Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre
The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…
Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors aimed to describe the pathways of risk within sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and delinquency, and then identify how the trajectory of sexual risk is linked to alcohol use and delinquency. Risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15-24 years (N = 1,778). Using…
Small, Stephen A.; Luster, Tom
Examined relationship between adolescent sexual intercourse and history of physical abuse, neighborhood monitoring, and adolescent's attachment to school. Findings from 2,108 adolescents suggest that there are many significant risk factors related to whether adolescents are sexually experienced and that importance of some factors vary by gender.…
Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.
This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…
Luster, Tom; Small, Stephen A.
Describes investigation examining factors that distinguish between sexually active adolescents who are at risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases and those who are at lower risk for these outcomes. Suggests factors associated with sexual risk taking include low GPA, frequent alcohol consumption, and low levels of parental…
Jacobs, Cecilia Dine; Wolf, Eve M.
Examines and critiques research that measures the effects of school sexuality education programs on adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior. Discusses common methodological problems and examines studies measuring program effectiveness. Research suggests participation in school sexuality education does not promote increased or earlier sexual…
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Kelly, Pat; Shain, Rochelle N.; Piper, Jeanna M.
There is a need for community-based, culturally sensitive, cognitive-behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among minority adolescents. Studies of adolescent risk and protective behaviors have focused on identifying modifiable psychosocial variables that predict differential outcomes for subsequent intervention efforts. Research…
Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ2 = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ2 = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P < .01) to vaginal sex (OR = 2.23, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678
Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.
Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…
de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk
Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Ryman, Sephira G; Gillman, Arielle S; Weiland, Barbara J; Thayer, Rachel E; Bryan, Angela D
Human adolescents engage in very high rates of unprotected sex. This behavior has a high potential for unintended, serious, and sustained health consequences including HIV/AIDS. Despite these serious health consequences, we know little about the neural and cognitive factors that influence adolescents' decision-making around sex, and their potential overlap with behaviorally co-occurring risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Thus, in this review, we evaluate the developmental neuroscience of sexual risk and alcohol use for human adolescents with an eye to relevant prevention and intervention implications. PMID:26290051
Melchert, Tim; Burnett, Kent F.
Examined high-risk sexual behavior in adolescents (N=212) involved in juvenile justice system. Found that youth were at high risk for unintended pregnancy, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and other sexually transmitted disease. Compared to national norms, sample reported very early mean age at first intercourse and high rate of pregnancy. Most…
This research investigates whether first sexual intercourse during adolescence is associated with increased risk of first marriage dissolution and tests whether the results are consistent with causal or selection explanations. Drawing on a sample of 3,793 ever-married women from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, this study estimated…
Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Sanchez, Monica; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
OBJECTIVES: Sexting (sending/receiving sexually explicit texts and images via cell phone) may be associated with sexual health consequences among adolescents. However, to date, no published data from a probability-based sample has examined associations between sexting and sexual activity. METHODS: A probability sample of 1839 students was collected alongside the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles high schools. Logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual risk-taking. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of adolescents with cell phone access reported sexting, and 54% reported knowing someone who had sent a sext. Adolescents whose peers sexted were more likely to sext themselves (odds ratio [OR] = 16.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.62–29.59). Adolescents who themselves sexted were more likely to report being sexually active (OR = 7.17, 95% CI: 5.01–10.25). Nonheterosexual students were more likely to report sexting (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.86–4.04), sexual activity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07–2.15), and unprotected sex at last sexual encounter (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.89). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting, rather than functioning as an alternative to “real world” sexual risk behavior, appears to be part of a cluster of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. We recommend that clinicians discuss sexting as an adolescent-friendly way of engaging patients in conversations about sexual activity, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy. We further recommend that discussion about sexting and its associated risk behavior be included in school-based sexual health curricula. PMID:22987882
Martyn, Kristy K.; Momper, Sandra L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol J.; Low, Lisa Kane
Purpose American Indian (AI) adolescent girls have higher rates of sexual activity, births and STIs compared to the national average. The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence urban adolescent AI girls' sexual risk behavior (SRB). Design A qualitative study was conducted using grounded theory methodology to reveal factors and processes that influence SRB. Methods Talking circles, individual interviews, and event history calendars were used with 20 urban AI 15-19 year old girls to explore influences on their sexual behavior. Findings The generated theory, Framing Sexual Risk Behavior, describes both social and structural factors and processes that influenced the girls' sexual behaviors. The theory extends Bronfenbrenner's ecological model by identifying microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem influences on sexual behavior, including: Microsystem: Being “Normal,” Native, and Having Goals; Mesosystem: Networks of Family and Friends, Environmental Influences, and Sex Education; and Macrosystem: Tribal Traditions/History and Federal Policy. Discussion Urban AI girls reported similar social and structural influences on SRB as urban adolescents from other racial and ethnic groups. However, differences were noted in the family structure, cultural heritage, and unique history of AIs. Implications for Practice This theory can be used in culturally responsive practice with urban AI girls. PMID:24803532
Brennan, Lauretta M.; Forbes, Erika; Shaw, Daniel S.
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent boys’ involvement in pregnancy and sexual risk behavior is a public health concern. Although research has identified predictors of sexual risk behavior during adolescence, few studies have investigated precursors to boys’ sexual risk behavior beginning in early childhood, the identification of which could serve to inform interventions and help reduce involvement in pregnancy. Our goal was to identify early developmental pathways associated with sexual risk behavior in a sample of low-income adolescent boys. METHODS: Data from a prospective longitudinal study in 310 at-risk boys were used to examine externalizing problems, mothers’ depressive symptoms, and low-nurturant parenting in early childhood (1.5, 2, and 3.5 years old) and daring, externalizing, parental monitoring, and deviant peer affiliation during emerging adolescence (11 and 12 years old) as precursors of sexual risk behavior between the ages 15 and 20 years. Structural equation modeling was used to explore pathways associated with later high-risk sexual behavior (HRSB). RESULTS: In multivariate analyses, adolescent daring and deviant peer affiliation at age 12 were associated with later HRSB. Furthermore, deviant peer affiliation during emerging adolescence mediated the relationship between mothers’ depressive symptoms and nurturant parenting during early childhood and later adolescent HRSB. CONCLUSIONS: Family-based risk factors in early childhood are predictive of HRSB in adolescence but are also influenced, and in some cases mediated, by relationships with peers and child characteristics during emerging adolescence. PMID:24819568
Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol
The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…
Lohman, Brenda J.; Billings, Amanda
Protective and risk factors associated with rates of early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviors for a sample of low-income adolescent boys were examined using bioecological theory framed by a resiliency perspective. Protective processes examined include a close mother-son and father-son relationship, parental monitoring and family routines, as…
Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.
This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…
Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M
This study had three goals: first, to investigate whether sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) affects sexual risk behavior; second, to study whether these effects differ between adolescents and adults; and third, to analyze, separately for adolescents and adults, whether gender and age moderate an influence of SEIM on sexual risk behavior. The authors conducted a 2-wave panel survey among nationally representative random samples of 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults. SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior among adults, but not among adolescents. More specifically, moderator analyses showed that SEIM use increased sexual risk behavior only among male adults, but not among female adults. In the adolescent sample, no moderating gender effect occurred. Neither among adolescents nor among adults did age moderate the effects. Our study shows that SEIM may influence outcomes related to people's sexual health. It also suggests that male adults may present a potential risk group for adverse effects of SEIM. PMID:21476164
Background: Sexual risk taking during adolescence such as failure to use contraception or condoms is associated with premature parenthood and high rates of sexually transmitted infection. The relation of childhood personality to sexual risk taking during adolescence has been largely unexplored. Methods: Using data collected from participants in…
Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be “out,” and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors. PMID:25344027
Calero, Juan del Rey
The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398
Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.
We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…
Sharpe, Thomasina H.
This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)
Cooper, M L; Peirce, R S; Huselid, R F
Analyses of data from a random sample of 1,259 sexually active adolescents revealed that substance use was associated with increased sexual risk taking on 2 occasions of intercourse (1st intercourse ever and 1st intercourse with most recent partner), even after controlling for demographic experiential, and dispositional confounders. Within-persons analyses yielded similar results, indicating that adolescents who used substances, on 1 of the 2 occasions, reported higher levels of risk taking on the occasion when substances were used than on the no-substance use occasion. However, substance use was both more common and more strongly linked to risk taking among White than Black adolescents, suggesting that White adolescents are a greater risk of negative consequences related to substance use proximal to intercourse. PMID:8055860
Voisin, Dexter R
This study examined the relationship between family ecology and HIV sexual risk behavior among African American and Puerto Rican adolescent males. Family, psychosocial, and HIV risk factors were assessed in 171 African American and 187 Puerto Rican adolescent males. Findings suggest that family ecology, culture, and gender role variables may differentially affect HIV sexual risk behaviors within these groups. PMID:15792069
Almy, Brandon; Long, Kristin; Lobato, Debra; Plante, Wendy; Kao, Barbara; Houck, Christopher
Objective Most American youth have siblings. This study examined the influence of early adolescents’ perceptions of their older sibling’s sexual activity on their own sexual attitudes and behaviors. Method Early adolescents (ages 12–14) at risk for emotional/behavioral problems reported on attitudes towards sex, sexual behaviors, perception of older siblings’ and peers’ sexual activity, and perceived parental approval toward sex. The sample was divided into three groups: teens who thought their older sibling was not having sex (N = 119), teens who believed their sibling was sexually active (N = 55) and teens without an older sibling (N = 170). Results Teens who thought their older sibling was not having sex scored higher in valuing abstinence and lower on perceptions of peer sex and maternal approval toward sex than teens who perceived their sibling to be having sex and teens without an older sibling. With regard to behaviors, teens who thought their older sibling was not having sex were less likely to endorse making out, touching genitals, oral sex, and vaginal sex compared to teens who thought their older sibling was having sex. Conclusion Perceptions that older siblings abstain from sexual activity may be a protective factor for more conservative attitudes towards sex and decreased sexual activity among young, at-risk teens. A single question about perceptions of siblings’ sexual behaviors can be integrated into healthcare visits to introduce conversations about age-appropriate sexual decision-making. PMID:25741948
Seth, Puja; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R.
Background Adolescents with a history of psychiatric disorder(s) are particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmissible infections (STIs) as a result of psychological and emotional states associated with higher rates of risky sexual behaviour. The present study examined gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and STI among adolescents in mental health treatment. Methods Three hundred and seventy nine sexually active adolescents, aged 13–18 years, from a larger multisite study, who received mental health treatment during the past year, completed an audio computer-assisted self interview assessing sociodemographics, psychiatric symptomatology and HIV/STI risk behaviours, and provided urine specimens tested for STI. Results After controlling for covariates, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that female adolescents were more likely to have had an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.2, P = 0.0001), obtain their HIV test results (AOR = 2.9, P = 0.03), refuse sex out of fear for STI acquisition (AOR = 1.7, P = 0.04), or avoid a situation that might lead to sex (AOR = 2.4, P = 0.001), and were less likely to have a casual sex partner (AOR = 0.40, P = 0.002). Additionally, females were more likely to report inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.60, P = 0.001) and have a STI (AOR = 9.1, P = 0.0001) than their male counterparts. Conclusions Female adolescents receiving mental health treatment were more than nine times as likely to have an STI and more likely to use condoms inconsistently. The standard of care for mental health practice for adolescents should include referrals for STI screening and treatment as well as assessment and discussion of risky sexual behaviours as part of the treatment plan when indicated. Effective programs should address gender-specific communication and behavioural skills. PMID:22697141
Moilanen, Kristin L.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Jones, Bobby L.
Developmental trajectories of risky sexual behavior were identified in a multiethnic sample of 1,121 youth drawn from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set (NLSY79). Group-based trajectory modeling of a composite index of sexual risk taking revealed four sexual risk groups from ages 16 to 22: low risk, decreasing risk,…
Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.
Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African American female adolescent detainees: a relational pathway and a substance use coping pathway. The relational pathway indicated that child maltreatment would be related to non-condom use via depressive self-concept and condom use self-efficacy. The substance use coping pathway suggested that depressive self-concept and alcohol-based expectancies for sexual enhancement would mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and non-condom use. As hypothesized, the relational pathway variables were associated with one another in the expected directions; however, evidence of mediation was not found. Support for mediation was found for the substance use coping pathway. Exploratory across group comparison analysis indicated that the relational pathway was significant for White girls whereas the substance use coping pathway was significant for African American girls. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:21188488
Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.
Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4,311). Less than 10% of East Asian adolescents have ever had sexual intercourse. However, most of these sexually active adolescents have engaged in risky sexual behaviours, including multiple sexual partners and non-condom use at last intercourse. In particular, nearly half of sexually active girls reported not using a condom at last intercourse. Compared to immigrant students whose primary language at home was not English, immigrant and Canadian-born students speaking English at home were more likely to experience sexual intercourse. Among students who have never had sexual intercourse, two most common reasons for sexual abstinence were not feeling ready and waiting to meet the right person. Findings suggest the need for sexual health interventions tailored to gender and sociocultural contexts in which adolescents live. PMID:27087776
Sandelowski, Margarete; McQuiston, Chris
Adverse sexual health outcomes remain disproportionately high for Latino adolescents. To examine sexual risk behaviors in Latino adolescents, we conducted in-depth interviews with 18 Latino parents and 13 school staff members and carried out one year of fieldwork in the school and community. “It’s a touchy subject [sex] here” exemplified the reluctance of addressing sexual risk behaviors. Community and systems-level strategies are recommended. PMID:21741798
Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Rosario, Margaret; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian
Objectives. We examined disparities in risk determinants and risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) between gay-identified, bisexual-identified, and heterosexual-identified young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and heterosexual-identified young men who have sex with women (YMSW) using a school-based sample of US sexually active adolescent males. Methods. We analyzed a pooled data set of Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2005 and 2007 that included information on sexual orientation identity, sexual behaviors, and multiple STI risk factors. Results. Bisexual-identified adolescents were more likely to report multiple STI risk behaviors (number of sex partners, concurrent sex partners, and age of sexual debut) compared with heterosexual YMSW as well as heterosexual YMSM and gay-identified respondents. Gay, bisexual, and heterosexual YMSM were significantly more likely to report forced sex compared with heterosexual YMSW. Conclusions. Our results provide evidence that sexual health disparities emerge early in the life course and vary by both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. In particular, they show that bisexual-identified adolescent males exhibit a unique risk profile that warrants targeted sexual health interventions. PMID:24825214
Russell, Stephen T.; Joyner, Kara
Used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to investigate links between sexual orientation and suicidality. There was a strong link between adolescent sexual orientation and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This relationship was mediated by critical youth suicide risk factors (depression, hopelessness, alcohol abuse,…
Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A; Leeder, Elisa; Barrientos, Sohani; Kibler, Jeffrey L
The study objective was to examine the associations between cultural values and sexual risk factors among Latino youth. A sample of 226 Latino adolescents ages 13-16 completed a survey on cultural and sexual variables. Results indicate higher levels of Latino cultural orientation were related to greater sexual self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners for female adolescents and greater condom use self-efficacy for both males and females. Greater endorsement of simpatia (belief in interpersonal relationship harmony) was associated with sexual abstinence and greater sexual self-efficacy for all adolescents, and with being older at sexual debut for females. Stronger endorsement of respeto (respect towards parents and other authority figures) was correlated with a lower intention to have sex during secondary school and greater condom use self-efficacy. American cultural orientation was associated with less condom use. Our findings indicate Latino cultural values may serve as protective factors against sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth. PMID:25233526
Rainey, D Y; Stevens-Simon, C; Kaplan, D W
Adolescents who report prior sexual abuse are at increased risk for adolescent pregnancy. This may result from earlier, more frequent, less well-protected sexual activity or from a greater desire to conceive. To determine the relative contribution of these two possible explanations to the reported association between sexual abuse and adolescent pregnancy, we studied the reproductive and sexual histories of 200 sexually active 13-18 year old females in relation to self-reported sexual abuse. Anonymous questionnaires revealed that 40 (20%) of the 200 subjects reported sexual abuse. Analyses revealed no group differences in the median age of first voluntary intercourse, the frequency of sexual intercourse, or the consistency of birth control use. Compared to their nonabused peers, however, teenagers reporting abuse were more likely to be trying to conceive (35% vs. 14% p < .01), to have boyfriends pressuring them to conceive (76% vs. 44% p < .01), and to have fears about infertility (38% vs. 16% p < .01). Our findings suggest that childhood sexual abuse may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy by fostering the desire to conceive. Further study is needed to determine why a disproportionate number of sexually abused adolescents desire pregnancy. The efficacy of adolescent pregnancy prevention programs may be improved by identifying previously abused adolescents and by designing educational interventions that specifically address their desire to conceive. PMID:8556442
Garwick, Ann; Nerdahl, Peggy; Banken, Rachel; Muenzenberger-Bretl, Lynn; Sieving, Renee
This article describes a preliminary qualitative evaluation of risk and protective factors associated with consistent contraceptive use and healthy sexual decision-making among ten of the first participants in the Prime Time intervention study. Prime Time is an 18-month intervention including one-on-one case management and peer educator training targeting sexually active 13-17-year-old girls who are recruited from health care clinics. Using an approach grounded in findings from previous research, social cognitive theory, and the social development model, Prime Time aims to improve participants' contraceptive use consistency, reduce number of sexual partners, and reduce unwanted sexual activity. Findings from this preliminary evaluation alert health care providers to the complex and dynamic nature of adolescent girls' sexual behaviors and to a broad range of risk and protective factors within individuals and their environments that may influence adolescent girls' sexual behaviors and contraceptive use. Findings suggest that an ongoing, supportive relationship with a case manager who is able to pace and tailor an intervention to the individual young person can have positive effects on adolescent girls' sexual behaviors and contraceptive use. PMID:15614258
Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja
CONTEXT Considerable research has examined reciprocal relationships between parenting, peers and adolescent problem behavior; however, such studies have largely considered the influence of peers and parents separately. It is important to examine simultaneously the relationships between parental monitoring, peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior, and whether increases in peer risk involvement and changes in parental monitoring longitudinally predict adolescent sexual risk behavior. METHODS Four waves of sexual behavior data were collected between 2008/2009 and 2011 from high school students aged 13–17 in the Bahamas. Structural equation and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, perceived peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior. RESULTS For both male and female youth, greater perceived peer risk involvement predicted higher sexual risk behavior index scores, and greater parental monitoring predicted lower scores. Reciprocal relationships were found between parental monitoring and sexual risk behavior for males and between perceived peer risk involvement and sexual risk behavior for females. For males, greater sexual risk behavior predicted lower parental monitoring; for females, greater sexual risk behavior predicted higher perceived peer risk involvement. According to latent growth curve models, a higher initial level of parental monitoring predicted decreases in sexual risk behavior, whereas both a higher initial level and a higher growth rate of peer risk involvement predicted increases in sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Results highlight the important influence of peer risk involvement on youths’ sexual behavior and gender differences in reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, peer influence and adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:26308261
Lee, Jieha; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris
Latinas in the United States are at a disproportionate risk for STDs and sexual risk behaviors. Among Latinas, acculturation has been found to be one of the most important predictors of these behaviors. Therefore, this study examined the longitudinal association between Latina adolescents' level of acculturation and multiple sexual risk outcomes,…
Young, Brennan J.; Furman, Wyndol; Jones, Meredith C.
