Huitink, C.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Veerman, J. W.; Verhoeven, L.
The purpose of the present study was to examine psychometric properties of the Staff Behavior toward Clients questionnaire (SBC), a self-report measure for care staff working with children and adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities in residential care. Ninety-nine care staff completed the SBC and the Strengths and…
Kavanaugh, Brian; Holler, Karen
Although the relationship between executive dysfunction and depressive disorders has been well established in the adult population, research within the adolescent population has produced mixed results. The present study examined executive-functioning subdomains in varying levels of self-reported depression within an adolescent inpatient sample diagnosed with primary mood disorders. Via retrospective chart review, the sample consisted of those adolescents (ages 13-18 years) who completed a combined psychological/neuropsychological assessment during hospitalization (N = 105). When the sample was divided into adolescents with mood disorders with self-reported depressive symptoms and adolescents with mood disorders without self-reported depressive symptoms, no differences in various executive functions were identified. There were also no correlations between overall self-reported depressive symptoms and overall executive functioning. However, there were negative correlations between select executive subdomains (e.g., problem solving and response inhibition) and certain depressive symptom subdomains (e.g., negative mood and interpersonal problems). Based on these findings, there was no difference in executive functions between mood disorders with depressive symptoms and mood disorders without depressive symptoms, although there may be select executive subdomains that are particularly involved in certain depressive symptoms, providing important information for the treatment of adolescent depression. PMID:24716871
Emodi Perlman, A; Lobbezoo, F; Zar, A; Friedman Rubin, P; van Selms, M K A; Winocur, E
Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical, exogenous and psychosocial factors in Israeli adolescents; and to investigate the possible concordance between SB and AB. The study made use of a questionnaire. The study population included 1000 students from different high schools in the centre of Israel. Prevalence of self-reported SB and AB in the Israeli adolescents studied was 9·2% and 19·2%, respectively. No gender difference was found regarding the prevalence of SB and AB. Multiple variable regression analysis revealed that the following predicting variables were related to SB: temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002) and feeling stressed (P = 0·001). The following predicting variables were related to AB: age (P = 0·018), temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002), oro-facial pain (P = 0·006), and feeling stressed (P = 0·002) or sad (P = 0·006). A significant association was found between SB and AB; that is, an individual reporting SB had a higher probability of reporting AB compared with an individual who did not report SB (odds ratio = 5·099). Chewing gum was the most common parafunction reported by adolescents. The results of this study demonstrate that self-reports of AB and SB are common in the Israeli adolescents population studied and are not related to gender. The significant correlation found between SB and AB may be a confounding bias that affects proper diagnosis of bruxism through self-reported questionnaires only. PMID:26968152
Dolcini, M. Margaret; And Others
Reviews 28 studies comparing adolescent self-report of smoking with biological indicators. Identifies four factors limiting agreement: biases in self-report due to limitations of biological measures; limitations of self-report measures; social desirability; and analytic and statistical issues. Concludes that, with optimal measurement, self-report…
Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.
Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…
Muris, P; Merckelbach, H; Schmidt, H; Gadet, B B; Bogie, N
In a previous study, Muris, Merckelbach, Wessel, and Van de Ven [Psychopathological correlates of self-reported behavioural inhibition in normal children. Behav. Res. Ther. 37 (1999) 575-584] found that children who defined themselves as high on behavioural inhibition displayed elevated levels of psychopathological symptoms compared to children who defined themselves as low or middle on behavioural inhibition. The present study further examined the relationship between self-reported behavioural inhibition and anxiety disorders and depression symptoms in a large sample of adolescents aged 12-18 years (N=968). Adolescents completed a measure of behavioural inhibition and questionnaires of anxiety and depression. Results indicated that adolescents who classified themselves as high on behavioural inhibition had higher scores of anxiety and depression than adolescents who classified themselves as low or middle on behavioural inhibition. Structural equations modelling was employed to test hypothetical models on the role of behavioural inhibition in childhood anxiety and depression. It was found that a pathway in which behavioural inhibition results in anxiety, which in turn leads to depression, provided the best fit for the data. PMID:11520011
Jones, Heather A; Bilge-Johnson, Sumru; Rabinovitch, Annie E; Fishel, Hazel
The current study investigated relationships among self-reported peer victimization, suicidality, and depression in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Sixty-seven adolescent psychiatric inpatients at a Midwestern children's hospital completed measures of bullying and peer victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression during their inpatient stay. Analyses indicated significant moderate correlations among victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents. Results from mediational analyses found that negative self-esteem mediated the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation. To date, this study is the first to directly examine the mechanisms underlying the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. PMID:23827938
Weis, Robert; Smenner, Lindsey
The authors investigate the construct validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality (BASC-SRP; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998). A sample of 970 adolescents (16-18 years) with histories of disruptive behavior problems and truancy complete the SRP; a subsample of 290 adolescents also completed the Minnesota…
Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel
The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger…
Purpose: Examine associations among observed, self-reported, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) environmental features and physical activity among adolescent males. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Boy Scout troops and neighborhoods in Houston, Texas. Subjects: Two hundred and ten ...
Lewis, Russell; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Reynolds, Brady
Background and Objectives This study evaluated whether impulsivity (delay discounting and BIS-11-A) is associated with adolescent smoking status in a region with strong environmental risk factors for smoking. Methods Forty-two adolescent smokers and nonsmokers from rural Appalachia completed discounting and self-reported impulsivity assessments. Results The BIS-11-A, but not the measure of discounting, was associated with smoking status; however, neither assessment predicted smoking status once parent/best-friend smoking variables were statistically accounted for. Discussion and Conclusions In regions with strong environmental risk factors for smoking, delay discounting may play a more limited role in risk of initiation. Scientific Significance Helps to better define impulsivity as risk factors for smoking in relation to familial and broader cultural variables. PMID:26039514
Fernandes, Silvia de Sousa Campos; de Andrade, Cláudia Ribeiro; Caminhas, Alessandra Pinheiro; Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira; Ibiapina, Cássio da Cunha
Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking experimentation among adolescents with asthma or allergic rhinitis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescent students (13-14 years of age) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The participants completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires, both of which have been validated for use in Brazil. We calculated the prevalence of smoking experimentation in the sample as a whole, among the students with asthma symptoms, and among the students with allergic rhinitis symptoms, as well as in subgroups according to gender and age at smoking experimentation. Results: The sample comprised 3,325 adolescent students. No statistically significant differences were found regarding gender or age. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of smoking experimentation was 9.6%. The mean age for smoking experimentation for the first time was 11.1 years of age (range, 5-14 years). Among the adolescents with asthma symptoms and among those with allergic rhinitis symptoms, the prevalence of self-reported smoking experimentation was 13.5% and 10.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The proportion of adolescents with symptoms of asthma or allergic rhinitis who reported smoking experimentation is a cause for concern, because there is strong evidence that active smoking is a risk factor for the occurrence and increased severity of allergic diseases. PMID:27167427
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kosunen, Elise; Rimpelä, Matti
The associations between pubertal timing, sexual activity and self-reported depression were analysed in a population sample of 17,082 girls and 15,922 boys aged 14-16 as a par of a classroom survey. Pubertal timing was assessed by age at onset of menstruation (menarche) or ejaculations (oigarche). Sexual experiences elicited included kissing, light petting, heavy petting and intercourse. Self-reported depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory. Among girls, self-reported depression was associated with early puberty and intimate sexual relationship. Among boys depression was associated with very early and late puberty and experience of intercourse. Early puberty is a risk factor for self-reported depression. Intimate sexual relationships in middle adolescent are likely to indicate problems in adolescent development rather than successful adolescent passage. PMID:12972267
Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W
This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. PMID:25381280
Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…
Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Haslimeier, Claudia; Metzke, Christa Winkler
Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reported symptom scales [i. e. the Center for…
Manikam, Ramasamy; And Others
Self-report measures of depression, general psychopathology, and social skills were administered to 100 adolescents ranging from moderate mental retardation to above normal intelligence. Adolescents with mental retardation reported more depression and general psychopathology symptoms. Adaptive behavior functioned as a moderator variable, mediating…
Based on the PISA data in 2003 and 2006, this paper develops a hierarchical linear model to identify multi-level explanatory variables of the divide of adolescents' self-reported digital skills. At the country-level, the study finds a generally negative relationship between the ICT penetration rate of a country and adolescents' digital skills,…
Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.
In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…
Cho, Hyunsan; Luseno, Winnie; Halpern, Carolyn; Zhang, Lei; Mbai, Isabella; Milimo, Benson; Hallfors, Denise
Background This paper examines the discordance between biological data of HIV and HSV-2 infections and self-reported questionnaire responses among orphan adolescents in Western Kenya. Methods In 2011 a total of 837 orphan adolescents from 26 primary schools were enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. At baseline, blood samples were drawn for HIV and HSV-2 infection biomarker testing, and participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) survey. Results Comparing biological data with self-reported responses indicated that 70% of HIV positive (7 out of 10) and 64% of HSV-2 positive (18 out of 28 positive) participants reported never having had sex. Among ever-married adolescents 65% (57 out of 88) reported never having had sex. Overall, 10% of study participants appeared to have inconsistently reported their sexual behavior. Logistic regression analyses indicated that lower educational level and exam scores were significant predictors of inconsistent reporting. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the discordance between infections measured by biomarkers and self-reports of having had sex among orphan adolescents in Kenya. In order to detect program effects accurately in prevention research, it is necessary to collect both baseline and endline biological data. Furthermore, it is recommended to triangulate multiple data sources about adolescent participants’ self-reported information about marriage and pregnancies from school records and parent/guardians to verify the information. Researchers should recognize potential threats to validity in data and design surveys to consider cognitive factors and/or cultural context to obtain more accurate and reliable information from adolescents regarding HIV/STI risk behaviors. PMID:25378660
Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George
Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12 weeks buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the “gold standard”. Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition. PMID:23811060
Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George
Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the "gold standard". Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition. PMID:23811060
Burrows, Catherine A; Usher, Lauren V; Schwartz, Caley B; Mundy, Peter C; Henderson, Heather A
This study tested the spectrum hypothesis, which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ quantitatively but not qualitatively from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional tendencies, which relate to maladaptive behaviors across clinical populations. Quantitatively, participants with HFA (N = 104, aged 10-16) self-reported less surgency and more negative affect but did not differ from comparison participants (N = 94, aged 10-16) on effortful control or affiliation. Qualitatively, groups demonstrated comparable reliability of self-reported temperament and associations between temperament and parent-reported behavior problems. These findings support the spectrum hypothesis, highlighting the utility of self-report temperament measures for understanding individual differences in comorbid behavior problems among children and adolescents with HFA. PMID:26589536
Connell, David K.; Meyer, Robert G.
College students (n=150) completed Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire and self-report inventories of depression, hopelessness, social desirability, and anxiety. Found significant correlations between self-report instruments and suicidal behaviors. Findings may be a result of the fact that anxiety and depression are often found together in clinical…
Steer, Robert A.; And Others
Administered Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI) to 108 adolescent inpatients diagnosed with mixed psychiatric disorders. Examined relationships of Beck Depression Inventory, Anxiety Inventory, and Hopelessness Scale with BSI. Results support use of BSI with adolescent inpatients. Findings indicated that hopelessness was related to suicidal…
Vahl, Pauline; Colins, Olivier F; Lodewijks, Henny P B; Markus, Monica T; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M
Studies have demonstrated that self-report tools can be used to reliably and validly examine psychopathic-like traits in adolescents. However, it is unclear if self-report instruments are still reliable and valid when confidentiality cannot be guaranteed, such as during routine assessments in juvenile detention centres. To address this issue, the current study used data from the routine mental health screening of 365 detained male adolescents (12-18 years) in two juvenile detention centres. With the intention of gaining insight in the clinical usefulness of self-reported psychopathic-like traits, we examined relations known from literature with emotional and behavioural features. Self-reported psychopathic-like traits, measured by the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short version (YPI-S), were uniquely associated with substance abuse, anger/irritability, conduct problems and hyperactivity, but not with internalizing problems. YPI-S-dimensions showed several specific relationships with variables of interest. For example, only the callous unemotional dimension was negatively related with prosocial behaviour and only the behavioural dimension was positively related with hyperactivity. In conclusion, self-reported psychopathic-like traits showed expected relations with relevant variables. These findings suggest that self-report can be used to identify detained youths with high levels of psychopathic-like traits outside a research context, thus, even when anonymity and confidentiality are not guaranteed. PMID:24327266
Valladolid-López, María del Carmen; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio
Objectives We aimed to evaluate the validity of the self-reported smoking indicator used in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Setting 43 middle and high-school classrooms from 26 schools were selected from Mexico City and Cuernavaca, Morelos. Participants A total of 1257 students provided both a questionnaire and a urine sample. Primary and secondary outcome Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking compared to urinary cotinine. Validity indices were evaluated by subgroups of gender, social acceptability of smoking (ie, smoking parents or friends) and smoking frequency. Results Sensitivity and specificity for current smoking were 93.2% and 81.7%, respectively. Validity indices remained stable across gender. Parental smoking status moderated the validity of self-report, which had lower sensitivity in adolescents with non-smoking parents (86.7%) than in adolescents with smoking parents (96.6%). Sensitivity and specificity increased with smoking frequency. Conclusions This first validation study of self-reported current smoking used in the GYTS among Mexican adolescents suggests that self-reported smoking in the past 30 days is a valid and stable indicator of current smoking behaviour. This measure appears suitable for public health research and surveillance. PMID:26453588
Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri
Associations of peer victimization with adolescent depression and social phobia (SP), while controlling for comorbidity between them, have not been sufficiently explored in earlier research. A total of 3156 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years participated in a survey study. Self-reported peer victimization, as well as self-reported depression…
Nygren, Karina; Bergström, Erik; Janlert, Urban; Nygren, Lennart
The aim of the study was to examine school-related determinants of self-reported health among adolescents. Questionnaire survey data comprising 4,972 students, Grades 7 through 9, from 20 schools in northern Sweden were used. Also, complimentary data about each school were collected from the Swedish National Agency for Education. Using multilevel…
McGarvey, Elizabeth L.; Waite, Dennis; Martindale, James R.; Koopman, Cheryl; Brown, Gerald L.; Canterbury, Randolph J.
