Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Ranta, Klaus; Fröjd, Sari
School performance, involvement in bullying and frequent absences from school are indicators of not only cognitive and social skills but also mental health. Mental disorders may interfere with learning and adjustment in many ways. Mental disorders may bring about problems in attention and motivation, and failure in schoolwork often makes an adolescent vulnerable to mental disorders. Early recognition of and prompt intervention in specific learning difficulties may prevent mental disorders. Adolescents involved in bullying present with increased risk of both internalising and externalising mental disorders, as do adolescents who are frequently absent from school, whether due to illness or due to truancy. Peer rejection is an important warning sign during adolescent development. These features can fairly easily be recognised at school, and school's psychosocial support systems should have plans for intervention. Mental health promotion in school should comprise approaches that make school safe and involving for all, and individual interventions for those at risk. PMID:21053520
Ortabag, Tulay; Ozdemir, Serpil; Bakir, Bilal; Tosun, Nuran
Adolescents experience the onset and development of several health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study is to determine health risk and promotion behaviors of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 who were attending and to test the reliability and validity analysis of the Turkish version of Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (AHPS). The…
Puskar, Kathryn; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Stark, Kirsti Hetager; Frazier, Leann
Adolescents who are required to live away from their families of origin face many challenges that can affect mood and mental health. Milieu therapists (mental health associates) working with adolescents in a residential treatment center may be expected to provide group activities that promote mental health. It is important for new group leaders to…
The mass media rank among the most important socialization agents influencing the health behaviors of today's youth, with some researchers estimating that youth spend 33-50% of their waking hours with some form of media (Strasburger and Wilson 2002). The impact of the media on health and the large amount of time adolescents spend with media make…
Millstein, Susan G., Ed.; And Others
The three parts of this book, "The Adolescent, Health, and Society,""Topical Areas for Promoting Health," and "The Future of Adolescent Health Promotion: Next Steps," offer a new framework for examining the status of adolescent health in the United States. Contributing authors have provided the following chapters: (1) "Adolescent Health Promotion:…
Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, NY.
This study examined data from focus groups with New York City adolescents and interviews with health care providers serving New York City adolescents (hospital based clinics, school based health centers, child health clinics, community health centers, and a multi-service adolescent center) in order to determine how to promote health and reduce…
Chen, Mei-Yen; Wang, Edward K; Yang, Rea-Jane; Liou, Yiing-Mei
The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a newly devised instrument, the Adolescent Health Promotion scale (AHP), a 40-item Likert-type self-report instrument used to detect unhealthy lifestyles in adolescents. Content validity was considered to be supported based on the findings of previous studies and the observations of a panel of 14 content experts. This study examined the construct validity and reliability of the instrument. The psychometric properties of the AHP, including item analysis, factor analysis, and reliability measures, were assessed based on the responses of 1,128 Taiwanese adolescents. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measures and Bartlett's sphericity test showed that the samples met the criteria for factor analysis. Factor analysis yielded a six-factor instrument that explained 51.14% of the variance in the 40 items. The six factors were social support, life appreciation, health responsibility, nutritional behaviors, exercise behaviors, and stress management. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient for the total scale was 0.932, and alpha coefficients for the subscales ranged from 0.75 to 0.88. The results of this study indicate that the AHP has good construct validity and reliability in Taiwanese and that its use by school health nurses to assess adolescent health promotion programs is warranted. PMID:12588427
This article discusses a 3-year project, "Promotion of Adolescent Reproductive Health and Healthy Living," which was implemented by the Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia. The project seeks to achieve the following: 1) development of a reproductive health of adolescent module (RHAM) for trainers and educators; 2) training of trainers; 3) sharing of adolescent reproductive health experiences in Asian countries; and 4) setting up three service models in Sabah, Selangor, and Terengganu to provide reproductive health (RH) care to adolescents and youth. The first part of the RHAM with the trainer's manual has been finalized and will be tested in a workshop. The second part, a teacher's guide, is under preparation. A series of training on the use of the RHAM will be conducted including a 5-day national workshop, which will be followed by several state level workshops. The three service models being set up have specific orientations. The Sabah model is putting up a youth clinic for adolescents within its clinic network. The Selangor model is developing a Youth Resource Center for training and youth involvement in RH activities. Lastly, the Terengganu family planning association (FPA) has developed a Youth Center web site, which features the history, mission, and activities of the Terengganu FPA. PMID:12158246
Rew, Lynn; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Horner, Sharon D.; Thompson, Sanna; Johnson, Karen E.
Although much is known about health-risk behaviors of adolescents, less is known about their health-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this analysis was to compare health-promoting behaviors in adolescents in Grades 9-12 by gender and ethnicity and explore how these behaviors changed over time. Data were collected from 878 rural adolescents…
Bryant, Carol A; Mayer, Alyssa B; McDermott, Robert J; Panzera, Anthony D; Trainor, John K
Social marketing applies some of the same principles used in commercial marketing for the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programs designed to motivate voluntary behavioral change. It relies on consumer research for understanding the people they hope to change, including their values, aspirations, fears, lifestyle, and factors that motivate and deter them from adopting desired behaviors. Social marketing has been applied in public health settings since the 1980s for promoting such behaviors as safer sex, hypertension and cholesterol control, reduced occurrence of alcohol-impaired driving, improved utilization of public health prevention and screening services, and enactment of better school nutrition policies in schools. Although most evidence for social marketing's utility comes from interventions directed at adult audiences, its application with adolescents may help to address issues that have been challenging or unresponsive to health behavior change specialists. This article describes the basic tenets of social marketing as a behavior change process, identifies its previously successful applications with adolescent audience segments, and offers both lessons learned and projected future applications that employ emerging communication technologies. PMID:22423457
Meschke, Laurie L.; Peter, Christina R.
Parents play an important role in the promotion of adolescent sexual health, but little is known about parents' attitudes and beliefs in immigrant families. We examine Hmong American parents' attitudes about adolescent sexual health using survey data from 202 parents of adolescents with attention to parental gender differences. Breaking…
DiClemente, Ralph J.; Houston-Hamilton, Amanda
This article offers a framework for development and implementation of health education strategies for preventing HIV infection and enhancing health promoting attitudes and behaviors among Black and Latino adolescents. Three HIV prevention program components are identified and discussed. (IAH)
Elliot, Diane L.; Lindemulder, Susan J.; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D.; Smith, Jennifer
Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals’ subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors. PMID:23109253
Walcott, Christy M.; Music, Ajlana
Extensive research suggests that adolescence is a critical developmental period, especially when it comes to factors that influence mental health problems. Systematic efforts to promote adolescent help-seeking are essential for improving long-term mental health outcomes. Defined as a "behavior of actively seeking help from other people,"…
Elias, M. J.; Kress, J. S.; Gager, P. J.; Hancock, M. E.
In this article the implications of a biopsychosocial model of adolescent health promotion for the delivery of relevant services in the schools are examined. Adolescent health status is reviewed and is found, despite existing efforts for health promotion and risk reduction, to be in need of substantial improvement. For this to happen, having an early and sustained positive impact on the health trajectory of children is essential; further school-based and school-linked curricular efforts for health promotion are a necessary feature of a successful strategy for adolescent health promotion. In fact, this approach brings to life the social contract between pediatricians and the public to apply the biopsychosocial model at both clinical and societal levels. Curricula serve as the glue that binds diverse health-related concerns and findings emerging from health research into a coordinated, thorough, and detailed strategy and set of actions for school-based and school-linked health promotion efforts. School-linked health programs are consistent with a biopsychosocial perspective, from which the school is best viewed as a health-promoting environment, centered in concepts and practices outlined in and conveyed through the curriculum and associated instructional practices and delivery systems. Many benefits can result from pediatricians and other medical professionals taking a renewed, prominent role in comprehensive school-based and school-linked health promotion efforts, beginning in the early grades, when the trajectory of adolescent health is strongly set into motion. PMID:8069279
Kirana, Paraskevi-Sofia; Nakopoulou, Evangelia; Akrita, Ioanna; Papaharitou, Stamatis
The aim of the study was to explore the attitudes and views of Greek parents concerning the provision of sex education to adolescents, as well as the opinion and the involvement of school health promoters in sex education. A questionnaire containing 20 items was constructed and administered to 93 parents of adolescents who participated in parents'…
Carrington, Suzanne; Lennox, Nicholas; O'Callaghan, Michael; McPherson, Lyn; Selva, Gitta
The focus of this paper is on an Australian research project that evaluated the effectiveness of a resource called the "Ask Health Diary," which is used in the school curriculum to promote self-determination for better health and wellbeing for adolescents who have an intellectual disability. Education and health researchers used…
Gonzaga, Nathalia Costa; de Araújo, Thelma Leite; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz
The study aimed to analyze the nursing interventions related to the competencies of health promotion of overweight children and adolescents in the school context, in light of the Galway Consensus through an integrative review. Articles published between 1988 and June, 2013 were found in the databases CINAHL, SCOPUS, MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane, LILACS and SciELO. A total of 139 publications were obtained from indexed descriptors. Ten articles were selected after reading. The most evident competencies for health promotion were: catalyzing change, needs assessment and impact assessment. The highlights were activities of health education and partnerships with other health professionals and the families of students. It was found that the skills of health promotion developed by nurses can contribute to the adoption of healthy habits by overweight children and adolescents. PMID:24676122
Background Research in the past decade has revealed average to poor menstrual health among many Iranian girls. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a health promotion project on improving menstrual health in adolescent girls in Iran. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the health intervention program. A total of 698 students (study participants and controls) in several schools in Mazandaran province, Iran were included. The project comprised 10 two-hour educational sessions. Educational topics included the significance of adolescence, physical and emotional changes during adolescence, pubertal and menstruation health and premenstrual syndrome. A self-administered questionnaire measuring demographic characteristics, behaviors during menstruation, menstrual patterns, sources of information about menstruation and personal health data was administered. The questionnaire was administered to all participating students after the experimental group received the training. Results Among the most significant results was the impact of educational sessions on bathing and genital hygiene. A total of 61.6% in the experimental group compared with 49.3% in the control group engaged in usual bathing during menstruation (p = 0.002). Individual health status was significantly statistically correlated with menstrual health. Attitude towards menstruation was also significantly related to menstrual health. Conclusions The present study confirms that educational interventions, such as the health promotion project in this study, can be quite effective in promoting menstrual health. PMID:22420743
Eastman, Karen L; Corona, Rosalie; Schuster, Mark A
Parents play an important role in the sexual health of their adolescent children. Based on previous research, formative research, and theories of behavioral change, we developed Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, an intervention designed to help parents improve communication with their adolescent children, promote healthy adolescent sexual development, and reduce adolescent sexual risk behaviors. We conduct the parenting program at worksites to facilitate recruitment and retention of participants. The program consists of 8 weekly 1-hour sessions during the lunch hour. In this article, we review the literature that identifies parental influences on adolescent sexual behavior, summarize our formative research, present the theoretical framework we used to develop Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, describe the program's components and intervention strategies, and offer recommendations based on our experiences developing the program. By targeting parents at their worksites, this program represents an innovative approach to promoting adolescent sexual health. This article is intended to be helpful to health educators and clinicians designing programs for parents, employers implementing health-related programs, and researchers who may consider designing and evaluating such worksite-based programs. PMID:16978501
Elliot, Diane L; Lindemulder, Susan J; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D; Smith, Jennifer
Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals' subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors. PMID:23109253
Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; de Sena e Vasconcelos, Anna Carolina; Monteiro, Rosana Juliet Silva; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Trajano, Maria de Fátima Cordeiro; de Lima, Luciane Soares
Occupational therapy can contribute to sexual and reproductive health through health education. The purpose of this study was to describe an occupational therapy intervention aimed at sexual and reproductive health promotion in adolescents. Fifty-eight adolescents were involved in the study, before, during and after the interventions. Educative activities such as puzzles, storytelling, mime and board games were used, which occupational therapy faculty and students had constructed. The games were employed as mediators for gaining knowledge in sexual and reproductive health. Outcome was measured using a questionnaire, audio recordings and field diaries. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results showed the adolescents' increased knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information immediately after the intervention. The thematic analysis was grouped into three categories: the adolescents' initial expectations regarding the project, reflections on the process experienced during the interventions and use of educational games by occupational therapists. The importance of rapport and dialogue was highlighted in the construction of interventions based on participatory methods. The absence of a longitudinal follow-up is a limitation in this study. Further research is important to systematically assess sexual health promotion strategies in adolescence. PMID:26174484
Dietrich, Janan J.; Coetzee, Jenny; Otwombe, Kennedy; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Mdanda, Sanele; Nkala, Busisiwe; Makongoza, Matamela; Tshabalala, Celokhuhle; Soon, Christine N.; Kaida, Angela; Hogg, Robert; Gray, Glenda E.; Miller, Cari L.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure prevalence and predictors of mobile phone access and use among adolescents in Soweto, South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: The current study was an interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey among adolescents 14-19 years living in a hyper-endemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)…
Tesler, Riki; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Baron-Epel, Orna
Background: Health promotion policies targeting risk-taking behaviors are being implemented across schools in Israel. This study identified the most effective components of these policies influencing cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Logistic hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis of data for 5279 students in…
Patel, Vikram; Flisher, Alan J; Nikapota, Anula; Malhotra, Savita
Children and adolescents in low and middle income countries (LAMIC) constitute 35-50% of the population. Although the population in many such countries is predominantly rural, rapid urbanisation and social change is under way, with an increase in urban poverty and unemployment, which are risk factors for poor child and adolescent mental health (CAMH). There is a vast gap between CAMH needs (as measured through burden of disease estimates) and the availability of CAMH resources. The role of CAMH promotion and prevention can thus not be overestimated. However, the evidence base for affordable and effective interventions for promotion and prevention in LAMIC is limited. In this review, we briefly review the public health importance of CAM disorders in LAMIC and the specific issues related to risk and protective factors for these disorders. We describe a number of potential strategies for CAMH promotion which focus on building capacity in children and adolescents, in parents and families, in the school and health systems, and in the wider community, including structural interventions. Building capacity in CAMH must also focus on the detection and treatment of disorders for which the evidence base is somewhat stronger, and on wider public health strategies for prevention and promotion. In particular, capacity needs to be built across the health system, with particular foci on low-cost, universally available and accessible resources, and on empowerment of families and children. We also consider the role of formal teaching and training programmes, and the role for specialists in CAMH promotion. PMID:18093112
Levin, Kate; Inchley, Jo; Currie, Dorothy; Currie, Candace
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the health promoting school (HPS) on adolescent well-being. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland were analysed using multilevel linear regression analyses for outcome measures: happiness, confidence,…
Hyden, Christel; Cohall, Alwyn
Over the past decade, new technology and media have changed the way we communicate, access information, and share content with one another. Most 12- to 17-year-olds now own cell phones, and most adolescents and young adults spend several hours per day on computers and cell phones. The American Academy of Pediatrics now encourages all pediatricians to increase their knowledge of new media and technology. This article details technology access among adolescents and young adults, highlights several current and potential innovative applications for new technology and social networking in health promotion, and discusses issues to consider as practitioners move toward integrating new media into clinical and health education settings. PMID:22423462
Rew, Lynn; Arheart, Kristopher L; Horner, Sharon D; Thompson, Sanna; Johnson, Karen E
Although much is known about health-risk behaviors of adolescents, less is known about their health-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this analysis was to compare health-promoting behaviors in adolescents in Grades 9-12 by gender and ethnicity and explore how these behaviors changed over time. Data were collected from 878 rural adolescents (47.5% Hispanic; mean age at baseline 14.7 years). Males from all ethnic groups scored significantly higher than all females on physical activity; non-Hispanic Black males and females scored significantly higher than other ethnic groups on safety behaviors. Hispanic and non-Hispanic White females scored higher than males in these ethnic groups on stress management. Nutrition, physical activity, and safety behaviors decreased significantly for most participants from Grade 9 to 12 whereas stress management remained relatively stable. Findings are similar to those from nationally representative samples that analyzed cross-sectional data and have implications for school nursing interventions to improve health-promoting behaviors in rural adolescents. PMID:25037685
Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.
Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important health behaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…
Wilson, Dawn K., Ed.; Rodrigue, James R., Ed.; Taylor, Wendell C., Ed.
