Draucker, Claire; Alkhattab, Halima; Knopf, Amy; Mazurcyk, Jill
PROBLEM The family members of adolescents diagnosed with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) experience profound stress and burden. Despite the need for empirically supported interventions that address the challenges faced by these family members, few such interventions are available. METHODS In this qualitative descriptive study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 15 families of adolescents diagnosed with DBD. We asked the family members to identify what types of mental health services they needed and to describe the ‘ideal” program that would best address their concerns. FINDINGS Family members identified several intervention modalities that would fit their needs including multi-family groups, family therapy, individual therapy, and community-based hotlines. They indicated that programs should address the following topics: family communication, conflict resolution, education about DBD, and strategies to improve interactions with child service agencies. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should recognize that all family members may need support to manage the stressors associated with caring for or living with adolescents with DBD. When working with families, clinicians should provide information about the etiology and management of DBD, help navigate interactions with child service agencies, and employ strategies to improve family communication and functioning. PMID:24934181
Sukhdolsky, Denis G.; Vitulano, Lawrence A.; Carroll, Deirdre H.; McGuire, Joseph; Leckman, James F.; Scahill, Lawrence
A randomized trial to examine the efficacy of anger control training for treating adolescents with Tourette's syndrome and disruptive behavior reveals that those administered with the anger control training showed a decrease in their Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale score by 52 percent as compared with a decrease of 11 percent in the treatment as…
Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.
Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…
Harty, Seth C.; Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
This study examined the self-reported expression of overt aggressive behaviors and covert emotional and cognitive processes in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) during childhood. Methods: Participants were a clinically referred sample of 85 individuals diagnosed with ADHD, initially recruited in the…
van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A. J.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; Doreleijers, Theo A.H.; Loeber, Rolf
Background It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. Methods The current study used 9 waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semi-parametric group based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, PTSD, substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Results Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Conclusion Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. PMID:25302849
Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Manfredi, Azzurra; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Masi, Gabriele
The present study investigated trajectories of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnosis followed-up from childhood to adolescence, to explore possible predictors of these trajectories, and to individuate adolescent clinical outcomes. A sample of 59 Italian referred children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (53 boys and 6 girls, 21 with Conduct Disorder) was followed up from childhood to adolescence. CU traits were assessed with CU-scale of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-parent report. Latent growth curve models showed that CU traits are likely to decrease linearly from 9 to 15 years old, with a deceleration in adolescence (from 12 to 15). There was substantial individual variability in the rate of change of CU traits over time: patients with a minor decrease of CU symptoms during childhood were at increased risk for severe behavioral problems and substance use into adolescence. Although lower level of socio-economic status and lower level of parenting involvement were associated to elevated levels of CU traits at baseline evaluation, none of the considered clinical and environmental factors predicted the levels of CU traits. The current longitudinal research suggests that adolescent outcomes of Disruptive Behavior Disorder be influenced by CU traits trajectories during childhood. PMID:26791396
Handen, Benjamin L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.
Objective: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been shown to be efficacious for treatment of psychotic and mood disorders in adults. This prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine the safety and usefulness of olanzapine in treating disruptive behavior disorders in adolescents with subaverage intelligence. Method: Sixteen…
Hummer, Tom A.; Kronenberger, William G.; Wang, Yang; Dunn, David W.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Mathews, Vincent P.
The nature of executive dysfunction in youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) remains unclear, despite extensive research in samples of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the relationship between DBD, ADHD, and executive function deficits in aggressive teens, adolescents with DBD and comorbid ADHD…
Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; van Bokhoven, Irene; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Lochman, John E.; Matthys, Walter
Of all psychiatric disorders, the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are the most likely to predispose to substance dependence (SD). One possible underlying mechanism for this increased vulnerability is risky decision making. The aim of this study was to examine decision making in DBD adolescents with and without SD. Twenty-five DBD adolescents…
Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Young In; Son, Young Don; Chung, Un-Sun; Min, Kyung Joon; Han, Doug Hyun
Aim Disruptive behaviors are thought to affect the progress of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. In resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) studies of MDD, the affective network (limbic network) and the default mode network (DMN) have garnered a great deal of interest. We aimed to investigate RSFC in a sample of treatment-naïve adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors. Methods Twenty-two adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors (disrup-MDD) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used a seed-based correlation approach concerning two brain circuits including the affective network and the DMN, with two seed regions including the bilateral amygdala for the limbic network and the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) for the DMN. We also observed a correlation between RSFC and severity of depressive symptoms and disruptive behaviors. Results The disrup-MDD participants showed lower RSFC from the amygdala to the orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus compared to HC participants. Depression scores in disrup-MDD participants were negatively correlated with RSFC from the amygdala to the right orbitofrontal cortex. The disrup-MDD participants had higher PCC RSFC compared to HC participants in a cluster that included the left precentral gyrus, left insula, and left parietal lobe. Disruptive behavior scores in disrup-MDD patients were positively correlated with RSFC from the PCC to the left insular cortex. Conclusion Depressive mood might be correlated with the affective network, and disruptive behavior might be correlated with the DMN in adolescent depression. PMID:26770059
Oruche, Ukamaka M.; Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Cravens, Hillary A.; Lowry, Brittany; Lindsey, Laura M.
Adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), including oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, present unique challenges for their families. Although, most empirically supported treatments for DBD are family-based, the emphasis is typically on the behavior of the child rather than on the life challenges and resultant distress experienced by the family members. Fifteen families of adolescents with DBD were recruited from a large publicly funded Community Mental Health Center. For this report, data from in-depth interviews with the adolescents’ primary caregivers were analyzed by standard content analytic procedures to describe the challenges they experienced living with and caring for the adolescents. The primary caregivers reported that the challenges were overwhelming, demanding, and unrelenting. The two most salient challenges were (a) managing the adolescents’ aggressive, defiant, and deceitful behaviors, and (b) interacting frequently with a number of child-serving agencies. A number of clinical implications are drawn from these findings. PMID:25504213
Stoep, Ann Vander; Adrian, Molly C.; Rhew, Isaac C.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Herting, Jerald R.; Kraemer, Helena C.
Interest in commonly co-occurring depression and disruptive behavior disorders in children has yielded a small body of research that estimates the prevalence of this comorbid condition and compares children with the comorbid condition and children with depression or disruptive behavior disorders alone with respect to antecedents and outcomes. Prior studies have used one of two different approaches to measure comorbid disorders: 1) meeting criteria for two DSM or ICD diagnoses or 2) scoring .5 SD above the mean or higher on two dimensional scales. This study compares two snapshots of comorbidity taken simultaneously in the same sample with each of the measurement approaches. The Developmental Pathways Project administered structured diagnostic interviews as well as dimensional scales to a community-based sample of 521 11-12 year olds to assess depression and disruptive behavior disorders. Clinical caseness indicators of children identified as “comorbid” by each method were examined concurrently and 3-years later. Cross-classification of adolescents via the two approaches revealed low agreement. When other indicators of caseness, including functional impairment, need for services, and clinical elevations on other symptom scales were examined, adolescents identified as comorbid via dimensional scales only were similar to those who were identified as comorbid via DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Findings suggest that when relying solely on DSM diagnostic criteria for comorbid depression and disruptive behavior disorders, many adolescents with significant impairment will be overlooked. Findings also suggest that lower dimensional scale thresholds can be set when comorbid conditions, rather than single forms of psychopathology, are being identified. PMID:22575333
Viñas Poch, Ferràn; González Carrasco, Mònica; García Moreno, Yolanda; Jane Ballabriga, María C; Casas Aznar, Ferràn
Employing the DSM-IV TR classification, which classifies both antisocial behavior disorder and oppositional defiant disorder under the label of disruptive behavior disorder, a study was conducted with two aims: a) to determine the symptomatological differences of disruptive behavior disorder in adolescence depending on gender, age and school location, and b) to analyse the relationships between temperament, coping and the psychopathological dimensions of antisocial and oppositional defiant behavior. The YI-4, EATQ-R and ACS were administered to a sample of 1,240 adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age. The results show that boys display a greater number of antisocial behaviors than girls. No differences in school location were observed. In the oppositional defiant symptoms, there were differences according to age group, with 13 to 14 years being an age when there is a greater symptomatology. The data indicate a positive correlation with psychopathological dimensions of both surgency and non-productive coping and a negative correlation with effortful control and productive coping. PMID:23079353
Leathers, Sonya J.
Objective: This study examined risk of placement disruption and negative placement outcomes (e.g., residential treatment and incarceration) among adolescents placed in traditional family foster care for a year or longer. A foster parent's report of externalizing behavior problems was expected to be a stronger predictor of disruption and negative…
Hummer, Tom A; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P
Characterizing brain maturation in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) may provide insight into the progression of their behavioral deficits. Therefore, this study examined how age and executive functioning were related to structural neural characteristics in DBD. Thirty-three individuals (aged 13-17) with a DBD, along with a matched control sample, completed neuropsychological testing and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gray matter volume and microstructural white matter properties. Voxel-based morphometry quantified gray matter volume, and diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter tracts. In the anterior cingulate, gray matter volume decreased with age in healthy controls but showed no such change in the DBD sample. In the corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), FA increased with age in the control sample significantly more than in the DBD sample. Executive functioning, particularly working memory, was associated with SLF FA bilaterally. However, the relationship of SLF FA to working memory performance was weaker in the DBD sample. These data suggest that youth with DBD have altered brain development compared with typically developing youth. The abnormal maturation of the anterior cingulate and frontoparietal tracts during adolescence may contribute to the persistence of behavioral deficits in teens with a DBD. PMID:25533028
Cohn, Moran D; van Lith, Koen; Kindt, Merel; Pape, Louise E; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne
Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent antisocial development. However, we have recently shown that both DBD persisters and desisters are characterized by increased fear conditioning compared with healthy controls (HCs). In this study, we investigated whether brain function during fear extinction is associated with DBD subgroup-membership and psychopathic traits. Adolescents from a childhood arrestee cohort (mean age 17.6 years, s.d. 1.4) who met criteria for a DBD diagnosis during previous assessments were re-assessed and categorized as persistent DBD (n = 25) or desistent DBD (n = 25). Functional MRI during the extinction phase of a classical fear-conditioning task was used to compare regional brain function between these subgroups and 25 matched controls. Both DBD persisters and desisters showed hyperreactivity during fear extinction, when compared with HCs. Impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits were positively associated with responses in the fear neurocircuitry and mediated the association between neural activation and group membership. These results suggest that fear acquisition and fear extinction deficits may provide an endophenotype for an emotionally hyperreactive subtype of antisocial development. PMID:26048179
Taylor, S B; Taylor, A R; Koenig, J I
The incidence of anxiety, mood, substance abuse disorders and schizophrenia increases during adolescence. Epidemiological evidence confirms that exposure to stress during sensitive periods of development can create vulnerabilities that put genetically predisposed individuals at increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a frequently identified schizophrenia susceptibility gene that has also been associated with the psychotic features of bipolar disorder. Previously, we established that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neurocircuitry. We also found, using a line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)), that genetic disruption of Type II NRG1 results in altered HPA axis function and environmental reactivity. The present studies used the Nrg1(Tn) rats to test whether Type II NRG1 gene disruption and chronic stress exposure during adolescence interact to alter adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors. Male and female Nrg1(Tn) and wild-type rats were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during mid-adolescence and then tested for anxiety-like behavior, cued fear conditioning and basal corticosterone secretion in adulthood. The disruption of Type II NRG1 alone significantly impacts rat anxiety-related behavior by reversing normal sex-related differences and impairs the ability to acquire cued fear conditioning. Sex-specific interactions between genotype and adolescent stress also were identified such that CVS-treated wild-type females exhibited a slight reduction in anxiety-like behavior and basal corticosterone, while CVS-treated Nrg1(Tn) females exhibited a significant increase in cued fear extinction. These studies confirm the importance of Type II NRG1 in anxiety and fear behaviors and point to adolescence as a time when stressful experiences can shape adult behavior and HPA axis function. PMID:23022220
Pardini, Dustin A.; Loeber, Rolf
Theoretical models suggest that child behaviors influence parenting behaviors, and specifically that unpleasant child behaviors coerce parents to discontinue engaging in appropriate discipline. This study examined reciprocal relationships between parenting behaviors (supervision, communication, involvement, timid discipline and harsh punishment) and child disruptive disorder symptoms (ADHD, ODD and CD) in a clinic-referred sample of 177 boys. Annual measures, including structured clinical interviews, were obtained from the beginning of the study (when boys were between the ages of 7 to 12) to age 17. Specific reciprocal influence was observed; only timid discipline predicted worsening behavior, namely ODD symptoms, and ODD symptoms predicted increases in timid discipline. Greater influence from child behaviors to parenting practices was found: ODD also predicted poorer communication and decreased involvement, and CD predicted poorer supervision. ADHD was neither predictive of, nor predicted by, parenting behaviors. The results are specifically supportive of a coercive process between child behaviors and parenting behaviors, and generally suggestive of greater influence of child behaviors on parenting behaviors than of parenting behaviors on child behaviors PMID:18286366
Storch, Eric A.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Jones, Anna M.; Ale, Chelsea M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Lewin, Adam B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Murphy, Tanya K.
