Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L
Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility. PMID:22311519
Williams, Kathryn E.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.
Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined…
Violato, Claudio; Travis, Leroy
Adolescence is a multiplicity of events, experiences, behavior, people, and cultural meanings. This book attempts to provide detailed and in-depth analysis of the central issues related to adolescent psychology, while taking this multiplicity into account. A comprehensive representation of the topic is provided through integration of historical,…
Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, Ed.
This book paints a portrait of adolescent psychology in 4 major regions: Africa/the Middle East, Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Featuring 24 revised and updated chapters from the "International Encyclopedia of Adolescence" (2007), readers are introduced to the way the majority of the world's adolescents actually live. Most contributors are…
Moriarty, Anthony R.; Story, Donald W.
Attempts to describe the psychological processes that predispose an individual to adopt a Satanic belief system. Describes processes in terms of child-parent relationships and the developmental tasks of adolescence. Proposes a model called the web of psychic tension to represent the process of Satanic cult adoption. Describes techniques for…
Rich, Grant Jewell
Introduces this theme issue that explores the nature of adolescence and the positive psychology movement that focuses on positive aspects of adolescent development. Articles in this collection provide a window into the exploration of youth strengths. (SLD)
Newton-Ruddy, Lara; Handelsman, Mitchell M.
Explores Jungian feminine psychology and its application in the treatment of adolescent prostitutes. Discusses Wolff's (1956) work on feminine functions and Leonard's (1982) work with father-daughter wounds. Explores techniques for applying these concepts with adolescent prostitutes. (Author)
Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.
Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…
Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.
The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…
Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…
Lebowitz, M D; Thompson, H C; Strunk, R C
Outpatient adolescent asthmatics were studied using the Asthma Symptom Checklist (ASC) of Kinsman et al. The study showed that outpatient asthmatic adolescents are similar in many respects to older institutionalized asthmatics, except that in the former, psychological symptoms are more diffuse and recognition of respiratory symptoms is less severe. Further studies are needed to determine which psychological symptoms are most important in predicting prognosis in affected asthmatics or the development of "psychosomatic" asthma. PMID:7338897
Keng, Chiam Heng; Park, Joon Hee
These two symposium papers provide: (1) a profile of rural adolescents in Malaysia, by Chiam Heng Keng; and (2) report the findings of a study of the psychology and life of Korean children and adolescents, by Joon Hee Park. In the former report, 521 boys and 550 girls completed a checklist consisting of 195 problems and indicated problems which…
Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.
This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…
Kashdan, Todd B.
Traditionally, positive emotions and thoughts, strengths, and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for belonging, competence, and autonomy have been seen as the cornerstones of psychological health. Without disputing their importance, these foci fail to capture many of the fluctuating, conflicting forces that are readily apparent when people navigate the environment and social world. In this paper, we review literature to offer evidence for the prominence of psychological flexibility in understanding psychological health. Thus far, the importance of psychological flexibility has been obscured by the isolation and disconnection of research conducted on this topic. Psychological flexibility spans a wide range of human abilities to: recognize and adapt to various situational demands; shift mindsets or behavioral repertoires when these strategies compromise personal or social functioning; maintain balance among important life domains; and be aware, open, and committed to behaviors that are congruent with deeply held values. In many forms of psychopathology, these flexibility processes are absent. In hopes of creating a more coherent understanding, we synthesize work in emotion regulation, mindfulness and acceptance, social and personality psychology, and neuropsychology. Basic research findings provide insight into the nature, correlates, and consequences of psychological flexibility and applied research provides details on promising interventions. Throughout, we emphasize dynamic approaches that might capture this fluid construct in the real-world. PMID:21151705
Problem: The relation between parental warmth and psychological adjustment is not known for young Korean American adolescents. Methods: 103 adolescents' perceived parental warmth and psychological adjustment were assessed using, respectively, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire and the Child Personality Assessment Questionnaire. Findings: Low perceived maternal and paternal warmth were positively related to adolescents' overall poor psychological adjustment and almost all of its attributes. When maternal and paternal warmth were entered simultaneously into the regression equation, only low maternal warmth was related to adolescents' poor psychological adjustment. Conclusion: Perceived parental warmth is important in predicting young adolescents' psychological adjustment as suggested in the parental acceptance-rejection theory. PMID:19885379
Sam, David Lackland
Examines three theoretical perspectives (family values, acculturation strategies, and social group identity) as predictors of the psychological well-being of adolescents from immigrant backgrounds. Reveals that the perspectives accounted for between 12% and 22% of variance of mental health, life satisfaction, and self-esteem, while social group…
Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood
This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…
Goldstein, Arnold P.; Pentz, MaryAnn
This paper focuses on the structured learning approach to psychological skill training with aggressive adolescents, examining 30 evaluation-oriented studies of skills training with such youth. Emphasized are relevant experimental designs, prescriptive utilization of skills training, means for enhancing trainee motivation, transfer and maintenance,…
Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.
The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…
Teicher, Joseph D.
It behooves physicians to be aware that adolescents are different people, that they have a vast capacity for change, that they often exhibit the sickest kind of behavior, which may be very frightening to us and to them. Physicians have to be able to wait and not become panicked by the turbulences, confusions, and contradictions that mark the adolescent's behavior; to keep in mind at all times that much of what is going on is relatively normal behavior in the drive toward maturation and adulthood; that the adolescent has to cope with his sexual drive which is continually frustrated, that he has to cope with the problems of emancipation from parental authority, that he has to cope with an aggressive drive to achieve and to dominate. Parents, too, have to be understanding and ready to render unselfish support, for they continue to be the source of strength and security, and even the source of healthy restrictions. Adults must be aware that the adolescent struggles with his conscience and its dictates, and we should look upon cliques, groups and clubs as a healthy assistance in the preservation of standards, ethics, and mores. PMID:13356179
Siddique, C M; D'Arcy, C
The present study analyzes the mental-health consequences of stress in a sample of 1,038 adolescents (526 females and 512 males) from a Canadian prairie city. The study examined the relationship between perceived stress in family, school, and peer-group situations and four measures of psychological well-being, i.e., anxiety, depression, social dysfunction, and anergia. The moderator effects of locus of control orientation (mastery) on stress-outcome relationships were also examined, as were the sex differences in health and the perception of stress. All three sources of stress were found to be related to the four measures of mental health, with family stress having the strongest negative health impact. The health-protective role of locus of control was limited for the large part to the stresses emanating from school and peer groups. Substantial sex differences were found in the perception of family- and peer-related stresses as well as in levels of psychological distress. A tentative explanation of these differences was examined with reference to prevailing structural conditions and differences in locus of control orientation, with female adolescents showing greater externality. Implications of the results are drawn for the long-standing debate on the relative impact of stress and its sources on adolescents' psychosocial development and for a current controversy in adolescent theory between proponents of "classical" and proponents of "empirical" conceptions of adolescence. PMID:24306949
Sheffield, Jeanie K.; Fiorenza, Erika; Sofronoff, Kate
Although a relatively high percentage of Australian adolescents experience mental health problems, many disturbed adolescents do not receive the help they require, and only a small proportion of adolescents seek professional psychological help. The present study examined adolescents' willingness to seek help and investigated factors that promote…
Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Silk, Jennifer S.
SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms among adolescents from predominantly disadvantaged backgrounds. The indirect effects of psychological control on adolescent adjustment through adolescent emotion regulation (anger and sadness regulation) were examined as well as the moderating effects of adolescent emotion regulation. Design 206 adolescents (ages 10–18) reported on parental psychological control and their own depressive symptoms, and parents and adolescents reported on adolescent emotion regulation and aggressive behavior. Indirect effect models were tested using structural equation modeling; moderating effects were tested using hierarchical multiple regression. Results The associations between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms were indirect through adolescents’ anger regulation. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parental psychological control and adolescent depressive symptoms was stronger among adolescents with poor sadness regulation and the association between psychological control and aggressive behavior was stronger among older adolescents with poor anger regulation. Conclusions Psychological control is negatively associated with adolescent adjustment, particularly among adolescents who have difficulty regulating emotions. Emotion regulation is one mechanism through which psychological control is linked to adolescent adjustment, particularly anger dysregulation, and this pattern holds for both younger and older adolescents and for both boys and girls. PMID:25057264
Grinder, Robert E.
To increase the relevance of educational psychology the School of Education at the University of Wisconsin now offers one-credit, 5-week modules in its entire foundational area. The modules offer students a wide range of options and provide instructors greater flexibility and manageability and subject matter presentations. Before the new program…
Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott
Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…
This article highlights findings of a study on the suicides of three academically talented male adolescents. Results of the psychological autopsies are reported in terms of commonalities with adolescent suicide in the general population; commonalities among the three cases related to their giftedness; and themes emerging across the cases,…
Ma, Ting-Lan; Bellmore, Amy
With a sample of 831 U.S. adolescents (49% girls) followed from 9th to 11th grade, the directionality of the association between school-based peer victimization and adolescents' perception of their parents' psychological control were examined. Possible mediating influences of internalizing symptoms were also explored. The results highlight the…
Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.
This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…
Kirkcaldy, Bruce D.; Eysenck, Michael W.; Siefen, Georg R.
Although there is an enormous amount of literature demonstrating socio-psychological determinants of suicide and self-injurious behaviour among adults or clinical samples of children and adolescents, there is a scarcity of studies focussing on non-clinical adolescent samples. The current study examined associations between self-reported data on…
Armsworth, Mary W.; Holaday, Margot
Literature review of cognitive, affective, behavioral, and somatic-psychological effects as a consequence of overwhelming life events in children and adolescents is compared with DSM-III-R definition of Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome. Responses likely in children and adolescents are discussed; suggestions for future research and counseling…
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…
Discussion of psychological disorder in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome suggests that these individuals commonly develop a psychological disorder secondary to Asperger syndrome including affective disorders, anxiety-related disorders, and conduct disorders. Treatment usually involves a combination of psychoeducation, social change,…
Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene
Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…
Strasburger, Victor C.
Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects…
Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Wang, Qi; Reese, Elaine
The present study examined the coherence of low- and high-point life-event narratives among adolescents (aged between 12 and 21 years) and their psychological functioning in terms of well-being and prosocial behaviour. The results showed robust age-related increases in narrative coherence. Age and gender significantly moderated the associations between narrative coherence and psychological functioning. Specifically, higher levels of coherence were significantly associated with prosocial behaviour only for older adolescents. Higher levels of narrative coherence were also associated with lower levels of well-being among adolescent boys, but not among adolescent girls. Results are discussed in terms of why coherent life-event narratives may not be linked to benefits for younger adolescents and for boys, and how low- and high-point life events both contribute to identity construction. PMID:22716656
Bean, Roy A.; Northrup, Jason C.
This study examines several key parenting variables (psychological control, psychological autonomy, and acceptance) in predicting self-esteem among Latino adolescents using structural equation modeling analyses. Nested models are tested and parental acceptance variables are omitted from the model and group gender comparisons are examined. Two…
Melançon, Claudiane; Gagné, Marie-Hélène
Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A sample of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three public schools located in low to high socioeconomic areas. Participants were in the 7th, 8th, and 9th grades, and each completed a self-administered questionnaire. Frequency of current psychological violence is about the same for each parental figure. The three most frequent and least frequent psychologically violent parental practices were also the same for both parental figures. Psychological violence of both parents was related to internalized and externalized behavior problems over and above family structure, childhood family violence, and current extrafamily violence. PMID:20460552
da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pontes, Lívia Malta; Faria, Augusto Duarte; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares
This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with psychological well-being among adolescents in a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample (n = 960) of adolescents (15-18 years). Eighty-six households were visited in each of the 90 randomized census tracts. Parents signed a written consent form before the adolescent answered a self-reported questionnaire. Psychological well-being was evaluated with a scale containing seven figures representing expressions varying from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. Adolescents were asked to mark the figure that best resembled the way they felt about their lives, and 72.33% reported a high level of psychological well-being. Prevalence of psychological well-being was higher in families with better economic status and higher maternal schooling. Adolescents who practiced a religion, did not smoke or consume alcohol, and wished to lose weight showed a higher level of psychological well-being, suggesting an interrelationship between health behaviors. PMID:17486234
The relationship between learning disabilities and psychological development is a complex, ongoing intrapsychic and psychosocial process. The results of two clinical-psychological investigations about a group of learning-disabled children and a group of learning-disabled adolescents is summarized. Although the learning-disabled youngsters were psychologically more heterogeneous than homogeneous, several common configurations emerged that characterized these children and adolescents: (1) problems in work and learning (due to the learning disability itself and to psychogenic factors related directly and/or indirectly to the disability); (2) chronic, low-level depression and relatively high, free floating anxiety; (3) characteristic unconscious concerns about self and others. In addition, learning disabilities organize psychological development in determining strengths, weaknesses, interests, and defensive strategies. And, the intermittent nature of mild to moderately severe learning disabilities seems to contribute to a sense of being traumatized and to character riqidity. The educational and clinical implications are briefly discussed. PMID:24243465
Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Mason, W Alex; Williams, Joanne W
Polydrug use is relatively common among adolescents. Psychological distress is associated with the use of specific drugs, and may be uniquely associated with polydrug use. The purpose of this study was to test the association of psychological distress with polydrug use using a large adolescent sample. The sample consisted of 10,273 students aged 12-17 years from the State of Victoria, Australia. Participants completed frequency measures of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, inhalant, and other drug use in the past 30 days, and psychological distress. Control variables included age, gender, family socioeconomic status, school suspensions, academic failure, cultural background, and peer drug use. Drug-use classes were derived using latent-class analysis, then the association of psychological distress and controls with drug-use classes was modeled using multinomial ordinal regression. There were 3 distinct classes of drug use: no drug use (47.7%), mainly alcohol use (44.1%), and polydrug use (8.2%). Independent of all controls, psychological distress was higher in polydrug users and alcohol users, relative to nondrug users, and polydrug users reported more psychological distress than alcohol users. Psychological distress was most characteristic of polydrug users, and targeted prevention outcomes may be enhanced by a collateral focus on polydrug use and depression and/or anxiety. PMID:26415064
Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Barbot, Baptiste
In Europe, the question of identity and youth civic engagement constitutes a challenge both for the European Union (EU) and for research on adolescent psychology. In this article, we discuss the European historical context and the current initiatives from the EU that aim to encourage civic engagement among young people. Then, we suggest some…
Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson
Objective: To investigate weight perception and related psychological factors in Chinese adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire on weight perception, academic performance, stress, hostility, and depression was completed by 6863 middle and high school students. Weight and height were measured. Results: Overweight perception was related to…
Compared social and psychological features of Asian (n=13) and Caucasian (n=37) adolescents who had taken drug overdoses. Found that Asians were more socially isolated than Caucasians and that, despite Asians having low suicidal intent, they had higher rates of depression, hopelessness, long premeditation time, and previous overdose. (Author/NB)
Grimes, Jeff, Ed.
This document, intended as a resource for school psychologists, contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of children and adolescents. Each chapter includes the following content: background information concerning the specific topic, approaches for assessing the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities,…
Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela A.; Penckofer, Sue
Depression is associated with obesity among adolescents, with racial/ethnic variability noted. Psychological correlates that may influence this relationship have not been adequately explored. The primary objective of this secondary analysis was to compare levels of stress, self-esteem, coping, social support, and depressive mood between normal…
Williams, Dahra Jackson
Background: Stigma about mental health is a significant problem in Jamaica and the wider English-speaking Caribbean. In general, negative attitudes and opinions about mental illness have been found to negatively impact psychological help-seeking among several populations. Objective: This study examined Jamaican adolescents' preferential sources of…
Jaccard, James; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida
A major form of data analysis in clinical child and adolescent psychology is multiple regression. This article reviews issues in the application of such methods in light of the research designs typical of this field. Issues addressed include controlling covariates, evaluation of predictor relevance, comparing predictors, analysis of moderation,…
Bas, Murat; Asci, F. Hulya; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gul
This study examined the eating attitudes and psychological characteristics of Turkish late adolescents. Seven hundred eighty-three university students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Social Physique Anxiety Scale. More than one in ten (9.2% of the males and 13.1% of the…
Grimes, Jeff, Ed.; Thomas, Alex, Ed.
This document contains articles addressing a variety of psychological and behavioral problems of adolescents and children and is intended as a resource tool for school psychologists. Articles include background information, approaches regarding assessment of the behavior of concern, intervention possibilities, monitoring methods, and references.…
Stone, L. Joseph; Church, Joseph
This textbook on the physical and psychological development of children and adolescents is organized as follows: (1) the birth of the baby--physical appearance, basic life processes, behavioral capacities, prenatal development, prenatal environmental influences, biological inheritance, the birth process; (2) the infant--landmarks in the infant's…
Callahan, Michelle R.; Tolman, Richard M.; Saunders, Daniel G.
