent a vulnerable group, and may engage in experimental/risky behaviours as likely as their non CC peers. Thus, potential benefits can arise from reinforcing interventions within protective contexts (family/peers/school setting). Health
Desire, S; Turner, S P; D'Eath, R B; Doeschl-Wilson, A B; Lewis, C R G; Roehe, R
Aggression at regrouping is a common issue in pig farming. Skin lesions are genetically and phenotypically correlated with aggression and have been shown to have a significant heritable component. This study predicts the magnitude of reduction in complex aggressive behavioural traits when using lesion numbers on different body regions at two different time points as selection criteria, to identify the optimum skin lesion trait for selection purposes. In total, 1146 pigs were mixed into new social groups, and skin lesions were counted 24 h (SL24h) and 3 weeks (SL3wk) post-mixing, on the anterior, centre and posterior regions of the body. An animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters for skin lesion traits and 14 aggressive behavioural traits. Estimated breeding values (EBVs) and phenotypic values were scaled and standardised to allow direct comparison across multiple traits. Individuals with SL24h and SL3wk EBVs in the least aggressive 10% of the population were compared with the population mean to predict the expected genetic and phenotypic response in aggressive behaviour to selection. At mixing, selection for low anterior lesions was predicted to affect substantially more behavioural traits of aggressiveness than lesions obtained on other body parts, with EBVs between -0.21 and -1.17 SD below the population mean. Individuals with low central SL24h EBVs also had low EBVs for aggressive traits (-0.33 to -0.55). Individuals with high SL3wk EBVs had low EBVs for aggression at mixing (between -0.24 and -0.53 SD below the population mean), although this was predicted to affect fewer traits than selection against SL24h. These results suggest that selection against anterior SL24h would result in the greatest genetic and phenotypic reduction in aggressive behaviour recorded at mixing. Selection for increased SL3wk was predicted to reduce aggression at mixing; however, current understanding about aggressive behaviour under stable social conditions is insufficient
Scherer, U; Buck, M; Schuett, W
In this study, population level lateralisation and the suitability of mirror tests as a test of natural aggressive behaviour in male rainbow kribs Pelvicachromis pulcher was investigated. Aggressive behaviour in live agonistic trials correlated positively with behaviours towards a mirror image and no visual lateralisation was detected. PMID:27329496
Herts, Kate L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L
Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to violence and increase risk of aggressive behavior. In the current study, we use longitudinal data to examine emotion dysregulation as a potential mechanism linking a broader range of stressful experiences to aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of early adolescents (N = 1065). Specifically, we examined the longitudinal associations of peer victimization and stressful life events with emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to create latent constructs of emotion dysregulation and aggression. Both stressful life events and peer victimization predicted subsequent increases in emotion dysregulation over a 4-month period. These increases in emotion dysregulation, in turn, were associated with increases in aggression over the subsequent 3 months. Longitudinal mediation models showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship of both peer victimization (z = 2.35, p = 0.019) and stressful life events (z = 2.32, p = 0.020) with aggressive behavior. Increasing the use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies is an important target for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of adolescent aggressive behavior. PMID:22466516
Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.; Bagwell, Catherine
The effect of friendship reciprocation and friend aggression on the stability of aggression across a 6-month period following the transition to secondary school was studied in a sample of 298 Grade 6 children from a predominately white, middle-class, Midwestern American community. The stability of aggression was generally high but it varied as a…
Ruttledge, Richard A.; Petrides, K. V.
Cognitive behavioural approaches emphasize the links between thoughts, feelings and behaviour (Greig, 2007). Previous research has indicated that these approaches are efficacious in reducing disruptive behaviour in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to provide further evaluation of cognitive behavioural group work to reduce disruptive…
Pollack, G.; And Others
A questionnaire was administered to 153 of 181 13-year-olds who had been assessed at ages 8-9. Results supported the hypothesis that for the majority, aggressive behavior is not a stable trait and cannot be accurately predicted as a recurrent pattern when using the opinions of teachers, peers, or the children themselves. (SK)
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun
This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…
de Haan, Amaranta D.; Soenens, Bart; Dekovic, Maja; Prinzie, Peter
The current study examined the explanatory role of satisfaction of parental psychological needs in effects of childhood aggression on various adolescent-perceived parenting behaviors in middle adolescence. Research questions were examined in a large multi-informant, prospective community study of ethnic majority Belgian families…
Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.
This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming…
White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf
Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between…
Gentile, Douglas, A.; Lynch, Paul, J.; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Walsh, David, A.
Video games have become one of the favorite activities of American children. A growing body of research is linking violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. The first goal of this study was to document the video games habits of adolescents and the level of parental monitoring of adolescent video game use. The…
Smith, Delores E.; Moore, Todd M.
The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among selected family interaction variables and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents. The authors hypothesized that adolescent psychosocial outcomes would be negatively associated with physical violence, verbal aggression would be more potent than physical…
Pugh, Kelly L.; Farrell, Albert D.
Previous research has found an association between mothers' depressive symptoms and their adolescents' involvement in aggression. The present study examined three mechanisms believed to account for this relation: parenting practices, family functioning, and informant discrepancy. Participants were a high-risk sample of 927 mother-adolescent dyads…
Su, Wei; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael
This study examined aggressive fantasies, violence-approving attitudes, and empathy as mediators of the effects of violence exposure and parental nurturance on aggression. A total of 603 early adolescents participated in a two-wave study, reporting on violence exposure and parental nurturance at Wave 1 and the three mediators and aggression at Wave 2. Violence-approving attitudes mediated the effects of both violence exposure and low parental nurturance on aggression. Aggressive fantasies also mediated the effects of violence exposure and empathy mediated the effects of parental nurturance. The mediation pathways via which parental nurturance was linked to aggression differed across levels of violence exposure. In the context of high violence exposure, parental nurturance was related to lower aggression through higher social emotional empathy, but under low violence exposure, the effect was mediated by greater disapproval of violence. PMID:21058128
Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart JH; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte
Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys). Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day), fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day) and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week), and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p < 0.001) and younger adolescents were more active than older adolescents (p < 0.01). Boys ate breakfast on more days per week than girls (p < 0.01) and older adolescents ate more fruit and vegetables than younger adolescents (p < 0.01). Almost 54% of adolescents had multiple risk behaviours and only 6% achieved all three of the recommendations. Girls had significantly more risk factors than boys (p < 0.01). For adolescents with two risk behaviours, the most prevalent cluster was formed by not meeting the physical activity and fruit and vegetable recommendations. Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls. PMID:19624822
White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf
Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between within-individual changes in alcohol use and aggressive behavior across adolescence and determined whether impulsive behavior, positive attitudes toward violence, violent peers, neighborhood crime, and race moderated this association. Data from 971 adolescent males assessed annually from ages 13 to 18 were analyzed using a within-individual regression panel model that eliminated all stable between-individual factors as potential confounds. Findings indicated that within-individual increases in alcohol use quantity from one’s own typical levels of drinking were concurrently associated with within-individual increases in aggressive behavior, and vice versa. However, increases in alcohol were more strongly linked to increases in aggressive behavior among boys with attitudes favoring violence and those who lived in high-crime neighborhoods. The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior was similar for White and Black young men. Interventions designed to reduce aggressive behaviors should consider targeting not only alcohol use, but also individual and environmental risk factors that contribute to this link. PMID:22911129
White, Helene Raskin; Fite, Paula; Pardini, Dustin; Mun, Eun-Young; Loeber, Rolf
Although longitudinal evidence has linked alcohol use with aggressive behavior during adolescence, most studies have failed to adequately control for the numerous between-individual differences that may underlie this association. In addition, few studies of adolescents have examined whether the nature of the within-individual association between alcohol use and aggression depends on individual and contextual factors. To address these limitations, this study examined the association between within-individual changes in alcohol use and aggressive behavior across adolescence and determined whether impulsive behavior, positive attitudes toward violence, violent peers, neighborhood crime, and race moderated this association. Data from 971 adolescent males assessed annually from ages 13 to 18 were analyzed using a within-individual regression panel model that eliminated all stable between-individual factors as potential confounds. Findings indicated that within-individual increases in alcohol use quantity from one's own typical levels of drinking were concurrently associated with within-individual increases in aggressive behavior, and vice versa. However, increases in alcohol were more strongly linked to increases in aggressive behavior among boys with attitudes favoring violence and those who lived in high-crime neighborhoods. The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior was similar for White and Black young men. Interventions designed to reduce aggressive behaviors should consider targeting not only alcohol use, but also individual and environmental risk factors that contribute to this link. PMID:22911129
Gilmore, C.; And Others
Discusses a study of children aged eight to nine years who were presenting aggressive behavior, with the aim of facilitating intervention at an early stage. Results of questionnaires given to teachers, the children themselves, their peer group, and parents are examined. Difficulties that arose in undertaking this study are explored. (Author/CT)
Loveland, James M.; Lounsbury, John W.; Welsh, Deborah; Buboltz, Walter C.
