Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.
Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)
Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.
Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…
Lasser, Jon; Schmidt, Eric
This article highlights the problem of substance use and abuse among adolescents and discusses the important role of school leaders in addressing this problem. Drug and alcohol use among adolescents is a significant and serious problem. In fact, an alarmingly high number of students report that they have used drugs or alcohol. Substance use and…
McKnight, A. James
This document is the final report on the Pregnant Adolescent Substance Abuse Project (PASAP) conducted in Prince Georges County (Maryland) in 1987 and 1988. The PASAP consisted of two components that operated independently: an Early Intervention Program that increased the proportion of pregnant adolescent substance users who were using various…
Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…
Thomas, Connie S.; Schandler, Steven L.
Discusses research on adolescent substance abuse risk factors and their role in the management of adolescent substance abuse disorders. A selective literature review suggests specific intervention strategies; no generic approach fits all adolescent substance-use clients. Effective techniques require individual assessments, including the context in…
McKay, James R.; Buka, Stephen L.
Presents findings from research programs: first on substance abuse in juvenile offenders/adolescents with psychiatric/behavioral disorders focused on treatment issues (attributions for substance use, beliefs about effects of drugs, perceptions of family functioning); and second on psychiatric disorders in adolescent substance abuse patients…
Dias, Philomena J
There are no gold-standard tests for evaluating a teen suspected of abusing substances. Awareness of the high prevalence of substance abuse in youth, a high index of suspicion, and a firm desire to be a part of the solution are all that is required to address the problem of substance abuse in youth. In an age of "dotcoms" and societal complexity that fosters an emotionally "disconnected" atmosphere by uniting adolescents only by what they buy, plug into, click on, or blast away, teens need trusted medical homes where caring pediatricians are available to give youth accurate and authoritative facts and care to help them build inner resilience and connect them to the pain and hurt of the people in their lives. Until now, the "three strikes and you're out" maxim has been applied in medical care. This maxim may work for baseball, Clintonomics, and practical office management strategies but is not recommended for addressing the needs of substance using or abusing youth who are prey to advertising strategies. The size of the marketing and advertising budgets of the alcohol and cigarette industries is an indication of the relentless marketing directed toward vulnerable youth. Pediatricians would be doing teens a disservice if they fail to countermand this marketing effect by not using the "rule of seven"--the "seven 'S' screen," seven education attempts, seven different ways over 7 years, and persistence over seven attempts of chemically dependent adolescents to quit. It has been said by Osler that "These are our methods--to carefully observe the phenomena of life in all its stages, to cultivate the reasoning of the faculty so as to be able to know the true from the false. This is our work--to prevent disease, to relieve suffering, to heal the sick," and provide HOPE always. PMID:11993283
... breadcrumb navigation Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask Quick Links Facts For Families ... No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...
Berger, Janice M.; Levin, Saul M.
Notes that substance abuse and sexual activity among adolescents place them at significant risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses epidemiology of adolescents and HIV infection and examines health care reform aspects of linking and integrating substance abuse, mental health, primary care, and HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency…
Schwartz, Robert C.; Smith, Shannon D.
Adolescent substance abuse is an increasing problem in U. S. society. This article provides an overview of adolescent substance abuse, screening, and assessment strategies; contact information related to specific assessment instruments; and information regarding ethic important to consider during the assessment process. (Contains 16 references and…
Bodinger-de Uriarte, Cristina; Austin, Gregory
This document examines what is known about alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) among adolescent females. The first half of the document discusses the following topics: (1) prevalence and patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among female adolescents; (2) correlates and risk of substance abuse, including age of initiation,…
Wodarski, John S.; Smyth, Nancy J.
Presents data on the extent, nature, and consequences of adolescent substance abuse. Definition of substance abuse is considered. Discusses primary and secondary prevention programs, including programs targeting high-risk youth, school and peer group, families, and communities. Outlines tertiary prevention efforts and emphasizes the need for…
Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann
This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…
Moore, David D.; Forster, Jerald R.
Describes school-based Student Assistance Programs (SAPs), which are designed to reduce adolescents' substance abuse. Notes that SAPs, modeled after Employee Assistance Programs in workplace, are identifying, assessing, referring, and managing cases of substance-abusing students. Sees adoption of SAP model as accelerating in response to growing…
Brown, Sandra A.; And Others
Research has documented the genetic contribution of paternal alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder as risk factors for adolescent deviant behavior, including substance abuse. Teens (n=147) between the ages of 12 and 19 years and their parents participated in the study. The sample consisted of 74 substance abusing teens/families drawn from…
Marsh, Linda D.; Key, Janice D.; Payne, Tricia P.
Study determined the change in prevalence of Methylphenidate misuse over the last four years in adolescents (N=240) assessed at an outpatient abuse treatment facility. Results showed a significant increase in Methylphenidate misuse over the last 2.5 years; this increase was greatest in White adolescents. Suggests that treatment with…
Stein, L. A. R.; Monti, Peter M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Golembeske, Charles; Lebeau-Craven, Rebecca; Miranda, Robert
The purpose of this study was to determine whether motivational interviewing (MI), compared with an attention control condition (relaxation training [RT]) enhances substance abuse treatment engagement in incarcerated adolescents. At the start of incarceration, adolescents were randomly assigned to individually administered MI or RT. Subsequently, therapists and adolescents (N = 130) rated degree of adolescent participation in the facility's standard care group-based treatments targeting crime and substance use. All adolescents received the facility standard care treatment after their individual MI or RT session. MI statistically significantly mitigated negative substance abuse treatment engagement. Other indicators of treatment engagement were in the expected direction; however, effect sizes were small and nonsignificant. These findings are significant, given concerns regarding the deleterious effects of treating delinquent adolescents in groups and the potential for adolescents to reinforce each other's negative behavior, which in turn may lead to escalated substance use and other delinquent behaviors after release. PMID:20617117
Fuller, LaShonda B.
Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…
Anderson, Kristen G.; Frissell, Kevin C.; Brown, Sandra A.
The relationship of diagnosis, developmentally relevant factors (e.g., life stress, peer substance use) and mental health symptoms to contexts of a return to substance use were examined for 103 substance abusing adolescents with Axis I psychopathology (ages 12-17) following inpatient treatment. Proximal psychiatric symptoms and developmentally…
Mesic, Salih; Ramadani, Sokolj; Zunic, Lejla; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Masic, Izet
Introduction: Drug addiction is one of the most prominent problems in many countries in transition, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. Age limit of drug addiction is shifted to the younger age groups, especially is troubling the increase in number of injection drug users. Our study was aimed to investigate the habits, attitudes and practices related to drug use among young people from the area of Sarajevo city. We can still feel the effects of the war, among which are the most important life without closest relatives, banishment and various types of war and post-war trauma. Goals: To determine the frequency of substance abuse among adolescents; Identify potentially relevant biological, psychological and socio economic characteristics of the adolescents; To explore adolescents attitudes towards drug use; Examine the general level of knowledge of adolescents about drugs and their effects. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on randomized sample of 502 students in two primary and three secondary schools in Sarajevo and Gracanica. To study used survey method. Survey instrument was a self-made questionnaire with the research variables. The obtained data were processed by a computer and statistically correlated. The study is of combined, retrospective, prospective and transversal type. Results: To the question “How many times have you consumed cannabis in the last 30 days” about 6% of the respondents have tried once or twice, while 1.5% use it daily, ecstasy have tried one or two times 2.25%, while 0.5% have daily use. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that students at schools in Sarajevo consumed drugs 50% more than the children in Gracanica. Analyzing the age at which the subjects consumed the drug for the first time, we came to the conclusion that in the third year of high school only 8% of adolescents have tried any drugs before they turned 15 years. This percentage among eighth graders is about three times higher. Conclusion: Presented
Van Hasselt, V B; Null, J A; Kempton, T; Bukstein, O G
The present study provided an assessment of social skills and depression in adolescent substance abusers hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Level of social skill was evaluated using the Adolescent Assertion Expression Scale and the Loneliness Scale. Depression and related problems were examined through administration of the Beck Depression Inventory. Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Comparisons with normative values and clinical cut-offs (by gender) indicated that female adolescent substance abusers were less submissive and more aggressive than normative counterparts; male substance abusers exhibited less assertiveness. In addition, mild to moderate levels of depression were evident in both female and male substance abusers. Further, results of correlational analyses revealed several significant relationships between measures of social skills and depression. Results are discussed in terms of: (a) the need for finer grained analyses of social functioning in adolescent substance abusers, (b) the potential value of skills intervention for a subgroup of these individuals, and (c) the need for longitudinal data to more clearly explicate patterns and sequencing of social (mal)adjustment, affective disorder, and onset of substance abuse in this population. PMID:8465682
Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian
Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…
Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian
Objective To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (N = 164), ages 14–18 (x□ age = 16.09, SD = 1.12), in substance abuse treatment in the Denver metropolitan area. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were completed to determine factors related to adolescents' use of medical marijuana. Results Approximately 74% of the adolescents had used someone else's medical marijuana and they reported using diverted medical marijuana a median of 50 times. After adjusting for gender and race/ethnicity, adolescents who used medical marijuana had an earlier age of regular marijuana use, more marijuana abuse and dependence symptoms, and more conduct disorder symptoms compared to those who did not use medical marijuana. Conclusions Medical marijuana use among adolescent patients in substance abuse treatment is very common, implying substantial diversion from registered users. These results support the need for policy changes that protect against diversion of medical marijuana and reduce adolescent access to diverted medical marijuana. Future studies should examine patterns of medical marijuana diversion and use in general population adolescents. PMID:22721592
Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony
Synopsis Research has consistently shown that a lack of parental involvement in the activities of their children predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring, as well as youth disclosure about their whereabouts, parent child communication, positive parenting and family management strategies, e.g., consistent limit setting, and parental communication about and disapproval of substance use, have all been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and substance problems. Given the empirical evidence, family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance misuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. PMID:26092741
Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.
Psychoactive drugs are widely available in the United States. Many, such as coffee, cigarettes, and alcohol, are used commonly and acceptably by adults. For children and adolescents sorting through the complex messages about both licit and illicit drugs is difficult. Previous research examined differences between substance users and abusers with…
Kinnier, Richard T.; And Others
Examined relationships among depression, meaninglessness, suicide ideation, and substance abuse among 48 high school students and 113 adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Correlational analyses indicated that high school students who viewed themselves negatively, were depressed, or who had found little meaning in their lives were more likely to…
Vik, Peter W.; And Others
Examined social resource network characteristics of adolescent substance abusers (n=19). Perceived similarity to one's social network emerged as important moderator of whether social network provided support to remain abstinent or elevated risk for relapse. Increased perceived support predicted continued posttreatment abstinence when recovering…
Talpade, Medha; Lynch, Diane; Lattimore, Barbara; Graham, Ashlee
The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program (JASAP) is a curriculum-based prevention and health promotion program for youth between the ages of 13 to 18 years in Fulton County, Georgia. The program was established in 2007 to promote healthy decision-making skills that would eventually lead to informed choices and decisions…
Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart
Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…
Burrow-Sanchez, Jason; Martinez, Charles; Hops, Hyman; Wrona, Megan
Collaborating with community stakeholders is an often suggested step when integrating cultural variables into psychological treatments for members of ethnic minority groups. However, there is a dearth of literature describing how to accomplish this process within the context of substance abuse treatment studies. This paper describes a qualitative study conducted through a series of focus groups with stakeholders in the Latino community. Data from focus groups were used by researchers to guide the integration of cultural variables into an empirically-supported substance abuse treatment for Latino adolescents currently being evaluated for efficacy. A model for culturally accommodating empirically-supported treatments for ethnic minority participants is also described. PMID:21888499
Werner, Mark J.
The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…
Perron, Brian E; Gotham, Heather J; Cho, Dong
Victimization is regarded as a significant public health issue, especially among adolescents in urban areas. Although victimization is linked to substance use, the research on victimization among adolescents in treatment is underdeveloped. Given the high rate of victimization among African-American adolescents, further research on the prevalence and correlates of victimization for this population is needed. This knowledge can guide the development of effective treatment and prevention strategies. This study contributed to the research by examining the rate and different types of victimization among a sample of African-American adolescents in an urban substance abuse treatment program, testing whether victimization is associated with increased levels of psychopathology and high-risk behaviors; and comparing the rates and associations with existing studies of adolescent victimization. It reports on a sample of 259 African-American adolescents receiving substance abuse treatment in an inner-city program. Fifty-four percent of the subjects reported lifetime victimization. Severity of victimization was associated with depression, generalized anxiety disorder, traumatic stress disorder, and conduct disorder, although the effect sizes were relatively small. Lifetime victimization exhibited a relationship of small to moderate strength with high-risk behaviors (i.e., illegal activity, gang membership, multiple sex partners and unprotected sex). Service implications and recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:18472666
Strasburger, Victor C
The causes of adolescent substance use are multifactorial, but the media can play a key role. Tobacco and alcohol represent the 2 most significant drug threats to adolescents. More than $25 billion per year is spent on advertising for tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs, and such advertising has been shown to be effective. Digital media are increasingly being used to advertise drugs. In addition, exposure to PG-13- and R-rated movies at an early age may be a major factor in the onset of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on all tobacco advertising in all media, limitations on alcohol advertising, avoiding exposure of young children to substance-related (tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs) content on television and in PG-13- and R-rated movies, incorporating the topic of advertising and media into all substance abuse-prevention programs, and implementing media education programs in the classroom. PMID:20876181
Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Gogel, Leah P.