This study assesses the relationship between adolescents' dating violence victimization and their psychological well-being. The participants were 190 high school students, ages 13 to 19 years, with just over half being boys (53%) and the remainder being girls (47%). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. For girls, increasing…
McMurray, J. G.
Presented is a bibliography of Journal articles printed in English and published since 1970 on the psychology and education of the exceptional adolescent. Entries are divided into six major sections (subdivisions are in parentheses): general (background reading, technology, management, mental health, curriculum, counseling, etc.), intellectual…
Markeviciūte, Aurelija; Gostautas, Antanas; Pilkauskiene, Ina
The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of psychological correction in groups to decrease depressiveness among senior schoolchildren. Data of 87 (53 girls and 34 boys) depressive schoolchildren, who participated in the sessions for developing communication skills were analyzed. Depressiveness was assessed by the Depression scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents. Communication skills training method consisted of ten structured hourly sessions. The effectiveness of psychological correction was assessed by the Abbreviated self-awareness scale and the Depression scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents. The results showed decrease in depressiveness and self-worth both among boys and girls (p<0.005). Among boys decrease in average present self-worth scores was noted, while among girls decrease in average present self-worth and average self-worth deviation. Depressiveness as well as self-worth decreased better among boys and girls, which had attended most sessions (p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS. Psychological correction enabled adolescents to decrease the manifestation of depressiveness, and to increase their self-worth: they became more active, communicable, optimistic and in a better mood. Depressiveness among boys decreased better among adolescents, who attended most sessions. Depressiveness decreased better among girls irrespective of their involvement in the sessions, and among actively involved boys. Self-awareness among boys and girls increased better among adolescents, who attended most sessions. Self-awareness increased better among girls irrespective of their involvement in the sessions, and among actively involved boys. PMID:12878825
Palladino, Christie L.; Ange, Brittany; Richardson, Deborah S.; Casillas, Rhonda; Decker, Matt; Gillies, Ralph A.; House, Amy; Rollock, Michael; Salazar, William H.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Zeidan, Ronnie; Stepleman, Lara
Purpose Psychological flexibility involves mindful awareness of our thoughts and feelings without allowing them to prohibit acting consistently with our values and may have important implications for patient-centered clinical care. Although psychological flexibility appears quite relevant to the training and development of health care providers, prior research has not evaluated measures of psychological flexibility in medical learners. Therefore, we investigated the validity of our learners’ responses to three measures related to psychological flexibility. Methods Fourth-year medical students and residents (n=275) completed three measures of overlapping aspects of psychological flexibility: (1) Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II); (2) Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ); and (3) Mindful Attention and Awareness Questionnaire (MAAS). We evaluated five aspects of construct validity: content, response process, internal structure, relationship with other variables, and consequences. Results We found good internal consistency for responses on the AAQ (α=0.93), MAAS (α=0.92), and CFQ (α=0.95). Factor analyses demonstrated a reasonable fit to previously published factor structures. As expected, scores on all three measures were moderately correlated with one another and with a measure of life satisfaction (p<0.01). Conclusion Our findings provide preliminary evidence supporting validity of the psychological flexibility construct in a medical education sample. As psychological flexibility is a central concept underlying self-awareness, this work may have important implications for clinical training and practice. PMID:23948496
Paul, Elise; Eckenrode, John
The aim of this study was to understand how subtypes and the timing of psychological maltreatment contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms at age 14. The sample included 638 youth from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). At age 12, youth reported experiences of psychological maltreatment (degradation, isolating, and terrorizing), physical abuse (endangerment and physical injury), and sexual abuse that occurred before and during elementary school/last year. Multivariable regression models were conducted separately for females and males at each of the two time periods and accounted for demographics, primary caregiver depressive symptoms, other maltreatment subtypes, and youth-reported age 12 depressive symptoms. For girls, caregiver degradation was the only maltreatment subtype that contributed unique variance to depressive symptoms. Degradation before elementary school and chronic degradation had a stronger impact on depression symptoms. Only caregiver isolating behaviors during elementary school/last year and chronic isolation predicted depressive symptoms in boys. These results suggest that childhood psychological maltreatment is multi-dimensional and is implicated in the etiology of adolescent depressive symptoms. Future prevention efforts should consider parental psychological maltreatment in reducing risk for adolescent depression. PMID:26105164
Campbell, Mary M.; And Others
The psychosocial development of 20 adolescents with congenital paralysis due to myelodysplasia is compared to 20 age-and gender-matched subjects with no physical handicaps. On many of the measures, the myelodysplasia group showed poorer social and emotional adjustment and lower self esteem than the controls. (Author/GDC)
Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.
Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)
Sherman, Steven J.; And Others
Results emanating from smoking cessation programs suggest the necessity for a greater commitment to research for primary smoking prevention. Because of the early onset of smoking, more research must focus on adolescents and preadolescents who have not yet begun to smoke regularly. Three areas of concentrated study are proposed: (1) the initiation…
Shreve, Barry W.; Kunkel, Mark A.
Discusses role of shame in adolescent suicidal behaviors using psychoanalytic self-psychology of Heinz Kohut as theoretical foundation. Describes shame as central component of suicidal behavior within context of adolescence. Offers theoretical explanation of adolescent suicidal behavior from self-psychology perspective. Presents suggestions for…
Douthitt, Vicki L.
High school physical education students completed questionnaires which represented four psychological variables, and one physical activity variable (exercise adherence) in classroom setting (n=132) and in summer setting (n=110). Found Perceived Romantic Appeal predictive of male exercise adherence and Perceived Athletic Competency, Perceived…
Stephens, Benjamin R.
This chapter describes an undergraduate psychology research methods course in which laptops facilitated online organization, electronic portfolios, and flexible laboratories to improve student engagement, capability, and understanding. (Contains 3 figures.)
Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S; Timko, C Alix
The present cross-sectional study investigated whether psychological flexibility mediates the association between self-concealment and disordered eating (DE) symptoms among non-clinical college students. Data of 209 male and female participants (nfemale =165), aged 18-22 years old, were used for analyses. Self-concealment was found to be positively associated with DE symptoms (i.e., general eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related cognitions) and negatively associated with psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility was inversely associated with DE symptoms. Finally, psychological flexibility was found to mediate the association between self-concealment and DE symptoms after accounting for gender, ethnic background, and body mass index (BMI). PMID:21385643
Chiappedi, Matteo; Mensi, Martina Maria; Termine, Cristiano; Balottin, Umberto
Chronic daily headache is a serious disease, causing significant problems in terms of reduced quality of life and disability, with pain localized to the head (headache) occurring 15 or more days per month for more than 3 months (>180 days per year). Drugs, both used as preventive medications or as pain-killers, are insufficient for the management of these patients; a more global approach has been advocated. This paper reviews existing data concerning different psychological approaches, with a focus on adolescence. This leads to evidence still unanswered questions but also the importance to include psychological treatments in the management of this potentially disabling condition. PMID:26695063
Baş, Murat; Aşçi, F Hülya; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gül
This study examined the eating attitudes and psychological characteristics of Turkish late adolescents. Seven hundred eighty-three university students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Social Physique Anxiety Scale. More than one in ten (9.2% of the males and 13.1% of the females) had abnormal eating attitude scores. Chi-square analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the prevalance of abnormal eating behaviors based on gender. Analysis of covariance indicated that participants who had disturbed eating attitudes had lower self-esteem, higher social physique anxiety, and higher trait anxiety than those who had normal eating attitudes. It was concluded that the prevalence of disturbed eating attitudes was high among these Turkish late adolescents, and that disturbed eating attitudes were related to several psychological characteristics. PMID:15673232
Acne may cause psychological distress that is associated with many psychiatric disorders. In this issue, Halvorsen et al. report suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and affective isolation to be relatively frequent in adolescents with acne. This report suggests that adverse events that have been attributed to therapies for acne, including suicidal ideation and depression, may reflect the burden of substantial acne rather than the effect of medications. PMID:21228811
In this research, the contributions of styles of attachment, irrational beliefs and psychological symptoms to the prediction of cognitive flexibility were analysed. The sample consists of 436 students studying in various departments and faculties in Mersin University. The Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Relationships Scale, Irrational Beliefs Scale…
Hardy, Sam A.; Bhattacharjee, Amit; Reed, Americus, II; Aquino, Karl
A mediation model using a sample of 1059 adolescents (56% girls; "M" age = 16.02, SD = 1.37) tested relations between parenting, adolescent moral identity, and the formation of psychological distance towards others. In short, adolescent moral identity mediated relations between parenting and the ways in which adolescents oriented others in their…
Levin, Michael E.; Luoma, Jason B.; Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.; Vilardaga, Roger
The current study sought to develop and test the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire – Stigma (AAQ-S), a measure of psychological flexibility with stigmatizing thoughts. A sample of 604 undergraduate students completed an online survey, which included an initial pool of 43 AAQ-S items as well as measures related to psychological flexibility and stigma. Expert judge ratings and factor analysis were used to identify and refine two distinct subscales; psychological flexibility and psychological inflexibility relating to stigmatizing thoughts. Analyses indicated that the AAQ-S psychological flexibility and inflexibility subscales, as well as a combined total score, correlate with other measures of psychological flexibility and stigma in expected ways, and are more predictive of stigma than a general measure of psychological flexibility. Overall, the results suggest that the AAQ-S could be a useful measure in conducting future stigma research. PMID:25485230
Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T
Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects. PMID:26627889
Laggari, V; Christogiorgos, S; Deligeoroglou, E; Tsiantis, J; Creatsas, G
Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) is characterized by complete or partial absence of the vagina, uterus and proximal fallopian tubes and diagnosis is usually made in late adolescence, when primary amenorrhea appears as the major symptom. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), which is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, includes a variety of clinical manifestations (menstrual irregularities, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility), due to androgen hypersecretion, insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. Both MRKHS and PCOS have been studied concerning the psychological aspects and have been associated with emotional distress as well as self-esteem, body image, identity and femininity impairment. The purpose of this study was to assess psychological functioning in adolescents with uterovaginal agenesis and primary amenorrhea due to MRKHS and those with hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea due to PCOS, compared with healthy adolescents. The participants were 70 adolescent girls, of whom 24 with MRKHS, 22 with PCOS and 24 healthy eumenorrheic adolescents (control group) matched by age and school grade. Psychological assessment included self report questionnaires, standardized in Greek population sample. Particularly, the "Beck Depression Inventory" (BDI), the "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory" (STAI-Gr) and the "Youth Self Report" (YSR) were used to measure depression, anxiety and psychopathology respectively, while the "Symptom Checklist-90-R" was used to measure psychopathology for the patients >18 years old. The results showed significantly higher scores on the state - anxiety scale for the MRKHS group compared with the control group. The MRKHS patients in late adolescence (18-20 years old) presented also significantly higher scores in depression and psychopathology scales (symptoms of anxiety, aggressive behavior and phobic disorder) than PCOS patients of the same age. On the contrary, regarding PCOS patients
Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela A; Penckofer, Sue
Depression is associated with obesity among adolescents, with racial/ethnic variability noted. Psychological correlates that may influence this relationship have not been adequately explored. The primary objective of this secondary analysis was to compare levels of stress, self-esteem, coping, social support, and depressive mood between normal weight and overweight/obese minority adolescents (as defined using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention standards). Adolescents (n = 101) aged 14-18 years who were largely minority (87%) were recruited from two Midwestern-area high schools. Using a descriptive comparative design, individuals were grouped into normal weight (>5th to <85th percentile) and overweight/obese (≥ 85 th percentile) for comparison on measures. Self-reported levels of stress, coping, self-esteem, social support, depressive mood, and body mass index were obtained. Obese/overweight adolescents reported significantly lower self-esteem than did those with normal weight (p < .05). Although stress was a significant predictor of depressive mood in both groups (p < .001), low self-esteem was also a significant predictor of depressive mood in the overweight/obese group (p = .001). Strategies to manage stress and improve self-esteem may help alleviate depressive mood in high school adolescents. PMID:22140141
Crowell, Sheila E; Beauchaine, Theodore P; McCauley, Elizabeth; Smith, Cindy J; Stevens, Adrianne L; Sylvers, Patrick
Although parasuicidal behavior in adolescence is poorly understood, evidence suggests that it may be a developmental precursor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Current theories of both parasuicide and BPD suggest that emotion dysregulation is the primary precipitant of self-injury, which serves to dampen overwhelmingly negative affect. To date, however, no studies have assessed endophenotypic markers of emotional responding among parasuicidal adolescents. In the present study, we compare parasuicidal adolescent girls (n=23) with age-matched controls (n=23) on both psychological and physiological measures of emotion regulation and psychopathology. Adolescents, parents, and teachers completed questionnaires assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, substance use, trait affectivity, and histories of parasuicide. Psychophysiological measures including electrodermal responding (EDR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) were collected at baseline, during negative mood induction, and during recovery. Compared with controls, parasuicidal adolescents exhibited reduced respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at baseline, greater RSA reactivity during negative mood induction, and attenuated peripheral serotonin levels. No between-group differences on measures of PEP or EDR were found. These results lend further support to theories of emotion dysregulation and impulsivity in parasuicidal teenage girls. PMID:16613433
McCracken, Lance M; Trost, Zina
Accumulating evidence suggests that the experience of injustice in patients with chronic pain is associated with poorer pain-related outcomes. Despite this evidence, a theoretical framework to understand this relationship is presently lacking. This review is the first to propose that the psychological flexibility model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may provide a clinically useful conceptual framework to understand the association between the experience of injustice and chronic pain outcomes. A literature review was conducted to identify research and theory on the injustice experience in chronic pain, chronic pain acceptance, and ACT. Research relating injustice to chronic pain outcomes is summarised, the relevance of psychological flexibility to the injustice experience is discussed, and the subprocesses of psychological flexibility are proposed as potential mediating factors in the relationship between injustice and pain outcomes. Application of the psychological flexibility model to the experience of pain-related injustice may provide new avenues for future research and clinical interventions for patients with pain. Summary points • Emerging research links the experience of pain-related injustice to problematic pain outcomes. • A clinically relevant theoretical framework is currently lacking to guide future research and intervention on pain-related injustice. • The psychological flexibility model would suggest that the overarching process of psychological inflexibility mediates between the experience of injustice and adverse chronic pain outcomes. • Insofar as the processes of psychological inflexibility account for the association between injustice experiences and pain outcomes, methods of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may reduce the impact of injustice of pain outcomes. • Future research is needed to empirically test the proposed associations between the experience of pain-related injustice, psychological
The present study examined a) the associations between adolescent-reported maternal psychological control and self-reported internalizing problems one year later, while simultaneously examining the opposite direction of effects and b) the equivalence of these associations across gender. Participants were 479 10-to-14-year old adolescents (55% female) participating in two waves of a study. Results from multi-group, cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that although early adolescents' depressive symptoms and social anxiety predicted change in perceived maternal psychological control one year later, perceived maternal psychological control did not predict change in early adolescents' internalizing problems. Elevated levels of depressive symptoms were associated with increased levels of perceived maternal psychological control one year later, whereas elevated levels of social anxiety were associated with decreased levels. Aforementioned findings were consistent across boys' and girls' data. Study findings extend limited research on adolescent effects, demonstrating that early adolescents' internalizing problems play a role in perceived maternal psychological control. PMID:19562478
Shek, Daniel T; Tang, Vera
Two studies investigating the psychological, family and interpersonal correlates of adolescent violent behavior are reported in this paper. In Study 1, secondary school students (N = 1,519) responded to established scales assessing their psychological attributes, family functioning, parenting qualities and psychosocial support and conflict. Results of Study 1 showed that: a) adolescents who showed higher levels of perceived stress and psychological symptoms displayed more signs of adolescent violence; b) adolescents who had a higher sense of mastery and existential mental health displayed less signs of violence; c) adolescents' attitudes towards poverty and traditional Chinese beliefs about adversity were significantly related to adolescent violence; d) higher levels of family functioning, positive parenting styles as well as interpersonal support and lower levels of interpersonal conflicts were associated with a lower level of adolescent violence. Results further showed that some of the above factors were more strongly related to adolescent violence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage than in adolescents who did not experience economic disadvantage. Some of the findings of Study 1 were replicated in Study 2, where adolescents from 229 families (either families on welfare or low income families) were recruited. These studies suggested that several psychological, family and interpersonal factors are related to adolescent violent behavior, particularly in adolescents with economic disadvantage. PMID:12964444
Gardner, Marilyn M.; Telfair, Joseph
Studied the impact of support groups on the psychological well-being of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Response of 79 adolescent SCD group members show that psychological well-being was best predicted by fewer physical symptoms and greater satisfaction with the group. Findings suggest the beneficial effects of SCD support groups. (SLD)
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the…
Salzman, Kenneth P.; Salzman, Stephanie A.
