Abdi, Fatemeh; Simbar, Masoumeh
Abstract Adolescence is an important stage of human life span, which crucial developmental processes occur. Since peers play a critical role in the psychosocial development of most adolescents, peer education is currently considered as a health promotion strategy in adolescents. Peer education is defined as a system of delivering knowledge that improves social learning and provides psychosocial support. As identifying the outcomes of different educational approaches will be beneficial in choosing the most effective programs for training adolescents, the present article reviewed the impact of the peer education approach on adolescents. In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases, from 1999 to 2013, were searched using a number of keywords. Peer education is an effective tool for promoting healthy behaviors among adolescents. The development of this social process depends on the settings, context, and the values and expectations of the participants. Therefore, designing such programs requires proper preparation, training, supervision, and evaluation. PMID:26171331
Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk
Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…
Goza, Franklin; Ryabov, Igor
Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents' academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results…
Beshers, Sarah C.
This investigation is concerned with adolescent male participation in sexual health peer education programs. Research questions focused on identifying the percentages of male peer educators in these programs, exploring the relationship between financial compensation and male participation, and identifying male-specific recruitment strategies, if…
DeMairo, Pauline; Dischell, Jackie; Jouthe, Sorahya A.; Horner, Andrea
The Teen Outreach Reproductive CHallenge (TORCH) is a peer education program that provides information on various topics relevant to adolescent sexual health to a diverse audience, ranging from teens to health care providers. This information is disseminated through various projects by a group of New York City high-school students who are…
de Looze, Margaretha; Harakeh, Zeena; van Dorsselaer, Saskia A. F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.
Previous studies from a wide variety of European countries have demonstrated that low educated adolescents engage more frequently in health risk behaviors compared to high educated adolescents. The present study investigates the mediating roles of parental knowledge and time spent with peers in this relationship. Data were retrieved from a…
Hatami, Mahnaz; Kazemi, Ashraf; Mehrabi, Tayebeh
Background: Adolescence is associated with so many changes, and to provide sexual health it is necessary for teenagers to learn enough knowledge about the changes and appropriate health behaviors. The attraction of sexual issues in teenagers is associated with more conversations related to sexual matters. Therefore, this study has evaluated the effect of organizing these interactions using peer education in schools on the knowledge and attitude toward sexual health. Materials and Methods: This was an interventional study conducted on 282 girl teenagers from high schools of Isfahan that were divided into two groups of intervention and control. Peer education in the intervention group was done through 35 trained teenagers during normal communications in school. Before the training knowledge and attitude of students in both groups were evaluated; then peer education was conducted during 6 weeks through normal communications on the intervention group and then afterward the knowledge and attitude of the students were evaluated again. To analysis of data independent t-test and paired t-test were used. Results: The results showed that the mean score of knowledge and attitudetoward all sexual health dimensions during puberty in the intervention group was significantly higher after the intervention (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a significant difference between the mean score of knowledge and approach toward all the aspects of sexual health of both the studied groups. Conclusions: The results showed that using peer education in schools informally could enhance the knowledge and approach toward aspects of physical health, sexual behaviors, and social and mental changes among female adolescences and could be applied in schools.
Prinstein, Mitchell J., Ed.; Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.
Scientists, educators, and parents of teens have long recognized the potency of peer influences on children and youth, but until recently, questions of how and why adolescents emulate their peers were largely overlooked. This book presents a framework for understanding the processes by which peers shape each other's attitudes and behavior, and…
Shah, Smita; Peat, Jennifer K; Mazurski, Evalynn J; Wang, Han; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Bruce, Colleen; Henry, Richard L; Gibson, Peter G
Objective To determine the effect of a peer led programme for asthma education on quality of life and related morbidity in adolescents with asthma. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Six high schools in rural Australia. Participants 272 students with recent wheeze, recruited from a cohort of 1515 students from two school years (mean age 12.5 and 15.5 years); 251 (92.3%) completed the study. Intervention A structured education programme for peers comprising three steps (the “Triple A Program”). Main outcome measures Quality of life, school absenteeism, asthma attacks, and lung function. Results When adjusted for year and sex, mean total quality of life scores showed significant improvement in the intervention than control group. Clinically important improvement in quality of life (>0.5 units) occurred in 25% of students with asthma in the intervention group compared with 12% in the control group (P=0.01). The number needed to treat was 8 (95% confidence interval 4.5 to 35.7). The effect of the intervention was greatest in students in year 10 and in females. Significant improvements occurred in the activities domain (41% v 28%) and in the emotions domain (39% v 19%) in males in the intervention group. School absenteeism significantly decreased in the intervention group only. Asthma attacks at school increased in the control group only. Conclusion The triple A programme leads to a clinically relevant improvement in quality of life and related morbidity in students with asthma. Wider dissemination of this programme in schools could play an important part in reducing the burden of asthma in adolescents. PMID:11238152
Al-Iryani, Buthaina; Basaleem, Huda; Al-Sakkaf, Khaled; Kok, Gerjo; van den Borne, Bart
In 2005, a survey was conducted among all the 27 high schools of Aden, which revealed low levels of knowledge on major prevention measures, and a high level of stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWH). The results served as a baseline for implementing a school-based peer education intervention for HIV prevention in the 27 schools of Aden. In 2008, and after 3 years of implementation, a quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted, which revealed that the peer education intervention has succeeded in improving HIV knowledge and skills; and in decreasing stigmatization of PLWH. This process evaluation aims to give a deeper understanding of the quasi-experimental evaluation which was conducted in the 27 high schools of Aden, and to highlight the factors that facilitated or inhibited school peer education in such a conservative Muslim setting. Qualitative methodologies were pursued, where 12 focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with peer educators, targeted students, school principals, social workers, and parents of peer educators. Results revealed that school-peer education was well received. There was an apparent positive effect on the life skills of peer educators, but the intervention had a lesser effect on targeted students. Key enabling factors have been the high quality of training for peer educators, supportive school principals, and acceptance of the intervention by parents. These findings are important for improving the life skills and peer education intervention at the school level, and in better planning and implementation of life skills and peer programmes at a national scale. PMID:23777570
Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Van Dorsselaer, Saskia A. F. M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
Heavy episodic drinking is more common among adolescents with a lower educational level. Aim: This study probed into the mechanism through which a lower educational level is linked to heavier adolescent drinking. Methods: Structural equation modelling was conducted using data from the 2005 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey (n =…
Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Norman, Rosana E
This study used prospective birth cohort data to analyse the relationship between peer aggression at 14 years of age and educational and employment outcomes at 17 years (N = 1091) and 20 years (N = 1003). Participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories of peer aggression. Involvement in peer aggression was reported by 40.2% (10.1% victims; 21.4% perpetrators; 8.7% victim-perpetrators) of participants. Participants involved in any form of peer aggression were less likely to complete secondary school. Perpetrators and victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to be in the 'No Education, Employment or Training' group at 20 years of age. This association was explained by non-completion of secondary school. These findings demonstrate a robust association between involvement in peer aggression and non-completion of secondary school, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of poor educational and employment outcomes in early adulthood. PMID:26057874
Feldman, Rebecca; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer; Brock, Matthew E.
The authors conducted 324 full-class-length observations of 108 high school students with severe disabilities in general education classes, focusing analyses on how often students were present during class and in proximity to peers without disabilities. Students were not present for a substantial proportion of the classes in which they were…
Rose, Jennifer S.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.
Studied role of nonshared parent and peer influences on siblings as predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking onset. Found peer influences were predictors of smoking onset when shared influences were controlled. Nonshared peer influences on siblings were stronger in educated families. Findings highlight utility of controlling for shared…
Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Aunola, Kaisa; Salmela-Aro, Katariina
This study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in terms of their school adjustment and whether this homogeneity varies according to peer group type and gender. A total of 1262 peer group members who had recently moved to post-comprehensive education filled in questionnaires measuring their academic achievement,…
Dishion, Thomas J.; Tipsord, Jessica M.
In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that “select” adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606
Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M
In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606
Cardon, Greet; De Craemer, Marieke; D’Haese, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
Background The prevalence of physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls is low, suggesting it is important to have insights into the complex processes that may underlie their physical activity levels. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the mediating effects of self-efficacy, perceived benefits and barriers on the associations between peer and parental variables and physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls. Methods In total, 226 girls (mean age 16.0±1.0 years; 53% technical education; 47% vocational education) from a convenience sample of 6 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium, completed a questionnaire on their total physical activity level and related peer and parental variables (i.e. modeling of physical activity, co-participation in physical activities and encouragement to be active) and personal variables (i.e. self-efficacy to be active, and specific perceived benefits of physical activity and specific barriers to be active). Mediating effects were tested using MacKinnon’s product-of-coefficients test based on multilevel linear regression analyses. Results Higher peer and parental modeling, co-participation and encouragement were significantly related to a higher physical activity level among adolescent girls (p<0.05). Self-efficacy, the perceived benefits of having fun, being around friends or meeting new people, and not being bored and the perceived barrier of not liking physical activity mediated several associations between peer and parental variables and girls’ physical activity, with some of the mediated proportions exceeding 60%. Conclusions This study contributed to a better understanding of the complexity of how parental and peer factors work together with personal factors to influence the physical activity levels of adolescent girls with a lower educational level. Interventions should involve both peers and parents, as they may influence girls’ physical activity both directly and indirectly through the
Stepp, Stephanie D; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf; Morris, Nancy A
Objective We examined trajectories of adolescent social competence as a resilience factor among at-risk youth. To examine potential mechanisms of this resilience process, we investigated the putative mediating effect of peer delinquency on the relation between adolescent social competence and young adult delinquency seriousness and educational attainment. Method Participants (n = 257) were screened to be at risk for antisocial behaviour at age 13 years. Data were derived from an ongoing longitudinal study of the development of antisocial and delinquent behaviour among inner-city boys, the Pittsburgh Youth Study. We used data collected from participants when aged 13 years until they were aged 25.5 years for our study. Results Results indicated that boys with high levels of social competence decreased their involvement with deviant peers throughout adolescence, which, in turn, predicted less serious forms of delinquency in early adulthood. Social competence had a direct effect on educational attainment in early adulthood, as boys who developed social competencies in adolescence went further in school irrespective of their involvement with delinquent peers. Conclusions Results suggest that promoting the development of social competencies and reducing involvement with delinquent peers will protect at-risk youth from engaging in serious delinquency in early adulthood while increasing their educational success. PMID:21878156
Shah, Shobha P; Shah, Pankaj; Desai, Shrey; Modi, Dhiren; Desai, Gaytri; Arora, Honey
Background: Anemia during adolescence affects growth and development of girls and boys increasing their vulnerability to dropping out-of-school. Hence investing in preventing anemia during adolescence is critical for their survival, growth and development. Objective: To find out the burden of anemia on adolescent age group in the tribal area of Jhagadia block and to assess the change in the hemoglobin level through the weekly Iron and Folic Acid IFA (DOTS) directly observed treatment supplementation under Supervision by Peer Educators at Community level among adolescents. Methods: Community based intervention study conducted with adolescents (117 girls and 127 boys) aged 10-19 years, through supplementation of IFA (DOTS) by trained Peer Educators for 52 weeks in 5 tribal villages of Jhagadia. Hemoglobin level was determined by HemoCue method before and after intervention and sickle cell anemia by Electrophoresis method. Primary data on hemoglobin and number of tablets consumed was collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS 16.0 software by applying paired t-test. Results: The overall findings suggest that the prevalence of anemia reduced from 79.5% to 58% among adolescent girls and from 64% to 39% among boys. Mean rise of hemoglobin seen was 1.5 g/dl among adolescent boys and 1.3 g/dl among girls. A significant association was found in change in hemoglobin before and after intervention (P = 0.000) Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia among girls and boys can be reduced in their adolescent phase of life, through weekly supplementation of iron folic acid tablets under direct supervision and Nutrition Education by Peer Educator at community level. PMID:27051093
Stephenson, Pam S; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke
This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in adolescent dating violence in unique ways. Male peers were involved in dating violence by participating in the aggression, agitating the aggression, being the competition, trivializing the aggression, and keeping tabs on the recipient. Female peers were involved in dating violence by deserting the recipient, cheating with the boyfriend, being the audience, needling the male dating partner, and helping the recipient. Male and female peers were involved similarly in adolescent dating violence by confronting the partner. School nurses working with adolescents are uniquely positioned to approach adolescents about dating violence. Interventions aimed at promoting discussions with adolescents are discussed. PMID:23239788
Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Perry, Cheryl L.
Describes the feasibility of the peer leader component of a school-based nutrition intervention for young adolescents designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and lower fat consumption. Results from a multicomponent process evaluation involving participant feedback, observation, and teacher ratings and interviews indicated that…
Platt, Belinda; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Lau, Jennifer Y F
Adolescence is a period of major risk for depression, which is associated with negative personal, social, and educational outcomes. Yet, in comparison to adult models of depression, very little is known about the specific psychosocial stressors that contribute to adolescent depression, and whether these can be targeted by interventions. In this review, we consider the role of peer rejection. First, we present a comprehensive review of studies using innovative experimental paradigms to understand the role of peer rejection in adolescent depression. We show how reciprocal relationships between peer rejection and depressive symptoms across adolescence powerfully shape and maintain maladaptive trajectories. Second, we consider how cognitive biases and their neurobiological substrates may explain why some adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of, and perhaps exposure to, peer rejection compared to others. Finally, we draw attention to emerging cognitive and functional magnetic resonance imaging-based neurofeedback training, which by modifying aspects of information processing may promote more adaptive responses to peer rejection. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying adolescent depression may not only alleviate symptoms during a period of substantial developmental challenges, but may also reduce the burden of the disorder across the lifespan. PMID:23596129
Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke
This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…
Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Gould, Madelyn S.