This study explored the impact of disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) comorbidity on theoretically relevant correlates among 87 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and clinically significant anxiety. Relative to youth with ASD and anxiety alone, participants with ASD, anxiety, and DBD: (a) presented with significantly more…
Burke, Jeffrey D; Stepp, Stephanie D
Very few studies have prospective information, especially regarding males, on the prediction of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in adulthood from psychiatric disorders in childhood. Certain childhood disorders, however, have notably similar features in common with BPD. In particular, the affective dysfunction, hostility and interpersonal conflict of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and the impulsivity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in particular may be indicative of an early developmental path towards BPD. The present study uses longitudinal data from a clinical sample of 177 boys, initially between the ages of 7 and 12, who were followed up annually to age 18, and who were reassessed at age 24 (n = 142). The study examines the prediction from repeated childhood measures of psychopathology measured annually through adolescence to BPD symptoms assessed at age 24, accounting for the effects of covariates including substance use, other personality disorders at age 24 and harsh physical punishment. The prevalence of BPD in this sample was consistent with other population estimates. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ODD were the only child psychiatric disorders to predict BPD symptoms, and the oppositional behavioral dimension of ODD was particularly predictive of BPD. These results indicate possible developmental links between early psychiatric disorders and BPD. PMID:21853377
Burke, Jeffrey D.; Pardini, Dustin A.; Loeber, Rolf
Theoretical models suggest that child behaviors influence parenting behaviors, and specifically that unpleasant child behaviors coerce parents to discontinue engaging in appropriate discipline. This study examined reciprocal relationships between parenting behaviors (supervision, communication, involvement, timid discipline and harsh punishment)…
During normal development, a child learns to regulate her/his aggressions and follow the social norms of her/his community.This learning takes place in interaction with the environment. Risk factors associated with the child, parenthood and environment underlie the disruptive behavior. If a child of preschool/school age exhibits age group deviant difficulties in the management of aggression, defiant, rule-breaking behavior or difficulties in social relationships, there is every reason to get worried and to evaluate the child's symptoms and situation. The earlier the support and therapy is provided, the better are the possibilities to influence the prognosis of conduct disorders. PMID:27382832
Skelly, M J; Chappell, A E; Carter, E; Weiner, J L
Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress. PMID:26044636
Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan
Dual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and behavior problems and/or mental disorders has become increasingly recognized and studied. Reported rates in samples of mixed-age youth with ASD are often above 70%, making this comorbidity more the rule than the exception. The present study compared rates of disruptive behavior disorder…
Kalnin, Andrew J; Edwards, Chad R; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Hummer, Tom A; Mosier, Kristine M; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P
Only recently have investigations of the relationship between media violence exposure (MVE) and aggressive behavior focused on brain functioning. In this study, we examined the relationship between brain activation and history of media violence exposure in adolescents, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) with aggression were compared to investigate whether the association of MVE history and brain activation is moderated by aggressive behavior/personality. Twenty-two adolescents with a history of aggressive behavior and diagnosis of either conduct disorder or oppositional-defiant disorder (DBD sample) and 22 controls completed an emotional Stroop task during fMRI. Primary imaging results indicated that controls with a history of low MVE demonstrated greater activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and rostral anterior cingulate during the violent word condition. In contrast, in adolescents with DBD, those with high MVE exhibited decreased activation in the right amygdala, compared with those with low MVE. These findings are consistent with research demonstrating the importance of fronto-limbic structures for processing emotional stimuli, and with research suggesting that media violence may affect individuals in different ways depending on the presence of aggressive traits. PMID:21376543
Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.
The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…
Long, E C; Hill, J; Luna, B; Verhulst, B; Clark, D B
Disinhibition contributes to the development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in adolescents. Self-reports and behavioral tasks are commonly used to assess disinhibition, each with their unique strengths and limitations. Accordingly, it is important to identify which measure, or combination thereof, is the most effective in predicting DBD symptoms. This study assessed the relationship between DBD (symptoms of ADHD/ODD/CD) and two behavioral disinhibition tasks: the anti-saccade task and the D-KEFS color-word interference test, as well as a self-report measure (the BRIEF-SR). The results indicated that the BRIEF-Inhibit scale accounted for the majority of the variance in the DBD sum score. The anti-saccade task and color-word interference test were also significantly associated with an increase in the number of DBD symptoms endorsed. These behavioral tasks accounted for 9% additional variance than the self-report alone. Therefore, combining self-report measures with behavioral disinhibition tasks may provide the most thorough assessment of adolescent DBD. PMID:26277405
Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Paciello, Marinella; Lenzi, Francesca; Muratori, Pietro; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Lochman, John E; Muratori, Filippo
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are among the most common reasons for youth referrals to mental health clinics. Aim of this study is to compare short and medium term efficacy of a multimodal treatment program (MTP), compared to community care (treatment-as-usual, TAU). The sample included 135 youths with DBDs (113 males, age range 9-15 years, mean age 12±2.5 years) were assigned either to a MTP (n=64), or addressed to community care for a TAU (n=71). Outcome measures were the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). All subjects were assessed at the baseline (T0), after 1-year treatment (T1) and after a 2-year follow-up (T2). Compared with patients receiving TAU, youths in the MTP showed, both at T1 and T2, significantly lower scores on CBCL Externalizing Scale, Internalizing Scale, Anxious/Depressed, Social Problems, and Aggressive Behavior, and higher scores at the C-GAS. Improvement in Internalizing Scales was particularly evident, with a shift from the clinical to the non-clinical range. Rate of use of mental health services and scholastic failure were reduced in the MTP. It is suggested that the improvement of the Internalizing symptoms is a crucial component of the therapeutic process in this MTP. PMID:25060833
Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph
The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…
Jones, Darla Renee
Many adolescent disruptive youth in Pennsylvania are removed from traditional school settings for externalizing behaviors including aggression, defying authority, poor relationships with peers and adults, disruptive behaviors, and bullying. Post-school outcomes of adolescent disruptive youth remain dismal, and these students are the most…
Maughan, Denita R.; Christiansen, Elizabeth; Jenson, William R.; Olympia, Daniel; Clark, Elaine
A meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of Behavioral Parent Training for children and adolescents with externalizing behaviors and disruptive behavior disorders was conducted with 79 outcome studies conducted between 1966 and 2001. Separate analyses were conducted for studies employing between-subjects, within-subjects, and single-subject…
Kelley, Barbara Tatem; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate; DeLamatre, Mary
Boys may follow various developmental pathways that lead to increasingly disruptive and delinquent behavior. To most parents, teachers, youth workers, mental health professionals, and juvenile justice practitioners, the development of disruptive and delinquent behavior in boys may appear erratic and unpredictable. This bulletin summarizes…
Golani, Idit; Tadmor, Hagar; Buonanno, Andres; Kremer, Ilana; Shamir, Alon
The ErbB signaling pathway has been genetically and functionally implicated in schizophrenia. Numerous findings support the dysregulation of Neuregulin (NRG) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether alterations of these pathways in the adult brain or during development are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Herein we characterized the behavioral profile and molecular changes resulting from pharmacologically blocking the ErbB signaling pathway during a critical period in the development of decision making, planning, judgments, emotions, social cognition and cognitive skills, namely adolescence. We demonstrate that chronic administration of the pan-ErbB kinase inhibitor JNJ-28871063 (JNJ) to adolescent mice elevated striatal dopamine levels and reduced preference for sucrose without affecting locomotor activity and exploratory behavior. In adulthood, adolescent JNJ-treated mice continue to consume less sucrose and needed significantly more correct-response trials to reach the learning criterion during the discrimination phase of the T-maze reversal learning task than their saline-injected controls. In addition, JNJ mice exhibited deficit in reference memory but not in working memory as measured in the radial arm maze. Inhibition of the pathway during adolescence did not affect exploratory behavior and locomotor activity in the open field, social interaction, social memory, and reversal learning in adult mice. Our data suggest that alteration of ErbB signaling during adolescence resulted in changes in the dopaminergic systems that emerge in pathological learning and hedonic behavior in adulthood, and pinpoints the possible role of the pathway in the development of cognitive skills and motivated behavior. PMID:25451700
Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.
Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…
Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Jenson, William R.
Investigates the effect of randomizing both contingencies for reinforcement and reinforcers to decrease classroom disruptive behavior in five adolescent students with serious emotional disorder. Results reveal that the percentage of observed intervals of disruptive behaviors decreased immediately and dramatically in all students. (Contains 24…
Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)
Karila, Laurent; Larrar, Michael; Ferreri, Mélanie
Adolescence is a period of physical and mental transition between childhood and adulthood, two supposedly quieter periods. Puberty and social pressures generate painful psychic conflicts even for a subject without particular problem. Behavioral disorders of adolescents are numerous and heterogeneous. It is oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, hyperactive disorder with attention deficit which often begin during childhood to evolve negatively in adolescence. Eating disorders, addictive disorders, self-mutilation and scarification are also found. Therapeutic management should be multimodal and involve different actors in the health, education and social areas. PMID:24855786
Gopalan, Geetha; Dean-Assael, Kara; Klingenstein, Kathryn; Chacko, Anil; McKay, Mary M.
This study examines the rates of depressive symptoms and service use among caregivers whose children receive treatment for disruptive behavior disorders. Descriptive analyses examined preliminary baseline data from the Family Groups for Urban Youth with Disruptive Behaviors study for 212 caregivers to determine rates of caregiver depressive symptoms and lifetime mental health service use. Findings indicate that caregivers manifest substantially higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to national norms. Of those caregivers with clinically significant depressive symptoms, less than half reported ever receiving mental health services. Findings suggest that greater attention should be paid to identifying and treating caregiver depression among children receiving treatment for disruptive behavior disorders. PMID:21278845
Madigan, Sheri; Moran, Greg; Pederson, David R.
The links between unresolved maternal attachment status, disrupted maternal interaction in play situations, and disorganized attachment relationships were examined in a study of 82 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal interactive behavior was measured using the Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification coding…
Shannonhouse, John L; DuBois, Dustin W; Fincher, Annette S; Vela, Alejandra M; Henry, Morgan M; Wellman, Paul J; Frye, Gerald D; Morgan, Caurnel
Initial antidepressant treatment can paradoxically worsen symptoms in depressed adolescents by undetermined mechanisms. Interestingly, antidepressants modulate GABAA receptors, which mediate paradoxical effects of other therapeutic drugs, particularly in females. Although the neuroanatomic site of action for this paradox is unknown, elevated GABAA receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens can disrupt motivation. We assessed fluoxetine's effects on motivated behaviors in pubescent female hamsters - anhedonia in the reward investigational preference (RIP) test as well as anxiety in the anxiety-related feeding/exploration conflict (AFEC) test. We also assessed accumbal signaling by RT-PCR and electrophysiology. Fluoxetine initially worsened motivated behaviors at puberty, relative to adulthood. It also failed to improve these behaviors as pubescent hamsters transitioned into adulthood. Low accumbal mRNA levels of multiple GABAA receptor subunits and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, GAD67, assessed by RT-PCR, suggested low GABAergic tone at puberty. Nonetheless, rapid fluoxetine-induced reductions of α5GABAA receptor and BDNF mRNA levels at puberty were consistent with age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine and disruption of the motivational state. Whole-cell patch clamping of accumbal slices also suggested low GABAergic tone by the low amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) at puberty. It also confirmed age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine. Specifically, fluoxetine potentiated mIPSC amplitude and frequency at puberty, but attenuated the amplitude during adulthood. These results implicate GABAergic tone and GABAA receptor plasticity in adverse motivational responses and resistance to fluoxetine during adolescence. PMID:27068049
Munzer, Jane; And Others
Suicide attempts and suicidal ideation among adolescents have been increasing faster than those for adults. This study addresses three questions on adolescent suicidal behavior: (1) Why do some adolescents with psychiatric disorders have a history of suicidal behaviors and some do not?; (2) How do intrapsychic and interpersonal underpinnings of…
van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf
Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016
Petras, Hanno; Masyn, Katherine; Ialongo, Nick
We examine the impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on the growth of aggressive/disruptive behavior in grades 1-3 and 6-12 through the application of a latent transition growth mixture model (LT-GMM). Both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions were designed to reduce the risk for later conduct problems by enhancing the child behavior management practices of teachers and parents, respectively. We first modeled growth trajectories in each of the two time periods with separate GMMs. We then associated latent trajectory classes of aggressive/disruptive behavior across the two time periods using a transition model for the corresponding latent class variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the interventions had direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 1-3 and 6-12. For males, both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions had significant direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 6-12, whereas only the classroom-centered intervention had a significant effect on class membership in grades 1-3. Significant direct effects for females were confined to grades 1-3 for the classroom-centered intervention. Further analyses revealed that both the classroom-centered and family-centered intervention males were significantly more likely than control males to transition from the high trajectory class in grades 1-3 to a low class in grades 6-12. Effects for females in classroom-centered interventions went in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance. PMID:21519860
Petras, Hanno; Masyn, Katherine; Ialongo, Nick
We examine the impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on the growth of aggressive/disruptive behavior in grades 1–3 and 6–12 through the application of a latent transition growth mixture model (LT-GMM). Both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions were designed to reduce the risk for later conduct problems by enhancing the child behavior management practices of teachers and parents, respectively. We first modeled growth trajectories in each of the two time periods with separate GMMs. We then associated latent trajectory classes of aggressive/disruptive behavior across the two time periods using a transition model for the corresponding latent class variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the interventions had direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 1–3 and 6–12. For males, both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions had significant direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 6–12, whereas only the classroom-centered intervention had a significant effect on class membership in grades 1–3. Significant direct effects for females were confined to grades 1–3 for the classroom-centered intervention. Further analyses revealed that both the classroom-centered and family-centered intervention males were significantly more likely than control males to transition from the high trajectory class in grades 1–3 to a low class in grades 6–12. Effects for females in classroom-centered interventions went in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance. PMID:21519860
Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Schulz, Kurt P.; Marks, David J.; Sharma, Vanshdeep; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.