Investigators have identified a number of factors that increase the risk for experiencing sexual coercion, but as yet little is known about how sexual coercion in turn affects these risk factors. Using a sample of 110 adolescents, the current study examined the hypothesis that, after an incident of sexual coercion, adolescents would exhibit increases in several behaviors known to increase risk for victimization. As predicted, after experiencing sexual coercion, adolescents reported increased externalizing symptoms, more frequent sexual intercourse and a greater total number of intercourse partners. Finally, alcohol use, drug use, and problems related to substance use increased. These findings suggest the presence of a feedback loop, in which the experience of sexual coercion leads to an intensification of the factors that initially contributed risk for coercion. PMID:22559131
Guarini, Tristan E.; Marks, Amy K.; Patton, Flannery; Coll, Cynthia Garcia
This article contributes new evidence on the associations among immigrant generation, gender, and sexual risk behavior among Latino adolescents in the United States. Longitudinal data from 3,272 Latino adolescents (grades 7-12) who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were examined for evidence of the…
Hadley, Wendy; Hunter, Heather L; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Lescano, Celia; Thompson, Ariel; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry K
The present study sought to examine associations between maternal psychopathology, parental monitoring, and adolescent sexual activity among adolescents in mental health treatment. Seven hundred ninety mother-adolescent dyads recruited from adolescent mental health treatment settings completed audio computer-assisted structured interview assessments examining parent psychiatric symptoms, parental monitoring, and adolescent sexual risk behavior. Path analysis was used to examine the associations between variables of interest. Maternal caregivers who reported more mental health symptoms were more likely to have adolescents who reported recent sex and this relationship was mediated by less parental monitoring. These findings suggest that maternal caregivers with mental health symptoms may need specific interventions that provide assistance and support in monitoring their teens in order to reduce sexual risk taking among adolescents in mental health treatment. PMID:21417519
Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. Results The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. Conclusion There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended. PMID:25437631
Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148
Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing
The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence.…
Biglan, A; Noell, J; Ochs, L; Smolkowski, K; Metzler, C
Sexual coercion and its relationship to high-risk sexual behavior were examined in five samples of young women. Sample 1 (N = 22) consisted of sexually active adolescents aged 15 to 19. Samples 2 (N = 206) and 3 (N = 70) were recruited from among patients at three sexually transmitted disease clinics. Sample 4 (N = 51) consisted of young homeless women living on the street in a large city. Sample 5 (N = 51) was recruited from among young women on a college campus. Across all samples, 44.4% of women indicated that they had been forced into some form of sexual activity against their will. Self-reports of sexually coercive experiences were consistently related to risky sexual behavior. It appears that many young women are coerced into engaging in high-risk sexual behavior. This implies the need for greater attention to male coercive sexual behavior and women's skills for coping with such behavior. PMID:8749985
Miller, Kathleen E.; Farrell, Michael P.; Barnes, Grace M.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Sabo, Don
Despite recent declines in overall sexual activity, sexual risk-taking remains a substantial danger to US youth. Existing research points to athletic participation as a promising venue for reducing these risks. Linear regressions and multiple analyses of covariance were performed on a longitudinal sample of nearly 600 Western New York adolescents in order to examine gender- and race-specific relationships between “jock” identity and adolescent sexual risk-taking, including age of sexual onset, past-year and lifetime frequency of sexual intercourse, and number of sexual partners. After controlling for age, race, socioeconomic status, and family cohesion, male jocks reported more frequent dating than nonjocks but female jocks did not. For both genders, athletic activity was associated with lower levels of sexual risk-taking; however, jock identity was associated with higher levels of sexual risk-taking, particularly among African American adolescents. Future research should distinguish between subjective and objective dimensions of athletic involvement as factors in adolescent sexual risk. PMID:16429602
Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.
Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…
Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph
Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…
Chan, Connie S.
There has been a widespread perception that Asian Americans are at lower risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases than the population as a whole. This report assesses the knowledge of Asian American adolescents about AIDS and their sexual behaviors and explores whether there is a difference between a Cambodian group (half the…
Sweeting, Helen; Haw, Sally
Objectives The authors aimed to examine whether changes in health risk behaviour rates alter the relationships between behaviours during adolescence, by comparing clustering of risk behaviours at different time points. Design Comparison of two cohort studies, the Twenty-07 Study (‘earlier cohort’, surveyed in 1987 and 1990) and the 11-16/16+ Study (‘later cohort’, surveyed 1999 and 2003). Setting Central Clydeside Conurbation around Glasgow City. Participants Young people who participated in the Twenty-07 and 11-16/16+ studies at ages 15 and 18–19. Primary and secondary outcomes measures The authors analysed data on risk behaviours in both early adolescence (started smoking prior to age 14, monthly drinking and ever used illicit drugs at age 15 and sexual intercourse prior to age 16) and late adolescence (age 18–19, current smoking, excessive drinking, ever used illicit drugs and multiple sexual partners) by gender and social class. Results Drinking, illicit drug use and risky sexual behaviour (but not smoking) increased between the earlier and later cohort, especially among girls. The authors found strong associations between substance use and sexual risk behaviour during early and late adolescence, with few differences between cohorts, or by gender or social class. Adjusted ORs for associations between each substance and sexual risk behaviour were around 2.00. The only significant between-cohort difference was a stronger association between female early adolescent smoking and early sexual initiation in the later cohort. Also, relationships between illicit drug use and both early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners in late adolescence were significantly stronger among girls than boys in the later cohort. Conclusions Despite changes in rates, relationships between adolescent risk behaviours remain strong, irrespective of gender and social class. This indicates a need for improved risk behaviour prevention in young people, perhaps through a
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Harlin, Badia; Collins, Jennifer L.
Although information is available for prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV), adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behavior particularly ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of STI or abuse. A description therefore of STI/HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among these women is indicated for modification of prevention efforts for sexual health promotion. African-American (n=94) and Mexican-American (n=465) adolescent women 14–18 years of age were included in the study. Assessments of sexual risk behavior and STI/HIV knowledge among these adolescent women described Mexican-American women as at higher risk of STI, pregnancy, substance use and abuse with lower levels of STI/HIV knowledge, previous HIV testing and perceptions of risk than African-American women. A focus on Mexican-American adolescent women with histories of STI and abuse is indicated for translation of community-based health promotion interventions for amelioration of potential adverse sexual health outcomes among ethnic minority adolescent women. PMID:23867137
Harris, Allyssa L
Adolescents spend an inordinate amount of time engaged with media, which is highly sexualized. Sexualized material can be found in music, on television and the Internet, as well as in magazines and books. Adolescents engaged with media are often influenced by this sexualized content, leading them to engage in risky sexual behavior. Urban literature (urban lit) is extremely popular among African-American female adolescents due to its portrayal of urban life and hip-hop culture. The purpose of this survey was to ascertain the extent to which African-American adolescent females are reading urban literature and to document whether this genre of literature had an effect on their sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26371361
Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing
This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23 and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high…
Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S
African American female adolescents have a disproportionate risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other adverse sexual health outcomes. Both alcohol and marijuana use have been shown to predict sexual risk among young African American women. However, no studies have attempted to differentiate alcohol and marijuana typologies use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes exclusively among adolescents who use these substances. This study compared recent alcohol and/or marijuana use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes over 18 months among 182 African American female adolescents. African American females (14-20 years) completed interviews at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. At each assessment, pregnancy testing was conducted and self-collected vaginal swab specimens were assayed for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using DNA amplification. Logistic subject-specific random-intercept models compared sexual risk outcomes during follow-up among adolescents who reported recent use of alcohol only (AO), marijuana only (MO) or both substances (A + M) at the baseline assessment. Relative to baseline AO use, baseline MO use predicted condom non-use at last sex. Relative to AO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy. Relative to MO use, A + M use predicted pregnancy and acquisition of T. vaginalis and any STI. The results suggest that African American female adolescents who use A + M may represent a priority population for STI, HIV, and pregnancy prevention efforts. PMID:25929200
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population. PMID:27242369
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T.; Quinn, Camille R.; Cryer, Qiana R.
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/ or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman’s life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102
Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S.
Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters’ abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter’s HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks. PMID:22677973
Murphy, Debra A.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Reid, Helen M.
Assesses variations in perceived HIV risk, peer and partner social norms regarding safe sex, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and risk-reduction skills based on gender and sexual risk-level among 132 heterosexual, sexually active, inner-city adolescents. Results imply that adolescents' HIV-prevention programs must be tailored to gender and…
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin
Objectives Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status. Methods We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10–19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman’s conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies. Results Eighty-one adolescents (18.6%) reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14–11.87), and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56–4.95). Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96–1.11) and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73–2.65), but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34–1.18). They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62–3.50) than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49–1.64) to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03) and loss and grief (p = 0.009). Adolescents reporting forced
O’Hara, Ross E.; Cooper, M. Lynne
Overwhelming evidence indicates that sexual risk-taking behavior and alcohol use are linked, but the nature, strength, and timing of these relations may differ between gender and racial subgroups. These issues were addressed by examining the course and interrelations of both behaviors from adolescence into young adulthood, as well as how these patterns differed between both men and women and between Blacks and Whites. Data came from a representative, community-based sample of 1867 urban participants surveyed up to 5 times over a 15-year period. Although both prospective and trajectory analyses showed that adolescent involvement in one behavior predicted later involvement in the other, most patterns were moderated by gender, race, or both. In general, positive, bidirectional associations were discovered among men and Whites. Among women, adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior positively predicted later drinking, but not vice versa. For Blacks, adolescent alcohol use was inconsistently related to later sexual risk-taking behavior, and adolescent sexual risk-taking negatively predicted later alcohol use. Results suggest that associations between sexual risk-taking behavior and alcohol use are more complex than previously thought and that an adequate understanding of these links must account for both gender and racial differences. PMID:25808720
Different pathological states occurring during adolescence, such as anorexia, bulimia and suicidal attempts are seen as possible manifestations of psychological defence mechanisms against the anxiety-provoking bodily changes of puberty and the necessary psychological transformations inherent to adolescence and sexual maturation. The changes of object of desire and some sexual risk behaviours are illustrated by clinical vignettes. Music is suggested to play a role in the mobilisation of emotions, bodily sensations and in the construction of an imaginary world and thus to be a factor--a part from biological and psycho-social ones--influencing the sexual behaviour of adolescents. Some communication techniques are suggested enabling access to adolescents on sexual matters - a domain of increasing public health importance. PMID:16615726
Kuzman, Marina; Simetin, Ivana Pavić; Franelić, Iva Pejnović
Sexual behaviour in adolescence is a sensitive issue and has possible immediate and long term medical and psychical consequences. The aim of the study was to examine whether early sexual intercourse varies by gender and how is associated with unhealthy behaviour and factors of psycho-social well-being. 773 boys and 857 girls of 15.5 years old, included in a representative national school-based survey, conducted in Croatia in 2006, were invited to fill in anonymous questionnaires. Sexual experience before the age of 16 years was reported by 28.6% of the boys and 16.5% of the girls. Early sexual experience in boys was associated with smoking, drinking of alcohol, marijuana taking, physical fighting, and bullying other The odds ratio was highest for smoking. (OR:8. 1; CI:5.4-12. 1). For girls the same variables were associated with the early sexual intercourse, marijuana use being the strongest independent predictor (OR:8.0; CI:5.0-12.6). While controlled for other behaviours, daily smoking remained the strongest predictor for both genders. Girls who had early sexual experience were more prone to be dissatisfied with their health (OR:2.9; CI:2.0-4.2), with their life (OR:2.1; CI:1.4-3.0), communication with father and mother (OR:1.9; CI:1.2-2.8 and OR:1. 7; CI:1.1-2.6) and reported more psychosomatic symptoms (OR:2.9; CI:2.0-4.3). For both genders odds were higher if they had good communication with the friend of the opposite gender. Evenings spent out with friends were associated to early sexual experience in boys and girls as well as poorer school achievement. Early menarche was associated with the probability of being engaged in the early sexual intercourse and with smoking, marijuana use and psychosomatic symptoms. Early sexual intercourse is associated with unhealthy behaviour such as smoking, substance abuse, aggressiveness and lower psychosocial well-being. Preventive educational programmes should follow multi-facet approaches and recognize differences between
Voisin, Dexter R.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.
This study recruited 559 youths from detention centers (mean age was 15.4 years; 50.1% of detainees were girls) to investigate pathways that link witnessing community violence in the 12 months before detainment to drug and sexual risk behaviors in the two months preceding detainment. Through the use of audio-computer-assisted technology, data were…
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin
Introduction We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons’ in rural and urban Nigeria. Methodology We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants’ socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day), sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers), sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner), and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms) were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined. Results More than half (53.5%) of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001) and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04). Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02), and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007). More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005). More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04) and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001) areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural
Nappi, Carla M; Thakral, Charu; Kapungu, Chisina; Donenberg, Geri R; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry
Authors examined if parental monitoring moderated effects of family sexual communication on sexual risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care. Seven hundred and eighteen parents reported upon quality of family discussions about sex-related topics and degree to which they monitor teen behavior. Adolescents reported the frequency of their own safe sex practices. Parental monitoring moderated the family communication quality-sexual risk behavior relationship among African American families. African American parents who perceived themselves as capable of open family sexual communication and frequent monitoring had adolescents who reported decreased sexual risk behavior. The moderator model was not supported among Caucasian and Hispanic families and findings did not depend upon gender. For African Americans, findings support the influential role of family processes in development of teen sexual risk behavior and suggest, for parents of teens receiving mental health services, learning communication and monitoring skills may be critical to their adolescent's sexual health. PMID:19085102
Carlson, Daniel L.; McNulty, Thomas L.; Bellair, Paul E.; Watts, Stephen
Understanding the determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent sexual risk behavior is important given its links to the differential risk of teen pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted infections. This article tests a contextual model that emphasizes the concentration of neighborhood disadvantage in shaping racial/ethnic disparities in sexual risk behavior. We focus on two risk behaviors that are prevalent among Black and Hispanic youth: the initiation of sexual activity in adolescence and the number of sex partners. Using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 6,985; 48% female; 57% non-Hispanic White) evidence indicates that neighborhood disadvantage – measured by concentrated poverty, unemployment rates, and the proportion of female-headed households – partially explains Black and Hispanic disparities from Whites in the odds of adolescent sexual debut, although the prevalence of female-headed households in neighborhoods appears to be the main driver in this domain. Likewise, accounting for neighborhood disadvantage reduces the Black-White and Hispanic-White disparity in the number of sexual partners, although less so relative to sexual debut. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:24214727
Villarruel, Antonia M.; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Cabriales, Esther Gallegos; Ronis, David L.; Zhou, Yan
This article reports results of a randomized controlled trial designed to test an intervention to increase parent-adolescent sexual risk communication among Mexican parents. Data were analyzed from parents (n = 791) randomly assigned to an HIV risk reduction or health promotion intervention. Measures were administered at pretest, posttest, and 6-…
Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.
Abstract Background: Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Methods: Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14–20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Results: Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the “higher risk” group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the “lower risk” group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Conclusions: Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services. PMID
Price, Myeshia N.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
This study explored factors that may be associated with early initiation of sexual activity among adolescents. Using the cumulative risk model, we hypothesized that as exposure to risk factors increases, so does the likelihood of early sexual debut. A sample of 273 (53% girls, 90% European American) adolescents was followed longitudinally from age…
Kameoka, Velma A.