The association between specific types of peer victimization with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents was examined. A self-report survey was completed by 2,342 high-school students. Regression analyses indicated that frequent exposure to all types of peer victimization was related to high risk of depression,…
Woodhouse, Susan S.; Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude
The present study examined whether adolescent loneliness would be lower within the context of positive relationships with peers. The core conceptual model predicted that hypothesized links between peer-rated social behaviors or victimization and loneliness would be mediated by social acceptance. Relationship experiences (i.e., social acceptance,…
Puentes, William J.; Wassel, Melanie
This article describes an intervention known as the Peer Family Life Education Project that was designed as an alternate delivery method of an established family life education curriculum in an urban middle school setting. The factors contributing to sexual risk behaviors by urban adolescent populations are identified. A review of previous efforts…
Kerr, Margaret; Van Zalk, Maarten; Stattin, Hakan
Background: Peer influence on adolescent delinquency is well established, but little is known about moderators of peer influence. In this study, we examined adolescents' (targets) and their peers' psychopathic personality traits as moderators of peer influence on delinquency in peer networks. We used three separate dimensions of the psychopathic…
Interview data from 40 inner-city seventh graders challenge the stereotype that adolescents' peer conflicts (APCs) are senseless, wasteful, and destructive. Rather, these conflicts raise important micropolitical concerns about power, conflict, coalition, and policy. APCs can increase the relevance of education, play an important role in social…
Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described…
Young, R A; Antal, S; Bassett, M E; Post, A; Devries, N; Valach, L
Ten career conversations between adolescent peers were video-taped to examine the joint actions of adolescents that emerge in actual conversations about career. Based on an action-theoretical approach, joint action refers to the intentional behavior of a group of people attempting to realize a common goal or engage in a common process. The actual conversations and the adolescents' recall of their thoughts and feelings during the conversations were used to identify the joint actions that occurred in the conversations and the meaning that the conversations had for the adolescents. Goals of the actions included educational planning, career selection, and personal future. The functions the adolescents undertook in the conversations to reach these goals were identified as exploring, formulating, validating, and challenging. Based on these results, it was proposed that self-refinement was the project that energized and guided the joint actions and lent meaning to the conversations. PMID:10469516
Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.
This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…
Chu, Judy Y.
Adolescent boys perceive their male peer group culture--and their socialization toward masculine norms emphasized within this culture--as negatively influencing their abilities to develop close male friendships. Boys who manage to develop close, male friendships, however, draw strength from these relationships to resist the social pressures of…
Ramseyer Winter, Virginia
Peer education programs are a popular approach to preventing HIV infection among adolescents. While the programs show promise for effectively preventing HIV among the peers who are provided education, little evaluation research has been conducted to determine if the peer educators themselves experience knowledge, attitude, and behavior changes. A…
Mounts, Nina S
Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in
Kauffman, C; Hue, L
This article describes an adolescent, peer-education training program in Jamaica that was developed and operated by the Red Cross Societies of Jamaica and the US and was funded by AIDSCAP. The program aimed to develop a training system to prepare youth peer educators in preventing the spread of HIV infections and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal was to increase knowledge about, change attitudes toward, and develop prevention skills for HIV/AIDS. The initial program was to be replicated on a large scale and be sustainable over time. The program was developed in response to the 1500+ Jamaicans diagnosed with AIDS and the 20,000 or so with HIV infections. Transmission is mostly heterosexual. 15% of girls and 47% of boys are sexually active by 14 years of age, and almost 50% of syphilis and gonorrhea cases are among adolescents. The national training program relies on peer educators, aged 14-19 years, who are literate to the 6th-grade level. Training sessions are conducted for 10-21 persons/session for 27 hours over 3 weekends. Training relies on engaging games and activities. Trainees are taught how to facilitate 14 specific activities, including the correct way to use a condom. Peer educators work together in groups of twos or threes among groups of 10-15 adolescents, aged 10-15 years. By the third year of operation, most of the systems and materials were in place and the program expanded; cost-benefit analysis revealed that costs were returned. The program has continued with a variety of funds and delivery systems and new funding will likely shift the program emphasis. The program has survived with the enthusiasm and support of the trainers. Other start-up programs should ensure the involvement of youth at all stages of development. PMID:12293325
Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael
The role of deviant peers in adolescent antisocial behavior has been well documented, but less is known about individual differences in susceptibility to negative peer influence. This study examined whether specific temperament dimensions moderate the prospective relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence.…
Siegel, Rebecca S.; Freeman, Andrew J.; La Greca, Annette M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.
Background: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with psychosocial impairment, but few studies have examined peer relationship functioning and PBD. Adolescence is a crucial developmental period when peers become increasingly salient. Objective: This study compared perceived friendship quality and peer victimization in adolescents with…
Shah, Smita; Yan, Lijing; Pan, Yongping; Gao, Aiyu; Shi, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yangfeng; Dibley, Michael John
Objective To evaluate the effect on physical activity and sedentary behaviour of a pilot school-based peer education programme in urban Beijing, China. Design 4 junior high schools were matched by school size and randomised to intervention (n=346) and control group (n=336). Intervention Trained peer leaders from grade 7 by research staff delivered weekly 40-min lessons to their classmates over four consecutive weeks. Students in control schools received no intervention. Outcome measures A validated 7-day youth physical activity questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and sedentary behaviours at baseline (September 2010), 3 months (December 2010) and 7 months (May 2011). Generalised linear mixed models were applied to evaluate the effect. Results There was a significant decrease in time in sedentary behaviour on weekdays, 20 min/day at 7 months (p=0.020) reported by students in the intervention schools compared with control schools. This reduction was mainly due to a reduction of 14 min/day in computer usage on weekdays (p=0.0009). There were no significant differences in time on other sedentary behaviours, including television and DVD, video game, extracurricular reading, writing, drawing and listening to music, passive commuting and sitting to talk. There was also no significant difference in time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between intervention and control group. Conclusions Peer education appears to be a promising intervention in reducing sedentary behaviours in adolescents in China. These results need confirmation in a larger study. Clinical trial registration number ACTRN12612000417886 at http://ANZCTR.org.au PMID:22586284
Ahola Kohut, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer N; Ruskin, Danielle; Forgeron, Paula; Harris, Lauren; van Wyk, Margaret; Luca, Stephanie; Campbell, Fiona
Adolescents with chronic pain are often socially isolated, having never met others with chronic pain, and often feel misunderstood by healthy peers. Adolescence is a sensitive period for developing one's sense of self and autonomy, which often occurs in the context of peer relationships. This developmental process is disrupted in adolescents when their chronic pain interferes with their social interactions. Peer mentoring is proposed as a developmentally timely intervention. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of the iPeer2Peer program. The iPeer2Peer program is a tailored peer mentorship program that provides modeling and reinforcement by peers (trained young adults with chronic pain aged 18-25 years who have learned to successfully manage their pain). This program aimed to enhance self-management of chronic pain in adolescents through 10 Skype video calls over the course of 8 weeks. A pilot randomized controlled trial design using waitlist controls was used in an adolescent chronic pain sample. Twenty-eight adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.6 years (93% female) completed the trial (intervention: n = 12; control n = 16). Three adolescents completed the intervention after completing their participation in the control arm. The iPeer2Peer program was feasible and acceptable, provided the adolescents were given more time to complete all 10 calls. When compared with controls, adolescents who completed the iPeer2Peer program had significant improvement in self-management skills and their coping efforts were more successful. The iPeer2Peer program is a promising peer mentoring intervention that complements standard care for adolescents with chronic pain. PMID:26808145
Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Farhat, Tilda
This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking; discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking;…
Benner, Aprile D.; Crosnoe, Robert; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
Adolescents’ perceptions of the prejudice in their social environments can factor into their developmental outcomes. The degree to which others in the environment perceive such prejudice—regardless of adolescents’ own perceptions—also matters by shedding light on the contextual climate in which adolescents spend their daily lives. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study revealed that schoolwide perceptions of peer prejudice, which tap into the interpersonal climate of schools, appeared to be particularly risky for adolescents’ academic achievement. In contrast, adolescents’ own perceptions of peer prejudice at schools were associated with their feelings of alienation in school. Importantly, these patterns did not vary substantially by several markers of vulnerability to social stigmatization. PMID:25750496
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.
This study examined the nature and correlates of Mexican American mothers' and fathers' involvement in adolescents' peer relationships along 4 dimensions: support, restriction, knowledge, and time spent with adolescents and peers. Mexican American adolescents and their parents in 220 families described their family relationships, cultural…
Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.
This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…
Tolli, M. V.
Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…
Catanzarite, Julie A.; Robinson, Myles D.
Student peer educators have been used by higher education intuitions to influence the education and retention of college students for many years, and most institutions have some type of peer educator program. Newton and Ender (2010) broadly define the role of peer educators as "students who have been selected, trained, and designated by a campus…
Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.
The primary purposes of this study were to examine what adolescents' identify as their preferred sources of sexual education (e.g., peers, family, school, media, professionals, etc.) about various topics, and whether patterns varied for each gender, race, grade, and economic group. Participants were 672 adolescents of both genders, three…
Wainright, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics …
Stuart, Jennifer; Fondacaro, Mark; Miller, Scott A.; Brown, Veda; Brank, Eve M.
The involvement of adolescents with deviant peer groups is one of the strongest proximal correlates to juvenile delinquency and stems from a variety of causes. Past research has linked ineffective parenting with peer variables, including deviant peer group involvement and peer conflict during adolescence. In this study, adolescents' appraisals of…
Smith, Ashley R.; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence
The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the information necessary to make an informed decision is explicitly provided. We used a novel probabilistic gambling task in which participants decided whether to play or pass on a series of offers for which the reward and loss outcome probabilities were made explicit. Adolescent participants completed the task either alone or under the belief that they were being observed by an unknown peer in a neighboring room. Participants who believed a peer was observing them chose to gamble more often than participants who completed the task alone, and this effect was most evident for decisions with a greater probability of loss. These results suggest that the presence of peers can increase risk taking among adolescents even when specific information regarding the likelihood of positive and negative outcomes is provided. The findings expand our understanding of how peers influence adolescent decision making and have important implications regarding the value of educational programs aimed at reducing risky behaviors during adolescence. PMID:24447118
Developmental psychologists have become increasingly interested in how psychophysiological processes relate to adolescent peer functioning. This review discusses advances in the study of the psychophysiology of adolescent peer relations, with a focus on how the autonomic and neuroendocrine systems relate to antisocial behavior, victimization, and…
The interactions of adolescent peers are the subject of both parental angst and scholarly attention. Peer influence is the most consistent predictor of adolescent drinking patterns when controlling for other background characteristics. This study extends these findings to incorporate a theoretical argument derived from status characteristics…
Simons-Morton, Bruce; Farhat, Tilda
This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking, discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking; consider socialization and selection processes with respect to smoking; investigate the relative influence of best friends, close friends, and crowd affiliations; and examine parenting behaviors that could buffer the effects of peer influence. Our review indicates the following with respect to adolescent smoking: (1) substantial peer group homogeneity of smoking behavior; (2) support for both socialization and selection effects, although evidence is somewhat stronger for selection; (3) an interactive influence of best friends, peer groups and crowd affiliation; and (4) an indirect protective effect of positive parenting practices against the uptake of adolescent smoking. We conclude with implications for research and prevention programs. PMID:20614184
Mounts, Nina S.
Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…
DJALALINIA, Shirin; RAMEZANI TEHRANI, Fahimeh; MALEKAFZALI, Hossein; PEYKARI, Niloofar
Abstract Background In the area of youth health, peers education is an approach to health promotion. Assess the training needs of peers educators clarifies the components, values, and quality of training protocols. Aim to that we conducted a participatory educational needs assessment of youth peer educators. Methods Involving youth and key informants in direct collaboration with research team, a qualitative approach was planned based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioning was designed. Sixteen focus group discussions and 8 in depth interview were held. Results The majority of participants emphasized on the importance of mental health, life skills, AIDS prevention, contraception methods, and healthy nutrition as the main training topics. They were extremely interested into the comprehensive educational material among their participatory role in peer programs. Conclusion The training programs should be well defined based on the knowledge, skills and behavior of peers. During the implementation, training programs should be followed to meet the ongoing educational needs of service providers. PMID:26060644
Puskar, Kathryn R; Stark, Kirsti H; Northcut, Terri; Williams, Rick; Haley, Tammy
Anger could be an early warning signal of violent behavior. Early peer education health promotion in relation to anger management could help children before uncontrolled anger becomes a problem in adolescence and adulthood. Peer education has been identified as a viable intervention strategy worldwide with various prevention programs for youth. The purpose of this article is to describe an anger management program (Teaching Kids to Cope with Anger, TKC-A 4th-8th graders) co-led by high school peer educators in an urban school district's summer school enhancement program. A program of five modules will be described. This paper discusses the peer educator implementation and recommendations for future implementation. PMID:21088064
Kiuru, Noona; Haverinen, Kaisa; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena
The present study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in reading and spelling disabilities and whether this similarity contributes to subsequent school achievement and educational attainment. The sample consisted of 375 Finnish adolescents whose reading and spelling disabilities were assessed at age 16 with the…
Allen, Joseph P.; Brown, B. Bradford
Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death among teenagers and in many instances appear linked to negative peer influences on adolescent driving behavior. This article examines a range of developmental and structural factors that potentially increase the risks associated with adolescent driving. Developmental risk factors for adolescents include a propensity toward engaging in deviant and risky behavior, a desire to please peers, and the potential cost to an adolescent of alienating peers with his or her behavior while driving. Structural features of the driving situation that create risks for negative peer influences on driving behavior include the inability of adolescents to look at peers who may be pressuring them, divided attention, the need to behave in a conventional manner among peers who may not value conventional behavior, and the lack of accountability by peers for the effects of any risky driving they promote. A range of potential peer influences are considered, including passive and active distraction and direct disruption of driving, as well as more positive influences, such as peer modeling of good driving behavior and positive reinforcement of good driving. Although the range of risk factors created by peers is large, this range presents a number of promising targets for intervention to improve teen driving safety. PMID:18702984
Burke, Ronald J.; Weir, Tamara
This study examines the experiences of adolescents when they seek help with their problems and anxieties from within their natural support systems. The following questions were posed: (1) How do adolescents perceive their parents' and peers' responses when they seek help? (2) Do the response behaviors of the helpers affect adolescents' willingness…
Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; LoConte, Carl L.; Straker, Emily J.