This study examined factors that may place adolescents at risk for psychological dysfunction and school failure. Subjects were 70 adolescents who were admitted to a psychiatric hospital from September 1986 to March 1988. Demographic, academic performance, familial, and psychological data were retroactively gathered from patient files, tabulated…
Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.
The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…
Gordon, Michael; Russo, Kate
This pilot study explored the experiences and understanding of clinical psychology practices and services of children and adolescents attending clinical psychology outpatient appointments. Fifteen young participants took part in the study. A content analysis indicated that young children and adolescents have an appropriate understanding of the…
Al Diyar, Mosaad Abu; Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.
The current study aimed at investigating the Ego-identity components and the disparity of these components in relation to the psychological security of adolescents in Egypt. The sample of the study consisted of (400) male and female adolescents. The researchers used two main instruments; the psychological security scale and the Ego-identity scale.…
Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P.
Background: Research to date suggests that as many as 12-15% of young people engage in self-harm behaviour; however, the current understanding of the psychological basis of adolescent self-harm is limited. The objective was to determine whether adolescents who self-harm are a psychologically homogenous group. It was hypothesised that psychological…
Ford, Kahlil R.; Hurd, Noelle M.; Jagers, Robert J.; Sellers, Robert M.
The present study examined the effect of caregivers' experiences of racial discrimination on their adolescent children's psychological functioning among a sample of 264 African American dyads. Potential relations between caregiver discrimination experiences and a number of indicators of adolescents' (aged 12-17) psychological functioning over time…
Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne G.; Birkeland, Marianne S.; Samdal, Oddrun
Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents' satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life…
Bond, Frank W; Flaxman, Paul E; Bunce, David
This quasi-experiment tested the extent to which an individual characteristic, psychological flexibility, moderated the effects of a control-enhancing work reorganization intervention in a call center. Results indicated that, compared with a control group, this intervention produced improvements in mental health and absence rates, particularly for individuals with higher levels of psychological flexibility. Findings also showed that these moderated intervention effects were mediated by job control. Specifically, the intervention enhanced perceptions of job control, and hence its outcomes, for the people who received it, especially for those who had greater psychological flexibility. Discussion highlights the benefits of understanding the processes (e.g., mediators, moderators, and mediated moderators) involved in work reorganization interventions. PMID:18457492
Mabbe, Elien; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Leeuwen, Karla
This research examined whether and how adolescents' personality traits moderate associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behaviors. On the basis of self-determination theory, we also examined the mediating role of psychological need frustration in the effects of psychologically controlling parenting. A cross-sectional study in two samples (N = 423 and 292; Mage = 12.43 and 15.74 years) was conducted. While in Sample 1 both mothers and adolescents provided reports of parenting and problem behavior, Sample 2 relied on adolescent-reported parenting and mother-reported problem behavior. Psychologically controlling parenting was related to internalizing and externalizing problems in both samples. Little systematic evidence was obtained for the moderating role of personality, with the exception of a moderating effect of Agreeableness. In both samples, psychological control was unrelated to externalizing problems among adolescents high on Agreeableness. Analyses of Sample 2 showed that associations between psychological control and problem behavior were mediated by psychological need frustration. Adolescent personality plays a modest role as a moderator of associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behavior. Frustration of adolescents' basic and universal psychological needs can account for the undermining effects of psychologically controlling parenting. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25676732
Shek, D T
In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being. PMID:10063611
Shreve, Barry W.; Kunkel, Mark A.
Using the psychoanalytic self-psychology of Heinz Kohut as the theoretical foundation, this article discusses the role of shame in adolescent suicidal behaviors. Shame is described as an essential aspect of adolescent suicidal behavior because of the significance of the stage of adolescence in the development of the healthy self. Normal…
Lanz, Jean B.
Explored patterns of substance use and sexual behavior among pregnant adolescents under age 18. Data were examined for associations between a history of early forced sexual intercourse and indicators of psychological, behavioral, and social problems during adolescence. Many pregnant adolescents were found to have experienced early forced sexual…
Clark, Duncan B.; Chung, Tammy; Thatcher, Dawn L.; Pajtek, Stefan; Long, Elizabeth C.
Aims Adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD) have difficulties with cognitive, behavioral and affective regulation. White matter (WM) disorganization has been observed in adolescents with SUD and may be related to psychological dysregulation. This study compared adolescents with SUD and control adolescents to investigate relationships among psychological dysregulation, WM disorganization, and SUD symptoms. Design Cross-sectional observation. Setting Adolescents with SUD were recruited from SUD treatment programs. Controls were recruited from the community. Participants The 55 participants were ages 14–19; 35 with SUD, 20 controls without SUD. Measurements Psychological dysregulation was characterized by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. WM disorganization was measured by diffusion tensor imaging, and fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity and axial diffusivity were examined within cortical regions of interest. Findings Compared to controls, SUD adolescents showed significantly greater psychological dysregulation and prefrontal and parietal WM disorganization. WM disorganization was positively correlated with psychological dysregulation and cannabis-related symptoms. In multivariate mediation models, the results were consistent with both the Neurodevelopmental Immaturity model, in which WM disorganization leads to psychological dysregulation and cannabis-related symptoms, and with the Substance Effects Model, in which cannabis-related symptoms lead to WM disorganization and psychological dysregulation. Conclusions In adolescents, substance use disorder and psychological dysregulation appear to be associated with reduced frontoparietal network white matter maturation. PMID:21752141
Carasco, Marcel; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit
Objective Longitudinal studies on headaches often focus on the identification of risk factors for headache occurrence or “chronification”. This study in particular examines psychological variables as potential predictors of headache remission in children and adolescents. Methods Data on biological, social, and psychological variables were gathered by questionnaire as part of a large population-based study (N=5,474). Children aged 9 to 15 years who suffered from weekly headaches were selected for this study sample, N=509. A logistic regression analysis was conducted with remission as the dependent variable. In the first step sex, age, headache type, and parental headache history were entered as the control variables as some data already existed showing their predictive power. Psychological factors (dysfunctional coping strategies, internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, somatosensory amplification) were entered in the second step to evaluate their additional predictive value. Results Highly dysfunctional coping strategies reduced the relative probability of headache remission. All other selected psychological variables reached no significance, ie, did not contribute additionally to the explanation of variance of the basic model containing sex and headache type. Surprisingly, parental headache and age were not predictive. The model explained only a small proportion of the variance regarding headache remission (R2=0.09 [Nagelkerke]). Conclusion Successful coping with stress in general contributed to remission of pediatric headache after 2 years in children aged between 9 and 15 years. Psychological characteristics in general had only small predictive value. The issue of remission definitely needs more scientific attention in empirical studies. PMID:27186149
DuRant, R H; Jay, M S
A theoretical model is proposed to help the clinician organize the multiple interrelationships between factors that may influence a female adolescent's compliance with her birth control method. 1 variable that has been found to be predictive for compliance in adults that was not included in the model is the quality of the patient-physician relationship. This variable was excluded because the model is a social psychological model that focuses on the attitudes and behavior of the female adolescent. The female adolescent's perception of the quality of her relationship with her health care provider can be accounted for under the component of the model discussing costs of acquiring birth control. A table contains a checklist of information the clinician may want to obtain from a patient to help determine if she may be at risk for noncompliance. Factors that influence contraceptive compliance are reviewed: frequency of sexual intercourse, perceived probability of pregnancy, premarital sexual standards and experiences, intimacy of sexual relationship, physical and emotional development, cognitive assessment of pregnancy, parental and peer support, and personality development. Lindemann and DeLamater argue that frequency of intercourse is the "prime mover" in the process of acquiring and using birth control. As the frequency of coitus increases or decreases, awareness of the possibility will increase or decrease. DeLamater hypothesizes that before assessing that pregnancy may be undesirable and thus initiating contraceptive use to prevent pregnancy, a woman 1st must perceive that she is at significant risk for becoming pregnant. Russ proposes that a major reason that sexually active female adolescents fail to use effective birth control is that they do not fully accept sexual intercourse as morally acceptable for themselves and thus are unable to rationally prepare for it. Rains argues that when a female adolescent initiates sexual activity, she is in a state of moral
Sellers, Robert M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Martin, Pamela P.; Lewis, R. L'Heureux
This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents. Racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning as measured by perceived stress, depressive symptomatology, and psychological well-being.…
Bond, Frank W.; Flaxman, Paul E.
This longitudinal study tested the degree to which an individual characteristic, psychological flexibility, and a work organization variable, job control, predicted ability to learn new skills at work, job performance, and mental health, amongst call center workers in the United Kingdom (N = 448). As hypothesized, results indicated that job…
Gloster, Andrew T.; Klotsche, Jens; Chaker, Samia; Hummel, Katrin V.; Hoyer, Jurgen
The construct of psychological flexibility (PF) is a central concept in acceptance and commitment therapy. It is defined as the process of contacting the present moment fully as a conscious human being and persisting in or changing behavior in the service of chosen values. PF is hypothesized to be an important aspect of healthy psychological…
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence, cognitive flexibility and psychological symptoms in pre-service teachers. The study included 414 pre-service teachers at the Faculty of Education, Mersin University, Turkey. Pearson product-moment correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to…
McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.
Replies to comments by Sonja Lyubomirsky (see record 2012-27130-008), Riva Guiseppe (see record 2012-27130-009), and Alan S. Waterman (see record 2012-27130-010) on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001) regarding the pitfalls of valenced labels and the benefits of properly calibrated psychological flexibility.
Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Le Grange, Daniel
This study examined predictors of psychological change among 80 adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) participating in a randomized-controlled trial comparing family-based treatment (FBT) to supportive psychotherapy (SPT). Psychological outcomes (cognitive eating disorder pathology, depression, and self-esteem) were explored at baseline, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. Multi-level growth models examined predictors of rate of change in psychological outcomes and moderators of treatment effects. All psychological outcomes improved through 6-month follow-up (moderate to large effect sizes) across both treatments. Overall, few significant predictors were identified. Older adolescents had faster change in self-esteem relative to younger adolescents (p=.03). Adolescents taking psychotropic medication at baseline had faster change in eating concerns relative to adolescents not taking medication (p=.02). Age (p=.02) and baseline purging severity (p=.03) moderated the relationship between treatment condition and change in eating concerns, where younger adolescents and individuals with high baseline purging had greater change when treated with FBT relative to SPT. Age and purging did not significantly moderate change in other psychological outcomes. Bulimic symptom improvement did not predict change in psychological symptoms. Generally, FBT and SPT were equally efficacious with respect to psychological improvement, although FBT may be more efficacious in younger adolescents and those with more frequent purging. PMID:25874955
Ciao, Anna C; Accurso, Erin C; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Le Grange, Daniel
This study examined predictors of psychological change among 80 adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) participating in a randomized-controlled trial comparing family-based treatment (FBT) to supportive psychotherapy (SPT). Psychological outcomes (cognitive eating disorder pathology, depression, and self-esteem) were explored at baseline, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. Multi-level growth models examined predictors of rate of change in psychological outcomes and moderators of treatment effects. All psychological outcomes improved through 6-month follow-up (moderate to large effect sizes) across both treatments. Overall, few significant predictors were identified. Older adolescents had faster change in self-esteem relative to younger adolescents (p = 0.03). Adolescents taking psychotropic medication at baseline had faster change in eating concerns relative to adolescents not taking medication (p = 0.02). Age (p = 0.02) and baseline purging severity (p = 0.03) moderated the relationship between treatment condition and change in eating concerns, where younger adolescents and individuals with high baseline purging had greater change when treated with FBT relative to SPT. Age and purging did not significantly moderate change in other psychological outcomes. Bulimic symptom improvement did not predict change in psychological symptoms. Generally, FBT and SPT were equally efficacious with respect to psychological improvement, although FBT may be more efficacious in younger adolescents and those with more frequent purging. PMID:25874955
Hardy, Sam A; Bhattacharjee, Amit; Reed Ii, Americus; Aquino, Karl
A mediation model using a sample of 1059 adolescents (56% girls; M age=16.02, SD=1.37) tested relations between parenting, adolescent moral identity, and the formation of psychological distance towards others. In short, adolescent moral identity mediated relations between parenting and the ways in which adolescents oriented others in their psychological space. Specifically, adolescent-report parenting style dimensions (responsiveness, autonomy-granting, and demandingness) were positively related to the formation of both private and public moral identity dimensions (internalization and symbolization), which were in turn associated with a tendency to construct psychological distance towards others (negatively with social dominance orientation and positively with the circle of moral regard). Therefore, one way parents may be able to influence how adolescents relate to their peers is by fostering a sense of moral identity in their children through authoritative parenting. PMID:19570572
Gjerde, Per F.; Westenberg, P. Michiel
Evaluated the longitudinal implications of age-18 dysphoric mood in 23-year olds using a multidata, multi informant design. Findings indicated that adolescent dysphoric mood was an important predictor of psychological distress in young adults, especially in young adult women, for whom the prospective correlations of adolescent dysphoria were more…
Birnie, Kathryn A.; Taddio, Anna; McMurtry, C. Meghan; Noel, Melanie; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Shah, Vibhuti
Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of psychological interventions for reducing vaccination pain and related outcomes in children and adolescents. Design/Methods: Database searches identified relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Data were extracted and pooled using established methods. Pain, fear, and distress were considered critically important outcomes. Results: Twenty-two studies were included; 2 included adolescents. Findings showed no benefit of false suggestion (n=240) for pain (standardized mean difference [SMD] −0.21 [−0.47, 0.05]) or distress (SMD −0.28 [−0.59, 0.11]), or for use of repeated reassurance (n=82) for pain (SMD −0.18 [−0.92, 0.56]), fear (SMD −0.18 [−0.71, 0.36]), or distress (SMD 0.10 [−0.33, 0.54]). Verbal distraction (n=46) showed reduced distress (SMD −1.22 [−1.87, −0.58]), but not reduced pain (SMD −0.27 [−1.02, 0.47]). Similarly, video distraction (n=328) showed reduced distress (SMD −0.58 [−0.82, −0.34]), but not reduced pain (SMD −0.88 [−1.78, 0.02]) or fear (SMD 0.08 [−0.25, 0.41]). Music distraction demonstrated reduced pain when used with children (n=417) (SMD −0.45 [−0.71, −0.18]), but not with adolescents (n=118) (SMD −0.04 [−0.42, 0.34]). Breathing with a toy (n=368) showed benefit for pain (SMD −0.49 [−0.85, −0.13]), but not fear (SMD −0.60 [−1.22, 0.02]); whereas breathing without a toy (n=136) showed no benefit for pain (SMD −0.27 [−0.61, 0.07]) or fear (SMD −0.36 [−0.86, 0.15]). There was no benefit for a breathing intervention (cough) in children and adolescents (n=136) for pain (SMD −0.17 [−0.41, 0.07]). Conclusions: Psychological interventions with some evidence of benefit in children include: verbal distraction, video distraction, music distraction, and breathing with a toy. PMID:26348163
Crockett, Lisa J; Moilanen, Kristin L; Raffaelli, Marcela; Randall, Brandy A
The association between young adolescents' psychological profiles and their subsequent adjustment was examined in a sample of 606 adolescents (ages 12-13) drawn from the mother-child data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of youth based on self-regulation, proneness to risk, self-worth, and perceived academic competence. Five replicable clusters were identified corresponding to optimal, average, behavioral risk, low self-regulation, and emotional risk groups. These clusters were associated with distinct patterns of adjustment 4 years later. At ages 16-17, youth in the optimal group tended to report better academic performance, less problem behavior, and less depression than youth in the three risk groups; however, their functioning did not differ significantly from youth in the average group. The three risk groups differed in self-reported depression symptoms and academic performance but not in levels of problem behavior. Differences among the five groups persisted when demographic and contextual variables were controlled. These results support the existence of different groups of youth who follow distinct developmental trajectories and may experience different patterns of adjustment. PMID:16478559
Reasons for the high adolescent birthrate in the U.S., medical, psychological, and social repercussions of teenage pregnancy, and facts and myths about sex education and contraception for young people are discussed. About 30% of U.S. women under 20 become pregnant outside marriage, and many more are pregnant when they marry. The reasons for the high pregnancy rates in young people include recent early menarch, which accounts for 94% fertility in 17.5-year-olds, better health, and ignorance about contraception and basic facts about reproduction. Pregnant adolescents risk toxemia, anemia, puerperal morbidity, prematurity, neonatal mortality, and congenital defects such as mental retardation in the baby. They face family alienation, loss of educational and employment opportunities, forced marriage, and high suicide rates in addition to the trials of puberty. Many girls believe that their fertile period is during menses, that pills are dangerous, that they are not fertile. Studies have shown that sex education can lower repeat pregnancies 67%. Recent research has negated the belief that many young women desire pregnancy unconsciously. Current information shows that supplying contraception will not encourage young people to begin having intercourse. Most sex education courses in the U.S. are given after the average teenagers become active sexually. It is believed that contraception should be provided universally for young people, and that parental authorization of contraception would probably mend family ties, certainly better than would unwanted pregnancy. PMID:987631
Changing employment relations between employees and employers due to the increasing employment flexibility have contributed to the development of a new paradigm to analyze these relations based on the concept of psychological contract. This paradigm might be particularly relevant in Poland where the employment flexibility understood as the number of workers with temporary contracts is the highest in Europe. In this paper the concept of psychological contract is presented along with the existing findings related to its range, balance and contract fulfilment vs. contract breach. The results of studies showing the differences in psychological contract of temporary and permanent workers are also presented. The majority of them indicate that psychological contracts of temporary workers are limited in their extent, less balanced and asymmetric (to workers' disadvantage), as well as more transactional in their nature than those of permanent workers. The temporary workers' well-being and attitudes towards work and their reaction to psychological contract breach largely depends on their preferences for this type of employment, on their qualifications and on a labor market situation. Med Pr 2016;67(4):529-536. PMID:27623833
McMurray, Matthew S.; Amodeo, Leslie R.; Roitman, Jamie D.
Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30–50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses. PMID:25007338
Cross, Tracy L.; Adams, Cheryll; Dixon, Felicia; Holland, Jason
Students attending a state-supported residential academy for academically gifted adolescents (N = 139) completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) upon entrance to document their psychological characteristics. The same students completed a postadministration of the MMPI-A at the end of…
Street, Jalika; Harris-Britt, April; Walker-Barnes, Chanequa
Ethnic identity has been linked to a number of healthy psychological outcomes for African American adolescents. The levels of conflict and cohesion in the family environment have also been found to be predictive of adolescent mental health. This study examined whether the ethnic identity and levels of conflict and cohesion in the family…
Wiley, Rachel E.; Berman, Steven L.
The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent…
Adolescents with homosexual and bisexual orientations have higher levels of psychological distress than other adolescents. Drawing from previous studies, I hypothesize that this epidemiological pattern is due largely to the interpersonal problems that sexual minorities experience at home and at school. Analysis of longitudinal data based on a…
Holmes, Erin Kramer; Dunn, KayLee C.; Harper, James; Dyer, W. Justin; Day, Randal D.
We used structural equation modeling to explore associations between inhibitory maternal gatekeeping attitudes, reports of inhibitory maternal gatekeeping behaviors, maternal psychological control, observed mother-adolescent warmth, and adolescent reports of maternal involvement. Our random stratified sample consisted of 315 mothers and their…
Gonzalez, Monica; Casas, Ferran; Coenders, Germa
Psychological well-being in adolescence is an increasing field of study. Deepening in its knowledge during this period of life can be of a lot of help to the designing of more adjusted prevention programs aimed to avoid or reduce the problems adolescents might be experiencing. Complexity theories can be a productive alternative to the important…
de Haan, Amaranta D.; Soenens, Bart; Dekovic, Maja; Prinzie, Peter
The current study examined the explanatory role of satisfaction of parental psychological needs in effects of childhood aggression on various adolescent-perceived parenting behaviors in middle adolescence. Research questions were examined in a large multi-informant, prospective community study of ethnic majority Belgian families…
Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…
Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Duriez, Bart; Goossens, Luc
Research has demonstrated consistent positive associations between perceived parental psychological control and adolescents' depressive symptoms, but the direction of influence remains unclear. Using a cross-lagged longitudinal design in two samples of late (Study 1, N = 396) and middle (Study 2, N = 724) adolescents, this study compared three…
Fuligni, Andrew J.; Hardway, Christina
The daily diary method was used to examine the daily dynamics of adolescent sleep time, activities, and psychological well-being among an ethnically diverse sample of over 750 adolescents approximately 14-15 years of age. Studying and stressful demands during the day were modestly but consistently associated with less sleep that evening. Receiving…
The present study examined a) the associations between adolescent-reported maternal psychological control and self-reported internalizing problems one year later, while simultaneously examining the opposite direction of effects and b) the equivalence of these associations across gender. Participants were 479 10-to-14-year old adolescents (55%…
Garnefski, Nadia; Koopman, Hendrik; Kraaij, Vivian; ten Cate, Rebecca
Objective of the study was to examine how cognitive emotion regulation strategies were related to psychological maladjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. The sample consisted of adolescents with a diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). A self-report questionnaire was used to assess Internalizing problems and Quality of Life.…
This paper examines the relationship between experiences with unwanted sexual behavior at school and adolescents' health. Adolescent boys and girls (N = 2,808) participated in a 1998/1999 survey of secondary school students in two regions of The Netherlands. The psychological issues investigated included psychosomatic problems and self-esteem. It…
Susman, Elizabeth J.; And Others
Examined blood cortisol levels, at three 6-month intervals, for young adolescent outpatients in relation to psychological measures derived from patient interviews preceding clinic visits and observed stress behaviors during visits. Found that adolescents in the increased cortisol reactivity group reported more behavior problems and depression…
Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.
Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…
Corsano, Paola; Majorano, Marinella; Champretavy, Lorella
This study investigated the influence of loneliness and relationships with parents and friends on the psychological well-being or adolescent malaise. Data were collected via two questionnaires (LLCA--Marcoen, Goossens & Caes, 1987; TRI--Bracken, 1996) from a sample of 330 Italian adolescents, males and females, aged between 11 and 19. As…
Kelley, Thomas M.
The emerging field of positive psychology has pledged to improve the mental health of American adolescents. Yet, without a principle-based conceptual foundation to guide its study of optimal youth functioning, positive psychology will ultimately fail to keep its promise. This paper suggests that the principles of Mind, Thought and Consciousness…
Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Hayer, Tobias
Previous research highlighted that pupils actively involved in bullying and victimization are prone to develop diverse psychological problems. The overall aim of our study was to investigate effects of different forms of bullying and victimization on coping with interpersonal stressors and psychological adjustment among children and adolescents.…
Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.
Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…
Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal…
Holopainen, Leena; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Junttila, Niina; Savolainen, Hannu
This study examines the relationship between social competence and psychological well-being of adolescents. The role of academic learning disabilities with social competence and psychological well-being was also studied. The sample (n = 412; 207 girls and 205 boys), one complete age group (mean age 15.5 years), was followed from last year of…
Yeatts, Paul E.; Martin, Scott B.; Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy
Background: Adolescence is a critical time for the development of psychological well-being. Weight gain and the emergence of body image concerns during this period can lead to the development of negative psychological states. To explore this issue, we examined the relationship between weight control behavior (WCB; i.e., trying to lose, gain, stay…
Yaban, E. Helin; Sayil, Melike; Tepe, Yeliz Kindap
The current study examined whether adolescent-parent discrepancies in the perception of psychological control are associated with adolescent maladjustment. The sample consisted of 552 Turkish adolescents attending high school and their parents. Half of the adolescents had similar scores to their parents, while the remaining half thought…
Crerand, Canice E.; Magee, Leanne
Cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgery has increased in popularity among adolescents in the United States. As more adolescents pursue these procedures, an understanding of the psychological aspects of these surgeries becomes increasingly important for the benefit of both patients and providers. The authors review the psychological aspects of cosmetic and reconstructive surgical breast procedures as they pertain to adolescents, including augmentation mammoplasty, gynecomastia correction, breast reduction, and asymmetry correction. They include a discussion of the medicolegal and ethical implications of these procedures and recommendations for clinical management. PMID:24872744
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychological adjustment. Adolescents were surveyed in the spring of 2006, and again one year later. Gender differences in media use were observed with boys spending more time playing video games than girls and girls spending more time talking on the phone than boys. Strikingly, none of the types of media examined was associated with depression or anxiety. Moreover, media use acted as a protective factor for boys. Boys who spent relatively more time playing video games and watching television had the lowest levels of anxiety, especially those from alcoholic homes. The opposite pattern emerged for girls. PMID:21359124
Hare, Amanda L.; Szwedo, David E.; Schad, Megan M.; Allen, Joseph P.
This study used a longitudinal, multi-method design to examine whether teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control predicted lower levels of adolescent autonomy displayed with their mothers and peers over time. Significant predictions from teens’ perceptions of maternal psychological control to teens’ displays of autonomy in maternal and peer relationships were found at age 16 after accounting for adolescent displays of autonomy with mothers and peers at age 13, indicating relative changes in teens’ autonomy displayed with their mother and a close peer over time. Results suggest that the ability to assert one’s autonomy in mid-adolescence may be influenced by maternal behavior early in adolescence, highlighting the importance of parents minimizing psychological control to facilitate autonomy development for teens. PMID:26788023
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychological adjustment. Adolescents were surveyed in the spring of 2006, and again one year later. Gender differences in media use were observed with boys spending more time playing video games than girls and girls spending more time talking on the phone than boys. Strikingly, none of the types of media examined was associated with depression or anxiety. Moreover, media use acted as a protective factor for boys. Boys who spent relatively more time playing video games and watching television had the lowest levels of anxiety, especially those from alcoholic homes. The opposite pattern emerged for girls. PMID:21359124
Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S
This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression. PMID:27038973
Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Bennett, Joanna; Stennett, Rosain
A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%–20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a ‘Teen Pregnancy Clinic’ and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress. PMID:24785743
Ledgerwood, Alison; Trope, Yaacov; Chaiken, Shelly
Researchers have long been interested in understanding the conditions under which evaluations will be more or less consistent or context-dependent. The current research explores this issue by asking when stability or flexibility in evaluative responding would be most useful. Integrating construal level theory with research suggesting that variability in the mental representation of an attitude object can produce fluctuations in evaluative responding, we propose a functional relationship between distance and evaluative flexibility. Because individuals construe psychologically proximal objects more concretely, evaluations of proximal objects will tend to incorporate unique information from the current social context, promoting context-specific responses. Conversely, because more distal objects are construed more abstractly, evaluations of distal objects will be less context-dependent. Consistent with this reasoning, the results of 4 studies suggest that when individuals mentally construe an attitude object concretely, either because it is psychologically close or because they have been led to adopt a concrete mindset, their evaluations flexibly incorporate the views of an incidental stranger. However, when individuals think about the same issue more abstractly, their evaluations are less susceptible to incidental social influence and instead reflect their previously reported ideological values. These findings suggest that there are ways of thinking that will tend to produce more or less variability in mental representation across contexts, which in turn shapes evaluative consistency. Connections to shared reality, conformity, and attitude function are discussed. PMID:20565184
Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Gucev, Zoran
Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) is a chronic disease with long term consequences dictating daily struggle to maintain a good metabolic control. Children and adolescents with T1DM seem to have inferior psychological adjustment to their normal counterparts, which might be associated with glycemic control and disease duration. The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychological characteristics of children and adolescents with T1DM treated last year in the University Children Hospital in Skopje, Macedonia and to propose some response measures. For psychological evaluation we used CBCL (Child Behavior Check List), GAS (General Anxiety Scale), EPQ (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire) and MMPI-201 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory). The results confirmed the following psychological characteristics: mild depression and anxiety, emotional instability, need for social acceptance, as well as the possible psychopathic traits. Suffering for a complex metabolic and chronic illness, these patients need psychological evaluation and intervention in the management. PMID:27442404
Kelley, Thomas M
The emerging field of positive psychology has pledged to improve the mental health of American adolescents. Yet, without a principle-based conceptual foundation to guide its study of optimal youth functioning, positive psychology will ultimately fail to keep its promise. This paper suggests that the principles of Mind, Thought and Consciousness can provide positive psychology with a clearer understanding of optimal psychological functioning, serve as a unifying conceptual framework to guide its proposed mission, and lead to a true breakthrough in adolescent mental health. It first describes how the logic of these principles accounts for all subjective human experience. It then demonstrates how optimal mental health is generated, and how it can be maintained irrespective of present or past circumstances. Finally, it discusses how several contemporary models of positive psychology (i.e., Csikszentmihalyi's flow. Seligman's learned optimism, Goleman's emotional intelligence, and Buss's evolutionary perspective) can be simplified and clarified using the logic of the above three principles. PMID:15563037
Havighurst, Robert J.
An attempt is made (1) to define adolescence as a biological phenomenon, (2) to describe the characteristics of the adolescent in Latin America, and (3) to identify the adolescent within certain social and cultural groups of specific Latin American countries. The perspective of the four-part monograph is entirely sociological, and the report is…
Campoy, Eric; Chaix, Basile; Chauvin, Pierre
Abstract Parental psychopathology is associated with increased psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents. We examined, from a psychosocial perspective, the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents and assessed the mediating role of psychosocial covariates. This is a cross-sectional survey and the setting include representative sample of Quebec adolescents in 1999. The participants of the study include 13- and 16-year-old children (N = 2,346) in the Social and Health Survey of Quebec Children and Adolescents. The main outcome measures are internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, substance use, and alcohol consumption. For statistical analysis, we used structural equation modeling to test for mediation. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were significantly associated with parental psychological distress, but not substance use or alcohol consumption. The higher the parental distress, the higher the risk of adolescent mental health disorders. The association between parental psychological distress and internalizing disorders was mediated by adolescent self-esteem, parental emotional support and extrafamilial social support. As for externalizing disorders, these variables only had an independent effect. In conclusion, A family’s well being is a necessary condition for psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Beyond the psychiatric approach, psychosocial considerations need to be taken into consideration to prevent negative mental health outcomes in children living in homes with distressed parents. PMID:20127380
Ameri, Ebrahim; Behtash, Hamid; Mobini, Bahram; Daraie, Ariasb
Curve flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was one of the major concerns of spinal surgeons since the evolution of surgical correction techniques. In this respect, many tried to identify which criteria denote more rigid curve. In the present study, we aimed toward determining important factors influencing AIS curve flexibility on supine bending films. We assessed radiographs of 100 patients with AIS for direction of curves, number of involved vertebrae, apical vertebral translation and rotation, magnitude of main thoracic curve and T5-T12 kyphosis. Statistical analysis performed via stepwise linear regression model with these variables plus age and sex against flexibility index. According to regression analysis, there was a clear relationship between flexibility indexes (FI) and magnitude of main thoracic curve at all (P<0.001). When we consider flexible curves (FI>50%) against rigid curves, apical vertebral rotation was a major determinant of curve flexibility also (P<0.001). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves with larger Cobb's angle and apical vertebral rotation show less flexibility on supine bending films. PMID:25796026
Khatib, Yasmin; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Stansfeld, Stephen A.
Few prospective studies have examined the relationship between social support and psychological distress and depressive symptoms in adolescents. The aims of this study were to test whether social support is protective against psychological distress and depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse population of adolescents and whether differences…
Ilioi, Elena Cristiana; Golombok, Susan
BACKGROUND Adolescence is a transitional time for identity formation and relationships with parents. While people born through assisted reproduction techniques (ART) appear to be well adjusted in childhood, it is unclear whether these findings carry into adolescence, and whether diverse ART have different psychological outcomes. This review summarizes what is known about the psychological adjustment and family relationships of the growing number of children born through ART who are reaching adolescence. METHODS The Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and Scopus databases were searched systematically for peer reviewed papers focusing on adolescent psychological adjustment and parent–adolescent relationships in families created by ART. Key search inclusion criteria included all papers published in English relating to adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years. RESULTS Seventeen publications with varied methodologies were identified by this review. Only papers relating to in vitro fertilization (IVF), egg donation and donor insemination were identified. Results were categorized according to ART that used the parents' own gametes (IVF) and those that involved reproductive donation (egg donation, and donor insemination). Compared with naturally conceived adolescents and standardized normative samples, adolescents born through all ARTs seemed to be equally well adjusted, and to have positive parent–adolescent relationships. Some differences were however identified based on the type of ART used. In particular, the sex of the parent and child, along with age and process of disclosure of the adolescent's conception were identified as key mediators of parent–adolescent relationships in families created by donor insemination. CONCLUSIONS The studies in this review indicate that children born through ART have positive parent–adolescent relationships and are well adjusted, with some slight differences based on different ART. The generalizability of findings may be limited
Wong, Vincent Chi; Wyer, Robert S
Individuals' psychological distance from the stimuli they encounter in daily life can influence the abstractness or generality of the mental representations they form of these stimuli. However, these representations can also depend on the perspective from which the stimuli are construed. When individuals have either an individualistic social orientation or a short-term temporal orientation, they construe psychologically distal events more globally than they construe proximal ones, as implied by construal level theory (Trope & Liberman, 2010). When they have either a collectivistic social orientation or a long-term temporal orientation, however, they not only construe the implications of distal events more concretely than individuals with an egocentric perspective but also construe the implications of proximal events in more abstract terms. These effects are mediated by the flexibility of the perspectives that people take when they make judgments. Differences in perspective flexibility account for the impact of both situationally induced differences in social and temporal orientation and more chronic cultural differences in these orientations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337139
Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Fitzmaurice, Shannon; Black, Maureen M.