Objectives. We examined ethnic variations in high-risk sexual behaviors among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents in comparison with White adolescents. Methods. We obtained data from the 2003 Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey on 4953 students in grades 9 through 12. We conducted χ2 and logistic regression analyses on these data to examine the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among Japanese, Filipino, Native Hawaiian, and White adolescents. Results. We found significant ethnic variation in prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among API adolescents. Relative to White adolescents, Native Hawaiian adolescents were most likely to engage in lifetime sexual intercourse, recent sexual intercourse, and sexual initiation before age 13 years; Japanese adolescents were least likely to engage in these behaviors. Filipino adolescents were least likely to use substances before last sexual intercourse and condoms during last sexual intercourse. Conclusions. Our findings suggest divergent patterns of risk among API ethnic groups, underscoring the heterogeneity of API subgroups and emphasizing the need for health disparities research on disaggregated API ethnic groups. The findings of such research should be used to design ethnically relevant interventions aimed at mitigating the negative health consequences of high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:19106424
Pierre, N; Shrier, L A; Emans, S J; DuRant, R H
The hypothesis that adolescent males who cause a pregnancy are more likely to have been victims of forced sexual contact and to have engaged in health risk and problem behaviors in the recent past than their sexually active counterparts who have not been involved in a pregnancy was investigated through use of a subset of data from the Massachusetts (US) 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 99 (12%) of the 824 sexually active male survey respondents reported having caused a pregnancy. A history of forced sexual contact was reported by 8.1%. Among those acknowledging forced sexual conduct, 36.4% had caused a pregnancy; of those without such a history, only 9.4% were involved in a pregnancy (p 0.00001). In addition, males who were involved in a pregnancy reported a greater likelihood of engaging in 16 health risk and problem behaviors in the previous 1, 3, and 12 months than those not involved in a pregnancy. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified 5 significant, independent predictors of having impregnated a female adolescent: number of sex partners in the previous 3 months (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.65); history of forced sexual contact (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.79-7.09); carrying weapons on school property (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.64); cigarettes smoked/day (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08-1.38); and condom nonuse at last intercourse (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.06-3.02). This model correctly classified 89.9% of sexually active male students who had been involved in a pregnancy. These findings suggest a need to screen sexually active males for these risk factors, especially a history of forced sexual contact, as part of interventions aimed at preventing adolescent pregnancy. PMID:9870330
Beaver, Kevin M
A rich line of empirical research has indicated that antisocial behaviors are the result of genetic factors and environmental factors working interactively. The current study uses this knowledge base as a springboard to examine the effects of childhood sexual abuse and genetic risk in the prediction of adolescent violent delinquency. To address this issue, data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. The results of the analyses reveal that childhood sexual abuse interacts with genetic risk to predict involvement in violent delinquency for males. The effects of childhood sexual abuse and genetic risk as well as the interaction between the two are unrelated to violent delinquency for females. Implications of the study are discussed. PMID:18840900
Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Elklit, Ask; Koss, Mary P.
The objective of this study was to develop a psychometric measure of risk for sexual victimization from adolescent peers. Items were generated on the basis of the literature and on consultations with a multidisciplinary group of key informants. The items were administered to a sample of 327 female Grade-9 students and examined using exploratory…
Lavan, Hannah; Johnson, Jeffrey G
This study was conducted to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and high-risk sexual behavior among adolescent primary care patients. Interviews assessing anxiety, conduct, depressive, eating, substance use, and personality disorders (PDs), as well as histories of sexual behavior were administered to 119 male and 284 female adolescent primary care patients. Results indicated that, after co-occurring psychiatric disorders were controlled statistically, adolescents with elevated PD symptom levels were more likely than adolescents without elevated PD symptom levels to report a high number of sexual partners during the past year and during their lifetime. Adolescents with a history of conduct disorder were more likely than adolescents without such a history to report a high number of lifetime unsafe sexual partners. Elevated antisocial, dependent, and paranoid PD symptom levels were associated with high-risk sexual behavior after co-occurring psychiatric disorders were controlled. Further, certain specific antisocial, borderline, dependent, histrionic, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid, and schizotypal PD symptoms were independently associated with high-risk sexual behavior after co-occurring psychiatric disorders and overall PD symptom levels were controlled. The association between overall PD symptom levels and the number of sexual partners was significantly stronger among the females than among the males in the sample. Increased recognition and treatment of PDs, coupled with increased recognition of high-risk sexual behavior may facilitate the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage pregnancy among adolescents. PMID:11881162
Everett, Bethany G.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle
Objectives. We used nuanced measures of sexual minority status to examine disparities in victimization and their variations by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Methods. We conducted multivariate analyses of pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Results. Although all sexual minorities reported more fighting, skipping school because they felt unsafe, and having property stolen or damaged at school than did heterosexuals, rates were highest among youths who identified as bisexual or who reported both male and female sexual partners. Gender differences among sexual minorities appeared to be concentrated among bisexuals and respondents who reported sexual partners of both genders. Sexual minority youths reported more fighting than heterosexual youths, especially at younger ages, and more nonphysical school victimization that persisted through adolescence. White and Hispanic sexual minority youths reported more indicators of victimization than did heterosexuals; we found few sexual minority differences among African American and Asian American youths. Conclusions. Victimization carries health consequences, and sexual minorities are at increased risk. Surveys should include measures that allow tracking of disparities in victimization by sexual minority status. PMID:24328633
Brunnberg, Elinor; Bostrom, Margareta Linden; Berglund, Mats
The aims of this study are first to compare the incidence of force on the first occasion of sexual intercourse reported by participants with disabilities to that of students without disabilities; second to determine whether there are significant differences in mental health, substance abuse, and school performance as reported by participants…
This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…
Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived susceptibility…
Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly B.; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W.; Brody, Janet L.; Barrera, Manuel
Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or to an integrated behavioral and family therapy (IBFT) condition, involving individual and family sessions. The HIV-specific intervention was not associated with change. IBFT and CBT were both efficacious in reducing HIV-risk behaviors from intake to the 18-month follow-up for high-risk adolescents. For low-risk adolescents, CBT (versus IBFT) was more efficacious in suppressing HRSB. These data suggest that drug abuse treatments can have both preventative and intervention effects for adolescents, depending on their relative HIV-risk. PMID:21833690
Blake, Susan M.; Ledsky, Rebecca; Lehman, Thomas; Goodenow, Carol; Sawyer, Richard; Hack, Tim
Compared the sexual risk taking behaviors of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) and heterosexual adolescents, evaluating associations between gay-sensitive school HIV instruction and GLB adolescents' risk behaviors. Surveys indicated that GLB students had more high risk behaviors than heterosexual students, and those in schools with gay-sensitive…
Villarruel, Antonia M; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Cabriales, Esther Gallegos; Ronis, David L; Zhou, Yan
This article reports results of a randomized controlled trial designed to test an intervention to increase parent-adolescent sexual risk communication among Mexican parents. Data were analyzed from parents (n = 791) randomly assigned to an HIV risk reduction or health promotion intervention. Measures were administered at pretest, posttest, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Generalized estimation equation (GEE) analysis indicates parents in the HIV risk reduction intervention reported significantly more general communication (p < .005), more sexual risk communication (p < .001) and more comfort with communication (p < .001) than parents in the control intervention. Behavioral, normative, and control beliefs significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on all communication outcomes. This study demonstrates the efficacy of an intervention to increase the quality and quantity of parent-adolescent communication related to general and sex-specific communication. PMID:18956979
Background Young people in Laos are more vulnerable to STIs/HIV due to their sexual risk behaviours, low perceptions of risk and their socio-cultural environments. Perceived risk of contracting STIs/HIV is crucial for the assessment of their risk regarding their actual sexual risk behaviors. Thus, the objective of this paper is to explore perceptions of risk related to STIs/HIV and identify factors associated with this perceived risk among adolescents. Methods This was a cross sectional study of sexually experienced adolescents aged 14 to 19 years old in the Luangnamtha province. The multistage sampling techniques were used for selecting 1008 adolescents aged 14-19 years old. Of these, 483 respondents reported having had sexual experience was selected for analysis. Univariate and Logistic regression were performed. Result Six per cent of respondents reported ever having had anal sex. Slightly less than two thirds initiated their first sexual intercourse before age 15. Two thirds of the sexually experienced males reported two or more sexual partners during their lifetime with the mean 3.1 + 3.65 while only twelve per cent of girls reported this cumulative number of partners. Slightly more than half (57.6%) regarded themselves to have no risk at all with 17.2 per cent considered themselves to have low risk. Respondents had poor knowledge on STIs/HIV. Factors associated with risk perception of getting STIs were: being male, high level of knowledge about STIs and having had symptoms of STIs in last six months. Perceived risk of getting HIV was significantly associated with being male, having more knowledge about STIs and HIV. Conclusion Adolescents in this study engaged in sexual risk behaviours, but they have low perception of risk getting STI/HIV. Socio-demographic factors, knowledge of STIs/HIV, and the level of exposure to STIs were the main determinants of the risk perception of STIs/HIV. Our finding supports the need to target adolescents in Luangnamtha
Saftner, Melissa A
Previous research with American Indian (AI) adolescent sexual risk behavior primarily focused on reservation-dwelling youth despite 70% of AIs living off Native lands. Using grounded theory methodology, I sampled 20 adolescent AI girls via talking circles and interviews to explore the perceptions of AI adolescent girls living in an urban, Midwest area about the influence of family and friends on their sexual behavior. Similar to research with other racial groups, participants cited their family and friends as a major influence. Five unique themes emerged related to family and friend influence. Urban-dwelling AI girls rely on their female family members and peers for information related to sex and receive varying messages from their networks of family and friends, which often overlap. AI youth have unique family groups yet have some similarities to other ethnic groups with regard to family and friend relationships that may allow for enhanced intervention development. PMID:26612887
Minnis, A M; Doherty, I; vanDommelen-Gonzalez, E; Cheng, H; Otero-Sabogal, R; Padian, N S
Sexual partner characteristics increase risk for adverse reproductive health outcomes. Evidence is limited regarding whether choice of sexual partners among Latino adolescents changes with U.S. acculturation/adaptation. We used generalized estimating equations to assess the associations between immigrant generation (recent immigrant, 1.5 [immigrated prior to adolescence], 2nd and 3rd) and sexual partner risk in a prospective cohort study of 411 Latino adolescents aged 14-19. We examined three measures of partner risk and mediating effects of family influence (familism and parental monitoring). The odds of reporting a partner with frequent substance use increased with increasing immigrant generation (odds ratios (OR) [reference = recent immigrants]: 2.3, 3.4, and 5.6) as did having a partner who was in a gang/incarcerated (OR [reference = recent immigrants]: 2.4, 3.6, and 5.7). Though the odds of having high-risk partners decreased with higher parental monitoring, neither family influence measure mediated these relationships. Findings underscore the need for a prevention focus on partner choice with attention to increased risk with increasing U.S. generation. PMID:20440647
Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.
Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…
Fullilove, M T; Golden, E; Fullilove, R E; Lennon, R; Porterfield, D; Schwarcz, S; Bolan, G
The recent spread of crack cocaine use among inner-city teenagers has been accompanied by dramatic increases in juvenile delinquency and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among teenagers. This study examined the prevalence of five factors which promote STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), among a sample of sexually active black adolescent crack users and non-users from the San Francisco Bay Area. Significant differences were observed between these groups with respect to history of engaging in sexual intercourse under the influence of drugs or alcohol, exchanging sexual favors for drugs or money, condom use in the most recent sexual encounter, and having five or more sexual partners in the last year. Approximately 63% of all respondents reported engaging in at least one of these risk behaviors. In multiple logistic regression analysis, reporting one or more of these STD/HIV risk behaviors was significantly associated with crack use and having one or more relatives who used drugs. Intervention efforts need to address both individual and environmental risk factors in order to reduce teens' risk for STDs, including HIV. PMID:8347641
Guimarães, Eleuse MB; Guimarães, Mark DC; Vieira, Maria Aparecida S; Bontempo, Nádia M; Seixas, Mirian SS; Garcia, Mônica SD; Daud, Lyana ES; Côrtes, Rejane LM; Alves, Maria de Fátima C
Background Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6%) were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. Results The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2) and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7). Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. Conclusion The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required. PMID:19284575
Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L
Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual
Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Xia, Yinglin; Passmore, Denise
Aim and objectives To investigate differences in sexual-risk factors between adolescent girls reporting similar-aged or older sex partners. Background Adolescent girls are at significant risk for heterosexual-acquired HIV infection and other long term reproductive health issues. Sexual partner age-discordance in teen girls has been correlated with STIs, lack of protection, multiple partners, and earlier age of sexual transition. Design A descriptive study comparing girls currently involved with age-discordant partners to those with similar-aged partners. Two-sample t-test for continuous variables and for categorical variables, Chi-square or Fisher exact test were used to compare groups. Methods Baseline data from 738 sexually-active, urban, adolescent girls ages 15 to 19, were analyzed to determine which behaviors were more likely to occur in girls with older partners. Data were collected as part of a gender specific HIV-prevention intervention in a randomized controlled trial tailored to adolescent girls. Results Multiple reported sexual risk behaviors were found to significantly differ between the two groups at baseline. Overall, girls with older partners had more episodes of sexual instances (vaginal, anal, and oral). Specific sexual risk behaviors were found to be statistically significant between the two groups. Girls with older partners started having sex at earlier ages, had more lifetime sexual partners, higher incidents of STIs and were reluctant to discuss using condoms with their partners. Girls with similar-aged partners were less willing to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Conclusions Findings from this investigation support data from other studies. Relationships with older male partners place adolescent girls at increased risk for HIV/STIs and unintended pregnancy. Relevance to clinical practice Adolescent girls in age-discordant relationships are at risk for immediate and long term sexual health morbidities. Identifying girls who are at increased
van der Put, Claudia E
To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n=25), female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense with a peer victim (PSO, n=15) and female adolescents who have committed a misdemeanor sexual offenses (MSO, n=31). Results showed that CSOs had considerably fewer problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school), family (e.g., parental alcohol problems, parental mental health problems, poor authority and control, out of home placements and run away from home) and friends (antisocial friends) than MSOs and/or PSOs. No differences were found in the prevalence of mental health problems, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23830779
Pedlow, C. Teal; Carey, Michael P.
Context Despite awareness of the need to design developmentally-appropriate sexual risk reduction interventions for adolescents, limited information exists to identify the aspects of intervention design or content that make an intervention “developmentally appropriate.” Objectives (a) To clarify the rationale for designing developmentally-appropriate interventions, (b) to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adolescent sexual risk reduction interventions, (c) to identify developmentally-appropriate strategies, (d) to examine the relationship between developmental appropriateness and sexual risk outcomes, and (e) to provide recommendations for research. Study Selection Studies (n = 24) published before 2003 that evaluated a risk reduction intervention, sampled adolescents, used a RCT study design, and evaluated sexual behavior outcomes. Results Content analysis indicated that the interventions tested were often tailored to the cognitive level of adolescents, as indicated by the use of exercises on decision-making, goal-setting and planning, and concrete explanation of abstract concepts. Interventions also addressed the social influences of risky sex such as peer norms and provided communication skills training. Overall, the interventions tested in RCTs were more effective in delaying the onset of sexual activity than in promoting abstinence among sexually-active youth. Interventions with booster sessions were effective in reducing sexual risk behavior. The use of process measures, linked with developmental constructs, was rare. However, improvements in sexual communication skills and perceived norms for safer sex were associated with reductions in sexual risk outcomes. Conclusions Developmental transitions during adolescence influence sexual behavior, and need to be considered when developing and evaluating risk reduction interventions for youth. Future research should assess process measures of key developmental constructs as well as risk behavior and
Langille, Donald B.; Asbridge, Mark; Azagba, Sunday; Flowerdew, Gordon; Rasic, Daniel; Cragg, Amber
Background: Associations of lower school connectedness have been seen with adolescent sexual risk behaviors, but little is known about gender differences with respect to these relationships. Understanding any such differences could contribute to better supporting the school environment to promote youth sexual health. Methods: We used provincially…
The purpose of this study was to determine sexual risk behaviors among Zimbabwean adolescents with and without disabilities. Participants included 456 Zimbabwean high school students. Results indicated that more males than females engaged in sexual activities as early as nine years of age or younger. Females who reported having had sex, also…
Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.
This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…
Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi
Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…
Goldstein, Sara E.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
The present research explores risk factors for, and longitudinal associations of, sexual harassment by peers during adolescence. Eight-hundred and seventy-two African American and European American adolescents (65.4% African American, 51.1% females) were assessed during the summer after the eighth grade (mean age=14.2 years) and then again in the…
King, Richard B.
The Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention program is designed to interrupt and change behavior of clients who are juvenile sexual offenders at risk to re-offend. Intervention is scheduled for each offender over a 52-week period with groups meeting each week for 2 hours, and an all day session each 6-week period on Saturday. The…
Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing
The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence. Utilizing a sample of 12- to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 4,743) from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), results identified a four-class model of maternal responsiveness and autonomy-granting: low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting, moderate responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/low autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting. Membership in the low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting class predicted greater sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence compared to all other classes, and membership in the high responsiveness/ moderate autonomy-granting class predicted lower sexual risk-taking. Gender and ethnic differences in responsiveness and autonomy-granting class membership were also found, potentially informing gender and ethnic disparities of adolescent sexual risk-taking. PMID:23828712
Breuner, Cora C; Mattson, Gerri
The purpose of this clinical report is to provide pediatricians updated research on evidence-based sexual and reproductive health education conducted since the original clinical report on the subject was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2001. Sexuality education is defined as teaching about human sexuality, including intimate relationships, human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, gender identity, abstinence, contraception, and reproductive rights and responsibilities. Developmentally appropriate and evidence-based education about human sexuality and sexual reproduction over time provided by pediatricians, schools, other professionals, and parents is important to help children and adolescents make informed, positive, and safe choices about healthy relationships, responsible sexual activity, and their reproductive health. Sexuality education has been shown to help to prevent and reduce the risks of adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections for children and adolescents with and without chronic health conditions and disabilities in the United States. PMID:27432844
Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T; Basile, Kathleen C; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael
The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother-adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother-adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study's implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:26746242
Ljubojević, Suzana; Lipozenčić, Jasna
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a public health problem of major significance in most of the world. Adolescents make up about 20% of the world population, of whom 85% live in developing countries. They are at a greater risk of STIs because they frequently have unprotected intercourse, biologically may be more susceptible to infection, often are engaged in multiple monogamous relationships of limited duration, and face multiple obstacles in accessing confidential health care services. Young people who begin to have sexual intercourse in early or middle adolescence are more likely to develop an STI than those who postpone intercourse until later adolescence or adulthood. The most common STIs among adolescents are chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus infection, and trichomoniasis. Unfortunately, lately the incidence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis among adolescents is growing. Comprehensive sex education programs in schools can increase STI knowledge and prevent risky sexual behaviors. Health care providers can promote STI prevention methods, including counseling about safe sex. PMID:21251451
Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; McGuire, Jenifer K.
In this study we estimated the combined effects of violence experiences, parenting processes, and community poverty on sexual onset, alcohol or other drug (AOD) use at last sex, multiple sex partners, and prior pregnancy in a sample of 7th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade adolescents (n = 7,891), and the subsample of sexually experienced adolescents (n =…
Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok
Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models. Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33–2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54–2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61–3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81–4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35–4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27–3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19–13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03–1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06–1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26–1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16–1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37–2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34–2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents. Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities. PMID:27227939
Bangi, Audrey; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Pollack, Lance M.
This article describes psychosocial outcomes of a group randomized controlled trial of a friendship-based HIV/STI prevention intervention grounded in the AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM). A total of 264 African American adolescent females were randomized to a single-session Project ÒRÉ HIV/STI prevention intervention or a nutrition/exercise health promotion intervention with their friendship group. At posttest, Project ÒRÉ participants scored higher on knowledge of HIV/STI prevention and protection (p < .01), knowledge of living with HIV/STI (p < .01), perceived HIV risk (p < .05), perceived STI risk (p < .01), and intentions to use condoms for vaginal sex (p < .05). Findings suggest that a brief friendship-based HIV/STI prevention intervention for youth can impact ARRM factors that increase the ability to recognize and label risky sexual behaviors as problematic and promote commitment to changing high-risk behaviors. PMID:24039550
Rainey, David Y.; And Others
The reproductive and sexual histories of 200 sexually active females, ages 13 through 18, were assessed. Forty adolescents reported sexual abuse, and compared to nonabused peers, they were more often trying to conceive, had boyfriends pressuring them to conceive, and had fears about infertility. No intergroup differences were found in median age…
Pavilanis, Alan V.
Developing an independent sexual identity is one of the psychosocial tasks of adolescence. The only recent change in adolescent sexual activity is an increased percentage of teenage girls having intercourse. Coitus carries the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. It is also an area of conflict with parents. There are healthy and unhealthy approaches to these problems. Family physicians must demystify adolescent sexuality. They must give the adolescent non-judgmental, confidential, and comprehensive care. They must pursue the many possible underlying causes for parental conflict with their teenagers over sexuality. Community involvement is very important in this aspect of practice. PMID:21274175
Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.
Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…
Haffner, Debra W.
The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Stein, Judith A.; Rice, Eric
Objective In 1993–1994, a psychosocial intervention conducted in New York City significantly improved outcomes for parents living with HIV and their adolescent children over six years. We examine if the intervention benefits are similar for adolescents of mothers living with HIV (MLH) in 2004–2005 in Los Angeles when MLH’s survival had increased substantially. Methods Adolescents of MLH in Los Angeles (N = 256) aged 12–20 years old were randomized with their MLH to either: 1) a standard care condition (n = 120 adolescent-MLH dyads); or 2) an intervention condition consisting of small group activities to build coping skills (n = 136 adolescent-MLH dyads, 78% attended the intervention). At 18 months, 94.7% of adolescents were reassessed. Longitudinal structural equation modeling examined if intervention participation impacted adolescents’ relationships with parents and their sexual risk behaviors. Results Compared to the standard care, adolescents in the intervention condition reported significantly more positive family bonds 18 months later. Greater participation by MLH predicted fewer family conflicts, and was indirectly associated with less adolescent sexual risk behavior at the 18 month follow-up assessment. Anticipated developmental patterns were observed - sexual risk acts increased with age. Reports were also consistent with anticipated gender roles; girls reported better bonds with their mothers at 18 months, compared to boys. Conclusions Adolescents of MLH have better bonds with their mothers as a function of participating in a coping skills intervention and reduced sexual risk-taking as a function of MLH intervention involvement. PMID:25010119
O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Bellamy, Scarlett; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry
Background “Let Us Protect Our Future” is a sexual risk-reduction intervention for sixth-grade adolescents in South Africa. Tested in a cluster-randomized controlled trial, the intervention significantly reduced self-reported intercourse and unprotected intercourse during a 12-month follow-up period. Purpose The present analyses were conducted to identify moderators of the intervention’s efficacy as well as which theory-based variables mediated the intervention’s effects. Methods: Intervention efficacy over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups was tested using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Results Living with their father in the home, parental strictness, and religiosity moderated the efficacy of the intervention in reducing unprotected intercourse. Self-efficacy to avoid risky situations and expected parental disapproval of their having intercourse, derived from Social Cognitive Theory, significantly mediated the intervention’s effect on abstinence. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Social Cognitive variables mediate the efficacy of a sexual risk-reduction intervention among South African adolescents. PMID:22618963
Boone, Melissa R.; Cherenack, Emily M.
Abstract Little is known about the correlates of sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive adolescent girls and women in the United States. This study investigates two potential factors related to unprotected vaginal and anal intercourse (UVAI) that have yet to be thoroughly studied in this group: self-efficacy for sexual risk reduction and partner HIV status. Data was analyzed from 331 HIV-positive adolescent girls and women between 12 and 24 years old who reported vaginal and/or anal intercourse with a male partner in the past 3 months at fifteen sites across the United States. Results show that overall self-efficacy (B = −0.15, p=0.01), self-efficacy to discuss safe sex with one's partner (B = −0.14, p=0.01), and self-efficacy to refuse unsafe sex (B = −0.21, p=0.01) are related to UVAI episodes. Participants with only HIV-positive partners or with both HIV-positive and HIV-negative partners showed a trend towards higher percentages of UVAI episodes compared to participants with only HIV-negative partners (F(2, 319)=2.80, p=0.06). These findings point to the importance of including self-efficacy and partner HIV status in risk-reduction research and interventions developed for HIV-positive adolescent girls and young women. PMID:25856632
Volpe, Ellen M.; Hardie, Thomas L.; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilynn S.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne
Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc’s framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors’ effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (−.4292, p < .01); however, the indirect effects through three proposed mediators (relationship power, physical IPV, or psychological IPV severity) were not statistically significant. Further studies are needed to explore alternative rationale explaining the relationship between partner age differences and sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior. PMID:23345572
Katz, Ingrid T; Ybarra, Michele L; Wyatt, Monique A; Kiwanuka, Julius P; Bangsberg, David R; Ware, Norma C
With more than half of new infections occurring among youth, HIV/AIDS remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 48 adolescents and 15 adult key informants in a rural Ugandan community to identify influences on adolescent sexual decision-making. Inductive data analytic methods revealed five thematic influences: (1) social pressure, (2) decline of the Senga (a familial figure who traditionally taught female adolescents about how to run a household), (3) cultural barriers to condom use, (4) knowledge of HIV transmission and modes of prevention, and (5) a moral injunction against sex before marriage. Influences were classified as HIV/AIDS risk and protective factors and organized to form an explanatory framework of adolescent sexual risk-taking. Risk factors pull youth toward risky behavior, while protective factors push them away. Predominance of risk over protective influences explains persistent sexual risk-taking by Ugandan youth. HIV prevention programs designed for Ugandan adolescents should take competing factors and sociocultural and economic influences into account. PMID:22835224
Gaydos, C A; Hsieh, Y-H; Galbraith, J S; Barnes, M; Waterfield, G; Stanton, B
Summary A community-based intervention, Focus-on-Kids (FOK) has demonstrated risk-behaviour reduction of urban youth. We modified FOK to Focus-on-Teens (FOT) for high schools. High school adolescents (n = 1190) were enrolled over successive school semesters. The small-group sessions were presented during the school-lunch hours. Confidential surveys were conducted at baseline, immediate, six-, and 12-month postintervention for demographics, parental communication/monitoring, sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV/condom-usage knowledge. Sexually active participants were encouraged to volunteer for urine-based STDs testing at the School-Based Health Centres. Many (47.4%) students reported having had sexual intercourse at baseline. Overall behaviours changed towards ‘safer’ sex behaviours (intent-to-use and using condoms, communicating with partner/parents about sex/condoms/STDs) with time (P < 0.05). Proportion of students with complete correct knowledge of STDs/HIV increased to 88% at time 4 from 80% at baseline after adjusting for age, gender and sexual activity (P < 0.05). High prevalence of STDs was detected in 875 participants who reported for urine testing at time 1: trichomonas, 11.8%; chlamydia, 10.1% and gonorrhoea, 4.1%. Prevalence decreased significantly for 310 participants who re-tested; chlamydia: 27.4% to 6.1% and gonorrhoea: 11.3% to 3.2%. FOT was successfully implemented as an STDs/HIV risk-reduction intervention. Sustained improvements of knowledge about STDs/HIV/condom usage, decreases in sexual risk behaviours supported the effectiveness of this intervention. PMID:18824625
Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan
Theories of health behavior posit that change is accomplished by modifying factors deemed as mediators. A set of mediators from several theoretical models used in sexual risk reduction programs was assessed among a sample of 522 African American female adolescents. The goal was to determine whether self-esteem was associated with sexually…
Cunningham, Renee M.; And Others
Interviews conducted with 602 youths at public health clinics revealed that a history of physical abuse, sexual abuse, or rape was related to engaging in a variety of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors and to a continuation or increase in the number of these behaviors between adolescence and young adulthood. (Author/JDD)
Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, Maria Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto
The aim of this study was to assess whether coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking were predictors of HIV/STD risk behaviours in adolescents. A representative sample of 4,456 female and male Spanish high school students aged 13 to 18 years participated. A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Self-report questionnaires…
Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann I.; Armour, Brian S.; Thibadeau, Judy K.
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether US female adolescents who self-reported having a physical disability or long-term health problem were more likely to report having been physically forced to have sexual intercourse than US female adolescents without a physical disability or long-term health problem. Methods: Using…
Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Fava, Nicole M.
We conducted focus groups with girls ages 14 to 17 (N = 43) to study how the dominant discourse of sexual risk shapes young women's understanding of the sexual domain and their management of these presumably pervasive threats. Through inductive analysis, we developed a coding scheme focused on three themes: (a) "types of sexual risk," (b) "factors…
Harris, Allyssa L
Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is a major public health concern with potentially long-lasting consequences, including pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV/AIDS. Researchers have demonstrated that parent-adolescent sexual communication can mitigate adolescent risky sexual behaviors; the development of interventions that support this process are vital. This column examines a recent study that evaluated a parent-adolescent sexual communication intervention. PMID:27067937
Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)
Studied sexual knowledge among Norwegian adolescents (n=1,855) aged 17-19 years. Found knowledge gaps among adolescents on sexual physiology and anatomy, sexually transmitted diseases, and fecundation/contraception. Level of sexual knowledge was higher among girls than boys and increased with increasing age. Sexual knowledge did not predict…
Scheer, P J
Numerous sexual disorders, which were previously in the foreground, have in fact disappeared due to our changing society. This broad field today includes repressed sexual disorders of adolescents who cannot or do not want to go along with the changes either for familial or personal reasons. Immigrant background, religious beliefs, and peer pressure may play a role here. As a dialog partner for adolescents, the competent physician must take into consideration the interplay of sexual desire, ethical beliefs, morals, and parental expectations, which requires interest, intuition, and tact. PMID:24535205
Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.
Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…
Loli, A; Aramburu, C; Paxman, J M
22% of the population of Peru, or 4.25 million individuals, is between the ages of 11 and 19 years. A survey was performed on a sample of 6,000 adolescents living in Lima, Cajamarca, Huarez, and Supe. Surveys were performed in a variety of locations, including school classrooms, maternity wards, schools, and work places. The questionnaire was constructed based on a format that had been tested in Nigeria; questions dealt with socioeconomic background, sex behavior, contraceptive behavior, pregnancy history, and health practices and knowledge. 60% of the adolescents were women and 40% were men. 41% had had at least 1 sexual experience; among 18-year-olds, this % rose to 55. Only 10% were in stable union. Married adolescents tended to have begun sexual relations sooner in life. Early sexual relations were more common among men than among women, and more common among non-religious adolescents than among Catholics. Fewer than 12% of the adolescents had at 1 time used contraceptives. Contraceptive use was more prevalent among adolescents from wealthier socioeconomic groups, and more prevalent in Lima than in other regions surveyed. Of adolescents using contraceptives, 38% used condoms, 24% used oral contraceptives, and 15% used rhythm methods. Most adolescents who did not use contraceptives failed to do so because of lack of knowledge. Almost 1/4 of the young women had had a pregnancy. 18.5 of these had abortions, usually in a hospital. The importance of supporting educational prevention programs is underlined. PMID:12269059
Price, Myeshia N; Hyde, Janet Shibley
This study explored factors that may be associated with early initiation of sexual activity among adolescents. Using the cumulative risk model, we hypothesized that as exposure to risk factors increases, so does the likelihood of early sexual debut. A sample of 273 (53% girls, 90% European American) adolescents was followed longitudinally from age 13 to 15. The results indicate that, for girls, increased television viewing, low self-esteem, poor parental relationships, living in a non-intact household, higher levels of externalizing behavior (ADHD symptomology), low academic achievement, and parents with low education levels were associated with earlier sexual debut. For boys, advanced pubertal development, increased television viewing, higher rates of externalizing behaviors (ADHD and ODD symptoms), and poor parental relationships were associated with earlier sexual debut. As hypothesized, predictive power increases with the accumulation of these risks; girls are 1.56 times more likely to become sexually active with an increase of only one risk and boys are 1.90 times more likely. PMID:19636771
Hagan, Michael P; Anderson, Debra L; Caldwell, Melissa S; Kemper, Therese S
This study looked at 12 juveniles in Wisconsin who were recommended by experts for commitment under Chapter 980, known as the Sexually Violent Person Commitments Act, but who ultimately were not committed. The purpose was to determine the accuracy of these assessments and risk for sexual reoffending for juvenile sexual offenders. The results found a rate of 42% sexual recidivism among these individuals, with a 5-year at-risk period. This figure is in contrast to the low rates of sexual recidivism reported in the general juvenile sexual research. This provides evidence that the capability to assess the risk in juvenile sexual re-offending may at times be higher than previously estimated. Implications of these unusual results are discussed. PMID:18957553
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Työläjärvi, Marja; Eronen, Markku
Sexually offending behavior by adolescents may be directed towards children, age-mates and adults. Neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders and the associated inability to age-related interpersonal relationships and inability to control the sexual desires activated during adolescence may lead a young person to seek inappropriate sexual satisfaction from children. Sometimes the offenses are part of antisocial development. Interventions should be focused on the distorted cognitions and attitudes maintaining the injurious sexual behavior, and on the risk of criminal behavior in general. Pharmacological therapy, mainly with SSRI drugs, has also been tested in adolescents. PMID:26233982
de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom
Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-occurring, risk behaviors (i.e., cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). These hypotheses were tested in a nationally representative sample of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. We found that both types of rules were associated with a lower prevalence of the targeted behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking). In addition, independent of adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors, parental rules on smoking predicted a lower prevalence of cannabis use and early sexual intercourse, and parental rules on alcohol use also predicted a lower prevalence of early sexual intercourse. This study showed that concrete parental rule setting is more strongly related to lower levels of risk behaviors in adolescents compared to the more general parenting practices (i.e., support and control). Additionally, the effects of such rules do not only apply to the targeted behavior but extend to related behaviors as well. These findings are relevant to the public health domain and suggest that a single intervention program that addresses a limited number of concrete parenting practices, in combination with traditional support and control practices, may be effective in reducing risk behaviors in adolescence. PMID:22960939
Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin
Objectives This study intends to evaluate whether the belief that condoms are 100% effective in protecting against HIV infection is associated with sexual risk behaviours among youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in representative samples of high-school students in the Philippines, El Salvador and Peru. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Students were asked about the risk of HIV transmission if one has sex using condoms. They were also asked to indicate whether they had ever had sexual relations and whether they used a condom in their first sexual relation. The sample was composed of 8994 students, aged 13–18. Results One out of seven adolescents believed condoms are 100% effective (safe-sex believers). Those adolescents were 82% more likely to have had sex than those without such belief, after adjusting for confounders (OR=1.82; 95% CI 1.51 to 2.21). On the contrary, no association was found between risk perception and condom use. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses produced similar results. Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted specifically to evaluate this phenomenon and that has used the same questionnaire and the same data collection protocol in three different developing countries from Asia, Central and South America. These results reasonably suggest that there could be an association between safe sex beliefs and sexual initiation. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand this possible association as it could influence how to better promote sexual health. PMID:25916489
Teitelman, Anne M.; Bohinski, Julia M.; Boente, Alyssa
Sexually transmitted infections including HIV and teenage pregnancy have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality among girls in the United States. There is a need to further strengthen prevention efforts against these persistent epidemics. In order to promote girls' sexual health and most effectively reduce sexual risk, it is important to understand the social factors that influence the development of a girl's sexuality. The purpose of this study was to begin to fill a void in the literature by exploring girls' perspectives about the social context in which they learn about sex, sexuality, and relationships. Coding and content analysis was used to identify patterns and themes in 33 individual interviews with African American and Euro-American girls. Participants identified family, friends/peers, partners, school, and the media as the most common sources for learning about sexual health. Girls sought out different types of information from each source. Many girls experienced conflicting messages about their sexual health and struggled to integrate the disparate cultural references to sex, sexuality, and relationships that emerged from these different spheres of social life. Girls often had to navigate the journey of their sexual development with little room for reflection about their own thoughts, feelings, desires, and decisions. Health care providers, especially those in mental health, are in an optimal position to promote girls' physical, developmental, and emotional sexual health. PMID:19544131
Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Fava, Nicole M.