Peer education programs have gained popularity on college campuses because peer educators can communicate with other students in ways that faculty and administrators cannot. Peer education programs continue to grow exponentially because college-age students often feel more comfortable talking with peers when it comes to sensitive issues such as…
Stadler, Christina; Feifel, Julia; Rohrmann, Sonja; Vermeiren, Robert; Poustka, Fritz
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and effects of peer-victimization on mental health problems among adolescents. Parental and school support were assumed as protective factors that might interact with one another in acting as buffers for adolescents against the risk of peer-victimization. Besides these protective factors, age and gender were additionally considered as moderating factors. The Social and Health Assessment survey was conducted among 986 students aged 11-18 years in order to assess peer-victimization, risk and protective factors and mental health problems. For mental health problems, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used. Effects of peer-victimization on mental health problems were additionally compared with normative SDQ data in order to obtain information about clinically relevant psychopathology in our study sample. Results of this study show that peer-victimization carries a serious risk for mental health problems in adolescents. School support is effective in both male and female adolescents by acting as a buffer against the effect of victimization, and school support gains increasing importance in more senior students. Parental support seems to be protective against maladjustment, especially in peer-victimized girls entering secondary school. Since the effect of peer-victimization can be reduced by parental and school support, educational interventions are of great importance in cases of peer-victimization. PMID:20221691
Zhu, Jianjun; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Jiang, Yanping; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhen, Shuangju
Abundant evidence has demonstrated an association between peer victimization and adolescent problem behaviors. However, there is a large gap in knowledge about the potential mediators that associate peer victimization with problem behaviors and the potential moderators that exacerbate or buffer this association. The current study examined whether deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between peer victimization and problem behaviors and whether the direct and indirect associations were moderated by impulsivity. A sample of 1401 adolescents (50.1% boys, 11-14 years old) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding peer victimization, impulsivity, deviant peer affiliation, and problem behaviors. Gender, age and socioeconomic status (SES) were controlled for in the analyses. Structural equation models showed that peer victimization was significantly associated with more problem behaviors, and this association was mediated by deviant peer affiliation. Impulsivity moderated both the direct association (peer victimization→problem behaviors) and the second stage of the indirect path (deviant peer affiliation→problem behaviors). Specifically, these associations were especially stronger for adolescents with higher impulsivity. Identifying the processes by which peer victimization is associated with adolescent problem behaviors has important implications for an integrative framework of theory and prevention. PMID:27348798
Harding, David J.
Most theoretical perspectives on neighborhood effects on youth assume that neighborhood context serves as a source of socialization, but the exact sources and processes underlying adolescent socialization in disadvantaged neighborhoods are largely unspecified and unelaborated. This paper proposes that cross-cohort socialization by older neighborhood peers is one source of socialization for adolescent boys in such neighborhoods. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey suggest that adolescents in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to spend time with older individuals. Qualitative interview data from 60 adolescent boys in three neighborhoods in Boston are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of these interactions and relationships. I find that some of the strategies these adolescents employ to cope with violence in disadvantaged neighborhoods promote interaction with older peers, particularly those who are most disadvantaged, and that such interactions can expose adolescents to local, “unconventional,” or “alternative” cultural models. PMID:20161350
Kammer, Carol Highsmith
The author cites studies that demonstrate the value of peer group techniques for reinforcing learning in educational settings. She reviews the literature on peer group learning in nursing education, and presents a peer group teaching-learning strategy that she developed for a course in community health and psychiatric nursing. (Author/CT)
Latino, Jennifer A.; Unite, Catherine M.
Peer influence in academic settings can have significant positive effects on student learners. Examples of peer support of academic endeavors, most notably tutoring, date back to the colonial period of U.S. higher education and persist today. However, over the years, peer education has evolved from being a marginal endeavor in which academic…
Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J
Peer influence processes have been documented extensively for a wide range of maladaptive adolescent behaviors. However, peer socialization is not inherently deleterious, and little is known about whether adolescents influence each other's prosocial behaviors, or whether some peers are more influential than others towards positive youth outcomes. This study addressed these questions using an experimental "chat room" paradigm to examine in vivo peer influence of prosocial behavior endorsement. A school-based sample of 304 early adolescents (55% female, 45% male; M(age) = 12.68) believed they were interacting electronically with same-gender grademates (i.e., "e-confederates"), whose peer status was experimentally manipulated. The participants' intent to engage in prosocial behaviors was measured pre-experiment and in subsequent "public" and "private" experimental sessions. Overall, the adolescents conformed to the e-confederates' prosocial responses in public; yet, these peer influence effects were moderated by the peer status of the e-confederates, such that youth more strongly conformed to the high-status e-confederates than to the low-status ones. There also was some evidence that these peer influence effects were maintained in the private session, indicating potential internalization of prosocial peer norms. These findings help bridge the positive youth development and peer influence literatures, with potential implications for campaigns to increase prosocial behaviors. PMID:26525387
Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes of peer support are discussed in terms of positive peer support, negative peer influence, peer relationships, and sense of community. In general, recovery school staff members discuss peers in the school as sources of positive support and peers outside the schools as sources of risky influence. Themes and quotes are presented to highlight the diverse ways that staff members discussed peer influence. Limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24839335
Knack, Jennifer M.; Tsar, Vasilinka; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Hymel, Shelley; McDougall, Patricia
Adolescents rejected by peers are often targets of bullying. However, peer rejection is not a sure path to victimization. We examined whether characteristics valued by peers (i.e., attractiveness, wealth, academic, and athletic ability) moderated the relationship between peer rejection and victimization. We predicted rejected adolescents high on…
Gee, Kevin A; Cho, Rosa Minhyo
Bullying is a growing public health concern for South Korean adolescents. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the frequency with which Korean adolescents in single-sex versus coeducational schools are targets of or engage in three peer aggressive behaviors (verbal, relational (social exclusion), and physical (including theft)). We use two nationally representative datasets, the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 2005 Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS), and rely on propensity score matching (PSM). For adolescent girls, we find that being in all-girls schools mitigates both their exposure to and engagement in peer victimization. For adolescent boys, we find that boys in all-boys schools have significantly higher odds of experiencing more frequent verbal and physical attacks versus their counterparts in coeducational schools. Our findings strongly suggest that interventions to mitigate peer victimization and aggression in Korea should consider the gendered schooling contexts in which they are implemented. PMID:25240191
Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Peters, Sabine; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan
During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness) on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12–17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Furthermore, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a “proself” orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than “prosocial” participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction. PMID:24282399
Klapwijk, Eduard T; Peters, Sabine; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan
During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness) on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12-17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Furthermore, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a "proself" orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than "prosocial" participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction. PMID:24282399
van der Meulen, Kevin; Granizo, Laura; del Barrio, Cristina
Peer victimization has received much attention from researchers and educators over the last decade, since it is a problem that affects children and adolescents. As more time-extensive programs do not seem to be used in schools, in this article the "EQUIP" program for "Educators" is proposed as an instrument for the prevention of peer bullying and…
Karakos, Holly L.
Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data.…
The primary objective of this research is to understand peer influence on adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors and their risk perception of these behaviors; 155 adolescent boys, average age 14.3, participated in the study. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests revealed that adolescent boys engaged in many types of behaviors, although they perceived some of them as unhealthy. When compared with adolescent boys who showed low peer influence, those with high peer influence engaged in the following behaviors more frequently: sunbathing, using tanning booths, waxing skin, and spa treatments. The findings suggest a need for further investigation regarding the motivation for and impediments to adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors. PMID:20432614
Deković, M; Meeus, W
In this study we examined the link between the parent-adolescent relationship and the adolescent's relationship with peers. The proposed model assumes that the quality of the parent-child relationship affects the adolescent's self-concept, which in turn affects the adolescent's integration into the world of peers. The sample consisted of 508 families with adolescents (12- to 18-years-old). The data were obtained at the subjects' homes, where a battery of questionnaires was administered individually to mothers, fathers and adolescents. Several constructs relating to the quality of parent-child relationship were assessed: parental acceptance, attachment, involvement, responsiveness, love withdrawal and monitoring of the child. The measures of the adolescent's self-concept included Harter's Perceived Competence Scale for Adolescents and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The indicators of the quality of peer relations were: degree of peer activity, having a best friend, perceived acceptance by peers and attachment to peers. Assessment of the hypothesized model showed that the adolescent's self-concept serves a mediating role in the relationship between maternal child-rearing style and involvement with peers. The mediating role of self-concept was greatest for maternal acceptance. Paternal child-rearing style, however, appeared to have an independent effect on the adolescent's involvement with peers that is not accounted for by the adolescent's self-concept. The prediction of the quality of adolescents' peer relations yielded similar results for both mothers and fathers. The results suggest that a positive self-concept and warm supportive parenting each contribute unique variance to satisfactory peer relations. PMID:9104652
WORMINGTON, STEPHANIE V.; ANDERSON, KRISTEN G.; SCHNEIDER, ASHLEY; TOMLINSON, KRISTIN L.; BROWN, SANDRA A.
Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students’ adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents’ academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects through school belonging. Adolescents from two large samples (middle school: N = 2,808; high school: N = 6,821) self-reported on peer victimization, school belonging, academic outcomes (GPA, school truancy), and alcohol use (lifetime, past 30 days). Two-group structural equation models revealed (a) direct and indirect paths from peer victimization to academic functioning; (b) indirect, but not direct, effects through school belonging for lifetime drinking; and (c) direct and indirect effects from peer victimization to current drinking. Findings implicate school belonging as a mediator between peer victimization and important outcomes in adolescence. PMID:27087793
Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Trempe, Sophie-Caroline; Paiva, Alexandra Oliveira
As children become adolescents, peers assume greater importance in their lives. Peer experiences can either help them thrive or negatively affect their psychosocial adjustment. In this review article definitions for the types of peer experiences are provided followed by an overview of common psychosocial issues encountered by adolescents. Past research that has pointed to risk and protection factors that emerge from peer experiences during adolescence and the role of peer influences in the context of current issues relevant to adolescent education are discussed. Research suggests that friendships with deviant peers, involvement in bullying and the experience of rejection from the overall peer group are related to adjustment problems, whereas friendships with prosocial and academically oriented peers and social acceptance in the peer group are related to healthy development. Friendship quality, popularity among peers, and involvement in friendship cliques cannot be clearly categorized as either positive or negative influences, because they interact with other factors in shaping the development of adolescents. The promotion of social skills and positive youth leadership as an integral part of the student's learning process in school is recommended. PMID:24714885
Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Adams, Michele
Although peer influence is a salient predictor of delinquency, how it operates in the etiology of runaway behavior is not fully understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study demonstrates the importance of taking peers into account in understanding the etiology of running away. The findings suggest…
Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Schneider, Ashley; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.
Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students' adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents' academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects…
Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Bos, Marieke G. N.; Crone, Eveline A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.
The present study examined developmental and gender differences in sensitivity to peer rejection across the transition into adolescence by examining beat-by-beat heart rate responses. Children between the ages of 8 and 14 years were presented with unfamiliar faces of age-matched peers and were asked to predict whether they would be liked by the…
Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily
Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55% girls) from two urban middle schools and 254…
Maxwell, Kimberly A.
Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…
Tatar, Moshe; Horenczyk, Gabriel
Investigates differences in friendship expectations between adolescent immigrants from the former Soviet Union and their Israeli-born peers. Results of rating behavioral characteristics of peers indicated that immigrants assign greater importance than their counterparts to all aspects of friendship expectations. Immigrants' friendship expectations…
Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Rudolph, Karen D.; Andrews, Rebecca K.
Adolescents' perceptions of peers' relational characteristics (e.g., support, trustworthiness) were examined for subtypes of youth who evidenced chronic maladaptive behavior, chronic peer group rejection, or combinations of these risk factors. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify subgroups of participants within a normative…
Miranda, Dave; Claes, Michel
This study was conducted with 418 French-Canadian adolescents from Montreal (Canada) and had three objectives: (1) to find empirical evidence that music listening in adolescence can lead to peer affiliation based upon music preferences; (2) to find out whether three styles of coping by music listening (original self-report scale: emotion-oriented,…
Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.
Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…
Ma, Ting-Lan; Bellmore, Amy
With a sample of 831 U.S. adolescents (49% girls) followed from 9th to 11th grade, the directionality of the association between school-based peer victimization and adolescents' perception of their parents' psychological control were examined. Possible mediating influences of internalizing symptoms were also explored. The results highlight the…
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…
Williams, Amanda L.; Merten, Michael J.
The purpose of this study was to examine how online social networking facilitates adolescent grieving following the sudden death of a peer. Researchers reviewed 20 profiles authored by adolescents who had died between 2005 and 2007 collecting information from commentary posted to the profiles posthumously. Observed themes included adolescent…
Ali, Mir M.; Dwyer, Debra S.
In this paper we seek to empirically quantify the role of peer social networks in influencing sexual behavior among adolescents. Using data of a nationally representative sample of adolescents we utilize a multivariate structural model with school-level fixed effects to account for the problems of contextual effects, correlated effects and peer…
Freeman, Kim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Halligan, Sarah L.
Aggression in young people has been associated with a bias toward attributing hostile intent to others. However, little is known about the origin of biased social information processing. The current study explored the potential role of peer contagion in the emergence of hostile attribution in adolescents. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (M age…
van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.
The current study investigated the mechanisms underlying peer contagion of depressive symptoms in adolescence. Five annual measurements of data were gathered from a large (N = 842) community-based network of adolescents (M = 14.3 years at first measurement). Results showed that, after controlling for selection and deselection of friends on the…
Killoren, Sarah E.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Christopher, F. Scott; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.
Drawing on a symbolic-interaction perspective and a compensation model, the processes linking mother- and father-adolescent relationship qualities, deviant peer affiliations, and adolescents' sexual intentions were investigated for 246 Mexican-origin youths born in the United States and in Mexico using multiple-group structural equation models.…
Scull, Tracy M.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Parker, Alison E.; Elmore, Kristen C.; Benson, Jessica W.
Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample in Study 1 was primarily African-American (52%) and the sample in Study 2 was primarily Caucasian (63%). Across the two studies, blocks of media-related cognitions made unique contributions to the prediction of adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future above and beyond self-reported peer and parental influences. Specifically, identification with and perceived similarity to media messages were positively associated with adolescents' current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future, and critical thinking about media messages and media message deconstruction skills were negatively associated with adolescents' intention to use substances in the future. Further, peer influence variables (e.g., peer pressure, social norms, peer substance use) acted as risk factors, and for the most part, parental influence variables (e.g., parental pressure to not use, perceived parental reaction) acted as protective factors. These findings highlight the importance of developing an increased understanding of the role of media messages and media literacy education in the prevention of substance use behaviors in adolescence. PMID:19795197
Brown, B. Bradford; Bakken, Jeremy P.
Drawing energy from a debate about the efficacy of parental monitoring, research over the first decade of the 21st century has traced numerous ways in which parenting practices and parent-child relationship features affect adolescents' peer interactions, and how these 2 factors interact to affect adolescent adjustment. In reviewing this research,…
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.
