Schooler, Deborah; Trinh, Sarah
This study addressed profiles of adolescent television use and associations between television viewing profiles and the development of body satisfaction. A sample of 841 adolescent boys and girls, ages 11-17, was recruited for participation in a longitudinal study of adolescent media use. Prior research established eight adolescent television profiles among this sample, reflecting unique patterns of consumption of certain genres, character types, and themes (e.g., romance). This study examined whether an adolescent's television profile predicted Time 2 body satisfaction, after controlling for Time 1 body satisfaction. Among boys, television viewing was unrelated to Time 2 body satisfaction. After controlling for initial body satisfaction, hours spent watching television marginally predicted lower Time 2 body satisfaction among girls. After including television profiles alongside television hours, however, television profile emerged as the stronger predictor. Specifically, a group of girls who watched television frequently and indiscriminately reported the most severe drop in body satisfaction. PMID:21050831
Anderson, Daniel R.; Huston, Aletha C.; Schmitt, Kelly L.; Linebarger, Deborah L.; Wright, John C.
Followed up on 570 adolescents studied as preschoolers. Found that preschoolers' viewing of educational television programs was associated with achieving higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, exhibiting greater creativity, and behaving less aggressively as adolescents more consistently for boys than girls. Found…
Anderson, D R; Huston, A C; Schmitt, K L; Linebarger, D L; Wright, J C
In this Monograph, we report the follow-up of 570 adolescents who had been studied as preschoolers in one of two separate investigations of television use. The primary goal of the study was to determine the long-term relations between preschool television viewing and adolescent achievement, behavior, and attitudes. Using a telephone interview and high school transcripts, we assessed adolescent media use; grades in English, science, and math; leisure reading; creativity; aggression; participation in extracurricular activities; use of alcohol and cigarettes; and self-image. In each domain, we tested theories emphasizing the causal role of television content (e.g., social learning, information processing) as contrasted with those theories positing effects of television as a medium, irrespective of content (e.g., time displacement, pacing, interference with language). The results provided much stronger support for content-based hypotheses than for theories emphasizing television as a medium; moreover, the patterns differed for boys and girls. Viewing educational programs as preschoolers was associated with higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, greater creativity, and less aggression. These associations were more consistent for boys than for girls. By contrast, the girls who were more frequent preschool viewers of violent programs had lower grades than those who were infrequent viewers. These associations held true after taking into account family background, other categories of preschool viewing, and adolescent media use. One hypothesis accounting for the sex differences is that early experiences, such as television viewing, have greater effects when they counteract normative developmental trends and predominant sex-typed socialization influences than when they reinforce them. Adolescents in the study used both television and print media to support ongoing interests. Television content (e.g., entertainment, sports, or world events
Ward, L. Monique; Friedman, Kimberly
Using both correlational and experimental methodology, this study examined contributions of TV viewing to adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior. A sample of 244 high school students was assigned to view clips depicting either one of three sexual stereotypes or neutral content. Participants then completed measures assessing their attitudes…
Williams, Emyr; Robbins, Mandy; Picton, Laura
A total of 1133 13-15-year-old pupils in six secondary schools in South Wales were invited to complete questions concerning vampire belief and amount of television watching. The data demonstrate that belief in vampires was positively associated with higher levels of television watching.
Luker, Richard; Johnston, Jerome
Presents television as an instrument through which adolescents can gain social experience and strengthen social development. Examines the link between watching television and social relationships, discussing how television viewing can provide "blueprints" for behavior in social situations. Lists four steps for using television as a learning tool.…
Childers, Kim Walsh; Brown, Jane D.
Drawing on a social cognitive understanding of the relationship between television and viewers which suggests that adolescents will seek media content consistent with their already developed notions about the sexes, a study surveyed 1,613 adolescents (aged 12 to 17). Respondents were drawn from 10 standard metropolitan statistical areas that are…
Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day. PMID:23420910
Landhuis, C Erik; Perry, David K; Hancox, Robert J
Objective To assess the long-term association between childhood television viewing and adult unemployment, and if this association is mediated by educational achievement. Method Study members were a general-population birth cohort of 1037 participants born in New Zealand in 1972/1973. Hours of weekday television viewing were reported at ages 5–15. Since age 18, unemployment was assessed retrospectively using life-history calendars to age 32. Information on educational qualifications was collected at age 32. Results Childhood and adolescent television viewing predicted adult unemployment. This association was significant for male study members only (β=0.20, p<0.0001). The association for male study members remained after further controlling for socioeconomic status, cognitive ability, and early indications of behaviour problems (p<0.0007). The association was only partially mediated by educational achievement and television viewing remained a predictor of unemployment after adjusting for this (p=0.0035). By logistic regression, each additional hour of daily television viewing was associated with an increased likelihood of spending at least 6 months in unemployment between ages 18–32 years (OR=1.36, 95%, CI=1.06, 1.76, p=0.0157). Conclusion Childhood and adolescent television viewing may have long-lasting consequences for adult unemployment for boys. This association is only partially explained by the association between television viewing and educational achievement. PMID:22178044
Bearinger, L H
There is not much research done on US television's portrayal of sex and its relation to teenage attitudes and sex behavior. What has been done is on marital fidelity, gender roles, and rape myths. Sexuality taboos have created research problems. Future research should include longitudinal studies. These should use sex behavior as a dependent variable and focus on correlational and causal questions. Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans should be included in future research. Research should address the decision-making process within the television industry. A "consortium" of researchers from different disciplines should be used. Health professionals and the television industry should talk. Key people in professional organizations should have this dialog with the television industry. Press releases should be sent to key industry publications. The study group recommends a 6-12 month "sabbatical" wherein television and health professionals could work in each others' settings. There is a restriction on the advertising of contraceptive in the networks. Condoms can be promoted for disease protection, but not for birth control. Prescription products can't be advertised. Generic contraceptive advertisement should be created. Products could be advertised in magazines, too. Guidelines should be set up for television advertising. It is not possible to predict which hours adolescents will be watching television anymore. Critical viewing skills should be taught in "media literacy" curricula for "early and middle" adolescents. PMID:2307598
Kuo, Melissa H; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of different strategies, and whether mediation strategies changed over time. A secondary purpose was to examine whether parents applied different mediation strategies to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder versus siblings, and the factors that created stress related to managing media use. Parents of 29 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 16 siblings completed questionnaires at two time points. Parents most frequently supervised their television viewing by watching it with the adolescents, and used restrictive strategies to regulate their videogaming. Parents used similar strategies for siblings, but more frequently applied restrictive and instructive strategies for videogaming with adolescents with autism spectrum disorder than their siblings. Restrictive mediation of television viewing for the adolescents decreased significantly over the year. Adolescents' time spent in media activities, age, and behavior problems, and parents' concerns about media use were significant factors associated with the strategies that parents employed. Parents' stress related to the adolescents' behavioral and emotional responses to parental restrictions. PMID:25336095
O'Connor, Giselle; Piñero Casas, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Vicente, Mònica López; Davand, Payam; Torrent, Maties; Martínez-Murciano, David; García-Esteban, Raquel; Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi
This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1). Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing > 14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms), beta (CI) = 53 (0-107). After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions. PMID:27617190
Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A.
Background Studies exploring the effect of television viewing on obesity throughout childhood are conflicting. Most studies have been confined to single high-income countries. Our aim was to examine the association between television viewing habits and Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescents and children in a multicentre worldwide sample. Methods In the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children Phase Three, adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years completed questionnaires which included questions on television viewing habits, height and weight. Parents/guardians of children aged between 5 and 8 years completed the same questionnaire on behalf of their children. The questionnaire asked “During a normal week, how many hours a day (24 hours) do you (does your child) watch television?” Responses were categorised as; “short” (<1 hour), “moderate” (1 to ≤3 hours), “long” (3 to ≤5 hours) and “prolonged” (>5 hours). Findings 207,672 adolescents from 37 countries and 77,003 children from 18 countries provided data. Daily television viewing in excess of one hour was reported in 89% of adolescents and 79% of children. Compared with adolescents in the short viewing group, those in the moderate, long and prolonged groups had BMIs that were 0.14 kg/m2, 0.21 kg/m2, 0.30 kg/m2 and 0.08 kg/m2, 0.16 kg/m2 and 0.17 kg/m2 larger for females and males respectively (both P<0.001). Compared with children in the short viewing group, those in the moderate, long and prolonged groups had BMIs that were 0.24 kg/m2, 0.34 kg/m2, 0.36 kg/m2 and 0.19 kg/m2, 0.32 kg/m2 and 0.36 kg/m2 larger for females and males respectively (both P<0.001). Interpretation Increased television viewing hours were positively associated with BMI in both adolescents and children with an apparent dose response effect. These findings extend the evidence that television viewing contributes to increased BMI in childhood. PMID:24086327
Coyne, Sarah M
Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence. PMID:26595354
Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S
Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored. PMID:2307597
Page, Randy M.; And Others
Examined relationship between television viewing frequency and adolescents' health-related and psychosocial characteristics. Found that shyness and exercise frequency predicted television viewing frequency. Among females, exercise frequency, shyness, loneliness, and perceived attractiveness predicted viewing frequency. Light viewers exercised more…
Christensen, Claire G.; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S.; Rich, Michael
Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents’ television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents’ likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents’ likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games. PMID:26549930
In this analysis, single-sex and mixed schools are compared in terms of pupils' television viewing habits, the latter factor being considered as an indicator of a pupil's sense of educational responsibilities. It was hypothesized that the presumably lower levels of television watching among girls attending single-sex schools could be explained by…
Luecke-Aleksa, Diane; And Others
Explored gender constancy's interaction with television viewing, using videotapes of television viewing and viewing diaries for 5-year olds. Gender-constant boys focused on more male characters and watched more action and sports programs than preconstant boys. Gender-constant girls viewed more action programming than preconstant girls. Acquisition…
Kuo, Melissa H.; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of…
Television viewing is shaping all of us and especially young people, far more than we know, and perhaps more than we are shaping ourselves. On television Americans see a lot of alcohol consumption; few old people; and many policemen, doctors, lawyers, judges, and law-breakers, but few blue collar workers, artists, salespeople, clerks, or…
French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.
Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…
Jason, Leonard A.; Rooney-Rebeck, Patty
A youngster who excessively watched television was placed on a modified token economy: earned tokens were used to activate the television for set periods of time. Positive effects resulted in the child's school work, in the amount of time his family spent together, and in his mother's perception of family social support. (KH)
Johnson, Raymond L.; And Others
Since television programs portray a wide variety of masculine styles, this aspect of a program may become the most important feature for adolescent boys seeking information about ideal prototypes. The program preferences of a sample of 14-year-old boys, evenly divided between white and black and between aggressive and non-aggressive subjects, were…
Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M
A substantial number of previous studies have reported significant associations between television viewing habits and a host of detrimental outcomes including increased contact with the criminal justice system. However, it remains unclear whether the results flowing from this literature are generalizable to other samples and whether previously observed associations are confounded due to uncontrolled genetic influences. The current study addresses these limitations using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The results of the preliminary models, which do not include controls for genetic influences, produced a pattern of results similar to those previously reported in the extant literature. The results of the genetically informed models revealed that the associations between television viewing and antisocial outcomes are not causal, but rather are driven by uncontrolled genetic influences. Further replication is required, but these findings suggest that results drawn from the extant literature may not be trustworthy. PMID:25818861
Jolin, Edith M; Weller, Ronald A
Despite the emergence of new media technologies, television remains the most widely used screen media format. Unfortunately, concerns have arisen about its effects on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. This article reviews television usage trends and television's impact on sleep, attention, and interpersonal relationships. American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations on television use are also discussed. Many studies on television viewing have cross-sectional designs, and longitudinal research is limited. However, research to date suggests that excessive television viewing is associated with negative effects on sleep, attention, and interpersonal relationships. As use of different media formats escalates, research across multiple specialties (including child psychiatry) will need to incorporate evaluation of media use into its assessments. More research and education are needed on the appropriate use of media in youth. Information on the health effects of television may also increase awareness of potential issues with less well-studied media formats. PMID:21267680
Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.
Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…
de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; van den Putte, Bas
Clustering refers to the co-occurrence of behaviour and may be particularly relevant in light of the present obesity epidemic. Since evidence regarding clustering of motivational and habitual constructs within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is limited, clustering effects of TPB cognitions and habit strength regarding soft drink consumption and television viewing were studied in a sample of Dutch adolescents (n = 312; mean age = 14.62; SD = 1.62) using cross-sectional data. Results showed that not only soft drink consumption and television viewing cluster (r = .42), but also their intentional (r = .36) and habitual (r = .37) constructs. Furthermore, unmediated effects were found between habit strength and its respective behaviour, whereas habit strength was associated with its clustered behaviour through decreased perceptions of controllability. Our findings suggest that interventions that aim to change habitual soft drink consumption and television viewing may need to incorporate an environmental component, as well as explore the potential usefulness of synergistic effects of incorporating multiple clustered behaviours, as well as their corresponding beliefs and habits in health behaviour change interventions. PMID:19463873
Coyne, Sarah M.
Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…
Background Excessive television (TV) viewing might play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to examine the independent associations between TV viewing and CVD risk factors in adolescents. Methods A sample of 425 adolescents, aged 13- to 18.5-year-old, was included in this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) A-1, apo B-100, and lipoprotein(a) levels were determined. A composite CVD risk score was computed based on age-, sex-, sexual maturation- and race-standardized triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and glucose. TV viewing was self-reported. Results Two hundred and twenty-five adolescents (53%) who spent >3 hrs/day watching TV were considered as the "high TV viewing" group. Ninety-nine adolescents (23%) from the total sample were classified as overweight according to International age- and sex-specific BMI values. The high TV viewing group had significantly less favorable values of HDL-cholesterol, glucose, apo A1 and CVD score, independent of age, sex, sexual maturation, race and weight status. There was a significant interaction effect of TV viewing × weight status (P = 0.002) on WC, and the negative influence of TV viewing on WC persisted in the overweight group (P = 0.031) but was attenuated in non-overweight adolescents (P > 0.05). Conclusion Excessive TV viewing seems to be related to an unfavorable CVD risk factors profile in adolescence. Reducing TV viewing in overweight adolescents might be beneficial to decrease abdominal body fat. PMID:20500845
Hendry, L. B.; Thornton D. J. E.
Sutton-Smith's games typologies were applied to television viewing preferences in order to construct a television classification based on Sutton-Smith's three types, and ascertain whether or not 204 adolescents designated as potents, strategists, and fortunists could be distinguished in terms of their games involvement, attitudes to sport, and…
Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Lebo, Melanie J.