We conducted focus groups with girls ages 14 to 17 (N = 43) in order to study how the dominant discourse of sexual risk shapes young women’s understanding of the sexual domain and their management of these presumably pervasive threats. Through inductive analysis, we developed a coding scheme focused on three themes: (a) types of sexual risk; (b) factors that moderate sexual risk; and (c) strategies for managing sexual risk. Collectively, participants identified many risks but distanced themselves from these by claiming that girls’ susceptibility is largely a function of personal factors and therefore avoidable given the right traits, values, and skills. We consider this reliance on other-blaming and self-exemption, as well as instances in which individual participants diverged from this group discourse, in the context of neoliberalism. PMID:21860537
Chambers, Rachel; Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Parker, Sean; Lee, Angelita; Barlow, Allison
This paper examines decision-making around sexual behavior among reservation-based American Indian youth. Focus group discussions were conducted with youth ages 13-19 years old. Through these discussions, we explored youth's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to sexual risk taking through the lens of the protection motivation theory to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention. Findings suggest that condom use self-efficacy and HIV prevention knowledge is low, vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections is lacking and alcohol plays a significant role in sexual risk taking in this population. In addition, parental monitoring and peer influence may contribute to or protect against sexual risk taking. Results suggest that future HIV prevention interventions should be delivered to gender-specific peer groups, include a parental component, teach sexual health education and communication skills, integrate substance-use prevention, and work to remove stigma around obtaining and using condoms. PMID:27064364
Bonar, Erin E; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Chermack, Stephen T; Blow, Frederic C; Barry, Kristen L; Booth, Brenda M; Walton, Maureen A
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between prescription drug misuse (PDM) and sexual risk behaviors (SRBs) among adolescents and emerging adults. Method: In a hospital emergency department, 2,127 sexually active 14- to 20-year-olds (61% female) reported on past-year alcohol use severity (using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test–consumption [AUDIT-C]), cannabis use, PDM (n = 422), and SRBs (inconsistent condom use, multiple partners, intercourse following alcohol/other drug use). Results: Bivariately, AUDIT-C score, cannabis use, and PDM of stimulants, opioids, and sedatives were positively associated with each SRB. Because many participants reported PDM for multiple drug classes (i.e., sedatives, stimulants, opioids), participants were categorized as (a) no PDM (n = 1,705), (b) PDM of one class (n = 251), (c) PDM of two classes (n = 90), or (d) PDM of three classes (n = 81). Three hierarchical logistic regression models evaluated the associations of number of classes of PDM with SRBs separately, after accounting for demographics (age, gender, race), AUDIT-C score, and cannabis use. Adding PDM statistically improved each model beyond what was accounted for by demographics, alcohol, and cannabis use. For inconsistent condom use and substance use before sex, PDM of one, two, or three classes was significantly associated with increased odds of these SRBs. PDM of two or three classes was associated with increased odds of reporting multiple partners. Conclusions: Findings suggest that PDM, especially poly-PDM, may be a pertinent risk factor for SRBs among youth. Event-based research could further evaluate how PDM, as well as other substance use, is related to SRBs at the event level in order to inform interventions. PMID:24650820
Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S
Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored. PMID:2307597
Atwood, Katharine A.; Kennedy, Stephen B.; Shamblen, Steve; Taylor, Curtis H.; Quaqua, Monica; Bee, Ernree M.; Gobeh, Mawen E.; Woods, Daisajou V.; Dennis, Barclay
Transactional sex (TS) has been correlated with HIV/STD infection, pregnancy, early marriage, and sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Few Western-based HIV prevention programs adapted for SSA have examined intervention impacts for this group. This article examines whether an HIV prevention intervention, delivered to sixth-grade students in Liberia (age range 14–17) and found to increase condom use and other mediators for the larger sample, significantly impacted sexual behaviors and mediators for those who engaged in TS. Using an attention-matched, group-randomized controlled design, four matched pairs of elementary schools in Monrovia, Liberia, were randomly assigned to an adapted eight-module HIV prevention or a general health curriculum. Nine-month impacts of the intervention on sexual risk behaviors and mediators for those who engaged in TS, when compared with other study participants, are presented. Twelve percent of our sample of sixth graders (n = 714) ever engaged in TS. The majority of females reported being promised something in exchange for sex (52%), whereas the majority of males (52%) reported being both the giver and recipient of gifts in exchange for sex. Compared with other students, those who engaged in TS reported greater increases in the number of sex partners, reported greater frequency of sexual intercourse, were more likely to try to get pregnant or someone else pregnant, and reported greater reductions in protective sexual attitudes and HIV risk perception at the nine month follow-up, in both the intervention and the control groups. Our intervention, although successful for the general in-school adolescent sample, did not impact risk behaviors or mediators for adolescents who engaged in TS. Future research should explore the complex sexual economy in which TS is embedded and consider adapting HIV prevention interventions to the needs of this high-risk group. PMID:23626654
Camenga, Deepa R; Hieftje, Kimberly D; Fiellin, Lynn E; Edelman, E Jennifer; Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Duncan, Lindsay R
Few studies have explored the application of message framing to promote health behaviors in adolescents. In this exploratory study, we examined young adolescents' selection of gain- versus loss-framed images and messages when designing an HIV-prevention intervention to promote delayed sexual initiation. Twenty-six adolescents (aged 10-14 years) participated in six focus groups and created and discussed posters to persuade their peers to delay the initiation of sexual activity. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. A five-person multidisciplinary team analyzed the posters and focus group transcripts using thematic analysis. The majority of the posters (18/26, 69%) contained both gain- and loss-framed content. Of the 93/170 (56%) images and messages with framing, similar proportions were gain- (48/93, 52%) and loss-framed (45/93, 48%). Most gain-framed content (23/48, 48%) focused on academic achievement, whereas loss-framed content focused on pregnancy (20/45, 44%) and HIV/AIDS (14/45, 31%). These preliminary data suggest that young adolescents may prefer a combination of gain- and loss-framing in health materials to promote reduction in sexual risk behaviors. PMID:24452229
Jones, Deborah J.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Trish; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana; Jones, Bobby; Nagin, Daniel; Runyan, Desmond
A robust literature links childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to later substance use and sexual risk behavior; yet, relatively little empirical attention has been devoted to identifying the mechanisms linking CSA to risky behavior among youth, with even less work examining such processes in boys. With the aim of addressing this gap in the literature, the current study examined the indirect effect of childhood sexual abuse (CSA; from age 2 to 12) trajectory group on risky behavior at age 14 (alcohol use & sexual intercourse) via the intervening role of caregiver-reported internalizing and externalizing problems at age 12. Analyses were conducted with a subsample of youth (n = 657 sexual intercourse; n = 667 alcohol use) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN), a multisite prospective study of youth at risk for maltreatment. For boys and girls, there was an indirect effect from CSA to sexual intercourse through externalizing problems. The same pattern emerged for alcohol use, but only for girls. Findings did not support an indirect path through internalizing problems for either boys or girls for either outcome. Findings suggest more focal targets for prevention efforts aimed at maintaining the health and safety of maltreated boys and girls during the adolescent transition. PMID:22752719
Alexy, Eileen M; Burgess, Ann W; Prentky, Robert A
Sexually reactive children and adolescents (SRCAs), sometimes referred to as juvenile sexual offenders, may be more vulnerable and likely to experience damaging effects from pornography use because they are a high-risk group for a variety of aggressive behaviors. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of those who use pornography and those who do not and to examine the associations between pornography use and aggressive behaviors among SRCAs. This secondary analysis used a descriptive, exploratory design to study 160 SRCAs. Chi-square and individual odds ratio analyses were employed to examine the associations between use of pornography and aggressive behaviors. SRCAs who used pornography were more likely to display aggressive behaviors than their nonusing cohort. Recommendations for nurses and mental health professionals encountering these children and adolescents are offered. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc, 2009; 14(6), 442-453. PMID:21665787
Brawner, B M; Gomes, M M; Jemmott, L S; Deatrick, J A; Coleman, C L
Clinically depressed and nondepressed African-American adolescent females aged 13-19 years (N=131) were interviewed and surveyed to determine the relationship between depression and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors. Narratives indicate that the psychopathology of depression may create situations where the target population could become exposed to HIV. Specifically, depressed participants described feelings of loneliness, isolation, and wanting somebody to "comfort them" as aspects of depression that affect the decisions they make about sex and relationships. In essence, sex was viewed as a stress reliever, an anti-depressant and a way to increase self-esteem. They shared that even if they did not feel like having sex, they might just "git it over wit" so their partners would stop asking. Some also discussed financial and emotional stability offered by older, more sexually experienced partners. These age-discordant relationships often translated into trusting that their partners knew what was best for their sexual relationships (i.e., having unprotected sex). Sixty-nine percent (n=88) of the sample reported engaging in sexual activity. Given their mean age (16 ± 1.9 years) participants had been sexually active for 2 ± 1.8 years. The adolescents reported an average of 2 ± 1.8 sexual partners within the past three months. Depressed participants reported a higher frequency of having ever had sex (78% vs. 59%, χ(2)=5.236, p=0.022), and had a higher mean number of sexual partners (2 vs. 1, t=-2.023, p= 0.048) and sexual encounters under the influence of drugs and alcohol (8 vs. 2, t=-3.078, p=0.005) in the past three months. The results of this study can guide the modification and/or development of tailored HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention programs. The findings provide explicit, psychologically and culturally relevant information regarding the interaction between depression, self-medicating behaviors and risk for HIV/STIs among clinically
Christodoulides, T. E.; Richardson, G.; Graham, F.; Kennedy, P. J.; Kelly, T. P.
The paper describes an evaluation of a risk assessment tool's effectiveness in distinguishing adolescent sexual offenders who had committed further sexual offences from those who had not. The sample consisted of 50 male adolescent sexual offenders referred to a forensic outpatient service within a healthcare setting. The adolescents within the…
ST LAWRENCE, JANET S.; SNODGRASS, C. EDWARD; ROBERTSON, ANGELA; BAIRD-THOMAS, CONNIE
Delinquent girls are at elevated risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases when compared with non-delinquent peers. Participants—234 incarcerated female juveniles—completed demographic, individual, partner, peer, and family measures and were tested for sexually transmitted diseases. Disease rates were as follows: chlamydia (20%), gonorrhea (4%), and syphilis (1%). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis assessed the relationship of the predictor variable sets with sexual risk. Demographic and individual variables had the strongest associations with risk. Peer, partner, or family variables did not account for significant additional variance. The results suggest that an intervention could be delivered during the window of opportunity during the girls’ incarceration, changing their knowledge, attitudes, and skills that are implicated in risky sexual behavior before they are released back into the community. PMID:20585415
Ryu, Eunjung; Kim, Kyunghee; Kwon, Hyejin
Background: The proportion of adolescents experiencing unwanted pregnancy and abortion caused by the premature initiation of sexual intercourse is increasing at an alarming rate in Korea. This study aimed at developing a theoretical model for identifying individual and environmental risk factors affecting the initiation of sexual intercourse by…
Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.
Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…
Alexander, Stewart C.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Bravender, Terrill; Davis, J. Kelly; Østbye, Truls; Tulsky, James A.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Shields, Cleveland G.
Importance Physicians may be important sources of sexuality information and preventive services, and one-on-one confidential time during health maintenance visits is recommended to allow discussions of sexual development, behavior, and risk reduction. However, little is known about the occurrence and characteristics of physician-adolescent discussions about sexuality. Objective To examine predictors of time spent discussing sexuality, level of adolescent participation, and physician and patient characteristics associated with sexuality discussions during health maintenance visits by early and middle adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants Observational study of audio-recorded conversations between 253 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 years; 53% female; 40% white; 47% African American) and 49 physicians (82% pediatricians; 84% white; 65% female; mean age, 40.9 years; mean [SD] duration in practice, 11.8 [8.7] years) coded for sexuality content at 11 clinics (3 academic and 8 community-based practices) located throughout the Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina, area. Main Outcomes and Measures Total time per visit during which sexuality issues were discussed. Results One hundred sixty-five (65%) of all visits had some sexual content within it. The average time of sexuality talk was 36 seconds (35% 0 seconds; 30% 1-35 seconds; and 35% ≥36 seconds). Ordinal logistic regression (outcome of duration: 0, 1-35, or ≥36 seconds), adjusted for clustering of patients within physicians, found that female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58; 95% CI, 1.53-4.36), older patients (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.65), conversations with explicit confidentiality discussions (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.58-7.28), African American adolescents (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.48), and longer overall visit (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11) were associated with more sexuality talk, and Asian physicians were associated with less sexuality talk (OR = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.20). In addition, the same significant
Olsen, J A; Jensen, L C; Greaves, P M
In recent decades, various attempts have been made to determine the level of sexual activity among adolescents. This information has been used in the planning and evaluation of sex-related programs. However, there is a flaw in using only the initial estimates of the behavior--that a sexually active person is defined as one who has had sexual intercourse. This narrow definition distorts the perception of adolescent sexual behavior. Sexual activity can more accurately be designated by focusing on the actual frequency with which teenagers have sex. In this research report, adolescents were considered sexually active if they had had sex within the last four weeks. Using this definition, adolescents were found to be substantially less sexually active than has been previously reported. This finding was then used to look at various policy decisions in the areas of sex education, family planning, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. PMID:1927672
Harden, K Paige
In this article, I propose a sex-positive framework for research on adolescent sexuality in which I consider consensual sexual activities in adolescence as developmentally normative and potentially healthy. The sex-positive framework is contrasted with the predominant "risk" perspective that presumes that abstinence from sexual activity is the ideal behavioral outcome for teenagers. Evidence from longitudinal and behavioral genetic studies indicates that engaging in sexual intercourse in adolescence does not typically cause worse psychological functioning. The relationship context of sexual experience may be a critical moderator of its psychological impact. Moreover, cross-cultural data on adolescents' contraception usage, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections suggest that, despite the unacceptably high rate of negative health consequences among U.S. teenagers, adolescents can have the developmental capacity to regulate the health risks inherent in sexual activity. Understanding adolescent sexuality can be fostered by considering sexual well-being, a multidimensional construct that incorporates an adolescent's sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, feelings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction, and freedom from pain and negative affect regarding sexuality. New research is necessary to understand the development of adolescent sexual well-being, including its normative age trends, its reciprocal links with sexual behavior, and its impact on psychological and physical health. PMID:26186753
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
Examined the school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, pregnancy risk, and chemical use of female teenagers with a history of sexual abuse. Found that they reported higher rates of adverse outcomes than did teenagers without a background of abuse. Lists protective factors and risk factors that influenced outcomes. (RJM)
Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony F.