The cultural backgrounds and experiences of Mexican-origin mothers and fathers (including their Anglo and Mexican cultural orientations and their familism values) and their socioeconomic background (parental education, family income, neighborhood poverty rate) are linked to the nature of their involvement in adolescent peer relationships.
Egbochuku, E. O.; Obiunu, J. J.
This study investigated the effect of reciprocal peer counselling in the enhancement of self-concept of Nigerian adolescent students. The effect of sex on self-concept was also investigated. Sixty-eight senior secondary school students from three schools (a boys' school, a girls' school, and a co-educational school) in Benin City, Edo State…
Mora, Toni; Gil, Joan
This paper extends the recent literature on the influence of peers on adolescent weight on three new fronts. First, based on a survey of secondary school students in Spain in which peers are formed by nominated classmate friends, we find a more powerful positive and significant causal effect of friends' mean BMI on adolescent BMI than previous US-based research. These results are in line with international data, which show that peer group contact tends to vary across countries. Our findings cover a large set of controls, fixed effects, the testing of correlated unobservables, contextual influences and instrumental variables. Second, social interactions are identified through the property of intransitivity in network relationships. Finally, we report evidence of a strong, positive effect of peer pressure on several subgroups of adolescents in an attempt to study their vulnerability to social influences. PMID:22473688
Bos, Henny; Sandfort, Theo
Same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity have both been shown to negatively affect the relationships of adolescents with their peers. It is not clear, though, whether same-sex attracted adolescents are more likely to have negative peer relationships because they are same-sex attracted or because they are more likely to be gender nonconforming. It is also possible that both stressors affect peer relationships independently or amplify each other in their impact. We explored these questions in a sample of 486 Dutch adolescents (M age = 14.02 years). We found that same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity both had an independent effect and that gender nonconformity moderated, but not mediated, the associations between same-sex attraction and peer relationships at school. Same-sex attraction was more strongly associated with poorer relationships with peers in adolescents who were more gender nonconforming. These findings indicate the importance of including gender nonconformity in the understanding of same-sex attracted adolescents' relationships and suggest that in order to improve same-sex attracted adolescents' social position at school, acceptance of gender diversity should be promoted as well. PMID:25548066
Strange, Vicki; Forrest, Simon; Oakley, Ann
This paper is the second of two presenting data gathered from peer educators in the RIPPLE study-a randomized controlled trial of peer-led sex education in English secondary schools. Peer educators were recruited from Year 12 students (aged 16/17 years) in 13 schools in two successive cohorts in 1997 and 1998. Following a standardized training programme they delivered sex education sessions to Year 9 students (aged 13/14 years). Through analysis of 18 focus group discussions and of post-programme questionnaire data (n = 301), this paper aims to identify the issues and processes considered by peer educators to be important in implementing a peer education programme, and to examine peer educators' views on the relationship between themselves and the Year 9 students. Methodological issues arising when collecting, analysing and presenting such data are discussed, and some recommendations are outlined for carrying out school-based peer education. PMID:12120849
Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.; Asante, Elizabeth; Ahiadeke, Clement
Little is known about the influences of peers on the sexual activity of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Better understanding of these issues could lead to more effective interventions promoting sexual and reproductive health. Using two waves survey data from adolescents (n=1275) in two towns in southeastern Ghana, we examined age, gender, and community differences in peer group characteristics. We also examine prospective associations between peer group characteristics and self-reported sexual initiation, multiple partnerships, and lack of consistent condom use with most recent partner over a 20-month follow-up period. Gender differences in peer context variables were small. Affiliation with antisocial peers and perceived peer norms favoring sex increased the odds of transition to first sex. Having more friends increased the odds of accruing multiple new sexual partners among younger respondents. Among males, perceived peer norms favoring sex increased the odds of accruing multiple partners. No peer context variables were significantly associated with condom use with most recent partner. We discuss the implications of these findings for adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25753056
Allen, Joseph P.; Loeb, Emily L.
The world of peers presents a unique developmental challenge to adolescents—one that is likely to be linked to prior experiences within the family, affected by concurrent experiences with adults outside the family, and predictive of future mental and physical health. To negotiate relationships with peers successfully, adolescents must manage the challenge of connecting with peers while establishing autonomy regarding peer influences. Both the nature of this challenge and how it is handled are linked closely to the ways adolescents are treated by the adults in their lives. Adolescents’ capacities for autonomy and connection can be developed both in the family and in interventions that engage youth with adults outside the family, suggesting a substantial role for adults in easing adolescents’ peer challenges. PMID:25937829
Hanken, Ingrid Maria
Research on peer learning in higher education indicates that learning from and together with peers can benefit students in a number of ways. Within higher music education in Western, classical music, however, the master-apprentice tradition with its dominant one-to-one mode of tuition focuses predominantly on knowledge transmission from teacher to…
Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura
The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.
This document comprises the two 2000 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.
This document consists of the two 2002 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue includes news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.
This document comprises the two 2001 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.
This document comprises the two 1999 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent heath and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Kreager, Derek A; Haynie, Dana L
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter's classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners' drinking, friends' drinking, and friends-of-partners' drinking to daters' own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners' drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one's own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162
Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter’s classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners’ drinking, friends’ drinking, and friends-of-partners’ drinking to daters’ own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners’ drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one’s own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162
Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne M
This study examined how victimizations by either a sibling or peer are linked to each other and to mental health in childhood and adolescence. The data were from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence which includes a sample of children aged 3-9 (N=1,536) and adolescents aged 10-17 (N=1,523) gathered through telephone interviews. An adult caregiver (usually a parent) provided the information for children while self-reports were employed for adolescents. Fifteen percent of each age group reported victimization by both a sibling and peer. Victimization by a sibling alone was more common in childhood than adolescence. Victimization by a sibling was predictive of peer victimization. Children and adolescents victimized by both a sibling and peer reported the greatest mental distress. This work establishes that for some children and adolescents, victimization at the hands of other juveniles happens both at home and school. Programs should consider the role of siblings and target parents and siblings to encourage the development and maintenance of constructive sibling interactions. PMID:24889729
Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan
Recent studies of youth aggression have emphasized the role of network-based peer influence processes. Other scholars have suggested that aggression is often motivated by status concerns. We integrate these two veins of research by considering the effects of peer status motivations on subsequent adolescent aggression, net of their own status motivations, prior aggression, and peer behavior. We also explore different levels at which peer effects may occur, considering the effects of reciprocated and unreciprocated friendships as well as larger, meso-level peer groups. We anticipate that peer group effects are magnified by both size and boundedness as measured by Freeman's (1972) Segregation Index. We find that, net of the adolescent's aggression at time 1, both the aggressive behaviors and the status valuations of friends independently increase the likelihood of aggression at time 2, six months later. The aggressive behavior of friends who do not reciprocate the adolescent's friendship nomination has particular impact. The average status valuation of peer groups increases their members' likelihood of aggression, even after controlling for their own attitudes about status, their friends' attitudes, and their friends' aggressive behavior. This effect is magnified in large groups and groups with high Freeman segregation scores. PMID:25152562
Engels, Maaike C; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Bijttebier, Patricia; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Claes, Stephan; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine
Although teachers and peers play an important role in shaping students' engagement, no previous study has directly investigated transactional associations of these classroom-based relationships in adolescence. This study investigated the transactional associations between adolescents' behavioral engagement, peer status (likeability and popularity), and (positive and negative) teacher-student relationships during secondary education. A large sample of adolescents was followed from Grade 7 to 11 (N = 1116; 49 % female; M age = 13.79 years). Multivariate autoregressive cross-lagged modeling revealed only unidirectional effects from teacher-student relationships and peer status on students' behavioral engagement. Positive teacher-student relationships were associated with more behavioral engagement over time, whereas negative teacher-student relationships, higher likeability and higher popularity were related to less behavioral engagement over time. We conclude that teachers and peers constitute different sources of influence, and play independent roles in adolescents' behavioral engagement. PMID:26759132
van der Maas, Frank; Otte, Willem M.
In this study, we assessed whether peer education is an effective method of HIV/AIDS awareness, in terms of knowledge, misconception and behavior, among adolescents in the rural area of Nigeria. A comparative case series (n = 250), cross-sectional structured survey (n = 135) and focus group discussions (n = 80) were undertaken among adolescents.…
Ellis, Wendy E.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Dumas, Tara M.
Past research has shown that adolescent peer groups make a significant contribution to shaping behavior but less is known about the role of peer groups in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of aggressive peer group norms on relationship quality and dating violence among dating adolescents. At the…
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Kupanoff, Kristina
Compared mothers' and fathers' direct involvement in adolescent girls' versus boys' peer relationships, and examined the links between parents' involvement and the qualities of adolescents' friendship and peer experiences. Findings revealed mothers were more knowledgeable about adolescents' peer relationships than fathers, and both mothers and…
Winston, Gordon C.; Zimmerman, David J.
This paper, prepared as a chapter for a forthcoming book, describes the potential significance of student peer effects for the economic structure and behavior of higher education. The existence of student peer effects would motivate much of the restricted supply, student queuing, and selectivity, and institutional competition via merit and honors…
This paper draws upon small scale, qualitative research at a UK university to present a Learning Development (LD) perspective on peer learning. This approach is offered as a lens for exploring social aspects of learning, cultural change in higher education and implications for pedagogy and policy. Views of a small group of peer learning leaders…
Background Limited evidence exists concerning the importance of social contexts in adolescent substance use prevention. In addition to the important role schools play in educating young people, they are important ecological platforms for adolescent health, development and behaviors. In this light, school community contexts represent an important, but largely neglected, area of research in adolescent substance use and prevention, particularly with regard to peer influences. This study sought to add to a growing body of literature into peer contexts by testing a model of peer substance use simultaneously on individual and school community levels while taking account of several well established individual level factors. Method We analyzed population-based data from the 2009 Youth in Iceland school survey, with 7,084 participants (response rate of 83.5%) nested within 140 schools across Iceland. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Results School-level peer smoking and drunkenness were positively related to adolescent daily smoking and lifetime drunkenness after taking account of individual level peer smoking and drunkenness. These relationships held true for all respondents, irrespective of socio-economic status and other background variables, time spent with parents, academic performance, self-assessed peer respect for smoking and alcohol use, or if they have substance-using friends or not. On the other hand, the same relationships were not found with regard to individual and peer cannabis use. Conclusions The school-level findings in this study represent context effects that are over and above individual-level associations. This holds although we accounted for a large number of individual level variables that studies generally have not included. For the purpose of prevention, school communities should be targeted as a whole in substance use prevention programs in addition to reaching to individuals of particular concern. PMID:23902743
Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Campbell, Rebecca
Adolescent sexual assault survivors are more likely to seek support from peers and families than to formal help systems, such as the medical and legal systems. In this study, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with N = 20 adolescent sexual assault survivors aged 14-17 who obtained services from Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Programs to understand the pathways that led them to seek formal help. Our goal was to examine how survivors' initial disclosures to peers, families, and schools facilitated adolescents' access to formal help systems. Additionally, we explored how peer, family and school systems interact as mesosystems to effect subsequent disclosures. Results show that the peer and family microsystems were decisive in survivors' willingness to enter formal systems. Disclosure became more complex when peer, family, and school personnel all became aware of the assault. When these mesosystem interactions occurred with survivors' consent and produced a helpful response, they were perceived as positive. Alternatively, mesosystem interactions in which survivors had minimal control resulted in greater reluctance to enter formal systems. These conclusions highlight the need educating informal support providers about community services in order to make the disclosure process easier and beneficial for survivors' recovery and well-being. PMID:23702789
Dilanian, Seta M.
An adolescent's learning patterns are developed throughout the student's socialization process, suggesting that peer pressure may influence learning. Female college students (N=15) aged 19-21 participated in a pencil-maze learning task performed while blindfolded. The task was presented in three categories of stimuli conditions: (1) normal…
Kreager, Derek A.
This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…
Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.
The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence. Yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating, and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks.…
Bojana, Dinic M.; Jasmina, Kodžopeljic S.; Valentina, Sokolovska T.; Ilija, Milovanovic Z.
The study examined the relationships between empathy and peer violence among adolescents, along with gender as a moderator in these associations. Thereby, multidimensionality of empathy (affective and cognitive empathy) and different forms of violence (physical, verbal, and relational) were considered. The participants were 646 high school…
Luster, Tom; Oh, Su Min
Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 were used to examine factors, such as family and neighborhood environment, associated with carrying a handgun among adolescent males. As expected, results indicated males were more likely than their peers to carry handguns if they engaged in other problematic behaviors, had witnessed someone…
Mauk, Gary W.
During 1988 there were 4,929 deaths by suicide among persons 15 to 24 years of age in the United States, making suicide the third leading cause of death in this age group, following accidents and homicide. Adolescent suicide is a particularly toxic form of death for the peers who are left behind. A "survivor of suicide" is defined as someone who…
Stevens, Devan L.; Hardy, Sam A.
This study explored individual, family, and peer predictors of involvement and psychological investment in fights among Samoan youth. Participants were 310 adolescents ages 13 through 19 living in Samoa. MANCOVAs compared those involved in fights with those not, and those more investing in fighting with those less invested. In terms of individual…
Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja
This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online…
Ryan, Allison M.