Tests consistency of self-reports of alcohol and drug use by comparing responses incarcerated youth give to corrections staff and to university research interviewers only weeks apart. Significantly more incarcerated adolescents (n = 894) report lifetime drug and alcohol use to researchers than to correctional staff. Sex and ethnic differences were…
Muller-Godeffroy, E.; Michael, T.; Poster, M.; Seidel, U.; Schwarke, D.; Thyen, U.
The aim of the study was to investigate self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents with myelomeningocele (MMC) and to examine the impact of clinical impairments and limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). Fifty patients (28 females, 22 males) between 8 and 16 years of age (mean age 12y 1mo [SD 2y…
Burrows, Catherine A.; Usher, Lauren V.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.
This study tested the "spectrum hypothesis," which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ "quantitatively" but not "qualitatively" from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional…
Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.
Global self-esteem, appearance satisfaction, and self-reported dieting are interrelated. This study examines the temporal ordering of global self-esteem and appearance satisfaction across the early adolescence transition, from age 10 to age 14, as well as the independent associations of self-esteem and appearance satisfaction on self-reported…
Bhola, Poornima; Rekha, Dorothy P; Sathyanarayanan, Vidya; Daniel, Sheila; Thomas, Tinku
There is increasing concern about suicide rates in the vulnerable developmental stage of adolescence. The experiences and expressions of suicidality among adolescents are often "hidden" and occur due to complex and cumulative interactions of multiple factors. A cross-sectional survey assessed self-reported suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and helpseeking behaviour among adolescents attending a pre-university college in Bangalore, India. This formed part of a 2-year teacher training project for Adolescent Mental Health and Suicide Prevention in the college. 1087 male and female adolescents aged 16-18 years, completed the Columbia Teen Screen which assessed self-reported suicide attempt/s (lifetime, past 3 months) as well as suicidal ideation (current, past 3 months) and associated intensity, severity and duration. Adolescents' perceptions about the need for help and mental health consultation were also assessed. Emotional and behavioural difficulties were reported on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results indicated that 25.4% of the adolescents reported suicidal ideation (past 3 months) and 12.9% of the total sample expressed their need for seeking help. The rate of suicide attempt was 12.9% (lifetime) and 6% (past 3 months). Logistic Regression analysis identified factors associated with recent suicidal ideation and attempt. Females had higher rates of suicide ideation and attempts than males (Ideation OR = 1.4, CI = 1.04-1.9; Attempt OR = 2.2, CI = 1.0-4.5) and adolescents with abnormal emotional and behavioural problems were at higher risk for suicidal ideation (emotional difficulties OR = 4.6, CI = 3.2-6.6; hyperactivity/inattention OR = 2.1, CI = 1.3-3.2). The findings add to the limited database on youth suicidality in India and have implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:24524708
Martin, Gary L.; Newman, Ian M.
Compared adolescent cigarette smoking rates determined by traditional questionnaire, random response questionnaire, and carbon monoxide test. Results from 1,160 ninth graders in 40 classrooms in 7 schools indicated that random response questionnaire elicited statistically larger proportion of smokers than did traditional questionnaire. Neither…
Willard, Victoria W; Conklin, Heather M; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Hui; Kahalley, Lisa S
Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for attention problems. The objectives of this study were to assess concordance between parent-, teacher-, and self-report ratings on a measure of attention (Conners Rating Scales, 3rd ed.; Conners, 2008) in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and to examine associations with a performance-based task. The was completed by 80 survivors of pediatric cancer (39 brain tumor, 41 acute lymphoblastic leukemia; ages 12-17; at least 1 year posttreatment; 51.3% male) as well as their parents and 1 teacher. In addition, survivors completed a continuous performance test. Parents and teachers demonstrated moderate agreement on most subscales; however, agreement was weaker than would be expected based on the normative sample. Agreement between self- and proxy ratings was more variable. The strongest associations for all raters were observed on the Learning Problems subscale. There were significant mean differences between parent and teacher ratings, with parents reporting more problems across subscales. Only self-ratings of Inattention were significantly associated with the continuous performance test (omission errors). Agreement across raters in assessment of attentional functioning in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer is modest. Findings support the need to obtain multiple ratings of behavior, including both proxy- and self-report, when assessing youth with cancer, particularly adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537005
Jones, M B; Peacock, M K; Christopher, J
The purpose of this study was to explore the recognition and expression of anger in black high school adolescents. A total of 56 teens, aged 14-19 years, responded to questions about their recognition of anger, how and to whom they express anger, and to whom they refrain from expressing anger. They also stated their opinions about acceptable and unacceptable expressions of anger and its relationship to depression or suicide. Data were analyzed using frequency tabulations for all questions on the survey instrument. Specific variables of age, grade in school, gender, and family composition were analyzed by one-sample chi 2 tests (alpha set at 0.05). The study demonstrated 1) all the teens surveyed could recognize when they were angry; 2) most teens expressed anger to their friends, to their siblings, and to their mothers; 3) younger teens (ages 14-15 years) when compared to older teens (ages 18-19 years), identified mother as the one who made them angry; 4) females were more likely to feel like crying when angry; 5) females were more likely to feel like being silent when angry; 6) students from one- and two-parent homes did not differ in their expression of anger. Implications of this study include the recognition that anger is a natural, human emotion. Adolescents need to observe adults who can effectively manage behavior associated with anger. Problem solving skills, stress management techniques, and role play situations can be utilized as effective tools in the recognition and expression of anger in acceptable ways and in attempts at the prevention of dysfunctional anger. PMID:1390810
Ohlmer, Ricarda; Jacobi, Corinna; Fittig, Eike
This study examines the reliability of self-reported height, weight and weight change in underweight versus normal weight adolescent females. Self-reported height and weight were obtained from 162 schoolgirls without an eating disorder (12-16 years), and compared to objective measurements afterwards. Weight change was assessed 4 months later. The influence of age and current BMI on the reliability of self-reports was analyzed by linear regression analyses. With increasing age, height and BMI were reported more accurately. With increasing BMI, the underestimation of weight increased. Underweight girls overestimated their weight significantly compared to normal weight girls. Only 41% of the girls with a weight loss (>1 kg) in the past 4 months reported this accurately. Therefore, especially in younger girls with low body weight, information on height and weight as well as weight changes should be obtained objectively to identify a developing or subthreshold anorexia nervosa. PMID:22177388
Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.; Mackiewicz Seghete, Kristen L.; Claus, Eric D.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Ruzic, Luka; Banich, Marie T.
Background Adolescence is commonly characterized by impulsivity, poor decision-making, and lack of foresight. However, the developmental neural underpinnings of these characteristics are not well established. Methodology/Principal Findings To test the hypothesis that these adolescent behaviors are linked to under-developed proactive control mechanisms, the present study employed a hybrid block/event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Stroop paradigm combined with self-report questionnaires in a large sample of adolescents and adults, ranging in age from 14 to 25. Compared to adults, adolescents under-activated a set of brain regions implicated in proactive top-down control across task blocks comprised of difficult and easy trials. Moreover, the magnitude of lateral prefrontal activity in adolescents predicted self-report measures of impulse control, foresight, and resistance to peer pressure. Consistent with reactive compensatory mechanisms to reduced proactive control, older adolescents exhibited elevated transient activity in regions implicated in response-related interference resolution. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, these results suggest that maturation of cognitive control may be partly mediated by earlier development of neural systems supporting reactive control and delayed development of systems supporting proactive control. Importantly, the development of these mechanisms is associated with cognitive control in real-life behaviors. PMID:21738725
Houghton, Stephen; Hunter, Simon C.; Khan, Umneea; Tan, Carol
We report the development and psychometric evaluations of a self-report instrument designed to screen for psychopathic traits among mainstream community adolescents. Tests of item functioning were initially conducted with 26 adolescents. In a second study the new instrument was administered to 150 high school adolescents, 73 of who had school…
Holzer, Laurent; Pihet, Sandrine; Passini, Christina Moses; Feijo, Isabelle; Camus, Didier; Eap, Chin
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of substance use among adolescent psychiatric outpatients using a variety of data sources. Method: Using a questionnaire, 3-month prevalence of substance use data were obtained from 50 adolescents and their health care providers. Adolescents' self-reports and providers' clinical impressions were…
Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita
The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was compared to concurrent parent-report and to self-report one year later. Participants included 313 male probands and 209 demographically similar comparison individuals without ADHD. Results indicated that adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD were more likely than comparison participants to fail to report delinquent acts reported by a parent and to recant acts they endorsed one year earlier. This trend was most apparent for acts of mild to moderate severity. After controlling for several covariates, current ADHD symptom severity and parent-report of the participant’s tendency to lie predicted reporting fewer delinquent acts than one’s parent. Current ADHD symptom severity also predicted more recanting of previously endorsed acts. Based on these findings, several recommendations are made for the assessment of delinquency history in adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD. PMID:20309624
Duric, Nezla S; Aßmus, Jörg; Elgen, Irene B
Background Many non-pharmacological treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been attempted, but reports indicate that most are ineffective. Although neurofeedback (NF) is a treatment approach for children with ADHD that remains promising, a variety of appropriate measures have been used in reporting and evaluating its effect. Objective To report the self-evaluations of NF treatment by children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods Randomized controlled trial in 91 children and adolescents with ADHD, aged less than 18 years (mean, 11.2 years) participated in a 30-session program of intensive NF treatment. Participants were randomized and allocated by sequentially numbered sealed envelopes into three groups: methylphenidate (MPH) as an active control group, and two trial groups NF with MPH, and NF alone. ADHD core symptoms and school performance were given on a scale of 1 to 10 using a self-reporting questionnaire, and the changes in these scores after treatment were used as the self-reported evaluation. Basic statistical methods (descriptive, analyses of variance, exact χ2 test, and paired t-test) were used to investigate the baseline data. Changes in ADHD core symptoms and treatment effects were investigated using a general linear model for repeated measures. Results Eighty participants completed the treatment study and 73 (91%) responded sufficiently on the self-reporting questionnaires. The treatment groups were comparable in age, sex, and cognition as well as in the baseline levels of core ADHD symptoms. All treatments resulted in significant improvements regarding attention and hyperactivity (P<0.001), and did not differ from each other in effectiveness. However, a significant treatment effect in school performance was observed (P=0.042), in which only the NF group showed a significant improvement. Conclusion The self-reported improvements in ADHD core symptoms and school performance shortly after
Duinhof, Elisa L; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
Changes in social, cultural, economic, and governmental systems over time may affect adolescents' development. The present study examined 10-year trends in self-reported emotional and behavioral problems among 11- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. In addition, gender (girls versus boys), ethnic (Dutch versus non western) and educational (vocational versus academic) differences in these trends were examined. By means of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, trends in emotional and behavioral problems were studied in adolescents belonging to one of five independent population representative samples (2003: n = 6,904; 2005: n = 5,183; 2007: n = 6,228; 2009: n = 5,559; 2013: n = 5,478). Structural equation models indicated rather stable levels of emotional and behavioral problems over time. Whereas some small changes were found between different time points, these changes did not represent consistent changes in problem levels. Similarly, gender, ethnic and educational differences in self-reported problems on each time point were highly comparable, indicating stable mental health inequalities between groups of adolescents over time. Future internationally comparative studies using multiple measurement moments are needed to monitor whether these persistent mental health inequalities hold over extended periods of time and in different countries. PMID:25534927
Kvist, Therese; Annerbäck, Eva-Maria; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Flodmark, Olof; Dahllöf, Göran
This study investigated the association between self-perceived oral health and self-reported exposure to different types of child abuse. It was hypothesized that self-perceived oral health is compromised in exposed adolescents. All Grade-9 compulsory school and second-year high-school pupils in Södermanland County, Sweden (n = 7,262) were invited to take part in a population-based survey; 5,940 adolescents responded. Survey items on health and social wellbeing included self-perceived oral health and exposure to abuse. The results showed that poor self-perceived oral health was associated with self-reported experience of physical abuse, intimate partner violence, forced sex, and bullying (adjusted OR = 2.3-14.7). The likelihood of reporting poor oral health increased from an adjusted OR of 2.1 for a single incident of abuse to an adjusted OR of 23.3 for multiple abuses. In conclusion, poor self-perceived oral health and previous exposure to child physical abuse, intimate partner violence, bullying, and forced sex is associated. It is important that dental professionals recognize adolescents with poor subjective oral health and take into consideration child abuse as a possible cause in order to prevent these adolescents from further victimization. These results further strengthen that dental professionals are an important resource in child protection. PMID:24206076
Nelson, W M; Renzenbrink, G; Kapp, C J