Two hundred and fifteen ninth grade students were surveyed to examine the relationship between television use and gender role attitudes and behavior in dating situations. Findings indicate the existence of a relationship between watching "romantic" television programming and having more traditional gender role attitudes in dating situations.…
McManus, Beth M.; Mandic, Carmen Gomez; Carle, Adam C.; Robert, Stephanie A.
Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, the association between parent-child function and physical activity and television viewing was investigated among a national sample of adolescents in the United States. Parent-child function was measured using the National Survey of Children's Health "Family Function" survey items and…
Van den Bulck, Jan; Beullens, Kathleen; Mulder, Joost
Alcohol abuse among adolescents is a cause for concern. Around 1995 alcopops (sweetened alcoholic drinks) entered the scene and caused even more concern. Many fear that the sweet taste makes is easier to start drinking for those not yet used to drinking alcohol and the marketing appears aimed at adolescents. Because alcohol use has been linked to television viewing in general and music video viewing in particular this article examined whether a relationship existed between television and music video exposure and the consumption of alcopops. Data were collected with a questionnaire focused on television exposure and alcohol behavior. Respondents were a random sample of 2,546 first- and fourth year schoolchildren of Flanders, the Dutch speaking region of Belgium (60% of the Belgian population). Self reported general TV viewing, music video exposure and drinking of alcopops at home and/or while going out were measured. 68.4% of the respondents watched music videos at least several times a week. The odds of being an alcopop drinker at home increased by 196% for those, who watched music videos at least several times a week (OR = 1.961). For each additional hour of TV viewed per day, the respondents were 17% more likely to be drinkers of altopops at home (OR = 1.169). The odds of being an alcopop drinker, when going out increased by 239% for those who watched music videos at least several times a week (OR = 2.394). For each additional hour of TV viewed per day, the respondents were 19% more likely to be drinkers of alcopops when going out (OR = 1.186). These findings suggest that there is an association between music video exposure and use of alcopops not explained by overall exposure to television. This relationship merits further attention as it is a better predictor of alcopop use, than the control variables and overall TV viewing. PMID:16639864
Kielwasser, Alfred P.; Wolf, Michelle A.
Argues that the symbolic annihilation of gay and lesbian youth exhibited by network television contributes to a dysfunctional isolation supported by the mutually reinforcing invisibility of homosexual adolescents on television and in the real world. Suggests that the spiral of silence also partially accounts for the inefficacy of oppositional…
Valenzuela, Nicholas A.; Spain, Peter
A telephone survey was conducted in November 1973 to determine television viewing patterns in southwestern Virginia. Data were collected concerning family characteristics and time spent watching the various programs offered by WBRA-TV and WSVN-TV, the local public broadcasting stations. Income and occupational status proved to be significant…
Selnow, Gary W.; Reynolds, Hal
Interviews were conducted with 184 sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students to determine patterns of pastime activities that stand as alternatives to television viewing. In the first portion of the 35-minute interview, respondents were presented with a current daily television listing and asked to indicate which programs they normally watched. To…
Perse, Elizabeth M.; And Others
Examines the congruence between the view of marriage identified in content analysis and that rated by college students. Finds that students rated most marriages as "traditional," and rated traditional marriages as the most realistic. Notes that the amount of television exposure was unrelated to television marriage ratings. Discusses implications…
Cantor, Joanne; Reilly, Sandra
Results demonstrate that adolescents experience enduring fright reactions from scary television shows and films, yet their mothers are often unaware of their responses. Concludes that family communication about how and when a child is frightened is poor. (PD)
Lehrer, Sandra G.; Cissna, Kenneth N. Leone
In this study of children's television viewing, 105 junior-high-school students reported the television programs they watched, the amount of time they spent each day watching television, and their reasons for watching television. The following results are reported: sixth graders watch more television than do seventh or eighth graders; sixth-grade…
Ex, Carine T. G. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.
Examines young Dutch adolescent and young females' self-image and ideal image of motherhood and the extent to which television viewing and viewing motives were related to these images. Notes none of the subjects were mothers and all were selected from a variety of educational settings. Concludes that sitcoms and soaps that portrayed mothers with a…
Botta, Renee A.
Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)
Agostino, Don; Zenaty, Jayne
A telephone survey of randomly selected homes was conducted to locate current owners of videocassette recorders (VCRs) for a study of their VCR-associated television viewing of both public (PTV) and commercial (CTV) television, and a one-week TV activity diary was mailed to homes in 16 cities. Analysis of data from 250 completed diaries indicates…
Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Ward, L. Monique
Although previous findings indicate that frequent television viewing is associated with holding more stereotypical attitudes about gender, no studies have examined this connection among Latino youth, who are frequent viewers of both English- and Spanish-language programming. The present study attempted to rectify this situation by examining…
Excessive television (TV) viewing has been associated with a greater risk of childhood obesity. Latino children watch higher amounts of TV than their peers and are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. Since TV viewing and obesity track from preschool into adolescence, early intervention...
Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Gupta, Yogita; Aneja, Satinder
Previous studies from developing countries have reported that Television (TV) viewing, if excessive and of poor quality has a proven negative influence on child health. Indian studies on this subject are few. The present study aimed at determining TV viewing habits of children and their families as well as parental perspectives on the impact of TV on child health using a provider completed indigenously developed questionnaire in Hindi. The study group comprised of 109 children attending a government hospital who belonged predominantly to lower socio-economic strata with poor maternal literacy. It was observed that 100 % children watched excessive TV (> 2 h daily), with majority viewing unsupervised and low quality content. There were minimal parental restrictions and no active discussion regarding contents. Negative impact was found on play, hobbies, sleep hygiene and eating habits in most children. Most parents were unaware of unhealthy viewing and the associated deleterious effects. As pediatricians we need to enquire about TV viewing habits routinely and educate parents about appropriate TV viewing. PMID:24682808
Tucker, L A; Friedman, G M
We estimated the extent to which time spent watching television is associated with obesity and super-obesity among 6,138 employed adult males. After adjustment for age, smoking status, length of work week, measured physical fitness, and reported weekly hours of exercise, people who viewed TV more than three hours/day were twice as likely to be obese as those who viewed less than 1 hour/day. Those who viewed for 1 to 2 hours daily had a relative risk of 1.60 (1.21, 2.11). Physical fitness consistently confounded the associations between TV viewing and obesity/super-obesity, but the other control variables did not do so. PMID:2929820
Potter, W. James
Investigates the cultivation theory of media effects by studying whether adolescent viewers "see" certain lessons for human behavior in television portrayals and whether amount of exposure to television affects this. Finds that some values associated with television are more valued by higher versus lower exposed-to-television watchers. (SR)
Atherson, Martin J.; Metcalf, James
A large national database (U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2001) was analyzed for age, sex, race/ethnicity and television viewing among American adolescents aged 12-18 years. Body Mass Indices (BMI) were calculated from self-reported height and weight. Ninety-fifth percentile and above was classified as obese; [less…
Thomsen, Steven R; Rekve, Dag
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of exposure to US-produced television programs and family rules prohibiting alcohol use on the development of normative beliefs, expectancies, and intentions to drink alcohol in the next 12 months among a group of Norwegian adolescents who reported that they had not previously consumed alcohol. Data were collected via a survey administered to 622 eighth and ninth graders enrolled at ten junior highs in southeastern Norway. To examine these relationships we tested the fit of a structural equation model which was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1988). Data from the non-drinkers (n= 392, 63% of the respondents) were used. To control for the influence of peer drinking on behavioral intentions, our model was tested under two group conditions: (1) those subjects reporting that they have no friends who drink alcohol and (2) those subjects reporting that they have one or more friends who drink. The findings indicate that the influence of TV exposure was a significant predictor (directly) of normative beliefs, expectancies (indirectly) and intentions to drink (both directly and indirectly) only for those subjects who reported having no friends who drink. For the group with non-drinking friends, family rules constrain intentions only indirectly by influencing normative beliefs. For those with friends who drink, however, family rules have a direct (inverse) effect on intentions. It is concluded that exposure to US-produced television programs functions as a limited knowledge source only for those subjects who had little or no personal experience with alcohol while the presence of family rules have limited impact on behavioral intentions. PMID:16433660
Frazer, Charles F.
Provides examples of observed behavior to support the claim that television viewing is an interactive phenomenon, a social experience in which young children actively participate with parents, siblings, and others. Contends that the view of a passive receiver underestimates the abilities of the child to understand and shape experiences. (PD)
Gans, Herbert J.
To collect data on how to make television a more effective learning instrument outside of the classroom, a standard probability sample with quotas consisting of 200 adults and 200 adolescents living in New York City was interviewed to study how people use TV, their attitudes toward various types of programing, and their viewing preferences.…
This statement describes the possible negative health effects of television viewing on children and adolescents, such as violent or aggressive behavior, substance use, sexual activity, obesity, poor body image, and decreased school performance. In addition to the television ratings system and the v-chip (electronic device to block programming), media education is an effective approach to mitigating these potential problems. The American Academy of Pediatrics offers a list of recommendations on this issue for pediatricians and for parents, the federal government, and the entertainment industry. PMID:11158483
Selnow, Gary W.; Reynolds, Hal
This study explored patterns of pastime activities that stand as alternatives to television viewing among middle school children. Findings are compared with those of Robinson's study (1981) for alternative media, video games, and sleeping variables, as well as dichotomous measures for group membership, playing a musical instrument, and hobbies.…
Primavera, Louis H.; Herron, William G.; Jauier, Rafael A.
Discusses research on the negative impact of television and movies, scientific research on television violence and aggression, laboratory research, criticisms of laboratory research, field research, correlation studies. Concludes there is no evidence that viewing television violence increases aggression in children or adults but viewing it can…
This course is divided into seven units, each focusing on a particular aspect of television. The unit topics and some of the subtopics included are: (1) television and the American viewer; (2) the television industry (the networks, the role of the Federal Communications Commission, public television, and the business of television); (3) programs…
Tidhar, Chava E.; Levinsohn, Hanna
This study surveyed the effects of cable television on Israeli parents' mediation of their childrens' viewing. Results indicate the introduction of cable television changed strategies of parental control and mediation and parents' assessment of television's influence on children. Active parental mediation was closely related to the attribution of…
Potter, W. James
Finds that middle and high school students change their views of television watching along three ways of evaluating television: as a "magic window" to reality; as a utility route to information; and as an identity source of almost real people. Concludes that views of television reality are complex and dynamic. (SR)
Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents. PMID:23477208
Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Bleakley, Amy
Media are one source for adolescent identity development and social identity gratifications. Nielsen viewing data across the 2014-2015 television season for adolescents ages 14-17 was used to examine racial and gender diversity in adolescent television exposure. Compared to US Census data, mainstream shows under represent women, but the proportion of Black characters is roughly representative. Black adolescents watch more television than non-Black adolescents and, after taking this into account, shows popular with Black adolescents are more likely than shows popular with non-Black adolescents to exhibit racial diversity. In addition, shows popular with female adolescents are more likely than shows popular with males to exhibit gender diversity. These results support the idea that adolescents seek out media messages with characters that are members of their identity groups, possibly because the characters serve as tools for identity development and social identity gratifications. PMID:26759131
Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael
Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…
Taras, H L; Sallis, J F; Nader, P R; Nelson, J
Pediatricians are encouraged to modify the impact of television on children, based on the assumption that parents mediate children's viewing habits through the home environment. Sixty-six parents of children aged 3 to 8 years responded to an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Responses to questions on family environment were compared with reported childhood viewing of educational programming (Public Broadcasting Service) and the child's television-viewing hours. Most homes surveyed had a videocassette recorder, cable television, and more than one television set. Frequent parental discussion of program content with children was reported by 38% of respondents. Availability of television and parent-child discussion of content were not correlated with viewing hours or viewing Public Broadcasting Service. Frequent use of television as a distraction for the child correlated positively with viewing hours. Viewing Public Broadcasting Service correlated negatively with parent-child coviewing and with use of television as a form of entertainment. Children's own television viewing content correlated positively with viewing Public Broadcasting Service. Of all measured factors in the home environment, parental attitudes were most closely associated with children's viewing habits. PMID:2305746
Armstrong, Colin A.; Sallis, James F.; Alcaraz, John E.; Kolody, Bohdan; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.
Examined the relationship between elementary students' television viewing and their physical fitness. Data from parent and student questionnaires and measures of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength/endurance, and muscular flexibility indicated that television viewing weakly and inconsistently related to various components of…
Segrin, Chris; Nabi, Robin L.
Examines relationship between television viewing, holding idealistic expectations about marriage, and intentions to marry among undergraduate students. Finds overall television viewing has a negative association with idealistic marriage expectations; romantic genre programming was positively associated with high expectations; and expectations were…
Perney, Jan; And Others
To examine the relationship between television viewing and early school achievement, children's quantitative and verbal test scores were correlated with parental responses to a questionnaire concerning the television viewing habits of their children. The sample consisted of 202 kindergarten children and their parents from two suburban school…
Gillman, Matthew W.; Kleinman, Ken; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Redline, Susan; Taveras, Elsie M.
BACKGROUND: Television and insufficient sleep are associated with poor mental and physical health. This study assessed associations of TV viewing and bedroom TV with sleep duration from infancy to midchildhood. METHOD: We studied 1864 children in Project Viva. Parents reported children’s average daily TV viewing and sleep (at 6 months and annually from 1–7 years) and the presence of a bedroom TV (annually 4–7 years). We used mixed effects models to assess associations of TV exposures with contemporaneous sleep, adjusting for child age, gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, and income. RESULTS: Six hundred forty-three children (35%) were racial/ethnic minorities; 37% of households had incomes ≤$70 000. From 6 months to 7 years, mean (SD) sleep duration decreased from 12.2 (2.0) hours to 9.8 (0.9) hours per day; TV viewing increased from 0.9 (1.2) hours to 1.6 (1.0) hours per day. At 4 years, 17% had a bedroom TV, rising to 23% at 7 years. Each 1 hour per day increase in lifetime TV viewing was associated with 7 minutes per day (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4 to 10) shorter sleep. The association of bedroom TV varied by race/ethnicity; bedroom TV was associated with 31 minutes per day shorter sleep (95% CI: 16 to 45) among racial/ethnic minority children, but not among white, non-Hispanic children (8 fewer minutes per day [95% CI: −19 to 2]). CONCLUSIONS: More TV viewing, and, among racial/ethnic minority children, the presence of a bedroom TV, were associated with shorter sleep from infancy to midchildhood. PMID:24733878
Gorely, Trish; Marshall, Simon J; Biddle, Stuart J H
The purpose of this study was to review the published empirical correlates of television/video viewing among youth (2 to 18 years). A descriptive semi-quantitative review was conducted based on 68 primary studies. Variables consistently associated with TV/video viewing were ethnicity (non-white +), parent income (-), parent education (-), body weight (+), between meal snacking (+), number of parents in the house (-), parents TV viewing habits (+), weekend (+) and having a TV in the bedroom (+). Variables consistently unrelated to TV/video viewing were sex, other indicators of socio-economic status, body fatness, cholesterol levels, aerobic fitness, strength, other indicators of fitness, self-perceptions, emotional support, physical activity, other diet variables, and being an only child. Few modifiable correlates have been identified. Further research should aim to identify modifiable correlates of TV/video viewing if interventions are to be successfully tailored to reduce this aspect of inactivity among youth. PMID:15496343
Television and other media represent an important and widely unrecognized influence on adolescent behavior in American society. This article is a review of the major media to which teenagers are heavily exposed-television, movies, radio, print media, and pornography. The potential concerns of practitioners and parents and society as a whole are emphasized and some solutions suggested. PMID:10350708
Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June
The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males. PMID:26158956
This paper summarizes research on the effects of television viewing on student achievement. Information concerning students in the San Juan Unified School District in California is highlighted. Studies have revealed that: (1) watching more than 3 hours of television a day prevents students from engaging in other activities; (2) moderate television…
Rubin, Alan M.
Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…
Austin, Bruce A.
Motivations for watching television were compared for 128 hearing and 178 hearing impaired freshman students at a technical college. The questionnaire consisted of 31 television viewing motivation items, a list of program titles for frequency and enjoyment information, attitudinal statements, and demographic items. Ss reported the amount of time…
Tucker, Larry A.
Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…
Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale Wesley; Boland, Wendy Attaya; Grube, Joel W
Cultivation research has shown that heavy television viewing is linked to audiences' generalized, and often skewed, views of reality. This research investigates whether television viewing is related to adolescents' views about the consequences of drinking and whether psychological trait reactance moderates this cultivation effect. Results from a survey of 445 American teenagers show that cumulative exposure to television is linked to reduced beliefs about alcohol's negative consequences and greater intentions to drink. These effects were greater for adolescents low on trait reactance. This research adds to the general psychological research on trait reactance as a moderator of media influences and makes a substantive contribution towards furthering our understanding of the media and public health concerns that surround risky adolescent behaviors. PMID:24678341
Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale Wesley; Boland, Wendy Attaya; Grube, Joel W.
Cultivation research has shown that heavy television viewing is linked to audiences' generalized, and often skewed, views of reality. This research investigates whether television viewing is related to adolescents' views about the consequences of drinking and whether psychological trait reactance moderates this cultivation effect. Results from a survey of 445 American teenagers show that cumulative exposure to television is linked to reduced beliefs about alcohol's negative consequences and greater intentions to drink. These effects were greater for adolescents low on trait reactance. This research adds to the general psychological research on trait reactance as a moderator of media influences and makes a substantive contribution towards furthering our understanding of the media and public health concerns that surround risky adolescent behaviors. PMID:24678341
Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Gruber, Enid L.
Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies, and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in oral sex and sexual intercourse, future intentions to engage in these behaviors, and sex expectancies. As predicted, exposure to sexual content was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in sexual behaviors, increased intentions to do so in the future, and more positive sex expectancies. Often, parental mediation strategies were a significant factor in moderating these potential media influences. PMID:21546986
29. FET 60-1312 VIEW OF TELEVISION DOLLY IN TAN 629 HANGAR, AN ASPECT OF INSTRUMENTATION. PHOTO DATE: MARCH 23, 1960. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID
Meta-analyzed data from six national studies of elementary through high school students to determine the relationship between amount of television viewing and educational achievement. According to a complex viewing-achievement model, for small amounts of viewing, achievement increased with viewing, but as viewing increased beyond a certain point,…
Anand, Vibha; Downs, Stephen M; Bauer, Nerissa S; Carroll, Aaron E.
Background Early TV viewing has been linked with maternal depression and has adverse health effects in children. However it is not known how early TV viewing occurs. We evaluated the prevalence at which parents report television (TV) viewing for their children if asked in the first two years of life and whether TV viewing is associated with maternal depression symptoms. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, we evaluated TV viewing in children 0 – 2 years of age in 4 pediatric clinics in Indianapolis, IN between January 2011 and April 2012. Families were screened for any parental report of depression symptoms (0 – 15 months) and for parental report of TV viewing (before 2 years of age) using a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS) linked to the patient’s electronic health record (EHR). Results There were 3,254 children in the study. By parent report 50% of children view TV by 2 months of age, 75% by 4 months of age and 90% by 2 years of age. Complete data for both TV viewing and maternal depression symptoms were available for 2,397 (74%) of children. In regression models, the odds of parental report of TV viewing increased by 27% for each additional month of child’s age (OR: 1.27, CI: 1.25 – 1.30, p < 0.001). The odds of TV viewing increased by almost half with parental report of depression symptoms (OR: 1.47, CI: 1.07 – 2.00, p = 0.016). Publicly insured children had three times the odds of TV viewing compared to children with private insurance (OR: 3.00, CI: 1.60 – 5.63, p = 0.001). Black children had almost four times the odds (OR: 3.75, CI: 2.70 – 5.21, p < 0.001) and White children had one and a half times the odds (OR: 1.55, CI: 1.04 – 2.30, p = 0.032) of TV viewing when compared to Latino children. Conclusions By parental report TV viewing occurs at a very young age in infancy, usually between 0 to 3 months and varies by insurance and race/ethnicity. Children whose parents report depression symptoms are especially at risk
Meis, Jessie J M; Kremers, Stef P J; Bouman, Martine P A
The present study explored which underlying motivations induced people to participate in a television exercise program called "The Netherlands on the Move!-television" (NOM-tv). A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,349 viewers of NOM-tv. The respondents completed the intrinsic motivation inventory (IMI), assessing their levels of intrinsic motivation towards participating in the NOM-tv exercises. The results showed that higher levels of intrinsic motivation (i.e. enjoying the NOM-tv exercises, feeling competent to perform this activity, and willingness to put effort into the exercises) were the most important predictive factors of more frequent participation in the NOM-tv exercises. Future screen-based interventions to reduce sedentary behavior should aim especially at encouraging people's intrinsic orientations towards physical activity in an autonomy-supportive way. PMID:22187637
Irlen, Sandra; Dorr, Aimee
Teen television, which in large part is made up of moral dilemmas, is often a topic of adolescent discussion. Discussions among adolescent friends are viewed as playing an essential role in moral reasoning development, making it important to investigate television's potential to stimulate these discussions. A study investigated adolescent girls'…
Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren
Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image. PMID:25832319
Hawkins, Robert P.; And Others
One hundred seventy-one middle school students participated in a study to assess cognitive activity during television viewing. Students completed a questionnaire about their favorite programs, viewing habits, and social reality beliefs, then viewed a 17-minute professionally edited episode of a family drama and answered a multiple choice…
Ngula, Kyalo wa; Mberia, Hellen K; Miller, Ann Neville
Research in Western nations suggests that parents' involvement in their children's media use can make a difference in how adolescents select, process and respond to sexual television messages. Little or no published research has investigated this issue in sub-Saharan Africa, even though adolescents and young adults remain among the groups at highest risk for HIV transmission. This study investigated the relationship between Kenyan adolescents' level of exposure to sexual television content and their parents' mediation of their television use. A cluster sample of 427 Nairobi public high school students was surveyed regarding parental mediation of their media use and their intake of sexual television content. Co-viewing with opposite sex friends was associated with higher intake of sexual TV content. This relationship was stronger among boarding school students than among day school students. Parental mediation and co-viewing variables predicted three times as much variance among boarding than among day school students. PMID:27002353
Read, Jenny C A; Simonotto, Jennifer; Bohr, Iwo; Godfrey, Alan; Galna, Brook; Rochester, Lynn; Smulders, Tom V
Manufacturers and the media have raised the possibility that viewing stereoscopic 3D television (S3D TV) may cause temporary disruption to balance and visuomotor coordination. We looked for evidence of such effects in a laboratory-based study. Four hundred and thirty-three people aged 4-82 years old carried out tests of balance and coordination before and after viewing an 80 min movie in either conventional 2D or stereoscopic 3D, while wearing two triaxial accelerometers. Accelerometry produced little evidence of any change in body motion associated with S3D TV. We found no evidence that viewing the movie in S3D causes a detectable impairment in balance or in visuomotor coordination. PMID:26587261
Read, Jenny C. A.; Simonotto, Jennifer; Bohr, Iwo; Godfrey, Alan; Galna, Brook; Rochester, Lynn; Smulders, Tom V.
Manufacturers and the media have raised the possibility that viewing stereoscopic 3D television (S3D TV) may cause temporary disruption to balance and visuomotor coordination. We looked for evidence of such effects in a laboratory-based study. Four hundred and thirty-three people aged 4–82 years old carried out tests of balance and coordination before and after viewing an 80 min movie in either conventional 2D or stereoscopic 3D, while wearing two triaxial accelerometers. Accelerometry produced little evidence of any change in body motion associated with S3D TV. We found no evidence that viewing the movie in S3D causes a detectable impairment in balance or in visuomotor coordination. PMID:26587261
Bossing, Lewis; Mikulcik, Marilyn
Parents from rural and urban areas of Calloway County, Kentucky were surveyed regarding their children's television viewing habits. Fifteen survey questions were asked, among them whether there was a television set in the home; whether the child had a personal set; whether the family ate meals while watching television; whether television sound…
Degrosky, Deborah S.
Data were collected from 123 seventh and eighth grade students to examine the relationship between the quality of television viewing time and reading achievement, age, grade, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and intelligence quotient (IQ). Highlights of the data analyses include the following: (1) The mean weekly viewing time for the subjects was…
Natsiopoulou, Triantafillia; Melissa-Halikiopoulou, Chrisoula
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of television (TV) on preschoolers, their TV viewing patterns and the conditions under which they watch TV, taking into consideration their different socioeconomic and regional backgrounds. The survey instrument was a questionnaire with 23 closed-ended questions, given to parents whose children…
Slater, Michael D.; Rouner, Donna; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Beauvais, Frederick; Murphy, Kevin; Estes, Emily
Examined types of counterarguments generated by Anglo and Latino adolescents exposed to television beer ads, noting counterargument differences based on demographic and behavioral variables. Questionnaires and comments from the students indicated that without any cues, they responded with counterarguments, though counterarguments represented only…
Noting the popularity of television teen series among young viewers in France, this study examined how the programs are used as a way of defining gender identity for children and adolescents. Results indicated construction of meanings of characters and plots varied by age, gender, and social background of viewers. Relationship to series relied on…
Skatrud-Mickelson, Monica; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.
Television (TV) viewing is associated with an increased risk in childhood obesity. Research surrounding food habits of tweens largely bypass snacking preferences while watching TV in the home. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe snacking prevalence by tween gender, and to describe parental rules surrounding snacking while watching TV at home. Survey data were obtained in 2008 from 4th through 6th grade students (N=1557) who attended 12 New England schools. Complete self-reported measures (N=1448) included demographics, household and bedroom TV ownership, TV watching frequency, snacking prevalence, snacking preferences, and parental rules regarding snacking while watching TV. Comparisons were generated using chi-square analyses. Overall, the majority of children (69.2%) snacked “sometimes” or “always” during TV viewing, with the majority of responses (62.9%) categorized as foods. The most popular food snacks for both genders in this sample were salty snacks (47.9%), with fruits and vegetables ranking a distant second (18.4%). Girls (22.6%) selected fruits and vegetables more frequently than boys (14.7%), P=0.003. Of those drinking beverages (n=514), boys selected sugar-sweetened beverages more often than girls (43.5% versus 31.7%), P=0.006, and girls chose juice more often than boys (12.3% versus 6.1%), P=0.02. Overall, approximately half (53.2%) of students consumed less healthy snacks while watching TV. Interventions for parents and both genders of tweens focusing on healthful snacking choices may have long-term beneficial outcomes. PMID:21872703
Buchta, R M
The major television networks have considered airing condom advertisements. A Louis-Harris poll entitled "Attitudes About Television, Sex and Contraceptive Advertising" conducted in early 1987 concluded that at least 60% of adult Americans were in favor of such advertisements. To better understand the attitudes of adolescents and parents of adolescents in a private practice setting toward contraceptive advertisement on television, the present study was performed. Between March and June 1987, 108 parents of adolescents, 100 adolescent females, and 90 adolescent males filled out a questionnaire asking their opinions of such advertisements. Eighty-three percent of the parents, 89% of adolescent females, and 92% of adolescent males approved of such advertisements. The data suggest that a majority of adults and adolescents approve of condom advertisements on television. The use of the media to take advantage of the present opportunity to educate and promote birth control and disease prevention to our adolescent population may be beneficial. PMID:2715096
12. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing television monitoring of tests and personnel operating rocket engine test controls. May 27, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Facility, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-45021. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH
Jenvey, Vickii B.
It has often been proposed that young (three to six years old) children's television viewing habits contribute to early-onset obesity. Three explanations that link television viewing patterns of young children with the development of obesity are considered. First, television viewing displaces time available for physical activity, reduces energy…
Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Levy, Steven M.
IMPORTANCE The diverse developmental patterns of obesogenic behaviors during childhood and adolescence can be better understood by using new analytic approaches to assess the heterogeneity in variation during growth and development and to map the clustering of behavior patterns. OBJECTIVES To identify distinct trajectories of daily time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) from ages 5 to 19 years and to examine the associations of MVPA trajectories with sports participation and television viewing trajectories. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cohort members in the prospective population-based Iowa Bone Development Study participated in MVPA assessments via accelerometry from September 16, 1998, to December 9, 2013, at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years and completed a questionnaire every 6 months on sports participation and daily time spent in television viewing. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Trajectories of MVPA (minutes per day), participation in organized sports (yes or no), and television viewing time (hours per day). RESULTS Based on the data from 537 participants (50.1% females; 94.6% white), we identified 4 MVPA trajectories: consistently inactive (14.9%), consistently active (18.1%), decreasing moderate physical activity (52.9%), and substantially decreasing high physical activity (14.1%). All participants in the consistently inactive trajectory also followed a trajectory of no participation in sports. The consistently active trajectory was associated with decreasing an already low television viewing trajectory (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study provided a nuanced look at the known decrease in MVPA during childhood and adolescence. Sports participation could be a critical way to avoid the consistently inactive pattern. Most important, we identified a subset of participants who maintained a seemingly healthy level of MVPA from childhood to young adulthood. The developmental pathways of physical activity and
Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; McClure, Auden C.; Sargent, James D.