This study extends the determinants of parenting model to adolescent mothers by examining how adolescent mother–grandmother psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness from birth through age 2 years relate to children's problem behaviors at age 7. Participants were 181 adolescent mother, child, and grandmother triads living in multigenerational households and recruited at delivery. Psychological conflict was characterized by two stable trajectories. In multivariate models that included maternal depression, both psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness predicted externalizing behavior at age 7. Perceptions of infant fussiness, but not psychological conflict, predicted internalizing behavior at age 7. PMID:21534055
Hauser, Tobias U; Iannaccone, Reto; Walitza, Susanne; Brandeis, Daniel; Brem, Silvia
Adolescence is associated with quickly changing environmental demands which require excellent adaptive skills and high cognitive flexibility. Feedback-guided adaptive learning and cognitive flexibility are driven by reward prediction error (RPE) signals, which indicate the accuracy of expectations and can be estimated using computational models. Despite the importance of cognitive flexibility during adolescence, only little is known about how RPE processing in cognitive flexibility deviates between adolescence and adulthood. In this study, we investigated the developmental aspects of cognitive flexibility by means of computational models and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We compared the neural and behavioral correlates of cognitive flexibility in healthy adolescents (12-16years) to adults performing a probabilistic reversal learning task. Using a modified risk-sensitive reinforcement learning model, we found that adolescents learned faster from negative RPEs than adults. The fMRI analysis revealed that within the RPE network, the adolescents had a significantly altered RPE-response in the anterior insula. This effect seemed to be mainly driven by increased responses to negative prediction errors. In summary, our findings indicate that decision making in adolescence goes beyond merely increased reward-seeking behavior and provides a developmental perspective to the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility in the context of reinforcement learning. PMID:25234119
Uçanok, Zehra; Güre, Ays?en
This study primarily aims to explore the association between perceived economic strain, parent-adolescent relational qualities and psychological well-being and to investigate the dyadic parental relationships during early adolescence. A total of 414 adolescents between the ages of 10 and 14 (M= 12.58, SD = 0.90) from three different socioeconomic…
Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Fitzmaurice, Shannon; Black, Maureen M.
This study extends the "determinants of parenting model" to adolescent mothers by examining how adolescent mother-grandmother psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness from birth through age 2 years relate to children's problem behaviors at age 7. Participants were 181 adolescent mother, child, and grandmother triads living in…
Albrecht, Arne K.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Jansson, S. Mikael
This panel study investigated the directionality of relations between adolescents' perceptions of their parents' psychological control and adolescents' self-reported internalizing and aggressive (physical and relational) behaviors. Data were collected from a random, community sample of 530 adolescents ages 12-19 years old at time 1, and again 2…
Coleman, Leon Garland; Liu, Wen; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.
Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28–37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility. PMID:24275185
Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Melançon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three high schools located in low, moderate, and high socioeconomic areas. Participants were in the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades, and each completed a self-administered questionnaire. The use of avoidant coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among girls. The use of approach coping strategies partially mediated the link between parental psychological violence and behavior problems among boys. In all cases, coping enhanced this link. No protective role of social support was found. On the contrary, this variable was found to increase the relationship between parental psychological violence and externalized behavior problems among boys. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at strengthening coping skills and social support in adolescents may not be effective in alleviating various behavioral symptoms associated with parental psychological violence. They highlight the importance of prevention of psychologically violent parental practices, instead of only reacting to the problem after it has occurred. PMID:22829215
Revol, O; Milliez, N; Gerard, D
The psychological consequences of acne have been the subject of many studies. As a particularly visible skin disorder, acne complicates the daily lives of adolescents who are undergoing multiple transformations: physical, intellectual and emotional. While it is well established that acne can be responsible for depression and low self-esteem, it is likely that this impact is aggravated by the sociological evolution of adolescents in the 21st century. Understanding the codes of adolescents today (who can be characterized as being more concerned by their appearance than previous generations at the same age) allows us to optimize our medical approach to acne and facilitates treatment compliance and adherence. PMID:25702715
This paper addresses variables related to child and adolescent saving and explains the development of skills and behaviors that facilitate saving from an economic socialization perspective. References are made to the differences between the economic world of children, adolescents, and adults as well as to existing theories of saving. Children's…
Carskadon, Mary A., Ed.
Noting that healthy, adequate sleep fosters longevity and the optimal use of waking hours, and that adolescents, although rarely included in previous studies of sleep, are among the most sleep-deprived populations, this book explores the genesis and development of sleep patterns during adolescence, including biological and cultural factors that…
In this study, the author synthesizes results of studies about personality types of gifted adolescents. Fourteen studies were coded with 19 independent samples. The total number of identified participants in original studies was 5,723. The most common personality types among gifted adolescents were "intuitive" and "perceiving." They were higher on…
Powell, Katherine C.
Adolescents, particularly girls, have many identity conflicts and low self-esteem that may affect school success and development of a healthy identity. Many teenagers experience new societal expectations and responsibilities giving rise to identity confusion or internal conflicts that need to be resolved during adolescence. Their conflicts may…
Alva, Sylvia Alatorre
Hispanic adolescents (n=171) completed a questionnaire on levels of psychosocial stress, anxiety, depression, and patterns of alcohol use. A strong association between psychosocial stress, depression, and alcohol use was found, suggesting that Hispanic American adolescents use alcohol as a way of coping. (SLD)
Wallander, Jan L., Ed.; Siegel, Lawrence J., Ed.
This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…
Humphrey, L. Dennis
Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)
Wilkinson, Ross B.
This paper presents the results of 3 studies examining the relationships of parental attachment, peer attachment, and self-esteem to adolescent psychological health. A model is presented in which parental attachment directly influences both psychological health and self-esteem and the influence of peer attachment on psychological health is totally…
Bizzi, Fabiola; Sciarretta, Lucia; D’Alessandro, Matteo; Picco, Paolo
Gardner-Diamond syndrome (GDS) is an uncommon disease clinically characterized by a wide spectrum of psycho-emotive symptoms associated with painful ecchymoses/purpuric lesions and positivity of auto-erythrocyte sensitization skin test. Herein, a perspective clinical and psychological observation of an adolescent GDS is firstly reported focusing on her psychological features long-term monitored for a 1-year period. The administration of a standardized tools battery allowed us to define psychological features of the young patient over time and to monitored clinical course and response to treatment. PMID:27011410
Kinney, Andrew; Rybash, John
Investigated were similarities and differences in the ability of 26 normally developing and 26 conduct-disordered children and adolescents to comprehend psychologically defensive behavior and the cognitive processes underlying differences due to age. Matched by cognitive level, subjects viewed vignettes depicting another child behaving…
Ferguson, Gail M.
The current study tests a prediction of Relational Discrepancy Theory (RDT; i.e., emotional distress will not accompany discrepancies in hierarchical relationships) for family obligations discrepancies among adolescent-parent dyads in Jamaica, a moderately collectivistic and hierarchical society. Ninety-five dyads reported psychological adjustment…
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit; Sternberg, Rotem
This study aimed to examine the psychological long-term effects of social peer rejection (SPR) experienced during adolescence as retrospectively perceived by young adults. A convenient sample of 387 undergraduate university students were administered self-report questionnaires consisting of the following measures: demographic variables, traumatic…
Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin
This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…
Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul
Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…
Miyairi, Maya; Reel, Justine J.
Weightism involves stigmatization of individuals based on size, shape, or weight. Weight bias represents a form of bullying and is psychologically damaging to children and adolescents. Although weightism is reinforced by the media, family, and in schools, educators can play an important role in changing their class climate. This article described…
The author attempted to explore potential antecedents of achievement goals and relations of teacher and parental autonomy support versus psychological control to Taiwanese adolescents' perfectionistic tendencies. A total of 512 eighth-grade students completed self-reported questionnaires assessing variables of interest. Results indicated that…
Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo
In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…
Fritz, Patti A. Timmons; Slep, Amy M. Smith
This study examined the stability of adolescent physical and psychological dating aggression across both time and partners in a sample of 664 high school students using both nonparametric and growth curve (GC) modeling techniques. Nonparametric and GC modeling tests demonstrated moderate levels of stability of all forms of aggression.…
Ireland, J.L.; Boustead, R.; Ireland, C.A.
The current study explores the role of coping styles as a predictor of poor psychological health among adolescent offenders. It presents the first study to compare young and juvenile offenders. Two hundred and three male offenders took part: 108 young (18-21 years) and 95 juvenile (15-17 years) offenders. All completed the General Health…
Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily; Palermo, Tonya M; Eccleston, Christopher
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine the effectiveness of psychological therapies delivered remotely compared to waiting-list, treatment-as-usual, or active control for the management of chronic pain in children and adolescents. PMID:25221436
Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged…
Van Zalk, Nejra; Kerr, Margaret
Two kinds of parental behaviors--psychological control and emotional warmth--have been linked with children's shy behaviors. The questions we addressed are whether this applies to adolescent shyness, and whether shyness in itself might also affect perceptions of parental behaviors. The participants were 916 seventh to ninth graders in a…
Lin, Yii-nii; Chiu, Yi-hsing Claire; Lai, Pi-hui
This study describes the learning and development experiences of teacher education students after taking an introductory course on adolescent psychology. The instructor adopted the developmental instruction model (DIM) (Knefelkamp, 1998) in this study and facilitated students learn through experiential learning. Fifteen students (aged between 20…
Drawing on theories of educational motivation, this study investigated how perceptions of the school psychological environment predict change over time in educational expectations among low-income adolescent mothers. Findings indicated that teenage mothers' perceptions that teachers devalued them intellectually by underestimating their abilities…
Pittman, Laura D.; Richmond, Adeya
Few researchers have considered the influence of school context, an important construct at earlier ages, on late adolescents' college adjustment. In a sample of second-semester freshmen (N = 266), the authors explored associations between a sense of school belonging and academic and psychological adjustment. Students' reports of belonging at the…
Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne G; Birkeland, Marianne S; Samdal, Oddrun
Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents' satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life satisfaction. The aim was to identify the extent to which satisfaction of the three needs explained the relationship between participation in leisure activities and life satisfaction. These proposed mechanisms were based on previous empirical work and the theoretical frameworks of self-determination theory, and were tested in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian adolescents (N = 3,273) aged 15 and 16 years (51.8 % boys). The structural equation analysis showed that competence and relatedness satisfaction fully mediated the association between participation in activities and life satisfaction. Autonomy satisfaction had a direct positive effect on life satisfaction but did not show any mediation effect. The positive processes of psychological need satisfaction, and especially the need for competence and relatedness, experienced in the leisure activity domain thus seem to be beneficial for adolescents' well-being. These findings add to previous research investigating the positive impact of need satisfaction in other important domains in the lives of children and adolescents. PMID:22627625
Moral-Muñoz, José A; Esteban-Moreno, Bernabé; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Cobo, Manuel J; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique
The objective of this study was to determine the level of agreement between face-to-face hamstring flexibility measurements and free software video analysis in adolescents. Reduced hamstring flexibility is common in adolescents (75% of boys and 35% of girls aged 10). The length of the hamstring muscle has an important role in both the effectiveness and the efficiency of basic human movements, and reduced hamstring flexibility is related to various musculoskeletal conditions. There are various approaches to measuring hamstring flexibility with high reliability; the most commonly used approaches in the scientific literature are the sit-and-reach test, hip joint angle (HJA), and active knee extension. The assessment of hamstring flexibility using video analysis could help with adolescent flexibility follow-up. Fifty-four adolescents from a local school participated in a descriptive study of repeated measures using a crossover design. Active knee extension and HJA were measured with an inclinometer and were simultaneously recorded with a video camera. Each video was downloaded to a computer and subsequently analyzed using Kinovea 0.8.15, a free software application for movement analysis. All outcome measures showed reliability estimates with α > 0.90. The lowest reliability was obtained for HJA (α = 0.91). The preliminary findings support the use of a free software tool for assessing hamstring flexibility, offering health professionals a useful tool for adolescent flexibility follow-up. PMID:26313580
Kahalley, Lisa S.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Tyc, Vida L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Stancel, Heather H.; Hinds, Pamela S.
Objectives To describe the psychological needs of adolescent survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or brain tumor (BT), we examined: (a) the occurrence of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional concerns identified during a comprehensive psychological evaluation, and (b) the frequency of referrals for psychological follow-up services to address identified concerns. Methods Psychological concerns were identified on measures according to predetermined criteria for 100 adolescent survivors. Referrals for psychological follow-up services were made for concerns previously unidentified in formal assessment or not adequately addressed by current services. Results Most survivors (82%) exhibited at least one concern across domains: behavioral (76%), cognitive (47%), and emotional (19%). Behavioral concerns emerged most often on scales associated with executive dysfunction, inattention, learning, and peer difficulties. CRT was associated with cognitive concerns, χ2(1,N=100)=5.63, p<0.05. Lower income was associated with more cognitive concerns for ALL survivors, t(47)=3.28, p<0.01, and more behavioral concerns for BT survivors, t(48)=2.93, p<0.01. Of survivors with concerns, 38% were referred for psychological follow-up services. Lower-income ALL survivors received more referrals for follow-up, χ2(1,N=41)=8.05, p<0.01. Referred survivors had more concerns across domains than non-referred survivors, ALL: t(39)=2.96, p<0.01, BT: t(39)=3.52, p<0.01. Trends suggest ALL survivors may be at risk for experiencing unaddressed cognitive needs. Conclusions Many adolescent survivors of cancer experience psychological difficulties that are not adequately managed by current services, underscoring the need for long-term surveillance. In addition to prescribing regular psychological evaluations, clinicians should closely monitor whether current support services appropriately meet survivors’ needs, particularly for lower-income survivors and those treated with CRT. PMID:22278930
Güler, Ayşegül Selcen; Berkem, Meral; Yazgan, Yanki; Kalaça, Sibel
This study examined cognitive flexibility and social responsiveness in children and adolescents with Tourette Syndrome (TS). Thirty one subjects with TS were compared to 32 age-matched healthy controls. Assessments included semi-structured interviews to assess psychopathology, parent-rated Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and a brief neuropsychological battery selected as measures of cognitive flexibility. Completion time for both Trail Making Tests (TMT-A and TMT-B) were significantly longer for TS group than controls, however the difference in perseverative errors on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was not significant. SRS total score was significantly higher in the TS group compared to controls, indicating greater impairment in social responsiveness. Group difference for TMTs and SRS failed to reach significance after controlling for co-occurring conditions. Clinicians might consider social impairment in the evaluation plan of children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome. PMID:25631951
Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R.
Objectives: Two-thirds of adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain report a concurrent sleep problem. Both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems can have deleterious effects on physiological and psychological well-being. We explored the prevalence of sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain, using data on 3568 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive battery of questionnaires was administered to derive clinical phenotypes of musculoskeletal pain. Adolescents with single symptoms were compared with those reporting both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to compare groups on pain-related variables and psychological complaints. The association between sociodemographic variables and comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems was assessed using logistic regression. Results: Over half the sample was female (n=2076, 58.2%) and the majority of European ancestry (n=3174, 97.7%). Only 5.5% (n=196) of participants were identified as having a pain condition, while 21.2% (n=749) reported a significant sleep problem, and 2.8% (n=99) reported comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Adolescents with comorbid problems experienced greater pain intensity and pain-related anxiety. Other psychological complaints were also higher in those who experienced concurrent problems, including depression, fatigue, concentration, and overall severity of psychological symptoms. Discussion: Comorbid sleep and pain problems were associated with a higher incidence of pain-related and psychological symptoms. Sleep problems may therefore be an important modifiable risk factor for alleviating distress in adolescents with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:25974623
Stevenson, Claire E.; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.