Twenty-five psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents were assessed on three separate occasions (approximately 2 weeks apart) using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Children's Attributional Styles Questionnaire Revised (KASTAN) within 1 week of hospitalization. Attending clinicians also rated each subject concurrently on the Anxiety and Depression factors of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children (BPRS-C). Results indicated only modest agreement between self-report measures and clinician ratings over time. Clinician ratings on both BPRS-C factors changed significantly over time, while, of the self-report measures, only the R-CMAS evidenced significant change. Results were discussed in terms of the construct of "negative affectivity," method variance in assessment, and clinical implications. PMID:8778122
Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S; James, Jack E
Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the relationship between adolescent caffeine use and self-reported violent behaviors and conduct disorders in a population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,747 10th grade students (15-16 years of age, 50.2 % girls) who were enrolled in the Icelandic national education system during February 2012. Through a series of multiple regression models, while controlling for background factors, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and current medication and peer delinquency, and including measures on substance use, our findings show robust additive explanatory power of caffeine for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. In addition, the association of caffeine to the outcomes is significantly stronger for girls than boys for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. Future studies are needed to examine to what extent, if at all, these relationships are causal. Indication of causal connections between caffeine consumption and negative outcomes such as those reported here would call into question the acceptability of current policies concerning the availability of caffeine to adolescents and the targeting of adolescence in the marketing of caffeine products. PMID:23358888
Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer
Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24944288
Nygren, Karina; Bergström, Erik; Janlert, Urban; Nygren, Lennart
The aim of the study was to examine school-related determinants of self-reported health among adolescents. Questionnaire survey data comprising 4,972 students, Grades 7 through 9, from 20 schools in northern Sweden were used. Also, complimentary data about each school were collected from the Swedish National Agency for Education. Using multilevel logistic regression analyses, results showed that most variation in self-reported health was explained by individual-level differences. Truancy, bullying, and poor relations with teachers significantly increased the odds ratio of reporting poor general health, for boys and for girls. Most variables at the school level, for example, school size and student-teacher ratio, did not render significant associations with students' self-reported health. In conclusion, this study indicates that health promotion at school, including school health services, may benefit from focusing primarily on individual-level determinants of health, that is, students' relations to peers and teachers, without ignoring that bullying and weak student-teacher relationships also may induce school-level interventions. PMID:23674554
Hawton, Keith; Rodham, Karen; Evans, Emma; Weatherall, Rosamund
Objective To determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the factors associated with it. Design Cross sectional survey using anonymous self report questionnaire. Setting 41 schools in England. Participants 6020 pupils aged 15 and 16 years. Main outcome measure Deliberate self harm. Results 398 (6.9%) participants reported an act of deliberate self harm in the previous year that met study criteria. Only 12.6% of episodes had resulted in presentation to hospital. Deliberate self harm was more common in females than it was in males (11.2% v 3.2%; odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 3.1 to 4.9). In females the factors included in a multivariate logistic regression for deliberate self harm were recent self harm by friends, self harm by family members, drug misuse, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, and low self esteem. In males the factors were suicidal behaviour in friends and family members, drug use, and low self esteem. Conclusions Deliberate self harm is common in adolescents, especially females. School based mental health initiatives are needed. These could include approaches aimed at educating school pupils about mental health problems and screening for those at risk. What is already known on this topicDeliberate self harm is a common reason for presentation of adolescents to hospitalCommunity studies from outside the United Kingdom have shown much greater prevalence of self harm in adolescents than hospital based studiesWhat this study addsDeliberate self harm defined according to strict criteria is common in adolescents, especially femalesAssociated factors include recent awareness of self harm in peers, self harm by family members, drug misuse, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, and low self esteem PMID:12446536
Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K; Krustrup, P; Hölmich, P; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L L; Christensen, K B; Møller, M; Thorborg, K
Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (< 80 points) were chosen as independent variables in the risk factor analyses. The study showed that self-reported previous knee injury significantly increased the risk of time-loss knee injury [relative risk (RR): 3.65, 95% confidence (CI) 1.73-7.68; P < 0.001]. Risk of time-loss knee injury was also significantly increased in players with low KOOS subscale scores (< 80 points) in Activities of Daily Living (RR: 5.0), Sport/Recreational (RR: 2.2) and Quality of Life (RR: 3.0) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, self-reported previous knee injury and low scores in three KOOS subscales significantly increase the risk of future time-loss knee injury in adolescent female football. PMID:26179111
Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J
In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster. PMID:25047293
DeSmet, Ann; Veldeman, Charlene; Poels, Karolien; Bastiaensens, Sara; Van Cleemput, Katrien; Vandebosch, Heidi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
This study explores behavioral determinants of self-reported cyberbullying bystander behavior from a behavioral change theoretical perspective, to provide levers for interventions. Nine focus groups were conducted with 61 young adolescents (aged 12-16 years, 52% girls). Assertive defending, reporting to others, providing advice, and seeking support were the most mentioned behaviors. Self-reported bystander behavior heavily depended on contextual factors, and should not be considered a fixed participant role. Bystanders preferred to handle cyberbullying offline and in person, and comforting the victim was considered more feasible than facing the bully. Most prevailing behavioral determinants to defend or support the victim were low moral disengagement, that the victim is an ingroup member, and that the bystander is popular. Youngsters felt they received little encouragement from their environment to perform positive bystanding behavior, since peers have a high acceptance for not defending and perceived parental support for defending behavior is largely lacking. These results suggest multilevel models for cyberbullying research, and interventions are needed. With much previous research into cyberbullying insufficiently founded in theoretical models, the employed framework of the Integrative Model and Social Cognitive Theory may inspire future studies into bystander behavior. PMID:24359305
Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.
The authors examined the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR) using confirmatory factor analysis. Adolescent girls from two cohorts (N=955, N=1,797) completed the 3DPAR in the eighth grade; participants in Cohort 2 (N=1,658) completed the 3DPAR again 1 year later in the ninth grade. The 3DPAR…
Paek, Hye-Jin; Reber, Bryan H.; Lariscy, Ruthann W.
This study proposes a health socialization model and applies it to examine direct, relative and mediating roles of interpersonal and media health socialization agents in predicting adolescent self-reported health literacy. We conducted a paper-and-pencil survey among 452 seventh graders in rural and urban school districts. Our regression analysis…
Richter, Jorg; Sagatun, Ase; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Oppedal, Brit; Roysamb, Espen
Background: The SDQ is currently one of the internationally most frequently used screening instruments for child and adolescent mental health purposes. However, its structure, cross-cultural equivalence, and its applicability in ethnic minority groups is still a matter of discussion. Methods: SDQ self-report data of 5,379 ethnic Norwegian and 865…
Over 200 'normal' adolescents were administered self-report measures of personality (extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism), social skills, anomie, and delinquency in order to establish which of three theories best predicted delinquency. Eysenck's personality factors, particularly psychoticism, correlated most highly with delinquency. (RH)
Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin
Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating
Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.
We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…
Ivarsson, Tord; Broberg, Anders G; Arvidsson, Tomas; Gillberg, Christopher
Adolescents in junior high school (n = 237), completed a questionnaire on bullying as it relates to victim and to perpetrator status, suicidality and biographical data. Psychological symptoms were assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) supplemented by school health officers blind assessments. Bullying was common: bully only (18%), victim only (10%) and victim and bully (9%). Bullies had mainly externalizing symptoms (delinquency and aggression) and those of the victim and bully group both externalizing and internalizing symptoms as well as high levels of suicidality. Adolescents in the bully only group were more likely to be boys and to have attention problems. Moreover, a substantial proportion of the adolescents in the victim only group were judged by school health officer to have psychiatric symptoms and to function socially less well. PMID:16757465
Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Branje, Susan
This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective and cognitive state empathy were assessed in response to empathy-inducing film clips portraying happiness and sadness. Adolescents who responded with stronger motor empathy consistently reported higher affective state empathy. Adolescents' motor empathy was also positively related to cognitive state empathy, either directly or indirectly via affective state empathy. Whereas trait empathy was consistently, but modestly, related to state empathy with sadness, for state empathy with happiness few trait-state associations were found. Together, the findings provide support for the notion that empathy is a multi-faceted phenomenon. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy seem to be related processes, each playing a different role in the ability to understand and share others' feelings. PMID:25864486
Lacina, Rosa M; Staub-Ghielmini, Sandra; Bircher, Ursina; Bianchi, Ferruccio; Schmeck, Klaus; Schmid, Marc
Problematic behaviour during adolescence may occur within the framework of a normal development, single or an accumulation of problematic behaviour may be a sign for an established or a developing mental illness. In this study the aim was to examine how often these problematic behaviours occur and how they are associated with the self-reported psychological stress. In an epidemiological survey in the form of a questionnaire in the Lugano area (canton Ticino), 233 students (mean age = 14.47 years, standard deviation = 0.58, 58% female) were screened. In addition to collecting data on the prevalence of various problematic behaviours (self-injury (5.6%), usage of computer (6.9%) and TV (7.4), consumption of tobacco (21.5%), alcohol (5.6%) and cannabis (13.3%), delinquency (battery without weapon, 14.2%) and truancy (5.2%)), the exposure of the students to psychological stress was established by means of the SDQ. Relating to the frequency of problematic behaviour of adolescents it could be shown that epidemiological data in the Canton Ticino are similar to other national and international studies. It has been demonstrated that adolescents who indicate to suffer from psychological stress, also have a higher chance to practice self-injury (p = 0.034, OR = 6.19), to smoke regularly (p = 0.04, OR = 3.1), to consume Cannabis (p = 0.01, OR = 3.27), or to damage things on purpose (p = 0.01, OR = 3.27). The results show, how important it is, to identify mental diseases early and to introduce preventive measures. PMID:24693803
Connors, Laura L.; Connolly, Jennifer; Toplak, Maggie E.
Objective: Inattention is typically associated with ADHD, but less research has been done to examine the correlates of self-reported inattention in youth in a community sample. Method: Associations among self-reported inattention, parent-reported inattention, and self-reported psychopathology in children aged 10 to 11 years are examined.…
Lee, S H; Grubbs, L M
Recent research has suggested that effective prenatal care is significantly related to positive outcomes for the teen mother and her infant. One aspect of prenatal care is the efforts of the pregnant teen to care for herself, often called self-care practices. The purpose of this article is to compare the self-reported self-care activities of pregnant teenagers who sought prenatal care during the first trimester of their pregnancies with those of pregnant teens who delayed prenatal care until the third trimester. The subjects were adolescent girls who were enrolled in prenatal care programs or who had recently delivered in Florida. Interview analysis suggested that both groups had an adequate knowledge level regarding diet, exercise, and other topics related to self-care during pregnancy. Although pregnant teens practice similar self-care behaviors regardless of when they enter prenatal care, there are many problems that may lead to poor pregnancy outcomes and can remain undetected when prenatal care is delayed. PMID:8414231
Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Applegate, Brooks; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.
Lahey and Waldman (2003; 2005) proposed a model in which three dispositions—sympathetic response to others; negative emotional response to threat, frustration, and loss; and positive response to novelty and risk—transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder (CD). To test this model, the Child and Adolescent Dispositions Scale (CADS) was developed to measure these dispositions using parent ratings of the child. Here we report psychometric evaluations of a parallel youth self-report version (CADS-Y). Exploratory factor analysis of CADS-Y items among 832 9–17 year olds yielded a 3-factor structure that was consistent with the model and invariant across sex and informants. In 1,582 pairs of 9–17 year old twins, confirmatory factor analyses supported the CADS-Y 3-factormodel. Each CADS-Y dimension was associated with CD as predicted. Correlations between the CADS-Y and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory described relations between the dispositions and an important model of personality. PMID:20419576
Friedmann, Jordan S; Lumley, Margaret N; Lerman, Bethany
Given that depression risk intensifies in adolescence, examining associates of depressive symptoms during the shift from childhood to adolescence is important for expanding knowledge about the etiology of depression symptoms and disorder. A longitudinal youth report was employed to examine the trajectory of both the content and structure of positive and negative schemas in adolescence and also whether these schemas could prospectively predict depressive symptoms and youth-reported resilience. One hundred and ninety-eight participants (aged 9 to 14) were recruited from four schools to complete measures of youth depressive symptoms, resilience, and schema content and structure. Those who consented to a follow-up study completed the same measures online (50 participants completed). Negative and positive schema content and structure were related over time. After controlling depressive symptoms/resilience at Time 1, negative schema content was the only significant predictor (trend level) of depressive symptoms and resilience at Time 2. Implications for cognitive theories and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:26681480
This study examined whether controlling for social desirability improved the association between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among adolescent males and the extent that psychosocial variables predict physical activity after controlling for social desirability. Participant...