This book examines the importance of advocating healthy lifestyles among minority adolescents, who are at increased risk for particular health problems. The three central themes: highlight similarities and differences across diverse ethnic groups of adolescents while respecting their heterogeneity; emphasize innovative and culturally based…
Francomano, Jesse A; Harpin, Scott B
Social networking site use has exploded among youth in the last few years and is being adapted as an important tool for healthcare interventions and serving as a platform for adolescents to gain access to health information. The aim of this study was to examine the strengths, weaknesses, and best practices of utilizing Facebook in adolescent health promotion and research via pragmatic literature review. We also examine how sites can facilitate ethically sound healthcare for adolescents, particularly at-risk youth. We conducted a literature review of health and social sciences literature from the past 5 years related to adolescent health and social network site use. Publications were grouped by shared content then categorized by themes. Five themes emerged: access to healthcare information, peer support and networking, risk and benefits of social network site use in care delivery, overcoming technological barriers, and social network site interventions. More research is needed to better understand how such Web sites can be better utilized to provide access to adolescents seeking healthcare. Given the broad reach of social network sites, all health information must be closely monitored for accurate, safe distribution. Finally, consent and privacy issues are omnipresent in social network sites, which calls for standards of ethical use. PMID:25393833
Morton, K L; Keith, S E; Beauchamp, M R
Drawing from transformational leadership theory, this research examined adolescent perceptions of transformational teaching within school-based physical education. In Study 1, focus groups with 62 adolescents examined perceptions of physical education teachers' behaviors. In Study 2, follow-up semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 purposively sampled students. Findings revealed that behaviors within physical education settings can be understood within a conceptual framework that includes transformational teaching. In addition, students who perceived their teachers to utilize transformational behaviors described more adaptive responses. Issues concerning theory development and the application of transformational teaching to physical activity and health promotion settings are considered. PMID:20207668
Valois, Robert F.
This article presents the text of an address delivered by Robert F. Valois at the Annual National Meeting of the American Association for Health Education, American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on April 4, 2003. Valois discusses the changes in the "American village" as they relate to…
Cho, Sun Mi
Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term "prevention" for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10-20% of children and adolescents worldwide. Despite their relevance as a leading cause of health-related disability and their long lasting consequences, the mental health needs of children and adolescents are neglected. Early intervention can help reduce the significant impacts that children and adolescents with serious mental health problems may experience. Screening is the first step in early intervention, recognizing emotional and behavioral problems and providing help at an early stage. It is essential to implement early intervention in a sensitive and ethical manner to avoid any of the negative outcomes. PMID:24348657
Escribano, S; Espada, J P; Morales, A; Orgilés, M
The objective of this study is to determinate the factors that mediate in the self-reported consistent condom use over the 24-months post-intervention period in adolescents who received COMPAS, a sexual health promotion intervention targeted to Spanish adolescents. Twelve high schools located in Spain were randomized to an intervention or a control group with baseline, immediate-post, 12 and 24-month post-intervention assessments. Self-reported consistent condom use by 24 months post-intervention was the primary outcome. Based on the theory of planned behavior, we identified which theory-based variables mediated the intervention's effect on consistent condom use. Serial multiple mediation analysis indicated that attitudes toward condom use, when there are obstacles to use it, and self-efficacy mediated the COMPAS's effect in increasing consistent condom use. This is the first study that identifies the theoretical constructs that mediate the efficacy of a school-based intervention to promote sexual health in adolescents from Spain. PMID:26267253
Noh, Jin-Won; Yun, Hyo-Young; Park, Hyunchun; Yu, Shi-Eun
Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the factors that could affect the health-promoting behaviors of North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods: Questions about their sociodemographic variables, subjective health status, healthy living habits, and health-promoting behaviors were asked. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in religion (t=2.30, p<0.05), having family members in South Korea (t=2.02, p<0.05), and subjective health status (t=4.96, p<0.01). Scores on health-responsible behaviors were higher with higher age (t=2.90, p<0.01) and for subjects without family or friends (t=2.43, p<0.05). Higher physical-activity behaviors were observed in males (t=3.32, p<0.01), in those with better subjective health status (t=3.46, p<0.05) and lower body mas index (t=3.48, p<0.05), and in smokers (t=3.17, p<0.01). Nutritional behaviors were higher in those who followed a religion (t=2.17, p<0.05). Spiritual growth behaviors were higher in those who followed a religion (t=4.21, p<0.001), had no family in South Korea (t=2.04, p<0.05), and had higher subjective health status (t=5.74, p<0.01). Scores on interpersonal relationships and stress-management behaviors were higher for those with higher subjective health status. A multiple regression analysis showed greater effects on health-promoting behaviors when subjective health status was better. Older people and non-smokers exhibited more health-responsible behaviors, while more physical-activity behaviors and spiritual growth activities were observed when subjective health status was better. Interpersonal relationship behaviors had positive effects on those with good subjective heath status and on non-smokers. Conclusions: Based on the results of the current study, an alternative was suggested for promoting health in North Korean adolescent refugees. PMID:26429289
Raj, Sonika; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Singh, Amarjeet
Background: Several health-compromising behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol) as well as health-enhancing behaviors (e.g., physical exercise, nutrition) are adopted in adolescence and they often persist into adulthood. Thus, there is a definite need to investigate the health behavior of adolescents rather than focus on adults since it will be far more difficult for adults to change their unhealthy habits adopted in their youth. Therefore, the present study was conducted to ascertain health-promoting behavior and lifestyle of university graduates of Chandigarh. Methods: The present cross-sectional pilot study was conducted in Chandigarh during 2009 among university graduates of Chandigarh aged 17-20 years. A semi-structured, pretested questionnaire comprising of 28 items was used to get information from students regarding their involvement in diet, physical exercise, spirituality and philanthropy. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference of the respondents were measured using standardized equipments and procedures. Results: Mean score of health-promoting lifestyle profile of university graduates was found to be 67.5 ± 12.1 (maximum attainable score = 106). Fourteen students were found to be overweight. Frequent intake of fast food and less consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by the students. Majority of students exercised as part of their daily routine. Conclusions: The result of the study showed that North Indian students had reasonably good orientations toward health behaviors, with a mean score of 67.5. The topics related to diet, physical exercise, spiritual growth and philanthropy promotion should be incorporated within the curriculum of students for their all round personality development. PMID:24319559
Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor
Many unhealthy behaviors are created during adolescence and follow the individual into adulthood. In addition, health behaviors often occur in clusters as those who are inactive are more likely to eat unhealthy food and smoke. This makes the early foundation of healthy behaviors vital. The aim was to describe and develop an understanding of adolescents’ awareness and experiences concerning health promotion. Data was collected using focus groups with a total of 28 seventh graders and was analysed with latent qualitative content analysis. One main theme was identified; being competent, ambivalent and creative at the same time. The following three subthemes also emerged: being a digital native for better and for worse, knowing what is healthy, and sometimes doing it, and considering change and having ideas of how change could be supported. The main theme elucidates how the majority of students were informed and able but they did not always prioritize their health. The concept of health promotion relies upon the engagement of the individual; however, although the students had clear ideas about how they would like to change their own behaviors, they felt a need for support. Interestingly, the students were able to make several suggestions about the kind of support that would make a difference to their adoption to more healthy modes of living. They suggested information and communication technology (ICT), for example encouraging text messages (SMS), and social support, for example parents setting rules and peers inspiring them to adhere to a healthy behavior. The knowledge gained from this study echoes our view of inclusion and this could be helpful for those who encounter the challenge of promoting health among adolescents. PMID:22740843
Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; Heydelberg, Jurriën; van 't Klooster, Els; van Baar, Cathelijn; Raat, Hein
This study evaluates the appreciation, application and effects of an intervention (Your Health), in which adolescents received a consultation with the school nurse. A cluster randomized controlled trial with an intervention and control group (care-as-usual) was conducted among first-grade senior vocational students. Adolescents (n = 418) completed…
Millstein, Susan G.
The future of school-linked adolescent health centers cannot be determined without further evaluation. The recent development of school-linked health centers stems from concerns about the special health needs of adolescents. Currently there are 125 school-based and school-linked centers in operation. Characteristics include the following: (1) most…
Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.
This document is a compendium of approximately 170 national health promotion and disease prevention objectives affecting mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and youth. It offers a vision characterized by reductions of preventable death and disability, enhanced quality of life, and reduced disparities in the health status of the populations in…
Yang, Fang; Tan, Kit-Aun; Cheng, Wendy J Y
Using a social ecological perspective, we examined the effects of connectedness in multiple domains on health-promoting and health-compromising behaviors among Asian American (AA), Pacific Islander (PI), and Caucasian/White American (WA) adolescents in California. After adjusting for age, gender, and socioeconomic status, the following consistent results emerged across the three ethnic groups: (a) community connectedness increased the odds of physical activity; (b) internal, family, and school connectedness decreased, whereas friend connectedness increased, the odds of substance use; and (c) internal and family connectedness decreased the odds of violent behavior. We also found specific ethnic variations pertaining to the effects of connectedness. Friend connectedness increased the odds of violent behavior for AAs and WAs, but not for PIs. Meanwhile, community connectedness increased the odds of substance use and violent behavior for AAs and PIs, but decreased the odds of these behaviors for WAs. Findings for healthy dietary behavior were inconsistent across ethnic groups and connectedness domains. Our overall findings suggest that the effects of connectedness were more salient for health-compromising behaviors than for health-promoting behaviors. Health prevention and intervention efforts in adolescents could target the role of their connectedness to their multiple social domains. PMID:24114550
Chen, Mei-Yen; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Wu, Jen-Yee
Television and computers provide significant benefits for learning about the world. Some studies have linked excessive television (TV) watching or computer game playing to disadvantage of health status or some unhealthy behavior among adolescents. However, the relationships between watching TV/playing computer games and adolescents adopting health promoting behavior were limited. This study aimed to discover the relationship between time spent on watching TV and on leisure use of computers and adolescents' health promoting behavior, and associated factors. This paper used secondary data analysis from part of a health promotion project in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used and purposive sampling was conducted among adolescents in the original project. A total of 660 participants answered the questions appropriately for this work between January and June 2004. Findings showed the mean age of the respondents was 15.0 +/- 1.7 years. The mean numbers of TV watching hours were 2.28 and 4.07 on weekdays and weekends respectively. The mean hours of leisure (non-academic) computer use were 1.64 and 3.38 on weekdays and weekends respectively. Results indicated that adolescents spent significant time watching TV and using the computer, which was negatively associated with adopting health-promoting behaviors such as life appreciation, health responsibility, social support and exercise behavior. Moreover, being boys, being overweight, living in a rural area, and being middle-school students were significantly associated with spending long periods watching TV and using the computer. Therefore, primary health care providers should record the TV and non-academic computer time of youths when conducting health promotion programs, and educate parents on how to become good and healthy electronic media users. PMID:18348110
Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Fiandra, Teresa Di; Rampazzo, Lorenzo; Contu, Paolo; Preti, Antonio
Introduction: Mental disorders are the largest cause of the burden of disease in the world. Most of the burden affecting adult life has its onset during childhood and adolescence. The European Pact for Mental Health and Wellbeing calls for immediate action and investments in the mental health of children and adolescents. Schools may be the ideal location for promoting health and delivering healthcare services, since schools are a location where young people usually spend their daytime and socialize, schools are easily accessible to families, can provide non-stigmatizing health actions, and form links with the community. Aims and Goals of this Special Issue: This issue is developed within the framework of the Joint Action on Mental Health promoted by the European Commission. This special issue presents a set of systematic reviews on the evidence of the international literature on school interventions for the promotion of the mental health and wellbeing of children and adolescents. It is focused on five topical main areas: promoting general health and wellbeing; programs targeting specific mental disorders and conditions and integration of adolescents with mental health problems; Bullying; Sport; Alcohol and Drugs. An additional paper on the results of the largest epidemiological study conducted in some European countries on the prevalence and relative risk factors of mental disorders in school-age completes the issue. Conclusion: These reviews are a first contribution to address future European research and interventions, in particular about the multiple ways through which European policies could support the schooling and wellbeing of children and adolescents. PMID:25834625
McCarthy, Molly A.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Zhou, Junmin; Zhu, He; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Goldsworthy, Richard
Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted…
Argues that culture change or modification of the social structure is necessary for effective health promotion because health behavior is closely tied to basic group structures and processes. Examines the health attitudes of Mormons, low income and minority groups, and developing Islamic nations, emphasizing attitudes towards education and women.…
Larsson, Margaretha; Björk, Maria; Ekebergh, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson
In Sweden, school nurses are part of the School Health Service with the main objective of health promotion to support students' health and attainment of educational goals. The aim in this phenomenological study was to illuminate the experiences of school nurses in promoting the health and well-being of adolescent girls. Seventeen school…
Shochet, Ian M; Saggers, Beth R; Carrington, Suzanne B; Orr, Jayne A; Wurfl, Astrid M; Duncan, Bonnie M; Smith, Coral L
Despite an increased risk of mental health problems in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is limited research on effective prevention approaches for this population. Funded by the Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism, a theoretically and empirically supported school-based preventative model has been developed to alter the negative trajectory and promote wellbeing and positive mental health in adolescents with ASD. This conceptual paper provides the rationale, theoretical, empirical and methodological framework of a multilayered intervention targeting the school, parents and adolescents on the spectrum. Two important interrelated protective factors have been identified in community adolescent samples, namely the sense of belonging (connectedness) to school and the capacity for self and affect regulation in the face of stress (i.e. resilience). We describe how a confluence of theories from social psychology, developmental psychology and family systems theory, along with empirical evidence (including emerging neurobiological evidence), supports the interrelationships between these protective factors and many indices of wellbeing. However, the characteristics of ASD (including social and communication difficulties, and frequently difficulties with changes and transitions, and diminished optimism and self-esteem) impair access to these vital protective factors. The paper describes how evidence-based interventions at the school level for promoting inclusive schools (using the Index for Inclusion) and interventions for adolescents and parents to promote resilience and belonging [using the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] are adapted and integrated for adolescents with ASD. This multisite proof-of-concept study will confirm whether this multilevel school-based intervention is promising, feasible and sustainable. PMID:27072681
Bharath, Srikala; Kumar, K. V. Kishore
Life Skills Education (LSE) is a novel promotional program that teaches generic life skills through participatory learning methods of games, debates, role-plays, and group discussion. Conceptual understanding and practicing of the skills occurs through experiential learning in a non-threatening setting. Such initiatives provide the adolescent with…
Taymoori, Parvaneh; Lubans, David; Berry, Tanya R
Promoting sustainable physical activity (PA) behavior change is challenging, and a number of theoretical models have been developed and applied to this problem. Pender's health promotion model (HPM) is a relatively new model that is based on Bandura's social cognitive theory but includes the additional construct of competing demands, which are viewed as alternative behaviors (e.g., watching television) that have powerful reinforcing properties. This study evaluates the HPM as a means to predict PA in a sample of Iranian adolescent boys. Participants were 515 boys from 100 junior high and high schools in Sanandaj, Iran. Participants' mean age was 14.33 years (SD = 1.6, range = 12-17). Participants completed questions assessing social cognitive variables, and structural equation modeling was used to fit the data to the HPM. The HPM accounted for 37% of the variance in PA but did not represent a good data fit (chi(2) = 913.85, df = 473, p < .001). There were significant pathways between PA and self-efficacy (beta = .25, p < .001), enjoyment (beta = .22, p < .01), and PA modeling (beta = -.13, p < .05). A revised model that included the indirect effects of competing demands explained 34% of the variance in PA and represented a good data fit (chi( 2) = 9.12, df = 4, p = .058). In the revised model, self-efficacy, commitment to planning, and enjoyment were associated with PA. According to the HPM, competing demands influence PA. In the study sample, competing demands were not related to PA but were inversely associated with commitment to planning. PMID:20130301
Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents. PMID:23521897
Mohajer, Nicole; Earnest, Jaya
Growing numbers of adolescents are marginalized by social factors beyond their control, leading to poor health outcomes for their families and future generations. Although the role of the social determinants of health has been recognized for many years, there is a gap in our knowledge about the strategies needed to address these factors in health…
Taymoori, Parvaneh; Lubans, David; Berry, Tanya R.
Promoting sustainable physical activity (PA) behavior change is challenging, and a number of theoretical models have been developed and applied to this problem. Pender's health promotion model (HPM) is a relatively new model that is based on Bandura's social cognitive theory but includes the additional construct of competing demands, which are…
Inyang, Mfrekemfon P; Inyang, Obonganyie P
The success of any type of sexual education programme depends on the knowledge and preparedness for practice by adolescents. A recent study has found that an 'abstinence-only' sexual education programme is effective in reducing sexual activity among adolescents. Knowledge of abstinence-only sexual education and preparedness for practice as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health among Nigerian secondary school adolescents was studied. An analytic descriptive survey design was used for the study. The research population comprised of all public secondary schools in three southern geopolitical zones of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 2020 senior secondary school (SS1-SS3) students as sample for the study. A partially self-designed and partially adapted questionnaire from an 'abstinence-only versus comprehensive sex education' debate, from debatepedia (http://wiki.idebate.org/), entitled 'Questionnaire on Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents' Perspective on Abstinence-Only Sexual Education (QNSSAPAOSE)' was used in eliciting information from respondents. Hypotheses were formulated and tested. Frequency counts, percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used in analysing data. A greater proportion of secondary school adolescents in this study lacked knowledge of sexual education. About 80% of the respondents could not define sexual education. The general perspective on abstinence-only sexual education was negative, as revealed by the larger number of respondents who demonstrated unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Specifically, of those who responded in favour of abstinence-only sexual education, the youngest group of adolescents (11-13 years) and the male respondents were more likely to accept this type of education than the other groups. Poor knowledge of sexual education could be responsible for unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Sexual
Bhana, Arvin; Mellins, Claude Ann; Petersen, Inge; Alicea, Stacey; Myeza, Nonhlahla; Holst, Helga; Abrams, Elaine; John, Sally; Chhagan, Meera; Nestadt, Danielle F; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; McKay, Mary
An increasing number of adolescents born with HIV in South Africa are on antiretroviral treatment and have to confront complex issues related to coping with a chronic, stigmatizing and transmittable illness. Very few evidence-based mental health and health promotion programs for this population exist in South Africa. This study builds on a previous collaboratively designed and developmentally-timed family-based intervention for early adolescents (CHAMP). The study uses community-based participatory approach as part of formative research to evaluate a pilot randomized control trial at two hospitals. The paper reports on the development, feasibility and acceptability of the VUKA family-based program and its short-term impact on a range of psychosocial variables for HIV+ pre-adolescents and their caregivers. A ten session intervention of approximately 3 months duration was delivered to 65 pre-adolescents aged 10-13 years and their families. VUKA participants were noted to improve on all dimensions, including mental health, youth behaviour, HIV treatment knowledge, stigma, communication and adherence to medication. VUKA shows promise as a family-based mental and HIV prevention program for HIV+ pre-adolescents and which could be delivered by trained lay staff. PMID:23767772
Health Promotion for Older Children and Adolescents. National Nursing Research Agenda--Developing Knowledge for Practice: Challenges and Opportunities. A Report of the NINR Priority Expert Panel on Health Promotion, 5.