Creativity commonly refers to the ability to generate ideas, solutions, or insights that are novel yet feasible. The ability to generate creative ideas appears to develop and change from childhood to adulthood. Prior research, although inconsistent, generally indicates that adults perform better than adolescents on the alternative uses task (AUT), a commonly used index of creative ideation. The focus of this study was whether performance could be improved by practicing alternative uses generation. We examined the effectiveness of creative ideation training in adolescents (13–16 years, N = 71) and adults (23–30 years, N = 61). Participants followed one of three types of training, each comprising eight 20-min practice sessions within 2 week time: (1) alternative uses generation (experimental condition: creative ideation); (2) object characteristic generation (control condition: general ideation); (3) rule-switching (control condition: rule-switching). Progression in fluency, flexibility, originality of creative ideation was compared between age-groups and training conditions. Participants improved in creative ideation and cognitive flexibility, but not in general ideation. Participants in all three training conditions became better in fluency and originality on the AUT. With regard to originality, adolescents benefitted more from training than adults, although this was not specific for the creative ideation training condition. These results are interpreted in relation to (a) the different underlying processes targeted in the three conditions and (b) developmental differences in brain plasticity with increased sensitivity to training in adolescents. In sum, the results show that improvement can be made in creative ideation and supports the hypothesis that adolescence is a developmental stage of increased flexibility optimized for learning and explorative behavior. PMID:25400565
Shek, D T
Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being. PMID:10441875
Cohen, Miri; Mansoor, Daniela; Gagin, Roni; Lorber, Avraham
The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between perceived parenting style, depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents with heart disease compared with healthy adolescents. Forty-five adolescents, aged 12-18 with congenital or acquired heart disease and 50 healthy age-matched adolescents answered perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem, depressed mood and anxiety questionnaires. The study group reported higher perceived acceptance and lower perceived parental control than healthy adolescents, but similar levels of depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem. Fischer's r-to-z transformation and regression analyses showed different associations between perceived parenting style and depressed mood, anxiety and self esteem. In the study group, higher perceived parental acceptance was associated with lower depressed mood and higher self-esteem, whereas these associations were not significant in the control group. In the control, but not the study group, higher perceived parental control was associated with lower depressed mood and lower anxiety. Parenting style proved to exert a differential effect on adolescents with and without heart disease. For the former, perceived parental acceptance had a more substantial effect on psychological well-being than perceived parental control. Professionals caring for these adolescents should be aware of the special importance of parenting style on the well-being of adolescents with heart disease, and address this issue in the clinical setting with the patients and their parents. PMID:18825577
Gloster, Andrew T; Klotsche, Jens; Chaker, Samia; Hummel, Katrin V; Hoyer, Jürgen
The construct of psychological flexibility (PF) is a central concept in acceptance and commitment therapy. It is defined as the process of contacting the present moment fully as a conscious human being and persisting in or changing behavior in the service of chosen values. PF is hypothesized to be an important aspect of healthy psychological functioning. Despite its potential importance, the distinctness of PF from other constructs has not been adequately demonstrated, and psychometric evaluations of measures designed to assess it are limited. This study aimed at extending current knowledge about PF by examining the construct in 2 help-seeking samples, including panic disorder with agoraphobia (n = 368), clinically relevant social phobia (n = 209), and 2 nonclinical samples including students (n = 495) and individuals visiting an employment office (n = 95). Results across all samples indicate that PF, as measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (2nd version; AAQ-II), is a unitary construct with a 1 factor model. PF correlated with other variables largely consistent with predictions, differentiated patients from healthy controls, and showed preliminary indications of treatment sensitivity. Incremental validity was partially demonstrated, especially for indices of functioning. Surprisingly, PF also explained unique variance above more established measures for some indices of symptomatology. Results suggest that PF adds some incremental clinical validity, yet further and more stringent tests are required to fully elucidate its strengths and limitations. PMID:21767025
Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J
This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents 1 year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them. PMID:27224903
Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Batterham, Philip J; Miller, Leonie M; Talbot, Elizabeth; Lum, Alistair
Background Adolescent mental health is characterized by relatively high rates of psychiatric disorders and low levels of help-seeking behaviors. Existing mental health programs aimed at addressing these issues in adolescents have repeated inconsistent results. Such programs have generally been based on techniques derived from cognitive behavioral therapy, which may not be ideally suited to early intervention among adolescent samples. Positive psychology, which seeks to improve well-being rather than alleviate psychological symptoms, offers an alternative approach. A previous community study of adolescents found that informal engagement in an online positive psychology program for up to 6 weeks yielded significant improvements in both well-being and depression symptoms. However, this approach had not been trialed among adolescents in a structured format and within a school setting. Objective This study examines the feasibility of an online school-based positive psychology program delivered in a structured format over a 6-week period utilizing a workbook to guide students through website content and interactive exercises. Methods Students from four high schools were randomly allocated by classroom to either the positive psychology condition, "Bite Back", or the control condition. The Bite Back condition consisted of positive psychology exercises and information, while the control condition used a series of non-psychology entertainment websites. Both interventions were delivered online for 6 hours over a period of 4-6 weeks during class time. Symptom measures and measures of well-being/flourishing and life satisfaction were administered at baseline and post intervention. Results Data were analyzed using multilevel linear modeling. Both conditions demonstrated reductions in depression, stress, and total symptom scores without any significant differences between the two conditions. Both the Bite Back and control conditions also demonstrated significant improvements in
Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.
The present study includes externalizing problems, internalizing problems, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and father-adolescent relationship quality in the same structural equation model and tests the longitudinal reciprocal association among all four variables over a 1-year period. A transactional model in which adolescents'…
Judge, Abigail M
This article will discuss the phenomenon of "sexting" (i.e., the exchange of sexually explicit images between adolescents via cell phone) in the United States, with a particular focus on clinical and legal implications. Although sexting is frequently discussed in the popular press, there is virtually no scientific literature available on this topic. In contrast, the legal literature has discussed sexting more comprehensively due to the implications of child pornography statutes for the social response to involved youth. This article will consider sexting from a clinical and legal perspective, and recommend ways to understand and address this practice clinically with adolescent patients. PMID:22512742
Flodman, Erik; Hebert, Amanda; Poysti, Stephanie; Hagkvist, Filip; Johansson, Robert; Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela; Berger, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard
Little is known about the individual factors that predict outcomes in Internet-administered psychological treatments. We hypothesized that greater cognitive flexibility (i.e. the ability to simultaneously consider several concepts and tasks and switch effortlessly between them in response to changes in environmental contingencies) would provide a better foundation for learning and employing the cognitive restructuring techniques taught and exercised in therapy, leading to greater treatment gains. Participants in three trials featuring Internet-administered psychological treatments for depression (n = 36), social anxiety disorder (n = 115) and tinnitus (n = 53) completed the 64-card Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) prior to treatment. We found no significant associations between perseverative errors on the WCST and treatment gains in any group. We also found low accuracy in the classification of treatment responders. We conclude that lower cognitive flexibility, as captured by perseverative errors on the WCST, should not impede successful outcomes in Internet-delivered psychological treatments. PMID:27114881
Játiva, Raquel; Cerezo, M Angeles
The objectives of the present study were to analyze the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment in adolescents and the role of self-compassion as a mediator in this relationship. The sample was composed of 109 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years old with poor school performance. The participants filled out a battery of questionnaires made up of: a socio-demographic data questionnaire; the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ); the Youth Self-Report (YSR); and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Results indicated that victimization was positively associated with psychological maladjustment. Moreover, adolescents reporting poly-victimization showed significantly higher level of psychological maladjustment and different types of victimization show different effects on adolescents' psychological maladjustment. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between victimization and psychological maladjustment and reduced negative consequences in adolescents who reported having been victimized. Adolescence is a time of development and search for identity in which strengthening personal protective factors could help overcome any traumas experienced. Therefore, developing self-compassion in adolescence could be a good way to help young people recover from bad experiences and protect themselves against future negative experiences. As self-compassion can be improved with practice it could be included in adolescent intervention and prevention programs. PMID:24811571
Davies, Patrick T; Martin, Meredith J; Coe, Jesse L; Cummings, E Mark
This study examined the transactional interplay among dimensions of destructive interparental conflict (i.e., hostility and dysphoria), children's emotional insecurity, and their psychological problems from middle childhood and adolescence. Participants were 232 families, with the first of five measurement occasions occurring when children were in first grade (M age = 7 years). Cross-lagged, autoregressive models were conducted with a multiple-method, multiple-informant measurement approach to identify developmental cascades of interparental and child cascades. Results indicated that emotional insecurity was a particularly powerful mediator of prospective associations between interparental conflict (i.e., dysphoria and hostility) and child adjustment during adolescence rather than childhood. In reflecting bidirectionality in relationships between interparental and child functioning, children's psychological problems predicted increases in interparental dysphoria during childhood and adolescence. Although emotional insecurity was not identified as a proximal predictor of interparental difficulties, an indirect cascade was identified whereby insecurity in early adolescence was associated with increases in teen psychological problems, which in turn predicted greater interparental dysphoria over time. Results are interpreted in the context of how they advance transactional formulation of emotional security theory and its resulting translational implications for clinical initiatives. PMID:27427798
Trainor, Sarah; Delfabbro, Paul; Anderson, Sarah; Winefield, Anthony
We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as…
Perez, Juan; del Sol Fortea Sevilla, Maria
This study compared scores of 17 children with autism and mental retardation on the Psychoeducational Profile with scores on the Adolescent and Adult Psychoeducational Profile 5 years later. Eye-hand coordination predicted scores in vocational skills, independent functioning, and vocational behavior; imitation predicted interpersonal behavior;…
Mendle, Jane; Ferrero, Joseph
Though often discussed as a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. While an earlier timing of puberty relative to peers stands as one of the most well-replicated antecedents of adolescent difficulties for girls, findings have been less…
Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
This study assessed the prevalence of date violence and rape among adolescents in order to examine the associations between date violence and rape, and eating disorders and psychopathology. The study also attempted to determine if these associations remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. A Minnesota…
Aksel, Seyda; Gun, Zubeyit; Irmak, Turkan Yilmaz; Cengelci, Banu
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of involuntary migration on an adolescent population that had moved with their families to either one of two culturally different locations in Turkey. One of these groups had moved from a village in Eastern Turkey to a nearby town, while the other had moved a considerable distance to a large…
Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.
The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions
Gillis, H. L.; And Others
The purpose of this study was to examine the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profiles of two treatment populations and present a theoretical rationale for using adventure therapy. Data for the first group were obtained from the psychological testing records of 150 randomly selected inpatients (81 males, 69 females)…
Mata, J; Munsch, S
The proportion of overweight and obese children and adolescents in Germany and Europe has increased dramatically since the 1990s. About a third of obese preschool children and half of obese school children will become obese adults; the economic, medical, and psychosocial consequences are substantial. This article presents an overview of psychological risk factors and causes of obesity in children and adolescents, including comorbidity with psychological disorders, stigmatization, and relationships with peers, family, and other environment factors, as well as interactions between genes and behavior. Understanding risk factors and causes for obesity is the basis for adequate psychological interventions. We provide an overview of psychological aspects of obesity, such as motivation and impulsivity, and present components of cognitive behavioral therapy and modalities of intervention. A better understanding of psychological factors is necessary to achieve more effective interventions and long-term success of behavior change. This also holds true for changes in the social, media, and physical environment structures with the goal of promoting healthy eating and physical activity. PMID:21547645
Oliveira, Queiti Batista Moreira; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Njaine, Kathie; Pires, Thiago Oliveira
The scope of this paper is to evaluate the perpetration of psychological violence in current male and female dating relationships and their link to psychological violence experienced in other contexts of their lives, namely family, relationships with friends and dating partners. 3,205 students in the 2nd year of high school (15 to 19 years old) in public and private schools in ten Brazilian cities filled out a closed and self-administered questionnaire. The results highlight the fact that the increase in the number of psychologically violent events perpetrated by adolescents in their intimate relationships is related to greater verbal aggression of the mother and father, and the more frequent experiences of psychological violence between parents, siblings, friends and that existing in earlier dating relationships. This reinforces the notion of circularity of psychological violence in various contexts of socialization of adolescents and highlights the continuity of aggressive behavior in other dating relationships, and those between siblings, family and friends. PMID:24714886
Skumin, V A
Clinicopsychological investigations of 361 patients, aged from 6 to 17 years, suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, have revealed in 60.7% of them negative psychological attitude to the dietotherapy they received. Among children and adolescents with concomitant neurotic disorders such attitude was noted in 79.6%. A system of special measures has been developed including three main elements: 1) psychotherapeutic mediation of dietotherapy before its administration and in the process of the therapy; 2) creation of the psychologic attitude to the diet adherence; 3) alteration of the patient's taste stereotype. Realization of such measures has been conducive to higher effectiveness of the dietotherapy. PMID:3439083
Jaser, Sarah S; Linsky, Rebecca; Grey, Margaret
The purpose of this study was to describe coping in mothers of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to examine the association among mothers' diabetes-related stress and coping strategies and maternal psychological distress (e.g., symptoms of anxiety and depression), adolescent adjustment (e.g., symptoms of depression, quality of life), diabetes-related family conflict, and glycemic control. One hundred and eighteen mother-adolescent dyads completed measures of diabetes-related stress, coping, symptoms of anxiety and depression, quality of life, and family conflict. Data on glycemic control were collected from adolescents' medical charts. Single/divorced mothers and mothers of color were significantly more likely to use disengagement coping strategies (e.g., avoidance) than White and married/partnered mothers. Mothers' use of primary control coping (e.g., problem solving) and secondary control coping (e.g., acceptance) strategies was related to fewer symptoms of anxiety (r = - .51, -.39) and depression (r = - .32, -.37) and less family conflict (r = - .22, -.30, all p < .05). Mothers' use of disengagement coping strategies was related to greater symptoms of anxiety (r = .30) and depression (r = .27, both p < .01). Further, secondary control coping was found to mediate the relationship between diabetes-related stress and maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression. Maternal coping was not significantly associated with adolescent outcomes. The ways in which mothers of adolescents with type 1 diabetes cope with diabetes-related stress are associated with psychological distress and family conflict. By identifying and improving mothers' coping through screening and targeted interventions, we may have the potential to improve both maternal and adolescent outcomes. PMID:23420308
Azadeh, Sayedeh Monireh; Kazemi-Zahrani, Hamid; Besharat, Mohammad Ali
Social anxiety is a psychological disorder which has devastative and pernicious effects on interpersonal relationships and one's psychological flexibility. The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on interpersonal problems and psychological flexibility in female high school students with social anxiety disorder. With a semi-experimental design, the subjects were assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale and clinical interview. The statistical population of the research was high school female students studying in 5 areas of Isfahan. 30 individuals were purposively selected as the sample. The subjects of the research were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy was given in 10 sessions of 90 minutes in the experimental group and the control group did not receive any treatment. Pre-test and post-test scores of Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance & the results showed that after the intervention, there was a significant difference between the scores of the subjects in the experimental and control groups. This means that Acceptance and Commitment Therapy can influence interpersonal problems and their six dimensions and psychological flexibility as well. PMID:26493425
Cromley, Taya R.; Knatz, Stephanie; Rockwell, Roxanne; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri
Purpose To examine how differences in body satisfaction may influence weight control behaviors, eating, weight and shape concerns, and psychological well-being among overweight adolescents. Methods A sample of 103 overweight adolescents completed a survey assessing body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, eating-related thoughts and behaviors, importance placed on thinness, self-esteem, anger, and symptoms of depression and anxiety between 2004-2006. Logistic regression analyses compared overweight adolescents with high and low body satisfaction. Results Higher body satisfaction was associated with a lower likelihood of engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors, less frequent fears of losing control over eating, and less importance placed on thinness. Overweight adolescents with higher body satisfaction reported higher levels of self-esteem and were less likely to endorse symptoms of depression, anxiety, and anger than overweight adolescents with lower body satisfaction. Conclusions Adolescents with higher body satisfaction may be protected against the negative behavioral and psychological factors associated with overweight. PMID:22626496
Francisco, Rita; Loios, Sara; Pedro, Marta
This study aims to analyze the mediating role of coping strategies in the relationship between family functioning and youth maladjustment. A community sample of 341 adolescents (M = 15.11 years old; SD = 1.71) completed self-report measures about such variables. Results showed that a perception of an inadequate family functioning was associated with the use of maladaptive coping strategies, as well as with youth psychological maladjustment. The results also revealed that rumination and support-seeking mediated the relationship between family functioning and internalizing behavior, and hostile expression of feelings played a mediating role between family functioning and externalizing behavior. No gender differences were found in the relationship between variables. This study emphasizes the importance of coping strategies used by adolescents to understand the relationship between family functioning and youth psychological maladjustment. PMID:26615594
Williamson, Sara; Craig, Jaime; Slinger, Richard
This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four…
Grant, K.E.; McCormick, A.; Poindexter, L.; Simpkins, T.; Janda, C.M.; Thomas, K.J.; Campbell, A.; Carleton, R.; Taylor, J.
The present study builds on past research that has found support for a conceptual model in which poverty is linked with adolescent psychological symptoms through economic stressors and impaired parenting. The present study examined this model in a sample of urban African American mothers and their adolescent children. In addition, an alternative…
van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette N.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal promotive factors influenced this association. Seventy-eight adolescents (39 girls, 39 boys; mean age = 17.05 years) completed an…
Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.