IMPORTANCE Obesity affects health in children and adolescents. Television viewing is an established risk factor for obesity in youth. No prospective study has assessed whether a bedroom television confers an additional risk for obesity in youth. OBJECTIVE To assess the prospective association between the presence of a bedroom television and change in body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), independent of television viewing, in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a random-digit prospective telephone survey that captured children and adolescents from across the United States. Participants included 6522 boys and girls aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were surveyed via telephone about media risk factors for obesity. Weighted regressions assessed adiposity at 2- and 4-year follow-up, controlling for television and movie viewing, video-game playing, parenting, age, sex, race or ethnicity, household income, and parental educational level. EXPOSURE Report of having a television in the bedroom at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age- and sex-adjusted BMI based on self-report and parent report of weight and height at 2- and 4-year follow-up. RESULTS Distributions for age, sex, race or ethnicity, and socioeconomic status were similar to census estimates for the US population. Sample weighting methods accounted for higher dropout rates among ethnic minorities and those with lower socioeconomic status. Bedroom televisions were reported by 59.1% of participants at baseline, with boys, ethnic minorities, and those of lower socioeconomic status having significantly higher rates. In multivariate analyses, having a bedroom television was associated with an excess BMI of 0.57 (95% CI, 0.31–0.82) and 0.75 (0.38–1.12) at years 2 and 4, respectively, and a BMI gain of 0.24 (0.02–0.45) from years 2 to 4. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Having a
Gantz, Walter; Weaver, James B., III
This study examined both general and specific parent-child television viewing experiences together with any interactions related to television viewing whether the child has watched television with a parent or alone. A total of 384 telephone interviews of parents (57% female, 43% male) with children at home between the ages of 6 and 18 were…
Guran, T; Bereket, A
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity. PMID:22075803
Thompson, Darcy A.; Sibinga, Erica M.S.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Christakis, Dimitri A.
Objective To determine if hours of daily television viewed by varying age groups of young children with Latina mothers differs by maternal language preference (English/Spanish) and to compare these differences to young children with non-Latina white mothers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2000 from the National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Setting Nationally representative sample. Participants 1,347 mothers of children 4-35 months. Main Exposure Subgroups of self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (non-Latina white (white), Latina) and within Latinas, stratification by maternal language preference (English/Spanish). Outcome Measure Hours of daily television viewed by the child. Results Bivariate analyses showed children of English- versus Spanish-speaking Latinas watch more daily television (1.88 versus 1.31 hours,p<0.01). Multivariable regression analyses stratified by age revealed differences by age group. Among 4-11 month olds, children of English- and Spanish-speaking Latinas watch similar amounts of television. However, among children 12-23 and 24-35 months, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more television than children of Spanish-speaking Latinas (IRR=1.61,CI=1.17-2.22; IRR=1.66,CI=1.10-2.51, respectively). Compared to children of white mothers, children of both Latina subgroups watched similar amounts among the 4-11 month olds. However, among 12-23 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more compared to children of white mothers (IRR=1.57,CI=1.18-2.11). Among 24-35 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched similar amounts compared to children of white mothers, but children of Spanish-speaking Latinas watched less (IRR=0.69,CI=0.50-0.95). Conclusions Television viewing amounts among young children with Latina mothers vary by child age and maternal language preference supporting the need to explore sociocultural factors that influence viewing in Latino children. PMID:20124147
Eisner, Thomas; And Others
Reports on a portable video color camera that is fully suited for seeing ultraviolet images and offers some expanded viewing possibilities. Discusses the basic technique, specialized viewing, and the instructional value of this system of viewing reflectance patterns of flowers and insects that are invisible to the unaided eye. (CW)
Van den Bulck, Jan
Studied the potential health effects of watching television for 1,035 Finnish 17-and 18-year-olds. Findings show that television viewing is linked with behaviors that can affect the viewer's health. Discusses the relationship between television viewing and people's assessment of their own bodies. (SLD)
Hawkins, Robert P.; Pingree, Suzanne
Two underlying assumptions of the Cultural Indicators approach to television research were examined, using data on the television viewing habits of 76 second grade, 150 fifth grade, 509 eighth grade, and 350 eleventh grade students in Perth, Australia. The assumptions were that commercial television presented an organically composed total world of…
Lipsky, Leah M.; Iannotti, Ronald J.
Objective To examine associations of television viewing with eating behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Public and private schools in the United States during the 2009–2010 school year. Participants A total of 12 642 students in grades 5 to 10 (mean [SD] age, 13.4[0.09] years; 86.5% participation). Main Exposures Television viewing (hours per day) and snacking while watching television (days per week). Main Outcome Measures Eating (≥1 instance per day) fruit, vegetables, sweets, and sugary soft drinks; eating at a fast food restaurant (≥1 d/wk); and skipping breakfast (≥1 d/wk). Results Television viewing was inversely related to intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88–0.96) and vegetables (0.95; 0.91–1.00) and positively related to intake of candy (1.18; 1.14–1.23) and fast food (1.14; 1.09–1.19) and skipping breakfast (1.06; 1.02–1.10) after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, computer use, and physical activity. Television snacking was related to increased intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.10), candy (1.20; 1.16–1.24), soda (1.15; 1.11–1.18), and fast food (1.09; 1.06–1.13), independent of television viewing. The relationships of television viewing with fruit and vegetable intake and with skipping breakfast were essentially unchanged after adjustment for television snacking; the relationships with intake of candy, soda, and fast food were moderately attenuated. Age and race/ethnicity modified relationships of television viewing with soda and fast food intake and with skipping breakfast. Conclusion Television viewing was associated with a cluster of unhealthy eating behaviors in US adolescents after adjustment for socioeconomic and behavioral covariates. PMID:22566548
GRAY, NAN; SUNDERLIN, SYLVIA
VARIOUS POINTS OF VIEW ARE PRESENTED ON THE EFFECT OF TELEVISION UPON CHILDREN. CONTENTS--(1) TELEVISION, TIGER BY THE TAIL--ERNA CHRISTENSEN. (2) TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON THE CHILD--RALPH GARRY. (3) SOME RESEARCH ON TV--PAUL A. WITTY. (4) THE CURRICULUM CONTENT OF CHILDREN'S TELEVISION PROGRAMS AND COMMERCIALS--MARIE TOWNSEND MOORE AND JULIANA…
A study was devised to investigate the function of television (TV) in children's leisure time. Subjects were 3000 school children in a suburban area of Tokyo. From the children's responses to questionnaires, they were separated into TV-type (heavy TV viewers and light print media users) and print-type (light TV viewers and heavy print media users)…
Tan, Alexis; Nelson, Leigh; Dong, Qingwen; Tan, Gerdean
Presents a cognitive-functional explanation of television's influence on Anglo-American, Native American, and Hispanic adolescents' acceptance of values. Finds that adolescents accepted values observed in television when they recognized them (a measure of learning) and when they evaluated the values to be important in "being successful" in the…
McLaurin, A. P.; Jones, Edwin R.
A comparison was made between viewing normal television and VISIDEPTM television which produces three-dimensional images by the method of alternating images. Two separate groups of fifteen university students reviewed fifty minute unrelieved exposure to television; one group watched standard television and the other watched VISIDEP. Both groups were surveyed regarding questions of eye strain, fatigue, headache, or other discomforts, as well as questions of apparent depth and image quality. One week later the participants were all shown the VISIDEP television and surveyed in the same manner as before. In addition, they were given a chance to make a direct side-by-side comparison and evaluate the images. Analysis of the viewer responses shows that in relation to viewer comfort, VISIDEP television is as acceptable to viewers as normal television, for it introduces no additional problems. However, the VISIDEP images were clearly superior in there ability to invoke an enhanced perception of depth.
Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart
In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…
Jason, L A
A child watching an excessive amount of T.V. was provided a behavioral program featuring a token-actuated timer. Earned tokens were used to activate the T.V. for thirty-minute periods. The token-exchange system effectively reduced T.V. viewing and the reductions were maintained at two follow-up points. The principal contribution of the study is the development and evaluation of an electronically controlled device that was used to check the accuracy of parent-reported data. PMID:16795690
There is limited evidence in preschool children linking media use, such as television/video viewing and computer use, to obesity and adiposity. We tested three hypotheses in preschool children: 1) that watching > 2 hours of TV/videos daily is associated with obesity and adiposity, 2) that computer u...
Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; van Dam, Rob M.; Tan, Chuen Seng; Mueller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Lim, Yi Ting; Ong, Kai Zhi; Ee, Siqing; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E. Shyong
Objective Sedentary behavior such as television viewing may be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, few studies have assessed the impact of television viewing time on coronary artery calcification and it remains unclear how body fat contributes to this relationship. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis and whether effects on visceral or subcutaneous fat may mediate any associations observed. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 398 Chinese participants (192 men and 206 women) from Singapore prospective study. Participants were free from known cardiovascular diseases and underwent interview, health screening, computed tomography scans of coronary arteries and abdomen. Spearman’s correlation was used to test the correlation between television viewing time, physical activity, body composition and abdominal fat distribution. The association between television viewing time and subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results In men, television viewing time was significantly correlated with higher body fat mass index, percent body fat, subcutaneous and visceral fat. These associations were in the same direction, but weaker and not statistically significant in women. Television viewing time (hours/day) was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men (odds ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.93) but no significant association was observed in women (odds ratio: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.59-1.31) after adjusting for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Further adjustments for biological factors did not affect these associations. Conclusions Television viewing time was associated with greater adiposity and higher subcutaneous and visceral fat in men. TV viewing time was also associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and the potential mechanisms underlying this association require further investigation
Larson, Nicole I.; Berge, Jerica M.; Thul, Chelsey; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective Characteristics of the home and family have been associated with adolescents' BMI and physical and sedentary activity, but few studies have examined how these characteristics vary across ethnic/racial groups. This study explores whether recommendations for activity promotion are equally relevant to different adolescent populations. Design Participants included 2,374 adolescents and their parent(s), recruited through 20 public schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN in 2009-2010. Ethnic/racial groups included African American, Asian (primarily Hmong), East African, Hispanic, Native American, White, and mixed/other race. Linear regression analysis modeled adolescents' BMI z-scores and physical and sedentary activity based on six measures of the family/home activity environment, adjusted for covariates. Interactions of ethnicity/race and family/home environment were tested. Results All six family/home environment measures varied significantly across ethnicity/race. Family/home variables were significantly associated with adolescent physical activity and TV viewing in the expected directions, and these relationships were consistent across ethnic/racial groups in two-thirds of the models. However, in one-third of the cases, these associations were modified by ethnicity/race. For example, home access to a greater number of media devices was significantly associated with more TV viewing (β=.40, p=.015) only among White youth. Conclusion Health promotion recommendations for adolescent physical activity are largely relevant across ethnic/racial groups. However, given differences found in the family/home environments of adolescents, cultural sensitivity is recommended in discussing these issues, and tailored recommendations may be appropriate for select groups or behaviors. Further mixed methods research is warranted to help identify key messages for specific groups. PMID:25396114
Garfield, Craig F.; Elliott, Marc N.; Ostroff, Joshua; Ross, Craig; Jernigan, David H.; Vestal, Katherine D.; Schuster, Mark A.
Objectives. We examined whether alcohol advertising on cable television is associated with adolescent viewership. Methods. Using Nielsen data for every national cable alcohol advertisement from 2001 to 2006 (608 591 ads), we examined whether ad incidence in a given advertising time slot was associated with adolescent viewership (i.e., the percentage of the audience that was aged 12–20 years) after we controlled for other demographic variables. Results. Almost all alcohol ads appeared in time slots with audiences made up of 30% or fewer underage viewers. In these time slots (standardized by duration and number of viewers), each 1-percentage-point increase in adolescent viewership was associated with more beer (7%), spirits (15%), and alcopop (or low-alcohol refresher; 22%) ads, but fewer wine (−8%) ads (P < .001 for all). For spirits and alcopops, associations were stronger among adolescent girls than among adolescent boys (P < .001 for each). Conclusions. Ad placements for beer, spirits, and alcopops increased as adolescent viewership rose from 0% to 30%, especially for female viewers. Alcohol advertising practices should be modified to limit exposure of underage viewers. PMID:19696391
King, William, Comp.
A collection of quotations drawn from research and opinion papers dealing with the impact of television viewing on children. Subtopics addressed are: television viewing statistics, effects of television violence, and the relationship of television to education. (JJD)
This report describes activities undertaken during Phase I of a two-year project sponsored by the U.S. Office of Education to prepare, evaluate, and distribute a print-based curriculum which will encourage the development of critical television viewing skills in teenagers, and to develop television viewing skills guides and workshops for parents…
Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.
Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…
Gross, Lynne Schafer; Walsh, R. Patricia
Presents 10 questions pertaining to the amount of control over television viewing in the home to 100 families. Preliminary evidence included indications that (1) viewing habits are affected by the number of sets in the house and (2) parents who frequently watch television exert greater influence over their children's use. (MER)
Lieberman, Debra; And Others
The product of Phase II of a two-year project funded by the U.S. Office of Education to prepare, evaluate, and distribute a print-based curriculum on critical television viewing skills for teenagers, and to prepare guides and workshops on television viewing for parents and teachers, this final report describes tasks undertaken in four areas during…
Ennemoser, Marco; Schneider, Wolfgang
This longitudinal study explored the long-term effects of television viewing on the development of children's reading competencies. Among 2 cohorts of German children (N[subscript 1] = 165, N[subscript 2] = 167), measures of television viewing were collected over 4 years, and tests of reading speed and reading comprehension were administered…
Kohr, Richard L.