National Inst. of Nursing Research (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
This publication reports the findings of an expert panel convened by the National Center for Nursing Research to address health promotion for older children and adolescents (ages 8 through 18), the role of nurses, and the contributions of nursing science. Three chapters focus on basic science, intervention, and application. Each chapter includes…
O'Dea, Jennifer; Maloney, Danielle
Describes the Health Promoting Schools Framework and its implementation in schools to prevent eating and body image disorders, examining the efficacy of preventive school-based strategies. The framework encompasses: school curriculum, teaching, and learning; school ethos, environment, and organization; and school-community partnerships and…
Ladapo, Joseph A.; Elliott, Marc N.; Bogart, Laura M.; Kanouse, David E.; Vestal, Katherine D.; Klein, David J.; Ratner, Jessica A.; Schuster, Mark A.
Purpose To examine the cost and cost-effectiveness of implementing Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, a worksite-based parenting program designed to help parents address sexual health with their adolescent children. Methods We enrolled 535 parents with adolescent children at 13 worksites in southern California in a randomized trial. Time and wage data from employees involved in implementing the program were used to estimate fixed and variable costs. Cost-effectiveness was determined with nonparametric bootstrap analysis. For the intervention, parents participated in eight weekly one-hour teaching sessions at lunchtime. The program included games, discussions, role plays, and videotaped role plays to help parents learn to communicate with their children about sex-related topics, teach their children assertiveness and decision-making skills, and supervise and interact with their children more effectively. Results Implementing the program cost $543.03 (SD=$289.98) per worksite in fixed costs, and $28.05 per parent (SD=$4.08) in variable costs. At 9 months, this $28.05 investment per parent yielded improvements in number of sexual health topics discussed, condom teaching, and communication quality and openness. The cost-effectiveness was $7.42 per new topic discussed using parental responses and $9.18 using adolescent responses. Other efficacy outcomes also yielded favorable cost-effectiveness ratios. Conclusions Talking Parents, Healthy Teens demonstrated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a worksite-based parenting program to promote parent-adolescent communication about sexual health. Its cost is reasonable and unlikely to be a significant barrier to adoption and diffusion for most worksites considering its implementation. PMID:23406890
Brannon, Erin E.; Suorsa, Kristina I.; Wilson, Dawn K.
Objective To evaluate and quantify the evidence for health promotion interventions in children and adolescents. Method 96 independent samples of smoking, physical activity, and diet studies were included. Outcomes included both objective and self-reports of health behavior, as well as proxy measures such as fitness. Results The aggregated effect was significant (g = .20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08–0.32, n = 96). A significant effect of intervention was observed at approximately 1-year follow-up (g = .07, 95% CI = 0.02–0.14, n = 20). The greatest risk of bias was failure to blind outcome assessment, which occurred in 21% of studies. Most studies lacked sufficient detail to determine the quality of their randomization sequence (58%). Additional concerns about risk of bias for individual studies were minimal. Overall, the quality of this finding was moderate using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. Conclusion Health promotion interventions are effective for modifying health behavior; however, effect sizes are small. PMID:24934246
van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette N.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal promotive factors influenced this association. Seventy-eight adolescents (39 girls, 39 boys; mean age = 17.05 years) completed an…
Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven; Fang, Lin; Kandasamy, Suganthi
This study tested a brief web-based, family-involvement health promotion program aimed at drug use, physical activity, and nutrition for adolescent girls, aged 10 to 12 years, who reside in public housing. Separately, girls (n = 67) and their mothers (n = 67) completed baseline measures online. Following baseline, 36 randomly assigned mother-daughter dyads jointly completed a 3-session, health promotion program online. Subsequently, all girls and mothers separately completed posttest and 5-month follow-up measures. Attrition at posttest and 5-month follow-up measures was 3% and 9%, respectively. At posttest, intervention-arm girls, relative to control-arm girls, reported greater mother-daughter communication and parental monitoring. Intervention-arm mothers reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness as well as increased vegetable intake and physical activity. At 5-month follow-up, intervention-arm girls and mothers, relative to those in the control arm, reported greater levels of parental monitoring. Intervention-arm girls also reported greater mother-daughter communication and closeness, reduced stress, greater refusal skills, and increased fruit intake. Findings indicate the potential of a brief, web-based program to improve the health of low-income girls and their mothers. PMID:24447886
Van Rossem, R; Meekers, D
This study examines the effectiveness of the PSI/PMSC Horizon Jeunes youth-targeted social marketing program for improving adolescent reproductive health in urban Cameroon. The program targeted adolescents through peer education, youth clubs, mass media promotion, and behavior change communications. After about 13 months of intervention, knowledge of the program was nearly universal, and the majority of youths had direct contact with the program. Program effectiveness is examined using a quasi-experimental research design with a preintervention and postintervention survey in an intervention and comparison site. The intervention had a significant effect on several determinants of preventive behavior, including awareness of sexual risks, knowledge of birth control methods, and discussion of sexuality and contraceptives. The intervention increased the proportion of female youths who reported using oral contraceptives and condoms for birth control. However, condom use is not yet consistent. Although the proportion of young men who reported using condoms for birth control also increased, this change could not be attributed to the intervention. Although this short intervention successfully increased the reported use of various birth control methods, including condoms, there is no evidence that the intervention increased use of condoms for STD prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:11063059
Adolescent health is not a priority to public health services. The physical, psychological and social changes lived by youngsters expose these individuals to several health risks and events that are determinant to their actual and future health status. The main health problems in adolescents are infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases but traumatisms are very important in males. Female adolescents demand services related to their reproductive life and link to early and not desired pregnancies. Another important health problem is overweight and obesity in both sexes. The main causes of death in this age group are malignant tumors, specially leukemias, and accidents. We do not have information related to health risks like addictions and mental health. Data show how important adolescents health should be to the public health sector specially because it will be more easy to tackle their health risks and negative health life-styles at this age than further in their lives. PMID:18647579
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0.…
Baranov, A A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Il'in, A G
The article presents submitted data of population dynamics of adolescent (10-17 years old) in Russian Federation over the period of 1995-2012 In the presence of reduction by 8.2 million of adolescent population the top-priority task of adolescent health and life maintenance was declared. The article deals with physical growth and development statistics of schoolchildren of 15-19 years old: as opposed to peers of 80-es increase of length, body weight and circumference of chest as well as reduction of muscle strength is observed. On the ground of the data analysis of authoritative statistical reporting the increase of morbidity rate by factor of 1.4 was detected over the last 10 years. It has been established that the true morbidity level is above the authoritative by the factor of 1.5. The number of adolescent at the age of 10-15 referred to 1st and 2nd health groups decreased almost on 20%, at the same time pathological processes become chronic. The reproductive and mental health of adolescent at the age of 15-17 years was analyzed over the last 10 years. The rate of mental health disorders in adolescent living in country is more than in the peers living in cities by the factor of 1.2-1.4. The rate of period disorders, salpingitis and oothecitis increased in girls under 10 years and ones at the age of 15-17. The rate and structure of child disability was analyzed. It was fixed that leading causes of adolescent disability are mental disorders, diseases of nervous system, congenital anomalies. The most commonly encountered seed of physical dysfunction is capacity to study. It is demonstrated that there is misreporting on both child disability in totally and adolescent disability in Russian Federation. After the analysis of particular provisions of legislation concerning medical and social issues of child disability the week points were detected. The morbidity rate of adolescent was studied: primary cause of death in adolescent is extrinsic factor (more than 70%), the
The UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Regional Clearing House on Population Education has commissioned a series of case studies on the promotion of adolescent reproductive and sexual health, with emphasis placed on advocacy and information, education and communication (IEC). The case studies will document the experiences of Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The advocacy activities include programs to gain the support of lawmakers and policymakers, the mass media and other influential groups. IEC activities, on the other hand, reach out to the youth, counselors, teachers and trainers, extension workers and motivators, and health personnel. Advocacy and IEC also differ in strategies. Political lobbying, high level meetings, seminars, mass media campaigns, and advocacy skills training are typical advocacy strategies; while, individual counseling, research, non-governmental organization involvement in communities, youth camps are of IEC strategies. The case studies also examine national policies, program responses and strategies, and factors that have contributed to best practices, and innovative approaches to advocacy and IEC. The impact of the target groups of the case studies will be evaluated and those with successful outcomes will be identified. PMID:12158254
McClure, G M
Adolescent Mental Health in China is the responsibility of the wider society and is supported by social, educational and health care resources. With limited facilities, China emphasizes community mental health care, with prevention and health promotion as priorities. Mental health is considered in the context of an orderly socialist society with stable family life supported by the state. Society is currently influenced by a mixture of Communist ideology, ancient tradition and newer Western approaches. Difficulties in reconciling these factors are affecting the attitudes and behaviour of China's youth. PMID:3290295
Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo
The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice. PMID:18372870
Haffner, Debra W.
The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…
Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.
Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…
Aguiar, Fernando Henrique Rezende; Conceição, Maria Inês Gandolfo
This qualitative study investigates underprivileged students' perceptions of their future, their health, and the relevance of a career counseling process. Interviews regarding career guidance were conducted during a workshop with nine eleventh-grade students from a public high school in Brazil's capital. The data were analyzed according to…
Meyer, Mary Kay; Marshak, John; Conklin, Martha T.
This study identifies the nature of nutrition environment in middle grades schools from the principals' and superintendents' point of view and determines which elements of a school's nutrition environment these school administrators considered most relevant to students' health and well-being. Most school administrators did not think the…
With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621
A 38-week Intergenerational Life History Project is designed to create a collaboration in a lower socioeconomic neighborhood between 50 elderly people in the community ages 80 and older (whose life reminiscences make them historians) and 50 high school seniors (who become scribes by writing down the elders' oral histories.) The youth-elder teams provide reciprocal social support and intergenerational mentorship through reminiscence. The project is an integrated, multifaceted effort to bring about health, behavior, and attitude changes in the two age cohorts challenged in different ways and for different reasons by morbidity and mortality. PMID:7630999
Petrillo, Jane A.; Meyers, Pamela F.
Argues that the current and most common eating behaviors of United States youth must be examined to identify effective health promotion and consumer heath strategies regarding the adolescent diet. Presents food selection guidelines for adolescents. Lists guidelines for the school lunch program, grades 7 to 12, guidelines for schools to promote…
Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others
This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…
Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Kegler, Michelle Crozier
This article highlights the juncture between environmental health and health promotion and underscores the need for health promotion involvement in environmental health practice. It begins with a synopsis of current issues in environmental public health and deficiencies in environmental public health practice that could be partly ameliorated by an…
Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge
Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350
Bush, Paula Louise; García Bengoechea, Enrique
School-based physical activity programs are only effective for increasing adolescents' school-based physical activity. To increase out-of-school-time physical activity, complementary community programs are warranted. Partnerships between universities and community organizations may help build the capacity of these organizations to provide sustainable programs. To understand capacity building processes and outcomes, we partnered with a YMCA to build on their adolescent physical activity promotion capacity. Together, we designed and implemented means to evaluate the YMCA teen program to inform program planning. For this qualitative case study, emails and interviews and meetings transcripts were collected over 2.5 years and analyzed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Findings illustrate that the YMCA's workforce and organizational development capacities (e.g., evaluation and health promotion capacity and competence) were increased through our partnership, resource allocation, and leadership. We responded to YMCA partners' perceived needs, yet guided them beyond those needs, successfully combining our complementary objectives, knowledge, and skills to generate an integrated program vision, rationale, and evaluation results. This provided YMCA partners with validation, reminders, and awareness. In turn, this contributed to programming and evaluation practice changes. In light of extant capacity building literature, we discuss how our partnership increased the YMCA's capacity to promote healthy adolescent programs. PMID:27161649
Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L
Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual
Phillips, Kathleen; Dietz, Julie; Borzi, Mark; Harrison, Gaye
I Sing the Body Electric (BODY ELECTRIC) is a fine arts and health promotion program that supports communication of healthy lifestyle choices among youth. BODY ELECTRIC connects youth in 27 high schools with health and education communities in the largest rural geographic education region in a Midwestern state. The three-phase prevention plan…
Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes
Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Adolescent Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Health status Percent of adolescents 12-17 years of age who are in ...
Background South Africa (SA) is undergoing multiple transitions with an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and high levels of overweight and obesity in adolescent girls and women. Adolescence is key to addressing trans-generational risk and a window of opportunity to intervene and positively impact on individuals’ health trajectories into adulthood. Using Intervention Mapping (IM), this paper describes the development of the Ntshembo intervention, which is intended to improve the health and well-being of adolescent girls in order to limit the inter-generational transfer of risk of metabolic disease, in particular diabetes risk. Methods This paper describes the application of the first four steps of IM. Evidence is provided to support the selection of four key behavioural objectives: viz. to eat a healthy, balanced diet, increase physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviour, and promote reproductive health. Appropriate behaviour change techniques are suggested and a theoretical framework outlining components of relevant behaviour change theories is presented. It is proposed that the Ntshembo intervention will be community-based, including specialist adolescent community health workers who will deliver a complex intervention comprising of individual, peer, family and community mobilisation components. Conclusions The Ntshembo intervention is novel, both in SA and globally, as it is: (1) based on strong evidence, extensive formative work and best practice from evaluated interventions; (2) combines theory with evidence to inform intervention components; (3) includes multiple domains of influence (community through to the individual); (4) focuses on an at-risk target group; and (5) embeds within existing and planned health service priorities in SA. PMID:25080940
Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10-17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335
Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335
Winker, Margaret A.; Ferris, Lorraine E.
The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA) is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.
Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Connell, Arin M.; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Myers, Michael W.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Kavanagh, Kathryn; Caruthers, Allison S.