Background: Aggression has a long history in academic research as both a criterion and a predictor variable and it is well documented that aggression is related to a variety of poor academic outcomes such as: lowered academic performance, absenteeism and lower graduation rates. However, recent research has implicated physical aggression as being…
Herrenkohl, Todd I.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Toumbourou, John W.
Analyses examined risk factors for seventh- and ninth-grade youth categorized as nonoffenders, physically violent, relationally aggressive, and both violent and relationally aggressive. Bivariate and multivariate results showed that relationally aggressive youth were elevated on most risks above levels for nonoffenders but lower than those for…
Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wells, Samantha; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Felson, Richard B.; Saltz, Robert F.
Introduction/Aims To develop new strategies for preventing violence in high risk licensed premises, we identify behavioural indicators of apparent motives for aggression in these settings and outline the implications of different motivation for prevention. Design/Methods The four types of motives for aggressive or coercive acts defined by the theory of coercive actions framed the research: gaining compliance, expressing grievances/restoring justice, attaining a favourable social identity, and pursuing fun/excitement. Incidents of aggression from the Safer Bars evaluation research  were analysed to identify behavioural indicators of each motivation. Results Compliance-motivated aggression typically takes the form of unwanted social overtures, third party intervention to stop conflicts or staff rule enforcement. Prevention strategies include keeping the aggressor’s focus on compliance to avoid provoking grievance and identity motives which are likely to escalate aggression. Grievance motives are typically elicited by perceived wrongdoing and, therefore, prevention should focus on eliminating sources of grievances and adopting policies/practices to resolve grievances peacefully. Social identity motives are endemic to many drinking establishments especially among male patrons and staff. Prevention involves reducing identity cues in the environment, hiring staff who do not have identity concerns, and training staff to avoid provoking identity concerns. Aggression motivated by fun/excitement often involves low-level aggression where escalation can be prevented by avoiding grievances and attacks on identity. Discussion/Conclusions Knowledge of behavioural indicators of motives can be used to enhance staff hiring and training practices, reduce environmental triggers for aggression, and develop policies to reduce motivation for aggression. PMID:21896078
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Burk, William J
Assortative mating is an important issue in explaining antisocial, aggressive behavior. It is yet unclear, whether the similarity paradigm fully explains frequent displays of aggression in adolescents' romantic relationships. In a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads, differences between female and male partners' reports of aggression (psychological and physical) and different measures of relationship functioning (e.g., jealousy, conflicts, and the affiliative and romantic quality of the relationship) were assessed. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified five distinct subgroups of dyads based on male and female reports of psychological and physical aggression: nonaggressive couples, couples with higher perceived aggressiveness (both physical and psychological) by females, couples with higher aggressiveness perceived by males and mutually aggressive couples. A substantial number of non-aggressive dyads emerged. Of note was the high number of females showing one-sided aggression, which was, however, not countered by their partner. The mutually aggressive couples showed the least adaptive relationship functioning, with a lack of supportive, trusting relationship qualities, high conflict rates and high jealousy. The discussion focuses on the different functions of aggression in these early romantic relations, and the aggravating impact of mutual aggression on relationship functioning and its potential antisocial outcomes. PMID:26067515
Cleveland, H. Harrington; Vandenbergh, David J.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve
Aggression-related problems such as assault and homicide among adolescents and young adults exact considerable social and economic costs. Although progress has been made, additional research is needed to help combat this persistent problem. Several lines of research indicate that parental hostility is an especially potent predictor of adolescent aggression, although most longitudinal research has focused on clarifying the direction of effects. In this study, we used longitudinal data from the PROSPER project (N = 580; 54.8 % female), a primarily rural Caucasian preventative intervention sample, to examine developmental change in early- to mid-adolescent aggressive behavior problems (age 11–16 years). In addition, we examined maternal hostility as a predictor of developmental change in aggression and the PROSPER preventative intervention, designed to reduce substance use and aggression, as a potential influence on this association. Lastly, several studies indicate that variation in the DRD4 7-repeat gene moderates both parenting and intervention influences on externalizing behavior. Accordingly, we examined the potential moderating role of DRD4. As hypothesized, there was a significant maternal hostility by intervention interaction indicating that the intervention reduced the negative impact of maternal hostility on adolescent change in aggressive behavior problems. DRD4 7-repeat status (7+ vs. 7−) further conditioned this association whereby control group 7+ adolescents with hostile mothers showed increasing aggressive behavior problems. In contrast, aggression decreased for 7+ adolescents with similarly hostile mothers in the intervention. Implications for prevention are discussed as well as current perspectives in candidate gene-by-environment interaction research. PMID:25319639
Bisconer, S W; Green, M; Mallon-Czajka, J; Johnson, J S
This paper focuses on the critical role of nursing in implementing a behaviour plan in a psychiatric hospital. The plan was implemented with a 40-year-old man with a long history of aggression towards others and self. The study used a single-subject research design with baseline and intervention phases (AB Design). Data were collected on (1) frequency of incidents of aggression towards others and self; (2) use of restrictive interventions to manage aggression (i.e. restraints, pro re nata medication, 1:1 special observation); and (3) frequency of staff injury. The data show a decrease in frequency of aggression towards others and self, a concurrent reduction in the use of restrictive interventions to manage aggression, and a decrease in incidents of staff injury. The behaviour plan helped staff maintain a safe and therapeutic milieu. The behaviour plan has given the patient an opportunity to learn positive replacement behaviours and skills, and the opportunity eventually to leave the hospital to live in a less restrictive community home. PMID:16965469
Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J C; Good, Marie