This paper reports on secondary analyses of data collected in March 1978 by the Pennsylvania Educational Quality Assessment Program, which was designed to examine television viewing and the amount of school assigned homework in relation to student cognitive and noncognitive outcomes. Also examined were television viewing and homework patterns for…
Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Khalkhali, Hamid Reza; Alizadeh, Mohammad
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity (OAO) and associated risk factors in a representative sample of students aged 11-20 years in Urmia, Iran. In this population-based cross-sectional study, a multistage random cluster-sampling method was used, through which 2,498 students were selected. OAO were defined based on criteria set by the US Center for Health Statistics in collaboration with the US Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion under the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). OAO risk factors were assessed using a questionnaire containing questions about TV viewing, nutrition, physical activities (PA), social and economic factors. Contents of the questionnaire were validated by calculating the content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI), based on the responses elicited from 15 experts. Reliability of the questionnaire was obtained from a test and re-test of the questionnaire completed by 15 students. To analyze the data, x2-test, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted. The prevalence of OAO was found to be 14.1% among the 11-20 years old students of junior and senior high schools. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the educational level of mothers, type of school, and the time spent on viewing TV were associated with an increased risk of OAO while obesogenic foods and PA had no effect on the frequency of OAO [Odds ratio (OR) for the time spent on watching TV one hour more than usual equals 1.27 at p=0.001]. The direct correlation between TV viewing and OAO, which is independent of PA and obesogenic foods, needs to be carefully investigated through randomized clinical trials and cohort studies. PMID:24288947
Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Yokota, Susumu; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta
Television (TV) viewing is known to affect children's verbal abilities and other physical, cognitive, and emotional development in psychological studies. However, the brain structural development associated with TV viewing has never been investigated. Here we examined cross-sectional correlations between the duration of TV viewing and regional gray/white matter volume (rGMV/rWMV) among 133 boys and 143 girls as well as correlations between the duration of TV viewing and longitudinal changes that occurred a few years later among 111 boys and 105 girls. After correcting for confounding factors, we found positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the frontopolar and medial prefrontal areas in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV/rWMV of areas of the visual cortex in cross-sectional analyses, and positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the hypothalamus/septum and sensorimotor areas in longitudinal analyses. We also confirmed negative effects of TV viewing on verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. These anatomical correlates may be linked to previously known effects of TV viewing on verbal competence, aggression, and physical activity. In particular, the present results showed effects of TV viewing on the frontopolar area of the brain, which has been associated with intellectual abilities. PMID:24256892
Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Lumeng, Julie C.
The rates of overweight in infancy and childhood are rapidly growing. One contributor to the rising tide of childhood obesity, and a target included in many obesity prevention and intervention programs, is television (TV) use. This article examines the amount of media to which young children are exposed, and considers the evidence for the…
Murray, John P.
To determine whether watching violence on television instills aggressive behavior in a child, the television viewing of 27 5-and 6-year old black males from a sample of urban poor families was periodically observed and charted over a 1-year period. Data was collected on each child's family unit, home setting and available media. Longitudinal…
Anderson, Daniel R.; Hanson, Katherine G.
Television comprehension is a surprisingly demanding task for very young children. Based on a task analysis of television viewing and review of research, we suggest that by 6 months of age, infants can identify objects and people on screen. By 24 months they can comprehend and imitate simple actions contained in single shots and begin to integrate…
Bybee, Carl; And Others
An examination of the level and nature of guidance that parents exercised with their children regarding television viewing was undertaken by means of a survey of 200 mass media scholars. In addition to providing information concerning their beliefs about the effects of television, characteristics of their scholarship, and basic demographic…
Zhao, Yuting; Phillips, Beth M.
It has been suggested by researchers that educational television programmes may support the language and literacy development for children, especially those in immigrant families. In an immigrant family, many family characteristics appear to be related to educational television programme viewing of children at home, for example, parental…
van den Broek, Paul
Given the central role of television in most children's lives, it is important to understand its potential positive and negative effects on a variety of cognitive, academic, social, behavioral, and attitudinal outcomes. A study aims to explore the relation between early television viewing and later reading achievement. Motivating the research is…
Finn, Seth; Gorr, Mary Beth
Explores relationships between motivations for television viewing, including shyness, loneliness, self-esteem, and three measures of social support. Suggests viewing motivations are related to needs arising from two distinct sources: social compensation and mood management. (MS)
Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman
Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)
Watching television and using other forms of media such as video games, computers, print, music and movies takes up a surprisingly large amount of our children’s time. U.S. children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleep. According to a recent nationwide report on c...
A growing number of television programs direct their viewers to access an Internet website for further information on a presented topic. The explicit link between television programs and companion Internet websites, both of which communicate information through multiple modes, can be considered a form of intertextuality. Do college students…
Crawley, Alisha M.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Santomero, Angela; Wilder, Alice; Williams, Marsha; Evans, Marie K.; Bryant, Jennings
Presents the first investigation of the effects of experience with a particular program series on children's subsequent television viewing behavior and comprehension. Notes three- to five-year-old regular, experienced viewers of "Blue's Clues" were compared to new, inexperienced viewers. Suggests that a television series can teach children a style…
Smith, L; Hamer, M
Aim To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Methods Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with <2 h/day; odds ratio 4.27, 95% CI 1.69, 10.77), although the association was attenuated to the null in final adjusted models that included BMI. Participants who were inactive/had high television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Conclusion Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. PMID:24975987
Hsueh, Ming-Chun; Liao, Yung; Chang, Shao-Hsi
This study examined the associations between perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors and excessive television (TV) viewing time among Taiwanese older adults. The sample data was collected by administering computer-assisted telephone interviewers to 980 Taiwanese older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) living in two regions. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine the associations between self-reported perceived neighborhood and home environmental attributions and TV viewing time by using logistic regression analyses. The results showed that perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors were associated with excessive TV viewing time (≥2 h/day) after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with a reference group, older adults who perceived their neighborhoods to have unsafe traffic were more likely to report excessive TV viewing time (OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.02–1.82). Older adults who reported having two or more TV sets in the home (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.28–2.44) and having a TV in the bedroom (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.18–2.03) were also more likely to report excessive TV viewing time. Further longitudinal research can confirm these findings, and tailored interventions focusing on the perceptions of neighborhood traffic safety and TV access at home for older adults might be effective means of preventing excessive TV viewing time. PMID:27420086
Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886
Mehta, Kaye; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Magarey, Anthea; Spurrier, Nicola; Udell, Tuesday
This study explored children's views about food advertising on television in the light of recent public interest in childhood obesity and obesogenic environments. Thirty-seven children aged between 8 and 11 years, discussed their perceptions of food advertising, in focus groups. The children engaged as consumers of advertising, noticing technical aspects, and expressing their likes and dislikes of particular techniques. While they understood the persuasive intent of advertising, they nevertheless desired products and made purchase requests. They particularly desired energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The children demonstrated sophisticated levels of advertising literacy through their articulation of problems such as deception, impacts on children's health and wellbeing, and family conflict. They revealed themselves as sentient beings, with the capacity to react, respond and reflect on their experience of advertising. This study makes a contribution to research on consumer socialisation by introducing the perspective of Australian children. As stakeholders in the childhood obesity problem, the views of children should also be of interest to health policymakers. PMID:20346383
Television viewing and its associations with overweight, sedentary lifestyle, and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables among US high school students: differences by race, ethnicity, and gender.
Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Galuska, Deborah A; Fulton, Janet E; Kann, Laura
Television (TV) viewing has been associated with overweight, decreased physical activity, and unhealthy dietary behavior among children and adolescents, and may represent a modifiable cause of childhood obesity. This study examined race, ethnic, and gender-specific differences in these associations among high school students in the United States. The study analyzed data from the 1999 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a representative sample (N = 15,349) of US high school students. Logistic regression tested for significant associations. TV viewing on an average school day exceeded 2 hours/day among 43% of students; it was greater among Black (74%) and Hispanic (52%) than White (34%) students. Overall, 11% of students were overweight, 31% of students were sedentary (i.e., did not participate in moderate or vigorous physical activity at recommended levels), and 76% ate less than five servings/day of fruits and vegetables. Watching TV more than 2 hours/day was associated with being overweight, being sedentary, and eating insufficient fruits and vegetables among White females, and with being overweight among Hispanic females. No significant associations were found among Black females. TV viewing was associated with being overweight and eating insufficient fruits and vegetables among White males. No significant associations were found among Hispanic males. Among Black males, TV viewing was associated with greater participation in physical activity. These findings suggest the presence of cultural factors to consider when developing interventions to promote physical activity, healthy eating, and healthy weight through reduced TV viewing among adolescents. PMID:12617028
Russell, Cristel Antonia; Buhrau, Denise
Background Fast-food advertising abounds on television (TV), and programs targeting youth often display fast-food consumption but rarely with any negative consequences. Cultivation research maintains that cumulative exposure to TV influences audiences’ views of and beliefs about the real world. Thus, the amount of TV adolescents watch is likely to bias their views of the consequences of eating fast food. This research posits that this relationship varies as a function of adolescents’ actual experience with fast food. Method Two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the cultivation research tradition assess the relationship between the amount of adolescents’ regular exposure to TV and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of eating fast food. Teenage children of members of online panels reported hours of TV viewing, beliefs about the consequences of eating fast food, and their frequency of fast-food consumption. Results In both studies, beliefs about health risks of fast-food consumption vary as a function of the amount of TV watched. Heavy TV viewers have less negative and more positive beliefs about the consequences of fast-food consumption than light viewers. As direct experience with fast food increases, the relationship between TV viewing and risk perceptions weakens, but the relationship between TV viewing and positive perceptions strengthens. These moderated relationships remain when we control for physical activity (Study 1) and the density of fast-food restaurants in respondents’ geographical area (Study 2). Conclusion Given the role of TV viewing in biasing perceptions of the consequences of eating fast food, public health researchers and practitioners should carefully monitor and perhaps regulate the amount of fast-food advertising on TV and the content of TV programs. PMID:26009205
Jones, Katherine E.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Harvey-Berino, Jean R.
U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations between…
Chevallier, Eric; Mansour, Sylvie
This booklet examines the influence of television on children and adolescents in developing and developed nations, reviewing research on television's relationship to child health and development. The first section reviews specific research on such variables as number of television sets in use, amount of time spent watching television, age, sex,…
Singer, Jerome L.; And Others
This longitudinal study provides some indication that heavy television viewing is significantly associated with elementary schoolchildrens' later aggressive behavior, restlessness, and belief in a "mean and scary world." (PD)
Reid, Leonard N.; Frazer, Charles F.
Reports research that investigated whether children use television commercials in family viewing situations to initiate, control, and manipulate social interaction with other family group members, especially their parents. Observational data are presented and discussed. (Author/JD)
van Leeuwen, Lonneke; Renes, Reint Jan; Leeuwis, Cees
Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enjoyment of the E-E intervention, as well as its…
A study tested the validity of two active TV viewing constructs that predicted the effects of content and degree of active viewing on a television viewer's perception of a mean world. Random digit dialing produced interviews with 163 subjects who were asked separate questions about their prime time and daytime viewing to determine their level of…
Czarny, Matthew J.; Faden, Ruth R.; Nolan, Marie T.; Bodensiek, Edwin; Sugarman, Jeremy
Television medical dramas frequently depict the practice of medicine and bioethical issues in a strikingly realistic but sometimes inaccurate fashion. Because these shows depict medicine so vividly and are so relevant to the career interests of medical and nursing students, they may affect these students’ beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions regarding the practice of medicine and bioethical issues. We conducted a web-based survey of medical and nursing students to determine the medical drama viewing habits and impressions of bioethical issues depicted in them. More than 80% of medical and nursing students watch television medical dramas. Students with more clinical experience tended to have impressions that were more negative than those of students without clinical experience. Furthermore, viewing of television medical dramas is a social event and many students discuss the bioethical issues they observe with friends and family. Television medical dramas may stimulate students to think about and discuss bioethical issues. PMID:19085461
Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.
Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294
This study aimed at determining the interaction between parents and adolescents pertaining to television advertisements as a consumer socialization agent and the effects of advertisements on the purchasing decisions of adolescents. The effects of age and sex were also investigated. The sample included 240 high school students in grades 9, 10 and…
Peterson, Gary W.; Peters, David F.
Draws upon ideas about "television effects" and the adolescent peer group to illustrate how interconnections between these two socializing agents contribute to the adolescent's "construction of social reality." Examines how gender, sexual, consumer, and occupational roles as enacted by teenagers are a product of media and peer group influences.…
Botta, Renee A.
Finds that black adolescent girls were more satisfied with their bodies and had a larger personal ideal size than white adolescent girls, but engaged in no fewer eating-disordered behaviors and had no less drive to be thin; and these girls idealized television images equally and were as likely to compare themselves and their friends to television…
Burns, John J.; Anderson, Daniel R.
Finds that inertial engagement sustains looks across boundaries between programs and commercials; inertial engagement does not carry over from one look to the next; inertial engagement was associated with greater recognition memory for television content; and look length distributions are approximately lognormal, and hazard functions are…
Krendl, Kathy A.; Lasky, Kathryn
Research on audience response to television suggests that viewers are actively involved, apply identifiable and consistent evaluative criteria, and have distinct ideas about the role of the medium in their lives. In light of this research, a study focused on 264 randomly selected sixth through tenth grade students in a Tennessee school system to…
Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John
Background Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Methods Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Results Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Conclusions Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. PMID:23929886
Shaughnessy, Michael F.
While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…
Background Though bivariate relationships between childhood obesity, physical activity, friendships and television viewing are well documented, empirical assessment of the extent to which links between obesity and television may be mediated by these factors is scarce. This study examines the possibility that time with friends and physical activity are potential mechanisms linking overweight/obesity to television viewing in youth. Methods Data were drawn from children ages 10-18 years old (M = 13.81, SD = 2.55) participating in the 2002 wave of Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) (n = 1,545). Data were collected both directly and via self-report from children and their parents. Path analysis was employed to examine a model whereby the relationships between youth overweight/obesity and television viewing were mediated by time spent with friends and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results Overweight/obesity was directly related to less time spent with friends, but not to MVPA. Time spent with friends was directly and positively related to MVPA, and directly and negatively related to time spent watching television without friends. In turn, MVPA was directly and negatively related to watching television without friends. There were significant indirect effects of both overweight/obesity and time with friends on television viewing through MVPA, and of overweight/obesity on MVPA through time with friends. Net of any indirect effects, the direct effect of overweight/obesity on television viewing remained. The final model fit the data extremely well (χ2 = 5.77, df = 5, p<0.0001, RMSEA = 0.01, CFI = 0.99, TLI =0.99). Conclusions We found good evidence that the positive relationships between time with friends and physical activity are important mediators of links between overweight/obesity and television viewing in youth. These findings highlight the importance of moving from examinations of bivariate relationships
Television viewing is an important modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity. However, valid methods for measuring children's TV viewing are sparse and few studies have included Latinos, a population disproportionately affected by obesity. The goal of this study was to test the reliability and co...
Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).