This study examined the impact of the Family Check-Up (FCU) and linked intervention services on reducing health-risk behaviors and promoting social adaptation among middle school youth. A total of 593 students and their families were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention or middle school services as usual. Forty-two percent of…
Plummer, Mary L; Wight, D; Wamoyi, J; Nyalali, K; Ingall, T; Mshana, G; Shigongo, Z S; Obasi, A I N; Ross, D A
African adolescents are at high risk of poor sexual health. School-based interventions could reach many adolescents in a sustainable and replicable way, if enrolment, funding and infrastructure are adequate. This study examined pupils', recent school leavers', parents' and teachers' views and experiences of rural Tanzanian primary schools, focusing on the implications for potential sexual health programmes. From 1999 to 2002, participant observation was conducted in nine villages for 158 person-weeks. Half of Year 7 pupils were 15-17 years old, and few went on to secondary school, suggesting that primary schools may be a good venue for such programmes. However, serious challenges include low enrolment and attendance rates, limited teacher training, little access to teaching resources and official and unofficial practices that may alienate pupils and their parents, e.g. corporal punishment, pupils being made to do unpaid work, forced pregnancy examinations, and some teachers' alcohol or sexual abuse. At a national level, improved teacher training and supervision are critical, as well as policies that better prevent, identify and correct undesired practices. At a programme level, intervention developers need to simplify the subject matter, introduce alternative teaching methods, help improve teacher-pupil and teacher-community relationships, and closely supervise and appropriately respond to undesired practices. PMID:17018766
Baxter, C; Moodley, D
Each year thousands of adolescent girls and young women in South Africa (SA) become pregnant and many die from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. Although women of all ages are susceptible, girls<15 years of age are five times as likely, and those aged 15-19 years twice as likely, to die from complications related to childbirth than women in their 20s. In SA, non-pregnancy-related infections (e.g. HIV), obstetric haemorrhage and hypertension contributed to almost 70% of avoidable maternal deaths. In addition to the implementation of standardized preventive interventions to reduce obstetric haemorrhage and hypertension, better reproductive health services for adolescents, access to HIV care and treatment for women infected with HIV, and improved access to and uptake of long-acting reversible contraception are important ingredients for reducing maternal mortality among adolescents. PMID:26937508
The male-dominated medical establishment continues to make health promotion policies for women. Women must have access to a more accurate information base about women's health and the link between their health and socioeconomic roles. They must be full partners in formulating and implementing health promotion strategies. Yet, such a database does not exist due to systemic bias in research. For example, research shows alcoholism affects men and women differently, but prevention and treatment strategies and evaluation of their outcomes do not take this into account. Further, men do not understand subjective aspects of female conditions. In addition, even though women provide most care in our society, health promotion policies do not incorporate their knowledge. Moreover, care of the sick can damage the health of the care giver. Statistics on women's health are lacking, e.g., exhaustion and depression as consequences of child care and housework, especially among poor women. Developed countries continue to use maternal mortality as a means of measuring reproductive hazard, but maternal death is a rarity. In fact, a reproductive mortality rate would be more applicable, which would include deaths from abortions, pregnancy, and contraception. Besides, birth control has real disadvantages, e.g., a painful medical procedure is needed to insert IUDs and they increase the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. Paid employment has positive and negative effects depending on whether women are alone or have a partner and have children, their income, and educational level. Women in industry face considerable health hazards, e.g., textile workers at increased risk of several lung diseases. Appropriate expenditure on health and social services and sound economic policies at the central level will benefit women's health. Besides, when society values and supports all aspects of women's work and roles, women's health will achieve its potential. PMID:1817541
Friedman, H L
The health and well-being of adolescents is closely intertwined with their physical, psychological and social development, but this is put at risk by sexual and reproductive health hazards which are increasing in much of the world. Changes in population growth and distribution, the rise of telecommunications, the increase in travel and a decline in the family, as well as a generally earlier start of menarche and later age of marriage are contributing to an increase in unprotected sexual relations before marriage. This, combined with risks from early marriage, result in too early or unwanted pregnancy and childbirth, induced abortion in hazardous circumstances and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection leading to AIDS. With more than half the world's population below the age of 25, and 4 out of 5 young people living in developing countries with inadequate access to prevention and care, there is an urgent need for action. Young women are particularly vulnerable. Mortality and morbidity from early pregnancy whether ending in childbirth or abortion, is much higher for the younger adolescent. Young women, especially those who have less formal education, are more vulnerable to pressures for marriage, or sexual relations before marriage, often with older men. Young people generally lack adequate knowledge about their own development and information on how to get help. Those who could help are rarely trained for working with adolescents, and services which are generally designed for adults or children often deter young people from getting help when they most need it. Policy and legislation relating to sexual and reproductive health issues are often contradictory, and unclear or unenforced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8085368
Mariano, C S; Alvarez, R O
Sex and contraception are still taboo topics in the Philippines, distorted and kept in the dark by the media, the Roman Catholic Church, and fundamentalist groups. Adolescents therefore generally learn about sex education from peers who are often equally misinformed. Myths abound about the realities of sex and sexuality. Uninformed though they may be, Filipino adolescents still experiment with sexuality and sexual intercourse, and have generated a high incidence of unwanted teen pregnancy and maternal mortality. 50% of pregnant women below the age of 15 die from pregnancy- and childbirth-related complications. The Japan Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and MEXFAM jointly produced three animated films for Latin American adolescents and young couples. The Institute for Social Studies in Action (ISSA) and JOICFP conducted a series of focus group discussions between the months of July and August 1993 to see whether these films would also be effective and appropriate among Filipino counterparts. The ISSA is a nongovernmental organization promoting women's reproductive health in the Philippines. "The Blue Pigeon" focuses upon sexual changes which take place in the minds and bodies of boys and girls and graphically explains the processes of sexual intercourse, contraception, pregnancy, and childbirth. "Music for Two" features a girl in pursuit of love who imagines a variety of male-female relationships. Finally, "Best Wishes" focuses on the importance of good communication between partners and sharing household responsibilities. PMID:12287788
Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.
Recent findings suggest that perfectionism is highly prevalent among children and adolescents, and perfectionism can be quite destructive in terms of its links with anxiety, depression, and suicide. In this article, we provide an overview of recent research illustrating the costs and consequences of perfectionism among children and adolescents. We…
Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun
This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents. PMID:26375050
Background Young people in sub-Saharan Africa are affected by the HIV pandemic to a greater extent than young people elsewhere and effective HIV-preventive intervention programmes are urgently needed. The present article presents the rationale behind an EU-funded research project (PREPARE) examining effects of community-based (school delivered) interventions conducted in four sites in sub-Saharan Africa. One intervention focuses on changing beliefs and cognitions related to sexual practices (Mankweng, Limpopo, South Africa). Another promotes improved parent-offspring communication on sexuality (Kampala, Uganda). Two further interventions are more comprehensive aiming to promote healthy sexual practices. One of these (Western Cape, South Africa) also aims to reduce intimate partner violence while the other (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania) utilises school-based peer education. Methods/design A modified Intervention Mapping approach is used to develop all programmes. Cluster randomised controlled trials of programmes delivered to school students aged 12–14 will be conducted in each study site. Schools will be randomly allocated (after matching or stratification) to intervention and delayed intervention arms. Baseline surveys at each site are followed by interventions and then by one (Kampala and Limpopo) or two (Western Cape and Dar es Salaam) post-intervention data collections. Questionnaires include questions common for all sites and are partly based on a set of social cognition models previously applied to the study of HIV-preventive behaviours. Data from all sites will be merged in order to compare prevalence and associations across sites on core variables. Power is set to .80 or higher and significance level to .05 or lower in order to detect intervention effects. Intraclass correlations will be estimated from previous surveys carried out at each site. Discussion We expect PREPARE interventions to have an impact on hypothesized determinants of risky sexual behaviour
Tseng, Ying-Hua; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao
Internet use is an important part of the daily life of adolescents. The ease of searching the internet for information makes finding information on sex, a topic of particular interest to adolescents, easy. Although the internet is replete with sexual information, the influence of internet use on adolescents' sexual health is analogous to a double-edged sword. This article identifies the four main sexual dilemmas facing Taiwan adolescents and analyzes the pros and cons of internet use with regard to adolescents' sexual health. Cons include the predominance of internet pornography and the potential risks of making friends online. Pros include the internet's role as an optimal communications platform and tool for sex-related research. We suggest that nurses have a unique role and functions to play in promoting adolescent sexual health. We also offer recommendations for school health nursing and clinical nursing. Further internet-based quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to clarify relevant sexual health issues. Finally, we offer design suggestions for sexual education homepages. PMID:23212259
Michaud, Pierre-André; Ambresin, Anne-Emmanuelle
The available data on adolescent health, weather statistics of mortality, hospital-based information or the one originating from health survey identify five main sources of concern: mental health problems, intentional and unintentional violence, chronic conditions including obesity and eating disorders, and negative consequences linked with risky sexual behavior and substance misuse. The responses to these issues lie in two ares, the one of health care and the one of prevention/health promotion. Access to health care must be improved, using the adolescent friendly framework, which stresses the importance of accessibility, flexibility, network approaches and effectiveness. Preventive activities encompass not only mere information in specific areas such as sexuality or psychoactive substance, but must also address the acquisition of life skills as well as the improvement of the environment. Structural measures such as the ones governing traffic of vehicles, those impacting on the school climate or those involving community health measures targeting vulnerable population have proven effective. PMID:24005070
Since the 1950s, a significant amount of work has been done on behalf of the comprehensive health of young people in South America. This article focuses on the regional process of training health professionals to work with this age group. There are countries in which the growth of adolescent health training has been significant, others that have made progress but still have a narrower offer of teaching activities, and a few where only very basic and limited training is available. Latin American professional associations, scientific societies, and international organizations have also contributed to the education of the adolescent health work force. Although the training in the region has advanced in some countries to the point that there is specialization in adolescent medicine, much remains to be done. Certain regional conditions have contributed to the education of providers in adolescent care. The most important has been the existence of professionals who have been highly motivated to improve the health of young people. They have worked very hard and with great commitment to achieve this goal. There have also been important obstacles to educating professionals in adolescent care. Aside from the usual lack of funding, barriers have existed in the health care system and its providers, as well as the training entities and because of certain South American conditions. Finally, this article describes the regional adolescent medicine programs and the status of recognition of this specialty, and addresses the opportunities and challenges for adolescent health training. PMID:26115500
Elder, John P.; And Others
This review of recent studies on prevention of drug and alcohol abuse among adolescents analyzes components of various preventive programs including those emphasizing knowledge, attitude modification, and remediation of skill deficits to improve ability to resist peer pressures. Missing in most programs is direct manipulation of positive or…
Mangunkusumo, R. T.; Brug, J.; Duisterhout, J. S.; de Koning, H. J.; Raat, H.
An Internet tool for monitoring, personalized feedback and referral was developed to support routine adolescent preventive care and was compared with usual practice using paper and pencil (P&P). A total of 1071 students (average age 15 years) from seven secondary schools were randomly assigned to the Internet or P&P group. The Internet group…
reduce the healthcare burden of children and adolescents. HPS would help to combat the global burden of childhood obesity by promoting healthy eating behaviours and encouraging higher levels of physical activity. There are gaps in service provision for children and adolescents from both the health and education perspective; the HPS framework has the potential to develop a mechanism of closer integration with the primary healthcare system, making youth health services more school based and student centred. A new model of interconnection between HPS and different components of primary healthcare can be evolved to make services for disease prevention and health promotion more student friendly. PMID:19558191
Braun-Courville, Debra K.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Burk, Robert D.; Strickler, Howard D.; Rojas, Mary; Lorde-Rollins, Elizabeth; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Hollman, Dominic; Linares, L. Oriana; Diaz, Angela
Background Clinical research with adolescents can be challenging due to issues of informed consent, parental involvement, institutional review board requirements, and adolescent psychosocial development. This presents a dilemma, particularly in the area of sexual health research, as adolescents are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections such as human papillomavirus (HPV). To successfully conduct adolescent research in the clinical setting, one requires an awareness of state statutes regarding adolescent confidentiality and consent for medical care, and a close partnership with the IRB. Case Study In 2007, the Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center (MSAHC) in collaboration with the Albert Einstein College of Medicine developed a longitudinal research study to examine the natural history of oral, cervical, and anal HPV in an adolescent female population engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. We use this research project as a case study to explore the ethical, methodological, and clinical issues related to conducting adolescent health research. Summary and Conclusions Several strategies were identified to promote adolescent study participation, including: (1) building a research team that is motivated to work with adolescents; (2) combining research and patient care visits to avoid duplication of services; and (3) establishing a personalized communication network with participants. Using these methods, adolescent sexual health research can successfully be integrated into the clinical setting. While retaining a prospective cohort of adolescents has its challenges, a persistent and multi-disciplinary approach can help improve recruitment, sustain participation, and acquire critical data that will lead to improved healthcare knowledge applicable to understudied populations of adolescents. PMID:24332677
Garcia, Carolyn M; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
Rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation are high among Latino adolescents in the U.S., many of whom are immigrants. Immigration during adolescence creates risk factors for mental health problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the health-related perceptions of Mexican-origin immigrant adolescents to inform the design of culturally and developmentally appropriate mental health services. This focused ethnography was guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological framework and symbolic interactionism. Fourteen adolescents were recruited from two non-health-based community settings. Data from one-to-one semi-structured interviews and a visual narrative project were coded and analyzed inductively. Three thematic patterns were identified: "mentally healthy," "mentally unhealthy," and "health promotion." Increased awareness of cultural influences and immigration on Latino adolescents' mental health is needed. Mental health nurses are in a unique position to educate and to influence accessibility of services. PMID:17130006
Kwan, Stella Y. L.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M.; Borutta, Annerose
Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated framework and appropriate methodologies for the evaluation of school oral health projects is emphasized. PMID:16211159
Hosokawa, Michael C.
To reduce the cost of reimbursements, many insurance companies have begun to use insurance incentives as a way to motivate individuals to participate in health promotion activities. Traditional health education, research and demonstration, and policy-premium incentives are methods of health promotion used by life and health insurance companies.…
Camenga, Deepa R.; Hieftje, Kimberly D.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Duncan, Lindsay R.
Few studies have explored the application of message framing to promote health behaviors in adolescents. In this exploratory study, we examined young adolescents' selection of gain- versus loss-framed images and messages when designing an HIV-prevention intervention to promote delayed sexual initiation. Twenty-six adolescents (aged 10-14 years)…
The first part of this paper reviews the work of the World Health Organization's Regional Office for Europe undertaken to clarify the relevance of health promotion for all member states and regions. This work led to a definition of "health" as the ability to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment. Health promotion was considered to 1) involve the population as a whole in the context of everyday lives, 2) be directed towards action on the determinants of health, 3) combine diverse but complementary methods or approaches, 4) aim for effective and concrete public participation, and 5) involve health professionals. Areas covered by health promotion activities include 1) access to health, 2) development of an environment conductive to health, 3) strengthening of social networks and social supports, 4) promoting positive health behavior and appropriate coping strategies, and 5) increasing knowledge and disseminating information. The next section of the paper traces the development of the concept of health promotion from its roots in health education, and the third section presents a brief history of public health to contextualize this development. The differences between the old and new approaches to public health are presented (the new role of the health sector is to ensure access to health, create advocacy for health, and move beyond health care through intersectoral action and public participation), and the new "forcefield" of public health that emerges from a conceptualization of health promotion is described. This forcefield, illustrated as a triangle linking healthy public policy, health promotion, and community action, works at all levels and is the framework for the development of appropriate strategies. It is concluded that in many cases public health will have to be reorganized as will the health care system as a whole. Health must be viewed as a social project linked to political responsibilities not as a medical
Davison, Heather; Griffiths, John
Dr Heather Davison, Director of Development at the Royal Society for Public Health (RSPH), and John Griffiths, Programme Manager for the Health-Promoting Workforce, provide an overview of the RSPH's Health-Promoting Organization Awards--highlighting the achievements of the 2009 winners while learning for the future. PMID:20642127
Thongpriwan, Vipavee; McElmurry, Beverly J.
Thai adolescents are hesitant to openly talk to adults; however, they are avid users of the Internet. In 2002, faculty of the Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Nopparat Vajira, Thailand, established a webboard to reach out to high school students for questions and answers on adolescent health. Adolescents pose health questions, which are answered…
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health has launched an initiative called the Cardiovascular Health Promotion Project to teach heart-healthy habits to children. One of the programs developed by this initiative, CATCH, the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, is the largest…
Hirschhorn, Joel S
Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed. PMID:14748317
Cornelius, Judith B; Appiah, Josephine A
Youth and young adults (19–24 years of age) shoulder the burden of sexually transmitted infections accounting for nearly half of all new infections annually. Mobile technology is one way that we have reached this population with safer sex information but challenges exist with the delivery process. The literature between 2010 and 2015 was reviewed for data on safe sex and sexual health information delivered using mobile cell phone devices. A search for relevant databases revealed that 17 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that mobile cell phone interventions are an effective mode for delivering safe sex and sexual health information to youth; those at the highest risk may not be able to access cell phones based on availability and cost of the text messages or data plans. PMID:27103845
Cornelius, Judith B; Appiah, Josephine A
Youth and young adults (19-24 years of age) shoulder the burden of sexually transmitted infections accounting for nearly half of all new infections annually. Mobile technology is one way that we have reached this population with safer sex information but challenges exist with the delivery process. The literature between 2010 and 2015 was reviewed for data on safe sex and sexual health information delivered using mobile cell phone devices. A search for relevant databases revealed that 17 articles met our inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that mobile cell phone interventions are an effective mode for delivering safe sex and sexual health information to youth; those at the highest risk may not be able to access cell phones based on availability and cost of the text messages or data plans. PMID:27103845
Ham, Peter; Allen, Claudia
Serious health problems, risky behavior, and poor health habits persist among adolescents despite access to medical care. Most adolescents do not seek advice about preventing leading causes of morbidity and mortality in their age group, and physicians often do not find ways to provide it. Although helping adolescents prevent unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, unintentional injuries, depression, suicide, and other problems is a community-wide effort, primary care physicians are well situated to discuss risks and offer interventions. Evidence supports routinely screening for obesity and depression, offering testing for human immunodeficiency virus infection, and screening for other sexually transmitted infections in some adolescents. Evidence validating the effectiveness of physician counseling about unintended pregnancy, gang violence, and substance abuse is scant. However, physicians should use empathic, personal messages to communicate with adolescents about these issues until studies prove the benefits of more specific methods. Effective communication with adolescents requires seeing the patient alone, tailoring the discussion to the individual patient, and understanding the role of the parents and of confidentiality. PMID:23316983
Anderson, Robert, Ed.; Kickbusch, Ilona, Ed.