Objectives The study evaluated responses from adolescents in substance abuse treatment, their parents, and treatment staff to the question of what constitutes treatment success. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with 28 adolescents, 30 parents, and 29 staff at three residential substance abuse treatment programs in two states. Data were coded and organized into themes by respondent type. Results Respondents reported knowing when treatment was no longer needed based on changes in adolescents’ substance use, treatment-related and other behaviors, and attitudes and character. A fourth category of responses indicated respondents’ ambiguity regarding successful completion of substance abuse treatment. Little concurrence was found among adolescents, parents, and treatment center staff to indicate criteria suggesting that discharge is appropriate. Conclusions Substance abuse treatment programs and their clients may benefit from ensuring that staff, parents, and adolescents are aware of treatment goals to promote more effective treatment and improve collaboration toward the adolescent’s recovery. PMID:20675841
Park, Sookyung; Kim, Haeryun; Kim, Haesung
This study examined the roles played by parental alcohol abuse and social support, peer substance abuse risk and social support, and substance abuse risk among adolescents in South Korea. Participants were adolescents between the ages of 15 and 22 years (mean, 18), residing in Seoul city and in surrounding Kyung-gi Province. Of 259 participants, 41.3% scored 2 or more on the POSIT scale, which suggested they met the problematic criteria for substance abuse risk. Logistic regression results suggested that the influence of social support on substance abuse risk among adolescents depended on the source of support--parents or peers. These findings need to be considered in the development of intervention programs for adolescents at risk for substance abuse. PMID:19435169
Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Zhitova, Aren C.; Capone, Margery E.
Objective: Child abuse is a risk factor for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and subsequent Substance Use Disorder (SUD). The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about effective treatments for adolescent abuse-related PTSD, SUD, and the co-occurrence of these conditions. Method: The literature on empirical…
Substance use and abuse are problematic in the lives of adolescents, including interpersonal problems and scholastic problems. Risk for substance use has commonly been assessed at the individual level. This paper examines risk of adolescent substance abuse as a variable impacted by environmental or contextual factors surrounding the individual.…
Ahrendt, Dale M; Miller, Michael A
Treatment of adolescent substance abusers is difficult. Treatment programs at multiple levels, from inpatient facilities to outpatient support groups, usually are available. Some of the most encouraging results have come from programs that involve family therapy in addition to individual treatment. 22 Knowing what resources are available, as well as the referral processes based on a particular patient's healthcare plans, facilitates access and makes dealing with these issues in a busy outpatient setting much easier. Frequent follow-up with an adolescent after a treatment program has been initiated to monitor for compliance and relapse can ensure a better drug-free outcome. Knowing the extent of the adolescent drug abuse problem should encourage providers to incorporate some type of screening into their routine care of adolescents. None of these methods is 100% sensitive, and incorporating each component into the process where appropriate likely is the best approach. Knowing risk and protective factors for drug use is helpful for both recognition of candidates for screening and counseling of parents regarding drug use prevention. PMID:16419733
Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.
This study explored the interactive effect of substance abuse and depression on social competence among 106 adolescent inpatients (57% female, 86% Caucasian). Substance abuse and depression were conceptualized using dimensional ratings of illness severity based on adolescent interviews, whereas social competence was conceptualized using parent…
Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.
Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…
Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana
This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.
Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline
Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…
Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Battjes, Robert J
Although many studies have examined the relationship between early deviant behavior and subsequent life problems among adolescents drawn from the general population, such relationships have not been examined for youth attending substance abuse treatment. Based on in-depth psychosocial assessments conducted with adolescents entering an outpatient substance abuse treatment program (N = 193), the current study examines individual characteristics, life circumstances, and other behavioral and psychological characteristics that are correlated with the age at which these youth initiated substance use and criminal activity. Early onset of substance use was associated with greater levels of family deviance and a variety of problems including school adjustment, drug use, criminal involvement, bullying and cruelty to people and animals, and involvement in risky sexual activities. In contrast, early onset of crime was related only to male gender, early onset of substance use, and cruelty to people. Findings suggest that treatment providers may need to consider the ages at which their adolescent clients initiated substance use given its association with illegal activity, other deviant behavior, and precocious and high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:15083553
Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.
Liddle and Dakof's (1995) comprehensive review of the status of family-based treatment for drug abuse concluded that this modality offered a "promising, but not definitive" approach to treating drug abuse among adolescents and adults. Less than a decade later, significant progress can be seen in the treatment of drug abuse problems using…
Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate
Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…
Bogdaniak, Roman C.
Dually diagnosed adolescents suffering from both severe emotional disturbance and substance abuse/addiction constitute a special population which poses a challenge to health professionals in special education as well as clinical settings. The prevalence of substance use, abuse, and addiction has been shown to be significantly above the national…
Sikes, April; Cole, Rebekah F.; McBride, Rebecca; Fusco, Angela; Lauka, Justin
As individuals with multiple needs, substance abusing adolescents may seek the support and assistance of school counselors. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to assist students with substance abuse issues. Specifically, this article examines (a) complexity of addressing substance…
Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.
335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…
Patchell, Beverly A.
Native American Indian adolescent substance abuse has been a longstanding health concern. There are few culturally tailored interventions for mild to moderate substance users. The purpose of this study was to measure the response of Native American Indian adolescents from the Plains tribal groups to a school-based culturally tailored substance…
Neumann, Anne; Ojong, Tambetta N.; Yanes, Paula K.; Tumiel-Berhalter, Laurene; Daigler, Gerald E.; Blondell, Richard D.
This study examined the admission characteristics associated with failure to complete residential substance abuse treatment among male adolescents. Of 160 admissions, 48 (30%) completed treatment. Having commercial health insurance (P = 0.005), having a family history of a substance use disorder (P = 0.05), and living with only one biological parent (P = 0.015) were admission characteristics associated with non-completion. Those reporting a history of physical or sexual abuse also appeared to be at risk for non-completion (P = 0.014); none of these patients completed the treatment. Interventions that improve residential substance abuse treatment retention for adolescents are needed. PMID:20924878
Rowe, Cynthia L.
Synopsis Adolescent substance abuse rarely occurs without other psychiatric and developmental problems, yet it is often treated and researched as if it can be isolated from comorbid conditions. Few comprehensive interventions are available that effectively address the range of co-occurring problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. This article reviews the clinical interventions and research evidence supporting the use of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents with substance abuse and co-occurring problems. MDFT is uniquely suited to address adolescent substance abuse and related disorders given its comprehensive interventions that systematically target the multiple interacting risk factors underlying many developmental disruptions of adolescence. PMID:20682221
Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly Barrett
In any given year, only about 10% of the nearly two million adolescents exhibiting substance abuse or dependence in the United States receive substance abuse treatment. Given this state of affairs, it is unlikely that the massive effort and expenditure of resources over the past decade on developing, testing, and disseminating effective treatments for adolescent substance abuse can have an appreciable impact on the prevalence of substance use disorders among the adolescent population. In order to substantially diminish the pervasive gap between levels of need for and utilization of adolescent substance abuse treatment, specialized assertive outreach strategies may be needed. This paper outlines a framework for assertive outreach for adolescents with substance use disorders, and proposes specific types of strategies for identifying and enrolling such adolescents into treatment. Implications for practice and policy pertaining to adolescent substance abuse treatment service delivery are considered. PMID:18690540
... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...
Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others
Patterns of drug use among teenagers indicate they are highly influenced by peers. To examine the influence of Say It Straight, an alcohol/drug abuse prevention program aimed at teaching adolescents to deal with peer pressure, sixth, seventh and eighth graders (N=509) created and role played situations in which they wanted to say "no" to an offer…
Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashmi
There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment…
Henegar, LaTrica Y.
This descriptive qualitative study explored the lived perceptions and views of middle school teachers, school counselors, and Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) within central Alabama's middle school system. The problem explored is adolescent substance abuse students whose academic attainment may be affected by their drug abuse.…
Trucco, Elisa M.; Villafuerte, Sandra; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Burmeister, Margit; Zucker, Robert A.
Background This study’s primary aim was to examine age-specific associations between GABRA2, rule breaking, problematic alcohol use, and substance abuse symptomatology. The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which rule breaking mediates the GABRA2-substance abuse relationship. Methods A sample (n = 518) of primarily male (70.9%) and White (88.8%) adolescents from the Michigan Longitudinal Study was assessed from ages 11 to 18. Age-specific effects of GABRA2 on rule breaking, problematic alcohol use, and substance abuse symptomatology were examined using nested path models. The role of rule breaking as a mediator in the association between GABRA2 and substance abuse outcomes was tested using prospective cross-lagged path models. Results GABRA2 is significantly (p < .05) associated with rule breaking in mid- to late-adolescence, but not substance abuse symptomatology across adolescence. GABRA2 effects on problematic alcohol use and substance abuse symptomatology operate largely (45.3% and 71.1%, respectively, p < .05) via rule breaking in mid-adolescence. Conclusions GABRA2 represents an early risk factor for an externalizing pathway to the development of problematic alcohol and drug use. PMID:24811113
Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Hong, Hyokyoung Grace; Hazen, Andrea L
Children who have exposure to child sexual abuse (CSA) are at particular risk for developing substance abuse in adolescence, but the extent to which CSA may shape patterns of adolescent substance use remains uncertain. The aim of this paper is to characterize the variations in patterns of adolescent substance use and to examine the association between CSA and qualitatively distinct patterns of adolescent substance use. Latent class analyses identified homogenous groups of adolescents with similar patterns of substance use using a sample of 1019 adolescents (mean age: 15.9 years; range: 13-18) who were selected from five publicly funded service systems. Different patterns of latent class structures were identified in boys and girls (a 4-class solution for girls and a 3-class solution for boys). CSA was associated with an increased risk of being a heavy polysubstance user in girls, even after adjustment of age, race/ethnicity, parental substance use, sibling use, peer use, psychopathology and other forms of childhood maltreatment including physical abuse and neglect. Findings indicate that female victims of CSA who are involved with public service systems are at high risk for developing multiple-substance use in adolescence. PMID:20197217
Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Fu, Hongyun; Landes, Reid D.; Jones, Bryan A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Budney, Alan J.
The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of delay discounting among adolescents receiving treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence, and to test delay discounting as a predictor of treatment outcome. Participants for this study were 165 adolescents (88% male) between the ages of 12 and 18 (M =15.8; SD = 1.3) who enrolled in a clinical trial comparing three behavioral treatments for adolescent marijuana abuse or dependence. Participants completed a delay discounting task at treatment onset for $100 and $1,000 of hypothetical money and marijuana. Overall, smaller magnitude rewards were discounted more than larger magnitude rewards. Delay discounting rates were concurrently related to demographic variables (SES, race). Delay discounting of $1,000 of money predicted during treatment abstinence outcomes among adolescent marijuana abusers, over and above the effects of type of treatment received. Teens who show higher levels of discounting of the future may be an important subgroup to identify at treatment onset. Youth with a greater tendency to discount the future may require different intervention strategies that address their impulsivity (e.g., targeting executive function or inhibitory control) and/or different schedules of reinforcement to address their degree of preference for immediate rewards. PMID:22182419
Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R; Fu, Hongyun; Landes, Reid D; Jones, Bryan A; Bickel, Warren K; Budney, Alan J
The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of delay discounting among adolescents receiving treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence, and to test delay discounting as a predictor of treatment outcome. Participants for this study were 165 adolescents (88% male) between the ages of 12 and 18 (mean age = 15.8 years; standard deviation = 1.3 years) who enrolled in a clinical trial comparing three behavioral treatments for adolescent marijuana abuse or dependence. Participants completed a delay discounting task at treatment onset for $100 and $1,000 of hypothetical money and marijuana. Overall, smaller magnitude rewards were discounted more than larger magnitude rewards. Delay discounting rates were concurrently related to demographic variables (socioeconomic status, race). Delay discounting of $1,000 of money predicted during treatment abstinence outcomes among adolescent marijuana abusers, over and above the effects of type of treatment received. Teens who show higher levels of discounting of the future may be an important subgroup to identify at treatment onset. Youth with a greater tendency to discount the future may require different intervention strategies that address their impulsivity (e.g., targeting executive function or inhibitory control) and/or different schedules of reinforcement to address their degree of preference for immediate rewards. PMID:22182419
Mason, Michael J.; Posner, Michael A.