Objective: This longitudinal study examined whether responsiveness of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in childhood predicts adolescent aggression. Method: Boys (N = 33) with disruptive behavior disorders who received assessments of central 5-HT function via the prolactin response to fenfluramine between 1990 and 1994 when they were 7 to 11…
Martel, Michelle M.; Gremillion, Monica; Roberts, Bethan; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) frequently co-occur. Comorbidity of these 2 childhood disruptive behavior domains has not been satisfactorily explained at either a structural or etiological level. The current study evaluated a bifactor model, which allows for a "g" factor in addition to…
de Wied, Minet; Goudena, Paul P.; Matthys, Walter
Background: The present study examined empathy in 8- to 12-year-old clinically referred boys with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (n = 25) and age-matched normal controls (n = 24). Method: Situational empathy was assessed by children's emotional and cognitive responses to six empathy-inducing vignettes (displaying sadness, anger or happiness).…
van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf
Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…
Fishbein, J E; Wasik, B H
A modification of the good behavior game was used to reduce disruptive behaviors during a weekly library period of children in a fourth-grade class. Modifications included student input in designing rules, attempts to state rules in positive terms, observation of class behavior in the experimental (library) setting as well as in a comparison (classroom) setting, and librarian involvement in instituting the game coupled with teacher involvement in delivering reinforcers. Reinforcers consisted of special classroom activities conducted by the teacher with winning team members. Modification of the good behavior game did not detract from its effectiveness in reducing disruptive and off-task behavior. PMID:16795642
Rosenstein, Alan H
Disruptive behaviors in health care can have a significant adverse effect on staff interactions that can negatively impact staff satisfaction, staff performance, and patient outcomes of care. As referenced in a previously published article, the Obstetrics and Gynecology specialty is one of the service areas where these behaviors occur more frequently. Despite growing evidence of the ill effects of these types of behaviors many organizations are still having a difficult time in addressing these issues in an effective manner. Gaining a better understanding of the nature, causes, and impact of these behaviors is crucial to finding the right remedies for solution. Nobody intentionally starts the day planning to be disruptive, it’s just that things get in the way. A combination of deep seated factors related to age and gender preferences, culture and ethnicity, life experiences, and other events that help shape values, attitudes and personalities, and more external factors related to training, environmental pressures, stress and burnout, and other personal issues all contribute to the mix. Given the complexities of today’s health care environment, each person needs to recognize the importance of being held accountable for appropriate actions and behaviors that affect work relationships and care coordination that impact patient care. Early recognition, early intervention, and taking a pro-active supportive approach to improve individual behaviors will result in better relationships, less disruption, more satisfaction, and better outcomes of care. PMID:26601095
Rosenstein, Alan H
Disruptive behaviors in health care can have a significant adverse effect on staff interactions that can negatively impact staff satisfaction, staff performance, and patient outcomes of care. As referenced in a previously published article, the Obstetrics and Gynecology specialty is one of the service areas where these behaviors occur more frequently. Despite growing evidence of the ill effects of these types of behaviors many organizations are still having a difficult time in addressing these issues in an effective manner. Gaining a better understanding of the nature, causes, and impact of these behaviors is crucial to finding the right remedies for solution. Nobody intentionally starts the day planning to be disruptive, it's just that things get in the way. A combination of deep seated factors related to age and gender preferences, culture and ethnicity, life experiences, and other events that help shape values, attitudes and personalities, and more external factors related to training, environmental pressures, stress and burnout, and other personal issues all contribute to the mix. Given the complexities of today's health care environment, each person needs to recognize the importance of being held accountable for appropriate actions and behaviors that affect work relationships and care coordination that impact patient care. Early recognition, early intervention, and taking a pro-active supportive approach to improve individual behaviors will result in better relationships, less disruption, more satisfaction, and better outcomes of care. PMID:26601095
Ary, D V; Duncan, T E; Biglan, A; Metzler, C W; Noell, J W; Smolkowski, K
The developmental model of adolescent antisocial behavior advanced by Patterson and colleagues (e.g., Patterson, Reid, & Dishion, 1992) appears to generalize the development of a diverse set of problem behaviors. Structural equation modeling methods were applied to 18-month longitudinal data from 523 adolescents. The problem behavior construct included substance use, antisocial behavior, academic failure, and risky sexual behavior. Families with high levels of conflict were less likely to have high levels of parent-child involvement. Such family conditions resulted in less adequate parental monitoring of adolescent behavior, making associations with deviant peers more likely. Poor parental monitoring and associations with deviant peers were strong predictors of engagement in problem behavior. These constructs accounted for 46% of the variance in problem behavior. Although association with deviant peers was the most proximal social influence on problem behavior, parental monitoring and family factors (conflict and involvement) were key parenting practices that influenced this developmental process. PMID:10400060
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Programs and Studies Information Service.
This focus paper contains reprints of 11 articles intended to provide an overview of the key issues in the area of adolescent behavior change as it relates to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) education. Included are: (1) "Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS in Children and Adolescents" (J.…
Sauter, Floor M.; Heyne, David; Westenberg, P. Michiel
Anxiety disorders in adolescence are common and disruptive, pointing to a need for effective treatments for this age group. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most popular interventions for adolescent anxiety, and there is empirical support for its application. However, a significant proportion of adolescent clients continue to report…
Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang
Using panel data from 9,252 adolescents in the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study finds that among children who experience parents' marital disruption during late adolescence, European, Asian, and African American adolescents exhibit wider and greater maladjustment both before and after the disruption than their Hispanic American…
Baker, Rosalind H; Clanton, Roberta L; Rogers, Jack C; De Brito, Stéphane A
Decades of research have shown that youths with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are a heterogeneous population. Over the past 20 years, researchers have distinguished youths with DBD as those displaying high (DBD/HCU) versus low (DBD/LCU) callous-unemotional (CU) traits. These traits include flat affect and reduced empathy and remorse, and are associated with more severe, varied, and persistent patterns of antisocial behavior and aggression. Conduct problems in youths with HCU and LCU are thought to reflect distinct causal vulnerabilities, with antisocial behavior in youths with DBD/HCU reflecting a predominantly genetic etiology, while antisocial behavior in youths with DBD/LCU is associated primarily with environmental influences. Here we selectively review recent functional (fMRI) and structural (sMRI) magnetic resonance imaging research on DBD, focusing particularly on the role of CU traits. First, fMRI studies examining the neural correlates of affective stimuli, emotional face processing, empathy, theory of mind, morality, and decision-making in DBD are discussed. This is followed by a review of the studies investigating brain structure and structural connectivity in DBD. Next, we highlight the need to further investigate females and the role of sex differences in this population. We conclude the review by identifying potential clinical implications of this research. PMID:25860779
Thomas, Jerry R.; And Others
Two treatments, an individual behavior contract and group behavior games, were studied to determine if they reduced disruptive playground behavior. The 191 subjects were second- and fifth-grade students in two public schools. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)
Gover, F. Jill
There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…
Gray, Sarah A. O.; Carter, Alice S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.
Sex differences in disruptive behavior and sensitivity to social context are documented, but the intersection between them is rarely examined empirically. This report focuses on sex differences in observed disruptive behavior across interactional contexts and diagnostic status. Preschoolers (n = 327) were classified as nondisruptive (51%),…
Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W.
Childhood aggression-disruptiveness, chronic peer rejection, and deviant friendships were examined as predictors of early-adolescent rule breaking behaviors. Using a sample of 383 children (193 girls and 190 boys) who were followed from ages 6 to 14, peer rejection trajectories were identified and incorporated into a series of alternative models to assess how chronic peer rejection and deviant friendships mediate the association between stable childhood aggression-disruptiveness and early-adolescent rule breaking. There were multiple mediated pathways to rule breaking that included both behavioral and relational risk factors and findings were consistent for boys and girls. Results have implications for better understanding the influence of multiple social processes in the continuity of antisocial behaviors from middle childhood to early adolescence. PMID:25403544
Dogan, Shannon J.; Conger, Rand D.; Kim, Kee Jeong; Masyn, Katherine E.
This study examined the role of adolescent perceptions of parental behavior and disrupted parenting in the continuity of antisocial behavior across generations. Participants included 430 adolescents and their biological parents assessed during the period from the 9th to 12th grades (9th grade age in years: M=15.09, SD=0.43). Structural equation…
Keogh, Timothy; Martin, William
Physician executives would undoubtedly prefer to spend the bulk of their time inspiring great employees and building productive teams instead of struggling with disruptive physician behavior. Explore ways to diminish the frequency and intensity of disruptive behavior in your organization and identify your role, rights, responsibilities and accountabilities as a physician leader. PMID:15506528
Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel
We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited modifications. At the same time, the fear-erasing effects…
Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.
A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…
This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…
Karaman, Neslihan G.
Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…
Nigg, Joel T.; Breslau, Naomi
Background: Prenatal problems are among theorized etiologies for child disruptive behavior problems. A key question concerns whether etiological contributors are shared across the broad range of disruptive psychopathology or are partially or largely distinct. Method: We examined prenatal smoking exposure and low birth weight as risk factors for…
Kidron, Yael; Fleischman, Steve
Saying a kind word to a classmate, acknowledging other students' feelings, sharing books and advice, defending a victim of bullying--these are just a few of the prosocial behaviors that can enhance students' social and academic lives at school. Because children do not develop social values in a vacuum, educators, policymakers, and researchers are…
McFarland, Margaret L.; Sanders, Matthew R.
This paper investigates some characteristics of families with disruptive children and depressed mothers, and compares the observed behaviors of disruptive children of depressed and non-depressed mothers. Differences observed suggest that, while children of depressed mothers employed a similar range of disruptive behaviors to other disruptive…
McGoey, Kara E.; Schneider, Dana L.; Rezzetano, Kristin M.; Prodan, Tana; Tankersley, Melody
The authors present an investigation of a classwide intervention to reduce disruptive behavior in a kindergarten classroom. Participants included children in 3 kindergarten classrooms and their teachers in an at-risk school district in Northeast Ohio. On the basis of student behaviors and teacher goals, the authors chose the Good Behavior Game…
Walker, Lynn S.; Van Slyke, Deborah A.
This study examined the relationship of illness behavior to perceived competence and gender in adolescents. It was hypothesized that, like adults, adolescents with lower levels of perceived social competence would report more illness behavior. A significant gender difference was expected such that girls would report more illness behavior than…
Reynolds, Lauren M; Makowski, Carolina S; Yogendran, Sandra V; Kiessling, Silke; Cermakian, Nicolas; Flores, Cecilia
Initiation of drug use during adolescence is a strong predictor of both the incidence and severity of addiction throughout the lifetime. Intriguingly, adolescence is a period of dynamic refinement in the organization of neuronal connectivity, in particular medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine circuitry. The guidance cue receptor, DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer), is highly expressed by dopamine neurons and orchestrates their innervation to the mPFC during adolescence. Furthermore, we have shown that amphetamine in adolescence regulates DCC expression in dopamine neurons. Drugs in adolescence may therefore induce their enduring behavioral effects via DCC-mediated disruption in mPFC dopamine development. In this study, we investigated the impact of repeated exposure to amphetamine during adolescence on both the development of mPFC dopamine connectivity and on salience attribution to drug context in adulthood. We compare these effects to those induced by adult exposure to an identical amphetamine regimen. Finally, we determine whether DCC signaling within dopamine neurons is necessary for these events. Exposure to amphetamine in adolescence, but not in adulthood, leads to an increase in the span of dopamine innervation to the mPFC, but a reduction of presynaptic sites present on these axons. Amphetamine treatment in adolescence, but not in adulthood, also produces an increase in salience attribution to a previously drug-paired context in adulthood. Remarkably, DCC signaling within dopamine neurons is required for both of these effects. Drugs of abuse in adolescence may therefore induce their detrimental behavioral consequences by disrupting mesocortical dopamine development through alterations in the DCC signaling cascade. PMID:25336209
Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W
Childhood aggression-disruptiveness (AD), chronic peer rejection, and deviant friendships were examined as predictors of early-adolescent rule-breaking behaviors. Using a sample of 383 children (193 girls and 190 boys) who were followed from ages 6 to 14, peer rejection trajectories were identified and incorporated into a series of alternative models to assess how chronic peer rejection and deviant friendships mediate the association between stable childhood AD and early-adolescent rule breaking. There were multiple mediated pathways to rule breaking that included both behavioral and relational risk factors, and findings were consistent for boys and girls. Results have implications for better understanding the influence of multiple social processes in the continuity of antisocial behaviors from middle childhood to early adolescence. PMID:25403544
Boehm, S; Whall, A L; Cosgrove, K L; Locke, J D; Schlenk, E A
In this study, two cases were used to examine the potential of behavioral analysis as an intervention to decrease disruptive behaviors of institutionalized individuals with dementia. Behavioral modeling was used to teach the principles of behavioral analysis. The nurses observed a behavior change plan implemented by the investigator, revised the plan based on behavioral analysis techniques, and subsequently implemented the revised behavioral strategies. The patients' disruptive behaviors decreased markedly when the behavioral intervention was implemented. Patients resumed disruptive behaviors when care was provided without the behavioral plan. The findings suggest the need to address interventions in nursing research, education, and practice that use behavioral analysis to reduce disruptive behaviors in individuals with dementia. PMID:7668853
Jenkins, Sandra; Horner, Sharon D
Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and development with biologic, psychological, and emotional changes occurring simultaneously. We conducted a critical review of the literature to analyze key topics in the study of adolescents' eating behaviors and to identify barriers to healthy eating experienced by adolescents. The literature documents that nutritional deficits and poor eating established during adolescence have long-term health, growth, and developmental consequences. Gaps in the literature are identified and recommendations for future studies are proposed. PMID:16030505
López Jiménez, José; Valero-Valenzuela, Alfonso; Anguera, M Teresa; Díaz Suárez, Arturo
The aim of this study was to determine which disruptive behaviors occur most often in physical education (PE) classes, and to identify the existence of a pattern of behavior that leads to this disruptive behavior. With this in mind, we analyzed five PE sessions taken by pupils at different elementary school in the region of Murcia. The total sample size was 96 students aged between 10 and 13. Data was recorded using an observation instrument (a combination of a field format and a categorical system) and was then analyzed using the "HOISAN" software tool, with a sequential analysis and polar coordinates being conducted. The results of the study revealed that disruptive behaviors (52 %) occur more frequently than non-relevant behaviors (48 %), the most common of them being disinterested behavior (29 %), followed by indiscipline (15 %), with no statistically significant differences being detected in violent behavior. As regards patterns of behavior, disinterested behavior is stimulated by "no eye contact", "middle distance", "inside the task", "no use of material", "giving orders" and "registering of activities", while indiscipline is stimulated by "no eye contact", "far distance", "outside the task", "use of material", "grouping in pairs" and "preparation of material". In conclusion, it can be stated that disruptiveness is far more common in physical education sessions, affects the development of sessions and has a negative impact on student learning. A solution to this problem should therefore be sought immediately in order to ensure quality education. PMID:27504252
Hurlburt, Michael S.; Chamberlain, Patricia; DeGarmo, David; Zhang, Jinjin; Price, Joe M.