Health promotion redirects thinking about health by: reasserting its social and political aspects; ensuring the people the power to define their own health concerns; and placing health more clearly in the context of other aims in life. This compilation of 41 articles in 8 sections attempts to document this process of redirection of thought. The…
Alexander, Stewart C.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Bravender, Terrill; Davis, J. Kelly; Østbye, Truls; Tulsky, James A.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Shields, Cleveland G.
Importance Physicians may be important sources of sexuality information and preventive services, and one-on-one confidential time during health maintenance visits is recommended to allow discussions of sexual development, behavior, and risk reduction. However, little is known about the occurrence and characteristics of physician-adolescent discussions about sexuality. Objective To examine predictors of time spent discussing sexuality, level of adolescent participation, and physician and patient characteristics associated with sexuality discussions during health maintenance visits by early and middle adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants Observational study of audio-recorded conversations between 253 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 years; 53% female; 40% white; 47% African American) and 49 physicians (82% pediatricians; 84% white; 65% female; mean age, 40.9 years; mean [SD] duration in practice, 11.8 [8.7] years) coded for sexuality content at 11 clinics (3 academic and 8 community-based practices) located throughout the Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina, area. Main Outcomes and Measures Total time per visit during which sexuality issues were discussed. Results One hundred sixty-five (65%) of all visits had some sexual content within it. The average time of sexuality talk was 36 seconds (35% 0 seconds; 30% 1-35 seconds; and 35% ≥36 seconds). Ordinal logistic regression (outcome of duration: 0, 1-35, or ≥36 seconds), adjusted for clustering of patients within physicians, found that female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58; 95% CI, 1.53-4.36), older patients (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.65), conversations with explicit confidentiality discussions (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.58-7.28), African American adolescents (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.48), and longer overall visit (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11) were associated with more sexuality talk, and Asian physicians were associated with less sexuality talk (OR = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.20). In addition, the same significant
Exceptional Parent, 2011
This article is part 2 of a 4-part series on "Health Promotion and Wellness" from the American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than 54 million people--one in five Americans--have a disability, and these Americans are more likely to report: (1) Being in poorer overall health; (2) Having less…
Basker, Mona M
Adolescents living in the Indian subcontinent form a significant proportion of the general population. India is home to 236 million adolescents, who make up one-fifth of the total population of India. Adolescent health is gradually considered an important issue by the government of India. Awareness is increasing about adolescent needs. Health care professionals in particular are becoming more interested in the specific needs of adolescent age. Adolescent medicine as a subspecialty of pediatrics has also gained importance gradually over the last decade. In a hospital setting, adolescent-specific needs are met, albeit not in a uniform manner in all the health centers. After having been trained in adolescent medicine in India and abroad, I present this paper as a bird's eye view of the practice of adolescent health and medicine in India. PMID:27447203
The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) is investigating factors which affect the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Benin, Cameroon, Ecuador, Guatemala, India, Jamaica, Mexico, Nepal, and the Philippines. The research is funded through the US Agency for International Development's Office of Nutrition. 22.5% of women in Nepal marry before they reach age 14 years, with most marrying before age 18. The research in the country has found pregnancy to be a burden among these young women which threatens their nutritional and health status as well as that of their offspring. Unequal distribution of food in the household and heavy workloads increase the level of risk faced by adolescent females. Postponing pregnancy in adolescents, however, delays the onset of increased nutritional needs in girls who are already likely to be undernourished. Delayed pregnancy also gives girls more time to complete their physical growth and avoids the risk of medical emergencies in childbirth, such as hemorrhage which, if survived, can lead to anemia which is aggravated by nutritional deficiencies. The ICRW has therefore proposed four strategies for postponing first births among female adolescents: encouraging later marriage, providing family planning and reproductive health services specially for adolescents, providing family life education about options for the future, and increasing educational opportunities for girls. PMID:12346355
Meschke, Laurie L.; Bartholomae, Suzanne; Zentall, Shannon R.
Reports on trends in adolescent sexual health, the relation between parenting and adolescent sexual outcomes, and adolescent sexuality interventions. Discusses parenting efforts related to adolescent sexual behavior. Examines adolescent sexuality programs with a parent component. Review of 19 programs supports the incorporation of theory and the…
Sheffield, Jeanie K.; Fiorenza, Erika; Sofronoff, Kate
Although a relatively high percentage of Australian adolescents experience mental health problems, many disturbed adolescents do not receive the help they require, and only a small proportion of adolescents seek professional psychological help. The present study examined adolescents' willingness to seek help and investigated factors that promote…
McCray, Alexa T.
This report reviews some of the extensive literature in health literacy, much of it focused on the intersection of low literacy and the understanding of basic health care information. Several articles describe methods for assessing health literacy as well as methods for assessing the readability of texts, although generally these latter have not been developed with health materials in mind. Other studies have looked more closely at the mismatch between patients' literacy levels and the readability of materials intended for use by those patients. A number of studies have investigated the phenomenon of literacy from the perspective of patients' interactions in the health care setting, the disenfranchisement of some patients because of their low literacy skills, the difficulty some patients have in navigating the health care system, the quality of the communication between doctors and their patients including the cultural overlay of such exchanges, and ultimately the effect of low literacy on health outcomes. Finally, the impact of new information technologies has been studied by a number of investigators. There remain many opportunities for conducting further research to gain a better understanding of the complex interactions between general literacy, health literacy, information technologies, and the existing health care infrastructure. PMID:15561782
Health Care Financing Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.
This document provides guidelines for individuals giving health care to adolescents through the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) Program. Chapter One briefly indicates needs of adolescents and outlines legal aspects of health care for adolescents such as age of majority, informed consent, confidentiality, disclosure of…
Promoting Adolescent Health and Well-Being through School-Linked, Multi-Service, Family-Friendly Programs. Meeting Highlights and Background Briefing Report: Family Impact Seminars with COFO (Washington, D.C., July 12, 1991).
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, Washington, DC. Research and Education Foundation.
Increased attention to adolescent health and well-being has been stimulated by rising mortality rates and high morbidity rates among adolescents. Several national inquiries have found that the responses of medical and other service systems do not adequately meet the health-related needs of adolescents and that a different approach, involving…
Jason, Leonard A.; Curie, Carrie J.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Katz, Richard B.; Sherk, Joseph L.
Reviews four areas from the prevention science field, including: promoting healthy behavior; preventing substance abuse; preventing high-risk sexual behaviors; and preventing child abuse and sexual abuse. Recommendations are made regarding strategies for implementing empirically validated programs, supplementing school programs with ecological…
This article presents a brief overview of the evolution of knowledge in health communication. Theorists suggest interesting solutions to improve messages related to health, but practitioners are asking for the means to put them to use. In health communication, then, efforts must be made to apply theory to practice. Nurses, working with other professionals, should be encouraged to engage in research aimed at improving communication strategies in health promotion. Interdisciplinary co-operation is key. PMID:11143661
Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.
The Teenage Health Teaching Modules (THTM) program is a health education curriculum for adolescents. Each THTM module frames an adolescent health task emphasizing development of self-assessment, communication, decision making, health advocacy, and self-management. This module is designed to help the classroom teacher introduce health-promoting…
South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region. PMID:18372876
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
This fact sheet addresses the mental health needs of children and adolescents. It emphasizes that children and adolescents can have mental health problems, that these mental health problems can be severe, and that these problems are common in young people. Some causes of mental health problems are identified, such as exposure to environmental…
Povlsen, Lene; Borup, Ina
In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation - an associate professorship was established with a focus on health promotion. Nevertheless, the concept of health promotion had been integrated with or mentioned in courses run prior to the new post. Subsequently, a wide spectrum of courses in health promotion was introduced, such as 'Empowerment for Child and Adolescent Health Promotion', 'Salutogenesis--from theory to practice' and 'Health, Stress and Coping'. More than half of all doctoral theses undertaken at NHV during these years had health promotion as their theme. As a derivative, the Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 with bi-annual meetings at NHV. PMID:26311798
Ott, Mary A.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; McBride, Kimberly R.; Woodcox, Stephanie G.
Objectives Policy-makers rarely consult adolescents during health policy development. However, adolescent perspectives on health can inform public health policies and programs. As part of the development of an Indiana state plan for adolescent health, we used qualitative methods to describe adolescents' “emic” views of health, and discuss implications for a state health policy for youth. Patients and Methods We conducted 8 adolescent focus groups in geographically and culturally diverse regions of Indiana. Each group was audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods. Results Participants described health as a shared responsibility between adolescents and adults in their lives. They identified a key role for supportive adults in initiating and maintaining health behaviors. Physical, financial, and informational environments could support or hinder healthy behaviors and outcomes. While adolescents' descriptions of physical health and risk behaviors were similar to adult formulations, adolescents described mental health as “stress and fatigue,” an interaction between the adolescent and their environment, rather than depression and anxiety, individual pathologies. Respect for decision-making capacity, seeking adolescent input, and providing harm reduction messages were identified as particularly important. Conclusions Adolescent perception of health can inform policies and programs, and should be sought prior to policy development. PMID:21402270
Solloway, Michele R., Ed.; Budetti, Peter P., Ed.
This report presents findings of a George Washington University Center for Health Policy Research (CHPR) multi-year project to conduct analytical studies on the financing, delivery, and cost effectiveness of child health supervision services. Against a backdrop of decline in private sector coverage for children, a growing number of children living…
Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Wazny, Kerri; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
The Millennium Development Goal era has resulted in improvements in maternal and child health worldwide. As more children are surviving past their fifth birthday, the population of adolescents is increasing. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental transition; adolescence sets the stage for adult health through risks taken and beneficial and detrimental habits that are formed and it is thus an optimal time to target health interventions. Beginning interventions in adolescence or even earlier in childhood maximizes the impact on the individual's health in adult life. Evidence suggests that interventions to promote sexual and reproductive health, physical activity and healthy lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing, safe and hazard-free environment, improving access to nutritious and healthy foods, and minimizing exposure to substance abuse can improve health outcomes in young adolescents. School-based delivery strategies appear to be the most highly evaluated for improving adolescent health; they have been used to deliver interventions such as sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and nutritional interventions. Use of social media and information technologies, cash transfers, social protection, and micro-finance initiatives are promising strategies; however, given the lack of rigorous evaluations, there is a need for further research. Additional research is also warranted to strengthen the evidence base by establishing causality, understanding the differential impacts of adolescent health in different contexts particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, research and evaluation in the domain of adolescent health must focus on how to implement interventions effectively at-scale, sustain the impacts over time and ensure equitable outcomes. PMID:26162972
Kok, Gerjo; Gurabardhi, Zamira; Gottlieb, Nell H; Zijlstra, Fred R H
Stakeholder theory may help health promoters to make changes at the organizational and policy level to promote health. A stakeholder is any individual, group, or organization that can influence an organization. The organization that is the focus for influence attempts is called the focal organization. The more salient a stakeholder is and the more central in the network, the stronger the influence. As stakeholders, health promoters may use communicative, compromise, deinstitutionalization, or coercive methods through an ally or a coalition. A hypothetical case study, involving adolescent use of harmful legal products, illustrates the process of applying stakeholder theory to strategic decision making. PMID:25829111
Tolli, M. V.
Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…
Sclafane, Jamie Heather
Dialogue journaling is a technique that is useful for enhancing the goals of sexual health promotion and HIV/STI prevention programs with 14-to 17-year-old at-risk youth. Included is a detailed lesson plan on how to implement dialogue journaling in this context, a discussion of advantages and concerns about using them, and future implications for…
Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.
The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…
MacKay, Andrea P.; Duran, Catherine
This report presents data on the current status of adolescent health. Many of the measures of health status are shown by single year of age or by 2- or 3-year age intervals to highlight the changes that occur in health status as adolescents move through this important developmental period. Summary measures combining 5- or 10-year age groups (the…
Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K
health is essential for drawing recommendations; however, the amount of exercise needed for achieving different benefits may vary. Physical activity promotion must start in early life; although the 'how much' remains unknown and needs further research, the lifelong benefits of adolescent physical activity on adult health are unequivocal. PMID:17123326
Bartholomew, Karla S
Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among children is associated with a wide variety of adverse health risks, including: asthma, otitis media, respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and function, decreased exercise tolerance, cognitive impairments, behavior problems, and sudden infant death syndrome. Unfortunately, over 40% of children aged 3-11 years-15.1 million children-are currently exposed to SHS, with nearly 70% of black children in this age group being exposed. Over the past three decades, great strides have been made in establishing smokefree environments for adults, ultimately reducing their SHS exposure. Regulations have been passed at the organizational, local, and state levels that increasingly ban smoking in the workplace and public places. Children's SHS exposure patterns, however, differ from adults' exposures, with greater time spent in the home and other potentially unregulated venues (school, child care, and car). This means that children have been afforded relatively less protection from SHS by these smokefree regulations. It is imperative, therefore, to seek alternative options for promoting smokefree environments for children throughout the United States. This article explores policy options that promote smokefree environments for children and adolescents: comprehensive smokefree/tobacco-free policies covering indoor/outdoor public places, housing, private vehicles, and child care, as well as Clinical Guidelines regarding patient/family interviews on smoking, SHS, cessation, and voluntary smokefree efforts. The policy section highlights the role of child and adolescent health practitioners in promoting these policies with the hope of fostering engagement of these key stakeholders in the policy process. Note, there are a wide range of important policy and regulatory strategies aimed at reducing tobacco initiation and use among children, adolescents, and young adults; while essential in tobacco prevention and control efforts, a discussion of
Sullivan, Karen T.
Health-related habits develop early in life. The period during junior high school is especially important for developing these habits. Because adolescent behaviors may be better predictors of adult disease than adult health behaviors, interventions with children and adolescents are important. Several theories and models for explaining how people…
Ivanova, Olena; Pozo, Kathya Cordova; Segura, Zoyla Esmeralda; Vega, Bernardo; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Hindin, Michelle J; Temmerman, Marleen; Decat, Peter; De Meyer, Sara; Michielsen, Kristien
The Community-Embedded Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents (CERCA) Project was implemented in Bolivia, Ecuador and Nicaragua (2011-2014) to test the effectiveness of interventions preventing teenage pregnancies. As the outcome evaluation showed limited impact, a post-hoc process evaluation was carried out to determine if and how CERCA's design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation affected the results. We did a document analysis and conducted 18 in-depth interviews and 21 focus group discussions with stakeholders and beneficiaries. Transcripts were analyzed using directed content analysis. Data showed that CERCA sensitized stakeholders and encouraged the discussion on this sensitive issue. In terms of design, a strong point was the participatory approach; a weak point was that the detailed situation analysis was completed too late. In terms of implementation, a strong point was that multifaceted activities were implemented; a weak point was that the activities were not pilot tested for feasibility/acceptability and evolved substantially throughout the Project. In terms of monitoring, strong points were that regular monitoring kept the Project on track administratively/financially; a weak point was that monitoring indicators did not change as the intervention package changed. In terms of evaluation, weak points were the substantial attrition rate and narrow focus on adolescents. This study provides recommendations for future projects. PMID:27347640
Igras, Susan M.; Macieira, Marjorie; Murphy, Elaine; Lundgren, Rebecka
Very young adolescents (VYAs) between the ages of 10 and 14 represent about half of the 1.2 billion adolescents aged 10–19 in the world today. In lower- and middle-income countries, where most unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, maternal deaths and sexually transmitted infections occur, investment in positive youth development to promote sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is increasing. Most interventions, though, focus on older adolescents, overlooking VYAs. Since early adolescence marks a critical transition between childhood and older adolescence and adulthood, setting the stage for future SRH and gendered attitudes and behaviours, targeted investment in VYAs is imperative to lay foundations for healthy future relationships and positive SRH. This article advocates for such investments and identifies roles that policy-makers, donors, programme designers and researchers and evaluators can play to address the disparity. PMID:24824757
During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risk-taking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues. PMID:22232620
Many adolescents need basic health care and other services that address risky behaviors such as sexual activity, violence, alcohol and drug abuse, and the consequences of these behaviors. This publication summarizes laws and resolutions on adolescent health issues passed in 1997 state and territory legislative sessions. No 1997 legislative session…
Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia.
The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent Health Behaviors (WSSAHB) was created to collect information regarding a variety of adolescent health behaviors among students in the state of Washington. It expands on two previous administrations of a student tobacco, alcohol, and other drug survey and includes questions about medical care, safety,…
Irwin, Charles E., Jr., Ed.; And Others
Health care reform represents a major step toward achieving the goal of improved preventive and primary care services for all Americans, including children and adolescents. Adolescence is a unique developmental age district from both childhood and adulthood with special vulnerabilities, health concerns, and barriers to accessing health care. It is…
This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...
Johnson, Sara B.; Blum, Robert W.; Giedd, Jay N.