In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school years and directly assessed the socialization (violent video game play predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts violent video game play over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8% female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play and aggressive behaviors. Nonviolent video game play, frequency of overall video game play, and a comprehensive set of potential 3rd variables were included as covariates in each analysis. Sustained violent video game play was significantly related to steeper increases in adolescents' trajectory of aggressive behavior over time. Moreover, greater violent video game play predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. In contrast, no support was found for the selection hypothesis. Nonviolent video game play also did not predict higher levels of aggressive behavior over time. Our findings, and the fact that many adolescents play video games for several hours every day, underscore the need for a greater understanding of the long-term relation between violent video games and aggression, as well as the specific game characteristics (e.g., violent content, competition, pace of action) that may be responsible for this association. PMID:22040315
Background Lung cancer most often presents as an inoperable tumour and the diagnosis is usually performed on a small biopsy/cytology specimen. In the group of non small cell lung cancer - not otherwise specified, adenocarcinoma phenotype can be determined immunohistochemically using TTF-1 and Napsin A. Expression of oncofetal protein IMP3 in human cancer is associated with poor differentiation and aggressive behaviour. In the present study expression of IMP3 was correlated with expression of TTF-1 and Napsin A, histological subtype and clinical stage of lung adenocarcinoma. We were interested whether distant metastases are associated with IMP3 overexpression, regardless of the histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. Methods In retrospective study, consecutive series of 105 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2006 to 2009 in Clinical Hospital Center Split, Croatia, were analysed. Clinical data were collected from the Pulmology Department and time of death from the Mortality Registry. Paraffin blocks of bronchoscopic biopsies were collected from the Institute of Pathology and 15 cases excluded from the analysis due to insufficient material. Expression of IMP3, Napsin A and TTF-1 were analysed by indirect enzyme immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed and P values less than 0.05 considered significant. Results Of 90 patients, 71 (78%) were males and 19 (22%) females. Median age for males was 61.5 years (min-max 43–83) and for females 61 years (min-max 44–86). Pleural effusion was found in 15 (16.6%) and distant metastases in 45 (50%) cases. According to histological subtypes, there were 34 acinar, 2 lepidic, 2 papillary and 52 solid subtypes. IMP3 overexpression was found in 63 cases (70%) and was correlated with solid subtype (P = 0.002) and negative/weak Napsin A expression (P = 0.004). Strong Napsin A expression correlated with TTF-1 expression (P = 0.003) and lower histological grades (P = 0.031). Patients
Meyer, Barbara J.; Byrne, Mitchell K.; Collier, Carole; Parletta, Natalie; Crawford, Donna; Winberg, Pia C.; Webster, David; Chapman, Karen; Thomas, Gayle; Dally, Jean; Batterham, Marijka; Farquhar, Ian; Martin, Anne-Marie; Grant, Luke
Background There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments. Objective To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population. Design 136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC), NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks) from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) and the Brown’s Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS), provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated. Results The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = −0.21, P = 0.016); total AQ score (r = −0.234, P = 0.011); Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016); Hostility AQ (r = −0.239, P = 0.009); indirect aggression (r = −0.188 p = 0.042); total BADDS (r = −0.263, p = 0.005); Activation (r = −0.224, p = 0.016); Attention (r = −0.192, p = 0.043); Effort (r = −0.253, p = 0.007); Affect (r = −0.330, p = 0.000) and Memory (r = −0.240, p = 0
Möller, Ingrid; Krahé, Barbara
The relationship between exposure to violent electronic games and aggressive cognitions and behavior was examined in a longitudinal study. A total of 295 German adolescents completed the measures of violent video game usage, endorsement of aggressive norms, hostile attribution bias, and physical as well as indirect/relational aggression cross-sectionally, and a subsample of N=143 was measured again 30 months later. Cross-sectional results at T1 showed a direct relationship between violent game usage and aggressive norms, and an indirect link to hostile attribution bias through aggressive norms. In combination, exposure to game violence, normative beliefs, and hostile attribution bias predicted physical and indirect/relational aggression. Longitudinal analyses using path analysis showed that violence exposure at T1 predicted physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression 30 months later, whereas aggression at T1 was unrelated to later video game use. Exposure to violent games at T1 influenced physical (but not indirect/relational) aggression at T2 via an increase of aggressive norms and hostile attribution bias. The findings are discussed in relation to social-cognitive explanations of long-term effects of media violence on aggression. PMID:19016226
The Pharmacological Management of Oppositional Behaviour, Conduct Problems, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Part 1: Psychostimulants, Alpha-2 Agonists, and Atomoxetine
Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A
Objective: Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression. These symptoms vary in severity, and may be related to a comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Critical evaluation of the efficacy of ADHD medications may guide the clinician regarding the usefulness of medications for these symptoms. Method: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine for oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. The quality of evidence for medications was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Results: Two systematic reviews and 20 randomized controlled trials were included. There is high-quality evidence that psychostimulants have a moderate-to-large effect on oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is very-low-quality evidence that clonidine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is moderate-quality evidence that guanfacine has a small-to-moderate effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD. There is high-quality evidence that atomoxetine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. Conclusions: Evidence indicates that psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine can be beneficial for disruptive and aggressive behaviours in addition to core ADHD symptoms; however, psychostimulants generally provide the most benefit. PMID:25886655
Hart, Daniel; Marmorstein, Naomi R.
Adolescent aggression was explored in relation to neighborhood and genetic characteristics. Child saturation (the proportion of the population consisting of children under the age of 15), ethnic heterogeneity, poverty, and urbanicity of neighborhoods were examined in relation to adolescent aggression in 12,098 adolescents followed longitudinally for 1 year. Longitudinal analyses indicated that child saturation was positively associated with increases in aggression, with this finding emerging among those living in the same neighborhood at both testing times and those who moved between testing times. In a subsample of males for whom genetic data were available, the relation of child saturation to adolescent aggression was moderated by the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene. The regression of aggression on child saturation was steeper for those with the low activity version of the MAOA allele than among those with the high activity version of the allele. The implications of the results for an understanding of the origins and ontogeny of aggression and personality disorders are discussed. PMID:19583892
Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype. PMID:12803892
Morrison, Thomas R.; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.
Anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) use remains high in both teens and adults in the U.S. and worldwide despite studies showing that AAS use is associated with a higher incidence of aggression and anxiety. Recently we showed that chronic exposure to AAS through adolescence increases aggression and decreases anxious behaviors, while during AAS-withdrawal aggression is lowered to species-normative levels and anxiety increases. AAS exposure is known to differentially alter behaviors and their underlying neural substrates between adults and adolescents and thus the current study investigated whether exposure to AAS during adulthood affects the relationship between aggression and anxiety in manner similar to that previously observed in adolescents. Male hamsters were administered a moderate dose of AAS (5.0mg/kg/day × 30days) during adolescence (P27–56) or young adulthood (P65–P94) and then tested for aggression and anxiety during AAS exposure (i.e., on P57 or P95) and during AAS withdrawal (i.e., 30 days later on P77 or P115). Adolescent exposure to AAS increased aggressive responding during the AAS exposure period and anxiety-like responding during AAS withdrawal. Neither behavior was similarly influenced by adult exposure to AAS. Adult AAS exposure produced no difference in aggressive responding during AAS exposure (P95) or AAS withdrawal (P115); however, while AAS exposure during adulthood produced no difference in anxiety-like responding during AAS exposure, adult hamsters administered AAS were less anxious than vehicle control animals following AAS withdrawal. Together these data suggest that the aggression and anxiety provoking influence of AAS are likely a developmental phenomenon and that adult exposure to AAS may be anxiolytic over the long term. PMID:25655668
Henneberger, Angela K; Varga, Shannon M; Moudy, Alyssa; Tolan, Patrick H
The relationship between family functioning and adolescents' physical aggression has been well established, but whether these relationships might differ by ethnicity has received less attention. Ethnic variations may be important for targeting prevention programs to specific youth and families. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between family cohesion, parental monitoring, and physical aggression using data from the Multisite Violence Prevention Project sample of high-risk youth (elevated aggression). Participants were 1,232 high-risk middle school students (65% male; 70% African American; 15% Hispanic). Meaningful demographic variations were identified. After controlling for intervention condition and study site, family cohesion was significantly negatively related to physical aggression, more so for Hispanic youth. Parental monitoring was negatively associated with physical aggression for African American youth only. Our findings point to the importance of developing culturally sensitive family interventions to prevent physical aggression in middle school. PMID:25416227
Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R; Rose, Roderick A
The current study examined multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of rural adolescents. Using ecological and social capital theories, we explored the impact of positive and negative proximal processes, social capital, and contextual characteristics (i.e., school and neighborhood) on adolescent aggression. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, which is a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle and high school students from 40 public schools in two rural, low income counties in North Carolina. A three-level HLM model (N = 4,056 at Wave 1, 4,251 at Wave 2, and 4,256 at Wave 3) was estimated to predict factors affecting the change trajectories of aggression. Results indicated that negative proximal processes in the form of parent-adolescent conflict, friend rejection, peer pressure, delinquent friends, and school hassles were significant predictors of aggression. In addition, social capital in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction served as buffers against aggression. Negative proximal processes were more salient predictors than positive proximal processes. School and neighborhood characteristics had a minimal impact on aggression. Overall, rates of aggression did not change significantly over the 3-year study window. Findings highlight the need to intervene in order to decrease negative interactions in the peer and parent domains. PMID:26349636
Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Pete; Cummings, E Mark
Correlations between intergroup violence and youth aggression are often reported. Yet longitudinal research is needed to understand the developmental factors underlying this relation, including between-person differences in within-person change in aggression through the adolescent years. Multilevel modeling was used to explore developmental and contextual influences related to risk for youth aggression using 4 waves of a prospective, longitudinal study of adolescent/mother dyad reports (N = 820; 51% female; 10-20 years old) in Belfast, Northern Ireland, a setting of protracted political conflict. Experience with sectarian (i.e., intergroup) antisocial behavior predicted greater youth aggression; however, that effect declined with age, and youth were buffered by a cohesive family environment. The trajectory of aggression (i.e., intercepts and linear slopes) related to more youth engagement in sectarian antisocial behavior; however, being female and having a more cohesive family were associated with lower levels of youth participation in sectarian acts. The findings are discussed in terms of protective and risk factors for adolescent aggression, and more specifically, participation in sectarian antisocial behavior. The article concludes with clinical and intervention implications, which may decrease youth aggression and the perpetuation of intergroup violence in contexts of ongoing conflict. PMID:25310245
ZinatMotlagh, Fazel; Ataee, Mari; Jalilian, Farzad; MirzaeiAlavijeh, Mehdi; Aghaei, Abbas; Karimzadeh Shirazi, Kambiz
Background: Aggressive behaviorin adolescencecan be expressed asa predictorfor crime, substanceabuse, depression and academic failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the prediction of aggression among Iranian adolescent based on theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Yasuj County, south of Iran, during 2011, a total of 256 male adolescents, were randomly enrolled. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlations, and linear regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. Result:The three predictor variables of 1) attitude, 2) subjective norms, and 3) perceived behavioral control, accounted for 40% of the variation in the outcome measure of the aggression intention. Besides, intention accounted for 15% of the variation in the outcome measure of the aggression behavior. There was a significant correlation between drug abuse and alcohol consumption, have friend drug user, unprotect sex and parents divorced with aggression (P< 0.05). Conclusions: Designing intervention to reduction positive attitude and subjective norms toward aggressive behavior among adolescents could be usefulness result to aggression prevention. PMID:24688977
Adolescence is often associated with exploring boundaries, rapid growth, hormones and pimples. A stable feature of this turbulent age is that these young people are highly over-represented in the criminal justice system. Adolescents account for disproportionate proportion of police-recorded crimes, and this seems to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. Furthermore, disaffected young people often have limited routine access to healthy foods and make poor food choices. These people form a large proportion of the prison population and there are concerns that insufficient attention is paid to their health. Hence their diet tends to be poor compared with international standards of dietary adequacy, which typically are set to protect the heart but not for optimal brain function. Thus, it has been posited that a poor diet may be a modifiable causal factor in antisocial behaviours. We tested what happened to the behaviour of violent young adult prisoners (18–21years) when nutrients missing from their diets were reinstated. We used food supplements as an analogue of a better diet because it provided the possibility of a placebo control. On a random basis, where neither the volunteers, prison staff nor researchers in the prison knew who was getting which type, 231 volunteers were given either placebo or real capsules containing broadly the daily requirements of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids. The number of proven offences committed by each prisoner was monitored before and while taking supplements. The result was that those who received the extra nutrients committed significantly (26.3%) fewer offences compared with placebos. Those consuming real supplements for at least 2 weeks committed 37% fewer (highly statistically significant) of the most serious offences, such as violence. These findings have been replicated by the Dutch Ministry of Justice; their double-blind study reported a 48% difference between groups. If these studies are widely replicated – and
Adolescence is often associated with exploring boundaries, rapid growth, hormones and pimples. A stable feature of this turbulent age is that these young people are highly over-represented in the criminal justice system. Adolescents account for disproportionate proportion of police-recorded crimes, and this seems to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. Furthermore, disaffected young people often have limited routine access to healthy foods and make poor food choices. These people form a large proportion of the prison population and there are concerns that insufficient attention is paid to their health. Hence their diet tends to be poor compared with international standards of dietary adequacy, which typically are set to protect the heart but not for optimal brain function. Thus, it has been posited that a poor diet may be a modifiable causal factor in antisocial behaviours. We tested what happened to the behaviour of violent young adult prisoners (18-21years) when nutrients missing from their diets were reinstated. We used food supplements as an analogue of a better diet because it provided the possibility of a placebo control. On a random basis, where neither the volunteers, prison staff nor researchers in the prison knew who was getting which type, 231 volunteers were given either placebo or real capsules containing broadly the daily requirements of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids. The number of proven offences committed by each prisoner was monitored before and while taking supplements. The result was that those who received the extra nutrients committed significantly (26.3%) fewer offences compared with placebos. Those consuming real supplements for at least 2 weeks committed 37% fewer (highly statistically significant) of the most serious offences, such as violence. These findings have been replicated by the Dutch Ministry of Justice; their double-blind study reported a 48% difference between groups. If these studies are widely replicated - and they
Lemmer, Gunnar; Gollwitzer, Mario; Banse, Rainer
In research on aggression, implicit association tests (IATs) have been constructed to elucidate automatic processes involved in aggressiveness. Despite an increasing number of applications of the "Aggressiveness-IAT" in basic and applied research, the psychometric properties of this method for measuring an automatic aggressive self-concept have not been comprehensively investigated. Although the Aggressiveness-IAT has been used both as a cross-situationally consistent trait measure and as a measure to indicate situational changes, prior studies have not tested to what extent it reliably captures a stable trait vs. an occasion-specific aggressive self-concept. The present research scrutinizes the psychometric properties of the Aggressiveness-IAT by addressing two issues. First, we tested the reliability, consistency, and occasion specificity of the Aggressiveness-IAT in a longitudinal panel study with four waves and 574 Austrian school children/adolescents by applying latent-state trait (LST) theory. Second, we validated latent trait scores of the IAT vis-à-vis other measures either clearly related to aggression or not. Results demonstrate that 20-30% of the variance in children's and adolescents' IAT scores is situation-unspecific (i.e., "stable"), whereas 36-50% are situation-specific. Regarding its construct validity, the Aggressiveness-IAT is correlated with explicit measures of aggression and related constructs, but it is not associated with discriminant variables (e.g., school achievement). Implications for using the Aggressiveness-IAT are discussed in the light of these findings. Aggr. Behav. 41:84-95 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27539876
Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.
Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes ( Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reefs: present-day reefs that are vulnerable to climate-induced coral bleaching, and reefs with more bleaching-robust coral taxa, thereby simulating the likely future of coral reefs under a warming climate. Fish communities were allowed to establish naturally on the reefs during the summer recruitment period. Climate-robust reefs had lower total species richness of coral-reef fishes than climate-vulnerable reefs, but total fish abundance was not significantly different between reef types (pooled across all species and life-history stages). The nature of aggressive interactions, measured as the number of aggressive chases, varied according to coral composition; on climate-robust reefs, juveniles used the substratum less often to avoid aggression from competitors, and interspecific aggression became relatively more frequent than intraspecific aggression for juveniles of the coral-obligate P. moluccensis. This study highlights the importance of coral composition as a determinant of behaviour and diversity of coral-reef fishes.
Carré, Justin M; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Lozoya, Elianna; Goetz, Stefan M M; Welker, Keith M
Testosterone concentrations rise rapidly in the context of competitive interactions and remain elevated in winners relative to losers. Theoretical models suggest that this divergent neuroendocrine response serves to mediate future dominance behaviours. Although research in animal models provides compelling support for this model, evidence for its applicability to human social behaviour is limited. In the current study, men and women were randomly assigned to experience a series of victories or defeats, after which aggressive behaviour was assessed using a well-validated behavioural measure. Winning produced elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losing in men, but not women. More importantly, testosterone reactivity to competition mediated the effect of winning on subsequent aggressive behaviour in men, but not women. We discuss limitations of the current study (e.g., the status manipulation may have affected other variables not measured in the study including competitiveness and physical activity expended), as well as discuss a potential neural mechanism underlying the effect of testosterone reactivity on aggressive behaviour. PMID:23587440
Pottie, Kevin; Dahal, Govinda; Georgiades, Katholiki; Premji, Kamila; Hassan, Ghayda
We conducted a systematic review to examine first generation immigrant adolescents' likelihood of experiencing bullying, violence, and suicidal behaviours compared to their later-generation and native born counterparts, and to identify factors that may underlie these risks. Eighteen studies met full inclusion criteria. First generation immigrant adolescents experience higher rate of bullying and peer aggression compared to third generation and native counterparts. Refugee status and advanced parental age were associated with increased parent to child aggression among South East Asians. Family cohesion was associated with lower rates of violence. Suicidal ideation was lower across most immigrant adolescents' ethnicities, with the exception of Turkish and South Asian Surinamese female adolescents in the Netherlands. Bullying and peer aggression of immigrant children and adolescents and potential mitigating factors such as family cohesion warrant research and program attention by policymakers, teachers and parents. PMID:25248622
van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. O.; van der Valk, I.; Wijnroks, L.; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.
Background: This study aimed to examine whether the social information-processing model (SIP model) applies to aggressive behaviour by children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The response-decision element of SIP was expected to be unnecessary to explain aggressive behaviour in these children, and SIP was expected to mediate the…
Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Didden, R.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.
Background: Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. Method: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with…
Hale, William W., III; Engels, Rutger; Meeus, Wim
This study examined the relationship between how adolescents perceived parenting behaviours and adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptom scores. The 1,106 junior high and high school students (12-19 years old; 49.6% males and 50.4% females) completed questionnaires regarding their perception of parenting behaviours and self-rated…
Chandler, Percy; Herxheimer, Andrew
A healthy policeman was prescribed bupropion in 2002 to help him stop smoking. It worked but after 18 months he relapsed. Though it had given him headaches and insomnia he tried using it again in 2009, [corrected] taking 150 mg/day. Three days after starting the tablets he took his wife out for dinner. They shared a bottle of wine and he also had other drinks. After walking home they quarrelled, he slapped her, she slapped him. He threw the phone at her saying 'call the police!'. They came and charged him with assault; he was suspended. An expert report attributed the aggressive outburst to an interaction between bupropion and alcohol; the accused was a social drinker and had never been violent. An expert advising the police agreed, and 14 months after the event the court dismissed the case. PMID:22020393
Low, Sabina; Polanin, Joshua R; Espelage, Dorothy L
Despite the veritable influence of the peer context on the elaboration of adolescent aggression, few studies of relational aggression have directly identified and measured peer groups, limiting our ability to draw formal conclusions about the level and nature of peer influence. The current study used a developmental framework to examine peer group influence on individual levels of physical and relational aggression over a year with 6th and 7th grade students (n = 346, 51 % female). A multilevel network approach was used in which peer groups were identified via social network analysis, and peer group influence was evaluated with hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). HLM analyses indicated that peer group aggression (physical and relational) at time 1 was predictive of individual aggression levels at time 2 after controlling for other peer group characteristics as well as other individual risk and protective factors. Although both forms of aggression were embedded in peer networks, findings suggest that physical aggression is relatively less endemic to peer networks, and is more likely to occur in smaller, predominantly male networks. The current study highlights the importance of understanding the influence of peer group membership on adolescent aggression and points to important implications for prevention. PMID:23504600
Ruedrich, S. L.; Swales, T. P.; Rossvanes, C.; Diana, L.; Arkadiev, V.; Lim, K.