Objective: Behavioral difficulties increase the risk that children will experience negative placement disruptions while in foster care. Chamberlain et al. (2006) found that the Parent Daily Report (PDR), a brief measure of parent-reported child behaviors, was a strong predictor of negative placement changes over 1 year among children receiving…
Powell, Michael Lee; Newgent, Rebecca A.
This study examined the use of disc golf as a creative, recreational play intervention for improving classroom behaviors in disruptive children. Twenty-two elementary students were randomly selected for either a treatment or control group and rated at pre- and post- by their teachers on the use of nine positive classroom behaviors (e.g., sharing,…
Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia.
The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created to collect information regarding a variety of adolescent health behaviors among students in the state of Washington. It expands on two previous administrations of a student tobacco, alcohol, and other drug survey and includes questions about medical care, safety,…
Rozalski, Michael; Drasgow, Erik; Drasgow, Fritz; Yell, Mitchell
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among students' disruptive and violent behavior and staff's use of proactive and reactive strategies in a secure residential treatment center serving delinquent adolescent males. One hundred hours of observational data were collected, and linear regression models were used to explore the…
Repinski, Daniel J.; Zook, Joan M.
Seven features of adolescents' relationships with mothers and with fathers (time together per day, number of activities, degree of influence, subjective closeness, and frequency of experiencing positive, hostile, and sad emotions in the relationship) were used to predict adolescents' problem behavior and chemical use. Using a sample of 64 seventh-…
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Työläjärvi, Marja; Eronen, Markku
Sexually offending behavior by adolescents may be directed towards children, age-mates and adults. Neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders and the associated inability to age-related interpersonal relationships and inability to control the sexual desires activated during adolescence may lead a young person to seek inappropriate sexual satisfaction from children. Sometimes the offenses are part of antisocial development. Interventions should be focused on the distorted cognitions and attitudes maintaining the injurious sexual behavior, and on the risk of criminal behavior in general. Pharmacological therapy, mainly with SSRI drugs, has also been tested in adolescents. PMID:26233982
Einfeld, Stewart L.; Gray, Kylie M.; Ellis, Louise A.; Taffe, John; Emerson, Eric; Tonge, Bruce J.; Horstead, Sian K.
In typically developing children, boys are more commonly diagnosed than girls with disruptive behavior disorders, namely, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. For children with intellectual disability (ID), the evidence for this gender effect is less clear. In this report we examine gender…
A recent survey examining student learning in the college classroom found disruptive student behavior to be a major learning inhibitor. Compounding this is the realization that most college faculty are ill prepared to handle this problem. This article discusses the results of the survey as well as identifies the various types of disruptive…
School counselors are in a prime position to collaborate with school and community stakeholders to both prevent and respond to the challenges experienced and exhibited by students with one or more disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). In this article, the DBDs discussed include conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive…
Musser, Erinn H.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Jenson, William R.
A multicomponent intervention that included a precision request program, mystery motivators, token economy with response cost, and antecedent strategies was employed to reduce disruptive classroom behavior in 3 school-aged students with social and emotional disorders. The results suggested that the intervention was successful in reducing levels of…
Moore, Roy L.; And Others
Questionnaires completed by 607 middle school and high school students provided data about the learning of selected advertising-related cognitions among adolescents and on the short-term effect of these cognitions and other communication variables on adolescent consumption behavior. Among the findings were the following: susceptibility to…
Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori
A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
Impact of parent alcohol misuse on the sexual behavior of female adolescents was studied with 1,134 teenagers of alcohol-misusing parents. Index adolescents were more likely to report sexual intercourse and greater frequency of intercourse. Gender of the drinking parent was related to a number of factors related to sexuality. (SLD)
Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…
This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…
Thomas, D R; Becker, W C; Armstrong, M
The effects of teacher behaviors on the classroom behaviors of children were investigated by systematically varying approving (praise, smiles, contacts, etc.) and disapproving (verbal reprimands, physical restraint, etc.) classes of teacher behavior. Measures were taken on both teacher and child behaviors. Each day a sample of 10 children was observed. The subject pool was a class of 28 well-behaved children in a middle-primary public school class. The results demonstrated that approving teacher responses served a positive reinforcing function in maintaining appropriate classroom behaviors. Disruptive behaviors increased each time approving teacher behavior was withdrawn. When the teacher's disapproving behaviors were tripled, increases appeared most markedly in the gross motor and noise-making categories of disruptive behavior. The findings emphasize again the important role of the teacher in producing, maintaining, and eliminating disruptive as well as pro-social classroom behavior. PMID:16795158
de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; Matthys, Walter; Meeus, Wim
This study examined empathy-related responding in male adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), high or low on callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Facial electromyographic (EMG) and heart rate (HR) responses were monitored during exposure to empathy-inducing film clips portraying sadness, anger or happiness. Self-reports were assessed…
Lebowitz, Eli R; Vitulano, Lawrence A; Omer, Haim
OCD is a common disorder in children and adolescents. Disruptive or coercive behaviors among children with OCD have not been a focus of much research until recently. Family accommodation of OCD is strongly related to symptom severity, level of impairment, and treatment outcomes. The possibility of family accommodation being forcefully imposed on family members against their will has not been investigated systematically, although clinical experience points to the existence of such situations. The present study represents an early, qualitative exploration of such situations. The parents of 10 children and adolescents with OCD, who reported the existence of violent or disruptive behavior on the part of the child, were interviewed and their narratives analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Findings from the interviews point to the existence of a pattern of coercive behaviors in which rules and prohibitions, driven by the child's OCD, are aggressively imposed on parents and siblings. The emergent themes are analyzed in relation to obsessive compulsive symptom dimensions and in relation to the means and goals they represent for the obsessive compulsive children. PMID:22168296
Pelletier, Julie; Collett, Brent; Gimpel, Gretchen; Crowley, Susan
Disruptive behavior disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder) are increasingly being diagnosed in preschool children. However, the assessment and differential diagnosis of these disorders presents several challenges to clinicians. For example, most rating scales used to help diagnose such problems…
Hundleby, John D.; And Others
Two-hundred-thirty-one adolescents completed questionnaires concerning their use of drugs (alcohol, tobacco, pain-killers, and marijuana). Factor analysis of endorsements of a broad range of behavior, followed by regression analysis, indicated that sexual behavior, general delinquency, school achievement, and social behavior were all related to…
Darveaux, Dion X.
The Good Behavior Game was modified to include a token reinforcement system (Good Behavior Game Plus Merit). It proved successful in reducing disruptive behavior and improving assignment completion in two students designated as high-risk for placement in a behaviorally impaired classroom. General Acceptability and uses of the intervention are…
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Moscatelli, Silvia; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Keijsers, Loes; van Lier, Pol; Koot, Hans M; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan
Adolescents' behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support), and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males) followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads. PMID:26990191
Gregory, Alice M.; Light-Hausermann, Jade H.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Eley, Thalia C.
Prosocial behavior is an important aspect of normal social and psychological development. Adult and child twin studies typically estimate the heritability of prosocial behavior to be between 30 and 50%, although relatively little is known about genetic and environmental influences upon prosocial behavior in adolescence. We therefore examined…
Marsh, Abigail A.; Finger, Elizabeth C.; Fowler, Katherine A.; Jurkowitz, Ilana T.N.; Schechter, Julia C.; Yu, Henry H.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, R. J. R.
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate dysfunction in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits during a moral judgment task. Fourteen adolescents with psychopathic traits and 14 healthy controls were assessed using fMRI while they categorized illegal and legal behaviors in a moral judgment implicit association task. fMRI data were then analyzed using random-effects analysis of variance and functional connectivity. Youths with psychopathic traits showed reduced amygdala activity when making judgments about legal actions and reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex during task performance. These results suggest that psychopathic traits are associated with amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction. This dysfunction may relate to previous findings of disrupted moral judgment in this population. PMID:22047730
The Joint Commission announced this year that rude language and hostile behavior pose serious threats to patient safety and quality of care. And, for good reason. The Silence Kills study, conducted by VitalSmarts and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, reveals that more than three fourths of caregivers regularly work with doctors or nurses who are condescending, insulting, or rude.But while these disruptive and disrespectful behaviors can be hurtful, what prompted The Joint Commission to address them as a condition of accreditation is the mounting evidence that these behaviors are also harmful. The Silence Kills study found that more than 20% of healthcare professionals have seen actual harm come to patients as a result of such behavior.The most powerful force over human behavior is social influence. People will do almost anything to gain acceptance or avoid rejection. If healthcare leaders want to not only secure the well-being of patients but also increase employee retention and engagement, the most immediate and effective thing they can do is to change this culture of silence.Healthcare leaders who want to engage social influence to eliminate disruptive behavior will have to break the code of silence in 4 crucial conversations. PMID:19077811
The Joint Commission announced this year that rude language and hostile behavior pose serious threats to patient safety and quality of care. The Silence Kills study, conducted by VitalSmarts and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, reveals that more than three-fourths of caregivers regularly work with doctors or nurses who are condescending, insulting, or rude. Although such disruptive and disrespectful behavior can be hurtful, what prompted the Joint Commission to address them as a condition of accreditation is the mounting evidence that such behavior is also harmful. The study found that more than 20% of health professionals have seen actual harm come to patients as a result of such behavior. The most powerful force governing human behavior is social influence. People will do most anything to gain acceptance or avoid rejection. If health care leaders want to not only secure the well-being of patients but also increase employee retention and engagement, the most immediate and effective step they can take is change this culture of silence. Health care leaders who want to engage social influence to eliminate disruptive behavior must break the code of silence in 4 critical conversational areas. PMID:19668065
Miller, Shari; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison
This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between peer deviance, parenting practices, and conduct and oppositional problems among young girls ages 7 and 8. Participants were 588 African American and European American girls who were part of a population-based study of the development of conduct problems and delinquency among girls. Affiliations with problem-prone peers were apparent among a sizeable minority of the girls, and these associations included both males and females. Although peer delinquency concurrently predicted disruptive behaviors, the gender of these peers did not contribute to girls’ behavior problems. Harsh parenting and low parental warmth showed both concurrent and prospective associations with girls’ disruptive behaviors. Similar patterns of association were seen for African American and European American girls. The findings show that peer and parent risk processes are important contributors to the early development of young girls’ conduct and oppositional behaviors. These data contribute to our understanding of girls’ aggression and antisocial behaviors and further inform our understanding of risk processes for these behaviors among young girls in particular. PMID:18777132
McDaniel, Sara C.; Flower, Andrea
Students with challenging behavior spend substantial amounts of time away from instruction due to behavioral problems. Time away from instruction reduces their opportunities for learning, which are critical as these students typically demonstrate academic performance below their same-age peers. After removal from instruction due to behavioral…
Terre, Lisa; And Others
Examined relationship between affect, demographics, and health-related lifestyle among 139 public high school students. Data analyses revealed distinctive demographic and affective correlates of different health behaviors. No one variable uniformly predicted adolescents' health behaviors. Demographics and affect showed differential relationships…
Braaten, Sheldon, Ed.; And Others
This book presents 17 papers from a 1982 national multidisciplinary conference on services for behaviorally disordered adolescents. The following papers are included: "Programming for Youth in Secondary Schools and the Community," (W. Van Til); "Who's Crazy? II" (C. Michael Nelson); "Correlates of Successful Adaptive Behavior: Comparative Studies…
Miller, Alec L.; Rathus, Jill H.; Linehan, Marsha M.
Filling a tremendous need, this highly practical book adapts the proven techniques of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) to treatment of multiproblem adolescents at highest risk for suicidal behavior and self-injury. The authors are master clinicians who take the reader step by step through understanding and assessing severe emotional…
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Moscatelli, Silvia; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Keijsers, Loes; van Lier, Pol; Koot, Hans M.; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan
Adolescents’ behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support), and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males) followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads. PMID:26990191
Turton, Amina M.; Umbreit, John; Mathur, Sarup R.
Three adolescents (ages 14-17) with emotional and behavioral disorders displayed chronic disruptive behavior in their self-contained classrooms at a self-contained alternative school. A descriptive functional behavioral assessment was conducted for each student. Data from file review, structured interviews, and direct observations were used to…
Liu, Yu-Chin; Hsu, Yung-Chieh
Adolescence is the time during which people develop and form their crucial values, personality traits, and beliefs. Hence, as deviant behaviors occur during adolescence, it is important to guide adolescents away from such behaviors and back to normal behaviors. Moreover, although there are various kinds of deviant behavior, most of them would…
Herts, Kate L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.
Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to…
Evans, Steven W.; And Others
Two studies evaluated a notetaking intervention targeting the passive learning style and disruptive behaviors exhibited by adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Thirty teens in a summer program were able to learn notetaking strategies using a modification of the Directed Notetaking Activity training method and showed…
Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.
This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…
Ruttledge, Richard A.; Petrides, K. V.
Cognitive behavioural approaches emphasize the links between thoughts, feelings and behaviour (Greig, 2007). Previous research has indicated that these approaches are efficacious in reducing disruptive behaviour in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to provide further evaluation of cognitive behavioural group work to reduce disruptive…
Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank
Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…
Monti, Peter M; Miranda, Robert; Nixon, Kimberly; Sher, Kenneth J; Swartzwelder, H Scott; Tapert, Susan F; White, Aaron; Crews, Fulton T
This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2004 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, organized and chaired by Peter M. Monti and Fulton T. Crews. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction, by Peter M. Monti; (2) Adolescent Binge Drinking Causes Life-Long Changes in Brain, by Fulton T. Crews and Kim Nixon; (3) Functional Neuroimaging Studies in Human Adolescent Drinkers, by Susan F. Tapert; (4) Abnormal Emotional Reactivity as a Risk Factor for Alcoholism, by Robert Miranda, Jr.; (5) Alcohol-Induced Memory Impairments, Including Blackouts, and the Changing Adolescent Brain, by Aaron M. White and H. Scott Swartzwelder; and (6) Discussion, by Kenneth Sher. PMID:15714044
Khasnabis, Debi; Upton, Kevin
Advances in technology have aggravated the generations-old problem of bullying in schools. In this article, the authors attend to the impact of social media on bullying and advocate an approach to teaching anti-bullying that incorporates a project-based learning approach for young adolescents. Process drama as a model of learning and the use of…
Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde
The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and…
Weis, Robert; Smenner, Lindsey
The authors investigate the construct validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality (BASC-SRP; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998). A sample of 970 adolescents (16-18 years) with histories of disruptive behavior problems and truancy complete the SRP; a subsample of 290 adolescents also completed the Minnesota…
Hilton, Robert C.; Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon; He, Jiayan; Mayes, Taryn; Emslie, Graham J.; Porta, Giovanna; Clarke, Greg N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.
Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of antidepressant medication, alone and in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), on comorbid symptoms of anxiety, attention, and disruptive behavior disorders in participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial. Method: Adolescents with selective serotonin…
Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.
This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…
Interrelations between childhood behavior problems and adolescent temperament, and between adolescent temperament and problem behaviors, were studied. A sample of 311 adolescents with an average age of 15.7 years completed self-report measures regarding behavior problems before age 13, temperament, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems,…
Ercan, Eyup Sabri; Somer, Oya; Amado, Sonia; Thompson, Dennis
The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of Age of Onset Criterion (AOC) to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorder. For this purpose, a 10-item Likert-type Parent Assessment of Pre-school Behavior Scale (PARPS), developed by the experimenters, was used to examine the presence…
Erickson, William D.
The paper reviews the literature on sexual delinquency in male and female adolescents and considers guidelines for effective intervention in nonspecialized treatment programs. A section on sexual delinquency in females touches on prostitution and incest, while a section on males notes the changing composition of the sexually delinquent population.…
Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J
Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855
Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…
Salehi, Saeed; And Others
The need for effective programs to delay sexual activity and to educate adolescents regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has never been greater. Statistics point out that a significant number of teenagers throughout the United States engage in behavior that increases their risks of becoming infected with HIV. This study examined…
Jacobs, Rachel H.; Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Jordan, Neil; Silva, Susan G.; Rohde, Paul; March, John S.
Adolescents with depression and high levels of oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat. Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, and…
Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane
Using a large contemporary data set (the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement), the authors examined the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less…
Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Pine, Daniel S.; Pickett, Kate E.; Carter, Alice S.
There is a robust association between prenatal smoking and disruptive behavior disorders, but little is known about the emergence of such behaviors in early development. The association of prenatal smoking and hypothesized behavioral precursors to disruptive behavior in toddlers (N=93) was tested. Exposed toddlers demonstrated atypical behavioral…
Samuel, Diana; Sher, Leo
Suicide is both a public and mental health problem, and is a leading cause of deaths, especially among adolescents. Two factors that contribute to the decision of adolescents to commit suicide are having a primary mood disorder and/or substance use. In the Indian culture, the family unit has both a positive and negative impact on suicide. The family serves as a protective factor that provides a strong support for the individual, but alternately creates an inseparable individual when seeking mental health care, which often complicates the situation. Due to the stigma, Indians typically perceive having a mental illness as shameful. Religion is integral to the Indian culture so much so that individuals often use herbal remedies, seek help from religious leaders, and attend religious establishments prior to obtaining a mental health evaluation in those that are subsequently deemed as mentally ill. Despite the fact that suicides are underreported and misdiagnosed in India, it is known that the highest rates are among those <30 years old. The methods most commonly used to commit suicide in India include the ingestion of poison (often pesticides), hanging, burning, and drowning. When immigrating, Indians tend to switch the methods they use to commit suicide from ingestion of poison to hanging, which may reflect a lack of available poisonous substances or the influence of the host culture. Considering the high suicide rates in adolescents, the importance of providing psychoeducation, restricting access to lethal means, and promoting social integration in immigrants are various ways by which suicides in Indian adolescents can be avoided. PMID:24006319
Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana
Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…
Casey, David M.; Williams, Robert J.; Mossiere, Annik M.; Schopflocher, Donald P.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C.; Smith, Garry J.; Wood, Robert T.
Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older,…
O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony
Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646
Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.
This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…
Kaufmann, Dagmar R.; Wyman, Peter A.; Forbes-Jones, Emma L.; Barry, Jason
This study examined the relationships between prosocial involvement (PI), antisocial peer affiliations (APA), and the degree of their overlapping or independent prediction of behavior problems in urban adolescents. Two dimensions of behavior were assessed at ages 9-11 and at ages 13-15: disruptive, aggressive conduct and number of delinquent…
In this article the author presents results from an ongoing study about a special education programme in Switzerland for students with behavior disorders. The study explores careers and identities of adolescent students, who were referred to so-called "Timeout-classes" because of behavior disorders (e.g disengagement, disruptive and aggressive…
Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate
OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786
Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Tiemeier, Henning; Ringoot, Ank P; Ivanova, Masha Y; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Roza, Sabine J
Infants' temperamental anger or frustration reactions are highly stable, but are also influenced by maturation and experience. It is yet unclear why some infants high in anger or frustration reactions develop disruptive behavior problems whereas others do not. We examined family regularity, conceptualized as the consistency of mealtime and bedtime routines, as a protective factor against the development of oppositional and aggressive behavior. This study used prospectively collected data from 3136 families participating in the Generation R Study. Infant anger or frustration reactions and family regularity were reported by mothers when children were ages 6 months and 2-4 years, respectively. Multiple informants (parents, teachers, and children) and methods (questionnaire and interview) were used in the assessment of children's oppositional and aggressive behavior at age 6. Higher levels of family regularity were associated with lower levels of child aggression independent of temperamental anger or frustration reactions (β = -0.05, p = 0.003). The association between child oppositional behavior and temperamental anger or frustration reactions was moderated by family regularity and child gender (β = 0.11, p = 0.046): family regularity reduced the risk for oppositional behavior among those boys who showed anger or frustration reactions in infancy. In conclusion, family regularity reduced the risk for child aggression and showed a gender-specific protective effect against child oppositional behavior associated with anger or frustration reactions. Families that ensured regularity of mealtime and bedtime routines buffered their infant sons high in anger or frustration reactions from developing oppositional behavior. PMID:26589300
Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran
Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…
Brook, David W.; Morojele, Neo K.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.
This study tested a developmental model of pathways to risky sexual behavior among South African adolescents. Participants comprised 633 adolescents, 12-17 years old, recruited from households in Durban, South Africa. Data were collected using in-person interviews. Topics included adolescents' sexual behaviors, household poverty levels, vulnerable…
Wang, Xinze; Lu, Jiaming; Ollivier, Natacha; Saturnino, Anais; Gomez, Elena; Casellas, Claude; Picot, Bernadette
The behavior of endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage treatment plant affects their final fate in water environment. We selected six endocrine disrupting chemicals: 4 alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A) and 2 steroids (17α-ethinylestradiol and estriol) as targets, their removal and transformation in wastewater treatment plant were studied. Five mixed liquors were sampled respectively from different stages of Minhang wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai. EDCs concentration were analyzed with GC-MS. The main removal pathways of EDCs include initial adsorption by suspended solids and following biodegradation in biological sludge. The removal efficiency of six targets was more than 86%. The concentration of OP and 4-n-NP in water significantly increased in anoxic stage, the reason may be the releases of EDCs from sludge to water on the condition of low DO. And it was also found that the EDCs could be released to water phase in the secondary clarifier, which may cause potential risk of EDCs entering the environment with discharge.
Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L
An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being. PMID:26167837
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Willett, John B
Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescents' behavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status and rate of change. The sample comprised approximately 1,000 adolescents between ages 11 years and 15 years. The results indicated that adolescents' antisocial behaviors and substance use increased and their positive behavioral engagement decreased over time. As adolescent age increased, parental knowledge of their adolescent's activities decreased, as did parental rule making and support. The level and rate of change in family management and adolescent behavioral outcomes varied by family structure and by gender. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between parenting practices and adolescent problem behavior were found. Specifically, parenting practices predicted subsequent adolescent behavior, and adolescent behavior predicted subsequent parenting practices. In addition, parental warmth moderated the effects of parental knowledge and rule making on adolescent antisocial behavior and substance use over time. PMID:21688899
Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy
Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…
Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.
Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…
Collins, Tai A.; Cook, Clayton R.; Dart, Evan H.; Socie, Diana G.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Long, Anna C.
Off-task and disruptive classroom behaviors have a negative impact on the learning environment and present a unique challenge for teachers to address. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Class Pass Intervention (CPI) as a behavior management strategy for secondary students with disruptive classroom behavior. The CPI consists of providing…
Semke, Carrie A.; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Kwon, Kyongboon; Sheridan, Susan M.; Woods, Kathryn E.
Children with disruptive behaviors are at risk for adverse outcomes. Family involvement is a significant predictor of positive child behavior outcomes; however, little research has investigated parent psychological variables that influence family involvement for children with disruptive behaviors. This study investigated the role of parental…
Zabin, L S
Low self esteem does not explain problems of adolescence, particularly unwanted pregnancy and early childbearing. This intimates that their root causes are personal rather than structural and socioeconomic, thereby allowing us to blame the victim. Contrary to popular opinion, few teens (10%) want to conceive and most teens want something other than pregnancy, indicating a need for effective intervention. Teens who were ambivalent about childbearing 2 years earlier are just as likely to have given birth as those who wanted to conceive. Teens self-concept is based on the reality of their environment, which, for most teens who have given birth, involves chronic unemployment, a culture of single parenthood in which men play no supportive role in the home, and the knowledge that teens who choose to continue to attend school despite having given birth fare the same as those who drop out of school. Structural changes (jobs and career goals), long term intervention, and continuous social support are needed to improve a teen's capacity to make choices, especially those concerning contraception. In other words, motivation must be so strong that conceptions are avoided. No family wants to go on welfare and no woman wants to have a baby while a teenager, but when teens become pregnant, they tend not to choose abortion. If welfare reform creates true opportunity for jobs, it will create the motivation to avoid pregnancy but not reduce the childbearing rate among teens that conceive. Very early maturation is correlated with very early onset of sexual activity. The very best sex education and services are unlikely to be offered at a young enough age in schools. US society is obsessed with and unwilling to talk about sex. The notion of choice is not part of poor America. Interactive interventions providing continuing support are needed to make a difference in adolescent pregnancy. PMID:8086816
McCurdy, Barry L.; Lannie, Amanda L.; Barnabas, Ernesto
Non-classroom settings are often the most violence-prone areas within a school. This study investigated the impact of an interdependent group contingency on the disruptive behaviors of students in grades K-6 in an urban school cafeteria. Nine female noontime aides and National School and Community Corps staff members implemented the Lunchroom…
Fisher, Philip A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Mannering, Anne M.; Takahashi, Aiko; Chamberlain, Patricia
Objective: Placement disruptions have adverse effects on foster children. Identifying reliable predictors of placement disruptions might assist in the allocation of services to prevent disruptions. There were two objectives in this study: (a) to replicate a prior finding that the number of daily child problem behaviors at entry into a new foster…
The purpose of this paper is to: (1) examine how world oil prices have behaved during past oil supply disruptions, (2) attempt to understand why world oil prices have behaved during disruptions as they have, and (3) see what history foretells, if anything, for the behavior of world oil prices during future oil supply disruptions.
Henry, David B
This study evaluates the validity of two aggression scales for predicting observations of malicious or disruptive behavior at school. Subgroups of a sample of 1,560 children (age 8.6+/-1.5 years) were assessed using (a) peer nominations of aggression, (b) teacher reports on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Aggression scale and the peer nomination items, or (c) self-reports on the peer nomination items. Criteria were observations of physical, verbal, initiated, retaliatory, malicious, and disruptive behaviors. Teacher report peer nominations predicted observed physical, verbal, initiated, and retaliatory aggression and disruptive behavior. Peer nominations predicted physical aggression, verbal aggression, initiation and disruptive behavior, and TRFs predicted verbal, initiated, and disruptive behavior. Self-reports did not significantly predict any behavior. Implications for assessment of aggression are discussed. PMID:16880277
Johnson, Sarah A.; Javurek, Angela B.; Painter, Michele S.; Peritore, Michael P.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Roberts, R. Michael; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.