A survey was made of television viewing in Canada in order to show the impact of cable television on television viewing in general, with special emphasis on examining the effect on the various categories of television station ownership. The report shows the extent to which television viewing habits vary between (a) those who watch television via…
Intusoma, Utcharee; Mo-Suwan, Ladda; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Panyayong, Benjaporn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi
Exposure time, program content and cultural context may affect the impact of television (TV) on the social-emotional competence (SEC) of children. This study examined the effects of TV viewing on the SEC of Thai infants. The study was based on a Thai birth cohort study from which duration and content of TV viewing and data from the Modified Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment instrument at 1 and 3 years of age were available. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine whether scores below the 10th national percentile were associated with TV viewing duration. The relationship between viewing duration and SEC risk was quadratic rather than linear. Viewing duration of 30-120 min/day was associated with a decreased risk of low overall SEC compared to non-viewers after adjustments for confounding factors. However, the beneficial effect diminished when the duration exceeded 120 min/day. Viewing educational programs was associated with a risk reduction of having low overall SEC compared to non-educational programs. These results suggest that a short period of TV viewing may be beneficial for the SEC of Thai infants, especially if the programs are educational. PMID:23948636
Austin, Bruce A.; Myers, John W,
Questionnaires on television viewing were administered to 128 hearing students and 178 hearing impaired students in a technical college. In addition to the questionnaire which examined demographic information as well as viewing preferences and attitudes, all Ss were asked to report their average daily viewing time. Programs were categorized into…
Manios, Yannis; Kondaki, Katerina; Kourlaba, Georgia; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Birbilis, Manolis; Ioannou, Elina
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between television (TV) viewing time and dietary habits of preschoolers. A representative sample of 2,374 Greek children aged 1-5 years was examined (GENESIS study). The majority of participants (74.0%) spent less than 2 h/day watching TV. Children spending > or =2 h/day watching TV seem to have higher energy intake compared to children watching TV less than 2 h/day, even after adjustment for potential confounders (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it was detected that the former were more likely to consume more than 5, 2, and 1.5 exchanges of fat, meat, and other carbohydrates per day, respectively, compared to the latter. In conclusion, the current findings indicate that prolonged TV viewing time may be associated with increased consumption of high-fat and high-sugar foods resulting in increased daily energy intake. Therefore, interventions aiming to modify children's TV viewing behaviour might need to be implemented. PMID:18836742
References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current article explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with Terror Management Theory's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:22468421
References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory (TMT) postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current paper explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with TMT's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:22468421
Cambra, Cristina; Leal, Aurora; Silvestre, Nuria
This study explores the diversity of interpretations that can arise in cases where people with hearing loss perceive the information deriving from sound and language differently to how it is perceived by those without hearing impairment. Three experimental situations were designed in which 20 deaf adolescents and 20 hearing classmates view a film…
Children's Television Behaviour: Its Antecedents and Relationship to School Performance. A Study of the Television Viewing Behaviour of Children in Grade 6 of State Primary Schools in the Metropolitan Area of Melbourne. Occasional Paper No. 14.
Sharman, Kevin James
A study was conducted to describe the television viewing habits of grade 6 children in primary schools within the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Australia; to examine the nature of the relationships between factors found to be relevant in explaining television behavior; and to examine the relationship between television behavior and school…
Our objective was to explore parental outcome expectations (OE) regarding children's television (TV) viewing among parents of overweight or obese children. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 20 parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight or obese children. We found tha...
Huston, Aletha C.; And Others
A 2-year longitudinal investigation of developing television viewing patterns involved 271 children who were followed from 3 to 5 or 5 to 7 years of age. Viewing was measured from diaries maintained by parents for 1 week in the spring and 1 week in the fall for 2 years. Programs were classified as (1) child informative or educational; (2)…
Henning, Bernd; Vorderer, Peter
Investigates differences observed among German students regarding amount of television viewing. Finds a significant negative effect of need for cognition on viewing amount. Interprets this as a manifestation of individual-psychological escapism in which the lower viewers' need for cognition is, the less pleasant they feel when they have nothing to…
Slater, Dan; Elliott, William R.
A questionnaire survey was conducted to discern the effect of television police/crime programs on adolescents' knowledge of real life law enforcement activities. The sample population was composed of 313 average high school students, 160 students involved in a "positive" police situation through taking courses taught by police officers, and 84…
Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.
We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…
The major objective of this study is to discuss the effects of television on children and adolescents. Our children are spending many hours in front of the television. This study examined the viewing habits and personal opinions of Turkish Cypriot children. The participants were 250 children and adolescents whose ages varied between 4-17. This…
The major objective of this study is to discuss the effects of television on children and adolescents. Our children are spending many hours in front of the television. This study examined the viewing habits and personal opinions of Turkish Cypriot children. The participants were 250 children and adolescents whose ages varied between 4-17. This…
Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.
In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with…
Blass, Elliott M; Anderson, Daniel R; Kirkorian, Heather L; Pempek, Tiffany A; Price, Iris; Koleini, Melanie F
Television viewing (TVV) has been linked with obesity, possibly through increased sedentary behavior and/or through increased ingestion during TVV. The proposition that TVV causes increased feeding, however, has not been subjected to experimental verification until recently. Our objective was to determine if the amount eaten of two familiar, palatable, high-density foods (pizza and macaroni and cheese) was increased during a 30-min meal when watching TV. In a within-subjects design, one group of undergraduates (n = 10) ate pizza while watching a TV show of their choice for one session and when listening to a symphony during the other session. A second group of undergraduates (n = 10) ate macaroni and cheese (M&C). TVV increased caloric intake by 36% (one slice on average) for pizza and by 71% for M&C. Eating patterns also differed between conditions. Although the length of time to eat a slice of pizza remained stable between viewing conditions, the amount of time before starting another slice was shorter during TVV. In contrast, M&C was eaten at a faster rate and for a longer period of time during TVV. Thus, watching television increases the amount eaten of high-density, palatable, familiar foods and may constitute one vector contributing to the current obesity crisis. PMID:16822530
Martin, Corby K; Coulon, Sandra M; Markward, Nathan; Greenway, Frank L; Anton, Stephen D
Background: The effect of television viewing (TVV) with and without advertisements (ads) on energy intake is unclear. Objective: The objectives were to test 1) the effect of TVV, with and without ads, on energy intake compared with a control and reading condition and 2) the association of distractibility and memory for ads with energy intake and body weight. Design: Forty-eight (26 female) adults (age: 19–54 y) with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 20–35 completed this laboratory-based study. All participants completed 4 buffet-style meals in random order in the following conditions: 1) control, 2) while reading, 3) while watching TV with food and nonfood ads (TV-ads), and 4) while watching TV with no ads (TV-no ads). Energy intake was quantified by weighing foods. Distractibility and memory for ads in the TV-ads condition were quantified with a norm-referenced test and recognition task, respectively. Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that energy and macronutrient intake did not differ significantly among the 4 conditions (P > 0.65). Controlling for sex, memory for ads was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) and energy intake but only when viewing TV (r = 0.39, P < 0.05 during the TV-no ads condition, and r = 0.29, P = 0.06 during the TV-ads condition). Controlling for sex, distractibility was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) but not energy intake. Distractibility, however, accounted for 13% of the variance in men's energy intake (P = 0.11). Conclusions: TVV did not affect energy intake, but individual characteristics (memory for ads) were associated with body weight and energy intake in certain conditions. These characteristics should be considered in food intake and intervention studies. PMID:19056603
Slater, Michael D.; And Others
Examines the efficacy of alcohol education programs. This study (N=83) found that recency of exposure to alcohol education classes and discussion of alcohol advertising in those classes predicts adolescent cognitive resistance (counterarguing) to persuasive alcohol advertising for months or even years. Suggests greater attention to critical…
Surveying the television habits of teenagers, this annotated bibliography contains 30 references of articles and papers in the ERIC database. The first section, "Impact on Health, Sexual Behavior, Use of Alcohol," addresses such issues as the relationship of viewing sexual content to sexual activity and sex role acquisition, and relationships…
Pezdek, Kathy; Hartman, Eileen F.
Examines the relationship between children's attention and comprehension of auditory and visual information on television. After viewing a videotape of "Sesame Street" with visual, auditory, or no distractors, 60 five-year-olds were asked comprehension questions. Findings indicated that children could process auditory and visual information from…
The author's purpose in this study was to test 4 hypotheses that proposed different paths for the influences of children's television viewing on their academic achievement. Data were drawn from the 1997 Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The population for this study included 1,203 children between the…
View of the earth that was transmitted back from space during the sixth live television transmission from the Apollo 8 spacecraft as it continued its journey home. At the time this picture was made, the Apollo 8 spacecraft was about 97,000 nautical miles from earth, and was traveling at a speed of 6,084 ft per second.
Our objective of this study was to examine associations between television viewing and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among a representative sample of Caribbean origin Hispanic elders living in Massachusetts. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in 350 Puerto Rican and 105 Dominican elders ...
Singer, Mark I.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Guo, Shenyang; Miller, David; Leibbrandt, Sylvia
This study examined the relative contributions of exposure to violence, parental monitoring, and television viewing habits to children's self-reported symptoms of psychological trauma. Children in grades 3-8 in 11 public schools completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire administered during usual school hours. The final sample was comprised…
Stevens, Tara; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; To, Yen
The importance of well-specified research questions in the evaluation of early predictors of later inattention and hyperactivity is examined. In an analysis of a nationally representative sample of 2,717 children aged 4 to 10, latent growth trajectories for television viewing and inattention and hyperactivity are determined and the relationship of…
Reid, Leonard N.; Frazer, Charles F.
After seven judges had ranked 30 families for observed parental consumer teaching orientations and family television viewing habits, one family was selected for each cell of a 3X3 factorial design for age of children (3 to 5, 6 to 8, 9 to 11) and family consumer teaching orientation (high, moderate, low). These nine family groups were observed…
Television (TV) viewing has been associated with many undesirable outcomes for children, such as increased risk of obesity, but TV viewing can also have benefits. Although restrictive parenting practices are effective in reducing children's TV viewing, not all parents use them and it is currently un...
Eisenberg, Marla E.; Carlson-McGuire, Ashley; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective This study provides updated information regarding the prevalence and characteristics of weight stigma in popular adolescent television programming, using a sample of favorite shows named by diverse adolescents. Method Participants in a large, population-based study of Minnesota adolescents (N = 2,793, mean age = 14.4) listed their top three favorite television shows. A coding instrument was developed to analyze randomly selected episodes from the most popular 10 programs. Weight-stigmatizing incidents were compared across television show characteristics and characters’ gender and weight status. Results Half (50%) of the 30 episodes analyzed contained at least one weight-stigmatizing incident. Both youth- and adult-targeted shows contained weight-stigmatizing comments, but the percent of these comments was much higher for youth-targeted (55.6%) than general audience-targeted shows (8.3%). Male characters were more likely than females to engage in (72.7% vs. 27.3%), and be the targets of, weight stigma (63.6% vs. 36.4%), and there was no difference in the amount of weight stigmatizing directed at average weight females compared to overweight females. Targets of these instances showed a negative response in only about one-third of cases, but audience laughter followed 40.9% of cases. Discussion The portrayal of weight stigmatization on popular television shows—including targeting women of average weight—sends signals to adolescents about the wide acceptability of this behavior and the expected response, which may be harmful. Prevention of weight stigmatization should take a multi-faceted approach and include the media. Future research should explore the impact that weight-related stigma in television content has on viewers. PMID:25139262
Hussain, Sultana Monira; Urquhart, Donna M.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dunstan, David; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Wluka, Anita E.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.
Abstract Two systematic reviews concluded that there was limited evidence to support an association between physical activity and sedentary behavior and developing low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of physical activity and television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability in community-based adults. Five thousand fifty-eight participants (44% men) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study had physical activity and television viewing time measured in 1999 to 2000, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2012, and LBP intensity and disability assessed in 2013 to 2014 using the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio for LBP intensity and disability associated with physical activity and television viewing time. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, smoking, dietary guideline index score, body mass index, and mental component summary score. To test whether associations of physical activity or television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability were modified by sex, obesity, or age, interactions were tested using the likelihood ratio test. As gender modified the associations between physical activity and television viewing time and LBP disability (P = 0.05), men and women were examined separately. A total of 81.7% men and 82.1% women had LBP. Most men (63.6%) and women (60.2%) had low intensity LBP with fewer having high intensity LBP (18.1% men, 21.5% women). Most participants had no LBP disability (74.5% men, 71.8% women) with the remainder reporting low (15.8% men, 15.3% women) or high (9.7% men, 12.9% women) LBP disability. Insufficient physical activity (<2.5 hours/week) was not associated with LBP intensity or disability. High television viewing time (≥2 hours/day) was associated with greater prevalence of LBP disability in women (low disability OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04–1.73; high disability OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01–1.72). Although it needs
This study evaluated the associations between television viewing and love styles. The Love Attitudes Scale (LAS), based on Lee's love style taxonomy, was administered to a sample of 338 unmarried Israeli students along with questions about TV viewing habits, current involvement in a serious romantic relationship, and marital intentions. A confirmatory factor analysis of the LAS indicated that the expected six-factor solution adequately fit the data. Correlations between individual love styles and TV viewing were small to moderate, ranging from .12 to .29. Scores for Ludus love style correlated positively with viewing of news and general programming. Those for Pragma love style correlated positively with news viewing and negatively with viewing genres frequently including love themes such as soap operas and family drama, while scores for Eros love style positively correlated with watching these love abundant genres. No significant association was found for TV viewing with Storge, Mania, and Agape love styles. Hierarchical regression using demographic variables, love status, and viewing habits mirrored these results, with the unique R2 for Ludus, Pragma, and Eros ranging from 1.8% to 8%, while the total variance accounted for by the models ranged from 12% to 21%. The findings can be interpreted as support for a weak cultivation effect, in which habits in long-term TV viewing among young adults correspond to small to moderate tendencies for particular love styles that thematically relate them. However, because they are correlational, the findings could equally be interpreted in terms of tendencies that exist due to modeling within families and socialization during development. PMID:22489376
Moses, Annie M.
Television viewing plays an important role in the lives of many young children and has received a great deal of attention in the public as well as in research. This review examined research on television and literacy development in early childhood, including studies of messages about literacy in children's programs as well as the impact of…
Mass media, particularly television, influence public conceptions and attitudes toward learning science. The discovery of an original method that does not rely on self-reported viewing habits to measure the impact of television on students' performance in science arose from a study of a unit on electricity in a Physics course. In determining the…
Siegle, Del, Ed.