On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of risk behaviors. Bisexual and same-sex attracted groups were characterized by heightened high-risk…
Cunningham, R M; Stiffman, A R; Doré, P; Earls, F
This paper explores the relationship between changes in HIV risk behaviors and physical and sexual abuse. A stratified random sampling procedure selected 602 youths from a sample of 2,787 patients seen consecutively at public health clinics in 10 cities. Face-to-face structured interviews conducted since 1984-85 provide a history of change in risk behavior from adolescence to young adulthood. Univariate and bivariate analyses assessed differences in demographic and number and type of risk behaviors between those experiencing single or multiple types of abuse and those with no abuse history at all. The results show that a history of physical abuse, sexual abuse, or rape is related to engaging in a variety of HIV risk behaviors and to a continuation or increase in the total number of these behaviors between adolescence and young adulthood. This information might help practitioners to both prevent initial involvement in HIV risk behaviors and to prevent continuation of behaviors as youths move into young adulthood. PMID:8199905
Tseng, Ying-Hua; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao
Internet use is an important part of the daily life of adolescents. The ease of searching the internet for information makes finding information on sex, a topic of particular interest to adolescents, easy. Although the internet is replete with sexual information, the influence of internet use on adolescents' sexual health is analogous to a double-edged sword. This article identifies the four main sexual dilemmas facing Taiwan adolescents and analyzes the pros and cons of internet use with regard to adolescents' sexual health. Cons include the predominance of internet pornography and the potential risks of making friends online. Pros include the internet's role as an optimal communications platform and tool for sex-related research. We suggest that nurses have a unique role and functions to play in promoting adolescent sexual health. We also offer recommendations for school health nursing and clinical nursing. Further internet-based quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to clarify relevant sexual health issues. Finally, we offer design suggestions for sexual education homepages. PMID:23212259
East, Patricia L.; Hokoda, Audrey
Teen dating violence and sexual victimization are serious public health concerns. Although research has highlighted the correlates and consequences of such abuse, little is known about early antecedents. The current study sought to identify the risk and protective factors evident in early adolescence that are associated with sexual and dating violence victimization in late adolescence. The sample involved 236 (52% female) low-income Latino (69%) and African American (31%) youth, their older sisters, and their mothers who were studied when youth were, on average, ages 13 and 18 years. The results indicated that early indicators of a risky lifestyle (e.g., getting drunk, having sex) and having deviant friends and siblings were associated with a higher likelihood of subsequent victimization. Mothers’ early strictness, monitoring, and conservative sexual attitudes predicted a lower likelihood of subsequent assault and served as significant buffers given specific risks, particularly for girls and Latinos. The findings suggest that behavior and social network patterns established relatively early in life increase one’s vulnerability to victimization later in life, as well as point to aspects of parenting that serve a protective function against such outcomes. PMID:25788124
East, Patricia L; Hokoda, Audrey
Teen dating violence and sexual victimization are serious public health concerns. Although research has highlighted the correlates and consequences of such abuse, little is known about early antecedents. The current study sought to identify the risk and protective factors evident in early adolescence that are associated with sexual and dating violence victimization in late adolescence. The sample involved 236 (52% female) low-income Latino (69%) and African American (31%) youth, their older sisters, and their mothers who were studied when youth were, on average, ages 13 and 18 years. The results indicated that early indicators of a risky lifestyle (e.g., getting drunk, having sex) and having deviant friends and siblings were associated with a higher likelihood of subsequent victimization. Mothers' early strictness, monitoring, and conservative sexual attitudes predicted a lower likelihood of subsequent assault and served as significant buffers given specific risks, particularly for girls and Latinos. The findings suggest that behavior and social network patterns established relatively early in life increase one's vulnerability to victimization later in life, as well as point to aspects of parenting that serve a protective function against such outcomes. PMID:25788124
Latzman, Natasha E.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Scalora, Mario J.; Ullman, Daniel
Sibling sexual offending has received limited empirical attention, despite estimates that approximately half of all adolescent-perpetrated sexual offenses involve a sibling victim. The present study addresses this gap by examining male adolescent sibling (n = 100) and nonsibling offenders (n = 66) with regard to maltreatment histories and scores…
Reyna, Valerie F; Mills, Britain A
Fuzzy-trace theory is a theory of memory, judgment, and decision making, and their development. We applied advances in this theory to increase the efficacy and durability of a multicomponent intervention to promote risk reduction and avoidance of premature pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Seven hundred and thirty-four adolescents from high schools and youth programs in 3 states (Arizona, Texas, and New York) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 curriculum groups: RTR (Reducing the Risk), RTR+ (a modified version of RTR using fuzzy-trace theory), and a control group. We report effects of curriculum on self-reported behaviors and behavioral intentions plus psychosocial mediators of those effects: namely, attitudes and norms, motives to have sex or get pregnant, self-efficacy and behavioral control, and gist/verbatim constructs. Among 26 outcomes, 19 showed an effect of at least 1 curriculum relative to the control group: RTR+ produced improvements for 17 outcomes and RTR produced improvements for 12 outcomes. For RTR+, 2 differences (for perceived parental norms and global benefit perception) were confined to age, gender, or racial/ethnic subgroups. Effects of RTR+ on sexual initiation emerged 6 months after the intervention, when many adolescents became sexually active. Effects of RTR+ were greater than RTR for 9 outcomes, and remained significantly greater than controls at 1-year follow-up for 12 outcomes. Consistent with fuzzy-trace theory, results suggest that by emphasizing gist representations, which are preserved over long periods and are key memories used in decision making, the enhanced intervention produced larger and more sustained effects on behavioral outcomes and psychosocial mediators of adolescent risk taking. PMID:24773191
Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon
Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from…
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20229148
Camenga, Deepa R.; Hieftje, Kimberly D.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Duncan, Lindsay R.
Few studies have explored the application of message framing to promote health behaviors in adolescents. In this exploratory study, we examined young adolescents' selection of gain- versus loss-framed images and messages when designing an HIV-prevention intervention to promote delayed sexual initiation. Twenty-six adolescents (aged 10-14 years)…
Reisner, Sari L; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M; Cohen, Elijah L; LeClerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J
The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12-29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD=2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p=0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p=0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p=0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p=0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p<0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to understanding
Reisner, Sari L.; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M.; Cohen, Elijah L.; LeClerc, M.; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J.
The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12–29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD = 2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p = 0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p = 0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p = 0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p = 0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p < 0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to
Shen, J T
The physician provides a much-needed service to teenagers by counseling them regarding sexuality. A series of conferences during adolescence and use of questionnaires can facilitate discussion and point up potential problems. When the patient is confronted with a problem such as a need for contraception or an unwanted pregnancy, the physician should present all the options available and leave the final choice up to the patient. The physician is not obligated to participate in a solution that is counter to his or her moral values. PMID:7071042
Zhu, Qianqian; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Chuang, Yi-Li; Zabin, Laurie S; Emerson, Mark R; Lou, Chaohua
This study explores the association of child sexual abuse (CSA) with subsequent health risk behaviors among a cross-section of 4354 adolescents and young adults surveyed in urban and rural Taipei. Descriptive analysis and logistic regressions were employed. The overall proportion of CSA was 5.15%, with more females (6.14%) than males (4.16%) likely to experience CSA. CSA was differently associated with multiple adverse health outcomes, after adjusting other factors, such as age, residence, economic status, education, employment status, and household instability. Both males and females with CSA experience were more likely to report drinking, gambling, and suicidal ideation compared with those who had no history of CSA. However, the significant association between CSA and smoking, fighting, and suicidal attempt was not observed among females. Effective interventions are needed to reduce CSA and its adverse effects on adolescent well-being. PMID:25720535
Erickson, William D.
The paper reviews the literature on sexual delinquency in male and female adolescents and considers guidelines for effective intervention in nonspecialized treatment programs. A section on sexual delinquency in females touches on prostitution and incest, while a section on males notes the changing composition of the sexually delinquent population.…
Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Bangi, Audrey K.
Investigated predictors of African American adolescent sexual activity, testing an ecological model of risk factors influencing sexual activity. Data collected over three years indicated that risk factors at the personal, familial, and extrafamilial levels of adolescents' social ecology related to being a virgin or not. Males and older adolescents…
Sarver, Dustin E.; McCart, Michael R.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.
Background Recent studies have linked attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to elevated rates of risky sexual behavior (RSB) in adult samples. The current study tested whether ADHD symptoms were associated with RSB among adolescents, and examined comorbid conduct problems and problematic substance use as joint mediators of this association. Methods ADHD symptoms, conduct problems (oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms), problematic alcohol use (alcohol use disorder symptoms, alcohol use frequency), problematic marijuana use (marijuana use disorder symptoms, marijuana use frequency), and RSB were assessed among an ethnically diverse cross-sectional sample of adolescents (N=115; mean age=14.9 years) involved in the juvenile justice system. Results Bootstrapped mediation models revealed an initial association between ADHD symptoms and RSB that was accounted for fully by the influence of problematic alcohol and marijuana use, but not conduct problems. A follow-up multiple groups mediation analysis demonstrated that the relationship between ADHD symptoms and RSB emerged only among youth with clinically elevated conduct problems, and that problematic marijuana use fully accounted for this relationship. Hyperactive/impulsive but not inattentive symptoms were related to RSB, although the pattern of indirect effects was consistent with the multiple groups analysis. Conclusions The association between ADHD and adolescent RSB is restricted to youth with elevated comorbid conduct problems and reflects the contributions of comorbid marijuana use problems, and to a lesser extent alcohol use problems. Early identification and treatment of these comorbid conditions may be important for the prevention of negative sexual health outcomes among youth with ADHD. PMID:24813803
Reyna, Valerie F.; Mills, Britain A.
Fuzzy-trace theory is a theory of memory, judgment, and decision-making, and their development. We applied advances in this theory to increase the efficacy and durability of a multicomponent intervention to promote risk reduction and avoidance of premature pregnancy and STIs. 734 adolescents from high schools and youth programs in three states (Arizona, Texas, and New York) were randomly assigned to one of three curriculum groups: RTR (Reducing the Risk), RTR+ (a modified version of RTR using fuzzy-trace theory), and a control group. We report effects of curriculum on self-reported behaviors and behavioral intentions plus psychosocial mediators of those effects, namely, attitudes and norms, motives to have sex or get pregnant, self-efficacy and behavioral control, and gist/verbatim constructs. Among 26 outcomes, 19 showed an effect of at least one curriculum relative to the control group: RTR+ produced improvements for 17 outcomes and RTR produced improvements for 12 outcomes. For RTR+, two differences (for perceived parental norms and global benefit perception) were confined to age, gender, or racial/ethnic subgroups. Effects of RTR+ on sexual initiation emerged six months after the intervention, when many adolescents became sexually active. Effects of RTR+ were greater than RTR for nine outcomes, and remained significantly greater than controls at one-year follow-up for 12 outcomes. Consistent with fuzzy-trace theory, results suggest that, by emphasizing gist representations, which are preserved over long time periods and are key memories used in decision-making, the enhanced intervention produced larger and more sustained effects on behavioral outcomes and psychosocial mediators of adolescent risk-taking. PMID:24773191
Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.
This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…
Brawner, Bridgette M.
Individuals’ attitudes and beliefs toward behaviors are key indicators of behavioral performance. The purpose of this study was to elucidate attitudes and beliefs about depression, HIV/AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females and to develop an understanding of their context for HIV risk. For this descriptive qualitative inquiry, semi-structured interviews and surveys were employed (N = 24). The narratives reveal that behavioral sequelae of depression (i.e. loneliness) can produce risk for HIV. These findings may guide psychiatric nurse educators, scientists, and practitioners to modify HIV risk among clinically depressed African American adolescent females. PMID:23164403
Brawner, Bridgette M
Individuals' attitudes and beliefs toward behaviors are key indicators of behavioral performance. The purposes of this study were to elucidate attitudes and beliefs about depression, HIV/AIDS, and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females and to develop an understanding of their context for HIV risk. For this descriptive qualitative inquiry, semistructured interviews and surveys were employed (N = 24). The narratives reveal that behavioral sequelae of depression (i.e., loneliness) can produce risk for HIV. These findings may guide psychiatric nurse educators, scientists, and practitioners to modify HIV risk among clinically depressed African American adolescent females. PMID:23164403
Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.
The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…
Guilamo-Ramos; Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida
A framework for the analysis of adolescent problem behaviors was explicated that draws on five major theories of human behavior. The framework emphasizes intentions to perform behaviors and factors that influence intentions as well as moderate the impact of intentions on behavior. The framework was applied to the analysis of adolescent sexual risk…
Kapungu, Chisina T.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Paikoff, Roberta L.
A sample of 274 African American families, living in impoverished neighborhoods with high HIV rates, participated in a longitudinal study of adolescent sexual development when children were in the 4th or 5th grade. Self-report and observational measures of parental warmth and parental behavioral control were collected from adolescents and parents…
Fisher, Terri D.
Some researchers have reported that when parents are the main source of sex education, their adolescent children are less likely to engage in premarital sexual activity and are more likely to use effective contraception. This study used the variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes (liberal or conservative) to categorize 349 college…
Spoth, Richard; Clair, Scott; Trudeau, Linda
Considering the prevalence and consequences of health-risking sexual behaviors (HRSBs) and STDs among young adults, their prevention is a public health priority. Emerging etiological and prevention outcome literatures suggested study of the long-term effects of universal family-focused interventions on young adult HRSBs and STDs. Although earlier studies have demonstrated intervention impact on adolescent substance misuse, no study has examined universal family-focused intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs via reductions in adolescent misuse. Sixth grade students and their families enrolled in 33 rural Midwestern schools were randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Self-report questionnaires provided data at pretest (Ns = 238, 221, and 208 for the Iowa Strengthening Families Program [ISFP], Preparing for the Drug Free Years [PDFY], and control groups, respectively), with seven data points through young adulthood (age 21). In latent growth modeling, three young adult HRSB measures (number of sexual partners, condom use, substance use with sex) and lifetime STDs were specified as distal outcomes mediated by adolescent substance initiation growth factors (average level and rate of change). Results showed that the models fit the data and, except for condom use, there were significant indirect effects, with a higher frequency of significant findings for ISFP. The model additions of direct intervention effects on young adult outcomes generally were not supported, consistent with a model positing that long-term intervention effects on young adult HRSBs and STDs outcomes are indirect. As an indication of the practical significance of long-term effects, analyses revealed relative reduction rates ranging from 6% to 46% for significant outcomes. PMID:23408278
Schofield, Hannah-Lise T.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda; Nix, Robert L.
Youth who initiate sexual intercourse in early adolescence (age 11-14) experience multiple risks, including concurrent adjustment problems and unsafe sexual practices. The current study tested two models describing the links between childhood precursors, early adolescent risk factors, and adolescent sexual activity: a cumulative model and a…
Longmore, Monica A.; Eng, Abbey L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.
This study draws on social control and social learning theories to examine the role of dating-specific attitudes and practices as predictors of adolescents' sexual initiation. We include attention to the adolescent's reaction to control attempts as a further means of assessing family dynamics (i.e., frequency of dating disagreements). The study…
We clarified the nature of sexual compulsivity in adolescence, addressed who is labeled as "sexually compulsive youth," conceptualized the underlying factors of sexual compulsivity, and outlined a treatment format. We focused on trauma, dissociation, attachment, and self-concept. We questioned the conventional perceptions of who is included in this group. We reiterated that the belief that sexually compulsive adolescents are abusive males is no longer considered accurate. The evolution and accessibility of the Internet only raises greater concerns about compulsive sexual behavior, as more adolescents are brought into therapy because of Internet use to seek sexual interaction or stimulation. The sexually compulsive youth is as likely to be the clean-cut, high-achieving, intelligent student as is the economically deprived, juvenile delinquent on the street. This article began with the observation that adolescents rarely receive any direct, accurate information about sexuality and intimacy. The messages taken in through music, television, movies, politicians, popular press, clergy, and school are polarizing and contradictory. Beyond this are the implications as to how we, as a society, treat the youths that do present with sexual behavior problems. We have tended to treat these youth (as well as adults) with disdain and to designate sexually abusive youth the same as adult offenders with harsher, more punitive treatment interventions. Research and clinical experience now strongly question this type of response. This article is consistent with this leaning. Early psychological injury, from sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, attachment trauma, or early sexualization, is at the root of sexually compulsive behavior. While it is necessary to reign in out-of-control and destructive behaviors, if we acknowledge that the source of the behavior is psychological injury, then it is cruel and inconsistent to treat the individual with disdain or as a pariah. The
O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D
Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence. PMID:22810165
Decker, Michele R; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G
This study investigates associations between immigration and acculturation with sexual assault among a large, representative sample of high school girls. The analysis utilized data from the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted in 1999, 2001, and 2003 (N = 5,919). Adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted among the full sample and a sexually active subsample. Being an immigrant was associated with recurring sexual assault victimization; this effect was not consistent across age and racial/ethnic groups. Immigrant status conferred risk among adolescent girls aged 15 and younger, Black adolescent girls, and sexually active Hispanic girls. No differences were detected in sexual assault victimization based on acculturation. PMID:17478674
Birungi, Ruth; Nabembezi, Dennis; Kiwanuka, Julius; Ybarra, Michele; Bull, Sheana
In Uganda, HIV prevalence remains high with young people at higher risk of infection than adults. Much is known about the sexual risk factors for HIV transmission among youths, including sexual encounters that are coerced. On the other hand, relatively little is known about the barriers to preventing sexual coercion and what strategies may overcome those barriers with adolescents. We conducted three focus group discussions with adolescents in an urban area in Uganda to understand their perceptions of sexual coercion, and to identify, from their point of view, how coercion can be addressed. Data were collected to inform the development of an Internet-based programme for young people, tailored to their HIV-information, motivation and behavioural-skills needs. The findings suggest that the participants perceived adults' coercion of young people as common. The secondary school participants also expressed confusion over what exactly constituted coercion. They acknowledged that young people lack skills to avoid coerced sex and felt it would be critical to give youths information on the circumstances in which coercion may occur and its links to HIV risk. Finally, the youths wanted specific skills and to be empowered to avoid sexual coercion and to report rape. The findings suggest that adolescents are open to discussions about this topic and they support the call for greater integration of coercion-reduction strategies in HIV-prevention programmes targeted at their age group. PMID:25865380
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…
Latimore, Amanda D.; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan G.; Galai, Noya; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thompson, Nick; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Willard, Nancy; Celentano, David D.
STI prevalence and risks in a sample of rural Thai adolescents and young adults (14–29 years old) were examined. Unprotected sex with a casual partner conferred the greatest risk for prevalent STIs, particularly for younger adolescents and alcohol use increased the STI risk for women but not for men. PMID:23403603
Chilman, Catherine S.