The nature and extent of care received by an infant can affect social, emotional and cognitive development, features that endure into adulthood. Here we employed the monogamous, California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), a species, like the human, where both parents invest in offspring care, to determine whether early exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC: bisphenol A, BPA; ethinyl estradiol, EE) of one or both parents altered their behaviors towards their pups. Females exposed to either compound spent less time nursing, grooming and being associated with their pups than controls, although there was little consequence on their weight gain. Care of pups by males was less affected by exposure to BPA and EE, but control, non-exposed females appeared able to “sense” a male partner previously exposed to either compound and, as a consequence, reduced their own parental investment in offspring from such pairings. The data emphasize the potential vulnerability of pups born to parents that had been exposed during their own early development to EDC, and that effects on the male, although subtle, also have consequences on overall parental care due to lack of full acceptance of the male by the female partner. PMID:26039462
Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane
Using a large contemporary data set, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (NLSY-CS), this paper examines the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less time with children and had lower quality home environments, and these mediators were significantly linked to adolescent risky behaviors. Similar effects were not found for evening work schedules, while other types of maternal and paternal nonstandard work schedules were linked to higher parental knowledge of children’s whereabouts, which led to lower levels of adolescent risky behaviors. Subgroup analyses revealed that males, those in families with low incomes, and those whose mothers never worked at professional jobs may particularly be affected by mothers working at nights, due to spending less time together, having a lower degree of maternal closeness, and experiencing lower quality home environments. In addition, the effects of maternal night shifts were particularly pronounced if children were in the preschool or middle-childhood years when their mothers worked those schedules. Implications and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:20822236
White, Stuart F.; Fowler, Katherine A.; Sinclair, Stephen; Schechter, Julia C.; Majestic, Catherine M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, R. James
Objective Youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), including conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), have difficulties in reinforcement-based decision making, the neural basis of which is poorly understood. Studies examining decision making in youth with DBD have revealed reduced reward responses within the ventrome-dial prefrontal cortex/orbitofrontal cortex (vmPFC/OFC), increased responses to unexpected punishment within the vmPFC and striatum, and reduced use of expected value information in the anterior insula cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during the avoidance of suboptimal choices. Previous work has used only monetary reinforcement. The current study examined whether dysfunction in youth with DBD during decision making extended to environmental reinforcers. Method A total of 30 youth (15 healthy youth and 15 youth with DBD) completed a novel reinforcement-learning paradigm using environmental reinforcers (physical threat images, e.g., striking snake image; contamination threat images, e.g., rotting food; appetitive images, e.g., puppies) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results Behaviorally, healthy youth were significantly more likely to avoid physical threat, but not contamination threat, stimuli than youth with DBD. Imaging results revealed that youth with DBD showed significantly reduced use of expected value information in the bilateral caudate, thalamus, and posterior cingulate cortex during the avoidance of suboptimal responses. Conclusions The current data suggest that youth with DBD show deficits to environmental reinforcers similar to the deficits seen to monetary reinforcers. Importantly, this deficit was unrelated to callous-unemotional (CU) traits, suggesting that caudate impairment may be a common deficit across youth with DBD. PMID:24745957
Powers, Christopher J; Bierman, Karen L
Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in 1st and 3rd grades, and peer relations were assessed during 2nd grade. Results indicated that heightened classroom aggressive-disruptive behavior levels were related to proximal peer relations, including an increased likelihood of having aggressive friends and lower levels of peer dislike of aggressive-disruptive children. Controlling for 1st grade aggressive-disruptive behavior, the three 2nd grade peer experiences each made unique contributions to 3rd grade child aggressive-disruptive behavior. These findings replicate and extend a growing body of research documenting the multifaceted nature of peer influence on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school. They highlight the importance of the classroom ecology and proximal peer relations in the socialization of aggressive-disruptive behavior. PMID:22545840
Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.
Following a large, diverse sample of 4096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of three aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school – peer-dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in first and third grade, and peer relations were assessed during second grade. Results indicated that heightened classroom aggressive-disruptive behavior levels were related to proximal peer relations, including an increased likelihood of having aggressive friends and lower levels of peer-dislike of aggressive-disruptive children. Controlling for first grade aggressive-disruptive behavior, the three second grade peer experiences each made unique contributions to third grade child aggressive-disruptive behavior. These findings replicate and extend a growing body of research documenting the multifaceted nature of peer influence on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school. They highlight the importance of the classroom ecology and proximal peer relations in the socialization of aggressive-disruptive behavior. PMID:22545840
Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Trainor, Brian C.
Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors—in particular, those that we are exposed to during perinatal life—can dramatically shape the organism’s risk for later diseases, including neurobehavioral disorders. However, depending on the environmental insult, one sex may demonstrate greater vulnerability than the other sex. Herein, we focus on two well-defined extrinsic environmental factors that lead to sexually dimorphic behavioral differences in animal models and linkage in human epidemiological studies. These include maternal or psychosocial stress (such as social stress) and exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (such as one of the most prevalent, bisphenol A [BPA]). In general, the evidence suggests that early environmental exposures, such as BPA and stress, lead to more pronounced behavioral deficits in males than in females, whereas female neurobehavioral patterns are more vulnerable to later in life stress. These findings highlight the importance of considering sex differences and developmental timing when examining the effects of environmental factors on later neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:25705580
Farrow, J A; Schwartz, R H; Vanderleeuw, J
We characterize associations with and motivations for tattooing in adolescents through data from a controlled, three-group comparison of adolescents from a substance abuse treatment program, detention center, and private pediatric practice. We surveyed 474 adolescents (12 to 18 years old) with tattoos (12%) and without tattoos (88%). The private pediatric practice was the control site. A 34-item questionnaire was used to profile the three groups and their primary associations with tattooing with respect to race, drug use, school attendance, school grades, parental marital status, family income, tattooing by family members, criminal activity, and involvement with satanic rituals. Tattooing was significantly (P less than .005) associated with all of these variables in the ways described, as was knowledge of its association with human immunodeficiency virus infection. No interventions were made. Tattooing is common in adolescents and is associated with low self-esteem, delinquency, drug abuse, family and peer modeling, and participation in satanic rituals. Addressing the behavior as a health problem is discussed. PMID:1994684
Kroneman, Leoniek M.; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison E.; Koot, Hans M.
Although a number of reviews of gender differences in disruptive behavior and parental socialization exist, we extend this literature by addressing the question of differential development among girls and by placing both disruptive behavior and parenting behavior in a developmental framework. Clarifying the heterogeneity of development in girls is important for developing and optimizing gender-specific prevention and treatment programs. In the current review, we describe the unique aspects of the development of disruptive behavior in girls and explore how the gender-specific development of disruptive behavior can be explained by family linked risk and protective processes. Based on this review, we formulate a gender-specific reciprocal model of the influence of social factors on the development of disruptive behavior in girls in order to steer further research and better inform prevention and treatment programs. PMID:20161077
Mills, Brian D; Pearce, Hadley L; Khan, Omar; Jarrett, Ben R; Fair, Damien A; Lahvis, Garet P
Domoic acid (DA) is a toxin produced by marine algae and known primarily for its role in isolated outbreaks of Amnestic Shellfish Poisoning and for the damage it inflicts on marine mammals, particularly California sea lions. Lethal effects of DA are often preceded by seizures and coma. Exposure to DA during development can result in subtle and highly persistent effects on brain development and include behavioral changes that resemble diagnostic features of schizophrenia and anomalies in social behavior we believe are relevant to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To more fully examine this hypothesis, we chose to examine adolescent mice exposed in utero to DA for endpoints relevant to ASD, specifically changes in social behavior and network structure, the latter measured by resting state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI). We found that male offspring exposed in utero to DA expressed reproducible declines in social interaction and atypical patterns of functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate, a region of the default mode network that is critical for social functioning. We also found disruptions in global topology in regions involved in the processing of reward, social, and sensory experiences. Finally, we found that DA exposed males expressed a pattern of local over-connectivity. These anomalies in brain connectivity bear resemblance to connectivity patterns in ASD and help validate DA-exposed mice as a model of this mental disability. PMID:27050322
Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Kelly, Pat; Shain, Rochelle N.; Piper, Jeanna M.
There is a need for community-based, culturally sensitive, cognitive-behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among minority adolescents. Studies of adolescent risk and protective behaviors have focused on identifying modifiable psychosocial variables that predict differential outcomes for subsequent intervention efforts. Research…
Wickwire, Emerson M.; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.; Murray, David M.
The present study considered the relation between adolescent gambling behavior and the perceived environment, the component of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) Problem Behavior Theory that assesses the ways that adolescents perceive the attitudes and behaviors of parents and peers. The predominantly African-American sample included 188 sophomores from…
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of social stories on decreasing the disruptive behaviors of children with autism. Social stories were created for three participants, ages 7 and 9, to decrease three target disruptive behaviors, using a loud voice in class, chair tipping, and cutting in lunch line. Using a…
Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane M.
This study investigated the relationships among four distinct types of social goals, effort, and disruptive behavior in urban physical education. Social responsibility, affiliation, recognition, status goals, along with effort and disruptive behavior in physical education were reported by high school physical education students (N = 314) from…
Bicard, David F.; Ervin, Angela; Bicard, Sara C.; Baylot-Casey, Laura
We investigated teacher versus student seat selection in the context of group and individual seating arrangements. Disruptive behavior during group seating occurred at twice the rate when students chose their seats than when the teacher chose. During individual seating, disruptive behavior occurred more than three times as often when the students…
Pardini, Dustin A.; Barry, Tammy D.; Barth, Joan M.; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.
Examining children's perceptions of their social acceptance in conjunction with others' ratings of their peer social standing can enhance our understanding of the heterogeneity in children exhibiting disruptive behavior problems. Using a sample of 213 youth rated in the top 31 percent of their class on aggressive-disruptive behaviors, the current…
van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf
Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043).…
O'Connor, Erin; Rodriguez, Eileen; Cappella, Elise; Morris, Jordan; McClowry, Sandee
In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS), a temperament-based preventive intervention, in reducing the disruptive behavior problems of young children from low-income, urban families. Results indicate that children enrolled in INSIGHTS evidenced a decrease in disruptive behavior problems…
O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Cavell, Hannah J.
The current pilot study investigated the effectiveness of the Superheroes Social Skills program in decreasing disruptive and aggressive behavior of elementary-age students with high-incidence disabilities. Six students in a self-contained classroom, identified as displaying high rates of disruptive and aggressive behavior toward peers, were…
Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.
Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior.…
Bearss, Karen; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Smith, Tristram; Scahill, Lawrence
Guidance on effective interventions for disruptive behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited. We present feasibility and initial efficacy data on a structured parent training program for 16 children (ages 3-6) with ASD and disruptive behavior. The 6-month intervention included 11 Core and up to 2 Optional…
Henry, Carolyn S.; And Others
Several authorities have observed that a moderate degree of conformity by the young may be necessary for a society to function effectively. In order to examine the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of parental power and behavior and adolescent conformity, adolescents (N=368) in 184 families completed questionnaires concerning aspects…
This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…
Coleman, Leon Garland; Liu, Wen; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.
Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28–37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility. PMID:24275185
Ernst, M; Korelitz, Katherine E
Recent neurodevelopmental research has been focusing on the transition period of adolescence into adulthood. This growing interest was spurred by the long-standing realization of the high cost of this transition period in terms of morbidity and mortality, and the emergence of research tools that permit direct examination of brain function in humans. The cost of reaching adulthood is understood as resulting from the typical behavioral and environmental changes that accompany adolescence . The present review describes how the current research helps formulate neurobiological models that can be used to guide future work. One example of such a model, the triadic neural systems model , will be examined in more detail. This review will proceed in three stages. First, we will show how neural development results from the confluence of maturational changes that are quantitatively and qualitatively heterogeneous across brain regions, neurochemical and molecular systems. This normative developmental heterogeneity is translated into typical adolescent behavioral patterns, including risk-taking, novelty-seeking, emotional intensity and lability, and peer-group social primacy [5, 9]. Second, based on the notion that motivated behavior can be operationally decomposed into the three core modules of approach, avoidance and control, any alteration in the balance of these three core entities can affect behavior in unique ways. This formulation will serve as the foundation of the neural systems model framework proposed in this review. Third, functional neuroimaging is being used to examine how neural systems underlie this balance within the neural systems model. We will provide a summary of the state of research in this area. Finally, we will show how this research is important for understanding not only normal development, but also the psychopathology. The role of genetic or environmental factors will not be addressed here, despite their critical roles in determining and
Chinawa, J. M.; Manyike, P. C.; Obu, H. A.; Odetunde, O. I.; Aniwada, E. C.; Ndu, I. K.; Chinawa, A. T.