The purpose of this translational research study was to test a brief, manualized adolescent substance abuse treatment protocol's effects in an urban community setting compared to a sample in an experimental study from which the treatment was first employed. One hundred two adolescents who were treated with a manualized protocol of five sessions of…
Hoffmann, John P; Cerbone, Felicia G
A common observation in the research literature is that children of drug-dependent parents are at significantly heightened risk of adolescent drug use, abuse, and dependence. Recent research indicates that several psychological and interpersonal factors may affect the association between parents' psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUD) and drug use risks among adolescents, yet studies have failed to examine explicitly whether these factors moderate the association between PSUD and adolescent substance abuse. This paper explores these potential relationships using longitudinal data from a study that has followed three cohorts of adolescents and their families over a 7-year period. The cohorts are defined by parental diagnoses of PSUD, affective disorders, or no diagnosable disorder. The results indicate that PSUD is positively associated with adolescent drug abuse, yet this association is attenuated by strong family cohesion. Affective disorders among parents are associated with a higher risk of alcohol, but not drug, abuse. The associations are stronger in the presence of lower stress and higher self-esteem. PSUD is also associated more strongly with offspring drug and alcohol abuse when levels of use are lower. Hence, some unobserved mechanism that may involve physiological sensitivities to drugs and alcohol appears to put children of parents with drug problems at particular risk of drug and alcohol abuse. Limitations of the data and analysis are discussed. PMID:12062460
MacMaster, Samuel A.; Ellis, Rodney A.; Cooper, Lyle
This paper explores historical and recent trends in the delivery of residential adolescent substance abuse treatment, looking specifically at the impact of managed care on the service delivery system. Three historical eras are conceptualized by the authors: (1) an era prior to managed care in which services were provided on a fee for service basis…
Henggeler, Scott W.; Chapman, Jason E.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Randall, Jeff; Shackelford, Jennifer; Schoenwald, Sonja K.
Four hundred thirty-two public sector therapists attended a workshop in contingency management (CM) and were interviewed monthly for the following 6 months to assess their adoption and initial implementation of CM to treat substance-abusing adolescent clients. Results showed that 58% (n = 131) of the practitioners with at least one…
Baldwin, Scott A.; Christian, Sarah; Berkeljon, Arjan; Shadish, William R.
This meta-analysis summarizes results from k = 24 studies comparing either Brief Strategic Family Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, Multidimensional Family Therapy, or Multisystemic Therapy to either treatment-as-usual, an alternative therapy, or a control group in the treatment of adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. Additionally, the…
Stice, Eric; Burton, Emily M.; Shaw, Heather
To elucidate the processes that contribute to the comorbidity between bulimic pathology, depression, and substance abuse, the authors tested the temporal relations between these disturbances with prospective data from adolescent girls (N = 496). Multivariate analyses indicated that depressive symptoms predicted onset of bulimic pathology but not…
In this study, the social network characteristics of 102 urban adolescents in brief substance abuse treatment are described and analyzed longitudinally to examine risk and protective mechanisms. The treatment intervention had one session devoted to social support and networks. Social networks were conceptualized and measured along two dimensions…
Adolescent substance abuse has been on the rise for the past few decades, constituting a major personal and social problem. According to researchers, the causes are many, including biological, temperamental, psychological, behavioral, and environmental factors. Yet, only a few intervention methods have proven effective. Numerous studies…
Hovdestad, Wendy E.; Tonmyr, Lil; Wekerle, Christine; Thornton, Tiffany
Childhood maltreatment and adolescent substance abuse are important health issues that have been linked by research and theory for at least 50 years. Considering the intricacies of child maltreatment research, this paper aims to answer the question: which models show the most promise to explain why child maltreatment is a risk indicator for…
Faw, Leyla; Hogue, Aaron; Liddle, Howard A.
The authors applied contemporary methods from the evaluation literature to measure implementation in a residential treatment program for adolescent substance abuse. A logic model containing two main components was measured. Program structure (adherence to the intended framework of service delivery) was measured using data from daily activity logs…
Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H.; Lawson, Heather; Friedlander, Josh; Teichner, Gordon; Rindsberg, Jeff
Demonstrates a method of improving first session attendance in a population of conduct-disordered and substance-abusing adolescents. Results indicate that an intensive intervention involving the youth and parent was more effective in improving session attendance than a less intensive intervention that excluded the youth's involvement. Discusses…
Durr, Marlese; Small, La Fleur F; Dunlap, Eloise
Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, "What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?" This research examines African American women's substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces. PMID:23843768
Fahimi, Jahan; Aurrecoechea, Adrian; Anderson, Erik; Herring, Andrew; Alter, Harrison
Objectives To identify factors associated with adolescent emergency department (ED) visits for substance abuse, including those complicated by mental health (dual diagnosis), and to analyze their effect on ED length of stay (LOS) and disposition. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of ED visits by adolescents (aged 11-24) using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (1997-2010), identifying visits for mental health, substance use, and dual diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate statistics were used to analyze demographic and visit-level factors, factors associated with substance use and dual diagnosis visits, and the effects of substance use and mental health conditions on emergency department LOS and disposition. Results Substance use and mental health accounted for 2.1% and 4.3% of all adolescent visits, respectively, with 20.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 18.3-23.5%) of substance abuse visits complicated by mental health. Factors significantly associated with substance use include: male gender, urban location, West region, ambulance arrival, night and weekend shift, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and psychotic disorders. Additional LOS was 89.77 minutes for mental health, 71.33 minutes for substance use, and 139.97 minutes for dual diagnosis visits, as compared to visits where these conditions were not present. Both mental health and substance use were associated with admission/transfer as compared to other dispositions: mental health, odds ratio (OR) 5.93 (95% CI 5.14-6.84), illicit drug use, OR 3.56 (95% CI 2.72-4.64), and dual diagnosis, OR 6.86 (95% 4.67-10.09). Conclusions Substance abuse and dual diagnosis are common among adolescent ED visits and are strongly associated with increased use of prehospital resources, emergency department length of stay, and need for hospitalization. PMID:25875990
Cacciola, John S.; Meyers, Kathleen; Bates, Suzanne E.; Rosenwasser, Beth; Arria, Amelia; McLellan, A. Thomas
When adolescent substance abuse requires treatment, few parents know which treatment features are important and which treatment programs are effective. There are few resources to help them select appropriate care. We describe early work on an evaluation method and comparative treatment guide for parents based upon the premise that the quality of a program and its potential effectiveness is a function of the number and frequency of evidence-based treatment practices (EBPs) delivered. Thus, we describe the development of and measurement approach for a set of EBPs toward the goal of developing a Consumer Guide to Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment. PMID:26417196
Kuhn, Dr. Cynthia
Substance use and abuse begins during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse., Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use. PMID:26049025
Substance use and abuse begin during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse. Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use. PMID:26049025
Fickenscher, Alexandra; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M
Few studies to date have addressed illicit (i.e., nonceremonial) peyote use among American Indians (AIs). Participants were 89 AI adolescents admitted to a tribally operated residential substance abuse treatment program (RSATP) between 1998 and 2001. The RSATP is designed to provide specialized treatment of patients with substance use and other comorbid psychiatric disorders and is infused with a culturally sensitive approach to treatment. The participants completed a series of interviews that collected information on psychiatric diagnostic status, history of substance use, and ethnic identity. The majority of participants were male (65%), did not come from a two-parent household (75%), reported a mean use of 5.4 substances, and met full criteria for a median of 2.9 substance use disorders. Of 89 clients, 10 (11.2%) reported illicit use of peyote. The vast majority of these youth (n = 8) reported using peyote only once or twice in their lifetime. Illicit peyote users did not differ from nonusers in terms of age, gender, other substance use, prevalence of either other substance abuse/dependence or other nonsubstance use psychiatric disorders. However, illicit peyote users were more likely to report low levels of social support, low levels of self-esteem, and low identification with AI culture yet comparable involvement in AI traditional practices. The results of this exploratory study suggest that illicit peyote use is uncommon among AI adolescents with serious substance abuse problems. PMID:16798681
Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Brigham, Gregory S.
Objectives To examine the efficacy of three theoretically distinct interventions among substance-abusing runaway adolescents and to explore individual differences in trajectories of change. Methods Adolescents (N=179) between the ages of 12–17 were recruited from a runaway shelter in a Midwestern city. The sample included 94 females (52.5%) and 85 males (47.5%), the majority of the adolescents were African American (n= 118, 65.9%). Adolescents were randomly assigned to the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA, n = 57), Motivational Interviewing (MI, n = 61), or Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT, n = 61). Substance use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months via Form 90 and urine screens. Results Hierarchical linear modeling revealed statistically significant improvement in frequency of substance use among runaways in all three treatment groups with a slight increase at post-treatment. Latent trajectory profile analysis explored individual differences in change trajectories and yielded a 3 class model. The majority of adolescents (n = 136, 76%) showed reductions in substance use over time with a slight increase at follow-up (Class 1: Decreasing). Twenty-four (13.4%) adolescents had shown high levels of substance use over time with patterns of increase and decrease (Class 2: Fluctuating high users), and 19 (10.6%) decreased but returned to baseline levels by two years post-baseline (Class 3: U shaped). Few differences among treatment conditions were noted; within the “decreasing” group, adolescents in MI treatment showed a quicker decline in their substance use but a faster relapse compared to those receiving EBFT. Conclusions These findings suggest that CRA, EBFT and MI are viable treatments for runaway substance-abusing adolescents. PMID:23895088
Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Khalili, Mina Norozi; Chenarani, Maryam Shakeri; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Ardani, Amir Rezaei
Background: Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. Results: The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Conclusion: Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls. PMID:26383218
Thoma, Robert J.; Monnig, Mollie A.; Lysne, Per A.; Ruhl, David A.; Pommy, Jessica A.; Bogenschutz, Michael; Tonigan, J. Scott; Yeo, Ronald A.
Background Adolescence is a period in which cognition and brain undergo dramatic parallel development. Whereas chronic use of alcohol and marijuana is known to cause cognitive impairments in adults, far less is known about the effect of these substances of abuse on adolescent cognition, including possible interactions with developmental processes. Methods Neuropsychological performance, alcohol use, and marijuana use were assessed in 48 adolescents (ages 12–18), recruited in three groups: a healthy control group (HC, n = 15), a group diagnosed with substance abuse or dependence (SUD, n = 19), and a group with a family history positive for alcohol use disorder (AUD) but no personal substance use disorder (FHP, n = 14). Age, drinks per drinking day, percentage days drinking, and percentage days using marijuana were considered as covariates in a MANCOVA in which 6 neuropsychological composites (Verbal Reasoning, Visuospatial Ability, Executive Function, Memory, Attention, and Processing Speed) served as dependent variables. Results More drinks per drinking day predicted poorer performance on Attention and Executive Function composites, and more frequent use of marijuana use was associated with poorer Memory performance. In separate analyses, adolescents in the SUD group had lower scores on Attention, Memory, and Processing Speed composites, and FHP adolescents had poorer Visuospatial Ability. Conclusions In combination, these analyses suggest that heavy alcohol use in adolescence leads to reduction in attention and executive functioning and that marijuana use exerts an independent deleterious effect on memory. At the same time, premorbid deficits associated with family history of AUD appeared to be specific to Visuospatial Ability. PMID:20958330
Paino, Maria; Aletraris, Lydia; Roman, Paul M.
Background Adolescent substance abuse remains a significant problem in the United States, yet treatment centers do not always admit adolescent clients. In this article, we first determine the extent to which treatment is available for adolescents in general and whether or not adolescent-specific (segregated) tracks are offered. Second, we examine the organizational characteristics associated with adolescent treatment. Third, we illuminate how the adolescent caseload in a treatment center is related to offering evidence-based practices (EBPs). Methods Drawing upon a nationally representative sample of U.S. treatment programs, we use logistic regression to assess how organizational characteristics are associated with the provision of adolescent treatment. Using ordinal logistic regression, we analyze how the treatment center’s adolescent caseload and organizational characteristics affect the extent to which a treatment center offers medication-assisted treatment (MAT) and psychosocial treatment. Results Half (49.5%) of treatment programs admitted adolescents and 41.8% offered an adolescent-specific track. Findings from the logistic regression suggested several organizational characteristics that were significantly associated with treating adolescents and/or having an adolescent-only track. Our findings from the ordinal models indicated a negative relationship between the percent of adolescents in a treatment center and the extent of MAT, and a positive relationship between the percent of adolescent clients and the extent of psychosocial treatment offered. Conclusions This paper highlights organizational barriers to treatment entry for adolescents, who remain a small proportion of clients in treatment centers. When treatment centers serve adolescents, however, those adolescents are likely to receive care in adolescent-only tracks and/or services and in programs that offer several psychosocial EBPs. Finally, adolescents are less likely to receive treatment in centers
Marti, C. Nathan; Stice, Eric; Springer, David W.