This booklet (Practitioner's Guide), in both an English version and a Spanish version, is intended to help parents apply the findings of research to parental mediation of television viewing by their children, including gifted children. Research facts are briefly summarized and implications for the home are drawn. Suggestions for parents are…
Stern, Stanley Lawrence
Research sought to determine what effect viewing increased amounts of specific types of televised material would have upon the creative performance of highly intelligent children. Gifted students in grades 4, 5, and 6 of a suburban district were given Guilford's tests of creativity and then divided into seven groups. Six of these watched a…
Onder, Alev; Dagal, Asude Balaban
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the opinions of parents of pre-school children about children's programmes on TV. The study had two phases: In the first step "The Evaluation Scale for Children's Programmes" was translated into Turkish, the reliability and validity of the scale was tested through analyzing of the data collected from…
Basterra‐Gortari, Francisco Javier; Bes‐Rastrollo, Maira; Gea, Alfredo; Núñez‐Córdoba, Jorge María; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez‐González, Miguel Ángel
Background Sedentary behaviors have been directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, little is known about different types of sedentary behaviors in relation to overall mortality. Our objective was to assess the association between different sedentary behaviors and all‐cause mortality. Methods and Results In this prospective, dynamic cohort study (the SUN Project) 13 284 Spanish university graduates with a mean age of 37 years were followed‐up for a median of 8.2 years. Television, computer, and driving time were assessed at baseline. Poisson regression models were fitted to examine the association between each sedentary behavior and total mortality. All‐cause mortality incidence rate ratios (IRRs) per 2 hours per day were 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06 to 1.84) for television viewing, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.18) for computer use, and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.44) for driving, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, total energy intake, Mediterranean diet adherence, body mass index, and physical activity. The risk of mortality was twofold higher for participants reporting ≥3 h/day of television viewing than for those reporting <1 h/d (IRR: 2.04 [95% CI 1.16 to 3.57]). Conclusions Television viewing was directly associated with all‐cause mortality. However, computer use and time spent driving were not significantly associated with higher mortality. Further cohort studies and trials designed to assess whether reductions in television viewing are able to reduce mortality are warranted. The lack of association between computer use or time spent driving and mortality needs further confirmation. PMID:24965030
Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Lytle, Leslie A
In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with an increase in frequency of leisure-time physical activity. That relationship was strong in magnitude and independent of sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, and the value participants placed on health, appearance, and achievement. Our results encourage the design of interventions that reduce television watching as a possible means of increasing adolescent physical activity. PMID:16338428
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.
This digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…
McGilvary, Linda; Penrose, Pat
The amount of violence and inappropriate information that children receive through television and other media is a matter of concern. This paper reviews the values of fantasy play and compares those values with the effects of television viewing on New Zealand children. Both obvious and subtle messages that children receive from television are…
Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey
Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television - both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3-5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased significantly between 3 and 4 years; and (iii) children had significantly greater knowledge of unhealthy food brands, compared with similarly advertised healthy brands. In addition, (iv) children's healthy food brand knowledge was not related to their television viewing, their mother's education, or parent or child eating. However, (v) unhealthy brand knowledge was significantly related to all these factors, although only parent eating and children's age were independent predictors. Findings indicate that effects of food marketing for unhealthy foods take place through routes other than television advertising alone, and are present before pre-schoolers develop the concept of healthy eating. Implications are that marketing restrictions of unhealthy foods should extend beyond television advertising; and that family-focused obesity prevention programmes should begin before children are 3 years of age. PMID:24859112
Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
This study examined the role of specific magazine types and television programs on drive for thinness and muscularity in adolescent boys. A sample of 182 adolescent boys with an average age of 15.2 years completed questionnaire measures of magazine and television consumption, drive for thinness and drive for muscularity. Different media genres showed varying relationships with drive for thinness and muscularity. Specifically, the consumption of men's magazines and the viewing of soap operas emerged as significant unique predictors of drive for thinness, with the consumption of men's magazines also offering unique prediction of drive for muscularity. A comprehensive approach that considers both type and genre of media is critical in increasing our understanding of the complex relationships between media exposure and disordered eating in adolescent boys. PMID:25462026
Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna
The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents. PMID:23421048
Foster, E. Michael; Watkins, Stephanie
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 1,159), this study reexamines the link between maternal reports of television viewing at ages 1 and 3 and attention problems at age 7. This work represents a reanalysis and extension of recent research suggesting young children's television viewing causes subsequent attention problems.…
Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Houston, J Brian; Regens, James L
The objective of this study was to examine terrorism media coverage and psychiatric outcomes in directly-exposed terrorism survivors. The study used (1) self-report questionnaires to retrospectively assess event-related media behaviors and reactions in a cross sectional design and (2) longitudinal structured diagnostic interviews to assess psychopathologic outcomes. The participants were 99 directly-exposed Oklahoma City bombing survivors who were initially studied six months after the 1995 incident. Though a fear reaction to bombing-related television coverage and fear-driven discontinuation of bombing-related media contact were associated with diagnostic outcomes, the number of hours viewing bombing-related television coverage in the first week after the event was not associated with the prevalence of bombing-related posttraumatic stress disorder or post-bombing major depressive disorder during the seven years post event. The results raise doubt about the effects of quantified incident-related television viewing on clinically-significant emotional outcomes in directly-exposed terrorism survivors. PMID:23980489
Read, Jenny C.A.; Bohr, Iwo
3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the ‘nocebo effect'). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D. Practitioner Summary: Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) has been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. Viewers watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (between-subjects design). Around 14% reported effects such as headache and eyestrain linked to S3D itself, while 8% report adverse effects attributable to 3D glasses or negative expectations. PMID:24874550
Read, Jenny C A; Bohr, Iwo
3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the 'nocebo effect'). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D. PMID:24874550
Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mahdi, Huda S; Ali, Awab I; Al-Nufal, Mohammed; Vachhani, Pankit J; Tewfik, Ihab
The technological age has resulted in children spending prolonged hours in front of television (TV) and computer screens (on the Internet). The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study is to determine the effect of this phenomenon on both childhood obesity and low vision in the State of Qatar. A total of 3000 school students aged 6 to 18 years were approached from September 2009 to March 2010 and 2467 (82.2%) students agreed to participate. Face-to-face interviews based on a designed questionnaire were conducted. The highest proportion of obese children were aged between 15-18 years (9.4%; p < 0.001); spent ≥ 3 hours on the Internet (5.6%; p < 0.001), and spent between 5-7 hours or less sleeping (4.1%; p < 0.001). Forty-six (1.9%) children spent ≥ 3 hours/day on the Internet, and were either overweight/obese and had low vision. The study findings confirmed a positive association between obesity and low vision as a result of excessive time spent on the TV view and Internet use. PMID:20645888
Silver, Rosalind, Ed.; Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.
This issue of "Media & Values" provides essays and teaching ideas for addressing the influence of television in society. Articles in this issue include: (1) "Wrestling with Television" (Elizabeth Thoman); (2) "Comics and Culture" (Rosalind Silver); (3) "Society's Storyteller" (George Gerbner); (4) "Five Important Ideas to Teach Your Kids about TV"…
A secret among staff at nursing homes is that they are often ambivalent about old residents spending more time in watching TV as it is a common cultural perception that it makes the viewer passive. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of reflecting on the TV viewing habits that old people bring with them when they move into geriatric care. The findings are based on a study involving qualitative interviews and observations in two nursing home settings - urban and rural - of 20 persons between 82 and 100 years of age. The results confirm that TV viewing is far from a passive activity. Instead, it contributes to structuring daily life, to satisfying old peoples' needs for reflection and contemplation and to remain socially integrated. As such, TV viewing makes a significant contribution to their capacity to cope with disengagement in old age and can be used as a way of promoting communication and well-being in geriatric care. PMID:20030771
Thompson, Darcy A.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Matson, Pamela A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.
Aim Parenting practices can reduce how much television (TV) children watch. This study evaluated the longitudinal association between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by low-income ethnic minority children. Methods This was a secondary data analysis of the Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Data were used from ethnic minority mothers with a child from birth to four-years-old, collected over two waves approximately 16 months apart. The dependent variable was the amount of TV watched by the child (wave two). The main independent variable was the maternal regulation of TV content (wave one). Using multiple linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by the child, adjusting for covariates. Results Of the 835 mothers, 71% were high content regulators and 8% reported no content regulation. Children whose mothers reported no regulation watched more TV approximately 16 months later than those whose mothers reported high regulation of content (β =0.91, 95% CI: 0.09–1.73). Conclusion Our findings suggest that regulating content influences viewing amounts in young children approximately 16 months later. Interventions focused on heightening parental regulation of content may improve content and diminish viewing amounts. PMID:25424888
Sancho-Aldridge, J; Davis, A
Just under one in 10 of a nationally representative sample of UK television viewers said that they experienced difficulty with their hearing. These hard-of-hearing viewers were found to report much greater difficulty watching programmes (mean difficulty rating = 32%) than elderly viewers with no reported hearing difficulty (mean difficulty rating = 10%), or those viewers generally who said they had no hearing problems (mean difficulty rating = 3%). Using a similarly constructed rating for reported enjoyment of different television programmes, hard-of-hearing viewers were found to exhibit a small reduction in enjoyment across the majority of programmes types. While it might have been anticipated that a greater proportion of those with impaired hearing owned a teletext television set giving them access to subtitling, this was not found to be the case. Across the sample as a whole, teletext ownership was shown to be 45%, but was lower than this (38.5%) amongst the hard-of-hearing. The findings corroborate what has been shown in another study, namely that teletext ownership is lower among older viewers. Hearing impairment, if it is not congenital or of early childhood origin, is a condition associated with increasing age. Thus, those whose viewing and appreciation of programmes might be enhanced by subtitles, in the main, do not have access to them. Among hard-of-hearing viewers who did have access to the teletext subtitle service, two thirds of those aged 51 years and over felt that subtitles assisted their understanding of television programmes. As one might expect, of those owning teletext, hard-of-hearing viewers reported greatest use of subtitles. Thirteen per cent of those with hearing difficulty and aged over 51 years said they used subtitles for all programmes watched and a further 26% of the over fifties with hearing difficulty reported regularly using subtitles for selected programmes. These data advocate that there are many hard-of-hearing viewers whose
Warmuz, Aneta; Stemplewska, Bozena; Witanowska, Jolanta; Sikora, Alicja
Television is treated not only as a carrier of information, but first of all as a source of entertainment. From the other sites, it also carries many threats to young spectator. It is known already today, that many remittances are full of aggression. In what way does this special group of audience uses the TV remittances? This problem is analyzed in presented study. Diagnosis of problem was conducted among children attending to secondary schools. An investigative tool was a questionnaire of inquiry which included following questions: quantity of time spent in front of television set, influence of television on functioning of a child, rules of using the television at home, what kinds of televisions' offers children use, influence of television on social functioning of child (contacts with peers, with family) and influence of television on intellectual functioning of a child. PMID:15884268
Can adults help children to understand the content in preschool educational television by watching shows with them? Research indicates that co-viewing occurs rarely and has mixed benefits for learning. This study investigates the idea that a special kind of adult-child co-viewing, namely "dialogic viewing," in which adults ask open-ended questions…
Schramm, Wilbur, Ed.
The result of an interdisciplinary conference on the qualities of an effective instructional television program, this book reports the ideas of various participants. Two papers by broadcasters represent the producer's view of ITV; one deals with instructional television in Sweden and the other with a Nigerian project. The scholar's view is…
Dewalt, Mark W.; Erickson, Laurie
This study reviews the literature on the effects of television viewing on children, examines the preferences of children for television programs and commercials, and analyzes selected characteristics of these programs. A stratified sample of 1,416 students in grades 1-6 in six eastern states was polled on their viewing preferences in November of…
Educational Television, 1969
Television in medical education is featured in this supplement to "Educational Television." James Lieberman offers an overview of the present state of medical instructional television. He concludes his article by suggesting that the primary requisite for making optimum use of television in biomedical education is the preparation of a cadre of…
Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.
Aspects of educational television (ETV) covered in this report include its history, growth and development, noncommerical television broadcast stations, instructional television fixed service (ITFS), microwave relay system, television signal translators, cable systems, and the use of satellites. The report also outlines the Federal Communications…
Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P < 0·05). Children who watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention. PMID:26090104
Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mahdi, Huda S; Vachhani, Pankit J; Al-Nufal, Mohammed; Ali, Awab I
The aim of this study is to determine whether excessive internet use, television viewing and the ensuing poor lifestyle habits affect low vision in school children in a rapidly developing country. This is a cross-sectional study and 3000 school students aged between six and 18 years were approached and 2467 (82.2%) students participated. Of the studied school children 12.6 percent had low vision. Most of the low vision school children were in the 6-10 years age group and came from middle income backgrounds (41.8%; p = 0.008). A large proportion of the children with low vision spent ≥ 3 hours per day on the internet (48.2%; p< 0.001) and ≥ 3 hours reclining (62.4%; p < 0.001). A significantly smaller frequency of studied children with low vision participated in each of the reviewed forms of physical activity (p < 0.001) yet a larger proportion consumed fast food (86.8%; p < 0.001). Highly significant positive correlations were found between low vision and BMI, hours spent reclining and on the internet respectively. Blurred vision was the most commonly complained of symptom among the studied children (p < 0.001). The current study suggested a strong association between spending prolonged hours on the computer or TV, fast food eating, poor lifestyle habits and low vision. PMID:20823076
Baker, Ida R.; Dennison, Barbara A.; Boyer, Penny S.; Sellers, Kathleen F.; Russo, Theresa J.; Sherwood, Nancy A.
Background Childhood obesity is an epidemic. Addressing this problem will require the input of many sectors and change in many behaviors. The “community” must be part of the solution, and the solution must be constructed on existing assets that lend strength to positive environmental change. Objective To catalyze an established asset-based community partnership to support efforts to reduce television viewing time by developing and providing alternative activities as part of a broader, 3-year study to reduce childhood obesity among preschool-aged children in rural, upstate New York. Method Asset mapping was utilized to compile an inventory of individual and community strengths upon which a partnership could be established. Facilitated focus group sessions were conducted to better understand childcare environmental policies and practices, and to guide changes conducive to health and fitness. Planning meetings and targeted outreach brought key stakeholders together for a community-participatory initiative to support positive environmental change. Results The partnership planned and initiated an array of after-school and weekend community activities for preschool-aged children and their families in the weeks preceding, during, and following a designated ‘TV Turn-off’ week in April, 2004 and March, 2005. Conclusion Methods of asset-based community development are an effective way to engage community participation in public health initiatives. PMID:17207848
Busse, Peter; Díaz, Ramón
While there is already consensus in the scientific community about the deleterious effects of TV exposure, especially through TV advertisements, on children's beliefs, preferences, and food intake, the link between TV and children's eating behaviors is under-studied in Peru, a country experiencing a steady economic growth in recent years and currently with a status of upper-middle-income country. Following research about the effects of media exposure on childhood obesity, we report on a qualitative study of TV viewing and the eating habits of children attending elementary schools in Lima, the capital. Data from eight focus groups with 38 boys and girls between 6 and 11 years old, eight focus groups with 36 female caretakers, and in-depth interviews with two fathers provided consistent information about children's eating habits and media viewing patterns. After dual coding the entire corpus of qualitative data, we found that children watch a great deal of TV during the school season: children watch as early as when they wake up in the morning, then during lunchtime (after returning from school), and then again after completing their homework from 5 pm to 9 pm or 10 pm. Survey data from the parents showed that, on average, children watch about 5 hours of TV on weekdays and more during a weekend-day. This large amount of exposure is concerning, especially because the focus groups revealed that children (1) recall a number of TV advertisements involving food items, (2) request food items seen on TV, and (3) are able to buy food for themselves, which usually involves chocolate, candy, or potato chips. Boys and girls reported different favorite TV shows, suggesting differences in exposure to TV content related to food. In addition, some families reported drinking sodas frequently, underlining a behavior that should be discouraged by public health officials. PMID:25316673
Oseguera, A. Anthony
Unlike the criticism of the literary arts and the spoken word, rhetoric, television criticism is in its infancy. The styles suggested for television criticism have primarily been drawn from modern drama, literature and semiotics. Today, television critics of the scholarly sort are looking at a variety of styles to see if they can tell their…
Berger, Arthur Asa
Describes how television viewing encourages nonrationality, alienation, idiocy, dependency, deindividuation, consumer lust, and hyperkinesis, and provides a framework for a critical response to the pervasive force of television. (JMF)
Children's TV viewing has been associated with increased sedentary behavior and poor eating habits. Positive intervention effects have been observed when addressing outcome expectations as a mediator in interventions targeting children's dietary behavior. Little is known about parental outcome expec...