Longitudinal neuroimaging studies demonstrate that the adolescent brain continues to mature well into the 20s. This has prompted intense interest in linking neuromaturation to maturity of judgment. Public policy is struggling to keep up with burgeoning interest in cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging. However, empirical evidence linking neurodevelopmental processes and adolescent real-world behavior remains sparse. Nonetheless, adolescent brain development research is already shaping public policy debates about when individuals should be considered mature for policy purposes. With this in mind, in this article we summarize what is known about adolescent brain development and what remains unknown, as well as what neuroscience can and cannot tell us about the adolescent brain and behavior. We suggest that a conceptual framework that situates brain science in the broader context of adolescent developmental research would help to facilitate research-to-policy translation. Furthermore, although contemporary discussions of adolescent maturity and the brain often use a deficit-based approach, there is enormous opportunity for brain science to illuminate the great strengths and potentialities of the adolescent brain. So, too, can this information inform policies that promote adolescent health and well-being. PMID:19699416
Pérez-Wilson, Patricia; Hernán, Mariano; Morgan, Antony R; Mena, Angel
This study uses a health asset (HA) framework to explore current perspectives on health, wellbeing and their determinants amongst a group of 15-18-year-old adolescents living in the neighbourhood of Zaidin (Granada, Spain). The study was carried out in Summer 2011 using a qualitative approach. It included 20 semi-structured interviews, 2 focus groups with adolescents and 4 semi-structured interviews with key informants (adults who work with adolescents). Narrative data were analysed by means of content analysis methodology, considering the concept of health, HAs and how they are prioritized as dimensions for the analysis. The concept of health defined by adolescents involves physical, psychological and social dimensions. According to them, health is associated with happiness and quality of life. A range of HAs were identified and classified as internal (belonging to the adolescents) and external or contextual. Internal assets are classified into three types: personal traits (assets of 'being'), behaviour (assets of 'doing') and social resources which contribute to their feeling of health and well-being (assets of 'having'). The latter connects internal and external assets. The classification of HAs ('being', 'doing' and 'having') proposed in this study provides a useful starting framework of thinking about how these assets could be organized to support the development of health promotion programmes. The study highlights the opportunity for public policy to contribute to the improvement of the conditions and local scenarios that improve the possibilities for positive connections at the community level. PMID:24334370
Hutchinson, Janice; Langlykke, Kristin
This bulletin is intended to raise awareness of the magnitude and gravity of adolescent maltreatment and to provide information on public health program and policy interventions. A review of adolescent victimization, with a focus on vulnerable youth, provides background for the development of public health measures to promote prevention and ensure…
Yang, Rea-Jeng; Wang, Edward K; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng; Chen, Mei-Yen
Background Regular breakfast eating (RBE) is an important contributor to a healthy lifestyle and health status. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the relationships among irregular breakfast eating (IRBE), health status, and health promoting behavior (HPB) for Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to investigate a cluster sample of 1609 (7th -12th grade) adolescents located in the metropolitan Tao-Yuan area during the 2005 academic year. The main variables comprised breakfast eating pattern, body weight, and health promoting behaviors. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Results A total of 1609 participants were studied, 64.1% in junior high school and 35.9% in high school, boys (47.1%) and girls (52.9%) ranging in age from 12–20 years. Of the total participant population, 28.8% were overweight and nearly one quarter (23.6%) reported eating breakfast irregularly during schooldays. The findings indicated that adolescents with RBE had a lower risk of overweight (OR for IRBE vs. RBE = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.04), and that the odds of becoming overweight were 51% greater for IRBE than for RBE even after controlling for demographical and HPB variables. IRBE also was a strong indicator for HPB. However, the profile of the high-risk IRBE group was predominantly junior high schoolchildren and/or children living without both parents. Conclusion This study provides valuable information about irregular breakfast eating among adolescents, which is associated with being overweight and with a low frequency of health promoting behavior. School and family health promotion strategies should be used to encourage all adolescents to eat breakfast regularly. PMID:17150112
Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven M; Jones, Rasheda; Monasterio, Erica; Norbeck, Jane
The purpose of this paper is to describe health profiles of adolescents in foster care. The Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition clustered adolescents in foster care into 13 mutually exclusive health profiles using dimensions of satisfaction with health, risks, resilience, and discomfort. Health profiles were further characterized into four health status rankings from best to worst health status. Many reported best health status (39%); nearly equal numbers (30.6%) had profiles indicating poor or worst health status, particularly girls and those with high risk behaviors, aggression, sexual abuse, or suicidality. It is valuable to identify health characteristics of the most vulnerable subgroups of foster youth to tailor specific interventions. PMID:23036596
Oh, Jean-Yin; Rajasegaran, Kumudhini
The introduction of adolescent medicine as a medical subspecialty in Singapore was a welcome in an evolving health care system that is unique in terms of both efficiency, in financing and the results achieved in community health outcomes. The Ministry of Health (MOH) already recognized the need to accommodate the health care concerns related to adolescent psychosocial health risk behaviors and an increased prevalence of young people living with chronic illness. The challenge for the pioneer team of physicians trained in adolescent medicine was to develop and sustain a model of care that integrated (i) core clinical services that include quality measures of care to adolescents; (ii) professional development and capacity building needing an expansive teaching agenda at every level of health education; (iii) strong inter-sectorial collaborations within hospital and community partners; and (iv) robust research and evaluation strategies that keep clinical practice relevant and evidence based. PMID:26115501
Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, MaryAnn; Whalen, Colleen
Examined factors related to health practices of urban minority adolescents. Participant surveys highlighted positive correlations between social support and positive health practices and hope and positive health practices. There was no significant relationship between self-esteem and positive health practices. Implications for school nursing…
Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed
The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media. PMID:22643165
This update of the 2008 statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics redirects the discussion of quality health care from the theoretical to the practical within the medical home. This statement reviews the evolution of the medical home concept and challenges the provision of quality adolescent health care within the patient-centered medical home. Areas of attention for quality adolescent health care are reviewed, including developmentally appropriate care, confidentiality, location of adolescent care, providers who offer such care, the role of research in advancing care, and the transition to adult care. PMID:27432849
Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew
This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. PMID:26613696
Cinelli, Renata Leah; O'Dea, Jennifer A.
This study examines the relationship between body image and obesity, among 4367 indigenous and Anglo-European adolescents in Australia in 2006. It shows that indigenous adolescents, male and female, were more likely than their non-indigenous counterparts to desire and pursue weight gain. Indigenous males showed the greatest tendencies to gain…
Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston
This article explores how clinicians can promote patient and family caregiver spiritual health. After a review of pertinent theory and research, clinical implications are identified, including appropriate goals for clinicians with regard to spiritual health promotion. PMID:18562823
Nam, Eun Woo; Engelhardt, Katrin
Ten years ago the Republic of Korea enacted the National Health Promotion Act, setting the stage for health promotion action in the country. A National Health Promotion Fund was established, financed through tobacco taxes, which is now one of the largest in the world. However, despite abundant financial resources, the infrastructure needed to plan, implement, coordinate and evaluate health promotion efforts is still underdeveloped. Currently, health promotion capacity mapping efforts are emerging in Korea. Two international capacity mapping tools have been used to assess the Korean situation, namely HP-Source and the Health Promotion Capacity Profile, which was developed prior to the sixth Global Conference of Health Promotion, held in August 2005 in Bangkok, Thailand. The article summarizes and discusses the results of the capacity mapping exercise, highlights its challenges and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of health promotion capacity mapping. PMID:17341492
Viner, Russell M; Ozer, Elizabeth M; Denny, Simon; Marmot, Michael; Resnick, Michael; Fatusi, Adesegun; Currie, Candace
The health of adolescents is strongly affected by social factors at personal, family, community, and national levels. Nations present young people with structures of opportunity as they grow up. Since health and health behaviours correspond strongly from adolescence into adult life, the way that these social determinants affect adolescent health are crucial to the health of the whole population and the economic development of nations. During adolescence, developmental effects related to puberty and brain development lead to new sets of behaviours and capacities that enable transitions in family, peer, and educational domains, and in health behaviours. These transitions modify childhood trajectories towards health and wellbeing and are modified by economic and social factors within countries, leading to inequalities. We review existing data on the effects of social determinants on health in adolescence, and present findings from country-level ecological analyses on the health of young people aged 10-24 years. The strongest determinants of adolescent health worldwide are structural factors such as national wealth, income inequality, and access to education. Furthermore, safe and supportive families, safe and supportive schools, together with positive and supportive peers are crucial to helping young people develop to their full potential and attain the best health in the transition to adulthood. Improving adolescent health worldwide requires improving young people's daily life with families and peers and in schools, addressing risk and protective factors in the social environment at a population level, and focusing on factors that are protective across various health outcomes. The most effective interventions are probably structural changes to improve access to education and employment for young people and to reduce the risk of transport-related injury. PMID:22538179
JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents. PMID:12289887
Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen
Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10–16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations. PMID:26015404
Wegner, R E
Children and adolescents increasingly show health-related problems which may not be considered as diseases to be treated but nevertheless severely affect academic performance and social behaviour. Regarding the consequences, e.g. from the PISA study, the significance of health problems and their negative impact on academic success are still not sufficiently taken into account. The tasks of paediatric public health services include: (1) health promotion in schools and kindergartens, (2) preventive and other medical checkups in kindergartens and schools to detect the individual needs of children and adolescents for support, (3) reducing the risk of long-term damage in handicapped or retarded children and adolescents by seeking out these children where necessary, and (4) advising the political decision makers by reporting on the population's health and social situation. The main aim is to provide children with special needs with what they need in order to prevent them, especially those whose parents cannot ensure this support themselves, developing a deeper disturbance, or to make sure that these young people are able to participate in social life and to integrate into society in spite of health problems or handicaps. To achieve these goals and to improve the health of children and adolescents, a community-based paediatric public health service has to cooperate with other institutions such as youth authorities, social welfare, education authorities, schools and other local institutions with an input into the health of children and adolescents. PMID:16179986
Promoting health underlines the right of each individual to the highest attainable standard of health. It stresses the importance of the participation of people and recognizes different sociocultural values and beliefs that are prevalent throughout the world. Working on health development has a sustainable effect only when done comprehensively: personal development, community development, organizational development, and political development. The international conferences that have marked the way of health promotion have been goal posts of an energetic movement to strengthen health worldwide. The Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion has been a worldwide source of guidance for health promotion through its five strategies: building health policy, creating supportive elements, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services. Moreover, the Jakarta Declaration on "Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century" identifies five priorities in the next millennium: 1) promote social responsibility for health; 2) increase investments for health development; 3) consolidate and expand partnerships for health; 4) increase community capacity and empower the individual in matters of health; and 5) secure an infrastructure for health promotion. Increasing the investment in health development calls for the need to find new mechanisms for funding as well as reorienting existing resources towards health promotion and health education. PMID:12349582
Recine, Ann C; Stehle Werner, Joan; Recine, Louis
The purpose of this article is to offer evidence-based forgiveness interventions clinically useful to nurses in holistic health promotion for individuals, families, and communities. Forgiveness interventions are developed and described within four approaches inspired by midrange nursing theorists who have adapted their theories from Bandura's Social Learning Theory and Frankl's Theory of Meaning. Interventions are also assimilated from a comprehensive review of theoretical and research literature. The four interventional approaches include persuasive information, vicarious experience, awareness of physiological reactions, and enactive attainment. Barriers to implementation are discussed as well as ways to individualize the interventions. PMID:19182268
Hawaii State Dept. of Health, Honolulu. Maternal and Child Health Branch.
This publication reports on a survey to develop a profile of adolescent health in Hawaii in order to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies. The survey covered: general health status; family, peer, and school problems; depression and suicide; use of licit and illicit substances; sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases; and…
LeBel, Janice; Stromberg, Nan; Duckworth, Ken; Kerzner, Joan; Goldstein, Robert; Weeks, Michael; Harper, Gordon; LaFlair, Lareina; Sudders, Marylou
Objective: To reduce the use of restraint and seclusion with children and adolescents in psychiatric inpatient units by promoting a preventive, strength-based model of care. Method: The State Mental Health Authority used data analysis, quality improvement strategies, regulatory oversight, and technical assistance to develop and implement system…
Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John
The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion exhibits a substantialist approach to the agency-structure dichotomy. From a substantialist point of view, both individual agency and social structure come preformed and subsequently relate to and influence one another, starkly positioning the choices made by individuals against the structured sets of opportunities and constraints in reference to which choices are made. From a relational perspective, however, relations between elements, not the elements themselves, are the primary ontological focus. We advocate for a relational approach to the structure-agency dichotomy, one that locates both agency and structure in social relations and thereby dissolves the stark distinction between them, suggesting that relational theories can provide useful insights into how and why people 'choose' to engage in health-related behaviours. Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice, predicated upon the notions of field, capital and habitus, is exemplary in this regard. PMID:25080467
DiBlasio, F A
Adolescent pregnancy and AIDS, and their implications for health risk, warrant a reexamination of professional values of child welfare workers toward adolescent sexuality. This article presents an exercise designed to assist practitioners in understanding the hidden values that influence intervention. PMID:2721295
Puskar, Kathryn; Grabiak, Beth R; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Ren, Dianxu
This article compares rural adolescents' coping responses before and after the behavioral intervention Teaching Kids to Cope with Anger (TKC-A). A quasi-experimental design was used, that included 94 (intervention) and 85 (control) students who were enrolled in three high schools in rural southwestern Pennsylvania. Results showed no statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups' coping responses following the TKC- A intervention. The majority of youth in this study demonstrated healthy coping skills. In the future, the TKC-A needs to be integrated into the high school curriculum as a health promotion effort that is tailored to adolescents. PMID:19657872
Terre, Lisa; And Others
Examined relationship between affect, demographics, and health-related lifestyle among 139 public high school students. Data analyses revealed distinctive demographic and affective correlates of different health behaviors. No one variable uniformly predicted adolescents' health behaviors. Demographics and affect showed differential relationships…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.
The Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs is considering legislation to improve mental health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. This report is in response to the Committee's request for information on the mental health needs of Indian adolescents and the services available to them. The section on mental health problems among…
Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance; Seeley, Jane
This study, using Andersen's health care utilization model, examined how predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, personal health practices, and psychological factors influence health care utilization using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Canadian adolescents. Second, this study examined whether this process…
Hung, Tommy Tsz Man; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Dawson, Angela; Lee, Regina Lai Tong
Health-promoting schools have been regarded as an important initiative in promoting child and adolescent health in school settings using the whole-school approach. Quantitative research has proved its effectiveness in various school-based programmes. However, few qualitative studies have been conducted to investigate the strategies used by health promoters to implement such initiatives. In this study, the researchers conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the qualitative literature to identify important enablers assisting the implementation of health-promoting schools from the perspectives of health promoters. Five enablers have been identified from the review: (a) Following a framework/guideline to implement health-promoting schools; (b) Obtaining committed support and contributions from the school staff, school board management, government authorities, health agencies and other stakeholders; (c) Adopting a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach to implementing HPS; (d) Establishing professional networks and relationships; and (e) Continuing training and education in school health promotion. This highlights the importance of developing school health policies that meet local health needs, and socio-cultural characteristics that can foster mutual understanding between the health and education sectors so as to foster health promotion in children and adolescents. PMID:25264789
Schleich, Ley, Ed.
This document contains the first six research updates to "Alaska's Adolescents: A Plan for the Future," a comprehensive 1994 report on adolescent health issues prepared by the multiagency Alaska Adolescent Health Advisory Committee. "The Media and Adolescent Health: Television's Impact on Certain Teen Behaviors" (Elizabeth Hatton) examines the…
Simons, Lisa; Schrager, Sheree M.; Clark, Leslie F.; Belzer, Marvin; Olson, Johanna
Purpose Family support is protective against health risks in sexual minority individuals. However, few studies have focused specifically on transgender youth, who often experience rejection, marginalization, and victimization that place them at risk for poor mental health. This study investigated the relationships among parental support, quality of life, and depression in transgender adolescents. Methods Sixty-six transgender youth presenting for care at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles completed a survey assessing parental support (defined as help, advice and confidante support), quality of life, and depression. Regression analyses assessed the associations between parental support and mental health outcomes. Results Parental support was significantly associated with higher life satisfaction, lower perceived burden of being transgender, and fewer depressive symptoms. Conclusions Parental support is associated with higher quality of life and is protective against depression in transgender adolescents. Interventions that promote parental support may significantly impact the mental health of transgender youth. PMID:24012067
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
Busch, Vincent; de Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; de Harder, Alinda; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus
Background: In approaches to health promotion in adolescents, unhealthy behaviors are no longer regarded as independent processes, but as interrelated. This article presents a systematic literature review of school-based interventions targeting multiple adolescent behaviors simultaneously. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed…
McCoy, Kira; Stinson, Kaylan; Scott, Kenneth; Tenney, Liliana; Newman, Lee S.