Motivation, engagement, and achievement decline for many children during early adolescence. There is increasing attention to the role peer relationships play in changes in academic adjustment during this stage of life. The articles in this special issue advance knowledge on this topic. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles…
Kreager, Derek A; Staff, Jeremy
The belief that women and men are held to different standards of sexual conduct is pervasive in contemporary American society. According to the sexual double standard, boys and men are rewarded and praised for heterosexual sexual contacts, whereas girls and women are derogated and stigmatized for similar behaviors. Although widely held by the general public, research findings on the sexual double standard remain equivocal, with qualitative studies and early attitudinal surveys generally finding evidence of the double standard and more recent experimental vignette designs often failing to find similar results. In this study, we extend prior research by directly measuring the social status of sexually permissive youth. We use data collected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to relate adolescents' self-reported numbers of sexual partners to a network measure of peer acceptance. Results suggest that the association between lifetime sexual partnerships and peer status varies significantly by gender, such that greater numbers of sexual partners are positively correlated with boys' peer acceptance, but negatively correlated with girls' peer acceptance. Moreover, the relationship between boys' sexual behaviors and peer acceptance is moderated by socioeconomic origins; sexually permissive boys from disadvantaged backgrounds are predicted to have more friendships than permissive boys from more advantaged backgrounds. Our results thus support the existence of an adolescent sexual double standard and suggest that sexual norms vary by both gender and socioeconomic origins. PMID:25484478
Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Miernicki, Michelle E; Galván, Adriana
Adolescents' peer culture plays a key role in the development and maintenance of risk-taking behavior. Despite recent advances in developmental neuroscience suggesting that peers may increase neural sensitivity to rewards, we know relatively little about how the quality of peer relations impact adolescent risk taking. In the current 2-year three-wave longitudinal study, we examined how chronic levels of peer conflict relate to risk taking behaviorally and neurally, and whether this is modified by high-quality peer relationships. Forty-six adolescents completed daily diaries assessing peer conflict across 2 years as well as a measure of peer support. During a functional brain scan, adolescents completed a risk-taking task. Behaviorally, peer conflict was associated with greater risk-taking behavior, especially for adolescents reporting low peer support. High levels of peer support buffered this association. At the neural level, peer conflict was associated with greater activation in the striatum and insula, especially among adolescents reporting low peer support, whereas this association was buffered for adolescents reporting high peer support. Results are consistent with the stress-buffering model of social relationships and underscore the importance of the quality of adolescents' peer relationships for their risk taking. PMID:24795443
Rotenberg, Ken J.; Betts, Lucy R.; Moore, Jolene
The authors examined the relation between early adolescents' trust beliefs in peers and both their attributions for, and retaliatory aggression to, peer provocation. One hundred and eight-five early adolescents (102 male) from the United Kingdom (M age = 12 years, 2 months, SD = 3 months) completed the Children's Generalized Trust Beliefs in peer…
Karst, Jeffrey S; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Carson, Audrey M; Stevens, Sheryl; Schohl, Kirsten; Dolan, Bridget
Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with increased family chaos and parent distress. Successful long-term treatment outcomes are dependent on healthy systemic functioning, but the family impact of treatment is rarely evaluated. The Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS) is a social skills intervention designed for adolescents with high-functioning ASD. This study assessed the impact of PEERS on family chaos, parenting stress, and parenting self-efficacy via a randomized, controlled trial. Results suggested beneficial effects for the experimental group in the domain of family chaos compared to the waitlist control, while parents in the PEERS experimental group also demonstrated increased parenting self-efficacy. These findings highlight adjunctive family system benefits of PEERS intervention and suggest the need for overall better understanding of parent and family outcomes of ASD interventions. PMID:25193142
Orr, Sarah Hunter
"Training the peer facilitator: using participatory theatre to promote engagement in peer education" examines the role of participatory theatre in a peer education setting in relation to the goal of young people engaging and empowering their peers to create new knowledge together. Extending research about the use of applied theatre…
Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin
This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed…
Banwari, Girish H.
Traditionally, sexual abuse is under-reported and under-recognized when the victims are boys. A study carried out by the Government of India in 2007 suggests that every second child/adolescent in the country faces some form of sexual abuse and it is nearly equally prevalent in both sexes. The significance of the problem is undermined all the more when the abuse is perpetrated by a peer. Sexual activity between children and adolescents that occurs without consent or as a result of coercion is tantamount to abuse. A majority of the victims do not disclose the occurrence to anyone. This often neglected issue of adolescent male peer sexual abuse in a sexually conservative country like India is highlighted and discussed through this case, which came to light only after the victim developed a venereal disease. PMID:24379502
Dolan, Bridget K; Van Hecke, Amy V; Carson, Audrey M; Karst, Jeffrey S; Stevens, Sheryl; Schohl, Kirsten A; Potts, Stephanie; Kahne, Jenna; Linneman, Nina; Remmel, Rheanna; Hummel, Emily
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial of a social skills intervention, the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS: Laugeson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39(4): 596-606, 2009), by coding digitally recorded social interactions between adolescent participants with ASD and a typically developing adolescent confederate. Adolescent participants engaged in a 10-min peer interaction at pre- and post-treatment. Interactions were coded using the Contextual Assessment of Social Skills (Ratto et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 41(9): 1277-1286, 2010). Participants who completed PEERS demonstrated significantly improved vocal expressiveness, as well as a trend toward improved overall quality of rapport, whereas participants in the waitlist group exhibited worse performance on these domains. The degree of this change was related to knowledge gained in PEERS. PMID:26886470
Gonzales, N A; Cauce, A M; Friedman, R J; Mason, C A
Using a 1-year prospective design, this study examined the influence of family status variables (family income, parental education, family structure), parenting variables (maternal support and restrictive control), peer support, and neighborhood risk on the school performance of 120 African American junior high school students. In addition to main effects of these variables, neighborhood risk was examined as a moderator of the effects of parenting and peer support. Family status variables were not predictive of adolescent school performance as indexed by self-reported grade point average. Maternal support at Time 1 was prospectively related to adolescent grades at Time 2. Neighborhood risk was related to lower grades, while peer support predicted better grades in the prospective analyses. Neighborhood risk also moderated the effects of maternal restrictive control and peer support on adolescent grades in prospective analyses. These findings highlight the importance of an ecological approach to the problem of academic underachievement within the African American Community. PMID:8864209
Ramirez, Rhonda; Hinman, Agatha; Sterling, Stacy; Weisner, Constance; Campbell, Cynthia
Purpose To examine the role of family environment and peer networks in abstinence outcomes for adolescents 1 year after intake to alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment. Design Survey of 419 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age at consecutive intakes to AOD treatment programs at four sites of a large health system, with telephone follow-up survey 1 year after intake. Methods Examined association of 1-year abstinence with baseline characteristics. Using logistic regression, we examined characteristics predicting 1-year abstinence and predicting having fewer than four substance-using friends at 1 year. Results We found that family environment scores related to family conflict, limit setting, and positive family experiences, were not related to abstinence outcomes, but peer networks were related. Adolescents with fewer (less than four) AOD-using friends were more likely to be abstinent than those with four or more AOD-using friends (65% vs. 41%, p = .0002). Having fewer than four AOD-using friends at intake predicted abstinence at 1 year (odds ratio [OR] = 2.904, p = .0002) and also predicted having fewer than four AOD-using friends at 1 year (OR = 2.557, p = 0.0007). Conclusions Although family environment is an important factor in the development of AOD problems in adolescents, it did not play a significant role in treatment success. The quality of adolescent peer networks did independently predict positive outcomes. Clinical Relevance For physicians, advanced practice registered nurses, and other primary and behavioral care providers who screen and care for adolescents with AOD and other behavioral problems, our finding suggest the importance of focusing on improving the quality of their peer networks. PMID:22339982
Toomey, Russell B.; Card, Noel A.; Casper, Deborah M.
The current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression, and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported…
Forty adolescents were observed at McDonald's restaurants in Paris and Miami to assess the amount of touching and aggression during their peer interactions. The American adolescents spent less time leaning against, stroking, kissing, and hugging their peers than did the French adolescents. Instead, they showed more self-touching and more aggressive verbal and physical behavior. PMID:10730699
Forty adolescents were observed at McDonald's restaurants in Miami and Paris to assess the amount of touching and aggression during their peer interactions. The American adolescents spent less time leaning against, stroking, kissing, and hugging their peers than did the French adolescents. Instead, they showed more self-touching and more…
Hengesbaugh, Jean Houger
A continuing education program to provide technical training or consultation for laboratory technologists practicing in rural and urban Utah has been established by the Centers for Disease Control and the Utah State Department of Health under the name Project PEER (Pursuing Excellence through Education Regionally). The core of the program is a…
Bayer, Angela M.; Cabrera, Lilia Z.; Gilman, Robert H.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Tsui, Amy O.
We analyzed the association between sub-scales developed with adolescents and the outcomes of precoital behaviors and vaginal sex in Lima, Peru. Adolescent participants in key informant sessions operationalized concepts identified during qualitative concept mapping into several sub-scales. Face and content validity testing and pilot application with respondent debriefing were used to refine the sub-scales. Three hundred 15–17 year olds were surveyed about the sub-scales, socio-demographics and sexual behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed six sub-scales, self-image, goals and decision-making, family education, parental rules/control, school support and peer support, which we regressed on the outcomes. Twice as many males as females reported more than three precoital behaviors and vaginal sex. Higher peer support reduced the likelihood of vaginal sex and precoital behaviors and higher family education reduced precoital behaviors. Results affirm the importance of including adolescents in the entire research process and of sex education with family- and peer-based strategies. PMID:25305443
Joyce, Jeneka A.; O’Neil, Maya E.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; McWhirter, Ellen H.; Dishion, Thomas J.
This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented. PMID:24324283
Kreager, Derek A.; Staff, Jeremy
The belief that women and men are held to different standards of sexual conduct is pervasive in contemporary American society. According to the sexual double standard, boys and men are rewarded and praised for heterosexual sexual contacts, whereas girls and women are derogated and stigmatized for similar behaviors. Although widely held by the general public, research findings on the sexual double standard remain equivocal, with qualitative studies and early attitudinal surveys generally finding evidence of the double standard and more recent experimental vignette designs often failing to find similar results. In this study, we extend prior research by directly measuring the social status of sexually permissive youth. We use data collected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to relate adolescents’ self-reported numbers of sexual partners to a network measure of peer acceptance. Results suggest that the association between lifetime sexual partnerships and peer status varies significantly by gender, such that greater numbers of sexual partners are positively correlated with boys’ peer acceptance, but negatively correlated with girls’ peer acceptance. Moreover, the relationship between boys’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance is moderated by socioeconomic origins; sexually permissive boys from disadvantaged backgrounds are predicted to have more friendships than permissive boys from more advantaged backgrounds. Our results thus support the existence of an adolescent sexual double standard and suggest that sexual norms vary by both gender and socioeconomic origins. PMID:25484478
Aseltine, R H
The role of peers in fostering deviant behavior in adolescence is well-documented in the sociological literature, while support for parental influence or "control" theories of deviance is more equivocal. This paper examines the relative influences of parents and peers on adolescent delinquency and marijuana use, using data from a three-wave panel study of youths who were paired with a best friend (N = 435). Covariance structure models based upon polychoric correlations among study variables reveal that friends are indeed the primary source of influence on youths' behavior, but that estimates of influence are grossly overstated in analyses relying upon respondents' perceptions of their friends' behavior. Parental supervision and attachment are weakly related to subsequent delinquency and marijuana use, lending little support to control theories of deviance. Findings reveal that different processes account for the similarities among members of delinquent and drug-using peer groups. Although youths are socialized into delinquent behavior by peers, both selection and socialization influences play important roles in the formation of drug-using peer groups. PMID:9113137
Loke, Alice Yuen; Mak, Yim-wah
This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are “authoritarian” (OR = 1.856) were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423) were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are “permissive” were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885). Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446) or drank (OR = 1.894), and friends’ invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455) or drink (OR = 11.825) were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills. PMID:23985772
Newman, Barbara M.; Lohman, Brenda J.; Newman, Philip R.
This study explored three aspects of peer group membership in adolescence: peer group affiliation, the importance of group membership, and a sense of peer group belonging. Each is considered in relationship to adolescents' behavior problems as measured by the Achenbach Youth Self-Report. Participants included an ethnically and socioeconomically…
Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene
The goal of this study was to examine whether popularity and likability were related to associating with popular peers in adolescence. Participants were 3,312 adolescents (M age = 13.60 years) from 172 classrooms in 32 schools. Four types of peer affiliations of the participants with the popular peers in their classrooms were distinguished: "best…
Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Bamaca-Gomez, Mayra Y.
Examined whether Mexican origin adolescents who varied by generational status would differ in their resistance to peer pressure. After controlling for gender, resistance to peer pressure varied significantly by generational status. Adolescents with no familial births in the United States were significantly more resistant to peer pressure than…
Allen, Joseph P.; Chango, Joanna; Szwedo, David
The long-term import of a fundamental challenge of adolescent social development--establishing oneself as a desirable peer companion while avoiding problematic behaviors often supported within peer groups--was examined in a community sample of 184 adolescents, followed from ages 13 to 23, along with parents, peers, and romantic partners. The…
Caldwell, Melissa S.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Kim, Do-Yeong
This study examined reciprocal-influence models of the association between relational self-views and peer stress during early adolescence. The first model posited that adolescents with negative self-views disengage from peers, creating stress in their relationships. The second model posited that exposure to peer stress fosters social…
Prinstein, Mitchell J.
This longitudinal study examined peer contagion of depressive symptoms over an 18-month interval within a sample of 100 11th-grade adolescents. Three types of peer contagion moderators were examined, including characteristics of adolescents (social anxiety, global self-worth), friends (level of friends' peer-perceived popularity), and the…
Foshee, Vangie A.; Benefield, Thad S.; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Ennett, Susan T.; Faris, Robert; Chang, Ling-Yin; Hussong, Andrea; Suchindran, Chirayath M.
The peer context is a central focus in research on adolescent risk behaviors but few studies have investigated the role of the peer context in the perpetration of adolescent dating violence. This longitudinal study examined between-subjects and within-person contemporaneous and lagged effects of peer attributes, measured with social network…
Smith, Ashley R.; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence
The majority of adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers, and recent research suggests that the presence of peers may alter how the potential rewards and costs of a decision are valuated or perceived. The current study further explores this notion by investigating how peer observation affects adolescent risk taking when the…
Powell, Anne; Jenson, Jeffrey M.
Aggressive behavior aimed at peers in school settings is a persistent problem for students, teachers, parents, and school social workers. Peer victimization is particularly troubling for adolescent girls in light of recent increases in aggression and violence among female adolescents. However, most studies of peer victimization, particularly among…
Chan, Siu Mui; Chan, Kwok-Wai
Studies on factors affecting susceptibility to peer pressure are not plentiful although this susceptibility has been found to be associated with youth problems such as substance use and risky sexual behavior. The present study examined how adolescents' susceptibility to peer pressure is related to their relationships with mothers and emotional…
Huang, Grace C.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Pentz, Mary Ann; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas W.