It is now recognized that there is a very high prevalence of psychological disorders among children and adolescents and relatively few receive psychological treatment. In the current article, we present the argument that levels of distress and dysfunction among young people are substantially underestimated and the prevalence of psychological…
Goldfield, Gary; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of weight-based teasing, and evaluate its association with depression, anxiety and unhealthy eating behaviour in a large sample of adolescents in the Ottawa (Ontario) area. METHODS: A total of 1491 adolescents from public and private middle schools and high schools in rural and urban areas of Ottawa responded confidentially to surveys. RESULTS: More girls than boys reported that they experienced weight-based teasing (33% versus 18%). The prevalence of weight-based teasing by peers was significantly higher among overweight and obese youth than among normal weight youth (45% versus 22%). Teasing about body weight was consistently associated with anxiety, psychological distress and disordered eating, and these associations held for both boys and girls, and were independent of weight status. CONCLUSIONS: Weight-based teasing is a common experience among Ottawa-area adolescents, especially among overweight girls, and was found to be associated with psychological morbidity. Effective interventions are needed to help victims cope with and prevent further weight-based teasing and its harmful psychological sequelae. PMID:21532792
Lam, Kindy Yuk-Ip
The role of disclosure on psychological well-being of adolescents with child sexual abuse experience was investigated in a subsample of 74 disclosers among 800 adolescents recruited in the community in Hong Kong. The results supported that CSA experiences have differential impact on adolescents' psychological well-being. Family characteristics of the disclosers accounted for only a small amount of the variance in an array of psychological well-being measures. CSA characteristics were robust predictors of disclosers' sexual eroticism and externalizing behavioral symptoms. Disclosers' cognitive appraisal of CSA experience and quality of parental attachment were strong predictors of their self-esteem and internalizing behavioral problems. After controlling for the aforementioned factors, negative disclosure experience still significantly predicted lower self-esteem, higher sexual anxiety, more internalizing behavior, and more severe post-traumatic stress disorder responses. Research to understand the factors that generate negative disclosure experiences is needed for developing effective intervention strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of disclosure. PMID:26479960
Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro
This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents. PMID:26093819
Chorn, R; Parekh, A
Following a request for assistance in formulating a treatment philosophy for adolescent sexual offenders, a qualitative study of seven adolescent offenders was designed with a view to elaborating pre-offense, and post-offense dynamics. The point of departure was the hypothesis that sexual offending had relation to object relations. It was further hypothesized that offenders' object relations and self-development had been disfigured in childhood and adolescent development. The developmental theories of Mahler, Stern, Winnicott, and Kohut were reviewed in order to shed light on the connection between disfigured self-development and sexual offending. Mahler's work suggested that anomalies during the separation-individuation process were heavily implicated. Winnicott's thinking on transitional functioning in potential space and his employment of the concepts of the true self and false self were especially useful. These bodies of work were assimilated to Kohut's theory of self development in which three nuclear sectors of the self, namely, the grandiose-exhibitionistic sector, the idealizing-voyeuristic sector, and the twinship-alterego sector, gradually coalesce and cohere through the moderating influence of parental empathy with the child's developmental tasks. Where such empathy is unforthcoming, or when the normal parental functions are obliterated by traumatic experiences of abuse, unmoderated needs for exhibitionism and voyeurism continue through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Victims of sexual offending were hypothesized to perform functions of restoration and preservation of a chronically weak and threatened self. The sample's interview transcripts were qualitatively analyzed and aggregated. Analysis suggested that, indeed, offenses appeared to have been motivated to preserve a weakened sense of self and that the thoughts and perceptions surrounding the offenses resonated with expressions of problematic separation from parental objects. In addition, it
Sautier, Leon Philip; Sarkar, Susanne; Petersen, Marie; Mehnert, Anja; Escherich, Gabriele
Psychological Symptom Burden in Children and Adolescents After Leukemia or Lymphoma Diseases. A cancer diagnosis represents a major challenge for children and young people at an early stage in life. Objective of the present study is the investigation of mental health and psychosocial burden in children and young adolescents two or more years after the treatment of leukemia (ALL, AML) or lymphoma disease (NHL) compared to peers not suffering from cancer as well as available standard values. 42 former patients and 23 healthy peers were included in the comparative analysis. In addition to socio-demographic and medical information the following validated questionnaires were used: the General Depression Scale (ADS), the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the detection of behavioral difficulties and strengths, the KINDL-R questionnaire for assessing quality of life in children and adolescents, the Herth Hope Index (HHI), the Social Questionnaire (SFS 4-6) for assessing the educational integration and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) to measure self-efficacy. Children and young adolescent survivors of leukemia or lymphoma report significantly less depressive symptoms and significantly higher quality of life compared to a healthy age-matched comparison sample and representative standard values. Beyond, former patients do not differ significantly in psychological and psychosocial aspects compared to a healthy age-matched comparison sample and available standard values. PMID:25968412
Kuzucu, Yaşar; Şimşek, Ömer Faruk
This research examined the mediatory role of life purpose and career indecision in the relationship between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and aggression. Data were collected from high school students (n = 466) and results showed that life purpose and career indecision fully mediated the relationship between basic psychological needs satisfaction and aggression. These findings suggested that unsatisfied basic psychological needs foster late adolescents' aggression by promoting less clear life purposes and career indecision. PMID:24837531
Daughters, Stacey B; Gorka, Stephanie M; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Anderson, Katelyn
The purpose of this study was to evaluate how psychological stress, gender and cortisol response to stress relate to risk behavior among 132 14-18 year old adolescents. Participants completed a laboratory based risk task prior to and immediately after a computerized psychological stress task, and salivary cortisol was collected from pre-stress to 60 min following initial stress exposure. Results indicate that adolescent boys (n = 59) and girls (n = 73) demonstrate different patterns of risk taking (RT) in response to stress, such that boys evidenced an increase in RT following stress exposure, whereas girls evidenced a decrease in RT. In addition, a gender by cortisol interaction demonstrated that for boys, both a smaller total cortisol output (AUCg) and peak cortisol response to stress (PC) was associated with greater stress-induced RT. Both cortisol measures were unrelated to stress-induced RT among girls. Taken together, data suggest that among boys, a blunted cortisol response to stress underlies an increase in risk taking in the context of psychological stress. Further research with an additional behavioral stress task is needed prior to drawing conclusions regarding the relation between female gender, cortisol response to stress, and risk taking in the context of psychological stress. PMID:23338478
Latif, Finza; Yeatermeyer, Jessica; Horne, Zachary D; Beriwal, Sushil
Although much has been written about the psychological impact of natural disasters, the impact of nuclear disasters has not been extensively studied in children. Nuclear disasters are unique because they are man-made and represent a failure of the safety systems put in place to contain dangerous radioactive materials. This article summarizes the available literature on 3 of the biggest nuclear disasters in history. There is a need for further investigation not only of the impact on children but also of whether the consequences are a direct result of the disaster, radiation exposure, or the psychosocial disruptions resulting from the disaster. PMID:26346391
Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Perchec, Cyrille; Marchal, Clotilde
The aim of the present research was to study vocational identity in French adolescent and emerging adult students by using a French adaptation of the Vocational Identity Status Assessment (VISA), and to analyze the links between vocational identity formation and negative and positive psychological adjustment. Participants were 1077 French students who completed self-report scales about vocational identity, depression and satisfaction with life. The French version of the VISA showed good psychometric properties and six identity statuses were derived by means of cluster analysis: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion and carefree diffusion. The main findings show that diffused diffusion and moratorium represent the dark sides of identity because of their negative psychological adjustment, and that the two processes of reconsideration of commitment were differently associated with psychological adjustment. These findings demonstrate that clinical interventions should be adapted to the individual's identity profile. PMID:26603910
Daly-Eichenhardt, Aisling; Scott, Whitney; Howard-Jones, Matthew; Nicolaou, Thaleia; McCracken, Lance M.
Aims: Cognitive and behavioral treatments (CBT) for sleep problems and chronic pain have shown good results, although these results could improve. More recent developments based on the psychological flexibility model, the model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may offer a useful addition to traditional CBT. The aim of this study was to examine whether an ACT-based treatment for chronic pain is associated with improved sleep. Secondly, we examined the associations between changes on measures of psychological flexibility and sleep-related outcomes. Methods: The study used an observational cohort methodology. Participants were 252 patients (73.8% female) attending a 4-week, interdisciplinary, pain management program in London, United Kingdom. Participants completed standard self-report measures of pain and functioning, sleep outcomes, and processes of psychological flexibility. Pre- to post-treatment, and pre-treatment to follow-up measures were examined for statistically significant differences using paired samples t-tests. Secondarily, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine change in process measures in relation to change in treatment outcome. Results: Participants showed statistically significant improvements (all p < 0.001) at post-treatment on measures of insomnia severity (d = 0.45), sleep interference (d = 0.61), and sleep efficiency (d = 0.32). Significant improvements in insomnia severity and sleep interference were also observed at 9-month follow up. Small to medium effect sizes were observed across the sleep outcomes. Statistically significant changes were also observed on measures of psychological flexibility, and these improvements were significantly associated with improvements on sleep-related outcomes, independently contributing up to 19% of unique variance. Conclusion: This study supports the potential usefulness of ACT-based treatments for chronic pain for addressing co-occurring sleep difficulties
Pellicano, Elizabeth; Mareschal, Denis
Although children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical sensory processing, evidence for impaired integration of multisensory information has been mixed. In this study, we took a Bayesian model‐based approach to assess within‐modality integration of congruent and incongruent texture and disparity cues to judge slant in typical and autistic adolescents. Human adults optimally combine multiple sources of sensory information to reduce perceptual variance but in typical development this ability to integrate cues does not develop until late childhood. While adults cannot help but integrate cues, even when they are incongruent, young children's ability to keep cues separate gives them an advantage in discriminating incongruent stimuli. Given that mature cue integration emerges in later childhood, we hypothesized that typical adolescents would show adult‐like integration, combining both congruent and incongruent cues. For the ASD group there were three possible predictions (1) “no fusion”: no integration of congruent or incongruent cues, like 6‐year‐old typical children; (2) “mandatory fusion”: integration of congruent and incongruent cues, like typical adults; (3) “selective fusion”: cues are combined when congruent but not incongruent, consistent with predictions of Enhanced Perceptual Functioning (EPF) theory. As hypothesized, typical adolescents showed significant integration of both congruent and incongruent cues. The ASD group showed results consistent with “selective fusion,” integrating congruent but not incongruent cues. This allowed adolescents with ASD to make perceptual judgments which typical adolescents could not. In line with EPF, results suggest that perception in ASD may be more flexible and less governed by mandatory top‐down feedback. Autism Res 2016, 9: 272–281. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26097109
Bedford, Rachael; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Mareschal, Denis; Nardini, Marko
Although children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical sensory processing, evidence for impaired integration of multisensory information has been mixed. In this study, we took a Bayesian model-based approach to assess within-modality integration of congruent and incongruent texture and disparity cues to judge slant in typical and autistic adolescents. Human adults optimally combine multiple sources of sensory information to reduce perceptual variance but in typical development this ability to integrate cues does not develop until late childhood. While adults cannot help but integrate cues, even when they are incongruent, young children's ability to keep cues separate gives them an advantage in discriminating incongruent stimuli. Given that mature cue integration emerges in later childhood, we hypothesized that typical adolescents would show adult-like integration, combining both congruent and incongruent cues. For the ASD group there were three possible predictions (1) "no fusion": no integration of congruent or incongruent cues, like 6-year-old typical children; (2) "mandatory fusion": integration of congruent and incongruent cues, like typical adults; (3) "selective fusion": cues are combined when congruent but not incongruent, consistent with predictions of Enhanced Perceptual Functioning (EPF) theory. As hypothesized, typical adolescents showed significant integration of both congruent and incongruent cues. The ASD group showed results consistent with "selective fusion," integrating congruent but not incongruent cues. This allowed adolescents with ASD to make perceptual judgments which typical adolescents could not. In line with EPF, results suggest that perception in ASD may be more flexible and less governed by mandatory top-down feedback. PMID:26097109
Caffo, Ernesto; Belaise, Carlotta
Each year millions of children are exposed to some form of extreme traumatic stressor. These traumatic events include natural disasters (e.g., tornadoes, floods, hurricanes), motor vehicle accidents, life-threatening illnesses and associated painful medical procedures (e.g., severe burns, cancer, limb amputations), physical abuse, sexual assault, witnessing domestic or community violence, kidnapping, and sudden death of a parent. During times of war, violent and nonviolent trauma (e.g., lack of fuel and food) may have terrible effects on children's adjustment. The events of September 11, 2001 and the unceasing suicidal attacks in the Middle East underscore the importance of understanding how children and adolescents react to disasters and terrorism. The body of literature related to children and their responses to disasters and trauma is growing. Mental health professionals are increasing their understanding about what factors are associated with increased risk (vulnerability) and affect how children cope with traumatic events. Researchers recognize that children's responses to major stress are similar to adults' (reexperiencing the event, avoidance, and arousal) and that these responses are not transient. A review of the literature indicates that PTSD is the most common psychiatric disorder after traumatic experiences, including physical injuries. There is also evidence for other comorbid conditions, including mood, anxiety, sleep, conduct, learning, and attention problems. In terms of providing treatment, CBT emerges as the best validated therapeutic approach for children and adolescents who experienced trauma-related symptoms, particularly symptoms associated with anxiety or mood disorders. The best approach to the injured child requires injury and pain assessment followed by specific interventions, such as pain management, brief consultation, and crisis intervention immediately after the specific traumatic event. Family support also may be necessary to help the
In this study, structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating role of resilience and self-esteem in the relationships between psychological maltreatment-emotional problems and psychological maltreatment-behavioral problems in adolescents. Participants were 937 adolescents from different high schools in Turkey. The sample included 502 female (53.6%) and 435 male (46.4%) students, 14-19 years old (mean age=16.51, SD=1.15). Results indicated that psychological maltreatment was negatively correlated with resilience and self-esteem, and positively correlated with behavioral problems and emotional problems. Resilience and self-esteem also predicted behavioral problems and emotional problems. Finally, psychological maltreatment predicted emotional and behavioral problems mediated by resilience and self-esteem. Resilience and self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between psychological maltreatment-behavioral and psychological maltreatment-emotional problems in adolescents. Thus, resilience and self-esteem appear to play a protective role in emotional problems and behavioral problems in psychologically maltreated individuals. Implications are discussed and suggestions for psychological counselors and other mental health professionals are presented. PMID:26518981
Eccleston, Christopher; Palermo, Tonya M; Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily
Background Psychological therapies have been developed for parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Such therapies include parent only or parent and child/adolescent, and are designed to treat parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and/or family functioning. No comprehensive, meta-analytic reviews have been published in this area. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies that include coping strategies for parents of children/adolescents with chronic illnesses (painful conditions, cancer, diabetes mellitus, asthma, traumatic brain injury, inflammatory bowel diseases, skin diseases or gynaecological disorders). The therapy will aim to improve parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and family functioning. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsyclNFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions that included parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. The initial search was from inception of these databases to June 2011 and we conducted a follow-up search from June 2011 to March 2012. We identified additional studies from the reference list of retrieved papers and from discussion with investigators. Selection criteria Included studies were RCTs of psychological interventions that delivered treatment to parents of children and adolescents (under 19 years of age) with a chronic illness compared to active control, wait list control or treatment as usual. We excluded studies if the parent component was a coaching intervention, the aim of the intervention was health prevention/promotion, the comparator was a pharmacological treatment, the child/adolescent had an illness not listed above or the study included children with more than one type of chronic illness. Further to this, we excluded studies when the sample size of either comparator
Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G
Very little empirical attention has been paid to other-sex crush experiences during adolescence. As a result, it is not known whether such experiences, which appear to be relatively common, impact psychological adjustment outcomes. This two-wave (3 month interval) longitudinal study of 268 young adolescents (48 % girls; M age at Time 1 = 11.84 years) examined the psychological concomitants of other-sex crush experiences (having and being viewed by others as a crush). Anxious-withdrawal and gender were evaluated as moderators. Peer nomination measures at Time 1 assessed both types of crush experiences and mutual friendship involvement, and participants completed self-report measures of loneliness and depressive symptoms at Times 1 and 2. The results from regression analyses revealed significant associations between having an other-sex crush and depressive symptoms at Time 1 and loneliness at Time 2, after accounting for the effects of mutual friendship. Two interaction effects also revealed that crush status was a risk factor for depressive symptoms at low levels of anxious-withdrawal but a protective factor at high levels. The findings provide the first empirical evidence that other-sex crush experiences are developmentally significant during early adolescence. PMID:26984754
ten Hoor, Gill A.; Plasqui, Guy; Schols, Annemie M.W.J.; Kok, Gerjo
Purpose of review Optimizing the approach to combat childhood obesity, we emphasize the importance of combining both biological and psychological knowledge. In such an approach, strength exercises might be an important aspect in the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity. Recent findings Recent evidence indicates plausible effects of the role of resistance exercise in combating the negative health effects of childhood obesity. When looking at body composition, overweight youngsters do not only have a higher fat mass, but also a higher muscle mass compared with their normal-weight counterparts. With that, they are also stronger and better in exercises wherein the focus is on absolute strength, making them – under the right circumstances – more motivated to engage in resistance exercise and ultimately maintain a physically active lifestyle. Summary More and more children are obese, and obese children become obese adults. One reason that overweight youngsters are not physically active is that they are outperformed by normal-weight youngsters, and one reason they are overweight is because they are not physically active. To combat childhood obesity, strength exercise might be a solution to break the vicious cycle. PMID:25084398
Shek, Daniel T L
On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. PMID:15515041
Background On 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered an accident. Several areas of central Norway were heavily affected by far field radioactive fallout. The present study focuses on the psychological well-being of adolescents who were exposed to this radiation as fetuses. Methods The adolescents (n = 53) and their mothers reported their perceptions of the adolescents' current psychological health as measured by the Youth Self Report and Child Behaviour Checklist. Results In spite of previous reports of subtle cognitive deficits in these exposed adolescents, there were few self-reported problems and fewer problems reported by the mothers. This contrasts with findings of studies of children from the former Soviet Union exposed in utero, in which objective measures are inconsistent, and self-reports, especially by mothers, express concern for adolescents' cognitive functioning and psychological well-being. Conclusion In the current paper, we explore possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest that protective factors in Norway, in addition to perceived physical and psychological distance from the disaster, made the mothers less vulnerable to Chernobyl-related anxiety, thus preventing a negative effect on the psychological health of both mother and child. PMID:21496337
Kubzansky, Laura D.; Gilthorpe, Mark S.