Foster, E Michael; Watkins, Stephanie
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 1,159), this study reexamines the link between maternal reports of television viewing at ages 1 and 3 and attention problems at age 7. This work represents a reanalysis and extension of recent research suggesting young children's television viewing causes subsequent attention problems. The nonlinear specification reveals the association between television watching and attention problems exists-if at all-only at very high levels of viewing. Adding 2 covariates to the regression model eliminated even this modest effect. The earlier findings are not robust. This study also considers whether its own findings are sensitive to unobserved confounding using fixed-effects estimation. In general, it finds no meaningful relation between television viewing and attention problems. PMID:20331673
Von Feilitzen, Cecilia; And Others
Describes aspects of television and radio broadcasting in Sweden. Particular attention is given to children's programs, children's viewing patterns, the influence of TV on children, and how to improve the quality of radio and television programs. (Author/SS)
Gunn, W J; Shigehisa, T; Shepherd, W T
Magnitude estimations of the annoyance of 27 individual noise stimuli were made by 24 Ss while viewing television; 8 different spectrum modifications of a basic aircraft noise were introduced at 3 overall intensities. The basic spectrum was that of an untreated commercial jet aircraft takeoff noise; the other 8 were created by removal of one of two amounts of energy from an octave band centerered at either .315, .8, 1.6, or 4 kc/s. An ANOVA showed significant annoyance differences for spectrum modification, overall noise intensity and their interaction. Annoyance reduction was greatest when energy was removed at the octave band centered at 1.6 kc/s, next at .8, and .315, and least at 4 kc/s. Although greater overall intensity reduction yielded progressively less annoyance with various spectrally-modified noises as well as unmodified noise, the spectrum modification was apparently most effective in reducing annoyance when the overall maximum noise intensity ranged from 88.0 to 89.1 dbA, and was least effective from 83.9 to 85.3 dbA. Annoyance reduction resulting from spectrum modification at a single octave band (centered at either .8 or 1.6 kc/s) was equivalent to that resulting from a 2.7 dbA overall intensity reduction. The results are discussed in terms of speech interference as well as intermodal effects of noise during television viewing. PMID:617812
Hetsroni, Amir; Lowenstein, Hila
Religiosity may change the direction of the effect of TV viewing on assessment of the likelihood of personal victimization and estimates concerning crime prevalence. A content analysis of a representative sample of TV programming (56 hours of prime-time shows) was done to identify the most common crimes on television, followed by a survey of a representative sample of the adult public in a large urban district (778 respondents) who were asked to estimate the prevalence of these crimes and to assess the likelihood of themselves being victimized. People who defined themselves as non-religious increased their estimates of prevalence for crimes often depicted on TV, as they reported more time watching TV (ordinary cultivation effect), whereas estimates regarding the prevalence of crime and assessment of victimization likelihood among religious respondents were lower with reports of more time devoted to television viewing (counter-cultivation effect). PMID:23654044
Wadsworth, Laurie A.
Presents a review of research linking nutritional health and body image attitudes with television viewing. Highlights include content analyses of advertisements and programming; audience uses of television; television as reality; socialization of attitudes and television; television, body image and self-esteem; television and health behaviors; and…
Jason, L A; Brackshaw, E
One child was recruited for a study assessing the effectiveness of a device aimed at reducing excessive television viewing and increasing exercising. The device was comprised of a control box which attaches to the electrical cord of a television set, and two sensors which attached to the wheel and corresponding wheel rim of a stationary bicycle. The child in this study was watching an excessive amount of TV (averaging over 4 hours per day), and she had a weight problem. An ABAB design was used in the study. After collecting baseline data, the child was required to ride a bicycle for 60 minutes to watch 60 minutes of TV, and this program successfully reduced TV viewing. Reductions in TV viewing and weight loss were found at a follow-up. PMID:10489090
Gerbner, George; And Others
This 2-year study was conducted to investigate the nature of religious television, its viewers, and its effect on mainline or other local churches. Four specific areas were addressed: the nature of the viewing audience, the content of religious television, the appeals and satisfactions (uses and functions) of religious programs, and behavioral…
KESSLER, WILLIAM J.
DESIGNED FOR A READER WITHOUT SPECIAL TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE, THIS ILLUSTRATED RESOURCE PAPER EXPLAINS THE COMPONENTS OF A TELEVISION SYSTEM AND RELATES THEM TO THE COMPLETE SYSTEM. SUBJECTS DISCUSSED ARE THE FOLLOWING--STUDIO ORGANIZATION AND COMPATIBLE COLOR TELEVISION PRINCIPLES, WIRED AND RADIO TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS, DIRECT VIEW AND PROJECTION…
Reid, Leonard N.; Frazer, Charles F.
Discusses children as television viewers capable of manipulating the co-viewing setting by interpreting, constructing, and carrying out planned lines of play in relation to television and its content. Examples illustrate program-oriented and free-form improvisational play situations. (JMF)
Cambra, Cristina; Leal, Aurora; Silvestre, Núria
The understanding of a television story can be very different depending on the age of the viewer, their background knowledge, the content of the programme and the way in which they combine the information gathered from linguistic, audio and visual elements. This study explores the different ways of interpreting an audiovisual document considering that, due to a hearing impaired, visual, audio and linguistic information could be perceived very differently to the way it is by hearing people. The study involved the participation of 20 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years who, after watching a fragment of a television series, were asked to draw a picture of what had happened in the story. The results show that the graphical representation of the film is similar for both groups in terms of the number of scenes, but there is greater profusion, in the deaf group, of details about the context and characters, and there are differences in their interpretations of some of the sequences in the story. PMID:20977025
Williams, Sally; Crane, Valerie
Television programing has a high degree of credibility to the undiscriminating eyes of children. Programing on commercial television is composed of shows produced specifically for children and shows formerly made for adults but now shown as reruns. Observation and imitation of behavior viewed on television by children may be a link to aggressive…
Alexandrin, Julie R.
Through television, many different images of ethnic, cultural, and ability groups are presented. Different people perceive these images in different ways. These perceptions affect how people value themselves and judge and interact with others. This article first summaries research on TV images and people's meaning and reaction to them. Second, it…
Lindstrom, H.A.; Fritsch, T.; Petot, G.; Smyth, K.A.; Chen, C.H.; Debanne, S.M.; Lerner, A.J.; Friedland, R.P.
The relationship between leisure activities and development of cognitive impairment in aging has been the subject of recent research. We examined television viewing in association with risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a case-control study. Given recent focus on the importance of intellectually stimulating activities as preventive…
Linebarger, Deborah L.; Kosanic, Anjelika Z.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Doku, Nii Sai
Does viewing Between the Lions, an educational television series featuring literacy instruction, improve the emergent literacy skills of kindergarten and first-grade children? Do improvements vary as a function of the child's initial reading risk status? In this study, higher word recognition and standardized reading test scores were noted for all…
Singer, Jerome L.; Singer, Dorothy G.
This study examined the patterns of ongoing play manifested over a year's time by 141 three- and four-year-old boys and girls at nursery schools and daycare centers. The relationships between such play and concurrent language usage and the child's patterns of television viewing at home were examined during this period. Parents of the children were…
Brown, Judith E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Broom, Dorothy H.; Bittman, Michael
Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. Television viewing is often a focus of the obesity debate. Not only is it sedentary, it also has the potential to influence other lifestyle behaviours either by displacing physical activities…
Reid, Leonard N.; Frazer, Charles F.
In a two-stage procedure to discover how children use television commercials in family group viewing situations, researchers first conducted thirty family interviews with as many family members present as possible; then they selected nine children's families for extended (three month) participant observation to study the formative aspects of each…
"Exploring Television" is an inquiry/discovery textbook designed to help students to understand, analyze, criticize, evaluate, and judge the experiences they have had in front of the television set. The text consists of three main parts. "The Medium" inquires into the radio-movie origins of television and prompts research into the networks and…
Hussain, Sultana Monira; Urquhart, Donna M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dunstan, David; Shaw, Jonathan E; Magliano, Dianna J; Wluka, Anita E; Cicuttini, Flavia M
Two systematic reviews concluded that there was limited evidence to support an association between physical activity and sedentary behavior and developing low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of physical activity and television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability in community-based adults.Five thousand fifty-eight participants (44% men) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study had physical activity and television viewing time measured in 1999 to 2000, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2012, and LBP intensity and disability assessed in 2013 to 2014 using the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio for LBP intensity and disability associated with physical activity and television viewing time. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, smoking, dietary guideline index score, body mass index, and mental component summary score. To test whether associations of physical activity or television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability were modified by sex, obesity, or age, interactions were tested using the likelihood ratio test.As gender modified the associations between physical activity and television viewing time and LBP disability (P = 0.05), men and women were examined separately. A total of 81.7% men and 82.1% women had LBP. Most men (63.6%) and women (60.2%) had low intensity LBP with fewer having high intensity LBP (18.1% men, 21.5% women). Most participants had no LBP disability (74.5% men, 71.8% women) with the remainder reporting low (15.8% men, 15.3% women) or high (9.7% men, 12.9% women) LBP disability. Insufficient physical activity (<2.5 hours/week) was not associated with LBP intensity or disability. High television viewing time (≥2 hours/day) was associated with greater prevalence of LBP disability in women (low disability OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04-1.73; high disability OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.72).Although it needs to be confirmed
Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity. PMID:24892903
Fouts, Gregory; Vaughan, Kimberley
Assesses the effects of locus of control and television watching on eating disorder symptomatology in girls between the ages 10-17 years. Girls with an external locus of control had significantly greater eating disorder symptomatology. Girls who watched higher amounts of television and had an external locus of control had significantly greater…
Neuman, Susan B.
Examines television's impact on reading and school achievement in terms of the displacement hypothesis (watching television displaces developmental reading activities). Indicates small differences in reading scores for children watching two to four hours a day, but beyond four hours effects are negative and increasingly deleterious. (SR)
Boulos, Rebecca; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Chang, Hannah; Kanarek, Robin B
Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States. Over the last several decades, the prevalence of obesity among both adults and children has grown at an alarming rate and is now reaching epidemic proportions. The increase in obesity has been associated with rises in a host of other chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, there is growing evidence that television viewing is a major contributor. Results of numerous studies indicate a direct association between time spent watching television and body weight. Possible explanations for this relationship include: 1) watching television acts as a sedentary replacement for physical activity; 2) food advertisements for nutrient-poor, high-calorie foods stimulate food intake; and 3) television viewing is associated with "mindless" eating. In addition to decreasing physical activity and increasing the consumption of highly palatable foods, television viewing can also promote weight gain in indirect ways, such as through the use of targeted product placements in television shows; by influencing social perceptions of body image; and airing programs that portray cooking, eating and losing weight as entertainment. This paper will provide an interdisciplinary review of the direct and indirect ways in which television influences the obesity epidemic, and conclude with ways in which the negative impact of television on obesity could be reduced. PMID:22677722
Lagana, Joseph F.; Iannacone, George
Argues against the effectiveness of the family viewing plan described in an earlier issue of the "Bulletin," and offers recommendations urging the Federal Communications Commission to assume more of a social responsibility in regulating television. (IRT)
Garmy, Pernilla; Clausson, Eva K; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents (6-16 years), and relationships between being overweight and sleep, experiencing of fatigue, enjoyment of school, and time spent in watching television and in sitting at the computer. Trained school nurses measured the weight and height of 2891 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16, and distributed a questionnaire to them regarding television and computer habits, sleep, and enjoyment of school. Overweight, obesity included, was present in 16.1% of the study population. Relationships between lifestyle factors and overweight were studied using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Having a bedroom television and spending more than 2 h a day watching television were found to be associated with overweight (OR 1.26 and 1.55 respectively). No association was found between overweight and time spent at the computer, short sleep duration, enjoyment of school, tiredness at school, or difficulties in sleeping and waking up. It is recommended that the school health service discuss with pupils their media habits so as to promote their maintaining a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23796145
In an art class, children browse through space-age knobs, robot antennas and gyroscopic signal searchers. They extend space needle antennas before turning on an old TV. They discover the sights and sounds of televisions past, hearing the hiss, the gathering power, and seeing the blinking eye, the black-and-white light and blurry images projected…
Minnebo, Jurgen; Van Acker, An
This study investigates whether and how (1) cumulative overall exposure to television and (2) cumulative selective exposure to specific television content are related to both estimates of and opinions about people who have mental illnesses. Two hundred fifty-two Belgian high school students completed self-report questionnaires. Measures included…
Markey, Charlotte N; Markey, Patrick M
Two studies are presented that examine the influence of media messages about cosmetic surgery on youths' interest in altering their own physical appearance. In Study 1, 170 participants (59% female; M age=19.77 years) completed surveys assessing their impression of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery, appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and their interest in cosmetic surgery. Results indicated that participants who reported favorable impressions of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery were more likely to indicate interest in pursuing surgery. One hundred and eighty-nine participants (51% female; M age=19.84 years) completed Study 2. Approximately half of the participants were exposed to a television message featuring a surgical make-over; the other half was exposed to a neutral message. Results indicated that participants who watched a television program about cosmetic surgery wanted to alter their own appearance using cosmetic surgery more than did participants who were not exposed to this program. PMID:20089464