We used data from a school-based study of 496 adolescent girls to identify qualitatively distinct substance use and substance abuse developmental trajectory groups and tested whether the problematic groups differed from the non-problematic groups on baseline and outcome validation variables. Results identified four substance use groups (late…
Botvin, G J
The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide
Aim Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Chronic inhalant abuse can damage respiratory, cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. This study aims to determine the physiologic effects of inhaling solvents on the respiratory functions. Methods The general health status of the subjects was assessed by history taking, physical examination and a questionnaire which was designed to show the severity of respiratory symptoms. Spirometry, ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were performed to assess pulmonary functions and anatomy. Results Thirty-one male volatile substance abusers and 19 control subjects were included in the study. The mean age of onset of inhalant use was 14.6 ± 2.2 (9-18) years and duration of drug use was 3.7 ± 1.7 years. The most common respiratory symptoms in volatile substance abusers were nasal congestion (45.2%), sputum (38.7%), exercise intolerance (32.3%) and cough (22.6%). Results of spirometric studies showed 12 (41.4%) subjects with low FVC values < 80% of predicted, indicative of restrictive ventilatory pattern in the study group. Although the difference was not statistically significant, restrictive ventilatory pattern was higher in the study group. There was no statistically significant correlation between restrictive ventilatory pattern and the age of onset/duration/frequency of inhalant abuse, respiratory symptoms and scintigraphic abnormalities. Subjects who had restrictive pattern in their pulmonary function tests were more likely to have abnormal findings at HRCT (p < 0.01). Conclusion This study has shown a positive correlation between volatile substance abuse and the development of restrictive ventilatory pattern, but more comprehensive studies are needed for more precise conclusions. PMID:22958270
Reisinger, Heather Schacht
In spite of a history of collaboration between epidemiology and qualitative research, the mix of these two perspectives is not well developed in the substance use field. Part of the reason for the difficult match is that qualitative research often adds issues of context and meaning that complicate the epidemiological data of interest. In the substance use field, epidemiological indicators tend to focus on a single drug, but the context typically involves persons who use multiple illicit and licit substances in a variety of ways that change over time. In this article, the author describes four adolescents in an outpatient substance abuse treatment center to provide context and insight into the lives behind the epidemiological indicators. Studying a site of epidemiological data collection ethnographically is yet another way to build collaboration between epidemiology and qualitative research. PMID:14768460
The problem of middle adolescent substance use and abuse among high school age males was examined. Financial and socio-emotional costs and rates of incidence for substance use and abuse among high school males are addressed followed by a discussion of social, environmental, and intra-psychic factors, which influence substance use and abuse. To…
Stein, L. A. R.; Graham, John R.
The ability of respondents to underreport successfully on substance abuse and validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) was evaluated. Incarcerated teens (67 substance abusing, 59 non-substance abusing) completed the MMPI-A twice: once under standard instructions (SI) and once…
Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Taha, Asma; Dee, Vivien
It is estimated that the percentage of students using illicit substances by sixth grade has tripled over the last decade not only in developed countries but in developing countries as well probably due to the transition to a more Western society. Although much has been done to understand the mechanisms underlying substance abuse, few studies have been conducted with minority ethnic and religious groups such as Middle Eastern Youth. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether there are differences in factors contributing to substance abuse in adolescents from Lebanon versus the U.S.A. and to decipher the role of spirituality, religion, and culture among other factors that may influence substance abuse. A correlational cross-sectional design was used with adolescents living in two different countries: Los Angeles, California and Beirut, Lebanon. Muslim adolescents had significantly less rates of alcohol and substance use than Christians in both Lebanon and Los Angeles. More years lived in the U.S.A. increases the likelihood of abuse for both Muslims and Christians. Attachment to God and family was negatively associated with substance abuse. These results among others facilitate a better understanding of the influence of culture, religion, family and personal factors on substance abuse. Culturally sensitive interventions could benefit from the findings of this pilot study. PMID:23526183
Chan, Ya-Fen; Godley, Mark D; Godley, Susan H; Dennis, Michael L
This study examined the rates and correlates of self-reported receipt for mental health services among 1,190 adolescents, aged 12-19, who were admitted to community-based substance abuse outpatient clinics and had a co-occurring mental health problem. Utilization of mental health service was ascertained 3 months post-intake. About one third (35%) of adolescents with a co-occurring mental health problem identified at intake received mental health service in the 3 months after treatment entry. After holding other correlates constant, history of mental health treatment, suicidal behavior, family history of mental disorder and insurance coverage at intake were associated with mental health service utilization at the 3-month follow up. Predictors of service utilization varied by gender and racial/ethnic status. Implications for integrated substance use and mental health services are discussed. PMID:18157641
Miklowitz, David J.
The initial onset of bipolar disorder occurs in childhood or adolescence in about 50% of patients. Early-onset forms of the disorder have a poorer prognosis than adult-onset forms and are frequently characterized by comorbid substance abuse. Clinical trials research suggests that family psychoeducational approaches are effective adjuncts to medication in stabilizing the symptoms of bipolar disorder in adults and youth, although their efficacy in patients with comorbid substance use disorders has not been systematically investigated. This article describes the family-focused treatment (FFT) of a late adolescent with bipolar disorder and polysubstance dependence. The treatment of this patient and family required adapting FFT to consider the family’s structure, dysfunctional alliance patterns, and unresolved conflicts from early in the family’s history. The case illustrates the importance of conducting manual-based behavioral family treatments with a psychotherapeutic attitude, including addressing unstated emotional conflicts and resistances that may impede progress. PMID:22504610
Akanbi, Muritala Ishola; Augustina, Godwin; Theophilus, Anyio Bahago; Muritala, Muhammad; Ajiboye, Ajiboye Stephen
The study investigated the impact of substance abuse on adolescent on academic performance in colleges of education in Kwara State. The design used for the study was the survey. A sample of 150 adolescent students was randomly selected form selected departments in three colleges of education in the State. A validated instrument, Drug Habit…
Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent
The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…
Riggs, Paula D.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Lohman, Michelle; Kayser, Ashley
Objective: In adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD), comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with greater severity of substance abuse, conduct problems, and worse treatment outcomes. Although many controlled trials have established the efficacy of psychostimulants, including pemoline, for ADHD in children and…
Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.
Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…
Burrow-Sánchez, Jason J; Minami, Takuya; Hops, Hyman
Comparative studies examining the difference between empirically supported substance abuse treatments versus their culturally accommodated counterparts with participants from a single ethnic minority group are frequently called for in the literature but infrequently conducted in practice. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of an empirically supported standard version of a group-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (S-CBT) to a culturally accommodated version (A-CBT) with a sample of Latino adolescents primarily recruited from the juvenile justice system. Development of the culturally accommodated treatment and testing was guided by the Cultural Accommodation Model for Substance Abuse Treatment (CAM-SAT). Seventy Latino adolescents (mean age = 15.2; 90% male) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 group-based treatment conditions (S-CBT = 36; A-CBT = 34) with assessments conducted at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Longitudinal Poisson mixed models for count data were used to conduct the major analyses. The primary outcome variable in the analytic models was the number of days any substance was used (including alcohol, except tobacco) in the past 90 days. In addition, the variables ethnic identity, familism, and acculturation were included as cultural moderators in the analysis. Although both conditions produced significant decreases in substance use, the results did not support a time by treatment condition interaction; however, outcomes were moderated by ethnic identity and familism. The findings are discussed with implications for research and practice within the context of providing culturally relevant treatment for Latino adolescents with substance use disorders. PMID:25602465
Karoly, Hollis C; Bryan, Angela D; Weiland, Barbara J; Mayer, Andrew; Dodd, Andrew; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W
Numerous questions surround the nature of reward processing in the developing adolescent brain, particularly in regard to polysubstance use. We therefore sought to examine incentive-elicited brain activation in the context of three common substances of abuse (cannabis, tobacco, and alcohol). Due to the role of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in incentive processing, we compared activation in this region during anticipation of reward and loss using a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. Adolescents (ages 14-18; 66% male) were matched on age, gender, and frequency of use of any common substances within six distinct groups: cannabis-only (n=14), tobacco-only (n=34), alcohol-only (n=12), cannabis+tobacco (n=17), cannabis+tobacco+alcohol (n=17), and non-using controls (n=38). All groups showed comparable behavioral performance on the MID task. The tobacco-only group showed decreased bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation during reward anticipation as compared to the alcohol-only group, the control group, and both polysubstance groups. Interestingly, no differences emerged between the cannabis-only group and any of the other groups. Results from this study suggest that youth who tend toward single-substance tobacco use may possess behavioral and/or neurobiological characteristics that differentiate them from both their substance-using and non-substance-using peers. PMID:26070843
Kaminer, Yifrah; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; McKay, James R; Burke, Rebecca H
Commitment to change is an innovative potential mediator or mechanism of behavior change that has not been examined in adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD). The Adolescent Substance Abuse Goal Commitment (ASAGC) questionnaire is a 16-item measure developed to assess an individual's commitment to his/her stated treatment goal. The objectives of this study are to explore the research and clinical utility of the commitment construct as measured by the ASAGC. During sessions 3 and 9 of a 10-week SUD treatment, therapists completed the ASAGC for 170 13-18 year-old adolescents. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the ATAGC items. Concurrent validity with related constructs, self-efficacy and motivation for change, was examined as well. At both sessions, the factor analysis resulted in two scales--Commitment to Recovery and Commitment to Harm Reduction. The ASAGC scales were found to demonstrate a high level of internal consistency (alpha coefficients ranged from .92 to .96 over time). In contrast to the Commitment to Harm Reduction scale, the Commitment to Recovery scale consistently correlated with scales from the Situational Confidence Questionnaire assessing self-efficacy, evidencing concurrent validity. Similarly, the Commitment to Recovery scale was related to the Problem Recognition Questionnaire, providing further evidence of the validity of the ASAGC. The ASAGC is a reliable and valid clinical research instrument for the assessment of adolescents' commitment to their substance abuse treatment goal. Clinical researchers may take advantage of the clinical utility of the ASAGC including its ability to differentiate between commitment to abstinence versus commitment to harm reduction. PMID:26531893
Spas, Jayson; Ramsey, Susan; Paiva, Andrea L.; Stein, L.A.R.
Considerable evidence from the literature on treatment outcomes indicates that substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems varies widely. Treatments commonly used among this population are cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 12-step facilitation, multisystemic therapy (MST), psychoeducation (PE), and motivational interviewing (MI). This manuscript thoroughly and systematically reviews the available literature to determine which treatment is optimal for substance-abusing adolescents with conduct problems. Results suggest that although there are several evidence-based and empirically supported treatments, those that incorporate family-based intervention consistently provide the most positive treatment outcomes. In particular, this review further reveals that although many interventions have gained empirical support over the years, only one holds the prize as being the optimal treatment of choice for substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems. PMID:23170066
Hicks, Brian M.; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C. Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96% European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample—socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)—and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse. PMID:24337735
National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.
This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…
Stevens, Sally; Haynes, Patricia L.; Ruiz, Bridget; Bootzin, Richard R.
This study tested whether improvement in sleep by an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention was associated with improvement in traumatic stress (TS) symptoms in a sample of 20 adolescents who were recently treated for substance abuse. Sleep was measured throughout the intervention via daily sleep diaries, and traumatic stress symptoms were…
Anderson, Shawanda W.; Moore, Paula A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate if a school-based education and counseling program (Life Skills Training Program) would have an impact on school-aged children/adolescents' views of substance abuse. The study also investigated the degree and direction of change. Participants were 338 elementary or middle-school students in the metro…
Small, La Fleur F.; Dunlap, Eloise
Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, “What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?” This research examines African American women’s substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces. PMID:23843768
Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Lion, Camilla; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo
The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence by gender of substance use and misuse in late childhood and early adolescence. A survey was conducted in 2013–2014 at primary and secondary schools of Padova, Veneto region, North-East Italy, on a sample of 171 pupils in 5th grade and 1325 in 6th to 8th grade. Among the 8th graders, more than one in three males and one in four females had experimented with smoking, and more than half the boys and nearly half the girls had experience of alcohol. In this same age group, almost two in three males and one in three females had used energy drinks, and nearly 5% of the boys had experience of marijuana and/or stimulant drugs. In addition, almost one in four of the male students in 8th grade had experimented with three of these substances. The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.” PMID:26844161
Samuolis, Jessica; Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Liddle, Howard A.