Objective: Atypical antipsychotic medications have largely supplanted their typical counterparts, both for psychosis and for the treatment of aggression and/or self-injurious behaviour (SIB), in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, with the exception of risperidone, little systematic research supports their use in such persons.…
According to a widespread opinion shared by the vast majority of historians, instances of aggression using pathogen weapons constitute extremely rare events in human history. Similarly, students of human behaviour tend to believe that their science plays no role in explaining this phenomenon, which is held to be exceptional and abnormal. Contrary to this dominant view, I argue that Hamiltonian spite - like Hamiltonian altruism - is an inherent part of the human behavioural repertoire and it includes the use of pathogens for spiteful purposes. This paradigm is supported by the following observations. The use of pathogens as weapons emerged far before the scientific understanding of the nature of infections and epidemics, though it has been underrepresented in written history ever since. It is also present in our expectations concerning the likely behaviour of an enemy and it is also a frequent component of threats. Several languages appear to bear linguistic references to our motivation for biological aggression in profanity. Finally, given that wartime epidemics kill people at a rate comparable to (or exceeding) that of mechanical weapons, all wars fought in recorded history incorporated an element of aggression through biological means. On the basis of these arguments, I claim that the motivation for biological aggression is an inherent and common aspect of past and present human behaviour. PMID:19006651
Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.
Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…
Vannucci, Manila; Nocentini, Annalaura; Chiorri, Carlo; Menesini, Ersilia
The present study investigates the relationship between violent false memories and delinquent and aggressive behavior in a sample of adolescents. Two hundred eleven participants completed measures of aggressive and delinquent behavior and performed a modified version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, a false memory task for lists of associated words. Participants were presented with a list of ambiguously violent words and three lists of neutral words. For each list a free recall task was performed. Violent false memories were significantly associated with delinquent behaviors in both genders, whereas a significant correlation with aggressive behaviors was found only in males. A multilevel multiple regression showed that the prediction of delinquent behaviors was improved by entering violent false memories into the model as a further predictor, whereas no effect was found for aggressive behaviors. These findings indicate a significant association of violent false memories with delinquent behavior in adolescents. PMID:25310267
Batool, Syeda Shahida; Bond, Rod
The present study was designed to examine the relationship between parents' emotional intelligence and adolescents' aggression, through the mediation of parenting styles. Two hundred and twenty five undergraduate students (113 boys & 112 girls; age 17-18 years), from four universities in Pakistan, participated with their parents. The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, & Hart, 1995), and the Scale of Emotional Intelligence (Batool & Khalid, 2011) were completed by parents. The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) was completed by their adolescent offspring. Mediational path analysis supported our hypothesised model. Results indicate that emotional intelligence of parents indirectly links to aggression among offspring, through parenting styles. It was concluded that emotional intelligence training will help parents to improve their parenting styles, and it will lower the risk of aggression in their children. PMID:25410534
Xie, Hongling; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Chen, Diane
Although numerous investigations of overt aggressive and antisocial trajectories have been undertaken, there is a dearth of literature examining gender differences and similarities in trajectory patterns and their correlates. To address these gaps, we investigated gender differences in the prevalence rates, predictive validity during transition to adulthood, childhood risk factors, and adolescent correlates of different trajectories of teacher-reported overt aggression (i.e., fights, argues, gets in trouble) among 220 participants (116 girls and 104 boys) evaluated annually from grade 4 to grade 12. Four patterns of trajectories were identified: low, increasing (i.e., adolescent-onset), decreasing (i.e., childhood-limited), and high (i.e., childhood-onset). majority large proportion of youth, particularly girls, displayed low levels of aggression over time. A small proportion followed the childhood-onset trajectory. Across gender, the childhood-onset trajectory was associated with the highest rates of maladjustment during the transition to adulthood, the highest number of childhood risk factors, and multiple problems during adolescence. The adolescent-onset trajectory was associated with few childhood risk factors, but with high levels of independent status during adolescence. In contrast, the childhood-limited trajectory was associated with several childhood risk factors, but high levels of parental monitoring and school engagement during adolescence. Romantic involvement differentiated the adolescent-onset and childhood-limited trajectories among girls. PMID:21748751
Blakely-McClure, Sarah J; Ostrov, Jamie M
When studying adolescent development, it is important to consider two key areas that are salient for teens, which are self-concept and peer relations. A secondary analysis of the National Institute of Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development was conducted to examine the prospective bidirectional associations between self-concept and peer relations. To date, how social development broadly and peer relations in particular (e.g., relational aggression and victimization) affect self-concept domains is not fully understood. Using a large sample (N = 1063; 532 girls; M = 11.14 years; SD = .59) with multiple informants, the present study examined whether fifth grade relational aggression and sixth grade relational victimization was associated with adolescent self-concept in three key domains (i.e., academic, sports, physical appearance). A significant direct effect emerged, such that relational aggression in middle childhood was associated with decreases in academic self-concept and increases in sports self-concept in adolescence. Analyses also revealed that having higher levels of domain specific self-concept led to decreases in relational aggression across the transition to adolescence. The findings highlight the importance of examining bidirectional prospective associations between relational aggression, relational victimization, and domain specific self-concept. Implications for future research and clinical intervention are discussed. PMID:26419234
Fandrem, Hildegunn; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Roland, Erling
This study compares levels of bullying others, victimization, and aggressiveness in native Norwegian and immigrant adolescents living in Norway and shows how bullying is related to proactive and reactive aggressiveness. The sample consists of 2,938 native Norwegians (1,521 girls, 1,417 boys) and 189 immigrant adolescents (97 girls, 92 boys) in…
Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal…
Rosen, Lisa H.; Underwood, Marion K.
This study examined the relations between facial attractiveness, aggression, and popularity in adolescence to determine whether facial attractiveness would buffer against the negative effects of aggression on popularity. We collected ratings of facial attractiveness from standardized photographs, and teachers provided information on adolescents'…
Belgrave, Faye Z.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Johnson, Jessica L.; Hood, Kristina
Prosocial behavior and aggression among children and adolescents are important indicators of social and interpersonal competence. The goal of this study was to investigate whether there are different prototypes among African American adolescents that can help explain prosocial and aggressive (relational and overt) behaviors. Also of interest was…
Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.