Hayley, Amie C; Skogen, Jens C; Øverland, Simon; Wold, Bente; Williams, Lana J; Kennedy, Gerard A; Sivertsen, Børge
The trajectories and stability of self-reported sleep duration recorded at ages 13, 15, and 23 years on reported sleep duration at age 30 years among 1105 students (55% male) who participated in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health and Behaviour Study were examined. Questionnaire data were used to obtain demographic and sleep variables. Dichotomised short sleep duration was based on normative values and set as ≤ 8.5 h (age 13 years), ≤ 8 h (age 15 years) and ≤ 7 h (ages 23 and 30 years). Results indicated a significant overall reduction in total sleep duration (h per night) across age groups. Sleep duration (continuous) at age 15 and 23 years (whole group) was moderately but positively correlated with sleep duration at age 30 years (P < 0.01). When split by sex, at age 15 years, this association was present among females only (P < 0.01); however, at age 23 years, this association was present in both male and females (both P < 0.001). Categorical short sleep at age 23 years (whole group) was associated with short sleep at age 30 years (unadjusted odds ratio = 3.67, 95% confidence interval 2.36-5.69). Following sex stratification, this effect was significant for both males (unadjusted odds ratio = 3.77, 95% confidence interval: 2.22-6.42) and females (unadjusted odds ratio = 2.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-5.04). No associations were noted for categorical short sleep at ages 13 or 15 years, and subsequent short sleep at 30 years. Habitual short sleep duration during middle adulthood is not sustained from the time of early adolescence. Rather, these trends appear to be formed during early adulthood. PMID:26172979
Luh, Dih-Ling; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Wang, Ting-Ting; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng
Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of home smoking restriction (HSR) and the modified effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation among adolescents. Design Prospective Cohort Study. Setting Junior high school in Keelung City, Taiwan. Participants This study collected and evaluated primary data from the Adolescent Smoking and Other Health-Related Behaviour Survey conducted in Keelung City, which aimed to investigate smoking and health-related behaviours in junior high school students (2008–2009). Data on students free of smoking in 2008 and following them until 2009 (n=901) to ascertain whether they had started smoking were analysed with logistic regression mode to examine the proposed postulates. Main outcome measure The outcome variable was smoking initiation, which was defined as smoking status (yes/no) in the 2009 follow-up questionnaire. The main independent variable was HSR obtained from an adolescent self-reported questionnaire. Information on parental smoking was measured by adolescents self-reporting the smoking behaviour of their father and mother. Results The rate of HSR was 29.79% among 7th grade adolescents. The effect of HSR on smoking initiation in adolescents was statistically significantly modified by paternal smoking (p=0.04) but not by maternal smoking (p=0.54). The effect of HSR on smoking initiation was small for fathers with the habit of smoking (OR=0.89, 95% CI (0.42 to 1.88)), but the corresponding effect size was 3.2-fold (OR=2.84, 95% CI 1.19 to 6.81) for fathers without the habit of smoking. Conclusions Paternal smoking behaviour may play an interactive role with HSR in preventing smoking initiation among Taiwanese adolescents. PMID:26116613
do AMARAL, Regiane Cristina; SCABAR, Luiz Felipe; SLATER, Betzabeth; FRAZÃO, Paulo
Objective To compare estimates of food behavior related to oral health obtained through a self-report measure and 24 hour dietary recalls (R24h). Method We applied three R24h and one self-report measure in 87 adolescents. The estimates for eleven food items were compared at individual and group levels. Results No significant differences in mean values were found for ice cream, vegetables and biscuits without filling. For the remaining items, the values reported by the adolescents were higher than the values estimated by R24h. The percentage of adolescents who reported intake frequency of 1 or more times/ day was higher than the value obtained through R24h for all food items except soft drinks. The highest values of crude agreement between the instruments, individually, were found in the biscuits without filling (75.9%) and ice cream (72.4%). Conclusion The results suggest that adolescents tend to report a degree of exposure to the food items larger than what they actually experience in their daily lives. PMID:25466475
Shrier, Lydia A.; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Beardslee, William R.
Objective Assessment of mental health is important in understanding sexual risk behavior in adolescents, yet few studies have examined how affect is directly related to sexual behavior. Momentary sampling (MS) methods permit real-time assessment of affect in relation to specific events and embed the collected data in the context of the respondent’s moment-to-moment life. The objectives of this study were to review the literature on affect and sexual behavior and to compare the feasibility and acceptability of MS with diaries and retrospective self-report as a means of collecting temporally relevant data on affect and sexual behavior in adolescents. Methods Sexually active, nondepressed adolescent outpatients who were aged 15 to 18 years were randomly assigned to a schedule of the 3 methods of data collection for 2 weeks each. All participants completed a retrospective self-report by interview at the end of each 2-week period. In the diary arm, participants completed twice-daily paper-and-pencil diary cards, which were returned by mail. In the MS arm, participants used 2-way pagers to respond to several random pages per day. Primary outcomes included rates of completion (diaries vs MS reports) and the participants’ tolerance of and preferences for the methods. A secondary outcome was the agreement in means for positive and negative affect and in report of days on which substance use and sexual activity occurred. Associations of affect with contextual factors and with sexual activity were also explored in the MS arm. Results Ten youths completed 30 of 30 retrospective self-reports (100%, 3 per participant, by design), 254 of 280 diaries (91%; mean: 25.4 per participant), and 442 of 600 MS reports (74%; mean: 44.2 per participant). Most participants preferred the MS method to the diaries or retrospective self-report. Affect scores and reports of sexual activity and substance use were correlated among the methods. Measured with MS, affect was found to differ by
Paek, Hye-Jin; Reber, Bryan H; Lariscy, Ruthann W
This study proposes a health socialization model and applies it to examine direct, relative and mediating roles of interpersonal and media health socialization agents in predicting adolescent self-reported health literacy. We conducted a paper-and-pencil survey among 452 seventh graders in rural and urban school districts. Our regression analysis results show that both interpersonal and media socialization agents are significantly and positively related to adolescent health literacy. Media socialization agents seem to play a strong role in health literacy orientation, not much weaker than those of interpersonal socialization agents. The proposed health socialization model could contribute to the literature on how adolescents acquire health-related information and channels through which they are most receptive. PMID:21248025
Evans, Spencer C; Blossom, Jennifer B; Canter, Kimberly S; Poppert-Cordts, Katrina; Kanine, Rebecca; Garcia, Andrea; Roberts, Michael C
Emotion reactivity, measured via the self-report Emotion Reactivity Scale (ERS), has shown unique associations with different forms of psychopathology and suicidal thoughts and behaviors; however, this limited body of research has been conducted among adults and older adolescents of predominantly White/European ethnic backgrounds. The present study investigated the validity of ERS scores for measuring emotion reactivity among an urban community sample of middle-school-age girls. Participants (N = 93, ages 11-15, 76% African-American, 18% Latina) completed the ERS and measures of emotion coping, internalizing problems, proactive and reactive aggression, negative life events, and lifetime suicidal ideation and substance use. As hypothesized, ERS scores were significantly associated with internalizing problems, poor emotion coping, negative life events, reactive aggression, and suicidal ideation (evidence for convergent validity), but showed little to no association with proactive aggression or lifetime substance use (evidence for discriminant validity). A series of logistic regressions were conducted to further explore the associations among internalizing problems, emotion reactivity, and suicidal ideation. With depressive symptoms included in the model, emotion reactivity was no longer uniquely predictive of lifetime suicidal ideation, nor did it serve as a moderator of other associations. In conjunction with previous research, these findings offer further support for the construct validity and research utility of the ERS as a self-report measure of emotion reactivity in adolescents. PMID:27157025
Stokes, Jocelyn O; Jent, Jason F; Weinstein, Allison; Davis, Eileen M; Brown, Tasha M; Cruz, Laura; Wavering, Hannah
The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the rate and type of parent-reported homework completion is associated with parent-report of child behavior outcomes, number of sessions to master parental skills as measured by therapist observation, and length of treatment in Parent-child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Sixty-two parent-child dyads (primary caregiver: Mage=36.35years, female 95.20%, 81.60% White, 59.57% Hispanic; child Mage=4.22years; child gender male 64.50%) who completed PCIT were included in the study. A within-subjects hierarchical regression statistical design was used to examine the impact of parent report of homework completion on treatment processes and outcomes. A higher rate of self-reported homework completion was predictive of parental mastery of skill acquisition in fewer sessions and treatment completion in fewer sessions. Parent report of homework completion rate was not related to changes in child disruptive behavior after controlling for child behavior at baseline. Current study findings reinforce the importance of having parents regularly practice PCIT skills outside of session in order to decrease treatment length and facilitate the acquisition of parenting skills, which may reduce family burdens associated with attending a weekly treatment. PMID:27423169
Fahy, Patrick J.; Spencer, Bob; Halinski, Tara
The Centre for Distance Education, Athabasca University, commenced a survey of all graduates of its two programs, the master of distance education (MDE) degree, and the graduate diploma (GD) in technology, in late 2006. Alumni were asked how program completion had affected their careers, and their plans for the future. A total of 84 graduates…
Scott, Lori N.; Whalen, Diana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Beeney, Joseph E.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.
In an at-risk community sample of 2,101 girls, we examined trajectories, predictors, and consequences of changes in a central aspect of adolescents’ perceived quality of attachment (QOA), i.e., their reported trust in the availability and supportiveness of the primary caregiver. Results demonstrated two distinct epochs of change in this aspect of girls’ perceived QOA, with a significant linear decrease in early adolescence (ages 11 to 14) followed by a plateau from 14 to 16. Baseline parent-reported harsh punishment, low parental involvement, single parent status, and child-reported depression symptoms predicted steeper decreases in attachment during early adolescence, which in turn predicted greater child-reported depression and conduct disorder symptoms in later adolescence. Results suggest that both parent and child factors contribute to trajectories of self-reported QOA in adolescence, and a faster rate of decrease in girls’ perceived QOA to caregivers during early adolescence may increase risk for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. PMID:24011095
Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S.; James, Jack E.
Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the…
Aldridge, Jill M.; Ala'i, Kate G.; Fraser, Barry J.
This article reports research into associations between students' perceptions of the school climate and self-reports of ethnic and moral identity in high schools in Western Australia. An instrument was developed to assess students' perceptions of their school climate (as a means of monitoring and guiding schools as they are challenged to become…
Verona, Edelyn; Sadeh, Naomi; Case, Steve M.; Reed, Americus, II; Bhattacharjee, Amit
Two studies investigated the psychometric properties of a self-report measure of commonly recognized forms of aggression (FOA) that could be used to efficiently gather aggression data in large samples. EFA and CFA in Study 1 suggested that a five-factor model (Physical, Property, Verbal, Relational, and Passive-Rational) best represented the data…
Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Woodruff, Susan I.
This study analyzed six waves of panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). These analyses were conducted to test the stability of self-reported lifetime use and age of onset. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated that the stability of age of onset reports decreased with longer time frames between follow-ups.…
Fries, Lauren; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Han, Yoonsun; Delva, Jorge
Research findings remain unclear on whether different factors predict aggression for adolescent men and women. Given that aggression research is rarely conducted with Latin American populations, the current study used multiple imputation and linear regression to assess gender differences in levels and predictors of self-reported physical aggression among a community sample of young (ages 11 through 17) men (n=504) and women (n = 471) from Santiago, Chile. Results revealed that adolescent women reported engaging in higher levels of physical aggression than men. The variables found to be significantly associated with higher levels of reported aggression—younger age, less family involvement, less parental control, less positive relationships with caregivers, having more friends who act out and use substances, having fewer friends committed to learning, presence of dating violence, and more exposure to neighborhood crime—were not moderated by gender, implying that similar factors are related to aggression in adolescent men and women from Chile. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to address high-risk adolescents and reduce aggression among Chilean youth are discussed. PMID:24392266
Examined the validity of aural and oral self-report scales for determining the Fiji Hindi proficiency of new adolescent immigrants in New Zealand. Participants completed self-reports and performance tests (oral interviews, listening-comprehension tests, and vocabulary tests). Performance tests correlated strongly with self-reports. Respondents…
Farrell, Jennifer E.; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Seid, Michael; Verkamp, Emily; DeWitt, Esi Morgan
Objectives To examine the content validity of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pediatric measures, including the pain interference scale, among children and adolescents (aged 8–18 years) who experience chronic pain. To describe children’s understandings of the health domain constructs and elucidate verbal and conceptual aspects of self-reported pain-related functioning, which shape disclosure and reporting. Methods 34 children and youth with diagnoses of juvenile idiopathic arthritis or noninflammatory chronic pain completed semistructured and cognitive interviews exploring the meaning, experience, and expression of up to 4 of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pediatric domains: anger, anxiety, depressive symptoms, fatigue, pain interference, and peer relationships. Team-based thematic and content analyses were conducted. Results Clear verbal and social-cognitive differences were observed in representations and accounts of the domain-experiences across age-groups, but we noted little, if any, evidence of problems with content validity. Conclusions Findings suggest the importance of a rigorous developmental approach for understanding the verbal and cognitive dimensions of pediatric self-reports and patient-reported outcomes. PMID:23027719
Dillon, Frank R.; Turner, Charles W.; Robbins, Michael S.; Szapocznik, José
This study examined the concordance among urine assays, interview measures, and self-report measures of marijuana and cocaine use among 190 drug-abusing/dependent African American and Hispanic adolescents and their families at 3 assessment points of an 18-month randomized clinical trial study. Results demonstrated concordance among urine assays, a calendar method self-report measure (Timeline Follow Back [TLFB]), and a noncalendar method self-report measure (Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis Scale). Diagnostic criteria of marijuana and cocaine abuse/dependence from a clinical structured interview (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children [DISC]) also converged, albeit weakly, with self-report measures. Adolescent and parent reports on DISC marijuana abuse/dependence diagnostic criteria were related; however, collateral findings for DISC cocaine abuse/dependence diagnostic criteria were equivocal. Differences in concordance among biological and self-report cocaine use measures were found for baseline TLFB assessments among African American participants. Implications for future use and refinement of adolescent drug use assessments are discussed. PMID:16366812
Zhou, Lei; Stearns, Sally C.; Thudium, Emily M.; Alburikan, Khalid A.; Rodgers, Jo Ellen
Objective Medicare Part D claims are commonly used for research, but missing claims could compromise their validity. This study assessed two possible causes of missing claims: veteran status and Generic Drug Discount Programs (GDDP). Methods We merged medication self-reports from telephone interviews in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) with Part D claims for six medications (three were commonly in GDDP in 2009). Merged records (4,468) were available for 2,905 ARIC participants enrolled in Part D. Multinomial logit regression provided estimates of the association of concordance (self-report & Part D, self-report only, or Part D only) with veteran and GDDP status, controlling for participant socio-demographics. Results Sample participants were 74±5 years of age, 68% white and 63% female; 19% were male veterans. Compared to females, male veterans were 11% (95% CI: 7%–16%) less likely to have matched medications in self-report & Part D and 11% (95% CI: 7%–16%) more likely to have self-report only. Records for GDDP versus non-GDDP medications were 4% (95% CI: 1%–7%) more likely to be in self-report & Part D and 3% (95% CI: 1%–5%) less likely to be in Part D only, with no difference in self-report only. Conclusions Part D claims were more likely to be missing for veterans, but claims for medications commonly available through GDDP were more likely to match with self-reports. While researchers should be aware of the possibility of missing claims, GDDP status was associated with a higher rather than lower likelihood of claims being complete in 2009. PMID:25793271
Roscoe, B; Strouse, J S; Goodwin, M P
Considerable attention has been focused on sexual harassment experiences and attitudes of older adolescents and adults. Recently, educational and judicial institutions have recognized that harassment also occurs among junior and senior high school students. The primary aim of this project was to gather information regarding early adolescents' experiences with and acceptance of sexual harassment behaviors. Results indicate a considerable proportion of females (50%) and males (37%) have been victims of sexual harassment perpetrated by their peers, even though their acceptance of these behaviors is quite low. Suggestions for a sexual harassment educational program for early adolescents are presented. PMID:7832018
Barry, Christopher T; Kauten, Rebecca L
Prior research indicates that dimensions of adolescent narcissism differ in their associations with indicators of positive and negative psychological functioning (e.g., Barry, Frick, Adler, & Grafeman, 2007 ; Barry & Wallace, 2010 ). This study investigated correlates of 2 empirically derived factors of adolescent narcissism (i.e., pathological and nonpathological narcissism) from 2 measures thought to differ based on their inclusion of pathological versus nonpathological content. In a sample of 188 at-risk adolescents ages 16 to 18, pathological narcissism was associated with various indicators of maladjustment, including aggression, low self-esteem, internalizing problems, and poor perceived interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, nonpathological narcissism was positively associated with self-esteem and aggression but negatively associated with internalizing problems. The implications for the conceptualization of adolescent narcissism are discussed. PMID:24007215
Cohen, Alison K.; Chaffee, Benjamin W.