This study examined parent-adolescent autonomous-relatedness functioning in inner-city, ethnic minority families of adolescents exhibiting drug abuse and related problem behaviors. Seventy-four parent-adolescent dyads completed a structured interaction task prior to the start of treatment that was coded using an established autonomous-relatedness…
Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.
Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…
A review of the literature provides the conclusion that individuals with a disability versus those without a disability are more likely to have a substance abuse problem and less likely to get effective treatment. Data suggest 10-40% of all individuals in treatment for substance abuse have a coexisting physical or mental disability. Alcohol rates…
Stevens, Sally J.; Morral, Andrew R.
This book provides detailed descriptions of exemplary adolescent drug treatment models and gives the latest information on substance use and its consequences. The examinations of treatment models included in this book include programs serving adolescent substance users from a wide range of ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Chapters include: (1)…
Marlowe, Stephanie L.
The present study investigated within a substance abuse treatment center the influence of family therapy on flexibility and cohesion among family members. Past studies have suggested adolescents who abuse substances exist in families who have a lack of balance of flexibility and cohesion. Unfortunately, few studies have examined the influence of…
Allahverdipour, Hamid; Bazargan, Mohsen; Farhadinasab, Abdollah; Hidarnia, Alireza; Bashirian, Saeed
The prevalence of substance abuse among adolescents from low- and middle-income countries is increasing drastically and requires immediate intervention. The objective of this longitudinal quasi-experimental panel study was to design and implement a skill-based intervention to prevent and reduce substance use among urban adolescents who attended 2…
Gangi, Jennifer; Darling, Carol A.
Despite the heterogeneity of posttreatment outcomes, the likelihood of relapse is often dependent on several factors, including participation in continuing care services such as self-help groups. However, few studies have examined the use of self-help groups among adolescent outpatients. Therefore, in this study, investigators examined self-help…
Peiper, Nicholas C; Ridenour, Ty A; Hochwalt, Bridget; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera
Substance use and consequent disorders have burdened US health care, criminal justice, and society at large for centuries. Pathological substance use almost invariably begins before 25 years of age, demonstrating how critical adolescence is within the etiology, prevention, and treatment of substance use disorder. This article provides a high-level overview of the prevalence of substance use disorders to provide a context within which the remaining issue provides in-depth descriptions of the evidence on specific topics. Described herein are trends in substance use, substance use disorder, and demographic comparisons. PMID:27338960
Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza
There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD. PMID:27613348
... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... users when they are included as part of medical and substance abuse treatment and prevention services. Syringe ...
Kirillova, Galina P.; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Gavaler, Judith S.; Pajer, Kathleen; Dunn, Marija; Tarter, Ralph E.
Tests a theory positing a role of sexual maturation and behavioral self-regulation in the development of early onset substance use disorders. The rate of maturation in adolescent males across three timepoints was found to be associated with parental substance use disorder (SUD). Parental, especially maternal, SUD was related to the sons' SUD.…
Parker, Jennifer S.; Benson, Mark J.
The present study examined parental support and monitoring as they relate to adolescent outcomes. It was hypothesized that support and monitoring would be associated with higher self-esteem and less risky behavior during adolescence. The diverse sample included 16,749 adolescents assessed as part of the National Educational Longitudinal Study.…
Shek, Daniel T L
On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. PMID:15515041
Contends that adolescent and elderly populations both exhibit attitudes, behavior, feelings, and reasons for alcohol and drug abuse that appear to be similar. Suggests that study of pediatrics can play role in development of geriatric movement by sharing common issues of both groups. Applies Erikson's stages of development to illustrate similarity…
Winstanley, Erin L.; Steinwachs, Donald M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Fishman, Marc J.
The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with adolescent alcohol or drug (AOD) abuse/dependence, mental health and co-occurring problems, as well as factors associated with access to treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2000. The 12-month prevalence rate of…
McCrystal, Patrick; Higgins, Kathryn; Percy, Andrew; Thornton, Maeve
The lifestyles of young people excluded from school have received much attention recently, particularly in relation to illicit drug use. Commentators have acknowledged that they constitute a high-risk group to social disaffection and substance abuse. This paper reports on a group of 48 young people living in Belfast aged 13-14 years who are…
Morral, Andrew R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ridgeway, Greg; Mukherji, Arnab; Beighley, Christopher
Each year, substance abuse treatment programs in the United States record approximately 150,000 admissions of youths under the age of 18. Nevertheless, little is known about the effectiveness of the types of community-based services typically available to youths and their families. Recognizing the need for better information on the effectiveness…
Maher, Rebecca C.
Problem: Adolescents who begin abusing substances, including alcohol, prescription drugs, and illegal drugs often fail in school suffering life-altering consequences (Cox, Zhang, Johnson, & Bender, 2007). While plentiful research exists on substance abuse, there is a dearth of research on the school experiences of recovering substance abusers.…
This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The materials in this unit of study are intended to provide a framework for physicians' awareness, to present selected facts and information, to outline current thinking regarding…
Pela, Ona A.
Used unobtrusive methods to collect data on substance use from 320 Nigerian partygoers aged 14 through 25. Found that adolescents tended to use following drugs in decreasing order of frequency: alcohol, cigarettes. stimulants, cannabis, and sedative-hypnotics. Polydrug use, especially of alcohol, stimulants, and cigarettes, was common. (Author/NB)
Ringwalt, Chris; Shamblen, Steven
Bullying is endemic in the nation's schools and takes a substantial toll on its victims' physical and social-emotional well-being. We assessed the association between specific reasons for which adolescents believe that they are targeted for bullying and their rates of various types of substance use by analyzing the association between…
Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl
Associations among six different domains of self-esteem (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image, and global self-worth) and risk behaviors related to substance use and suicidality were investigated in a sample of South African adolescents. Students enrolled in Grades 8 and 11 at independent secondary schools in Cape Town (N = 116)…
Substance abuse affects an appreciable portion of the elderly population. Elderly people have characteristics that could hinder identification, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment of substance abuse. If physicians use strategies specific to the elderly, management is often successful. PMID:8219846
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Sales, Amos, Ed.
This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…
Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C. A.
This 2008 study involved 546 Black- and Hispanic-American adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants provided self-report data. Analysis of covariance indicated that the experimental intervention reduced risk factors, improved protective factors, and lowered girls' alcohol use and their future intentions to use substances. The study supports the value of computer-based and gender-specific interventions that involve girls and mothers. Future work needs to replicate and strengthen study results. Research support came from the National Institute on Drug Abuse within the National Institutes of Health of the United States Public Health Service. PMID:21190404
Group intervention has been the most commonly employed treatment modality for adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD). Evidence has been accumulating in support for the efficacy of diverse forms of group therapy that have been utilized with adolescents. It has been argued however, that aggregation of youths who display problem behavior into group interventions may, under some conditions, produce iatrogenic effects on all participants. This assertion known also as "deviancy training" and its presumed effect on treatment outcomes has created a barrier to progress regardless of the fact that it has not been tested or empirically supported in heterogeneous groups of adolescents treated for SUD. It is imperative to optimize group intervention while considering how to prevent, reduce and control, potentially iatrogenic effects associated with the aggregation of antisocial youths in heterogeneous groups. The main objective of this review is to address the challenges and opportunities regarding group treatment of adolescent SUD. PMID:16051443
Landrum, Brittany; Knight, Danica K.; Becan, Jennifer E.; Flynn, Patrick M.
Increasing motivation and raising retention rates are considerable challenges for providers of adolescent substance abuse treatment. Research has shown that motivation for treatment, social influences (peers, family, counselors), and for some clients external pressure from the juvenile justice system, can serve as key factors in successful retention. To further understand influences on motivation and retention, focus groups were conducted in two residential treatment facilities. Adolescent clients, parents, and treatment staff were asked to describe their experiences with the treatment process focusing specifically on factors related to treatment attrition and retention. Qualitative data analysis revealed five themes affecting retention either positively or negatively. Themes included relationships (with family, peers, and counselors), responsibility (degree to which clients embrace jobs, roles, and rules), emotional regulation (ability to express feelings appropriately), thinking (identifying behavior patterns and recognizing consequences), and self-efficacy (feelings of empowerment). Implications for future research and for developing strategies aimed at increasing motivation and retention are discussed. PMID:26457049
Substance abuse is a significant health problem in the adolescent population. Prevention is a formidable challenge, but attempts at discouraging experimentation in early adolescence and the promotion of healthy adult role models may be effective strategies. Questions that may elicit a history suggestive of abuse should be a routine part of the adolescent medical history. Pediatricians should be familiar with the important clinical findings resulting from intoxication with the various substances of abuse and should be able to recognize the "telltale" signs of abuse. Effective management is based on attention to the basics of life support, careful attention to the physical findings, and judicious use of specific therapeutic agents. Above all, a compassionate attitude should prevail if acute-phase recovery and long-term rehabilitation are to be successful. PMID:2870461
Florsheim, Paul; Moore, David R
Previous research on adolescent romantic relationships has been largely based on self-reports and interview data; as a result, relatively little is known about the interpersonal-behavioral dynamics of adolescent couples. In an attempt to address this gap in the previous literature on young couples, the present study used observational methods to differentiate between healthy and dysfunctional adolescent romantic relationships. Two groups of adolescent couples were recruited to participate in this study: (1) a high-risk group (n=18 couples) in which one or both partners had a substance use disorder (SUD) and (2) a low-risk group (n=12 couples) in which neither partner had a history of psychopathology. Self-report and observational data on couples' relationships were collected from both groups. Couples' observed conflict interactions were coded using the structural analysis of social behavior [Florsheim, P., & Benjamin, L. S. (2001). The structural analysis of social behavior observational coding scheme. In P. K. Kerig, & M. Lindahl (Eds.), Family observational coding schemes: Resources for systemic research (pp. 127-150). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates]. Findings indicated that, compared to couples with no psychopathology, couples in the SUD group engaged in significantly more hostile and less warm behavior, as well as more complex communication involving a mix of hostility and warmth. Self-reported relational quality did not differentiate the two groups, highlighting the unique contributions of observational data for understanding the clinically relevant dynamics of adolescent romantic relationships. PMID:18031803
Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S
This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex. PMID:27120264
Minugh, P. Allison; Janke, Susan L.; Lomuto, Nicoletta A.; Galloway, Diane K.
Context: Rural and frontier states are significantly affected by substance abuse and poverty. The high rate of substance abuse coupled with high levels of dependence on state-funded treatment systems places a burden on rural treatment systems and makes resource allocation a central planning issue. Purpose: The goal of this study was to combine…
Birch & Davis Associates, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.
This guideline summarizes state-of-the-art approaches and interventions designed to strengthen the role of families in substance abuse prevention. Topics discussed are: (1) "Why Use Family-Centered Approaches? Aren't Our School and Community Efforts Sufficient?"; (2) "How Big a Problem Is Substance Abuse Among Youth?"; (3) "What Puts Children and…
Bassett, Shayna S; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Martin, Rosemarie A
The evaluation of treatment fidelity has become increasingly important as the demand for evidence-based practice grows. The purpose of the present study is to describe the psychometric properties of two measures of treatment fidelity that can be used by therapists and supervisors - one for group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and one for combined Substance Education and Twelve-Step Introduction (SET) for adolescent substance use. At the end of group sessions (CBT n=307; SET n=279), therapists and supervisors completed an evaluation measure assessing adherence to certain core components of the intervention. The supervisor version of the fidelity measure also included items for rating the level of competency the therapist demonstrated when providing each component of the intervention. Results from split-half cross-validation analyses provide strong support for an 11-item, three-factor CBT fidelity measure. Somewhat less consistent but adequate support for a nine-item, two-factor SET fidelity measure was found. Internal consistencies ranged from acceptable to good for both the CBT and SET adherence scales and from acceptable to good for the CBT and SET competency scales, with the exception of the CBT practices competency scale. Preliminary validation of the measures suggests that both measures have adequate to strong factor structure, reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. The results of this study have implications for research and clinical settings, including the supervision process. PMID:27211991
Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of School Improvement.