The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…
Bácskai, Erika; Pintye, István; Gerevich, József
The authors examined the effect of personal involvement (drinking, violent behaviour) on beliefs concerning the causal connections between drinking alcohol and aggressive behavior. The sample of the study comprised 1200 persons representative of the population over 18 years of age and was selected by a two-step, group stratified sampling method. The measuring instruments used for the study were the questionnaire on alcohol-aggression beliefs applied by Paglia and Room, the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and the sociodemographic characteristics of gender, age and education. Analyses using multivariate regression models showed that aggressive behaviour, particularly verbal and physical aggression, and heavy drinking significantly influence the belief of a causal connection between alcohol and aggression. The more a person drinks and the more aggressive he becomes, the more likely he is not to believe the opinion that drinking leads to aggression. Women and older people have a stronger belief in the causal role played by alcohol in aggressive behaviour. These results draw attention to the importance of the cognitive effect of personal involvement. Heavy drinking and aggressivity can prevent a person from recognizing the danger that drinking can have aggressive, criminal consequences. This relationship can be used well in clinical and criminological practice of crime prevention strategy for patients treated with drinking problems and facing proceedings or condemned for criminal actions. The findings of the study also raise a theoretical consideration that the theory of social learning is not a sufficient explanatory model for the connections between drinking and aggression. PMID:16783033
Skripkauskaite, Simona; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan J T; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim
Proactive and reactive functions of aggression are thought to manifest through different familial and emotional processes, even though they often co-occur. We investigated direct and indirect pathways through which maternal criticism and emotion regulation (ER) difficulties relate to reactive and proactive aggression in adolescence. Further, we examined how maternal criticism and emotion dysregulation interrelate, both concurrently and over time. Participants were 482 Dutch adolescents (M = 15.03, SD = 0.45, 57% boys) who self-reported on their ER difficulties, perceived maternal criticism, and reactive/proactive aggression. Cross-lagged panel modeling across four annual measurements revealed direct bidirectional links over time between maternal criticism and emotion dysregulation. Positive links over time from maternal criticism to proactive (but not reactive) aggression were also present. Emotion dysregulation and proactive aggression were linked only indirectly via maternal criticism. Gender did not significantly moderate these links. By revealing differential developmental pathways involving adolescents' ER and maternal criticism, the present study offers support for the dual function model of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 41:214-226, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25735840
Conger, Rand D; Martin, Monica J; Masarik, April S; Widaman, Keith F; Donnellan, M Brent
The present study examined the development of a cohort of 279 early adolescents (52% female) from 1990 to 2005. Guided by the interactionist model of socioeconomic status and human development, we proposed that parent aggressive personality, economic circumstances, interparental conflict, and parenting characteristics would affect the development of adolescent aggressive personality traits. In turn, we hypothesized that adolescent aggressiveness would have a negative influence on adolescent functioning as an adult in terms of economic success, personality development, and close relationships 11 years later. Findings were generally supportive of the interactionist model proposition that social and economic difficulties in the family of origin intensify risk for adolescent aggressive personality (the social causation hypothesis) and that this personality trait impairs successful transition to adult roles (the social selection hypothesis) in a transactional process over time and generations. These results underscore how early development leads to child influences that appear to directly hamper the successful transition to adult roles (statistical main effects) and also amplify the negative impact of dysfunctional family systems on the transition to adulthood (statistical interaction effects). The findings suggest several possible points of intervention that might help to disrupt this negative developmental sequence of events. PMID:26439065
Kim, Soo Ho; Ko, Woo Tae; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Kim, Jung Ran
NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is characterized by the expression of the NK-cell antigen CD56. Non-nasal NK/T-cell lymphomas are subdivided into primary cutaneous and 4 subtypes of secondary cutaneous lymphomas; nasal type, aggressive, blastic (blastoid), and other specific NK-like cell lymphoma. Aggressive NK/T-cell lymphoma/leukemia is a rare leukemic variant of nasal type NKTCL. We herein report a rare case of aggressive NK/T-cell lymphoma/leukemia with cutaneous involvement in adolescence. PMID:27303165
Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Florell, Dan
This study examined cyberbullying among adolescents across United States and Singapore samples. Specifically, the purpose of the investigation was to study the differential associations between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across two cultures. A total of 425 adolescents from the United States (M age = 13 years) and a total of 332 adolescents from Singapore (M age = 14.2 years) participated in the study. Results of the moderator analyses suggested that nationality was not a moderator of the relationship between proactive aggression and cyberbullying, and between reactive aggression and cyberbullying. As expected, findings showed proactive aggression to be positively associated with cyberbullying, after controlling for reactive aggression, across both samples. Likewise, as hypothesized, reactive aggression and cyberbullying was not found to be significant after controlling for proactive aggression across both samples. Implications of these findings were discussed: (a) Proactive aggression is a possible risk factor for both bullying and cyberbullying; (b) proactive and reactive aggression could be argued to be distinct as they have different correlates-only proactive aggression contributed to cyberbullying after controlling for reactive aggression; (c) this research extends previous work and contributes toward cross-cultural work using similar and comparable measures across different samples; and (d) prevention and intervention programs targeted at proactive aggressive adolescents could adopt a two-pronged approach by changing mind sets, and by understanding and adopting a set of rules for Internet etiquette. PMID:24106145
Pronk, Rhiarne E.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.
Early adolescent girls and boys (N = 33) with known histories of relational aggression and/or victimization gave detailed accounts of the nature, frequency, intensity, course, and impact of relational aggression among their peers. They also described reasons for, and forms of, aggression after being prompted by a series of hypothetical vignettes.…
Issmer, Christian; Wagner, Ulrich
Social exclusion can evoke aggression. In the past two decades research has demonstrated this effect both for interpersonal and societal forms of exclusion. In addition, recent violent uprisings, like the London riots in August 2011, have been linked to social exclusion in the media. However, so far there is a lack of longitudinal studies which examine the aggression-enhancing effect of societal-level exclusion (i.e., marginalization) in disadvantaged groups. This research investigates the impact of perceived marginalization on aggression in a sample of N = 181 adolescents with a low educational background by means of a two-wave longitudinal study. The results of structural equation analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that perceived marginalization enhances aggression, and that this effect is mediated by the extent of negative societal meta-stereotypes. Furthermore, the reverse path from aggression to perceptions of marginalization is also significant. We discuss the implications of these findings and highlight practical consequences. PMID:24889808
Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Fortson, Beverly L.; Valle, Linda A.; Breiding, Matthew J.; Merrick, Melissa T.
Few longitudinal studies have examined the pathways through which family violence leads to dating aggression. In the current study the authors used 3 waves of data obtained from 8th- and 9th-grade adolescents (N = 1,965) to examine the hypotheses that the prospective relationship between witnessing family violence and directly experiencing violence and physical dating aggression perpetration is mediated by 3 constructs: (a) normative beliefs about dating aggression (norms), (b) anger dysregulation, and (c) depression. Results from cross-lagged regression models suggest that the relationship between having been hit by an adult and dating aggression is mediated by changes in norms and anger dysregulation, but not depression. No evidence of indirect effects from witnessing family violence to dating aggression was found through any of the proposed mediators. Taken together, the findings suggest that anger dysregulation and normative beliefs are potential targets for dating abuse prevention efforts aimed at youth who have directly experienced violence. PMID:26719602
Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid
The relationship was examined between exposure to and preference for violent electronic games and aggressive norms as well as hostile attributional style. Following a pilot study to sample widely used electronic games varying in violent content, 231 eighth-grade adolescents in Germany reported their use of and attraction to violent electronic games. They also completed measures of hostile attributional style and endorsement of aggressive norms. There were significant gender differences in usage and attraction to violent electronic games, with boys scoring higher than girls. Significant relationships were found between attraction to violent electronic games and the acceptance of norms condoning physical aggression. Violent electronic games were linked indirectly to hostile attributional style through aggressive norms. The findings are discussed with respect to North American research on the aggression-enhancing effect of violent electronic games. PMID:15013260
Winstok, Zeev; Enosh, Guy
The aim of the current study was to explore male and female adolescents' intentions to react to verbal and physical aggression issued by other males and females of the same age. The study is based on a sample of 292 male and female adolescents from 12 classes in four schools in northern Israel, two junior-high and two high-schools, 46.7% were…
Liebman, Samuel J; Porcerelli, John; Abell, Steven C
In this investigation, we assessed the reliability and validity of 5 Rorschach aggression variables (AG, A1, A2, AgC, and AgPast) in a sample of adjudicated, mostly conduct-disordered adolescents (N = 150). More specifically, we assessed the interrelationships of Rorschach aggression variables using correlational analyses and factor analysis and assessed the relationships between Rorschach variables and a measure of aggressive potential (the Manifest Aggression scale from the Jesness Inventory; Jesness, 1996) as well as a measure of real-world aggression/violence (the Violence Rating Scale-Revised [VRS-R]; Young, Justice, & Erdberg, 1997). Two of Gacono and Meloy's (1994) Rorschach aggression variables were dropped from the study (AgPot and SM) due to a low frequency of occurrence. All 5 of the remaining Rorschach aggression variables and the VRS-R were rated reliably, and factor analysis of the Rorschach variables revealed 2 distinct factors accounting for 71% of the total variance. Only the AgC variable concurrently predicted aggressive potential and aggressive/violent behavior. Results lend further support for the inclusion of AgC in the Comprehensive System's (Exner, 1993) list of Special Scores. PMID:16083382
Gallup, Andrew C; O'Brien, Daniel T; Wilson, David Sloan
It has been suggested that the use of intrasexual aggression is a form of competition associated with reproductive opportunities. Here the authors investigated the relationship between retrospective dating and flirting behavior and peer aggression and victimization during middle and high school. Results indicate that the use of peer aggression was associated with adaptive dating outcomes in both sexes, whereas experiencing peer victimization was correlated with maladaptive dating behaviors among females only. Females who perpetrated high levels of indirect (i.e. nonphysical) aggression reported that they began dating at earlier ages in comparison to their peers, whereas aggressive males reported having more total dating partners. Experiencing female-female peer victimization was correlated with a later onset of dating behavior, more total dating partners, and less male flirtation while growing up. This report strengthens the connection between adolescent peer aggression and reproductive competition, suggesting a potential functionality to adolescent peer aggression in enhancing one's own mating opportunities at the expense of rivals. PMID:21433032
Farrell, Albert D; Bettencourt, Amie; Mays, Sally; Kramer, Alison; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy
This study examined adolescents' patterns of beliefs about aggression, and how these patterns relate to aggressive and prosocial behavior, and to risk factors associated with aggression. A sample of 477 sixth graders from two urban schools and a school in a nearby county completed measures of beliefs, behavior, and individual, peer and parental factors associated with aggression. Teacher ratings of participants' behavior and emotion regulation were also obtained. The urban sample was 84% African American; the county school was in a rural fringe area with a student population that was 45% Caucasian and 40% African American. Latent class analysis of items on a beliefs measure supported hypotheses predicting three groups: (a) a Beliefs Against Fighting (BAGF) group that opposed the use of aggression (31% of the sample); (b) a Fighting is Sometimes Necessary (FSNEC) group that endorsed beliefs that fighting is sometimes necessary or inevitable (41%), and (c) a Beliefs Supporting Fighting (BSUPF) group that supported aggression across multiple contexts (28%). Differences across groups were found on race/ethnicity and family structure, but not on gender. Significant differences were also found such that the FSNEC group fell between levels of the BAGF and BSUPF groups on most measures. In contrast, the FSNEC and BAGF groups both differed from the BSUPF group, but not from each other on measures of empathy, perceived effectiveness of nonviolence and aggression, and parental messages supporting nonviolence. These differences suggest the need for tailoring prevention approaches for subgroups of adolescents who differ in their patterns of beliefs. PMID:22307443
Houser, John J; Mayeux, Lara; Cross, Cassandra
Research has identified links between dating and aversive behavior such as aggression and bullying in adolescence, highlighting the need for studies that further our understanding of romantic relationships and their dynamics during this period. This study tested the associations between dating popularity and overt and relational aggression, social preference, and peer popularity. Of particular interest were the moderating roles of social preference and peer popularity in the association of aggression with dating popularity. Further moderation by gender was also explored. Participants were 478 ninth-graders (48% girls) with peer nomination scores for peer status, aggression, and dating popularity. Dating popularity was positively correlated with popularity, social preference, and overt and relational aggression. Regression models indicated that popular, overtly aggressive girls were seen as desirable dating partners by their male peers. Relational aggression was associated with dating popularity for both boys and girls, especially for youths who were well-liked by peers. These findings are interpreted in light of developmental-contextual perspectives on adolescent romantic relationships and Resource Control Theory. PMID:25169129
Rauterberg, Sally; Viazzi, Stefano; Oczak, Maciej; Bahr, Claudia; Guarino, Marcella; Vranken, Erik; Berckmans, Daniel; Hartung, Jörg
It is known that pigs raised in enriched environments express less aggressive behaviour. For this reason, a new method of cognitive environmental enrichment was experimented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. In the first phase, 78 suckling piglets were trained to learn the link between a sound given by an electronic feeder and a feed reward in the form of chocolate candies during a period of 8 days. In the second phase, the same piglets were used in resident-intruder tests to verify the potential of the feeding system to interrupt aggressive behaviour. The analysis of all training rounds revealed that piglets learned the commands during 8 days of training and the interest of the piglets increased within training days (P < 0.05). In the resident-intruder test, 79.5% of aggressive interactions were broken by feeder activation. In interactions where either the aggressor or the receiver reacted, a high number of fights were stopped (96.7% versus 93.1%) indicating that it was not relevant if the aggressor or the receiver responded to the feeder activation. We conclude that the electronic feeding system has the potential to be used as cognitive enrichment for piglets, being suitable for reducing aggressive behaviour in resident-intruder situations. PMID:24198969
Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen
The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…
Dinya, Elek; Csorba, Janos; Suli, Agota; Grosz, Zsofia
The behaviour dimensions of 244 Hungarian adolescent psychiatric outpatients with a dual diagnosis (intellectual disability and psychiatric diagnosis) were examined by means of the adapted version of the Behaviour Problem Inventory (BPI, Rojahn, Matson, Lott, Esbensen, & Smalls, 2001). Four IQ subgroups were created: borderline, mild, moderate and…
An 18-year follow-up of 66 aggressive and disturbed adolescents admitted to the children's unit of a large mental hospital in 1960 reveals a high degree of antisocial and criminal behavior persisting into adulthood, with lessening psychiatric involvement as the subjects matured. Factors contributing to this pattern of continuing antisocial behavior are identified, and implications for treatment programs are considered. PMID:7258309
Roos, Sanna; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina
In this short-term longitudinal study, we systematically examined the distinctiveness of guilt- and shame-proneness in early adolescents (N = 395, mean age = 11.8 years) in terms of differential relations with peer reported prosocial behavior, withdrawal, and aggression. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that guilt-proneness…
Berger, Christian; Rodkin, Philip C.
The present study addresses the influence that group norms exert on individual aggressive and prosocial behavior. The study hypothesis is that for early adolescents who change their peer group affiliations, the characteristics of the group they are leaving (departing-group influence) are not as influential as those of the group that they are…
Wiens, Brenda A.; Haden, Sara C.; Dean, Kristin L.; Sivinski, Jennifer
Prior research has shown relations between peer victimization, aggression, and adolescent substance use. However, there is a need for further research in this area, especially among rural populations, as rural youth have high rates of substance use but less access to mental health resources in their communities. The present study examined…
Liu, Junsheng; Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; French, Doran
The market-oriented economic reform in China over the past two decades has resulted in considerable changes in social attitudes regarding youth's behaviors. This study examined the relations of shyness and aggression to adjustment in Chinese adolescents at different historical times. Participants came from two cohorts (1994 and 2008) of…