A long-standing objective of American public education is fostering civically engaged youth. Identifying characteristics associated with likelihood of future voting, a measure of democratic participation that predicts future voting behavior, might yield targets for education programs to increase civic participation. Survey data from urban adolescents were analyzed to elucidate how civic knowledge, civic attitudes, and civic behaviors are associated with self-reported likelihood of future voting. In a multivariable ordered logistic regression model with latent constructs for civic knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, two civic knowledge constructs and two civic attitude constructs maintained a positive, statistically significant independent association with future voting likelihood after adjusting for race/ethnicity and advanced coursework: knowledge of American governance, current events knowledge, general self-efficacy, and skill-specific self-efficacy. Further research is necessary to determine whether education programs can intervene upon these civic knowledge and civic attitude factors to increase voting participation later in life. PMID:24847376
Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne
Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescence, and medically serious suicide attempts occur in approximately 3% of adolescents. This review examines a number of risk factors that contribute to suicidal behavior. A prior suicide attempt is one of the best predictors of both a repeat attempt and eventual completed suicide. Depression, disruptive behavior disorders, and substance-use disorders also place adolescents at high risk for suicidal behavior, with comorbidity further increasing risk. Research on families indicates that suicidal behavior is transmitted through families. Groups at high risk for suicidal behavior include gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths, incarcerated adolescents, and homeless/runaway teens. Although abnormalities in the serotonergic system have not been consistently linked to suicidal behavior, genetic and neurobiologic studies suggest that impulsive aggression may be the mechanism through which decreased serotonergic activity is related to suicidal behavior. Findings from prevention and intervention studies are modest and indicate the need for substantially more theory-driven treatment research. PMID:17716070
Greuel, Jan Felix; Reinhold, Nadine; Wenglorz, Markus; Heinrichs, Nina
Emotion regulation (ER) is extensively researched in the context of psychopathology. It is quite controversial if deficits in ER are related to psychopathology across disorders or specifically linked to certain forms of psychopathology. Furthermore, it appears unclear if there are differences in ER depending on the specific emotion to be regulated. There are only few studies comparing different forms of psychopathology in terms of ER, specifically in childhood and adolescence. We explored ER in a consecutive clinical sample seeking help in two outpatient university clinics (N=129, age: 7-17 years, 45% female). In a first step, the ER of all children and adolescents seeking professional help for emotional and behavioral problems was compared with the ER-characteristics of children and adolescents identified in school samples. In a second step, the clinical sample was divided into different groups of psychopathology, comparing the associations of different types of psychopathology with ER. ER in the clinical sample differed significantly from children and adolescents in school settings. The clinical sample was particularly characterized by a lack of adaptive strategies, and only partially by an increased use of maladaptive strategies. Further analysis revealed no specific deficits in the ER depending on types of psychopathology. The findings suggest a transdiagnostic and emotion-overarching conceptualization of ER in childhood and adolescence. PMID:26032033
Ainuddin, Husna A; Loh, Siew Yim; Chinna, Karuthan; Low, Wah Yun; Roslani, April Camilla
Adolescence is the potential period for growth and optimal functioning, but developmental issues like time of transition from childhood to adulthood will create stress and affect the adolescent's quality of life (QOL). However, there is a lack of research tool for measuring adolescent's QOL in Malaysia. The aim of the study was to determine the validity and reliability of the self-report Malay version of the pediatric QOL (PedsQL™) 4.0 Generic Core Scales in assessing the QOL of Malaysian adolescents. A cross-sectional study design using the 23-item self-report Malay version of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales was administered on a convenient cluster sampling (n = 297 adolescent) from a secondary school. The internal consistency reliability had Cronbach's α values ranging from .70 to .89. Factor analysis reported a six-factor structure via principal axis factor analysis. In conclusion, the self-report Malay version of the pediatric QOL 4.0 Generic Core Scales is a reliable and valid tool to measure the QOL of multiethnic Malaysian adolescents. PMID:24154841
Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Applegate, Brooks; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.
Lahey and Waldman (2003, 2005) proposed a model in which three dispositions--sympathetic response to others; negative emotional response to threat, frustration, and loss; and positive response to novelty and risk--transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder (CD). To test this model, the Child and Adolescent Dispositions…
Felts, Michael; And Others
Data from the 1990 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine adolescents' perceptions of relative weight and the relationship of these perceptions to physical activity levels, weight loss efforts, and television viewing time. About 25 percent (860) considered themselves too fat and reported little physical activity. (SM)
Buchanan, Christy Miller
Examined were relations between concentrations and variability of hormones (testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, and leutenizing hormone) and mood intensity, mood variability (within and across days), energy, and restlessness in early adolescent girls. The study also considered the issue of whether hormones have effects on mood…
Englander, Stephen W.
Investigated correlates of runaway behavior in adolescent females (N=52) as contrasted with nonrunaways (N=51). Results indicated that nonrunaway girls described their parents as supportive and restrictive and themselves as having social self-esteem to a significantly greater extent than did their runaway peers. (LLL)
Banyard, Victoria L.; Cross, Charlotte; Modecki, Kathryn L.
Although growing attention is being paid to the problem of teen dating violence, to date less is known about perpetrators of victimization. The current article used a subset of 980 adolescents aged 11 to 19 who were surveyed as part of a statewide community service coordinated through Cooperative Extension to survey all youth in target communities…
Kantomaa, M. T.; Tammelin, T. H.; Demakakos, P.; Ebeling, H. E.; Taanila, A. M.
This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02.…
Zullig, Keith; Ubbes, Valerie A.; Pyle, Jennifer; Valois, Robert F.
This study explored the relationships among weight perceptions, dieting behavior, and breakfast eating in 4597 public high school adolescents using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were constructed separately for race and gender groups via SUDAAN (Survey Data…
Shillington, Audrey M.; Reed, Mark B.; Clapp, John D.
This study is the first to examine adolescent cigarette report stability over 10 years. Six waves of data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. This study examined internal/logical consistency and external consistency. Report stability was higher for lifetime use reports than the age of onset reports. Wave-by-wave…
Kantomaa, M T; Tammelin, T H; Demakakos, P; Ebeling, H E; Taanila, A M
This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated and adjusted for family structure and all variables in the models. In the fully adjusted models, higher levels of physical activity and high parental socio-economic position were associated with higher overall academic performance and future plans for higher education. High scoring on behavioural problems was related to lower overall academic performance and poorer future academic plans. In summary, a higher level of physical activity, fewer behavioural problems and higher socio-economic position were independently associated with high self-perceived overall academic performance and plans for higher education among adolescents. The interrelations of these factors and the positive relationship between physical activity, mental health and school outcomes provide a context of critical importance for future research, intervention programming and policy directed at improving the educational attainment of adolescents. PMID:19762353
Kokkevi, A.; Rotsika, V.; Arapaki, A.; Richardson, C.
Background: Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in Europe. Self-harm thoughts and behaviours are documented precursors of completed suicide. It is therefore of great importance to investigate the prevalence of suicide thoughts and attempts and their correlates, with the aim of preventing this major life-threatening public health…
Hellström, Lisa; Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt
The current study examined concordance and discordance between a measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression with respect to the number of students identified as victims. Swedish adolescents (N = 1,760) completed a web-based questionnaire. A measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression were compared in order to elucidate the unique…
Krahe, Barbara; Moller, Ingrid
The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant,…
Ravi, Sheila; Forsberg, Sarah; Fitzpatrick, Kara; Lock, James
The current study aimed to screen for indications of psychopathology displayed by the parents of adolescents diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), and examine the relationship between severity of adolescent eating disorder symptoms and parental psychopathology. Sixty female adolescents diagnosed with DSM-IV-TR AN (restricting-type and binge-purge-type) were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and parents completed the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). As compared to established non-patient norms, both fathers and mothers of adolescents with AN reported greater levels of obsessive compulsive behaviors, hostility, depression, and anxiety as measured by the SCL-90-R. In addition, duration of AN was positively associated with hostility scores in fathers, and global EDE scores were associated with hostility in mothers. While parental scores on the SCL-90 were elevated as compared to community samples, results of this study do not support a direct influence of parental psychopathology on symptom severity of adolescent AN. Increasing rates of hostility scores in parents with increased duration of AN may represent either a response to the presence of the disorder or be a maintaining factor for AN. PMID:19105061
While there are a number of short personality trait measures that have been validated for use with adults, few are specifically validated for use with adolescents. To trust such measures, it must be demonstrated that they have adequate construct validity. According to the view of construct validity as a unifying form of validity requiring the integration of different complementary sources of information, this article reports the evaluation of content, factor, convergent, and criterion validities as well as reliability of adolescents' self-reported personality traits. Moreover, this study sought to address an inherent potential limitation of short personality trait measures, namely their limited conceptual breadth. In this study, starting with items from a known measure, after the language-level was adjusted for use with adolescents, items tapping fundamental primary traits were added to determine the impact of added conceptual breadth on the psychometric properties of the scales. The resulting new measure was named the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ). A group of expert judges considered the items to have adequate content validity. Using data from a community sample of early adolescents, the results confirmed the factor validity of the Big Five structure in adolescence as well as its measurement invariance across genders. More important, the added items did improve the convergent and criterion validities of the scales, but did not negatively affect their reliability. This study supports the construct validity of adolescents' self-reported personality traits and points to the importance of conceptual breadth in short personality measures. PMID:24619971
Doll, L S; Joy, D; Bartholow, B N; Harrison, J S; Bolan, G; Douglas, J M; Saltzman, L E; Moss, P M; Delgado, W
From May 1989 through April 1990, 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics were interviewed regarding potentially abusive sexual contacts during childhood and adolescence. Thirty-seven percent of participants reported they had been encouraged or forced to have sexual contact before age 19 with an older or more powerful partner; 94% occurred with men. Median age of the participant at first contact was 10; median age difference between partners was 11 years. Fifty-one percent involved use of force; 33% involved anal sex. Black and Hispanic men were more likely than white men to report such sexual contact. Using developmentally-based criteria to define sexual abuse, 93% of participants reporting sexual contact with an older or more powerful partner were classified as sexually abused. Our data suggest the risk of sexual abuse may be high among some male youth and increased attention should be devoted to prevention as well as early identification and treatment. PMID:1486514
Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Brown, Larry K.; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita
This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors. PMID:22323006
Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Martínez-Andrés, María; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente
The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between deaf children's and adolescents' self-ratings of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and their parents' proxy reports. This observational cross-sectional study included 114 deaf 8- to 18-years-old students and proxy family members. HRQoL was measured using the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire, which was adapted to Spanish sign language for children, with a written version for parents. Respondents completed a self-administered paper questionnaire. Parents' and children's mean scores differences were not significant, except for the "Autonomy and Parents" and "Peers and Social Support" dimensions. Children aged 8-11 years scored higher in some domains of QoL compared to those aged 12-18 years. The level of agreement between children/adolescents' and parents/proxies' responses was acceptable, except for the dimension "Autonomy and Parents." Overall, deaf children/adolescents' self-ratings of HRQoL did not differ from their parents' proxy reports; however, differences were found in the dimensions that explored the quality of the interaction of children/adolescents and parents, the perceived level of autonomy, and social relations and support. PMID:25986604
Lee, Yi-chen; Yang, Hao-Jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Lee, Wan-Ting; Teng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chung-Hui; Gossop, Michael
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent developmental disorder that seriously and negatively impacts a child's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the magnitude of impact, domains affected and factors moderating the impact. This review included nine studies that compared HRQOL of children or adolescents with ADHD with those with typical development using both child self-reports and parent proxy-reports. Seven among nine studies were meta-analytically synthesized to examine the degree of impact of ADHD on children and adolescents, parent-child discrepancy, and the moderators. The results indicate that ADHD impact a child's or adolescent's HRQOL negatively with a moderate effect in physical and a severe effect in psychosocial (i.e., emotional, social, and school) domains. Parental ratings of overall HRQOL in children or adolescents with ADHD were not significantly different from child's ratings when compared with typically developing children and adolescents. Age was negatively associated with all domains of HRQOL in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent- and child-ratings, and the strongest effect was found in parental ratings of child's emotional HRQOL, with a moderate correlation. This meta-analysis suggests that HRQOL may be assessed in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent proxy- and child self-reports, and that interventions may be planned accordingly. Future meta-analysis may explore how measures of HRQOL and other factors including child, parental, familiar and school characteristics influence the impact of ADHD and the parent-child agreement in children and adolescents. PMID:26829402
de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents. PMID:26373289
Mazefsky, C. A.; Kao, J.; Oswald, D. P.