Purpose Online social networking sites (SNSs) have become a popular mode of communication between adolescents. However, little is known about the effects of social online activity on health behaviors. The authors examine the use of SNSs between friends and the degree to which SNS activities relate to face-to-face peer influences and adolescent risk behaviors. Methods Longitudinal egocentric friendship network data along with adolescent social media use and risk behaviors were collected from 1,563 tenth grade students across five Southern California high schools. Measures of online and offline peer influences were computed and assessed using fixed effects models. Results The frequency of adolescent SNS use and the number of their closest friends on the same SNS were not significantly associated with risk behaviors. However, exposure to friends’ online pictures of partying or drinking was significantly associated with both smoking (β=.07, p<.001) and alcohol use (β=.08, p<.05). While adolescents with drinking friends had higher risk levels for drinking, adolescents without drinking friends were more likely to be affected by increasing exposure to risky online pictures (β=−.10, p<.10). Myspace and Facebook had demographically distinct user characteristics and had differential effects on risk behaviors. Conclusions Exposure to risky online content had a direct impact on adolescents’ risk behaviors and significantly interacted with risk behaviors of their friends. These results provide evidence that friends’ online behaviors should be considered a viable source of peer influence and that increased efforts should focus on educating adolescents on the negative effects of risky online displays. PMID:24012065
German, Miguelina; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Dumka, Larry
This study examined interactive relations between adolescent, maternal, and paternal familism values and deviant peer affiliations in predicting adolescent externalizing problems within low-income, Mexican-origin families (N = 598). Adolescent, maternal, and paternal familism values interacted protectively with deviant peer affiliations to predict…
Stanish, Heidi I.; Temple, Viviene A.
Background: Peer support is strongly associated with physical activity of adolescents. This study examined the efficacy of a YMCA-based, peer-guided exercise training programme for increasing health-related physical fitness among adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Materials and Methods: Adolescents with intellectual disabilities and…
Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.
This study examined the associations between reasoning during inter-parental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multimethod, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Inter-parental reasoning at adolescent age of 13…
Dorius, Cassandra J.; Bahr, Stephen J.; Hoffmann, John P.; Harmon, Elizabeth Lovelady
Using data from a probability sample of 4,987 adolescents, we examine the degree to which closeness to mother, closeness to father, parental support, and parental monitoring buffer the relationship between peer drug use and adolescent marijuana use. The relationship between peer drug use and adolescent marijuana use was attenuated by both…
Mounts, Nina S.
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relation of level and discrepancy in mothers' and adolescents' reports of parental management of peer relationships and parent-child conflict about peer relationships to mothers' and adolescent's reports of adolescents' drug use, delinquent behavior, and grade-point-average (GPA). An…
Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O'Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence
The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a…
Whitaker, Daniel J.; Miller, Kim S.
Examined how parent-adolescent communication about initiating sex and using condoms influenced the relationship between peer norms and behavior among African American and Hispanic adolescents. Found that peer norms were more strongly related to behavior among adolescents who had not discussed sex or condoms. Communication was also related to teens…
Boud, David, Ed.; Cohen, Ruth, Ed.; Sampson, Jane, Ed.
The essays in this collection explore how educators can formalize the use of peer learning to encourage more effective learning in higher education. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction: Making the Move to Peer Learning" (David Boud); (2) "Designing Peer Learning" (Jane Sampson and Ruth Cohen); (3) "Strategies for Peer Learning: Some Examples"…
Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee
The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents' motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students' basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students' gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students' school belonging, student-teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed. PMID:24588748
Stone, Lindsey B; Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Stroud, Laura R; Nelson, Eric E; Dahl, Ronald E; Jones, Neil P
Heightened emotional reactivity to peer feedback is predictive of adolescents' depression risk. Examining variation in emotional reactivity within currently depressed adolescents may identify subgroups that struggle the most with these daily interactions. We tested whether trait rumination, which amplifies emotional reactions, explained variance in depressed adolescents' physiological reactivity to peer feedback, hypothesizing that rumination would be associated with greater pupillary response to peer rejection and diminished response to peer acceptance. Twenty currently depressed adolescents (12-17) completed a virtual peer interaction paradigm where they received fictitious rejection and acceptance feedback. Pupillary response provided a time-sensitive index of physiological arousal. Rumination was associated with greater initial pupil dilation to both peer rejection and acceptance, and diminished late pupillary response to peer acceptance trials only. Results indicate that depressed adolescents high on trait rumination are more reactive to social feedback regardless of valence, but fail to sustain cognitive-affective load on positive feedback. PMID:26271345
McGuire, Katherine; London, Kamala; Wright, Daniel B
When two or more people witness an event together, the event report from one person can influence others' reports. In the current study we examined the role of age and motivational factors on peer influence regarding event reports in adolescents and young adults. Participants (N=249) watched a short video of a robbery then answered questions with no co-witness information or with information believed to be from a co-witness. Public and private response conditions were included to explore motivations for peer influence. Co-witness information influenced participants' responses, although the effect was equally strong in the private and the public co-witness conditions. Peer influence on event reports was steady across a large age range (11- to 25-year-olds). PMID:21919594
Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra
This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account. PMID:25935739
O'Brien, Lia; Albert, Dustin; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence
Adolescents take more risks in the presence of their peers, but the mechanism through which peer presence affects risky decision-making is unknown. We propose that the presence of peers increases the salience of the immediate rewards of a risky choice. The current study examined the effect of peer presence on reward sensitivity in a sample of 100…
Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily
Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55 % girls) from two urban middle schools and 254 students (50 % girls) from one suburban middle school completed structured open-ended questions about a recent peer victimization experience. In both school settings, the results supported both previously- and newly-identified coping responses that fit within the approach-avoidance coping framework, reasoning that maps on to social information processing models, and systematic associations between reasoning and the coping responses adopted by the adolescents. In both school settings, approach responses were associated with having the goal of defending oneself against the victimization whereas avoidance responses were associated with wanting to prevent the escalation of the peer victimization event. The discussion argues that knowledge about the link between reasoning and coping responses can be informative to understanding what coping responses are effective for victims. PMID:23014851
Dyson, Rachel; Robertson, Gail C; Wong, Maria M
Internalizing problems in adolescence encompass behaviors directed inward at the self (Colman, Wadsworth, Croudace, & Jones, 2007). Several predictors have been linked to internalizing problems including antisocial and prosocial peers (Cartwright, 2007; Chung, 2010). Effortful control, a component of self-regulation, is one factor that could mediate the relationship between peer behaviors and individual outcomes. This study assessed the relationship between peer behaviors, effortful control, and adolescent internalizing problems. Participants were 151 middle school adolescents (M = 12.16 years old) who completed self-report questionnaires regarding behaviors of their peers, perceptions of effortful control, and experiences of internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling (SEM) yielded a significant negative relationship between antisocial peers and effortful control, and a significant positive relationship between prosocial peers and effortful control. In addition, effortful control significantly mediated the relationship between prosocial peers and internalizing problems, but not for antisocial peers. Implications for interventions related to adolescent health were discussed. PMID:25863002
Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Obiyo, N.; Obidoa, M.
The study investigated the use of peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and collaborative learning as strategies to reduce anti-social behavior among schooling adolescents. The study is a descriptive survey study. The area of study was Nsukka education zone in Enugu State of Nigeria. The sample of the study was 200 teachers randomly sampled from…
Invited manuscript poster on renal-related education American Society of Nephrology, Nov. 16-21, 2010. Adolescents with chronic kidney disease and their need for online peer mentoring: a qualitative investigation of social support and healthcare transition.
Perry, Erica E; Zheng, Kai; Ferris, Maria E; Torres, Leticia; Bickford, Kristi; Segal, Jonathan H
Adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD) tend to be isolated from peers who also have CKD, develop non-adherent behavior with treatment recommendations, and consequently are at higher risk for poor health outcomes such as transplant rejection. At the same time, patients in this age group tend to be technologically savvy and well-versed in using Internet-based communication tools to connect with other people. In this study, we conducted semi-structured interviews among adolescents with CKD to assess their information needs and their interest in using a CKD-oriented peer-mentoring website that we are developing, kTalk.org. We interviewed 17 adolescents with CKD, ages 14-18 years old, to learn about (1) any concerns regarding transition from pediatric to adult care teams; and (2) their interest in using the Internet as a source for disease-related information and as a social networking tool for finding and interacting with their peers. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed. Results showed that (1) the adolescent participants are commonly concerned about transitioning to an adult clinic; (2) they are isolated from peers with the same medical condition who are of similar age; (3) they are frequent Facebook users and are highly interested in exploring the possibility of using an online community website, such as kTalk.org, to discover and communicate with peers and peer mentors; and (4) there exist divergent opinions regarding if an online community of adolescent CKD patients should be open to the public. PMID:21787155
Schohl, Kirsten A.; Van Hecke, Amy V.; Carson, Audrey Meyer; Dolan, Bridget; Karst, Jeffrey; Stevens, Sheryl
This study aimed to evaluate the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS: Laugeson et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 39(4):596-606, 2009). PEERS focuses on improving friendship quality and social skills among adolescents with higher-functioning ASD. 58 participants aged 11-16 years-old were randomly assigned to…
Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Stevens, Sheryl; Carson, Audrey M.; Karst, Jeffrey S.; Dolan, Bridget; Schohl, Kirsten; McKindles, Ryan J.; Remmel, Rheanna; Brockman, Scott
This study examined whether the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills ("PEERS: Social skills for teenagers with developmental and autism spectrum disorders: The PEERS treatment manual," Routledge, New York, 2010a) affected neural function, via EEG asymmetry, in a randomized controlled trial of adolescents with…
Doyle, John R.; Green, Rodney H.
A two-part study applied the mathematical technique of Data Envelopment Analysis to assess the comparability of self-evaluation and peer evaluation in higher education, for both students and faculty. Focus is on the technique itself: its rationale, prerequisites for use, and insights yielded by the analysis. (Author/MSE)
Kelly, Sarah E; Anderson, Debra G
Adolescents are exposed to various forms of gang violence, and such exposure has led them to feel unsafe in their neighborhood and have differing interactions with their parents and peers. This qualitative study explored adolescents', parents', and community center employees' perceptions of adolescents' interaction with their neighborhood, family, and peers. Three themes emerged from the data: Most adolescents reported that the community center provided a safe environment for them; parental engagement influenced adolescents' experiences with gangs; and adolescents were subjected to peer pressure in order to belong. Exposure to gang violence can leave an impression on adolescents and affect their mental health, but neighborhood safety and relationships with parents and peers can influence adolescents' exposure to gang violence. Recommendations regarding the use of health care professionals at community centers are proposed. PMID:22998539
Yang, TienYu Owen; Lunt, Ingrid; Sylva, Kathy
Managing asthma around peers can be stressful for young adolescents (age 9-14). However, the contexualised coping activities under asthma management-related peer stress is under-investigated. The study aims to explore the peer stress-related coping strategies young adolescents adopt in asthma management. Thirty-four young adolescents were interviewed with semi-structured storytelling protocols. Young adolescents expressed their opinions about four scenarios where the characters had difficulties managing asthma among peers. Interviews were transcribed, and qualitative data were analysed with analytical induction and constant comparison to generate themes that described the coping activities young adolescents adopted in four asthma management scenarios. Young adolescents' responses in each scenario were summarised. The coping activities adolescents adopted were cognitive justifying, explaining, outsourcing and undisclosing. Despite the limitations in a scenario-based qualitative study, the results may be useful for teachers and health professionals in social skill interventions for asthma management in early adolescence. PMID:19657905
Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah
Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…
Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121
Vachon, R. W.
Oceans are vast, complicated, often inaccessible, three-dimensional and dark (for the most part). The value, vulnerabilities and dynamics of marine systems are quite far removed from the consciousness of many people. However, these reasons are not alibis for not understanding and appreciating oceans deep-rooted influences on our lives. Currently, the Nereus Program, a fellowship of climate, fisheries and computer modeling scientists, are accessing school systems in person and virtually, motivating teens to tell stories about their local understanding of the ocean's influence on their communities (even if they live in a landlocked location). In it's first iteration, we are soliciting youth to communicate through the popular medium of film. These films will be assembled into an on-line digital field guide. In part, this program is designed to be a peer-to-peer educational technique, where civilians are teaching other civilians about local or regional ocean dynamics. Additionally, the act of teaching through film is a proven method for deepening engagement, learning and empowerment of the individuals producing the films.