Background. Adolescents are prone to various forms of behavioral problems. These behavioral issues in adolescents can have serious consequences for the adolescents. Objectives. The objectives of the study are to determine the causative factors of adolescent problems and specific manifestations. Methods. Behavioral problems were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools in southeast Nigeria from February to April, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from Health Kids Colorado Questionnaire. Results. A total of 763 subjects completed the questionnaire. Adolescents who reported to have used tobacco 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 times during the last 30 days are just 3.14% and 3.4%, respectively. Nineteen (2.49%) adolescents claimed that they have had sex before but not in the last 3 months. Adolescents who attempted suicide are from 15 years and peaked at 18. Eighty-three (11%) adolescents who are 15 years old attempted suicide in a year; this peaks at 17 years where 235 (30.8%) committed suicide. Majority of adolescents with behavioral disorder are from the upper class family. Conclusion. This study revealed that adolescents exhibit several forms of behavioral problems. PMID:25276048
O’Connor, Erin; Rodriguez, Eileen; Cappella, Elise; Morris, Jordan; McClowry, Sandee
In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament (INSIGHTS), a temperament-based preventive intervention, in reducing the disruptive behavior problems of young children from low-income, urban families. Results indicate that children enrolled in INSIGHTS evidenced a decrease in disruptive behavior problems over the course of the intervention, with children with high maintenance temperaments evidencing the most rapid rates of decline. In addition, children in a collaborative version of the program with joint parent and teacher sessions demonstrated more rapid decreases in disruptive behavior than children in a parallel version with separate parent and teacher sessions. Furthermore, high maintenance children in the collaborative intervention evidenced lower levels of disruptive behaviors at the end of the intervention than their peers in the parallel version. Increases in parenting efficacy appeared to be the mechanism through which INSIGHTS reduced child disruptive behavior. PMID:22822277
Repinski, Daniel J.; Shonk, Susan M.
This study examined the degree to which adolescent self-system processes (self-efficacy, emotional reactivity) and reports of mothers' and fathers' behavior (warmth/support, hostility) predict adolescents' behavior toward siblings and their friends' problem behavior. Subjects were 76 seventh-grade adolescents who provided self-reports of parent…
Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil
The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female adolescents were much less involved in antisocial, aggressive, and psychopathic delinquent behavior compared to male adolescents. Moreover, compared to female delinquent adolescents, male delinquent adolescents were found to have greater tendencies towards antisocial personality, sociability, being sexually abused, and alcohol and drug use. In contrast, female delinquent adolescents had a greater tendency toward depression than male delinquent adolescents. No gender differences were found in the association between family dynamics and delinquent behaviors. Age and antisocial personality had the most significant total effects on male delinquent behavior. In contrast, alcohol and drug abuse was the strongest contributing factors in female delinquent behavior, although the level of alcohol and drug abuse was much higher among male adolescents than among female adolescents. PMID:15886868
Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.
To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…
Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose
This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…
Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Henry, P.; McGary, S.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.M.
Studies in our laboratory have focused on endocrine, neuroendocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction in the Japanese quail. These studies considered various stages in the life cycle, including embryonic development, sexual maturation, adult reproductive function, and aging. A major focus of our research has been the role of neuroendocrine systems that appear to synchronize both endocrine and behavioral responses. These studies provide the basis for our more recent research on the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproductive function in the Japanese quail. These endocrine active chemicals include pesticides, herbicides, industrial products, and plant phytoestrogens. Many of these chemicals appear to mimic vertebrate steroids, often by interacting with steroid receptors. However, most EDCs have relatively weak biological activity compared to native steroid hormones. Therefore, it becomes important to understand the mode and mechanism of action of classes of these chemicals and sensitive stages in the life history of various species. Precocial birds, such as the Japanese quail, are likely to be sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, because sexual differentiation occurs during this period. Accordingly, adult quail may be less impacted by EDC exposure. Because there are a great many data available on normal development and reproductive function in this species, the Japanese quail provides an excellent model for examining the effects of EDCs. Thus, we have begun studies using a Japanese quail model system to study the effects of EDCs on reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses. In this review, we have two goals: first, to provide a summary of reproductive development and sexual differentiation in intact Japanese quail embryos, including ontogenetic patterns in steroid hormones in the embryonic and maturing quail. Second, we discuss some recent data from experiments in our laboratory in which EDCs have been tested in
Bondi, Corina O.; Taha, Ameer Y.; Tock, Jody L.; Totah, Nelson K.; Cheon, Yewon; Torres, Gonzalo E.; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Moghaddam, Bita
Background Understanding the nature of environmental factors that contribute to behavioral health is critical for successful prevention strategies in individuals at-risk for psychiatric disorders. These factors are typically experiential in nature, such as stress and urbanicity, but nutrition, in particular dietary deficiency of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), has increasingly been implicated in the symptomatic onset of schizophrenia and mood disorders, which typically occurs during adolescence to early adulthood. Thus, adolescence may be the critical age range for the negative impact of diet as an environmental insult. Methods A rat model involving consecutive generations of n-3 PUFA deficiency was developed based on the assumption that dietary trends toward decreased consumption of these fats began four-five decades ago when the parents of current adolescents were born. Behavioral performance in a wide range of tasks, as well as markers of dopamine-related neurotransmission was compared in adolescents and adults fed n-3 PUFA adequate and deficient diets. Results In adolescents, dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency across consecutive generations produced a modality-selective and task-dependent impairment in cognitive and motivated behavior distinct from the deficits observed in adults. While this dietary deficiency affected expression of dopamine-related proteins in both age groups, in adolescents, but not adults, there was an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase expression that was selective to the dorsal striatum. Conclusions These data support a nutritional contribution to optimal cognitive and affective functioning in adolescents. Furthermore, they suggest that n-3 PUFA deficiency disrupts adolescent behaviors through enhanced dorsal striatal dopamine availability. PMID:23890734
Metzler, C W; Noell, J; Biglan, A; Ary, D; Smolkowski, K
This study supports a model of adolescents' risky sexual behavior in which this behavior is seen as a product of the same peer and family factors which influence a wide range of problem behaviors. The Patterson et al. (1992) model of peer and parental factors associated with adolescents' sexual risk-taking behavior was tested on three independent samples of adolescents, ages 14 through 18. Adolescents whose peers were reported to engage in diverse problem behaviors were more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior. Poor parental monitoring and parent-child coercive interactions were associated having deviant peers, and poor parental monitoring also had a direct relationship to risky sexual behavior. Family involvement was associated with fewer parent-child coercive interactions. Less availability of parental figures in the family was directly associated with risky sexual behavior and was also associated with poorer parental monitoring. PMID:7966262
White, Rachel; Renk, Kimberly
Given the ramifications of difficulties related to externalizing behavior problems, the present study examined the relationships among adolescents' externalizing behavior problems, characteristics of adolescents' families, their perceived neighborhood support, and their acculturation. As part of this study, a culturally diverse sample of…
Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee
Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…
Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.; Thornberry, Thornberry P.
Statement of problem: "Childhood" maltreatment is known to be a risk factor for a range of later problems, but much less is known about "adolescent" maltreatment. The present study aims to investigate the impact of adolescent maltreatment on antisocial behavior, while controlling for prior levels of problem behavior as well as sociodemographic…
Carlo, Gustavo; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nielson, Matthew G.
Despite the importance of understanding sympathy and prosocial behaviors, research on the development of these tendencies in adolescence remains relatively sparse. In the present study, we examined age trends and bidirectional longitudinal relations in sympathy and prosocial behaviors across early to middle adolescents. Participants were 500…
Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.
A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…
Olds, R. Scott
Objective: To identify the informed-consent issues when conducting adolescent health behavior research. Methods: A literature review was conducted across diverse academic fields about the informed-consent issues that were relevant to adolescent health behavior research. Results: Issues included defining consent, assent and permission, minimal…
Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.
This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found…
Lescano, Celia M.; Hadley, Wendy S.; Beausoleil, Nancy I.; Brown, Larry K.; D'eramo, Domenic; Zimskind, Abigail
This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory (ARI), designed to assess adolescent risk behaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and risk behaviors were administered to 134 youth (ages 12-19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of…
Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil
The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female…
Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.
This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…
Curry, Laura A.; Youngblade, Lise M.
The prevalence, etiology, and consequences of adolescent risk behavior have stimulated much research. The current study examined relationships among anger and depressive symptomatology (DS), risk perception, self-restraint, and adolescent risk behavior. Telephone surveys were conducted with 290 14- to 20-year-olds (173 females; M = 15.98 years).…
Helton, Jesse J.
Objective: This study examined the relative risk of placement disruption for 3-10 year-old children placed in out-of-home care based on the biological relatedness of the placement caregiver and child disability status: no disability, a non-behavioral disability only, a behavioral disability only, or both a non-behavioral and behavioral disability.…
Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Dalmau, Yaniz C. Padilla; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimović, Muška
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping, spinning in circles, shrill laughter, screaming, crying) behaviors. Only destructive behavior was targeted for the functional analyses and FCT, but data were also collected on disruptive behaviors. All procedures were conducted in the participants’ homes by their mothers with investigator coaching. Phase 1 consisted of conducting a functional analysis within a multielement design. Phase 2 consisted of conducting FCT with demand fading and repeated extinction baselines within a reversal design. Single-case data are provided for 3 participants, and summary data are provided for all 10 participants. Results of phase 1 showed that all participants’ destructive and disruptive behavior was maintained, at least in part, by negative reinforcement. Results of phase 2 showed that both destructive behavior and non-targeted disruptive behavior occurred at lower levels during FCT when compared to the functional analysis demand condition and baseline conditions, suggesting that FCT was effective in decreasing both target destructive behavior and non-targeted disruptive behaviors. PMID:23487563
The primary objective of this research is to understand peer influence on adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors and their risk perception of these behaviors; 155 adolescent boys, average age 14.3, participated in the study. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests revealed that adolescent boys engaged in many types of behaviors, although they perceived some of them as unhealthy. When compared with adolescent boys who showed low peer influence, those with high peer influence engaged in the following behaviors more frequently: sunbathing, using tanning booths, waxing skin, and spa treatments. The findings suggest a need for further investigation regarding the motivation for and impediments to adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors. PMID:20432614
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Oppenheim, David; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham
The study examined how individuality and connectedness of female adolescents relate to their perceptions of maternal behavior and to adolescent-mother discrepancies in perceptions of maternal behavior. Seventy 16.5-year-old daughters and their mothers participated in the study. Individuality and connectedness of the daughters were assessed from…
Hoffman, K. Douglas; Lee, Seung Hwan
This research focuses on gaining a better understanding of how students negatively impact other students' classroom experience. More specifically, this research develops a typology of disruptive student behavior, including frequency of occurrence and the perceived magnitude of the disruption from a student perspective. Students also provide…
Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimovic, Muska
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping,…
Bi, Yanzhi; Yuan, Kai; Feng, Dan; Xing, Lihong; Li, Yangding; Wang, Hongmei; Yu, Dahua; Xue, Ting; Jin, Chenwang; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie
Rapid progress had been made towards the effect of Internet addiction (IA) on the adolescents brain, relatively little is known about the alterations in inter-hemispheric resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) changes. In the current study, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) was used to examine inter-hemispheric RSFC in IA adolescents (n=21) and controls (n=21). The integrity of the fibers connecting the regions, which showed aberrant inter-hemispheric functional connectivity, was assessed by fiber tractography analysis. In addition, the coupling of inter-hemispheric functional and structural connectivity was investigated. Relative to controls, IA adolescents showed decreased VMHC of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the genu of corpus callosum (CC). The decreased VMHC of DLPFC was significantly negative correlated with the duration of IA. Moreover, the VMHC of DLPFC showed significant correlations with the FA of CC in healthy controls, which was disrupted in IA. Our findings provided more scientific evidence for the involvement of DLPFC in IA. It is hoped that multimodal imaging methods can provide deeper insights into the IA effects on the brain. PMID:26409575
Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone
Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms). PMID:11902388
Cohn, M D; Popma, A; van den Brink, W; Pape, L E; Kindt, M; van Domburgh, L; Doreleijers, T A H; Veltman, D J
Children diagnosed with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Deficient fear conditioning may be a key mechanism underlying persistence, and has been associated with altered regional brain function in adult antisocial populations. In this study, we investigated the associations between the neural correlates of fear conditioning, persistence of childhood-onset DBD during adolescence and psychopathic traits. From a cohort of children arrested before the age of 12 years, participants who were diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder in previous waves (mean age of onset 6.5 years, s.d. 3.2) were reassessed at mean age 17.6 years (s.d. 1.4) and categorized as persistent (n=25) or desistent (n=25) DBD. Using the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory and functional magnetic resonance imaging during a fear conditioning task, these subgroups were compared with 26 matched healthy controls from the same cohort. Both persistent and desistent DBD subgroups were found to show higher activation in fear processing-related brain areas during fear conditioning compared with healthy controls. In addition, regression analyses revealed that impulsive-irresponsible and grandiose-manipulative psychopathic traits were associated with higher activation, whereas callous-unemotional psychopathic traits were related to lower activation in fear-related areas. Finally, the association between neural activation and DBD subgroup membership was mediated by impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits. These results provide evidence for heterogeneity in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying psychopathic traits and antisocial behavior and, as such, underscore the need to develop personalized interventions. PMID:24169638
Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle
Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school. PMID:25376191
Repinski, Daniel J.; Kucharczak, Kristy; Laing, Rebecca; Boyce, MaiLan
This study examined the degree to which parent behavior and sibling behavior are differentially related to adolescent adjustment. Using reports from adolescent sibling pairs (41 seventh graders and an older sibling), this study was designed to examine the degree to which parent and sibling behavior (i.e., warm/supportive and hostile) uniquely, and…
LeGray, Matthew W.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Sterling-Turner, Heather; Olmi, D. Joe; Bellone, Katherine
This study provides a direct comparison of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA). Participants included three children in center-based classrooms referred for functional assessments due to disruptive classroom behavior. Functional assessments included interviews and brief…
Stadler, Christina; Grasmann, Dorte; Fegert, Jorg M.; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Schmeck, Klaus
Objective: To examine whether children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; hyperkinetic conduct disorder, conduct disorder, hyperkinetic disorder) characterized by low heart rate profit less from an intensive cognitive behavioral intervention aimed at reducing impulsive, oppositional and aggressive behavior problems. Method: Basal heart rate…
Ozsarfati, Jak; Koren, Gideon
The majority of children with FASD suffer from disruptive behaviors and most of them need medications to modify these behaviors. The objective of this review is to familiarize professionals caring for children with FASD with stimulants and other drugs for ADHD, and the second generation antipsychotic risperidone - for aggressive and defiant behaviors. PMID:25715382
Hulac, David M.; Benson, Nicholas
Disruptive behaviors requiring intervention occur across multiple school systems, including individual students and classrooms. Such behaviors, including talking aloud in class, getting out of one's seat, or more serious behaviors, can be frustrating for other students as well as teachers, who are trying to help students meet ever-increasing…
Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.
Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…
Cooper, M. Lynne; And Others
Problem behaviors during adolescence can include substance use, low educational achievement, delinquent or conduct-disordered behavior, and indiscriminant, precocious, or risky sexual behavior. Despite the dissimilarities of these behaviors, some researchers believe that such actions share common underlying causes, which can be explained by the…
Casey, David M; Williams, Robert J; Mossière, Annik M; Schopflocher, Donald P; El-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C; Smith, Garry J; Wood, Robert T
Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older, had more conflict in their family, were more likely to have used drugs, and have peers that gamble. Compared to adolescent female non-gamblers, adolescent female gamblers had more attention and thought problems, and scored higher on rule-breaking. For both males and females, religiosity was a protective factor against involvement in gambling. Some of the results are consistent with previous research, while some of these findings are unique to this study. These results shed light on factors to consider when developing programs to combat the negative impacts of gambling on adolescents. PMID:21388671
Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Borrero, John C.; Nguyen, Linda; Leon-Enriquez, Yanerys; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B.; DeLeon, Iser G.
The delivery of food contingent on 10 s of consecutive toy engagement resulted in a decrease in engagement and a corresponding increase in other responses that had been previously reinforced with food. Similar effects were not observed when tokens exchangeable for the same food were delivered, suggesting that engagement was disrupted by the…
Insel, Beverly J; Gould, Madelyn S
The evidence to date suggests that suicide modeling is a real phenomenon, although of a smaller effect size than other psychiatric and psychosocial risk factors for adolescent suicide. Multiple lines of inquiry provide converging evidence, including studies on suicide clusters, media influence on suicide (particularly coverage of nonfictional suicides), and peer influence on suicidality. Despite variations in study setting and methodology, the body of literature is consistent with a modeling hypothesis. Although advances in documentation of suicide modeling have been made over the past decade, we are still confronted by unresolved issues regarding the underlying mechanisms. Prevention and postvention strategies can be optimized to avert modeling of suicidal behavior only once research addresses the complexities and uncertainties of this phenomenon. PMID:18439450
Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.; Lengua, Liliana J.
Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child’s disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029
Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J
Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029
Spiller, Laura C; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Skopp, Nancy A
OBJECTIVE: Despite the substantial co-occurrence of women's experiences of physical and sexual violence, very little is known about their separate and combined effects on child functioning. The present study examines whether sexual victimization experienced by physically abused women is associated with their children's disruptive behavior problems, after controlling for mothers' physical victimization and parent to child aggression. It also tests the hypothesis that maternal distress mediates the association between women's sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. METHOD: The sample includes 449 mothers and their children (4-8 years) who were recruited while residing in domestic violence shelters. Mothers reported on their experiences of physical and sexual victimization over the past year and their current symptoms of psychological distress. Trained diagnosticians interviewed mothers about their children's disruptive behavior problems. RESULTS: Approximately 75% of the women reported experiences of sexual victimization. Physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization correlated positively with their children's disruptive behavior problems and their own psychological distress. The results of path analyses indicated that maternal psychological distress mediates the relation between women's experiences of sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization are important for understanding their children's disruptive behavior problems. Additionally, this research provides further evidence that maternal psychological distress is important for understanding how intimate partner violence might influence children. PMID:23166861
Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.
This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…
Cruz-Sáez, Soledad; Pascual, Aitziber; Salaberria, Karmele; Etxebarria, Itziar; Echeburúa, Enrique
This study investigated the prevalence of weight control and binge eating behaviors in a sample of 767 adolescent girls aged 16-20 years, and the differences between adolescents with and without altered eating behaviors regarding anthropometric and body image variables and beliefs associated with eating disorders. Adolescents who engaged in unhealthy strategies were found to be at a higher risk of eating disorders, since these behaviors were accompanied by higher levels of drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction, as well as by beliefs associated with the importance of weight and body shape as a means of personal and social acceptance. PMID:24058109
Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A.; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W.; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A.; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta
Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644
Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta
Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644
Timmermans, Maartje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.
Background: Health risk behaviors like substance use (alcohol, tobacco, soft/hard drugs) and risky sexual behavior become more prevalent in adolescence. Children with behavior problems are thought to be prone to engage in health risk behaviors later in life. It is, however, unclear which problems within the externalizing spectrum account for these…
Healthy behaviors including adequate exercise and sleep, eating breakfast, maintaining a healthy weight, and not smoking or binge drinking inhibit chronic disease. However, little is known about how these behaviors change across life course stages, or the social factors that shape healthy behaviors over time. I use multilevel growth models and waves I-III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=10,775) to evaluate relationships between adolescents' psychosocial resources, social support, and family of origin characteristics during adolescence and healthy behavior trajectories through young adulthood (ages 13-24). I find that healthy behaviors decline dramatically during the transition to young adulthood. Social support resources, such as school connectedness and support from parents, as well as living with non-smoking parents, are associated with higher levels of healthy behaviors across adolescence and adulthood. Social support from friends is associated with lower engagement in these behaviors, as is living in a single parent family or with a smoking parent during adolescence. Findings indicate that psychosocial, social support, and family of origin resources during adolescence exert a persistent, though generally not cumulative, influence on healthy behavior trajectories through young adulthood. PMID:22745923
Herts, Kate L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L
Exposure to stress is associated with a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents, including aggressive behavior. Extant research examining mechanisms underlying the associations between stress and youth aggression has consistently identified social information processing pathways that are disrupted by exposure to violence and increase risk of aggressive behavior. In the current study, we use longitudinal data to examine emotion dysregulation as a potential mechanism linking a broader range of stressful experiences to aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of early adolescents (N = 1065). Specifically, we examined the longitudinal associations of peer victimization and stressful life events with emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to create latent constructs of emotion dysregulation and aggression. Both stressful life events and peer victimization predicted subsequent increases in emotion dysregulation over a 4-month period. These increases in emotion dysregulation, in turn, were associated with increases in aggression over the subsequent 3 months. Longitudinal mediation models showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship of both peer victimization (z = 2.35, p = 0.019) and stressful life events (z = 2.32, p = 0.020) with aggressive behavior. Increasing the use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies is an important target for interventions aimed at preventing the onset of adolescent aggressive behavior. PMID:22466516
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Carlo, Gustavo; Christensen, Katherine J.; Yorgason, Jeremy B.
This study examined the bidirectional relations between authoritative parenting and adolescents' prosocial behavior over a 1-year time period. Data were taken from Time 2 and 3 of the Flourishing Families Project, and included reports from 319 two-parent families with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 2 = 12.34, SD = 1.06, 52% girls).…
Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha
The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…
McLean, Ann L.; Flanigan, Beverly J.
Examined male transition-marking behaviors from adolescence into adulthood at first intercourse. Findings from 80 adolescent males revealed that alcohol use at first intercourse was unrelated to use of contraceptives at that time but was inversely related to whether first intercourse was planned. Planning was positively related to contraceptive…
Sobotková, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Hrdlicka, Michal
The study deals with the relationship between antisocial behavior in early adolescence and family environment. Sample consisted of 2,856 adolescents (53% girls, mean age 13.5 years, SD = 1.1) from urban areas in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was used to measure sociodemographic characteristics of the…
Susman, Elizabeth J.
The links between endocrine physiological processes and adolescent psychological processes are the focus of this article. Presents a brief history of biopsychosocial research in adolescent development. Discusses four models for conceptualizing hormone-behavior research as illustrative of biopsychosocial models. Concludes with challenges and…
Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre
The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…
Fine, Kathi M.; Walther, Michael R.; Joseph, Jessica M.; Robinson, Jordan; Ricketts, Emily J.; Bowe, William E.; Woods, Douglas W.
Although several studies have examined the efficacy of Acceptance Enhanced Behavior Therapy (AEBT) for the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) in adults, data are limited with respect to the treatment of adolescents. Our case series illustrates the use of AEBT for TTM in the treatment of two adolescents. The AEBT protocol (Woods & Twohig, 2008) is…
Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas
Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…
Wagner, Bernard R.; Breitmeyer, Rudolf G.
After briefly citing the wide scope and diversity of token programs, and reviewing some of these programs for adolescents in greater detail, the authors describe the structure and operation of a residential behavior modification program for emotionally disturbed, pre-delinquent, and mentally retarded adolescents. (Author)
Longo, Ann Marie; And Others
This set of transparency masters provides information on a study of 52 adolescents with behavior disorders. The study assessed the value of teaching basic reading skills to at-risk 8th- to 10th-graders who were reading below the 4th grade level. Students were divided into three groups based on IQ level. The adolescents attended a foundation course…
Fung, Annis L. C.
Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …
Valois, Robert F.; MacDonald, John M.; Bretous, Lena; Fischer, Megan A.; Drane, J. Wanzer
Reviews relevant research to examine risk factors and behaviors associated with adolescent aggression and violence. Adolescent aggression and violence develop and manifest within a complex constellation of factors (individual, family, school/academic, peer-related, community and neighborhood, and situational). Different risk factors are more…
In a study of middle adolescents, the interrelationships between stressful events, perceived social support, internalization of problems, and externalization of problems were examined. Social support did not act as a buffer of stress. Stressful events and low family support predicted problem behaviors for adolescent girls. (BC)
Ali, Mir M.; Dwyer, Debra S.
In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Using data of a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer…
Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Finkenauer, Catrin; van Kooten, Dyana C.
Communication between children and parents has been the subject of several studies, examining the effects of, for example, disclosure and secrecy on adolescents' social relationships and adjustment. Less attention has paid to adolescent deception. We developed and tested a new instrument on lying behavior in a sample of 671 parent-adolescent…
Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Berres, Ashley K.; Sim, Leslie; Friedrich, William N.
The primary goal of this study was to determine if the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory-Self-Report conformed to the five-factor scale format that was initially used with a clinical sample that included adolescents referred for sexual abuse evaluations. Participants were 141 teenagers, ages 12-19 (M = 15.11, SD = 1.4), and their…
Katz, Laurence Y.; Cox, Brian J.; Gunasekara, Shiny; Miller, Alec L.
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) implementation in a general child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit and to provide preliminary effectiveness data on DBT versus treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Sixty-two adolescents with suicide attempts or suicidal ideation were admitted to one of two…
Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.
Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…
Nock, Matthew K.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Context Although suicide is the third leading cause of death among US adolescents, little is known about the prevalence, correlates, or treatment of its immediate precursors, adolescent suicidal behaviors (i.e., suicide ideation, plans, and attempts). Objectives To estimate lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors among US adolescents and associations of retrospectively-reported temporally primary DSM-IV disorders with the subsequent onset of suicidal behaviors. Design Dual-frame national sample of adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Setting Face-to-face household interviews with adolescents and questionnaires with parents. Participants 6,483 adolescents (ages 13–18 years) and parents. Main outcome measures Lifetime suicide ideation, plans, and attempts. Results The estimated lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among NCS-A respondents is 12.1%, 4.0% and 4.1%. The vast majority of adolescents with these behaviors meet lifetime criteria for at least one DSM-IV mental disorder assessed in the survey. Most temporally primary (based on retrospective age-of-onset reports) fear/anger, distress, disruptive behavior, and substance disorders significantly predict elevated odds of subsequent suicidal behaviors in bivariate models. The most consistently significant associations of these disorders are with suicide ideation, although a number of disorders also predict plans and both planned and unplanned attempts among ideators. Most suicidal adolescents (>80%) receive some form of mental health treatment. In most cases (>55%) treatment starts prior to onset of suicidal behaviors but fails to prevent these behaviors from occurring. Conclusions Suicidal behaviors are commonly occurring among US adolescents, with rates that approach those of adults. The vast majority of youth with suicidal behaviors have pre-existing mental disorders. The disorders most powerfully predicting ideation, though, are
de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk
Wymbs, Brian T.
Prospective and experimental manipulations of child behavior have demonstrated that disruptive child behavior causes interparental discord. However, research has yet to test for mechanisms underlying this causal pathway. There is reason to suspect parent affect and parenting behavior explain child effects on interparental relations. To investigate this hypothesis, parent couples of 9- to 12-year-old boys and girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=51) and without ADHD (n=39) were randomly assigned to interact with a confederate child exhibiting “disruptive” or “typical” behavior. Parents rated their own affect as well as the quality of their partner's parenting and communication immediately following the interaction. Observers also coded the quality of parenting and communication behaviors parents exhibited during the interaction. Parents who interacted with disruptive confederates reported lower positive affect and higher negative affect than those who interacted with typical confederates. Parents were also noted by their partners and observers to parent disruptive confederates more negatively than typical confederates. Multilevel mediation models with observational coding and partner ratings both found that negative parenting explained the causal pathway between disruptive child behavior and negative communication. Exploratory analyses revealed that the strength of this pathway did not differ between parents of children with and without ADHD. Parent affect was not found to explain child effects on interparental communication. Though methodological issues limit the generalizability of these findings, results indicate that negative parenting may be one mechanism through which disruptive children cause interparental discord. PMID:21875193
Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.
Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215