This study investigated the utility of self-report measures to screen for psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty-eight 10-17 year olds with an ASD and without mental retardation completed: the "Children's Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S)", "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS)", "Conners-Wells…
Background Substantial numbers of adolescents self-harm, but the majority of cases do not reach the attention of medical services, making community studies essential. The prevalence of suicidal thoughts and plans at this age, and the inter-relationships between suicidal thoughts, plans and self-harm remain largely unexplored. Method Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported questionnaire data collected from members of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort, England. Respondents (n = 4810) were aged 16–17 years old and have been followed up since birth. Results Altogether 905 (18.8%) respondents had ever self-harmed. The prevalence of lifetime self-harm was higher in females (25.6%) than males (9.1%). The most commonly used method was self-cutting: this was used alone or in combination in 73.5% of episodes, compared to 10.0% who took overdoses alone or in combination with other methods. Of those who reported self-harm, 25.3% wanted to die during the most recent episode. Concurrent depression was associated with a greatly increased risk of self-harm (OR 5.43). Only 12.4% of participants sought medical help following their most recent episode of self-harm, although this figure was higher (30.1%) where self-harm was carried out with desire to die. Of the whole sample, 15.8% had ever thought of killing themselves, and 4.3% had ever made plans to kill themselves. Compared to those who had never self-harmed, those who had self-harmed but not wanted to die during the most recent episode were at increased risk of ever having had suicidal thoughts (37.6% compared to 7.8% χ2 =102.3, p < 0.001) and ever making suicidal plans (8.7% compared to 0.7%, χ2 =166.9, p < 0.001). As the frequency of self-harm increased, so did the risk of suicidal thoughts and plans. Conclusions Self-harm and suicidal thoughts are common among 16/17 year olds. Although the majority of self-harm behaviour is not accompanied by a desire to die, all
Kidger, Judi; Heron, Jon; Leon, David A; Tilling, Kate; Lewis, Glyn; Gunnell, David
Background Several aspects of school life are thought to be associated with increased risk of self-harm in adolescence, but these have rarely been investigated in prospective studies. Methods Members of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort completed postal surveys of school experiences aged 14, and self-harm behaviour aged 16 (n=3939). Associations between school experiences (feeling connected to school, enjoyment of school and perception of teachers as fair) and subsequent self-harm were examined using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Self-harm aged 16 was associated with earlier perceptions of school, specifically not getting on well with or feeling accepted by others (OR=2.43 [1.76, 3.35] and OR=2.69 [2.16, 3.35] respectively), not liking school or the work done in class (OR=1.40 [1.17, 1.69] and OR=1.36 [1.10, 1.67]), and feeling that teachers are not clear about behaviour or fail to address misbehaviour consistently (OR=1.59 [1.20, 2.12] OR=1.89 [1.51, 2.37]). These associations were partially attenuated in models controlling for mental health concurrent with the outcome. Poor school experiences were related to both suicidal and non-suicidal self-harm, with slightly stronger associations visible for the former. Limitations (i) There was some loss to follow up, (ii) experience of bullying was not measured, and (iii) exposure and outcome measures were self-report. Conclusions Students who feel unconnected to school, unhappy at school, or feel that teachers are unfair are more likely to self-harm in the future. Assessing students׳ perceptions of school may serve to identify those at risk of self-harm who would benefit from preventative interventions. PMID:25462412
Douma, Jolanda C. H.; Dekker, Marielle C.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Koot, Hans M.
Objective: To determine the extent to which the Youth Self-Report (YSR) can be used to assess emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Method: In 2003, 281 11- to 18-year-olds with IDs (IQ greater than or equal to 48) completed the YSR in an interview, and in 1993, 1,047 non-ID adolescents completed…
This study explores moderating roles of primary social influences in the relationship between adolescent triers' and experimenters' self-reported exposure to antismoking messages and their smoking intentions. The theoretical arguments are drawn from primary socialization theory, group socialization theory, and the social development model, and the data are from the 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey. The tobit regression models demonstrate that, as a primary social influence, peer smoking seems to be a strong risk factor for all of the adolescent segments' smoking intentions, whereas parental monitoring can be a significant counter-risk factor for middle-schoolers' smoking intentions. In addition, school intervention programs and parental monitoring against smoking appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between high-school triers' self-reported exposure to antismoking messages and their smoking intentions. The findings seem to suggest that campaigners should make more efforts to incorporate primary social influences to prevent adolescent smoking. The findings also suggest that campaigners should tailor antismoking programs to fit specific target audiences. In particular, middle-school experimenters deserve more attention from antismoking campaigners because they seem most vulnerable to future smoking. PMID:19089700
Rescorla, Leslie A.; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Begovac, Ivan; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chahed, Myriam; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Minaei, Asghar; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Petot, Djaouida; Petot, Jean-Michel; Pomalima, Rolando; Rudan, Vlasta; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.
We used population sample data from 25 societies to answer the following questions: (a) How consistently across societies do adolescents report more problems than their parents report about them? (b) Do levels of parent-adolescent agreement vary among societies for different kinds of problems? (c) How well do parents and adolescents in different…
Neumann, Anne; Ojong, Tambetta N.; Yanes, Paula K.; Tumiel-Berhalter, Laurene; Daigler, Gerald E.; Blondell, Richard D.
This study examined the admission characteristics associated with failure to complete residential substance abuse treatment among male adolescents. Of 160 admissions, 48 (30%) completed treatment. Having commercial health insurance (P = 0.005), having a family history of a substance use disorder (P = 0.05), and living with only one biological parent (P = 0.015) were admission characteristics associated with non-completion. Those reporting a history of physical or sexual abuse also appeared to be at risk for non-completion (P = 0.014); none of these patients completed the treatment. Interventions that improve residential substance abuse treatment retention for adolescents are needed. PMID:20924878
Background Adolescent depression is more common in lower socio-economic groups. Whether this pattern has changed over time, is not known. We examined the prevalence of self-reported depression and its changes in socio-economic groups from 2000 to 2011 among Finnish adolescents. Methods Data were based on classroom surveys every second year from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 using nationwide samples of 14–16-year old Finns (n = 618,084). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires including questions on health, health behaviours, and school experiences. Depression was measured with a Finnish modification of the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, and divided into no, mild, moderate and severe depression. The association between depression and the social background (parents’ education and employment) over time was studied using a multinomial regression analysis. Results The prevalence of self-reported severe depression slightly increased from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 in girls. In boys a slight increase was observed when adjusting for background variables. The differences in the prevalence of depression between the social background groups persisted over the entire study period. In both sexes, severe depression nearly doubled among those adolescents whose parents were unemployed and had a low education level; among boys, the prevalence was 6.5% in 2000–2001 and 12.8% in 2010–2011, and among girls 6.4% and 11.4% respectively. Conclusion The largest increases in prevalence of severe depression are seen among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents. This suggests that inequalities in mental health may become an increasing concern. PMID:24775269
Lahey, Benjamin B; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J
Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4-9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4-9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14-17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds. PMID:24736982
Lahey, Benjamin B.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rathouz, Paul J.
Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4–9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4–9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14–17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds. PMID:24736982
Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid
The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant, ratings of prosocial and aggressive behavior were obtained from their class teacher. Media violence exposure was a unique predictor of teacher-rated aggression even when relevant covariates were considered, and it predicted prosocial behavior over and above gender. Path analyses confirmed a direct positive link from media violence usage to teacher-rated aggression for girls and boys, but no direct negative link to prosocial behavior was found. Indirect pathways were identified to higher aggressive and lower prosocial behavior via the acceptance of aggression as normative. Although there were significant gender differences in media violence exposure, aggression, and prosocial behavior, similar path models were identified for boys and girls. PMID:20627370
Quiroga, Cintia V.; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Morin, Alexandre J. S.
Research on adolescent well-being has shown that students with depression have an increased risk of facing academic failure, yet few studies have looked at the implications of adolescent depression in the process of school dropout. This study examined mediation processes linking depression symptoms, self-perceived academic competence, and…
Zach-Vanhorn, Sara M.
This research was conducted to explore predictors and moderators of bullying involvement, social and emotional problems, vocabulary knowledge, and crimes. There was one main research question: (1) Is there a the relationship between adolescents with social and emotional problems as measured by the SDQ (Goodman, 1997) and adolescents'…
Dorn, Lorah D.; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa M.; Pabst, Stephanie; Tissot, Abbigail; Susman, Elizabeth J.
Age at menarche is critical in research and clinical settings, yet there is a dearth of studies examining its reliability in adolescents. We examined age at menarche during adolescence, specifically, (a) average method reliability across 3 years, (b) test-retest reliability between time points and methods, (c) intraindividual variability of…
Clark, David A.; Bolton, Derek
The Leyton Obsessional Inventory and the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory were administered to 11 obsessive-compulsive adolescents and 10 anxious non-obsessional patients. Obsessional adolescents scored significantly higher than controls on the Maudsley total score and checking factors alone. (Author/RH)
Lord, Sarah E; Trudeau, Kimberlee J; Black, Ryan A; Lorin, Lucy; Cooney, Elizabeth; Villapiano, Albert; Butler, Stephen F
The current study was conducted to construct and validate a computer-delivered, multimedia, substance use self-assessment for adolescents. Reliability and validity of six problem dimensions were evaluated in two studies, conducted from 2003 to 2008. Study 1 included 192 adolescents from five treatment settings throughout the United States (N = 142) and two high schools from Greater Boston, Massachusetts (N = 50). Study 2 included 356 adolescents (treatment: N = 260; school: N = 94). The final version of Comprehensive Health Assessment for Teens (CHAT) demonstrated relatively strong psychometric properties. The limitations and implications of this study are noted. This study was supported by an SBIR grant. PMID:21174498
Kuschner, Emily S.; Eisenberg, Ian W.; Orionzi, Bako; Simmons, W. Kyle; Kenworthy, Lauren; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.
Although it is well-established that picky eating is a common feature of early development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), far less is known about food selectivity during adolescence and adulthood. Using portions of the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile, food selectivity self-ratings were obtained from 65 high-functioning adolescents/young adults with ASD and compared to those of 59 typically developing controls matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Individuals with ASD reported preferring familiar foods (food neophobia) and disliking foods with particular textures and strong flavors. Providing linkage to everyday behavior, parent ratings of daily living skills were lower among individuals with ASD and food neophobia than among those without food neophobia. Food selectivity continues to be an important issue for adolescents/young adults with ASD. PMID:26309446
Maniglio, Roberto; Innamorati, Marco
To provide a comprehensive picture of the whole spectrum of psychosocial factors potentially associated with adolescent cannabis use, bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess a variety of social, demographic, psychological, and behavioral correlates of last-month cannabis use and age of first use among 6,838 students. Results showed that only family problems, alcohol and/or other drug use/misuse, deviant behavior, and victimization were independently associated with either recent cannabis use or early onset of cannabis use when multiple, interacting factors were considered. Certain family and behavioral factors might be more important than other psychosocial correlates of adolescent cannabis use. PMID:25115199
Rahman, Mahbubur; Laz, Tabassum H.; McGrath, Christine J.; Berenson, Abbey B.