This document presents the Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum developed for use in Mississippi elementary and secondary schools. The curriculum uses a developmental approach to substance abuse prevention which emphasizes helping students gain information needed to make sound decisions about drug use. Incorporated into the curriculum are all…
Background Substance abuse among adolescents is a major public health and social problem. However, studies rarely investigate the relationships between substance abuse, educational achievement and sport factors. Substance abuse is an even more significant problem in societies that have experienced trauma, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have had recent wars. The aims of this study were to investigate substance abuse among adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to study the potential gender-specific relationships between a) sport factors (physical activity/exercise/athletic participation) and substance abuse and b) scholastic achievement and substance abuse. Methods Our sample consisted of 1,032 adolescents who were 17 to 18 years old (435 boys and 597 girls) and who were in the final grade of high school. These subjects were randomly selected from the territory of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrospective testing was performed using an extensive self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions involving topics such as sociodemographic variables, scholastic variables, sport factors, and substance abuse data (smoking habits, drugs consumption and alcohol consumption using the AUDIT questionnaire). Descriptive statistics, frequencies, analyses of the differences and correlational analyses were performed. Results Our results found that greater than one-third of the boys and one-fourth of the girls were daily smokers, and almost half of the boys and one-fifth of the girls practiced harmful drinking; other drugs (i.e. heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, etc.) were rarely consumed. Boys dominated in sport factors, whereas girls were more successful in scholastic achievement. Approximately 23% of the boys and 6% of the girls reported that they practiced harmful drinking and smoked simultaneously. Educational failure, which was defined as having one or more negative grades at the end of the last two school years, was
Göpel, Christopher; Laufer, Claudia; Marcus, Alexander
An increase of intoxications in persons using alkaloid-containing ornamental plants (mainly angel's trumpet) for their hallucinogenic effects and easy and cheap availability is registered. It is mainly adolescents who are experimenting with these plants. In addition to severe vegetative anticholinergic symptoms, the clinical picture is often dominated by a toxic psychosis with hallucinations, disturbances of orientation, and psychomotoric agitation, aggression, or anxiety. Three cases of severe psychotic pictures with only mild or completely missing vegetative symptoms after ingestion of angel's trumpet tea are reported. Caused by the increasing spreading of angel's trumpet shrubberies in Europe and North America, intoxications with large numbers of fatalities have to be expected in the future. The taxonomical, pharmacological, and clinical aspects of angel's trumpet-induced disorders are discussed. Knowledge of the clinical picture is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. Prevention by mass media should mainly focus on the medical fatalities of abuse and not emphasize the hallucinogenic effects, presumably increasing unwanted interest for these plants among youths. PMID:11869466
de Pourtalès, Marie-Atéa; Hazen, Constance; Cottencin, Olivier; Consoli, Silla M
Suicide represents, in France, the second cause of death in youth aged 15 to 24. Sixteen per cent of juvenile mortality is attributable to suicide. The annual incidence of suicide attempts in this age group is estimated at about 40 000 cases. Jumping from high represents 6% of deaths from suicide: girls resort to this method twice as often as boys. The severity of somatic consequences and the frequency of sequels following a jumping from a window can hold center stage for a long time, at the risk of trivializing the psychopathology underlying such a violent acting-out. These clinical situations particularly involve a multidisciplinary follow up including an early and active participation of psychiatric consultation-liaison teams. Jumping from a window can occur even apart from established mental disorders, such as psychotic or mood disorders. Our four case-reports draw attention to risk factors represented by: substance abuse (alcohol, cannabis, but also cocaine, ecstasy...), the notion of previous suicide attempts and various drive disorders having a self-harm value or displaying an underlying impulsiveness (eating disorders, scarifications, shoplifting, running away...), the precipitating role of a recent loss of a parent or an important removal from family environment, the potential influence, especially in this age group, of spectacular cases of suicide amplified by the Medias ("Werther effect"). Paradoxically, to belong to a well-off milieu can also contribute to the risk of such acting-out, when parents replace affection and availability by an easy access to various consumer goods and a permissive education, thus opening the way to the encounter with different substances. PMID:19944561
Orson, Frank M.; Kinsey, Berma M.; Singh, Rana A. K.; Wu, Yan; Gardner, Tracie; Kosten, Thomas R.
Conventional substance abuse treatments have only had limited success for drugs such as cocaine, nicotine, methamphetamine, and phencyclidine. New approaches, including vaccination to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, are in advanced stages of development. Although several potential mechanisms for the effects of anti-drug vaccines have been suggested, the most straightforward and intuitive mechanism involves binding of the drug by antibodies in the bloodstream, thereby blocking entry and/or reducing the rate of entry of the drug into the central nervous system. The benefits of such antibodies on drug pharmacodynamics will be influenced by both the quantitative and the qualitative properties of the antibodies. The sum of these effects will determine the success of the clinical applications of anti-drug vaccines in addiction medicine. This review will discuss these issues and present the current status of vaccine development for nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine, and morphine. PMID:18991962
Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Evolving Policy at Federal, State and City Levels. Meeting Highlights and Background Briefing Report. Report of a Family Impact Seminar (Washington, D.C., November 17, 1989).
Ooms, Theodora; Herendeen, Lisa
This report contains highlights from a meeting on adolescent substance abuse treatment. Comments by these panelists are summarized: Elizabeth Rahdert, of the Division of Clinical Research, at the National Institute on Drug Abuse; Thomas Kirk, acting clinical director, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Services Administration, District of Columbia, Commission…
Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. PMID:23384457
Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil
Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…
Henderson, Craig E.; Dakof, Gayle A.; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Liddle, Howard A.
Objective: We used growth mixture modeling to examine heterogeneity in treatment response in a secondary analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials testing multidimensional family therapy (MDFT), an established evidence-based therapy for adolescent drug abuse and delinquency. Method: The first study compared 2 evidence-based adolescent substance…
Riggs, Paula; Levin, Frances; Green, Alan I; Vocci, Frank
Psychiatric comorbidity is defined as the co-occurrence of a psychiatric disorder in a patient with a substance use disorder. Psychiatric disorders in substance abuse patients can antedate the substance use disorder or be a consequence of the substance abuse. There is emerging evidence that drug use in adolescence may alter the onset of certain psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Patients with concurrent comorbid disorders present special challenges for the substance abuse treatment system in terms of diagnosis and management because each disorder has the capability of exacerbating the other. This manuscript is a summary of an ISAM symposium that featured three speakers who discussed the following topics: 1. Etiology and treatment of comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders in adolescents; 2. Treatment of ADHD and substance use disorders in adults; 3. Effects of substance abuse on the onset, severity, and treatment of schizophrenia. Recommendations for further research will be presented. PMID:19042206
Rienzi, Beth M.; And Others
To investigate gender differences in acceptance of substance abuse behavior among adolescents, 968 students were administered a questionnaire to assess their perceptions. Results show that both genders felt that boys would be more approving of teenage substance abuse. Most students were disapproving of a teenager driving after drinking. Other…
... and the age when drug use begins. Many cultural factors affect drug abuse trends. Research has shown that addiction often begins in childhood or adolescence. NIH-funded studies have found that prevention programs targeting this time ...
Tarter, Ralph E., Ed.; Vanyukov, Michael M., Ed.
The mission of the Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research (CEDAR) is to delineate the etiology of Substance Use Disorder (SUD). Biobehavioral processes and environmental factors are comprehensively assessed prior to first exposure to alcohol and drugs, and subsequently during the period of substance use behavior leading ultimately to a…
Acri, Mary C.; Gogel, Leah P.; Pollock, Michele; Wisdom, Jennifer P.
Objective: Little is known about what factors and supports youths identify as important for their sustained recovery after substance abuse treatment, and if their caregivers and treatment staff identify similar needs. The purpose of this study was to explore what youths, caregivers, and staff perceive as important to remain substance free after…
... of death from overdose and suicide. Rural and Urban Substance Abuse Rates (ages 12 and older, unless ... among rural youth aged 12-13 than among urban youth the same age. This study suggests that ...
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hunt, Jeffrey; Monti, Peter
Objective: This study tested a cognitive-behavioral treatment protocol for adolescents with a co-occurring alcohol or other drug use disorder (AOD) and suicidality in a randomized clinical trial. Method: Forty adolescents (M[subscript age] = 15 years; 68% female, 89% White) and their families recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital were…
Florsheim, Paul; Moore, David R.
Previous research on adolescent romantic relationships has been largely based on self-reports and interview data; as a result, relatively little is known about the interpersonal-behavioral dynamics of adolescent couples. In an attempt to address this gap in the previous literature on young couples, the present study used observational methods to…
Garner, Bryan R.; Passetti, Lora L.; Orndoff, Matt G.; Godley, Susan H.
Maintaining study cohorts over time is crucial to the success of treatment outcome research studies. This paper examines reasons why adolescents with substance use problems continued to participate in follow-up interviews. The sample consisted of 145 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18, who completed an outcome study following out-patient…
Liddle, Howard A.; Rowe, Cynthia L.; Dakof, Gayle A.; Henderson, Craig E.; Greenbaum, Paul E.
Research has established the dangers of early onset substance use for young adolescents and its links to a host of developmental problems. Because critical developmental detours can begin or be exacerbated during early adolescence, specialized interventions that target known risk and protective factors in this period are needed. This controlled…
Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W
Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. PMID:24648790
Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W
Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. PMID:24648790
Haran, Elizabeth M.; And Others
In a longitudinal study of precursors of drug usage, data collected in 1968 on health variables was related to substance usage patterns obtained in 1975-76. Some 657 young Puerto Ricans were interviewed for this study, drawn from a pool of about 5,000 questionnaired in 1968. The major findings were that the health factors associated with drug…
Effinger, Jenell M.; Stewart, David G.
Although both depression and substance use have been found to contribute to suicide attempts, the synergistic impact of these disorders has not been fully explored. Additionally, the impact of subthreshold presentations of these disorders has not been researched. We utilized the Quadrant Model of Classification (a matrix of severity of two…
Kozicki, Zigmond A.
Examines reasons that adolescents use alcohol and drugs, including role confusion, developmental factors, parental influence, and peer pressure. Reports that adolescents also abuse substances to feel excitement, cope with personality conflicts, and express their individuality through rebellion. (ABB)
Austin, Gregory A.; Gilbert, M. Jean
This publication is one of a series summarizing recent research on adolescent drug abuse and its prevention. The report provides an overview of research and reviews its implications for dealing with substance abuse among Latino youth, placing new information in the context of past findings. Research has shown that drug use patterns in several…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011
This report uses data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) for 2008 to provide information on the characteristics of youths aged 12 to 14 admitted to substance abuse treatment. In 2008, approximately 23,770 substance abuse treatment admissions were adolescents aged 12 to 14. The two most frequently reported primary substances of abuse among…
Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.
Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018
Lutsky, Irving; And Others
The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…
Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy
Maternal substance abuse is a critical problem, and adolescent mothers appear to be at high risk for such behaviors. We review studies on postpartum adolescent substance use to explore the extent of this problem and avenues for new research. Authors screened 1,300 studies, identifying 12 articles on substance use among postpartum adolescent mothers for this review. Adolescent mothers reported greater substance use before pregnancy compared to other adolescent females. Although some adolescents continued substance use during pregnancy, most stopped using only to resume within six months after birth. Comparisons of use to national samples of nulliparous adolescent females showed a higher prevalence of substance use in this population. Substances used often varied by race/ethnicity, with white mothers more likely to smoke cigarettes and use marijuana, and Black mothers more likely than whites to drink and use drugs. Of all identified studies, only one focused on Hispanics. Beliefs about drug use grew less negative as girls transitioned from pregnancy to parenthood. As they transitioned to adulthood, substance use remained prevalent and stable. Psychological distress and low self-esteem appeared to influence continued use. Friends’ cigarette smoking predicted early initiation of and persistent smoking, while increased education predicted quitting. Early initiation of substances often predicted problem behaviors. Adolescent mothers are a vulnerable population, implicating use of problem behavior theory or the self-medication hypothesis in future research. Multiple avenues for new studies are needed to help identify effective treatment and intervention for this understudied population. PMID:23641120
Mersy, David J
Ten percent of the population abuses drugs or alcohol, and 20 percent of patients seen by family physicians have substance-abuse problems, excluding tobacco use. These patients can be identified by relying on regular screening or a high index of suspicion based on "red flags" that can be noted in various clinical situations. The modified CAGE questionnaire is an excellent screening instrument, but several alternatives are available. The best screening test is one that the physician will routinely use well. Laboratory indicators such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, mean corpuscular volume, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin are nonspecific but can add to the evidence of alcohol abuse. If problem alcohol use is diagnosed, even brief physician advice can be helpful. If the problem has progressed to addiction, referral to an addiction specialist or treatment center is recommended. Special issues arise in dealing with substance abuse in adolescents, elderly patients, and patients with mental illness, but the family physician can play an important role in recognizing this common problem. PMID:12722853
Substance abuse is a complicated disorder and has far reaching consequences. The victims of substance abuse extend beyond the unfortunate ones suffering from this disorder and often include family and friends. Treatment options for substance abuse are many; however, positive outcomes are not always guaranteed. Many factors play into the potential for successful treatment. Some of these include the adherence and motivation of the substance abusing patients as well as patients' surrounding environments and support systems. In this article, we present a clinical case of opioid dependence and discuss various treatment options and modalities. We will discuss different variables that may maximize positive treatment outcomes. Also a review of the current literature regarding substance abuse treatment, psychotherapy with the drug abuser, and grief therapy should the substance abusing patient die for the surviving family members will be presented. PMID:20532120
Ohio substance abuse policies, discipline codes, and educational drug abuse prevention programs are reviewed. An effective substance abuse policy is an essential element in the school's efforts to deal with drug and alcohol use. In many U.S. schools, the use of alcohol and drugs interferes with the education process, and it appears that substance…
Marsch, Lisa A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Badger, Gary J.