Su, Jinni; Supple, Andrew J
Parental and peer influences on adolescent substance use have been well demonstrated. However, limited research has examined how parental and peer influences vary across school contexts. This study used a multilevel approach to examine the effects of school substance use norms and school racial composition in predicting adolescent substance use (a composite measure of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use) and in moderating parental and peer influences on adolescent substance use. A total of 14,346 adolescents from 34 schools in a mid-western county completed surveys electronically at school. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that school-level disapproval against substance use and percentage of minority students at school were negatively associated with adolescent substance use. School-level disapproval moderated the association between peer substance use and adolescent substance use, with the association being stronger when school-level disapproval was lower. School racial composition moderated the influence of parental disapproval and peer substance use on adolescent substance use. Specifically, both the association between parental disapproval and adolescent substance use and the association between peer substance use and adolescent substance use were weaker for adolescents who attended schools with higher percentages of minority students. Findings highlighted the importance of considering the role of school contexts, in conjunction with parental and peer influences, in understanding adolescent substance use. PMID:27215854
Henneberger, Angela K.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Keenan, Kate
Determining the interdependence of family and peer influences on the development of delinquency is critical to defining and implementing effective interventions. This study explored the longitudinal relationship among harsh punishment, positive parenting, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency using data from a sub-sample of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Participants were 622 adolescent girls (42% European American, 53% African American); families living in low-income neighborhoods were oversampled. After controlling for the effects of race, living in a single parent household, and receipt of public assistance, harsh punishment and peer delinquency in early adolescence were positively related to delinquency in mid-adolescence. No significant main effects of positive parenting or interaction effects between parenting and peer delinquency were observed. Thus, the effects of harsh parenting and peer delinquency are independent and perhaps additive, rather than interdependent. Results indicate the continued importance of targeting both parenting and peer relationships to prevent delinquency in adolescent girls. PMID:25419013
Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas; Margolin, Gayla
Social reorientation from parents to same-age peers is normative in adolescence, but the neural correlates of youths' socioemotional processing of parents and peers have not been explored. In the current study, 22 adolescents (average age 16.98) underwent neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) while viewing and rating emotions shown in brief video clips featuring themselves, their parents, or an unfamiliar peer. Viewing self vs. other and parents vs. the peer activated regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, replicating prior findings that this area responds to self-relevant stimuli, including familiar and not just similar others. Viewing the peer compared with parents elicited activation in posterior 'mentalizing' structures, the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and right temporoparietal junction, as well as the ventral striatum and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus. Relative activations in the PCC and precuneus to the peer vs. the parent were related both to reported risk-taking behavior and to affiliations with more risk-taking peers. The results suggest neural correlates of the adolescent social reorientation toward peers and away from parents that may be associated with adolescents' real-life risk-taking behaviors and social relationships. PMID:25874749
Hellström, Lisa; Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt
The current study examined concordance and discordance between a measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression with respect to the number of students identified as victims. Swedish adolescents (N = 1,760) completed a web-based questionnaire. A measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression were compared in order to elucidate the unique…
Woodward, L J; Fergusson, D M
This paper examines relations between the extent of children's peer relationship problems at age 9 and their later risks of educational under-achievement and unemployment by the age of 18 years. Results showed that children with high rates of early peer relationship problems were at increased risk of under-achievement and unemployment when compared with children with low rates of early peer relationship problems. These elevated educational and occupational risks were explained by two processes. First, associations between early peer difficulties and later disadvantage were in part noncausal, and arose because of the personal characteristics (IQ and attentional problems) and social backgrounds (socioeconomic adversity, exposure to parental change, and punitive parent-child interaction) of children with early peer problems. Second, problematic peer relations during childhood appeared to place young people at increased risk of a range of adolescent interpersonal and school-related difficulties, including weaker peer attachments, interpersonal problems with teachers, school truancy, suspension, and early school leaving. In turn, these experiences and behaviours served to reduce the educational and employment opportunities of children with early peer problems. Results highlight the importance of childhood peer relationships for academic and occupational success. PMID:10750545
Khemka, Ishita; Hickson, Linda; Mallory, Sarah B
This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from self-contained special education classes to an intervention group (n = 22) or a wait-list control group (n = 20). ANCOVA analyses, using pretest scores as covariates, indicated that students who were trained on PEER-DM had significantly higher effective decision-making action and correct risk perception scores, relative to participants in the control group. This study provides supporting evidence that PEER-DM is a promising intervention for students with disabilities, including those with identified autism spectrum disorders, during transition years to help them develop a better understanding of positive and negative peer relationships and learn systematic decision-making skills for improved handling of social situations in the school and community, especially situations involving negative peer pressure. The study adds credence to using systematic, strategy-based decision making interventions designed to address the cognitive, emotional and motivational processes underlying adolescent decision making in sensitive interpersonal situations involving peer pressure. The study points to the lack of preparedness to handle situations of negative peer pressure as a serious social and health risk for adolescents with disabilities that deserves urgent and concerted attention in transition services programming. Implications for future curriculum-development efforts and replication of treatment findings are discussed. Future research examining disability-specific patterns of decision-making in peer situations and comparisons with typically developing populations is recommended. PMID:26993636
Strange, Vicki; Forrest, Simon; Oakley, Ann
The RIPPLE study is a randomized controlled trial of peer-led sex education in English secondary schools. In 1997, 27 schools were recruited and randomly allocated to a programme of peer-led sex education or to act as control schools. In experimental schools peer educators in Year 12 (aged 16/17 years) were recruited in two successive cohorts and, having received a standardized training programme, delivered classroom-based sex education sessions to Year 9 students (aged 13/14 years). This paper is the first of two focusing on data gathered from these peer educators. Through analysis of pre-(n = 505) and post- (n = 331) programme questionnaire data, the paper describes the profile of peer educators and examines the impact on them of their involvement. Compared to the students receiving the peer-led sex education, more peer educators were female, white, high academic achievers and less socially disadvantaged. Peer educators reported positive changes in sexual knowledge and changes towards more liberal attitudes, and believed the programme would have a positive impact on their confidence in relationships and on their sexual behaviour. There was an increase in confidence about communication and interaction in groups. The paper discusses the methodological difficulties of assessing how involvement in such a programme impacts on peer educators. PMID:12120848
Bednar, Dell Elaine; Fisher, Terri D
This study examined the relationship between parenting style and adolescent decision making. Two hundred sixty-two college students completed a decision-making scale as well as a parenting scale in an effort to determine if the child-rearing style of their parents was related to the tendency of these late adolescents to reference peers rather than parents or other adults in decision making. The results indicated that adolescents raised by authoritative parents tended to refer to their parents for moral and informational decisions, while adolescents raised by authoritarian, permissive, or neglecting-rejecting parents more often referenced their peers for moral and informational decisions. Adolescents referred to their peers for social decisions regardless of how they were raised. Parental responsiveness was a significant factor in determining the source of adolescent decision-making assistance, but parental demandingness was not. It was concluded that less orientation toward peers during late adolescence seems to be another advantage of authoritative parenting. PMID:15053489
Fuqua, Juliana L.; Gallaher, Peggy E.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sussman, Steve; Ortega, Enrique; Johnson, C. Anderson
Associations between peer group self-identification and smoking were examined among 2,698 ethnically diverse middle school students in Los Angeles who self-identified with groups such as Rockers, Skaters, and Gamers. The sample was 47.1% male, 54.7% Latino, 25.4% Asian, 10.8% White, 9.1% Other ethnicity, and 59.3% children of immigrant parents. Multiple group self-identification was common: 84% identified with two or more groups and 65% identified with three or more groups. Logistic regression analyses indicated that as students endorsed more high-risk groups, the greater their risk of tobacco use. A classification tree analysis identified risk groups based on interactions among ethnicity, gender, and group self-identification. Psychographic targeting based on group self-identification could be useful to design more relevant smoking prevention messages for adolescents who identify with high-risk peer groups. PMID:22458850
Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan M.
The long-term impacts of failing to establish autonomy and relatedness within close friendships are poorly understood. Adolescent behaviors undermining autonomy and relatedness in friendships at 13 were examined as predictors of friendship competence at 18 and depressive symptoms and social withdrawal at 21. A diverse community sample of 184 adolescents participated in self, peer, and observational assessments. Teens’ inability to establish autonomy and connection with friends at 13 predicted decreases in friendship competence at 18 (ß=-.20, p=.02). Direct links to increases in depressive symptoms (ß=.34, p<.001) and social withdrawal (ß=.18, p=.03) were observed, with friendship competence partially mediating these relations. Results highlight the importance of problematic adolescent peer relationships as risk factors for the development of young adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:26640356
Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph
Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends. PMID:27194659
Peterson, Gary W.; Peters, David F.
Draws upon ideas about "television effects" and the adolescent peer group to illustrate how interconnections between these two socializing agents contribute to the adolescent's "construction of social reality." Examines how gender, sexual, consumer, and occupational roles as enacted by teenagers are a product of media and peer group influences.…
Smith, Tara E.; Leaper, Campbell
This research examined adolescents' gender identity in relation to the peer context and their self-concept. Participants were 229 adolescents who completed questionnaire measures of self-concept and multidimensional gender identity. Regression analysis indicated peer acceptance partially mediated the relation between self-perceived gender…
Jaser, Sarah S.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Keller, Gary; Merchant, Mary Jane; Benson, Molly; Compas, Bruce E.
Offspring of depressed parents are faced with significant interpersonal stress both within their families and in peer relationships. The present study examined parent and self-reports of adolescents' coping in response to family and peer stressors in 73 adolescent children of parents with a history of depression. Correlational analyses indicated…
Valois, Robert F.; Kerr, Jelani C.; Huebner, E. Scott
Background: Peer victimization among adolescents has been linked to increased psychological stress, psychosomatic illness, anxiety, depression, lower self-esteem, suicide ideation and poor physical health. Purpose: This study explored associations between peer victimization and adolescents' perceptions of life satisfaction. Methods: Public middle…
Siegel, Rebecca S.; La Greca, Annette M.; Harrison, Hannah M.
This study used a 2-month prospective research design to examine the bi-directional interplay between peer victimization and social anxiety among adolescents. Participants included 228 adolescents (58% female) in grades 10-12. Three types of peer victimization were examined: "overt" (physical aggression or verbal threats), "relational" (malicious…
Curtner-Smith, Mary E.; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol E.
Describes investigation examining relationship between adolescents' susceptibility to antisocial peer pressure and parenting style and frequency of behavior monitoring. Suggests adolescents most susceptible to antisocial peer pressure perceived infrequent monitoring by fathers, inappropriate discipline practice by fathers, and had mothers who…
Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Tone, Erin B.; Jenness, Jessica; Parrish, Jessica M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Nelson, Eric E.
Peer rejection powerfully predicts adolescent anxiety. While cognitive differences influence anxious responses to social feedback, little is known about neural contributions. Twelve anxious and twelve age-, gender- and IQ-matched, psychiatrically healthy adolescents received "not interested" and "interested" feedback from unknown peers during a…
Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving…
Blote, Anke W.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Miers, Anne C.; Westenberg, P. Michiel
This study addressed the role of actual and perceived similarity in peer rejection of socially anxious adolescents. Videotapes of 20 high and 20 low socially anxious adolescents (13-17 years old) giving a speech were rated by groups of unfamiliar peers with regard to perceived similarity and desire for future interaction (lower scores indicating…
Nebbitt, Von E.; Lombe. Margaret; Lindsey, Michael A.
This article examines the role of parenting behavior in adolescents' peer group formation using a sample of 238 African American adolescents living in urban public housing projects. The study also assesses the moderating effect of age and gender on the relationship between parenting behavior and peer affiliations. Girls reported significantly…
Lopez, Barbara; Wang, Wei; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Brown, C. Hendricks; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose
The purpose of the present study was to examine how relationships among family, school, and peer factors relate to likelihood of substance use in Hispanic adolescents. Results indicated that only perceived peer substance use was directly related to adolescents' own substance use. A significant interaction was found between parental monitoring and…
Kan, Marni L.; McHale, Susan M.
This study used a person-oriented approach to examine links between adolescents' experiences with parents and peers. Cluster analysis classified 361, White, working- and middle-class youth (mean age = 12.16 years) based on mothers' and fathers' reports of parental acceptance and adolescents' reports of perceived peer competence. Three patterns…
Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Schwartz, David; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Mayeux, Lara
The paper examines whether unpopularity and disliking among peers are partially distinct dimensions of adolescents' negative social experience. We recruited 418 students (187 boys, 231 girls, M = 12.12 years, SD = 4.33) from an urban junior high school. These early adolescents completed a peer nomination inventory assessing aspects of their social…
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Karaman, Neslihan Guney; Cok, Figen; Herrera, Dora; Rohail, Iffat; Macek, Petr; Hyeyoun, Han
This study investigated how 2000 adolescents from middle-class families in six countries perceived and coped with parent-related and peer-related stress. Adolescents from Costa Rica, Korea, and Turkey perceived parent-related stress to be greater than peer-related stress, whereas stress levels in both relationship types were similar in the Czech…
There has been a scarcity of research studies addressing the dilemmas of peer relationships confronting gifted adolescent females. In this study, the peer relationships of nine mathematically gifted adolescent females living in Taiwan are explored using a qualitative multicase study. Data analysis revealed six compelling themes: a proclivity for…
Bellmore, Amy; Ma, Ting-Lan; You, Ji-in; Hughes, Maria
Given the passivity of many adolescents upon witnessing peer victimization, the goal of this study was to evaluate the features of school-based peer victimization events that promote helping. A sample of 470 early adolescents (52% girls; 71% White, 9% Black, 6% Latino, 2% Asian, 1% American Indian, 8% Multiethnic, and 3% Other) reported likelihood…
Faircloth, Beverly S.; Hamm, Jill V.
Dynamic features of peer network experiences (membership fluidity and network interconnectedness) were examined for their role in African American and White early adolescents' sense of belonging in mathematics classrooms. Because these dynamic features are naturally present in adolescents' peer group affiliations, attention to them provides a more…
Guyer, Amanda E.; Caouette, Justin D.; Lee, Clinton C.; Ruiz, Sarah K.
Relative to children and adults, adolescents are highly focused on being evaluated by peers. This increased attention to peer evaluation has implications for emotion regulation in adolescence, but little is known about the characteristics of the evaluatee and evaluator that influence emotional reactions to evaluative outcomes. The present study…
Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Li, Zhushan
Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder often do not have access to crucial peer social activities. This study examines how typically developing adolescents evaluate decisions not to include a peer based on disability status, and the justifications they apply to these decisions. A clinical interview methodology was used to elicit judgments and…
Carney, Jolynn V.
Investigates perceptions of adolescents concerning relationship between chronic peer abuse and suicidal behavior, contending chronic peer abuse is a risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior. Results upheld this contention, adding that bystander perceptions supported victims' views. Suggests interventions to stop bullying should be expanded to…
Horn, Stacey S.; Nucci, Larry
This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' ( N = 264) beliefs about homosexuality, their attitudes about gay and lesbian peers in school, and their evaluations of the treatment of gay, lesbian, and gender non-conforming peers. The results revealed differences in adolescents' beliefs about homosexuality and their attitudes toward…
Melhem, Nadine M.; Day, Nancy; Shear, M. Katherine; Day, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brent, David
The purpose of this article is to examine the predictors of complicated grief, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adolescents exposed to the suicide of a peer. One hundred and forty six peers of adolescent suicide victims were interviewed at 6, 12-18, and 36 months following the suicide. The roles of previous psychiatric…
Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Using a daily diary method, this study assessed daily episodes of family and peer conflict among 578 adolescents in the 9th grade to examine potential bidirectional associations between the family and peer domains. Adolescents completed a daily diary checklist at the end of each day over a 14-day period to report events of conflict and their…
Farhat, Tilda; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Kokkevi, Anna; Van der Sluijs, Winfried; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
This study examined associations between perceived peer and adolescent alcohol use in European and North American countries. Self-reported monthly alcohol use and adolescents' report of their peers' alcohol use were assessed in nationally representative samples of students aged 11.5 and 13.5 years (n = 11,277) in Greece, Scotland, Switzerland, and…
Berger, Christian; Lisboa, Carolina; Cuadros, Olga; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo
Peer relations constitute a main developmental context for adolescents. Peers offer an instance for identity definition and set the norms of acceptable and valued characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes, representing a societal model that allows and restrains avenues for adolescents' socioemotional development. The present article departs from…
Vicario, Terra; Henninger, Erica; Chambliss, Catherine
This investigation extends previous research on the benefits of dance education, by further exploring the correlates of participation in dance classes for adolescent girls. The survey evaluated self-esteem, body image, dance ability, and perceived quality of peer and parent relationships. Students with greater dance experience were expected to…
Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and…
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.