OBJECTIVE To examine correlates of vaccine series completion among young adolescent US girls who initiated the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. METHODS We analyzed National Immunization Survey-Teens 2012 provider-verified data to examine correlates of HPV vaccine completion among 13-17 year old girls who initiated HPV vaccine in 2012 (N=4,548). RESULTS The weighted vaccine series completion rate among 13-17 year old girl initiators was 66.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 64.0-69.3). Adolescent girls who were older, residents of the Northeast (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.73), and had provider-verified seasonal influenza vaccination in the past year (aPR 1.67, 95% CI 1.32-2.11) and provider recommendation (aPR 1.40, 95% CI 1.10-1.77) were more likely to complete the 3-dose vaccine series. CONCLUSIONS Parents of younger adolescent girls need to be educated about the importance of completing the 3-dose HPV vaccine series. Provider recommendation for the vaccine would also facilitate series completion. PMID:25848128
Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; Foti, Kathryn; Blanck, Heidi M
High consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks has been associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This cross-sectional study examined the association of demographic characteristics, weight status, self-reported academic grades, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened soda intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 16,188 students in grades 9 through 12. The main outcome measure was daily sugar-sweetened soda intake (eg, drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda [excluding diet soda] at least one time per day during the 7 days before the survey). Nationally, 29.2% of students reported drinking sugar-sweetened soda at least one time per day. Logistic regression analyses showed factors significantly associated with sugar-sweetened soda intake at least one time per day included male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.47), Hispanic ethnicity (vs whites; OR=0.81), earning mostly B, C, and D/F grades (vs mostly As; OR=1.26, 1.66, and 2.19, respectively), eating vegetables fewer than three times per day (OR=0.72), trying to lose weight (OR=0.72), sleeping <8 hours (OR=1.18), watching television >2 hours/day (OR=1.71), playing video or computer games or using a computer for other than school work >2 hours/day (OR=1.53), being physically active at least 60 minutes/day on <5 days during the 7 days before the survey (OR=1.19), and current cigarette use (OR=2.01). The significant associations with poor self-reported academic grades, inadequate sleep, sedentary behaviors, and cigarette smoking suggest research should examine why soda consumption is associated with these behaviors to inform the design of future nutrition interventions. PMID:22709642
Balentine, Margaret; And Others
Study identified African-American low-income adolescents who thought they had bulimia or anorexia nervosa, identified common behaviors, and compared actual and perceived body weight and dieting methods. About 12 percent suspected an eating disorder and perceived themselves as heavier more often than their peers. Fasting was the most common dieting…
Rosenkoetter, Eileen; Loman, Deborah G.
Over one third of U.S. adolescents are overweight. A descriptive, cross-sectional study examined the relationship between student dietary self-efficacy (SE), sugar-sweetened beverages, and low-nutrient energy-dense food consumption, and exposure to a healthy school food environment without competitive foods. The sample consisted of 292 urban,…
LeBaron, Samuel; Zeltzer, Lonnie
Compared a checklist of distress behaviors to patient (N=67) and observer ratings of pain and anxiety. Results indicated that children showed greater evidence of behavioral distress than adolescents only during the actual medical procedure; however, additional behaviors were observed that suggested that the checklist was age biased. (LLL)
Maanen, Annette; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F.; Oort, Frans J.; de Bruin, Eduard J.; Smits, Marcel G.; Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Kerkhof, Gerard A.; Meijer, Anne Marie
Background: Sleep reduction, resulting from insufficient or poor sleep, is a common phenomenon in adolescents. Due to its severe negative psychological and behavioral daytime consequences, it is important to have a short reliable and valid measure to assess symptoms of sleep reduction. Objective: This study aims to validate the Sleep Reduction…
Portnoy, Jill; Raine, Adrian; Glenn, Andrea L; Chen, Frances R; Choy, Olivia; Granger, Douglas A
Although reduced cortisol reactivity to stress and increased circulating testosterone level are hypothesized to be associated with higher levels of externalizing behavior, empirical findings are inconsistent. One factor that may account for the heterogeneity in these relationships is prenatal testosterone exposure. This study examined whether the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal testosterone exposure, moderates the relationships of testosterone and cortisol reactivity with externalizing behavior. Left and right hand 2D:4D and self-reported externalizing behavior were measured in a sample of 353 young adolescents (M age=11.92 years; 178 females; 79.7% African American). Saliva samples were collected before and after a stress task and later assayed for cortisol. Testosterone levels were determined from an AM saliva sample. 2D:4D interacted with cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior in males, but not females. In males, low cortisol reactivity was associated with higher levels of aggression and rule-breaking behavior, but only among subjects with low 2D:4D (i.e., high prenatal testosterone). Findings suggest the importance of a multi-systems approach in which interactions between multiple hormones are taken into account. Furthermore, results demonstrate the importance of considering the organizational influence of prenatal testosterone in order to understand the activational influence of circulating hormones during adolescence. PMID:26463360
Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Martínez-Andrés, María; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente
The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between deaf children's and adolescents' self-ratings of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and their parents' proxy reports. This observational cross-sectional study included 114 deaf 8- to 18-years-old students and proxy family members. HRQoL was measured using the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire,…
Kronholm, Erkki; Puusniekka, Riikka; Jokela, Jukka; Villberg, Jari; Urrila, Anna Sofia; Paunio, Tiina; Välimaa, Raili; Tynjälä, Jorma
The aim of this study was to investigate long-term trends in insomnia symptoms, tiredness and school performance among Finnish adolescents. A time-series from 1984 to 2011 was analysed from two large-scale survey studies, the Finnish School Health Promotion Study and the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study. A total of 1,136,583 adolescents aged 11-18 years answered a standardized questionnaire assessing frequency of insomnia symptoms, tiredness and school performance. A clear approximately twofold increasing trend in insomnia symptoms and tiredness was found from the mid-1990s to the end of the 2000s. The increase was evident in all participating age groups and in both genders. After 2008, the increase seems to have stopped. Insomnia symptoms and tiredness were associated with lower school performance and they were more prevalent among girls (11.9 and 18.4%) compared to boys (6.9 and 9.0%, respectively). Unexpectedly, we also observed an increasingly widening gap in school performance between normally vigilant and chronically tired pupils. The underlying causes of these phenomena are unknown, but may concern changes in the broader society. The observed recent increasing trend in adolescents' sleep problems is worrisome: poor sleep quality has also been suggested to associate with clinical or subclinical mood or anxiety disorders and behavioural problems and predispose to sleep and psychiatric disorders later in life. Our results justify further studies and call for serious attention to be paid to adolescent's sleep in the Finnish educational system and society at large. PMID:25367818
Vorstman, Jacob AS; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B
Background Speech problems are a common clinical feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The objectives of this study were to inventory the speech history and current self-reported speech rating of adolescents and young adults, and examine the possible variables influencing the current speech ratings, including cleft palate, surgery, speech and language therapy, intelligence quotient, and age at assessment. Methods In this cross-sectional cohort study, 50 adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (ages, 12-26 years, 67% female) filled out questionnaires. A neuropsychologist administered an age-appropriate intelligence quotient test. The demographics, histories, and intelligence of patients with normal speech (speech rating=1) were compared to those of patients with different speech (speech rating>1). Results Of the 50 patients, a minority (26%) had a cleft palate, nearly half (46%) underwent a pharyngoplasty, and all (100%) had speech and language therapy. Poorer speech ratings were correlated with more years of speech and language therapy (Spearman's correlation= 0.418, P=0.004; 95% confidence interval, 0.145-0.632). Only 34% had normal speech ratings. The groups with normal and different speech were not significantly different with respect to the demographic variables; a history of cleft palate, surgery, or speech and language therapy; and the intelligence quotient. Conclusions All adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had undergone speech and language therapy, and nearly half of them underwent pharyngoplasty. Only 34% attained normal speech ratings. Those with poorer speech ratings had speech and language therapy for more years. PMID:25276637
Kaplan, C P; Tanjasiri, S P
Although a substantial literature compares data on health-related behaviors collected by face-to-face and telephone interview formats, little attention has been paid to the comparability of responses regarding cigarette-smoking-related behavior, particularly among Latino youth. This study compares telephone and face-to-face interview methods for assessing smoking behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs among Latina adolescents. Data indicated no significant differences in demographic characteristics or smoking-related behaviors between the face-to-face and telephone groups. However, respondents interviewed face-to-face were significantly more likely to express dislike of smokers and state that quitting smoking was easy. PMID:8806163
Anderman, Eric M.; Midgley, Carol
Changes in early adolescents' self-reported cheating behaviors in mathematics before and after the transition from middle school to high school are examined. Students were surveyed in school regarding their cheating behaviors in math, and the motivational goal structures perceived in their math classrooms. Surveys were completed twice during the…
Hu, Yueqin; Xu, Yishan; Tornello, Samantha L
This study examined how sexual attraction varied across age, gender of participant, and gender of romantic partner, from adolescence to early adulthood. Comparisons between same-sex and both-sex attracted individuals were of particular interest. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), we examined the responses of participants who reported experiencing same-sex attractions or both-sex attractions at least once within four waves (n = 1889). Results indicated that same-sex attractions became more stable over time, whereas both-sex attraction remained unstable even into adulthood. Compared with males, females were less stable in same-sex attraction, but more stable in both-sex attraction. The majority of people who reported same-sex attraction did not report having a same-sex romantic partner before they entered adulthood, and those who reported a same-sex romantic partner were more likely to maintain their same-sex attraction than those who did not. As males got older, the gender of their romantic partner tended to become more consistent with their sexual attraction. However, for females, the consistency between the gender of their romantic partner and sexual attraction did not change over time. PMID:26048483
Rosenkoetter, Eileen; Loman, Deborah G
Over one third of U.S. adolescents are overweight. A descriptive, cross-sectional study examined the relationship between student dietary self-efficacy (SE), sugar-sweetened beverages, and low-nutrient energy-dense food consumption, and exposure to a healthy school food environment without competitive foods. The sample consisted of 292 urban, primarily African American students aged 11 to 16 years. Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) analyses revealed a significant but weak linear trend for girls between number of school meals and SE to drink less soda, χ(2)(1) = 6.882, p = .008, and between semesters attended with SE to eat more fruits and vegetables, χ(2)(1) = 5.908, p = .015. Obese students had significantly higher scores for two SE items than nonobese students, that is, plan better nutrition, χ(2)(1) = 3.998, p = .045, and eat healthy at a fast-food restaurant, χ(2)(1) = 4.078, p = .043. Further study of adolescent SE for healthy eating and school-based, food-focused obesity prevention interventions is needed. PMID:25736047
Dewinter, J; Vermeiren, R; Vanwesenbeeck, I; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch
Systematic research on sexual development in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains scant, notwithstanding the often-suggested relation between ASD, atypical, and even sexually offensive behaviours. This study compared follow-up data related to lifetime sexual experience (LTSE) in a homogeneous group of adolescent boys with ASD (n = 30), aged 16-20, with a matched group of boys in the general population (n = 60). Most boys in the ASD and control groups reported masturbation and having experienced an orgasm. The proportion of boys with ASD that had no partnered sexual experience was larger than in the control group. This difference was mostly explained by significantly fewer boys with ASD, compared with controls, who reported experience with kissing and petting; no significant differences emerged relating to more intimate partnered sexual experiences. The results suggest the existence of a subgroup of boys who have not (yet) entered the arena of partnered sexual experiences-a finding in line with research in adult samples. There were no differences relating to sexual abuse or coercion. Exploration of the partnered experiences revealed a variety of types of partners, mostly of comparable age. Several boys with ASD had not anticipated their sexual debut. Although they felt ready for it, some boys reported regret afterward. The hypothesised sexual developmental trajectories are subject to further research, but the sexual experience in this sample and the assumed developmental differences indicate the need for early, attuned, and comprehensive sexuality-related education and communication. PMID:26791194
Dillard, Crystal L; Salekin, Randall T; Barker, Edward D; Grimes, Ross D
Few studies have examined the item functioning of youth psychopathy measures or compared the functioning of clinician and self-report based indices. Even fewer studies have made these comparisons in both male and female adolescent samples. The present study examined the applicability of items from two psychopathy measures, the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick, P. J., & Hare, R. D., 2001, The Antisocial Process Screening Device. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems) and Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, A. E., Kosson, D. S., & Hare, R. D., 2003, The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems), to adolescent boys and girls who had come into contact with the law. Item Response Theory was used to test item functioning of the two psychopathy indices. Examination of the Item Response Theory trace lines indicated that the APSD and the PCL:YV have both highly discriminating and poorly discriminating items and that the measures differ in the regions of psychopathy they cover. The PCL:YV is particularly effective at assessing interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy and to a lesser extent, lifestyle and antisocial features. The APSD appears to be effective at assessing narcissism and impulsivity but not callousness. In addition, the items most discriminating of the underlying construct of psychopathy for males and females demonstrate some important differences. These findings suggest that the measures may tap different underlying elements of the same overlaying construct. This may account for modest correlations between the measures. The findings suggest that clinicians should be aware of the regions that each measure best taps and also suggest that continued refinement and revisions to the youth psychopathy measures may be required. PMID:22686465
Deighton, Jessica; Croudace, Tim; Fonagy, Peter; Brown, Jeb; Patalay, Praveetha; Wolpert, Miranda
There is a growing appetite for mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that can inform clinical practice at individual and service levels, including use for local and national benchmarking. Despite a varied literature on child mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that focus on psychometric properties alone, no reviews exist that appraise the availability of psychometric evidence and suitability for use in routine practice in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) including key implementation issues. This paper aimed to present the findings of the first review that evaluates existing broadband measures of mental health and wellbeing outcomes in terms of these criteria. The following steps were implemented in order to select measures suitable for use in routine practice: literature database searches, consultation with stakeholders, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, secondary searches and filtering. Subsequently, detailed reviews of the retained measures' psychometric properties and implementation features were carried out. 11 measures were identified as having potential for use in routine practice and meeting most of the key criteria: 1) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2) Beck Youth Inventories, 3) Behavior Assessment System for Children, 4) Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, 5) Child Health Questionnaire, 6) Child Symptom Inventories, 7) Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, 8) Kidscreen, 9) Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 10) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, 11) Youth Outcome Questionnaire. However, all existing measures identified had limitations as well as strengths. Furthermore, none had sufficient psychometric evidence available to demonstrate that they could reliably measure both severity and change over time in key groups. The review suggests a way of rigorously evaluating the growing number of broadband self-report mental health outcome measures against
There is a growing appetite for mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that can inform clinical practice at individual and service levels, including use for local and national benchmarking. Despite a varied literature on child mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that focus on psychometric properties alone, no reviews exist that appraise the availability of psychometric evidence and suitability for use in routine practice in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) including key implementation issues. This paper aimed to present the findings of the first review that evaluates existing broadband measures of mental health and wellbeing outcomes in terms of these criteria. The following steps were implemented in order to select measures suitable for use in routine practice: literature database searches, consultation with stakeholders, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, secondary searches and filtering. Subsequently, detailed reviews of the retained measures’ psychometric properties and implementation features were carried out. 11 measures were identified as having potential for use in routine practice and meeting most of the key criteria: 1) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2) Beck Youth Inventories, 3) Behavior Assessment System for Children, 4) Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, 5) Child Health Questionnaire, 6) Child Symptom Inventories, 7) Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, 8) Kidscreen, 9) Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 10) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, 11) Youth Outcome Questionnaire. However, all existing measures identified had limitations as well as strengths. Furthermore, none had sufficient psychometric evidence available to demonstrate that they could reliably measure both severity and change over time in key groups. The review suggests a way of rigorously evaluating the growing number of broadband self-report mental health outcome measures against
Golmaryami, Farrah N.; Barry, Christopher T.