Objective To assess the evidence regarding the adoption and efficacy of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs) in small businesses. Methods Peer-reviewed research articles were identified from a database search. Included articles were published before July 2013, described a study that used an experimental or quasiexperimental design and either assessed adoption of WHPPs or conducted interventions in businesses with fewer than 500 employees. A review team scored the study’s rigor using the WHO-adapted GRADEprofiler “quality of evidence” criteria. Results Of the 84 retrieved articles, 19 met study inclusion criteria. Of these, only two met criteria for high rigor. Conclusions Fewer small businesses adopt WHPPs compared with large businesses. Two high-rigor studies found that employees were healthier postintervention. Higher quality research is needed to better understand why small businesses rarely adopt wellness programs and to demonstrate the value of such programs. PMID:24905421
Luna, Izaildo Tavares; Moreira, Rosa Aparecida Nogueira; da Silva, Kelanne Lima; Caetano, Joselany Afio; Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida
This integrative review summarizes nursing researches that contribute to study juvenile obesity with a focus on health promotion. 20 articles were identified in a bibliographical survey that followed the criteria: date, language, and the descriptors: nursing, adolescent, obesity and health promotion. The Pediatric Nursing Journal published seven of these papers (35%). Indexed papers were published in the last ten years in Portuguese and English. Results showed the construction of scientific knowledge in nursing that developed health promotion strategies in cases of juvenile obesity, thus contributing to the development of the profession. Showing the cumulative risk that juvenile obesity presents of turning subjects into obese adults is a precious resource to plan nursing actions for this population, and for these actions to achieve effective results. PMID:21988003
Kay, L E
As sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll have given way to STDs, HIV, and AIDS, adolescent sex has become an increasingly high-risk behavior. Dr Kay strongly believes that primary care physicians can have a prominent role in educating teens and their parents about the consequences of premature sexual activity and in promoting healthy living. In this article, he presents the case against adolescent sexual intercourse and outlines a concrete approach to dealing with adolescent patients at risk and their families. PMID:7777440
Smith, Ben J; Tang, Kwok Cho; Nutbeam, Don
The WHO Health Promotion Glossary was written to facilitate understanding, communication and cooperation among those engaged in health promotion at the local, regional, national and global levels. Two editions of the Glossary have been released, the first in 1986 and the second in 1998, and continued revision of the document is necessary to promote consensus regarding meanings and to take account of developments in thinking and practice. In this update 10 new terms that are to be included in the Glossary are presented. Criteria for the inclusion of terms in the Glossary are that they differentiate health promotion from other health concepts, or have a specific application or meaning when used in relation to health promotion. The terms defined here are: burden of disease; capacity building; evidence-based health promotion; global health; health impact assessment; needs assessment; self-efficacy; social marketing; sustainable health promotion strategies, and; wellness. WHO will continue to periodically update the Health Promotion Glossary to ensure its relevance to the international health promotion community. PMID:16963461
Objective: To analyse the interrelated processes of identity, participation and knowledge in the context of the health educational Lifecalculator computer game. The analysis focuses on if and how this school-based health promotion initiative communicated relevant health knowledge to adolescents. Further development of the concept of health…
Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan
Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions. PMID:18392544
Jackson, Suzanne F; Riley, Barbara L
The evolution of health promotion in Canada between 1986 and 2006 is characterized by three major eras: Health Promotion in the Limelight, 1986-1992, Health Promotion Behind the Scenes, 1993-2003, and Health Promotion Restaged, 2003-2006. These eras are illustrated using the Canadian Heart Health Initiative as an example. The first era, backed by strong federal government leadership and support, was a progressive time of developing concepts, collaborations and infrastructure for health promotion across the country. Despite significant progress, by the end of this era, health promotion was neither sufficiently developed nor funded to make it a cornerstone of the health system. In addition, the emphasis was heavily biased towards changing individual behaviour. In the second era, health promotion continued to develop in pockets across the country and debates within the field intensified. However, these events went largely unnoticed and massive overall cuts at federal and provincial levels of government made acute care a much higher priority than health promotion. The third era, mostly shaped by fears linked to public health threats, saw a restaging of health promotion through efforts to strengthen public health infrastructure. Nevertheless, at the end of this era, the necessary intersectoral partnerships (such as in health, housing, education, food, income) remained scarce, and little progress was made to decrease health inequalities. The Canadian Heart Health Initiative was implemented over the same time period as the three eras. Its legacy includes collegial relationships across various levels of government and with non-government organizations, a culture that values pan-Canadian initiatives, and support for integration of research, evaluation, surveillance, policy and practice. It remains to be seen how quickly it will be possible to advance the vision of health promotion conceived during the Limelight Era in Canada. PMID:18372871
Probst, Janice C.; Moore, Charity G.; Baxley, Elizabeth G.
Context: Adolescence is critical for the development of adult health habits. Disparities between rural and urban adolescents and between minority and white youth can have life-long consequences. Purpose: To compare health insurance coverage and ambulatory care contacts between rural minority adolescents and white and urban adolescents. Methods:…
Ballard, Danny J.; And Others
Examined the relationship between social support, barriers, locus of control, and involvement of school health promotion team members in school health promotion activities. Subjects perceived greater support for implementing CPR/first aid, alcohol/drug programs, and speeches on health topics and lower support for healthy snacks, advisory groups,…
Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique
Focused on mental health and protective factors in early adolescence. Significant relations between coping strategies and mental health were found, which are different according to gender: girls invest in more social relations, negative feelings, and consumption habits; boys often use sense of humor, or practice a hobby or sport. (JBJ)
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
This article reviews the progress made in meeting United States' existing mental health goals for adolescents, and identifies issues that will have to be considered in setting new goals. The article examines the substantial need for child mental health services, particularly among young, socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The unmet need for…
Srinivasan, Shobha; Dearry, Allen
Health promotion seeks to provide practitioners of medicine and public health as well as members of the public with the information, resources, and tools that they can use to improve health and well-being. This goal is consonant with that of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), namely, to improve public health outcomes via research,…
Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J
This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future. PMID:25770651
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851
Bayarsaikhan, Dorjsuren; Nakamura, Keiko
Health promotion is receiving more attention in Mongolia. A survey is undertaken to examine health promotion in terms of health-related information, education, counseling, screening, preventive and medical checkups. Almost all (97.5%) of the subjects feel that access to reliable and systematically organized health-related information is important. About 60% of the subjects expressed that the amount of currently available information is inadequate. There are several factors that limit the implementation of public health programs. These include inadequate focus on promoting health at individual level, lack of funds, and limited incentives to promote health. This article examined social health insurance as an option to address these issues. Three hypothetical benefits package options expanded to health promotion were developed and simulated by a computerized tool. The simulations show that all 3 options are financially sustainable at the existing level of contribution if Mongolia will gain near universal health insurance coverage and improve revenue collection practices. PMID:25834269
Moody, Linda E.; Moriarty, David G.
The Computerized Health Risk Profile (CHRP) for adolescents, a health risk appraisal process, is a tool to assist in risk identification and an important component of a comprehensive health promotion program. The CHRP's development, field-tests, applications, and evaluations are described. (CJ)
Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Rodríguez-Cabrera, Lucero; Rivero, Lilia; Ochoa, Jorge; Stanford, Adriana; Latinovic, Ljubica; Rueda, Gretel
Mexico is undergoing profound health reform, extending health insurance to previously uninsured populations and changing the way health care services are delivered. Legislation enacted in 2003 and implemented in 2004 mandated funding and infrastructure that will allow 52% of Mexico's population to access medical care at no cost by 2010. This ambitious social reform has not been without challenges, particularly financial sustainability. Health promotion, because of its potential to prevent or delay chronic diseases and injuries and their associated costs, is a key component of health care reform. In 2006, the Ministry of Health's General Directorate of Health Promotion developed the Health Promotion Operational Model. Based on Ottawa Charter functions, the model integrates health promotion activities within the overall health care system. The main goal of this model is to build strong human capital and to improve organizational capacity for health promotion starting at the local level by training health care personnel to implement health promotion activities. Organizational development workshops started in 2006, and implementation plans in all 32 Mexican states were in place by end of 2008. PMID:19080038
Background: Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. Objective: A random-dialed telephone survey was conducted to assess health resource comm...
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The transition to adulthood in the US has become increasingly diverse over the last fifty years, leaving young adults without a normative pathway to adulthood. Using Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=7803), I draw from a cumulative advantages/disadvantages (CAD) perspective to examine the relationships between union formation, parenthood, college attendance, full-time employment, home-leaving, and changes in health-promoting behaviors between adolescence and young adulthood. I find that men and women who marry, cohabit, or attend college during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood report fewer losses in healthy behaviors over time. When the sample is divided into mutually exclusive "pathways to adulthood", two higher-risk groups emerge for both men and women: single parents and those transitioning into fulltime work without attending college or forming families. These groups experience greater losses in healthy behaviors over time even after adjusting for family of origin characteristics and may be at long-term risk for persistently low engagement in health-promoting behaviors. PMID:24796877
Behavioural medicine is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary field that integrates the physiological and psychosocial aspects of human behaviour and applies them to prevention. In the early stage of chronic non-infectious illnesses of great epidemiological significance the most important risk factors are the reversible psychophysiological regulation disturbances. According to the behavioural medicine model depressive symptomatology, hopelessness, anxiety, non-adaptive ways of coping, dysfunctional attitudes are common risk factors in the background of self-destructive behavioural disturbances, such as smoking, alcohol and drug abuse and suicidal behaviour. The basic link between physiological and psychological phenomena is the decision making process, the cognitive appraisal, evaluation of the given situation, which is very subjective and depends on the socialization process. The modern civilised way of life continuously creates situations in which we experience loss of control, and therefore the psychological and physiological balance can only be obtained with great difficulty. Especially under conditions of sudden cultural and socioeconomic transition strengthening adaptive ways of coping and preventing emotional disturbances are fundamental in health promotion. PMID:10943647
Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Mello, Flávia Carvalho Malta de; Mello, Débora Falleiros de; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Sampaio, Julliane Messias Cordeiro; Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio de
The objective of this exploratory study with a qualitative approach was to analyze how adolescents perceive reality in terms of vulnerability in respect to health. A total of 17 semi-structured interviews were staged with adolescents from two elementary-middle (k-8) schools in a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. Content analysis was used to interpret the data, from which three thematic nuclei emerged. The results revealed that the adolescents understand the complex interaction between individual predisposition and health vulnerability, as well as the issues related to social structure, which contributes to strengthening the concept of vulnerability based on individual, social and programmatic logic. It was established that public policies, prevention and care provided during adolescence should not be guided by a single reference point, but instead by the plurality of the adolescent individuals concerning vulnerability in their dimensions, which should be acknowledged in order to break with the idea of the universality of the process of becoming an adolescent. PMID:24863838
Sendall, Marguerite C.; Lidstone, John; Fleming, MaryLou; Domocol, Michelle
Background: The term "green health promotion" is given to health promotion underpinned by the principles of ecological health and sustainability. Green health promotion is supported philosophically by global health promotion documents such as the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the ecological public health movement. Green…
Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E
Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254
Springer, Andrew E.; Evans, Alexandra E.
Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254
Vieira Netto, Moysés Francisco; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira
The Family Health Strategy (FHS) has an acknowledged potential for the promotion of health and the prevention of violence. This is an integrative bibliographic review with the aim of evaluating the performance of FHS professionals in tackling and preventing violence involving adolescents. It is an integrative review of dissertations and theses on healthcare published from 1994 to 2014. The collection of 17 dissertations and 2 doctoral theses reveals that these studies are recent. The FHS professionals acknowledge the vulnerability of adolescents to inflicting and being subject to violence, however the FHS proves ineffective in tackling and preventing such violence. The predominance of the medical technical care model, the deficiencies in Public Health education in professional training and the lack of institutional support are seen as the main obstacles. Many of these professionals are unaware of the files for notification of violence. The existence of family violence and criminal groups were the aspects most mentioned in the territories. The social representation of adolescents as being "problematic" and the lack of ESF actions that promote an increase youth leadership and empowerment were clearly detected. PMID:27166906
Aneshensel, C S; Sucoff, C A
Mental health disorders in adolescence are pervasive, often carry into adulthood, and appear to be inversely associated with social status. We examine how structural aspects of neighborhood context, specifically, socioeconomic stratification and racial/ethnic segregation, affect adolescent emotional well-being by shaping subjective perceptions of their neighborhoods. Using a community-based sample of 877 adolescents in Los Angeles County, we find that youth in low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods perceive greater ambient hazards such as crime, violence, drug use, and graffiti than those in high SES neighborhoods. The perception of the neighborhood as dangerous, in turn, influences the mental health of adolescents: the more threatening the neighborhood, the more common the symptoms of depression, anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Social stability and, to a lesser extent, social cohesion, also emerge as contributors to adolescent disorder. This investigation demonstrates that research into the mental health of young people should consider the socioeconomic and demographic environments in which they live. PMID:8997886
McClary, Cheryl; And Others
Describes a university campus health promotion program that also trained family practice residents in health promotion skills. The core course emphasized stress management, aerobic conditioning, interpersonal relationship skills, and nutrition. Pre- and posttesting indicated most respondents believed the course had some lasting effect on their…
Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…
Kreutz, Gunter; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron
This study focuses on health-promoting behaviours in students from two conservatoires, the Royal Northern College of Music (RNCM, Manchester, UK; n =199) and the Royal College of Music (RCM, London, UK; n = 74). The research questions concern (a) the levels and types of health-promoting behaviours among performance students and (b) the association…
Gordon, Catherine M.; Loriaux, D. Lynn; Grumbach, Melvin M.; Rogol, Alan D.; Nelson, Lawrence M.
A group of basic scientists, clinicians, clinical investigators, psychologists, patient advocacy groups, and representatives from professional societies and governmental agencies met at the National Institutes of Health in October, 2007 with the long-term goal of having the menstrual cycle accepted and understood as a marker of general health in adolescent girls. An equally important goal was to develop a research agenda for this area of investigation. This chapter comprises the highlights of discussions throughout that meeting, with an emphasis on ideas generated during a final session led by an internationally renowned physician-scientist, in which reports from four breakout groups were presented. The specific goal assigned to each group was to develop an agenda that would set the stage for how research should be conducted over the next 100 years, and to identify the pressing research questions that should be addressed related to the menstrual cycle and adolescent health. The four areas represented in discussion groups included: genetic research; metabolic and reproductive research; emotional health; and the promotion of conduct of clinical research. Insights are also provided by five clinical investigators, including two outside experts, on both topics of priority for a research agenda in the area of adolescent reproductive health, as well as how the research itself should be conducted. PMID:18574236
Parker, Edith A.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Israel, Barbara; Salinas, Maria A.