This manuscript reports on the development and evaluation of a computer-based substance abuse prevention program for middle school-aged adolescents, called "HeadOn: Substance Abuse Prevention for Grades 6-8TM". This self-guided program was designed to deliver effective drug abuse prevention science to youth via computer-based educational…
Johnson, E M; Belfer, M L
Substance abuse has been associated with violent behavior for many decades. While the relationship is the same today as it was in the past, the pervasiveness of the association, and the consequences, are more dramatic. There are two ways in which substance abuse is related to violence. First, violence can be and is perpetrated under the influence of substances, and second, violence related to substance abuse stems from the trade in drugs, which is all too often focused in poor and underserved communities. The elimination of the market for drugs, and thus the reduction in the demand for drugs, will bring about a reduction in substance abuse-related violence. PMID:7795023
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......
IUDE; Intrauterine drug exposure; Maternal drug abuse ... Maternal substance abuse may consist of any combination of drug, chemical, alcohol, and/or tobacco use during the pregnancy. While in the womb, a fetus grows and develops ...
Little, A. Jr. ); Ross, J.K. ); Lavorerio, R. ); Richards, T.A. )
In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.
National Migrant Resource Program, Inc., Austin, TX.
This proceedings contains commissioned background papers used by conference work groups focusing on nine aspects of farmworker substance abuse, and the action plan developed by the work groups. The keynote address by Felipe G. Castro examines risk factors for substance abuse and addiction among Chicano farmworkers, particularly adolescent and…
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159904.html Do ADHD Medicines Boost Substance Abuse Risk? Chances were actually ... that their children who take stimulants to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at higher risk for substance ...
Omiya, Souichiro; Kobori, Osamu; Tomoto, Aika; Igarashi, Yoshito; Iyo, Masaomi
The prevention and treatment of substance use for youth are important issues in Japan. Substance use have significant risks of adverse psychological, social and physical health consequences. Personality factors in order to understand individual differences for substance use and misuse particularly were the much promise, and several personality factors have been demonstrated to be associated with risk for substance use. Conrod and Woicik (2002) developed Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) that measures four substance use risk personalities: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, sensation-seeking, impulsivity being closely relevant to substance use/misuse and abuse. There are only a few studies focusing the relationship between personality factors and substance use among Japanese adolescents. Thus, this paper aimed to review the previous studies on these issues, and introduce studies regarding SURPS including our studies. PMID:23461217
Mason, Michael J.; Korpela, Kalevi
This study analyzed routine locations (activity spaces) of urban adolescents enrolled in a substance abuse treatment program to understand the relationship between their spatial lives and health outcomes such as substance use and mental health. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed and produced a list of 199 locations identified as most…
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...
Baillif-Couniou, Valérie; Kintz, Pascal; Sastre, Caroline; Pok, Phak-Rop Pos; Chèze, Marjorie; Pépin, Gilbert; Leonetti, Georges; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure
Morphine sulfate misuse is essentially observed among regular heroin injectors. To our knowledge, primary addiction to morphine sulfate is exceptional, especially among young adolescents. A 13-year-old girl, with no history of addiction, was found dead with three empty blisters of Skenan(®) LP 30 mg at her side. Opiates were detected in biological fluids and hair by chromatographic methods. Blood analyses confirmed morphine overdose (free morphine: 428 ng/mL; total morphine: 584 ng/mL) and segmental hair analysis confirmed regular exposure over several months (maximum morphine concentration 250 pg/mg). Suspecting the victim's mother of recreational use of Skenan(®), the magistrate ordered analysis of her hair, with negative results. From an epidemiological viewpoint, this case of oral morphine sulfate abuse in an adolescent with no previous history suggests the emergence of a new trend of morphine sulfate consumption. From a toxicological viewpoint, it demonstrates the value of hair testing, which documented the victim's regular exposure and made an important contribution to the police investigation. PMID:26492165
Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane
Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…
Johnson, Elaine M.; Belfer, Myron L.
Describes two ways in which substance abuse is related to violence: trade in drugs and being under the influence of drugs. The paper argues that reducing the demand for drugs by eliminating the market for them will bring about a reciprocal reduction in substance abuse-related violence. (GR)
Cohen, Adam W., Ed.
This volume of six lessons provides expert information on a variety of issues in substance abuse counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Addressing the Needs of Clients with Traumatic Injury and Alcoholism" (Charles H.…
Resiliency is the ability to cope in the face of adversity. One protective factor that promotes resiliency in substance-abusing dysfunctional families is family rituals and traditions. Social workers and substance abuse counselors can teach family members how to instill resiliency in their families and themselves through rituals and traditions. To…
Watson, Donnie W.
The literature provides ample evidence of the relationship of substance abuse to crime. Research over the last 20 years has established a strong correlation between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency (held, 1998). Currently, there are more than 350,000 juveniles on probation and in continuing care programs in the U.S. who have substance…
This chapter discusses current issues and future perspectives in relation to substance abuse counseling. Current issues include: abstinence versus controlled use; coercive versus voluntary treatment; and career development and counseling with clients with substance abuse problems. Future perspectives include: the impact of managed care; the…
Eversman, Michael H.
Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…
This handbook, which is the first in a series of materials being developed by an educational group in Albany, New York, for parents and caregivers of preschoolers, focuses on substance abuse prevention concepts. Its goals are to promote awareness that substance abuse prevention starts with very young children and to provide a format of activities…
Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.
Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…
Cortes, Dharma E.; Ja, Davis; Noboa, Abdin; Perry, Vincent; Robinson, Robert; Rodriguez, Domingo; Stubben, Jerry
This monograph provides a tool to help providers and other substance abuse treatment professionals gain a greater understanding of the cultural, social, political, and economic forces affecting substance abuse treatment among Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. An…
Bill, Willard E.
This guide introduces concerns and problems resulting from the use and abuse of alcohol and drugs among American Indian youth and addresses intergenerational substance abuse effects. Alcohol abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives is the most visible effect of their cultural disruption and disorganization. Alcoholism among Native Americans…
Horgan, C M; Merrick, E L
The financing of treatment for substance abuse problems has differed from the rest of financing of health care in part because of the dominant role of the public sector as the payer of services. Nonetheless, the rise of managed care has affected substance abuse treatment services as well as the rest of the health care system. Alternative payment mechanisms are one important component of some managed care approaches. Behavioral health carve-outs are another managed care development that has affected substance abuse services. In this chapter, salient features of financing for substance abuse treatment are reviewed within the conceptual framework of payers (purchasers and intermediaries), providers, and consumers. Existing literature on substance abuse treatment financing is summarized, while recognizing that much remains to be researched. PMID:11449744
Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Liu, Xinhua; Cohen, Patricia; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Shaffer, David
Using data from a community sample of youth (N = 1,458; ages 9–17), this study assessed the association between adolescent substance use/abuse and suicidal behaviors. Suicide attempts were strongly associated with alcohol abuse and dependence, followed by frequent cigarette smoking. The associations remained significant even after controlling for depression. The associations between substance use/abuse and suicidal ideation were no longer significant after controlling for depression. These findings highlight the important role that substance use plays in adolescent suicidal behaviors. PMID:15585462
Evansm, Allison Schettini; Spirito, Anthony; Celio, Mark; Dyl, Jennifer; Hunt, Jeffrey
Substance abuse is one of the most problematic health risk behaviors among adolescents. Given that research consistently finds increased levels of substance use among adolescents with conduct problems as well as trauma-related symptoms, it is important that substance abuse be examined to better understand its role in Conduct Disorder (CD) and…
Brown, P J; Recupero, P R; Stout, R
The present study investigates the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among a sample of treatment-seeking substance abusers and examines the relationship between PTSD comorbidity and rates of inpatient substance abuse treatment. Eighty-four patients (48 male and 36 female) admitted for detoxification at a private hospital were administered self-report measures of lifetime stressor events, PTSD symptomatology, and prior treatment history. Approximately one quarter of the sample was found to present with significant PTSD symptomatology. Women were more likely than men to have been physically and sexually abused, and women reported experiencing a greater number of traumatic events. Consequently, more women than men were classified as having possible PTSD. With respect to inpatient substance abuse treatment admission rates, the PTSD group reported a greater number of hospitalizations than their non-PTSD counterparts. Implications of these findings for routine trauma screening and more effective treatment for substance abusers with concomitant PTSD are highlighted. PMID:7484319
Stephens, Peggy C.; Sloboda, Zili; Grey, Scott; Stephens, Richard; Hammond, Augustine; Hawthorne, Richard; Teasdale, Brent; Williams, Joseph
Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substance abuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, the authors use…
Higgins, Stephen T; Alessi, Sheila M; Dantona, Robert L
In this report we provide an overview of research on the voucher-based incentives approach to substance abuse treatment. This approach was originally developed as a novel method for improving retention and increasing cocaine abstinence among cocaine-dependent outpatients. The efficacy of vouchers for those purposes is now well established, and plans are underway to move the intervention into effectiveness testing in community clinics. The use of vouchers also has been extended to the treatment of alcohol, marijuana, nicotine, and opioid dependence. Particularly noteworthy is that vouchers hold promise as an efficacious intervention with special populations of substance abusers, including pregnant and recently postpartum women, adolescents, and those with serious mental illness. Overall, voucher-based incentives hold promise as an innovative treatment intervention that has efficacy across a wide range of substance abuse problems and populations. PMID:12369474
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... within three weeks after the meeting. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT.... Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's CSAT National Advisory...
Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others
Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…
Saylors, Karen; Daliparthy, Nalini
Many mental health problems among substance abusing populations are directly linked to high rates of abuse and trauma. There is increasing evidence of associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse to adult substance use and HIV-risk behavior. The relationship of abuse, mental health problems, substance abuse, and high-risk sexual…
Norton, E. Douglas
Substance-abuse problems among older adults, involving alcohol, medications, and illegal drugs may arise from such stress factors as unstructured time, relationships with friends, loss, side effects of medications, and irrational beliefs. (SK)
Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Liu, Xinhua; Cohen, Patricia; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Shaffer, David
Using data from a community sample of youth (N = 1,458; ages 9?17), this study assessed the association between adolescent substance use/abuse and suicidal behaviors. Suicide attempts were strongly associated with alcohol abuse and dependence, followed by frequent cigarette smoking. The associations remained significant even after controlling for…
Join Together, Boston, MA.
There are many issues concerning women of all ages and substance abuse. Women who abuse alcohol or other drugs are particularly at risk for sexual assault; unprotected sex; unwanted pregnancies; and sexually transmitted diseases. Females between the ages of 12 and 17 surpass males in their use of cigarettes; cocaine; crack; inhalants; and…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This report on drug abuse in schools is based on 6 years of analysis, focus groups, and field investigations. Prior research has determined that if young people do not engage in smoking or substance abuse by age 21, their chances of engaging later are next to nothing. It has also been determined that next to parents, schools have the greatest…
Liepman, Michael R., Ed.; And Others
This curriculum guide on substance abuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…
Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A; Johnson, Ruby E; Sullivan, Kristen; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Rentz, E Danielle
Data on 7,424 soldier spouse abuse offenders were analyzed to determine the prevalence of substance use during abusive incidents, and to examine differences between substance-using and non-substance-using offenders. Results showed that 25% of all offenders used substances during abusive incidents, with males and non-Hispanic Whites being more likely to hav e used substances. Substance-using offenders were more likely to perpetrate physical spouse abuse and more severe spouse abuse. These findings underscore the importance of educating military personnel (including commanders) about links between substance use and domestic violence, and of coordinating preventive and therapeutic substance abuse and violence-related interventions. PMID:21097964
Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J.