Background The obesity–psychological distress relationship remains controversial. Purpose This study aims to assess whether adolescents’ psychological distress was associated with body mass index (BMI) class membership determined by latent class analysis. Methods Distress (anxiety, depression) and BMI were measured annually for 4 years in 1,528 adolescents. Growth mixture modeling derived latent BMI trajectory classes for models with 2–11 classes. The relationship of distress to class membership was examined in the best-fitting model using vector generalized linear regression. Results BMI trajectories were basically flat. The five-class model [normal weight (48.8%), overweight (36.7%), obese who become overweight (3.7%), obese (9.4%), and severely obese (1.3%)] was the preferred model (Bayesian information criterion=22789.2, df=31; ρ=0.84). Greater distress was associated with higher baseline BMI and, therefore, class membership. Conclusions Psychological distress is associated with higher BMI class during adolescence. To determine whether distress “leads” to greater weight gain may require studies of younger populations. PMID:22090262
Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan M.
The long-term impacts of failing to establish autonomy and relatedness within close friendships are poorly understood. Adolescent behaviors undermining autonomy and relatedness in friendships at 13 were examined as predictors of friendship competence at 18 and depressive symptoms and social withdrawal at 21. A diverse community sample of 184 adolescents participated in self, peer, and observational assessments. Teens’ inability to establish autonomy and connection with friends at 13 predicted decreases in friendship competence at 18 (ß=-.20, p=.02). Direct links to increases in depressive symptoms (ß=.34, p<.001) and social withdrawal (ß=.18, p=.03) were observed, with friendship competence partially mediating these relations. Results highlight the importance of problematic adolescent peer relationships as risk factors for the development of young adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:26640356
Masuda, Akihiko; Le, Jane; Cohen, Lindsey L.
The present study investigated whether different forms of disordered-eating-related cognitions and psychological flexibility were associated with psychological distress among female Asian American and European American college students in the United States. Disordered-eating-related cognitions examined in the present study included thoughts (a)…
Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra
Low self-esteem, lack of interoceptive awareness, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, weight teasing, and internalization of the societal body ideal are known to be associated with binge eating (BE) in adolescents. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate whether these attributes are BE-specific and whether different patterns exist for boys and girls. We assessed BE, internalizing symptoms and psychological factors in 1039 adolescents from a community sample by self-report. Using multinomial logistic regression and controlling for measured height and weight, we compared adolescents with BE with individuals from a healthy control group and adolescents reporting internalizing symptoms. Individuals from the BE-group reported a greater lack of interoceptive awareness and higher body dissatisfaction than individuals from the healthy control group. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between gender and body dissatisfaction. Internalization of the societal body ideal was related to BE when compared to internalizing symptoms. Results suggest, that the lack of interoceptive awareness and body dissatisfaction display substantial associations with BE, and that the latter effect is especially strong in boys. The internalization of societal standards of beauty emerged as a BE-specific factor and this finding emphasizes the role of the societal body ideal in the nature of eating pathology in boys and in girls. Increasing body satisfaction and the acceptance of realistic body ideals might be effective strategies in preventing eating pathology. PMID:25936287
Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo
Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors. PMID:27149432
Bhuvaneswari, Mohanraj; Immanuel Selvaraj, Chinnadurai; Selvaraj, Balakrishnan; Srinivasan, Thiruvengadam
Background: Visual impairment tends to evoke more discomfiture than any other disability. Primarily, the biggest issue may be that blindness is visible. Furthermore, visual impairment develops serious medical, psychological, social and economic problems. Objectives: The focus of the current study was to investigate the psychological and psycho physiological problems of visually impaired adolescent students. Patients and Methods: Purposive sampling was adopted to select 150 visually impaired students (71 males and 72 females) from five schools in Coimbatore city of the Tamil Nadu state, India. Anxiety, frustration, aggression and social and personal adjustment levels of the visually impaired students were measured in this study using Taylor’s manifest anxiety scale, frustration test, aggression scale and the adolescent adjustment inventory, respectively. Results: Anxiety (χ2 = 185.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (χ2 = 167.23, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression (χ2 = 57.66, P = 0 at P < 0.01) were significantly related to adjustment among visually impaired students. The adjustment score had a significant positive correlation with anxiety (r = 0.919, P = 0 at P < 0.01), frustration (r = 0.887, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.664, P = 0 at P < 0.01), anxiety was significantly correlated with frustration (r = 0. 961, P = 0 at P < 0.01) and aggression levels (r = 0.727, P < 0.01) and frustration was significantly correlated with aggression level (r = 0. 637, P = 0 at P < 0.01) of visually impaired adolescents. There was a positive relationship between psycho-physiological disorders and anxiety frustration, aggression and adjustment among visually impaired students. Conclusions: Visually impaired students exhibited significant levels of psychological and psycho-physiological problems. PMID:27284280
Huygen, A; Kuis, W; Sinnema, G
OBJECTIVE—To assess the psychological, behavioural and social adjustment of children (7-11 years) and adolescents (12-16 years) with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). Higher rates of maladjustment were expected to be found in these patients. METHODS—Self report questionnaires were used within the context of personal interviews. Family functioning and social support were studied as well. Forty seven patients with JCA, 52 healthy peers and their respective parents participated in the study. RESULTS—Self esteem, perceived competence and body image in patients with JCA were as positive as they were in healthy participants. There were no differences between ill and healthy youngsters with respect to the incidence of psychopathology. Patients with JCA, in general, perceived themselves as socially competent, but they seemed to have somewhat less opportunity or energy to participate in social activities. Children with JCA showed a high level of aspiration to cope with social expectations. This aspiration seemed to be even stronger in case the disease caused more strains, for example, in periods of inflammation and in the systemic onset type. The high level of social adjustment in children with JCA seemed to be supported by highly cohesive family structures. Generally, adolescents with JCA experienced much social support. CONCLUSIONS—In contrast with our expectation, children and adolescents with JCA seemeed to cope quite well with the psychological and social consequences of their long term condition. For future studies, it is hypothesised that the high levels of adaptation might imply an enduring psychological strain, which is reflected in an altered function of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:10733474
Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.
Though often discussed as though it were a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. Research suggests that an earlier rate of pubertal maturation in girls correlates with a number of detrimental outcomes compared with on-time or later maturation. The present review synthesizes the research on negative psychological sequelae of early pubertal timing in adolescent girls. Emphasis is on three theoretical perspectives by which precocious development is believed to affect the emergence of adverse outcomes: biological, psychosocial, and selection effects. PMID:20740062
Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Hunnicutt, Shannon
This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13 to 19 years) completed questionnaires which assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., PTSD symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth. PMID:21219276
Gutermann, Jana; Schreiber, Franziska; Matulis, Simone; Schwartzkopff, Laura; Deppe, Julia; Steil, Regina
Meta-analyses of the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in childhood and adolescence are restricted to specific trauma, selected interventions, and methodologically rigorous studies. This large meta-analysis quantifies the effects of psychological treatments for PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 13,040 articles; 135 studies with 150 treatment conditions (N = 9562 participants) met the inclusion criteria (psychological interventions with children and/or adolescents with PTSD symptoms that report quantitative measures of symptom change). The mean effect sizes (ESs) for PTSD symptoms ranged from large to small, depending on the control condition. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) yielded the highest ESs. Age and caretaker involvement were identified as moderators. CBT, especially when conducted in individual treatment with the inclusion of parents, is a highly effective treatment for trauma symptoms. Psychological treatments need to be modified to address younger patients' specific needs. PMID:27059619
Greif, E B; Ulman, K J
This paper reviews research on the psychological impact of onset of menstruation (menarche). Menarche is an important event for all girls, yet there is relatively little research on this topic, and the existing research contains a number of conceptual and methodological problems. In this paper, we review attitudes toward menarche and personality characteristics of pubertal girls. Then we look at memories of menarche from late adolescents and adult women. Finally, we examine studies of the impact of timing (early and late menarche). Overall, the studies indicate that menarche is a memorable and significant event for girls. Frequently the experience is perceived negatively, but there is also a positive, integrating result to menarche. Factors influencing the psychological impact of menarche include age at time of first period, social factors, amount of preparation, and cultural factors. The paper focuses on research problems and provides suggestions for future research. PMID:6756807
Schweitzer, R D; Seth-Smith, M; Callan, V
The study adopts a multi-dimensional construct of self-esteem to examine the relationship between self-perception and psychological adjustment in order to identify specific dimensions that discriminate between disturbed and non-disturbed groups. The disturbed group (n = 33) is derived from a clinical sample and are matched with a non-disturbed group (n = 33) of adolescents. Results indicate that dimensional self-concept scores are significantly lower for clinical subjects while there are no significant differences between groups on the mathematics, honesty, and physical ability dimensions. These findings provide a more fine grained understanding of the relationship between self-esteem and psychological adjustment and emphasize the need to examine self-esteem in terms of its particular dimensions. PMID:1607427
Iannotti, Ronald J.; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto
Summary Objectives To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Methods Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Results Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and quality of life were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Conclusions Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences. PMID:19639256
Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.
Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…
Wisting, Line; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind
Objective The aim of this study is to investigate psychological barriers (illness perceptions, insulin beliefs, and coping strategies) to optimal insulin therapy among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), with a specific focus on gender differences and mode of treatment (insulin pump vs pen). Methods A total of 105 males and females (12–20 years) participated in this study. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences were completed. Additionally, diabetes clinical data were collected by the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. Results Females had significantly more negative illness perceptions than males on all dimensions (p<0.05), with moderate-to-large effect sizes. Regarding insulin beliefs, females scored significantly higher than males on insulin concern (p<0.001), indicating more concerns about insulin. There were no significant gender differences on perceptions of insulin necessity. Finally, females scored significantly higher on the coping strategies being social and solving family problems (p<0.01), indicating more positive coping among females than males for these subscales. In terms of treatment mode, the only statistically significant difference in the psychological aspects was for the illness perception treatment control, with patients using insulin pen reporting more negative perceptions on this dimension than patients using insulin pump. Conclusions Addressing psychological aspects may be a clinically important supplement to standard somatic T1D care. The consistent finding of gender differences across the psychological measures implies that a tailored treatment approach for males and females with T1D may be warranted. PMID:27403325
Fuillerat Alfonso, R
The relationship between the psychic development and the nutritional condition from the fetal stage up to the teenage years is the innermost objective of this study. The importance of eating and having an adequate diet during the pregnancy period, the training of the future mother to breast feed in the first months of the baby's life and the subsequent application of the ablactación process and its relation with psychomotor development and the personality progression in the different stages of the psychological, physiological and social development of the infant-adolescent period. The results shown were obtained from various studies carried out in the Nutritional Clinical Service. They are related to the reinduction of breast feeding in children less than 4 months of age with protein energetic malnutrition, as well as other stages of the infant-juvenile obese and other chronic and genetic diseases related to the nourishment and nutrition (diabetes, fenilcetonuria, hiperamonemia, homocistinuria y fibrosis quística), in which the close relationship betweeen the Psychology, and the Nutrition stands, all through the Psychotherapeutic and educational treatments and based on the application of the clinic psychology in the prevention, promotion and treatment of the nutritional alterations and other chronic and genetic diseases related to nourishment and malnutrition. Aspects related to the psychological and social characterizations as well as the personality evolution of these patients and their relatives environment are established. PMID:15315112
Santisteban, Daniel A.; Mena, Maite P.; Abalo, Clara
There is growing interest in identifying interventions that have been tested and found efficacious with minority families. This interest is fueled in part by the growth of Hispanics in the U.S. as well as by research findings that suggest that Hispanics have better outcomes when treatments are adapted to their unique experiences, and risk and protective factors. Family-based treatments for culturally diverse populations require the integration of advances from both the cultural and family systems domains. Current intervention research has begun to move towards developing and advancing individualized interventions for patients/clients. Adaptive interventions, tailored interventions, adapted interventions, and targeted interventions have all been identified in the literature as appropriate for addressing distinct cultural characteristics which generic interventions may not address effectively. To date, research has focused less on tailored or adaptive interventions partly due to the fact that they require decision rules, more careful implementation, and measurement of individualized outcomes. In this article we present evidence for the usefulness of adaptive interventions that can address not only subgroup variability but within group variability as well. Culturally Informed and Flexible Family-Based Treatment for Adolescents is presented as an adaptive treatment that allows for the tailoring of treatment to the unique clinical and cultural variations of individual adolescents and families, but that does so in a systematic and replicable fashion. By building decision-making processes into the manualized treatment, the transportability of the treatment may be enhanced as family therapists appreciate it’s flexibility to address the complexity of clinical work. PMID:24772378
van Iersel, Kirsten C; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Scholte, Ron H J
Associations between perimenstrual physical and psychological symptoms have not been adequately studied among adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to test a mediation hypothesis postulating that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities would mediate the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms. A non-clinical sample of N = 208 Italian adolescent girls (age M = 16.68 years) completed a 95-item online retrospective questionnaire regarding perimenstrual symptoms, and how these symptoms affect their daily activities. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. Results showed that physical and psychological symptoms were strongly associated. More importantly, results supported the hypothesis that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities mediates the association between physical symptoms and psychological symptoms, but only for depressed mood and cognitive symptoms. This study provides support for a novel theoretical framework linking diverse aspects of menstrual cycle change. Longitudinal research is needed to replicate these findings. PMID:27017504
Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily; Palermo, Tonya M; Eccleston, Christopher
Background Chronic pain is common during childhood and adolescence and is associated with negative outcomes such as increased severity of pain, reduced function (e.g. missing school), and low mood (e.g. high levels of depression and anxiety). Psychological therapies, traditionally delivered face-to-face with a therapist, are efficacious at reducing pain intensity and disability. However, new and innovative technology is being used to deliver these psychological therapies remotely, meaning barriers to access to treatment such as distance and cost can be removed or reduced. Therapies delivered with technological devices, such as the Internet, computer-based programmes, smartphone applications, or via the telephone, can be used to deliver treatment to children and adolescents with chronic pain. Objectives To determine the efficacy of psychological therapies delivered remotely compared to waiting-list, treatment-as-usual, or active control treatments, for the management of chronic pain in children and adolescents. Search methods We searched four databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) from inception to June 2014 for randomised controlled trials of remotely delivered psychological interventions for children and adolescents (0 to 18 years of age) with chronic pain. We searched for chronic pain conditions including, but not exclusive to, headache, recurrent abdominal pain, musculoskeletal pain, and neuropathic pain. We also searched online trial registries for potential trials. A citation and reference search for all included studies was conducted. Selection criteria All included studies were randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of a psychological therapy delivered remotely via the Internet, smartphone device, computer-based programme, audiotapes, or over the phone in comparison to an active, treatment-as-usual, or waiting-list control. We considered blended treatments, which used a combination of technology and face-to-face interaction