The field of environmental health promotion gained new prominence in recent years as awareness of physical environmental stressors and exposures increased in communities across the country and the world. Although many theories and conceptual models are used routinely to guide health promotion and health education interventions, they are rarely…
Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth
This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…
Launay, Magali; Demierre, Maria; Jacot-Guillarmod, Martine
Adolescent's sexual health, in particular the risk of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), is a complex topic that deserves special attention. Confidential care and non-stigmatizing attitude as well as working with sexual health counsellors are strongly recommended. If an adolescent consults with an adult, it is beneficial to proceed stepwise in order to promote patient's autonomy and to build a relationship of trust with both of them. A focused approach of the teenager, adapted to its needs, as well as techniques such as Quick start and bridging, can improve compliance to contraception. Regarding the risk of STIs, primary prevention remains essential. The most effective prevention currently consists in systematic condom use. PMID:27451513
Djalalinia, Shirin; Ramezani-Tehrani, Fahimeh; Malekafzali, Hossein; Hejazi, Farzaneh; Peykari, Niloofar
Background: Unhealthy nutritional behaviors are a threat to adolescents. In this regard, we compared different training methods through a participatory interventional study. Materials and Methods: Through proportional random selection, 1823 female students were selected from 15 middle schools of Tehran. Following 2 years of intervention, nutritional habits of three different interventional groups were assessed. Results: Eating breakfast was significantly higher in the trained groups, and the use of weight loss diets was lower in them than in the control group. Also, satisfactory consumption of various kinds of nutrients in the trained groups was more than in the control group. Conclusion: Participatory health training, especially through parents, leads to adolescence nutritional health promotion. PMID:24403948
For health care professionals to successfully make the transition from disease care to health promotion requires a reorientation of how such professionals think and behave in their practice. This paper describes a multidisciplinary team's transition from disease care to health promotion. The research was conducted to learn what is involved in developing health promotion practices and the major changes practitioners experience as they shift from disease care to health promotion. A large, acute care institution and public health agency collaborated to address the needs of families and children with asthma, allergies, and eczema, with the goal of changing the focus from inpatient care to ambulatory or community-based care. A team of 5 nurses, 1 physiotherapist, 1 respiratory technologist, and 1 nutritionist was formed to undertake the initiative. PMID:9805341
Schmidt, Aurora Camacho de
Nearly 20 percent of all migrant farmworkers are adolescents, and as many as half of these may be unaccompanied by their families. These youth clearly have special health and educational needs that require commitment from social institutions and agencies. In June 1991, a conference held in Delray Beach, Florida by the National Coalition of…
Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk
We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…
Kumar, Sanjiv; Preetha, GS
Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes. PMID:22529532
Gans, Janet E.; And Others
Many adolescent health problems are linked with educational performance, family relationships, poverty, and the general lifestyles that adolescents experience in their communities. Although serious, chronic medical and psychiatric disorders affect about 6 percent of the adolescent population, many more adolescents are at risk for death and for…
Reed, Hope C
The definition of health literacy is provided along with information substantiating its importance. Focused initiatives, the consequences of poor health literacy, and at-risk populations are briefly discussed. The focus of this article is the application of health literacy principles to the discipline of orofacial myology and how the promotion of health literacy facilitates positive growth for patients, orfacial myologists, and the professions. The article concludes with a vision for a health literate society. PMID:18942479
Chang, Chueh; Hsieh, Chia-Jung
Mental health is a human right and fundamental to good personal health. Developing, planning, and implementing mental health programs is a key part of health policies worldwide. This paper uses the perspective of "mental health mainstreaming" to define mental health and explore its relationship with mental illness and psychiatric disease. Further, we apply this perspective to Taiwan's three-tiered community mental illness prevention strategy as a reference for mental health promotion and rehabilitation programs in hopes that all healthcare providers help facilitate holistic community health. PMID:24519340
Presents a model linking health promotion, health education, and patient education. The bases for distinctions between health education, patient education, and clinical health promotion are examined. The linking elements of the model are patient role, relationships adopted, and focus of the encounter; i.e., disease process vs. disease management.…
Oliveira, Jonas Welton Barros; Aquino, Jael Maria; Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles
The objective of the study was to know how the Pankararu indigenous perceive their health situation and identify actions they prioritize as necessary to promote health in their community. Qualitative research, in which the declarations collected were subjected to the technique of analyzing the Collective Subject Discourse. It was identified that in the indigenous perception, as the health status of their community, there is a lack of general assistance, and a lack of professionals to assist them meeting their needs. In relation to actions that the Indigenous prioritize as necessary to promote the health of their community, it was highlighted provision of health unit with trained professionals and access to health education actions. It was, thus, proposed an overhaul of the organizations and establishments of the subsystems in promoting indigenous health. PMID:23032334
Gloff, Nicole E; LeNoue, Sean R; Novins, Douglas K; Myers, Kathleen
Most children and adolescents across the USA fail to receive adequate mental health services, especially in rural or underserved communities. The supply of child and adolescent psychiatrists is insufficient for the number of children in need of services and is not anticipated to grow. This calls for novel approaches to mental health care. Telemental health (TMH) offers one approach to increase access. TMH programmes serving young people are developing rapidly and available studies demonstrate that these services are feasible, acceptable, sustainable and likely as effective as in-person services. TMH services are utilized in clinical settings to provide direct care and consultation to primary care providers (PCPs), as well as in non-traditional settings, such as schools, correctional facilities and the home. Delivery of services to young people through TMH requires several adjustments to practice with adults regarding the model of care, cultural values, participating adults, rapport-building, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Additional infrastructure accommodations at the patient site include space and staffing to conduct developmentally appropriate evaluations and treatment planning with parents, other providers, and community services. For TMH to optimally impact young people's access to mental health care, collaborative models of care are needed to support PCPs as frontline mental health-care providers, thereby effectively expanding the child and adolescent mental health workforce. PMID:26540584
Allegrante, J P; Sloan, R P
In less than a decade, workplace health promotion programs designed to promote employee health and help reduce the high cost of health insurance premiums paid by business and industry have proliferated. Notwithstanding the latent benefits and cost savings that corporate management expects to gain from the investment in such programs, it is argued that workplace health promotion is not without potential misuse and that its goals and methods ought not to be above ethical scrutiny. Drawing on earlier work, we discuss how workplace health promotion may pose ethical problems related to social justice, protection of privacy, and social control. The attendant moral dilemmas for the professional whose responsibility it is to develop and implement such programs are also presented. PMID:3749011
Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Silva, Paloma Morais; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli
OBJECTIVE To examine successful practices of health promotion in health, education, culture, welfare and sport, leisure, identifying the elements of success and challenges in the field. METHODS A qualitative study with data obtained from in-depth analysis that included participant observation, interviews with managers, coordinators, professionals and participants from 29 practices reported as successful for promoting health in six municipalities of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. The variables of the study were concept, dimension, dissemination and ease of access, identified in practices guided by content analysis. RESULTS The results indicate a conceptual and methodological uncertainty about health promotion as evidenced by conflicting objects and contradictory purposes. The practices differ in size, coverage and ease of access, determined by inter-sector coordination and political and financial investment. CONCLUSIONS We identified challenges to health promotion focusing on vulnerable populations, limits to financing and intersectoral partnerships. PMID:24789640
A mental health promotion perspective provides a system-based understanding of relationships between culture and health. Educating nurses for multicultural practice should adopt an interdisciplinary approach that fosters critical awareness of diverse influences on mental health and their intersections. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)
Zimmerman, Marc A.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Eisman, Andria B.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Aiyer, Sophie M.; Miller, Alison
Resilience theory provides a framework for studying and understanding how some youths overcome risk exposure and guides the development of interventions for prevention using a strengths-based approach. In this article, we describe basic concepts of the theory, such as promotive factors, and distinguish assets and resources that help youths overcome the negative effects of risk exposure. We also present three models of resilience theory—compensatory, protective, and challenge—and review empirical research on three promotive factors—ethnic identity, social support, and prosocial involvement—that include individual, family, and community levels of analysis and have modifiable qualities for informing interventions. Finally, we present examples of how research findings from the three promotive factors can be translated into interventions to enhance youth development. PMID:24288578
Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert; Sonenstein, Freya; Marshall, Beth; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Venables, Emily; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ershang; Acharya, Rajib; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Sangowawa, Adesola
The Well-being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) is a global study of young people living in disadvantaged urban communities from Baltimore, MD, Johannesburg, South Africa, Shanghai, China, New Delhi, India and Ibadan, Nigeria. WAVE was launched in the summer of 2011 to: 1) explore adolescents' perceived health and their top health challenges; and 2) describe the factors that adolescents perceive to be related to their health and health care utilization. Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of 'health' in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Findings from the study showed that gender played a large role with regards to what adolescents considered as their top health challenges. Among females, sexual and reproductive health problems were primary health challenges, whereas among males, tobacco, drug, and alcohol consumption was of highest concern, which often resulted into acts of violence. Personal safety was also a top concern among males and females from Baltimore and Johannesburg, and among females in New Delhi and Ibadan. Factors perceived to influence health the most were the physical environment, which was characterized by inadequate sanitation and over-crowded buildings, and the social environment, which varied in influence by gender and site. Regardless of the study site, adolescents did not consider physical health as a top priority and very few felt the need to seek health care services. This study highlights the need to focus on underlying structural and social factors for promoting health and well-being among adolescents in disadvantaged urban environments. PMID:24581070
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri; Rantanen, Päivi; Rimpelä, Matti
This study set out to assess the relationship between pubertal timing and emotional and behavioural problems in middle adolescence. The study involved a school based survey of health, health behaviour and behaviour in school as well as questions about emotional and behavioural problems (the School Health Promotion Study). Secondary schools in four regions and 13 towns in Finland participated in the study in 1998. The respondents were 36,549 adolescents aged 14-16. The study included questions on depression, bulimia nervosa, psychosomatic symptoms, anxiety, drinking, substance use, smoking, bullying and truancy. Among girls, both internalising and externalising symptoms were more common the earlier puberty occurred. Among boys, externalising symptoms only were associated with early puberty. It is concluded that early pubertal timing is associated with increased mental health problems. Professionals working with adolescents should consider the mental health needs of early maturing adolescents. PMID:12878105
Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA. Adolescent and School Health Div.
This publication describes the importance of promoting healthy eating habits among school-age children, discussing the benefits of healthy eating (e.g., prevents child and adolescent health problems and health problems later in life) and noting the consequences of unhealthy eating (e.g., hungry childen are more likely to have behavioral,…
Zimet, Gregory D
In their recently published research study, Gargano et al. found that a physician's recommendation and parental health beliefs had significant effects on adolescent vaccination rates and on parental intentions to vaccinate. This research replicates the findings of a number of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-focused research studies, but explores new territory by focusing on all recommended adolescent vaccines: meningococcal-conjugate (MCV4), HPV, influenza, and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines. Although Gargano et al.'s study is relatively small in scale and focuses on only one county in Georgia, their results are consistent with many other research reports, suggesting that their findings are robust and replicable. Most published intervention studies have targeted parents and young adults, with little focus on health care professionals. However, given the centrality of physician recommendation in adolescent vaccination, as shown by Gargano et al., it is clear that the time has come to develop and evaluate interventions that help physicians and other health care professionals to more effectively implement strong and routine recommendations for all adolescent platform vaccines. PMID:25483506
Johansson, Agneta; Brunnberg, Elinor; Eriksson, Charli
The aims of this study are to analyse the concept of mental health from the perspective of adolescent girls and boys and to describe what adolescent girls and boys regard as important determinants of mental health. Interviews with 48 children, 13 and 16 years old, in Sweden were held individually or in focus groups. The adolescents perceived…
Boone, Tanya L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.
Fifty-two mother-adolescent dyads (mean adolescent age = 16.3) participated in an observational study of communication about health topics. The aim of the study was to examine mother-adolescent conversations about health issues--drugs/alcohol, sexuality, nutrition/exercise--to determine the extent to which the mothers treat these issues similarly.…
Adolescent medicine across the globe is practiced within a variety of healthcare models, with the shared vision of the promotion of optimal health outcomes for adolescents. In the past decade, there has been a call for transformation in how health professionals are trained, with recommendations that there be adoption of a global outlook, a multiprofessional perspective and a systems approach that considers the connections between education and health systems. Many individuals and groups are now examining how best to accomplish this educational reform. There are tensions between the call for globally accepted standards of education models and practice (a one-size fits all approach) and the need to promote the ability for education practices to be interpreted and transformed to best suit local contexts. This paper discusses some of the key considerations for 'importing' training program models for adolescent health and medicine, including the importance of cultural alignment and the utilization of best evidence and practice in health professions education. PMID:26115497
Kerem, Nogah C; Hardoff, Daniel
There is a growing need for health care professionals to extend their knowledge in adolescent health care. Formal training curricula in adolescent medicine have been established in the United States, Canada, and Australia, yet many other countries have developed shorter training programs to enable interested physicians to further pursue knowledge and practical experience in delivering improved quality health care for adolescents. The Israeli experience in building an infrastructure that allows students and physicians to learn about adolescent medicine and to train in the field is described. It includes a series of lectures and seminars for medical students during medical school and at the clinical rotations in pediatric wards; the development of hospital-based and community-based multidisciplinary adolescent health services where residents can practice adolescent health care; a 3-year diploma course in adolescent medicine for specialists in pediatrics and family medicine; mini courses in adolescent medicine for pediatricians and family practitioners working in community settings; and a simulated patient-based program regarding communication with adolescents, aimed for all professional levels - medical students, residents, and specialists. This infrastructure has been developed to create a leading group of physicians, who are able to operate adolescent clinics and to teach adolescent medicine. Recently, a formal fellowship program in adolescent medicine has been approved by the Scientific Council of the Israel Medical Association. The Israeli experience described here could be applied in countries, where formal training programs in adolescent health care are not yet established. PMID:27341557
Radis, Molly E.; Updegrove, Stephen C.; Somsel, Anne; Crowley, Angela A.
Access to student health information, such as immunizations, screenings, and care plans for chronic conditions, is essential for school nurses to fulfill their role in promoting students' health. School nurses typically encounter barriers to accessing health records and spend many hours attempting to retrieve health information. As a result,…
Health literacy research and scholarship has largely overlooked the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities (ID), though growing concern about the health inequalities they face has increasingly given rise to health promotion interventions for this group. However, these interventions reference a rather limited vision of health literacy…
Smith, Peggy B; Buzi, Ruth S
The purpose of this study was to assess reproductive health professionals' familiarity with and use of various electronic technologies to support health promotion. The study also examined the relationship between demographic characteristics and attitudes and beliefs of the effectiveness of new technologies and perceived barriers for usage. A total of 165 reproductive health professionals at two conferences related to reproductive health in the United States completed the study survey. Personal and organizational factors affected the adoption of electronic technologies for health promotion. This included lack of knowledge, skills, and confidence as well as privacy concerns. The results of the study also suggested that being from an older generation was associated with having lower levels of knowledge, skills, and confidence in using new media. These findings highlight the importance of creating learning opportunities on the use of new technology for health promotion as well as addressing specific perceived barriers among reproductive health professionals in order to promote the adoption of these technologies. PMID:25411221
Lieberman, Debra A.
This study examined whether video games could be effective health education and therapeutic interventions for children and adolescents with diabetes. KIDZ Health Software developed a game about diabetes self-management, and tested its effectiveness for children with diabetes. The Packy and Marlon Super Nintendo video game promotes fun,…
Cooper, Leslie; Eliason, Kathy; True, Alexandra
This article focuses on the important role of the school nurse in promoting healthy lifestyle choices through networking, resource identification, and working with community partners. "Everyone Is Healthy at Northeast" was a health promotion program designed and presented in two ways: classroom lessons and a health fair. There were interactive…
Children who are healthy early in life--from conception to age five--not only grow up to be healthier adults, they are also better educated, earn more, and contribute more to the economy. The United States lags behind other advanced countries in early childhood health, threatening both the health of future generations and the nation's long-term…
Sommers, Marilyn S.; Fargo, Jamison D.
Background Health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults co-occur. Because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and disability for these age groups, understanding the association between risky driving and other health compromising behaviors is critical. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention for participants who screened positive for risky driving and problem drinking. Using baseline data, we examined relationships among conduct behavior problems before and after age 15, depressive symptoms, sleep, problem drinking, and risky driving (hostile, reckless and drinking and driving) in late adolescents ages 18–24 (n= 110) and adults ages 25–44 (n= 202). We developed a measurement model for the entire sample using confirmatory factor analysis, which was then specified as a multi-group structural equation model. Results Late adolescents and adults had some similar associations for pathways through problem drinking to drinking and driving; depression to reckless driving; and conduct behavior problems after 15 to hostile driving. Late adolescents, however, had more complex relationships: depressive symptoms and conduct behavior problems before 15 were associated with more risky driving behaviors through multiple pathways and males reported more risky driving. Conclusions Risky driving is associated with other health-compromising behaviors and mental health factors. It is a multidimensional phenomenon more pronounced in late adolescence than adulthood. In order to promote safe driving, the findings support the need to consider behaviors that are a health threat in the late adolescent population during driving training and licensure. PMID:24814717
Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan
Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…
Araújo, Alisson; Rocha, Regina Lunardi; Alvim, Cristina Gonçalves
Objective: To study the influence of adolescence characteristics on asthma management. Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted in the city of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. Data were collected through semistructured interviews guided by a questionnaire with seven asthmatic adolescents followed-up in the primary public health care service of the city. Results: Using content analysis, three thematic categories were observed in the adolescents' responses: 1) family relationships in the treatment of asthma in adolescence; 2) the asthmatic adolescents and their peers; and 3) the role of the school for the asthmatic adolescents. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that peers, family, and school should be more valued by health professionals and by health care services when treating asthmatic adolescents, as these social relationships are closely associated with the adolescent and have an important role in asthma management. Attempts to meet the demands of adolescents contribute to improve asthma management. PMID:25479845
Goldberg, Alon; Wiseman, Hadas
This study examines the association between parents' resolution of their adolescent child's diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and the health and mental adjustment of the adolescents themselves. Parents of 75 adolescents with type 1 diabetes were interviewed using the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview. Parents and adolescents completed questionnaires regarding the child's physical health, self-management of the disease, and behavioral and emotional problems. Physicians reported adolescents' HbA1c levels. Results showed that adolescents whose fathers were resolved with the diagnosis exhibited better diabetes self-management and adolescents whose mothers were resolved with the diagnosis exhibited fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. The findings highlight the different role of mothers and fathers in the treatment of adolescents with diabetes and provide a basis for clinical intervention that focuses not only on adolescent health, but also on parental state of mind regarding the resolution with the disease. PMID:26684497
Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
The decade between 1998 and 2008 saw rapid increases in research on adolescent sexual orientation development and related health issues, both in quantity and in quality of studies. While much of the research originated in North America, studies from other countries also contributed to emerging understanding of developmental trajectories and social influences on the health of sexual minority adolescents. This paper reviews the body of research from the past decade on adolescent sexual orientation, focused on issues of measurement, developmental trajectories, evidence related to health disparities, and the risks and protective factors that help explain the health and developmental challenges some lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents experience. Although many sexual minority adolescents face stigma and rejection within their families, their schools, or their communities, it should be noted that most successfully navigate the developmental tasks of adolescence, and attain similar levels of health and well-being as their heterosexual peers, often despite the stigma and discrimination they encounter. Further research is needed to understand population trends as well as individual patterns of development; cultural variations in both development and health disparities; the interplay of general and unique risk factors that contribute to various health disparities and protective factors that buffer those risks; and interventions to promote the healthy development of sexual minority adolescents. PMID:27099454