All aspects of adolescent sexuality may be viewed as primarily sexual. The primary fact about adolescence is that the young person becomes capable of reproduction. Biological changes interact with psychological ones; the cognitive, motivational, social and emotional aspects are all directed toward becoming a sexual human being. In adolescence,…
Ssewamala, Fred; Ismayilova, Leyla; McKay, Mary; Sperber, Elizabeth; Bannon, William; Alicea, Stacey
Purpose This paper examines gender differences in attitudes towards sexual risk-taking behaviors of AIDS-orphaned youth participating in a randomized control trial testing an economic empowerment intervention in rural Uganda. Methods Adolescents (average age 13.7 years) who had lost one or both parents to AIDS from fifteen comparable schools were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=135) or control condition (n=142). Adolescents in the experimental condition, in addition to usual care, also received support and incentives to save money toward secondary education. Results Findings indicate that although adolescent boys and girls within the experimental condition saved comparable amounts, the intervention appears to have benefited girls, in regards to the attitudes towards sexual risk-taking behavior, in a different way and to a lesser extent than boys. Conclusions Future research should investigate the possibility that adolescent girls might be able to develop equally large improvements in protective attitudes towards sexual risk-taking through additional components that address gendered social norms. PMID:20307827
Whitaker, Daniel J.; Miller, Kim S.
Examined how parent-adolescent communication about initiating sex and using condoms influenced the relationship between peer norms and behavior among African American and Hispanic adolescents. Found that peer norms were more strongly related to behavior among adolescents who had not discussed sex or condoms. Communication was also related to teens…
Examined sexuality of 18-year-old adolescents (n=916) within context of life-course developmental model. Found adolescents who began dating early and developed steady relations early were more likely to be sexually experienced, to have had sexual relations with more partners, to have been more sexually active during late teenage years, and to have…
Brion-Meisels, Steven; And Others
This teacher's manual is one volume in a six volume curriculum for the secondary level, designed to provide a systematic, group-oriented approach to decision-making in areas crucial to adolescent development: sexuality and social relationships, drug (substance) use and abuse, work, juvenile law, and people and government. An introductory section…
Boden, S; Malchair, A; Bertrand, J
The adolescents responsible for sexual abuses on children confront the medico-psycho-social workers with many questions. In this article, thanks to a bibliographical approach, we first discuss the definitions concerning sexual abuses and paedophilia as well as family, psychodynamic and legal specificities of adolescents. We then mention a few epidemiological facts as well as the different behavioural cognitive, psychodynamic and family hypotheses related to that problem. We finally illustrate all this through two clinical cases encountered during our ambulatory exercise and submit some thinking to readers. PMID:10446522
Sales, Jessica McDermott; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Carolyn; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve; Samp, Jennifer A.
Background To examine differences between lower and higher frequency alcohol users in sexual behaviors and psychosocial correlates of risk for HIV among young African-American females. Methods Data were collected from sexually active African-American females aged 15–20 years, seeking services at a STD clinic in Atlanta, GA, to assess sexual behavior, correlates of risk, and a non-disease biological marker of unprotected vaginal sex. Results Number of drinking occasions was significantly related to three of four psychosocial correlates and with all self-reporting sexual behavior measures. Also, heavier drinking per occasion was associated with the presence of semen in vaginal fluid. Conclusion Non-abuse levels of drinking were related to increased sexual risk-taking in this sample of young African-American females. Incorporating messages about the intersection of alcohol use and sexual decision making into HIV/STD prevention programs would strengthen STD prevention messaging in this vulnerable population. PMID:25053364
Moreau-Gruet, F; Ferron, C; Jeannin, A; Dubois-Arber, F
The aim of this paper is to determine gender differences as regards adolescent sexuality, in order to improve the adjustment of prevention programmes to boys' and girls' specific needs. Data were collected as part of the Swiss Multicentric Adolescent Survey on Health. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed in school classes among a national representative sample of about 9,300 adolescents (15 to 20 years old). About 45% of the total sample reported a previous sexual experience. Differences between boys and girls were identified by means of bivariate and multivariate analyses. A higher proportion of Swiss girls report intra-family discussions about sexuality, having had a previous sexual experience, having sexual intercourse regularly, having had only one partner, and using contraception regularly. A higher proportion of Swiss boys report positive attitudes towards condoms and using condoms regularly. Variables independently associated with the occurrence of first sexual intercourse before 15 years old also show gender differences, notably as regards health behaviours and social adjustment. The findings suggest that prevention programmes should emphasize, among boys, responsibility in contraception and the need for protection in situations of multipartnership, and among girls, a positive attitude towards condom use and an increased familiarity with condoms presented both in a perspective of contraception and prevention of STDs. PMID:8993715
Sommer, Marni; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia
Despite decades of effort, the spread of HIV/AIDS continues among many African young people. A key contributor is unsafe sexual behavior that is desired, persuaded or coerced. We explored the masculinity norms shaping pubescent boys’ perceptions of and engagement in (unsafe) sexual behaviors in Tanzania. Through a comparative case study in rural and urban Tanzania, qualitative and participatory methods were used with 160 adolescent boys in and out of school to better understand the social and contextual factors promoting unsafe sexual behaviors. Adolescent boys in both the rural and urban sites reported struggling with intense sexual desires, strong peer pressures to have sex, and social norms dissuading condom use. A growing “normalization” of AIDS suggests messages promoting the dangers of HIV infection may be less effective. Findings reinforce the need for interventions with very young adolescents. Research is needed to identify more effective approaches for promoting safer sexual practices among boys in sub-Saharan Africa. Harm reduction approaches and gender transformative approaches might prove more effective than current HIV prevention efforts focused on youth. PMID:25583374
Sommer, Marni; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia
Despite decades of effort, the spread of HIV/AIDS continues among many African young people. A key contributor is unsafe sexual behavior that is desired, persuaded, or coerced. We explored the masculinity norms shaping pubescent boys' perceptions of and engagement in (unsafe) sexual behaviors in Tanzania. Through a comparative case study in rural and urban Tanzania, qualitative and participatory methods were used with 160 adolescent boys in and out of school to better understand the social and contextual factors promoting unsafe sexual behaviors. Adolescent boys in both the rural and urban sites reported struggling with intense sexual desires, strong peer pressures to have sex, and social norms dissuading condom use. A growing "normalization" of AIDS suggests messages promoting the dangers of HIV infection may be less effective. Findings reinforce the need for interventions with very young adolescents. Research is needed to identify more effective approaches for promoting safer sexual practices among boys in sub-Saharan Africa. Harm reduction approaches and gender transformative approaches might prove more effective than current HIV prevention efforts focused on youth. PMID:25583374
Prado, Guillermo J.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Shi Huang,; Pantin, Hilda M.; Lopez, Barbara; Szapocznik, Jose
Hispanic adolescents are a rapidly growing population and are highly vulnerable to substance abuse and HIV infection. Many interventions implemented thus far have been "one size fits all" models that deliver the same dosage and sequence of modules to all participants. To more effectively prevent substance use and HIV in Hispanic adolescents,…
Dudley, Cheryl; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Moreau, Donna
A study examined the association between sexual risk behaviors of 110 psychiatrically referred Latino girls aged 13-18 and their HIV knowledge. Questionnaires completed by the girls indicated that girls engaging in higher levels of sexual activity had clearly acquired accurate knowledge concerning HIV transmission but had not integrated it into…
Jones, Deborah J.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Patricia; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana; Jones, Bobby; Nagin, Daniel; Runyan, Desmond
A robust literature links childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to later substance use and sexual risk behavior; yet, relatively little empirical attention has been devoted to identifying the mechanisms linking CSA to risky behavior among youth, with even less work examining such processes in boys. With the aim of addressing this gap in the literature, the…
Haley, Tammy; Puskar, Kathryn; Terhorst, Lauren; Terry, Martha Ann; Charron-Prochownik, Denise
Adolescents who engage in unprotected intercourse are at risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although adolescents in rural areas participate in levels of sexual risk taking similar to that of nonrural youth, few data are available identifying factors that influence condom use among rural adolescents. The purpose of this…
Metzler, C W; Noell, J; Biglan, A; Ary, D; Smolkowski, K
This study supports a model of adolescents' risky sexual behavior in which this behavior is seen as a product of the same peer and family factors which influence a wide range of problem behaviors. The Patterson et al. (1992) model of peer and parental factors associated with adolescents' sexual risk-taking behavior was tested on three independent samples of adolescents, ages 14 through 18. Adolescents whose peers were reported to engage in diverse problem behaviors were more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior. Poor parental monitoring and parent-child coercive interactions were associated having deviant peers, and poor parental monitoring also had a direct relationship to risky sexual behavior. Family involvement was associated with fewer parent-child coercive interactions. Less availability of parental figures in the family was directly associated with risky sexual behavior and was also associated with poorer parental monitoring. PMID:7966262
Varker, Tracey; Devilly, Grant J.
The purpose of this study was to examine general empathy, general victim empathy and own victim empathy in adolescent sexual offenders. Sixteen adolescent sexual offenders completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Personal Reaction Inventory, a "general sexual abuse victim" form of the Victim Empathy Distortions Scale (VEDS) and an…
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
Impact of parent alcohol misuse on the sexual behavior of female adolescents was studied with 1,134 teenagers of alcohol-misusing parents. Index adolescents were more likely to report sexual intercourse and greater frequency of intercourse. Gender of the drinking parent was related to a number of factors related to sexuality. (SLD)
Pestrak, V A; Martin, D
Difficulty with adjustment to sexuality by adolescents has been of increasing concern to both educators and human service professionals in recent years. The cognitive development and behavior of adolescents as it pertains to sexuality and the implications for helping them overcome maladaptive sexual behavior is discussed. PMID:4083149
Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette
Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile. PMID:26719000
Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer
Objective: Women who experience sexual victimization, whether in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, are at elevated risk of sexual revictimization. The mechanism responsible for this robust association is unclear, however. The present study proposed and tested a prospective, mediated model that posited that the association between adolescent and college victimization is mediated via two types of risk exposure in the first semester of college: alcohol-related and sexual risk behaviors. Method: Female adolescents (N = 469) were recruited from the community at the time of high school graduation. They completed baseline assessments as well as follow-ups at the end of the first and second semesters of college. Results: Consistent with hypotheses, adolescent sexual victimization was associated indirectly, via high school risk behaviors, with increased first semester college risk behaviors (i.e., sexual partners, hookups, heavy episodic drinking and heavy drinking contexts), which were, in turn, strongly predictive of sexual victimization experiences in the first year of college. College risk behaviors partially mediated the significant association between adolescent and first year college victimization; however, even women without prior victimization faced elevated risk of college victimization with higher levels of college risk behaviors. Conclusions: Women who have experienced adolescent sexual victimization engage in higher levels of risk-taking in college, thereby increasing vulnerability to college victimization. Intervention to reduce these primarily alcohol-related risk-taking behaviors may reduce vulnerability to college sexual victimization. PMID:20350035
Troussier, Thierry; Benghozi, Pierre; Ganem, Marc
Adolescence is a time of life characterized by danger because of the many changes that occur, the many ties that are severed: ties to childhood, ties to the child's body as it begins to take on an adult appearance, ties to a once-familiar body image and psyche as hormones complete the transformation to adulthood, ties to an unconscious that is struggling to restructure itself anew. The creation of the romantic couple is a danger inherent in any human society. This text was written from the professional practices of each author in a multidisciplinary approach combining the approaches of public health, risk reduction, and sexual, psychological and clinical care of adolescents. How to help anticipate the dangers is to use preventive insurance verifying that security is guaranteed before committing. Risk-taking is accepting all the challenges that boost the self with oneself and with others. The risk is therefore also the commitment in love. It is still the risk to speak, to feel, to express feelings, choices, and refusal of unwanted sex. The ability of adolescents to play and defeat the risk by learning the ethical value not only to protect themselves from contracting AIDS, but also to protect others is part of the pedagogy of risk. This pedagogy of risk, as we have seen, includes three areas: information, care and initiation into love. Adolescents must be supported in their emergence by responsible people to protect them from the dangers ahead. The support is not only to prevent them from engaging in risky behavior, but to help them better manage their anxieties and support the fragility of their families in a network approach. Not knowing how to confront the risk stifles the chance of allowing the child to grow up to be independent and helps reassure parents who may resent being removed from the empowerment of their children. PMID:22846539
Strasburger, V C
Teenagers spend more time with the media than they do in any other activity except sleeping. Is it mere coincidence that the rises in rates of adolescent sexual intercourse during the past 30 years have coincided with the new era of electronic media? Do the media merely reflect society's changes, or do they have the capacity to influence human behavior as well? Although currently part of the problem of teenage pregnancy, the media could become part of the solution, if they were to portray human sexuality responsibly and allow the advertising of contraception. PMID:2660095
DiBlasio, F A
Adolescent pregnancy and AIDS, and their implications for health risk, warrant a reexamination of professional values of child welfare workers toward adolescent sexuality. This article presents an exercise designed to assist practitioners in understanding the hidden values that influence intervention. PMID:2721295
Kay, L E
As sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll have given way to STDs, HIV, and AIDS, adolescent sex has become an increasingly high-risk behavior. Dr Kay strongly believes that primary care physicians can have a prominent role in educating teens and their parents about the consequences of premature sexual activity and in promoting healthy living. In this article, he presents the case against adolescent sexual intercourse and outlines a concrete approach to dealing with adolescent patients at risk and their families. PMID:7777440
Brabant, Marie-Eve; Hébert, Martine; Chagnon, François
This study explored the clinical profiles of 77 female teenager survivors of sexual abuse and examined the association of abuse-related and personal variables with suicidal ideations. Analyses revealed that 64% of participants experienced suicidal ideations. Findings from classification and regression tree analysis indicated that depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and hopelessness discriminated profiles of suicidal and nonsuicidal survivors. The elevated prevalence of suicidal ideations among adolescent survivors of sexual abuse underscores the importance of investigating the presence of suicidal ideations in sexual abuse survivors. However, suicidal ideation is not the sole variable that needs to be investigated; depression, hopelessness and posttraumatic stress symptoms are also related to suicidal ideations in survivors and could therefore guide interventions. PMID:23428149
Ayhan, Gülen; Martin, Loic; Levy-Loeb, Mathieu; Thomas, Stéphanie; Euzet, Géneviève; Van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Nacher, Mathieu
French Guiana, a French overseas department in South America, has been classified epidemic for HIV. This territory is consisting of a very young population with almost 45% of them being younger than 20 years of age. Delaying the onset of first sexual intercourse (SI) is one of the major objectives to fight HIV infection in adolescents. The objective of this study is to identify the age of first SI and the risk factors of early onset. A behavioural surveillance survey among students living on the coastline and alongside the Maroni River was conducted in 2011/2012. A total of 1603 students filled out the survey. While 60% had already SI, the mean age of first intercourse was 12.1 years for boys and 13.9 years for girls. Accordingly, over 90% had a premature onset of SI. Risk factors are age, male gender, living alongside the Maroni River, another language than the French being mother tongue, not being religious, alcohol and cannabis consumption and a bad attitude towards condom use. Risk factors for girls are an older first sexual partner, having more than three lifetime sexual partners and condom rupture. Evidence-based implementation with respect of local and socio-demographic aspects is necessary to improve youths' appreciation of SI and related risk of sexual transmitted diseases. PMID:25782704
Zulkifli, S N; Low, W Y; Yusof, K
This paper examines data on the sexual activities of 1,200 Malaysian adolescents aged 15-21 years based on a probability household sampled survey carried out in Kuala Lumpur in 1986. Sexual behaviours like premarital sexual intercourse, contraceptive usage and masturbation were presented. Of the 1,181 unmarried respondents, 9% (105) reported having had sexual intercourse; males were significantly more experienced compared to females. Older age groups were also found to be more sexually active than the younger ones. Among those who had experience dating (n = 521), 20% (105) have experienced sexual intercourse, 44% (228) have kissed and necked, and 35% (183) have experienced petting, while 24% (130) have had no physical intimacies. Poor use of contraception was also revealed. The most commonly used were condoms, oral contraceptives and withdrawal. With regard to masturbation, males begin this practice relatively earlier than females. Almost half of those who indulged in masturbation were worried by the act, especially the females. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:7752975
Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions. PMID:6677153
Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Silverman, Jay G.
Background/Objectives Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for both STI/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past three months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI, and related care-seeking over the same time period. Methods Female family planning clinic patients ages 16–29 (n=3,504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011–2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behavior, self-reported STI, and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Results Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52, 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51, 3.27) and injection drug use, both their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47, 7.79) and their partner’s (AOR 3.85, 1.91, 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.51, 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73, 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59, 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87, 3.31). Conclusions Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women’s agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk, and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction. PMID:24234072
Hipwell, A.E.; Stepp, S.D.; Keenan, K.; Allen, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Rottingen, L.; McAloon, R.
Study Objective To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Design Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors and risk-taking, and their use of and experience with dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Setting Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. Participants 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one third of the sample lived in poverty. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Sexual risk-taking. Results Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model, and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Conclusions Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls’ risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. PMID:23726138
Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Gruber, Enid L.
Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies, and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in oral sex and sexual intercourse, future intentions to engage in these behaviors, and sex expectancies. As predicted, exposure to sexual content was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in sexual behaviors, increased intentions to do so in the future, and more positive sex expectancies. Often, parental mediation strategies were a significant factor in moderating these potential media influences. PMID:21546986
Meschke, Laurie L.; Bartholomae, Suzanne; Zentall, Shannon R.