The addition of contingency management (CM) to the menu of effective treatments for adolescent substance abuse has generated excitement in the research and treatment communities. CM interventions are based on extensive basic science and clinical research evidence demonstrating that drug use is sensitive to systematically applied consequences. This article provides (a) a review of basic CM principles, (b) implementation guidelines, (c) a review of the clinical CM research targeting adolescent substance abuse, and (d) a discussion of implementation successes and challenges. Although the research base for CM with adolescents is in its infancy, there are multiple reasons for high expectations. PMID:20682220
Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.
Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental phase characterized by hormonal, physiological, neural and behavioral alterations evident widely across mammalian species. For instance, adolescent rats, like their human counterparts, exhibit elevations in peer-directed social interactions, risk-taking/novelty seeking and drug and alcohol…
Winters, Ken C.; Kaminer, Yifrah
The different established screening methodologies and comprehensive assessment techniques used in evaluating adolescents suspected of or known to have substance abuse disorders are discussed. Recommendations and suggestions for establishing standards of training and professional efficiency are also highlighted to treat adolescents with substance…
Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris
To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain young…
Gadomski, Anne M; Scribani, Melissa B; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul
Objective Do the GAPS comprehensive screening questionnaires increase detection or shorten time to diagnosis of mental health and substance abuse (MH/SA) disorders? Design Analyses of an administrative database and a prior implementation study to compare change in MH/SA diagnoses pre-GAPS (May 1994 to April 1998) to post-GAPS (May 1999 to April 2003). Setting Rural health network in NY. Participants 8,112 adolescents (13 to 15 years). Intervention GAPS questionnaires routinely administered at annual visits starting May 1999. Outcome Measures Diagnostic codes reflecting MH/SA disorders for outpatient visits subsequent to an index annual visit were enumerated. Population based rates were derived using school enrollment data. Using time series, the rate of MH/SA diagnoses was compared pre- and post-GAPS. Using survival analysis, historical cohorts of adolescents ages 13–15 years who had an annual visit pre- or post-GAPS were constructed to compare the time to MH/SA diagnosis over two 4-year follow up periods. Using a merged database, a sensitivity, specificity, and proportional hazard analysis of the GAPS for MH/SA diagnosis was completed using 297 GAPS questionnaires. Results The rate of MH/SA diagnosis did not change significantly pre- and post-GAPS (p=0.13). There was no difference in time to MH/SA diagnosis post-GAPS (7.0 months) and pre-GAPS (9.0 months, log rank p=0.30). A GAPS with > 3 items positive was associated with an increased risk of any MH/SA diagnosis (H.R. 1.97, p = 0.007). Conclusion Even though related to past or eventual MH/SA diagnosis, GAPS screening did not change the rate of or time to MH/SA diagnosis. N=250 PMID:24488253
Martin, Laurie; Milot, Alyssa
This brief discusses the signs and symptoms of alcohol and drug use and provides recommendations to assess substance use among youth in your program. It is not uncommon for adolescents to experiment with different substances such as alcohol or cigarettes, but this can lead to heavy and continued use, which is dangerous and may put their health at…
Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa
As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...
Boden, S; Malchair, A; Bertrand, J
The adolescents responsible for sexual abuses on children confront the medico-psycho-social workers with many questions. In this article, thanks to a bibliographical approach, we first discuss the definitions concerning sexual abuses and paedophilia as well as family, psychodynamic and legal specificities of adolescents. We then mention a few epidemiological facts as well as the different behavioural cognitive, psychodynamic and family hypotheses related to that problem. We finally illustrate all this through two clinical cases encountered during our ambulatory exercise and submit some thinking to readers. PMID:10446522
Colson, James D.
The USAF Substance Abuse Seminar represents a new phase of preventative drug and alcohol abuse education. The seminar includes: Air Force Drug/Alcohol Abuse Control policies; local conditions regarding substance abuse; sociopharmacology concerning the status of substances relative to their effects; and personal responsibility in the use of…
Leccese, M; Waldron, H B
A variety of instruments are currently available to screen for and assess adolescent substance abuse and aid in planning appropriate interventions. Assessment practices in treatment facilities for adolescents have tended to rely on the use of unstandardized, local measures or on measures developed for adults with unknown reliability and validity for adolescents. This review is designed to serve as a resource for health professionals regarding the issues involved in assessing adolescent substance involvement and the types of instruments that are available for use. Conceptual issues relevant to the evaluation of adolescent substance use are discussed. Then, standardized, adolescent-specific assessment tools are briefly summarized, including screening questionnaires, comprehensive instruments, and several other substance-related instruments. PMID:7884839
... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... below). Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for...
Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.
Analyses of study on adolescents in publicly funded treatment programs present sex and ethnic differences. Among some of the findings: females were more likely to report methamphetamine use, males reported marijuana use; Hispanics and African Americans were referred to treatment from criminal justice; reported marijuana as primary drug; mandated…
Santor, Darcy A.; Messervey, Deanna; Kusumakar, Vivek
Developed and validated short measures of peer pressure, peer conformity, and popularity with 148 adolescent Canadian boys and girls in grades 11 to 13. Results show all constructed measures to be internally consistent. Peer pressure and peer conformity were stronger predictors of risk behavior than measures assessing popularity, general…
Cordaro, Millie; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Wagner, Eric F.; Morris, Staci Leon
This study documents significant differences in alliance in a predominantly Latino sample of adolescents who either completed or dropped out of a Guided Self-Change treatment program. Therapeutic alliance, working alliance, and patient involvement were assessed via ratings of audio-recorded segments of participants' counseling sessions.…
Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Johnson, E. Diane
The purpose of this qualitative systematic review was to explicate attributes of optimal therapeutic strategies for treating incarcerated women who have a history of substance abuse. An expansive search of electronic databases for qualitative research reports relating to substance abuse treatment for incarcerated women was conducted. Nine qualitative research reports comprised the sample for this review. Findings from these reports were extracted, placed into a data analysis matrix, coded, and categorized. Memos were written, and strategies for treating incarcerated women with alcohol problems were identified. Therapeutic effects of treatment programs for incarcerated women with substance-abuse problems appear to be enhanced when trust-based relationships are established, individualized and just care is provided, and treatment facilities are separate from the general prison environment. PMID:21771929
Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.
This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.
Barclay, Rebecca P; Hilt, Robert J
Integrated care is a way to improve the prevention, identification, and treatment of mental health difficulties, including substance abuse, in pediatric care. The pediatrician's access, expertise in typical development, focus on prevention, and alignment with patients and families can allow successful screening, early intervention, and referral to treatment. Successful integrated substance abuse care for youth is challenged by current reimbursement systems, information exchange, and provider role adjustment issues, but these are being addressed as comfort with this care form and resources to support its development grow. PMID:27613351
MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA
Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497
Park, Sookyung; Kim, Hae Sung; Kim, Haeryun; Sung, Kgu-taik
Substance use among sheltered adolescents is very serious in South Korea--a nation in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, few studies have investigated substance use among the adolescents which is a growing concern of the changing society of this nation. This study examined the prevalence of substance use and explored risk factors that predict substance abuse by sheltered adolescents. Through a questionnaire survey of sheltered adolescents, data on substance use and the risk factors were collected. The sample of the adolescents included 44 (33.3%) males and 88 (67.2%) females; their mean age was 15.8 years (SD = 1.62). The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol expectancy, physical abuse, and peer pressure were all statistically significantly associated with substance abuse. Findings on the critical issues are expected to lead to the development of urgently needed prevention programs for the high-risk adolescents in South Korea. PMID:18047242
... nbspMilitary insurance (e.g., TRICARE)   IHS/Tribal/Urban (ITU) funds   Access to recovery (ATR) voucher & ... abuse   Persons who have experienced intimate partner violence, domestic violence   Children with serious emotional disturbance ( ...
... Although illicit drug use is lower among U.S. military personnel than among civilians, heavy alcohol and tobacco use, ... in identifying and treating substance use problems in military personnel, as does lack of confidentiality that deters many ...
This paper presents a theory and model for treating adolescent victims of physical and sexual abuse and neglect. The theory examines issues related to abuse or neglect and the effect that an abusive history has on adolescent development. Specific issues noted are depression, anger, low self-esteem, self-shame, lack of trust, a sense of…
Lintonen, Tomi P.; Konu, Anne I.
Studied alcoholic beverage type choices in relation to substance use patterns and attitudes toward substance abuse using data from the 1999 Finnish Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey for 4,943 adolescents aged 14 to 16. Frequencies of drinking, drunkenness, and smoking and attitudes toward substance use were all affected by beverage type…
Phillips, Lindsay A.
This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.
American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL.
This book is a collection of essays and information representing the experience, perspective, and insight of professionals whose careers have been closely associated with the problem of youthful substance abuse. The first chapter outlines those circumstances that might make it more likely that a young person would experience drug-related…
Lachance, Laurie L.
This is a Searchlight Plus document, an informational analysis paper based on a computer search of the ERIC database from 1966 through November 1985 and on pertinent outside resources. This paper reviews, analyzes, and interprets the literature on the topic of substance abuse prevention in schools and points out the implications of the information…
Star, Nonnie; Shadoff, Sander
This guide is designed to assist people with learning disabilities to recognize their disabilities and the connection between learning disabilities and substance abuse. It begins by defining learning disabilities and providing a self-test checklist for common signs and symptoms of learning disabilities. Difficulties with organization, memory,…
Durfee, Michael; Tilton-Durfee, Deanne
The lack of agreement on the nature and extent of the problem of prenatal exposure to substances is discussed. Comprehensive coordination of services is called for. The 14 programs in the Los Angeles County Interagency Council on Child Abuse and Neglect (ICAN) are discussed. (GH)
Hirschel, J. David; Keny, Janet R.
Discusses trend towards involving criminal offenders in substance abuse programs and utilizing outpatient settings in treatment. Appraises the treatment performance of both court-referred and voluntary clients and the impacts criminal-justice-referred clients may have upon other persons in treatment programs to which they are admitted. Discusses…
Empey, Donald W.
This document describes the Glendale Unified School District's (California) comprehensive drug, alcohol, and tobacco education program. The program is based on three components: (1) a sequential outcome-based curriculum that provides students with knowledge about substance abuse and peer-resistant skills; (2) a strong message that the possession,…
Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…
Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS) were compared for medical (authorized) marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data) fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect positive treatment outcomes
Eliason, Michele J.; Skinstad, Anne Helene
Family medicine physicians were surveyed about their knowledge of substance abuse and wishes for continuing education. Results showed 10% had no substance abuse training in medical school, 15% had none during residency, and 21% had no continuing education on substance abuse. Most preferred continuing education programs as part of an annual…
Damron, Susan W.; Simpson, William R.
Abuse of alcohol or other substances by schizophrenic patients seriously undermines effective treatment. To document the extent of substance abuse among schizophrenic patients hospitalized in one Veterans Administration Hospital, medical records of 100 patients were reviewed. The results revealed that 54 patients had recent substance abuse, with…
Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David
Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…
Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine
Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…
Santisteban, Daniel A.; Mena, Maite P.; Muir, Joan; McCabe, Brian E.; Abalo, Clara; Cummings, Amanda M.
Objective The purpose of this randomized trial was to investigate the efficacy of two behavioral treatments focusing on different change mechanisms in ameliorating a borderline personality disorder constellation of behaviors and substance use in adolescents referred by juvenile diversion programs. Methods Forty adolescents 14 to 17 years of age and meeting DSM IV criteria for borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders were randomized to Integrative Borderline Personality Disorder-Oriented Adolescent Family Therapy (I-BAFT) or Individual Drug Counseling (IDC). This design allowed a comparison of two manualized interventions, one family-based and one individually-oriented. Profiles of clinical change were used to detect impact and to estimate treatment effect sizes. Results Primary analyses showed that both interventions had a clinically significant impact on borderline personality disorder behaviors 12 months after baseline but with no differential treatment effects. The impact on substance use was more complex. Subgroup analyses revealed that adolescents with depression had significantly more severe profiles of borderline personality disorder and substance use. These youth were the only group to show reductions in substance use, but only if they received the I-BAFT intervention. Study data also documented the high dosage of intensive residential treatment needed by this population. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Results highlight the intensive treatment needs of juvenile justice involved youth with co-occurring substance use and borderline personality disorder including depression, the hybrid outpatient and residential treatment often required by this population, and the promise of a family oriented approach particularly for youth with severe symptoms and co-occurring depression. PMID:25799306
Rowland, Melisa D.; Chapman, Jason E.; Henggeler, Scott W.
This study examined the substance use and delinquency outcomes for the nearest age siblings of substance abusing and delinquent adolescents that participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of integrating evidence-based practices into juvenile drug court. The sample of 70 siblings averaged 14.4 years of age, 50% were…