The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…
Coleman, Karen J; Clark, Andrea Yoder; Shordon, Maggie; Ocana, Leticia L; Walker, Chris; Araujo, Rachel A; Oratowski-Coleman, Jesica; Philis-Tsimikas, Athena
The current study was designed to evaluate a unique adolescent peer type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM) prevention training program for fifth grade children. Peer educators were 22 high school students who participated in the Elementary Institute of Science's Commission on Science that Matters, a year-long program promoting active participation in the health and environmental sciences. Peer education was delivered in the form of a two hour health fair. A knowledge survey was given to fifth grade students in the classroom before the health fair began and then again in the classroom after the health fair. Fifth grade students were able to correctly identify Type 1 DM (23 vs. 40%; P < .01), Type 2 DM (21 vs. 52%; P < .001), and the signs of diabetes (10 vs. 39%; P < .001) after the health fair. This approach could be inexpensively integrated into any community-based health promotion with children and adolescents. PMID:20496001
Bogenschneider, K; Wu, M Y; Raffaelli, M; Tsay, J C
This study examines how experiences in the family domain may magnify or mitigate experiences in the peer domain, and how processes in both milieus may influence adolescent substance use. The data derived from 666 European American mother-adolescent dyads and 510 European American father-adolescent dyads. Consistent with individuation-connectedness theory, mothers' responsiveness lessened their adolescents' orientation to peers, which, in turn, reduced adolescent substance use. This process was moderated by maternal values regarding adolescent alcohol use; that is, the relation of maternal responsiveness to adolescent substance use depended on the extent of maternal approval or disapproval of adolescent alcohol use. Among fathers, closer monitoring was directly associated with less adolescent substance use, with stronger effects among fathers who held more disapproving values regarding adolescent alcohol use. Theoretical, methodological, and pragmatic implications are given. PMID:9914646
Mann, Frank D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.
Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior. PMID:25908885
Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Brechwald, Whitney A.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.
A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents' individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents'…
Tarantino, Nicholas; Tully, Erin C.; Garcia, Sarah E.; South, Susan; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Adolescence and early adulthood is a time when peer groups become increasingly influential in the lives of young people. Youths exposed to deviant peers risk susceptibility to externalizing behaviors and related psychopathology. In addition to environmental correlates of deviant peer affiliation, a growing body of evidence has suggested that…
Bukowski, William M.; Sippola, Lorrie K.; Newcomb, Andrew F.
Examined differences in attraction to same- and other-sex peers as a function of sex, age, individual characteristics, and context in adolescents studied longitudinally from elementary to middle school. Found attraction to aggressive peers and to peers standing out in observable ways increased with age and upon entry to middle school, whereas…
O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline; Hennessy, Eilis; McKeague, Lynn
Background: Children and adolescents with mental health problems are widely reported to have problems with peer relationships; however, few studies have explored the way in which these children are regarded by their peers. For example, little is known about the nature of peer stigmatisation, and no published research has investigated implicit…
Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina
This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…
Carter, D. S. G.; And Others
The nature of the interactions that occur among peer leaders, peer influence, and the dynamics of the peer reference group in the context of health, interpersonal relations and lifestyle choice were the subjects of this study. Its first stage (of two) employed a case study of a single metropolitan senior high school in Australia. Adolescent peer…
Hamm, Jill V.; Schmid, Lorrie; Farmer, Thomas W.; Locke, Belinda
This study integrates diverse literatures on peer group influence by conceptualizing and examining the relationship of peer group injunctive norms to the academic adjustment of a large and ethnically diverse sample of rural early adolescents' academic adjustment. Results of three-level hierarchical linear modeling indicated that peer groups were…
Warrington, Molly; Younger, Mike
Feeling part of one's peer group is of crucial importance for most middle adolescents. Drawing on empirical research in different schools, this paper explores the components of exclusion in relation to gender, the consequences for those excluded by their peers, and the kinds of strategies engaged in by girls and boys in order to attain peer group…
Demir, Ozan M; Abdullah, Rezaur; Srivastava, Vivek
Peer-led education is well established in undergraduate education, but there is a paucity of data regarding its role in postgraduate education. This article assesses the feasibility of peer-led teaching in postgraduate medical education and evaluates its benefits through qualitative structured feedback. PMID:27166105
Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schwartz, Sarah; Fox, Nathan A.; Lejuez, C. W.
This experimental study aimed to examine whether adolescents act in a riskier manner in the presence of peers and whether peer presence alone influences risk behavior or if a direct influence process is necessary. Utilizing a behavioral task assessing risk-taking, 183 older adolescents (18–20 year olds) came to the laboratory alone once and then were randomized to one of three conditions: alone, peers present, peers encouraging. An interaction was found such that at baseline there were no significant differences between the three conditions but at the experimental session there was a significant increase in risk task scores particularly for the encouraging condition. These findings challenge proposed models of the interaction between peer influence and risk taking by providing evidence that adolescents take more risks when being encouraged by peers but that the presence of peers on its own does not lead to more risks than when completing the task alone. PMID:24122411
Desjardins, Tracy L; Leadbeater, Bonnie J
Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents' peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of emotional support received from mothers, fathers, and peers on the association between relational victimization and adolescents' depressive symptoms were also investigated. Findings revealed that adolescents who were relationally victimized consistently had higher depressive symptoms than their non-victimized peers. However, high levels of emotional support from fathers buffered this relationship over time. Emotional support from mothers and peers also moderated the longitudinal relationship between relational victimization and depressive symptoms, with high levels of support predicting increases in adolescents' symptoms. Relational victimization presents a clear risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence, and emotional support may serve either a protective or vulnerability-enhancing role depending on the source of support. PMID:20577897
Chan, Hsun-Yu; Brown, B Bradford; Von Bank, Heather
Following the important insight that what parents know about their adolescent offspring depends primarily on what the child tells them, this study examines how attitudes about what parents have a right to know mediate the associations between several factors (quality of parent-child relationships, time spent with family and peers, levels of antisocial and prosocial behaviors, and gender and age) and adolescents' disclosures about peer relations. In two studies of early and middle adolescents (Ns = 231, 249; M ages = 14.5, 13.0; 62.3, 51.8 % female; 53.7, 67.5 % European American), a new measure of right-to-know attitudes is derived and then applied to four facets of adolescents' experiences with peers: details of activities with peers, issues in specific relationships, and positive and negative peer characteristics. The findings indicate that adolescents are more inclined to disclose certain aspects of their peer relations than others, but these inclinations are related to several factors-especially the quality of mother-child relationships and involvement in antisocial behavior-and mediated by adolescents' attitudes regarding what parents have a right to know about peers. The results are related to autonomy development and parental oversight of adolescent peer interactions. PMID:25707343
Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina
We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7–9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n=112 boys; n=107 girls; n=7 gender unknown), their parents, and teachers. Both effective parenting and association with deviant peers influenced later conduct problems; however, the pattern of influence varied across time and between fathers and mothers, with complex patterns of interactions between effective parenting and peer deviance. From seventh to eighth grade, effective parenting by both mothers and fathers buffered the effect of higher levels of peer deviance on conduct problems across adolescent gender. From eighth to ninth grade (i.e., transition into high school), fathers’ effective parenting buffered the effects of deviant peer association on their daughters’ conduct problems, whereas both fathers’ and mothers’ influence was stronger for sons when deviant peer associations were lower. Analyses also evaluated bi-directional longitudinal effects among adolescents, parents, and peers. Although varying by parent and adolescent gender or adolescent age, results generally supported the protective effects of parenting on their children’s conduct problems during early to mid adolescence. PMID:22648200
Masten, Carrie L.; Colich, Natalie L.; Rudie, Jeffrey D.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Dapretto, Mirella
Peer rejection is particularly pervasive among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, how adolescents with ASD differ from typically developing adolescents in their responses to peer rejection is poorly understood. The goal of the current investigation was to examine neural responses to peer exclusion among adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing adolescents. Nineteen adolescents with ASD and 17 typically developing controls underwent fMRI as they were ostensibly excluded by peers during an online game called Cyberball. Afterwards, participants reported their distress about the exclusion. Compared to typically developing adolescents, those with ASD displayed less activity in regions previously linked with the distressing aspect of peer exclusion, including the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula, as well as less activity in regions previously linked with the regulation of distress responses during peer exclusion, including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Interestingly, however, both groups self-reported equivalent levels of distress. This suggests that adolescents with ASD may engage in differential processing of social experiences at the neural level, but be equally aware of, and concerned about, peer rejection. Overall, these findings contribute new insights about how this population may differentially experience negative social events in their daily lives. PMID:22318914
Holloway, Susan D.; Mirny, Anna I.; Bempechat, Janine; Li, Jin
In the Russian Federation, a growing emphasis on individualism and a profusion of educational options create challenges and opportunities for adolescents making the transition to secondary school. To investigate Russian students' perspectives during this important developmental period, we conducted two open-ended interviews with 32 ninth graders…
Tomé, Gina; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Simões, Celeste; Camacho, Inês; AlvesDiniz, José
The current work aims to study both the peer group and family influence on adolescent behaviour. In order to achieve the aforementioned objective, an explanatory model based on the Structural Equations Modelling (SEM)was proposed. The sample used was the group of adolescents that participated in the Portuguese survey of the European study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The Portuguese survey included students from grades 6, 8 and 10 within the public education system, with an average age of 14 years old (SD=1.89). The total sample of the HBSC study carried out in 2006 was 4,877; however with the use of the SEM, 1,238 participants were lost out of the total sample. The results show that peers have a direct influence in adolescents’ risk behaviours. The relationship with parents did not demonstrate the expected mediation effect, with the exception of the following elements: relation between type of friends and risk behaviour; and communication with parent and lesser involvement in violence behaviours and increased well-being. The negative influence of the peer group is more connected to the involvement in risk behaviours, whilst the positive influence is more connected with protective behaviours. PMID:22980148
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Federico, Francesca; Lonigro, Antonia; Levanto, Simona; Ferraro, Maurizio; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto
This study examined mentalizing abilities, social behavior, and social impact of adolescents who expressed the willingness to become peer buddies for adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders, and adolescents selected by their teachers and peers. Twenty-seven teachers and 395 adolescents from public high schools completed mentalizing abilities, social status, behavioral, and peer buddy nomination measures. Findings suggest that social status and preference play a significant role in the selection of peer buddies by both teachers and classmates. Furthermore, more advanced Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities and the engagement in prosocial behaviors differentiated peers selected as buddies from other classmates. When compared with nonparticipating students, adolescents who expressed willingness to participate were more often girls, and were more prosocial. Agreement between teacher and peer nominations of best peer was moderate. PMID:26398319
Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.
Background The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in the 12-step program associated with greater abstinence among treatment-seeking adults. This study examined the influence of SAD on clinical severity at intake, peer-helping during treatment, and outcomes in a large sample of adolescents court-referred to residential treatment. Methods Adolescents (N = 195; 52% female, 30% Black) aged 14 to 18 were prospectively assessed at treatment admission, treatment discharge, and 6 months after treatment discharge. Data were collected using rater-administered assessments, youth reports, clinician reports, medical charts, and electronic court records. The influence of SAD on peer-helping and outcomes was examined using hierarchical linear regression and event history methods. Results Forty-two percent of youths reported a persistent fear of being humiliated or scrutinized in social situations, and 15% met current diagnostic criteria for SAD. SAD onset preceded initial use for two-thirds of youths with SAD and substance dependency. SAD youths presented for treatment with greater clinical severity in terms of earlier age of first use (p < 0.01), greater lifetime use of heroin and polysubstance use (p < 0.05), incarceration history (p < 0.01), and lifetime trauma (p < 0.001). Twelve-step participation patterns during treatment did not differ between youths with and without SAD except for peer-helping, which was associated with reduced risk of relapse (p < 0.01) and incarceration (p < 0.05) in the 6 months posttreatment. Conclusions This study found evidence of an association between SAD and earlier age of first use, greater lifetime use of heroin, incarceration history, and
Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Veenstra, René
Peer victimization is a common and pervasive experience in childhood and adolescence and is associated with various maladjustment symptoms, including internalizing, externalizing, and somatic problems. This variety suggests that peer victimization is multifinal where exposure to the same risk leads to different outcomes. However, very little is known about the relative likelihood of each form of maladjustment. We used a latent profile approach to capture multiple possible outcomes and examined prediction by peer victimization. We also examined the role of peer victimization with regard to stability and change in maladjustment. Maladjustment symptoms and peer victimization were assessed from the participants of the large cohort study TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey in early and mid-adolescence. Latent profile and latent transition analyses were conducted to examine associations between victimization and maladjustment profile and to test the role of victimization in maladjustment profile transitions. Four maladjustment profiles were identified for early adolescence (Low, Internalizing, Externalizing, Comorbid) and three profiles (Low, Internalizing, Externalizing) were identified for mid-adolescence. Internalizing problems were more likely in victimized adolescents than low symptom levels or externalizing problems. Victimized adolescents were at greater risk to develop internalizing problems between early and mid-adolescence than non-victimized adolescents. Peer victimization is multifinal mostly when outcomes are examined separately. If multiple outcomes are tested simultaneously, internalizing problems seem to be the most likely outcome. PMID:25540123
Odar Stough, Cathleen; Nabors, Laura; Merianos, Ashley; Zhang, Jiaqi
This study was conducted to examine if adolescents with a seizure disorder/epilepsy display less flourishing (thriving) than peers without seizures using data from the National Survey of Children's Health 2011-2012. Adolescent demographics, symptom severity, and parents' anger toward their child were explored as possible predictors of flourishing. Adolescents with seizures exhibited lower flourishing than peers, and flourishing among adolescents with seizures was predicted by symptom severity, age, race/ethnicity, sex, and parental anger. Study results suggest adolescents with a seizure disorder/epilepsy should be targeted for interventions that promote flourishing. PMID:26313714
Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina
We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…
Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.
Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…
Scholte, Ron H. J.; Overbeek, Geertjan; ten Brink, Giovanni; Rommes, Els; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Goossens, Luc; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
The present study examined to what extent the number of friends and their social and personal characteristics were related to peer victimization in adolescence. Participants were 2,180 adolescents (1,143 girls), aged 11-18 (M = 14.2), who were classified as victims, bully-victims, or non-involved (i.e., adolescents who neither bullied others nor…
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Crouter, Ann C.
Drawing on cultural-ecological and person-environment fit perspectives, this study examined links among Mexican-American adolescents' time with peers and parents, parents' cultural orientations, and adolescents' psychosocial adjustment and cultural orientations. Participants were 492 Mexican-American adolescents (Ms=15.7 and 12.8 years for older…