Reports on trends in adolescent sexual health, the relation between parenting and adolescent sexual outcomes, and adolescent sexuality interventions. Discusses parenting efforts related to adolescent sexual behavior. Examines adolescent sexuality programs with a parent component. Review of 19 programs supports the incorporation of theory and the…
Carpentier, Julie; Proulx, Jean
The present study investigates the recidivism rates of a sample of 351 male adolescents who sexually offended, and were assessed at an outpatient psychiatric clinic in Montreal, Canada, between 1992 and 2002. The mean age of the participants was 15.8 years (SD=1.8). Data on adolescent and adult recidivism were collected in Summer 2005 from official criminality sources in Canada. Over an 8-year follow-up period, 45% (n=158) of the participants were charged with a new criminal offense, 30% (n=104) were charged with a violent offense, and 10% (n=36) were charged with a sexual offense. Cox regression results suggest that overall, violent, and sexual recidivism can be predicted by a variety of developmental, social, and criminological factors. Paternal abandonment, childhood sexual victimization, association with significantly younger children, and having victimized a stranger were associated with a higher risk of sexual recidivism. Previous delinquency, attention deficit disorder, and childhood sexual victimization were found to increase the risk for both violent and overall recidivism. Also, the use of violence during a sex crime and victimizing a stranger were associated with violent recidivism, and school delay and association with delinquent peers were predictive of overall recidivism. The results confirm that a significant proportion of adolescents who have sexually offended pursue a criminal activity beyond adolescence, although few specialize in sexual offending. PMID:21960517
Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok
Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents.Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models.Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33-2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54-2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61-3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81-4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35-4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27-3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19-13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03-1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06-1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26-1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16-1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37-2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34-2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents.Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities. PMID:27227939
Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention intervention, on parent-reported measures. Bahamian parent-youth dyads (N = 1,833) participating in the randomized control trial were assigned to receive one of four conditions. Parents were assessed longitudinally at baseline and 6 and 12 months later. Through 12 months follow-up, parents exposed to Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together showed higher knowledge of condom use skills, perceptions of improved condom use competence on the part of their youth, and perceived improved parent-child communication about sex-related information. Although youth were the targeted beneficiary, parents also benefited directly from the sexual risk reduction parenting program. Parents demonstrated improved perceptions and knowledge that would enable them to more effectively guide their child and also protect themselves from sexual risk. PMID:25636315
Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia; Spruijt, Rob; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
The goal of the present study was to investigate meanings of sexual intercourse in adolescence, and the relationships between meanings, gender, age, and sexual behaviors. Subjects were 201 Italian adolescents (107 boys and 94 girls), aged 14-19 (M=17.44, SD=1.65). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires on meanings of sex, sexual…
de Gaston, Jacqueline F.; And Others
This study surveyed 1,228 parochial students about adolescent sexuality. Approximately 75% of these adolescents were virgins. Those reporting sexual experiences seldom claimed that it was forced or even pressured, and half reported that they were "going steady" with their first partner. Implications for sex education programs are discussed. (SLD)
Which moral principles should guide us in evaluating sexual contacts of adolescents? This paper tries to answer this question by taking two steps. First, the implications of a liberal sexual ethics for adolescence are spelled out, assessed and refuted. The core principle of the liberal ethical view, the principle of valid consent, takes competence…
Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…
Bralock, Anita; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah
Many sexually active teenagers face risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. The purpose of our study was to gain an understanding about influences on condom use among sexually active adolescents in relationships. Data were collected through semi-structured openended interviews. The findings of this study suggest that many adolescents desired the love of a male partner, and were willing to concede to his request of practicing unprotected sex. Findings support the urgent need for interventions that will promote skill-building techniques to negotiate safer sex behaviors among youth who are most likely to be exposed to STIs through risky behaviors. PMID:19268234
Moreira Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Sacramento Cunha Machado, Márcia; Borges da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando; Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Rodrigo; Teixeira Ferreira, Tatiana; Silva Leoni, Fernanda Maria; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios
Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide. PMID:23133306
Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…
George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Andrasik, Michele P
This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women's sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10 %) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol's effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517
Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin E.
Child sexual assault is a risk factor for a wide range of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about mental health functioning in relation to victims' decisions to tell someone (or not) about their assault. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of 4,023 adolescents to examine the relation between sexual assault…
Aras, Sahbal; Semin, Semih; Gunay, Turkan; Orcin, Esmahan; Ozan, Sema
Background: The risk of sexually transmitted diseases is high but opportunities of sexual education for adolescents are limited in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual attitudes and behaviors and to determine the predictors of sexual initiation among adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire designed by the researchers was administered…
Siebenbruner, Jessica; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Egeland, Byron
Antecedents and correlates of sexual behavior among 167 (46 female) adolescents were examined in this multi-informant longitudinal study. Data were collected at birth through middle adolescence. Data on number of sexual partners and contraception use at age 16 defined sexual abstinence (SAs, n = 73), high-risk sexual behavior (HRTs, n = 45) and…
Gardner, William; Herman, Janna
Discounts the belief in adolescents' irrational behavior, and proposes a rational choice decision-making theory of adolescent risk-taking behavior. Suggests that social ecology affects risk-taking choices. Proposals for AIDS education concern delayed initiation of sexual activity, promotion of condom use, and counseling of high-risk adolescents.…
Juhasz, Anne McCreary; Sonnenshein-Schneider, Mary
Analyzed adolescents' (N=500) evaluations of factors which would influence their sexual decisions. Results idetified six factors (family establishment competence, external morality, consequences of childbearing, self-enhancement through sexual intercourse, intimacy considerations regarding sexual intercourse, consequence of marriage) which were…
Quincy, Michael L.
The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted…
Mudingayi, Albert; Lutala, Prosper; Mupenda, Bavon
Background Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this study assessed the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among street adolescents in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Methods A random sampling of 200 street children (10-25 years of age) were selected from 17 rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa, and a structured questionnaire was administered to all participants in their respective centres. High knowledge, knowledge or awareness of condom was defined when a participant gave more than 67% of correct responses. Chi square analysis was used to test differences between sexes. Results The knowledge level of respondents was high. 54.3% of males and 45.7% of girls have heard about HIV), and few participants cited unprotected sex as mode of transmission (42.9% for males and 57.1% for females). A high number of children reported a previous sexual experience. Satisfying a natural bodily need was the main reason for having sex. However, the use of condoms is still low in both genders (26.2 versus 59.3%, p<0.01). Neither gender reported a reason why they are not using a condom. Conclusion This study highlights the high knowledge about HIV, which contrasts with low condom use and high past sexual experiences with the high number of sexual partners and sexual contacts. Policies targeting these findings are warranted to reverse such trends. PMID:22187605
Ramadugu, Shashikumar; Ryali, VSSR; Srivastava, K.; Bhat, P. S.; Prakash, J.
Context: Adolescence is a very exciting phase of life fraught with many challenges like sexuality. Understanding them is important in helping the adolescents grow up healthily. Aims: To ascertain the attitudes and knowledge about sexuality among school-going adolescents. Settings and Design: Students in two urban schools of an Indian city from class IX to XII were administered a self-reporting questionnaire on matters related to sexuality. Materials and Methods: Requisite ethical clearances were taken as also the consent of the parents and students before administration of the questionnaire. The authors clarified doubts to adolescents. Statistical analysis: Statistical package for social sciences. Results: The incidence of having sexual contact was 30.08% for boys and 17.18% for girls. 6.31% boys and 1.31% girls reported having had experienced sexual intercourse. Friends constituted the main sexual partners for both boys and girls. Sexual abuse had been reported by both girls and boys. These and other findings are discussed in the article. Conclusions: Adolescent school students are involved in sexual activity, but lack adequate knowledge in this regard. Students, teachers, and parents need to understand various aspects of sexuality to be able to help adolescents’ healthy sexual development. PMID:22969181
Behnken, Monic P; Le, Yen-Chi L; Temple, Jeff R; Berenson, Abbey B
Although sexual assault victimization has been shown to predict suicidality, little is known about the mechanisms linking these two factors. Using cross-sectional data (N=6364) from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, binge drinking significantly mediated the relationship between forced sexual intercourse and suicide for Hispanic (n=1915) and Caucasian (n=2928) adolescent females, but not for African American adolescent females (n=1521). Results suggest the need for closer monitoring of adolescent victims of sexual assault who also abuse alcohol to intervene in early suicide behaviors. Treatment and intervention programs should also be culturally sensitive to account for differences in reaction to sexual trauma among race/ethnicity. Implications for suicide prevention and alcohol intervention strategies as well as suggestions to clinical providers are discussed. PMID:20074862
Mackaronis, Julia E; Byrne, Peter M; Strassberg, Donald S
Adolescents who have sexually offended have unique treatment needs. For mental health professionals to adequately address these unique needs, further research is necessary. To that end, we explored the assessment of sexual interest (which may play an integral role in understanding potential for sexual reoffending) in a sample of 103 male adolescents who have sexually offended. We compared results from a physiological assessment (MONARCH 21 penile plethysmography [PPG]) and an actuarial assessment (Screening Scale for Pedophilic Interest [SSPI]), plus data from an unobstrusive assessment (Affinity, a viewing time measure) in a smaller subsample of 16 male adolescents. One finding that has particular relevance for clinical assessment is that the SSPI may have limited utility with adolescents. We also found evidence for some overlap between data from PPG and viewing time assessments, although whether or not PPG data are ipsatized may affect relationships with other assessment modalities. PMID:24879092
Swenson, Rebecca R.; Houck, Christopher D.; Barker, David; Zeanah, Paula D.; Brown, Larry K.
Given increased sexual risk-taking among youth with mental health problems, this study sought to understand the developmental trajectory of sexual self-esteem (SSE) among this vulnerable population and how it is impacted by sexual experiences. Participants were 185 adolescents who attended therapeutic/alternative schools in southern New England.…
DiClemente, Ralph J; Davis, Teaniese L; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Fasula, Amy M; Boyce, Lorin; Gelaude, Deborah; Gray, Simone C; Hardin, James; Rose, Eve; Carry, Monique; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; Staples-Horne, Michelle
Few HIV/STI interventions exist for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to reduce incident STIs, improve HIV-preventive behaviors, and enhance psychosocial outcomes. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among African American adolescent girls (13-17 years, N = 188) in juvenile detention from March 2011 to May 2012. Assessments occurred at baseline and 3- and 6-months post-randomization and included: audio computer-assisted self-interview, condom skills assessment, and self-collected vaginal swab to detect Chlamydia and gonorrhea. The Imara intervention included three individual-level sessions and four phone sessions; expedited partner therapy was offered to STI-positive adolescents. The comparison group received the usual care provided by the detention center: STI testing, treatment, and counseling. At the 6-month assessment (3-months post-intervention), Imara participants reported higher condom use self-efficacy (p < 0.001), HIV/STI knowledge (p < 0.001), and condom use skills (p < 0.001) compared to control participants. No significant differences were observed between trial conditions in incident Chlamydia or gonorrhea infections, condom use, or number of vaginal sex partners. Imara for detained African American adolescent girls can improve condom use skills and psychosocial outcomes; however, a critical need for interventions to reduce sexual risk remains. PMID:25190056
DiClemente, Ralph J.; Davis, Teaniese L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Fasula, Amy M.; Boyce, Lorin; Gelaude, Deborah; Gray, Simone C.; Hardin, James; Rose, Eve; Carry, Monique; Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Staples-Horne, Michelle
Background Few HIV/STI interventions exist for African American adolescent girls in juvenile detention. Objective The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to reduce incident STIs, improve HIV-preventive behaviors, and enhance psychosocial outcomes. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial among African American adolescent girls (13-17 years, N=188) in juvenile detention from March 2011 to May 2012. Assessments occurred at baseline and 3- and 6-months post-randomization and included: audio computer-assisted self-interview, condom skills assessment, and self-collected vaginal swab to detect Chlamydia and gonorrhea. Intervention The Imara intervention included three individual-level sessions and four phone sessions; expedited partner therapy was offered to STI-positive adolescents. The comparison group received the usual care provided by the detention center: STI testing, treatment and counseling. Results At the 6-month assessment (3-months post-intervention) Imara participants reported higher condom use self-efficacy (p<0.001), HIV/STI knowledge (p<0.001), and condom use skills (p<0.001) compared to control participants. No significant differences were observed between trial conditions in incident Chlamydia or gonorrhea infections, condom use, or number of vaginal sex partners. Conclusions Imara for detained African American adolescent girls can improve condom use skills and psychosocial outcomes; however, a critical need for interventions to reduce sexual risk remains. PMID:25190056
Fortenberry, J. Dennis
This chapter is organized around the question "How do adolescents learn to have healthy sex?" The chapter assumes that sexual learning derives from a broad range of both informal and formal sources that contribute to learning within the context of neurocognitive brain systems that modulate sexual motivations and self-regulation. The…
Harader, Dana L.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorne, Melissa
Adolescents with moderate disabilities are not being given vital information regarding their sexuality and ways to behave responsibly with their peers. This article examines the laws that govern the education of all persons with disabilities, how societal norms and attitudes have contributed to this lack of sexuality knowledge, how these…
Houck, Christopher; Swenson, Rebecca; Donenberg, Geri; Papino, Andrew; Emerson, Erin; Brown, Larry K.
The present study examined the link between the emotional context of sexual situations and sexual risk, specifically by examining the relationship of teens’ recall of their affective states prior to sex with their sexual risk behaviors and attitudes. Adolescents (ages 13-19) attending therapeutic schools due to emotional and behavioral difficulties (n=247) completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews regarding sexual behavior, including ratings of their emotions prior to last sexual activity. Positive emotions were most commonly endorsed (43-57% of participants), however, significant proportions (8-23%) also endorsed negative emotions prior to last sex. Both positive and negative emotions were significantly related to risk attitudes and behavior in regression analyses. The affective contexts of sexual experiences may be important predictors of risk in adolescence. PMID:24558097
Kaushik, Ashlesha; Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen
Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV(+)) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV(+) and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV(+) and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV(+) adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p < 0.0001) and reported multiple (>4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV(+) males reported receptive anal intercourse (p < 0.001). About 1/3 of adolescents in both groups were unaware that sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV(+) adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV(+) youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents. PMID:27595131
Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen
Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV+ and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV+ and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV+ adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p < 0.0001) and reported multiple (>4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV+ males reported receptive anal intercourse (p < 0.001). About 1/3 of adolescents in both groups were unaware that sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV+ adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV+ youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents. PMID:27595131
Romeo, Felicia F.
Suggests that the high incidence of anorexia nervosa in adolescent girls may be related to developmental sexual pressure. Symptoms appear with the onset of puberty and are related to physiological and psychological changes. (JAC)
Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra
This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression analysis (n=237) with cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being Wave I (NSCAW, Dowd et al., 2002). This study found that school engagement, caregiver social support, hope and expectancy, caregiver education and SES predicted resilience. In line with the PPCT model, findings suggest that placing a greater emphasis on the contextual environment could improve support for adolescent resilience. Augmenting interventions that focus on individual change with those that address environmental factors may increase the benefits to adolescents affected by sexual abuse. PMID:22265933
Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Sritanyarat, Wanapa; Ayuwat, Dusadee
Since adolescents are now engaging in sexual activity in their early years, sexual behavior needs to be explored to prevent contact with HPVs and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including cervical cancer. This qualitative study aimed to explore this question from adolescents' view points in their natural context. The participants were 19 individuals aged 13-19 years living in rural families in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The preliminary findings indicated that factors contributing to low sexual risk behavior were helping family to do housework, an emphasis on learning, listening to parents, and following their advice. Adolescent behavior leading to high sexual risk included being very close to friends, having a wide social circle, going out for enjoyment at night time, returning home late at night, drinking alcohol, smoking, paying less attention to learning, not listening to parents, and not following their advice. Adolescent sexual behavior was found to comprise: 1) sexual activities themselves; 2) non-disclosure of having sex; and 3) protective behavior. Sexual activities were ranked from low risk to high risk of sexual health. Low risk included having a steady boy/girlfriend, hugging, and kissing. High risk sexual behavior featured unprotected sex, abuse or rape, and abortion. Important influences were: eagerness to learn and try to have sex, mens' sexual desire, peer group value of having sex, and material value. The adolescents demonstrated no willingness to disclose having a boy/girl friend, having sex and negative consequences like becoming pregnant. Sexual protective behavior was up to males, whether they were willing to use a condom, with females having little power to negotiate. The study suggests that inappropriate adolescent risk behavior and social values need to be a focus of attention for education. In particular, families need to take action by early detection of adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:17250438
Rice, Eric; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Fulginiti, Anthony; Astor, Roee; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Purpose Prior studies reported homeless adolescents engage in more sexual risk than their housed peers. However, these comparisons are typically made post hoc by comparing homeless adolescent community-based samples with high school probability samples. This study utilizes a random sample of high school students to examine homelessness experiences and sexual risk behaviors. Methods A supplemental survey to the Youth Risk Behavior Survey containing questions regarding homelessness and sexual health was administered to Los Angeles high school students (N=1,839). Multivariate logistic regressions assessed the associations between demographics, past year homelessness experiences (i.e., place of nighttime residence), and being sexually active and condom use at last intercourse. Results Homelessness experiences consisted of staying in a shelter (10.4%), a public place (10.1%), and with a stranger (5.6%). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning (LGBTQ), younger, and male adolescents were more likely to experience homelessness. LGBTQ adolescents were also more likely to report staying with a stranger and less likely to report staying in a shelter. Compared to adolescents who stayed in shelters, adolescents who stayed with strangers and in public places were more likely to engage in unprotected sex at last intercourse. Conclusions Adolescents who report sexual activity and sexual risk taking are more likely to report homelessness experiences. With regard to sexual health, staying with strangers could be a particularly risky form of homelessness; LGBTQ and Black adolescents are more likely to experience this form of homelessness. Efforts to reduce homelessness and sexual risk-taking need to recognize the specific vulnerabilities faced by these populations. PMID:23360897