The present study investigated the relations of self-reported and peer-nominated relational aggression (RA) with self-esteem and narcissism among 43 at-risk 16- to 18-year-olds. Self-reported and peer-nominated RA were positively intercorrelated, and each was positively correlated with narcissism. An interaction between self-esteem and narcissism…
Lemon, Stephenie C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Barton, Bruce A.; Lapane, Kate L.; Goldberg, Robert J.
Introduction The objective of our study was to describe perceptions of child weight status among US children, adolescents, and their parents and to examine the extent to which accurate personal and parental perception of weight status is associated with self-reported attempted weight loss. Methods Our study sample comprised 2,613 participants aged 8 to 15 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the 2 most recent consecutive cycles (2007–2008 and 2009–2010). Categories of weight perception were developed by comparing measured to perceived weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between weight misperception and self-reported attempted weight loss. Results Among children and adolescents, 27.3% underestimated and 2.8% overestimated their weight status. Among parents, 25.2% underestimated and 1.1% overestimated their child’s weight status. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of self-reported attempted weight loss was 9.5 times as high (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.8–23.6) among healthy-weight children and adolescents who overestimated their weight status as among those who perceived their weight status accurately; the odds of self-reported attempted weight loss were 3.9 (95% CI, 2.4–6.4) and 2.9 (95% CI, 1.8–4.6) times as high among overweight and obese children and adolescents, respectively, who accurately perceived their weight status than among those who underestimated their weight status. Parental misperception of weight was not significantly associated with self-reported attempted weight loss among children and adolescents who were overweight or obese. Conclusion Efforts to prevent childhood obesity should incorporate education for both children and parents regarding the proper identification and interpretation of actual weight status. Interventions for appropriate weight loss can target children directly because one of the major driving forces to lose
Zook, Joan M.; Repinski, Daniel J.
This study examined associations between parent-child relationships and adolescents' academic performance. Adolescents in 7th and 10th grade completed self-report questionnaires assessing 6 features of parent-adolescent relationships: time spent together, number of activities, degree of influence, frequency of experiencing positive emotions,…
Undheim, Anne Mari; Wichstrom, Lars; Sund, Anne Mari
In the present study of Norwegian adolescents aged 12-15 years, adolescents with reading difficulties (RD) were compared with adolescents without RD on emotional and behavioral problems. Of this group, 191 (7.8%) adolescents reported having RD at T[subscript 1]. At both time points, when compared with the non-RD group, those in the RD group had…
Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Huéscar, Elisa; Cervelló, Eduardo
The purpose of this study, based on the self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) was to test the prediction power of student's responsibility, psychological mediators, intrinsic motivation and the importance attached to physical education in the intention to continue to practice some form of physical activity and/or sport, and the possible relationships that exist between these variables. We used a sample of 482 adolescent students in physical education classes, with a mean age of 14.3 years, which were measured for responsibility, psychological mediators, sports motivation, the importance of physical education and intention to be physically active. We completed an analysis of structural equations modelling. The results showed that the responsibility positively predicted psychological mediators, and this predicted intrinsic motivation, which positively predicted the importance students attach to physical education, and this, finally, positively predicted the intention of the student to continue doing sport. Results are discussed in relation to the promotion of student's responsibility towards a greater commitment to the practice of physical exercise. PMID:22379700
Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.
Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…
Marttunen, Mauri J.; Henriksson, Markus M.; Isometsa, Erkki T.; Heikkinen, Martti E.; Aro, Hillevi M.; Lonnqvist, Jouko K.
The characteristics of male adolescent suicide victims with (N=84) and without (N=8) diagnosable psychiatric disorder were compared. Psychological autopsy data were collected on all adolescent suicides in one year. Communication of suicidal intent and problems with discipline just before the suicide are among the few clinical warning signs found.…
Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Epstein, Monica; Poythress, Norman; Douglas, Kevin S.; Campbell, Justin; Gardner, Gail; Falkenbach, Diana
The authors examined the relation between self-report psychopathy measures and official records of offending in four samples of justice-involved youth (total N = 447). Psychopathy measures included the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) and a modified version of the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS). Measures of offending included the…
Dorn, Lorah D.; Nottelmann, Editha D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Inoff-Germain, Gale; Cutler, Gordon B., Jr.; Chrousos, George P.
Compared hormone concentrations in 52 pre- and postmenarcheal girls to determine if they fit a dichotomous model of pubertal development surrounding menarche and to study methodological issues of variability in self-reports of menarche. Found discrepancies in reporting the age of menarche and great overlap in hormones between pre- and…
Interrelations between childhood behavior problems and adolescent temperament, and between adolescent temperament and problem behaviors, were studied. A sample of 311 adolescents with an average age of 15.7 years completed self-report measures regarding behavior problems before age 13, temperament, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems,…
Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Olsen, Alexander; Skandsen, Toril; Lydersen, Stian; Vik, Anne; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Catroppa, Cathy; Håberg, Asta K; Andersson, Stein; Indredavik, Marit S
Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration of posttraumatic amnesia), symptoms of depression, or neuropsychological variables in the first year after injury predicted long-term self-reported function. Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were assessed among individuals with moderate and severe TBI (N = 67, age range 15-65 years at time of injury) 2-5 years after TBI, compared to a healthy matched control group (N = 72). Results revealed significantly more attentional, emotional regulation, and psychological difficulties in the TBI group than controls. Demographic and early clinical variables were associated with poorer cognitive and emotional outcome. Fewer years of education and depressive symptoms predicted greater executive dysfunction. Younger age at injury predicted more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. TAI and depressive symptoms predicted Internalizing problems and greater executive dysfunction. In conclusion, age, education, TAI, and depression appear to elevate risk for poor long-term outcome, emphasising the need for long-term follow-up of patients presenting with risk factors. PMID:26549936
Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Olsen, Alexander; Skandsen, Toril; Lydersen, Stian; Vik, Anne; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; Catroppa, Cathy; Håberg, Asta K.; Andersson, Stein; Indredavik, Marit S.
Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration of posttraumatic amnesia), symptoms of depression, or neuropsychological variables in the first year after injury predicted long-term self-reported function. Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were assessed among individuals with moderate and severe TBI (N = 67, age range 15–65 years at time of injury) 2–5 years after TBI, compared to a healthy matched control group (N = 72). Results revealed significantly more attentional, emotional regulation, and psychological difficulties in the TBI group than controls. Demographic and early clinical variables were associated with poorer cognitive and emotional outcome. Fewer years of education and depressive symptoms predicted greater executive dysfunction. Younger age at injury predicted more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. TAI and depressive symptoms predicted Internalizing problems and greater executive dysfunction. In conclusion, age, education, TAI, and depression appear to elevate risk for poor long-term outcome, emphasising the need for long-term follow-up of patients presenting with risk factors. PMID:26549936
Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Calarco, Jessica McCrory; Kao, Grace
Research on social capital in education rarely considers how the resources students can access through their friendships affect educational outcomes later in life. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we explore how having resource-rich best friends impacts adolescents' college completion. We compare the influence of…
Farand, Lambert; Chagnon, Francois; Renaud, Johanne; Rivard, Michele
In the Province of Quebec (Canada), adolescents involved with the child welfare and juvenile justice systems committed at least one third of all completed suicides in their age group in 1995 and 1996. Their risk of suicide, standardized for age and sex, was five times that of the general adolescent population, and female juvenile delinquents had…
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Chui, Wing Hong
Background: Little is known about the level of social bond elements and their effects on delinquency among nonadjudicated (traditional low and at-risk school-aged) and adjudicated Chinese male adolescents. Objective: Using a large adolescent sample (N = 1,177) from Hong Kong and Macau, this study aims to distinguish the level of social bond…
Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto
This study examines the relationship between attachment to parents and peers, time perspective and psychological adjustment in adolescence. 2,665 adolescents (M age = 17.03 years, SD = 1.48) completed self-report measures about parent and peer attachment, time perspective, sympathy and self-determination. Subjects were divided into four groups…
Anderson, Emily R.; Veed, Glen J.; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M.; Hansen, David J.
The current study examined the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in relation to social phobia in a nonclinical sample of adolescents (ages 13-17). Adolescent/parent dyads participated in a semistructured interview and completed self-report measures of the tripartite constructs and social anxiety. Adolescents gave an impromptu speech, and…
Hooke, Mary C; Gilchrist, Laura; Foster, Laurie; Langevin, Mary; Lee, Jill
Survivors of childhood cancer may experience persistent symptoms, including fatigue, sleep disturbance, and balance impairment. Yoga is a complementary therapy that improves fatigue, sleep, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors. Using a one group, repeated measures design, we evaluated the feasibility of a yoga program and assessed if cancer survivor participants ages 10 to 17 years (n = 13) had significantly less fatigue and anxiety, and better balance and sleep, after a 6-week yoga intervention compared with a 6-week pre-intervention wait period. Study recruitment was challenging with a 32% enrollment rate; yoga attendance was 90%. None of the scores for anxiety, fatigue, sleep, and balance had significant changes during the wait period. After the 6-week yoga program, children (n = 7) had a significant decrease in anxiety score (P = .04) while adolescent scores (n = 7) showed a decreasing trend (P = .10). Scores for fatigue, sleep, and balance remained stable post-intervention. Fatigue and balance scores were below norms for health children/adolescents while sleep and anxiety scores were similar to healthy peers. PMID:25643973
Morrison, Nancy C.; Clavenna-Valleroy, Jeanine
The relationship between perceptions of maternal support, self-concept, and depression in sexually abused adolescents in treatment was examined among victims of sexual abuse (N=50) and their mothers. Data was gathered by questionnaire over three points in time. A definition of "support" was developed based on both daughter and mother perceptions.…
Westenberg, P. Michiel; Drewes, Martine J.; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Siebelink, Berend M.; Treffers, Philip D. A.
Background: The frequently reported decline in the "overall" frequency and intensity of fears during late childhood and adolescence may mask different developmental patterns for two broad subclasses of fears: fears concerning physical danger and fears concerning social evaluation. It was investigated if physical fears decrease between late…
Harrell-Williams, L. M.; Dowdy, E.; Twyford, J.
The BESS is a relatively new screening system for identifying behavior and emotional risk (BER) in children and adolescents. Psychometric evidence regarding this instrument is important for researchers and practitioners considering the use of the BESS for identifying BER in students. This study seeks to provide and evaluate evidence for the use of…
Sarajlic Vukovic, Iris; Boricevic Maršanic, Vlatka; Aukst Margetic, Branka; Paradžik, Ljubica; Vidovic, Domagoj; Buljan Flander, Gordana
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male veterans has been linked with impaired family relationships and psychopathology in their children. Less is known about symptoms in children of veterans with partial PTSD. Objective: To compare mental health problems, family functioning and parent-child bonding among adolescent offspring of…
Chabrol, Henri; van Leeuwen, Nikki; Rodgers, Rachel F
The present study explored the relations between sadistic traits and suicidality in nonclinical adolescents. Participants were 615 high-school students who completed self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that self-reported sadistic traits explained unique variance in self-reported suicidality among both genders. This result is confronted with the psychodynamic hypothesis linking sadism turned inward and suicidality. PMID:21958317
Rodham, Karen; Hawton, Keith; Evans, Emma; Weatherall, Rosamund
Concern has been mounting about the increasing numbers of adolescents who (ab)use drugs, alcohol and cigarettes. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence according to gender and ethnicity of drinking, smoking and drug-use in a representative sample of 15 and 16 year olds. The sample consisted of 6020 15- and 16-year-old pupils from 41…
Background In the continuing revision of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) “identity” is integrated as a central diagnostic criterion for personality disorders (self-related personality functioning). According to Kernberg, identity diffusion is one of the core elements of borderline personality organization. As there is no elaborated self-rating inventory to assess identity development in healthy and disturbed adolescents, we developed the AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence) questionnaire to assess this complex dimension, varying from “Identity Integration” to “Identity Diffusion”, in a broad and substructured way and evaluated its psychometric properties in a mixed school and clinical sample. Methods Test construction was deductive, referring to psychodynamic as well as social-cognitive theories, and led to a special item pool, with consideration for clarity and ease of comprehension. Participants were 305 students aged 12–18 attending a public school and 52 adolescent psychiatric inpatients and outpatients with diagnoses of personality disorders (N = 20) or other mental disorders (N = 32). Convergent validity was evaluated by covariations with personality development (JTCI 12–18 R scales), criterion validity by differences in identity development (AIDA scales) between patients and controls. Results AIDA showed excellent total score (Diffusion: α = .94), scale (Discontinuity: α = .86; Incoherence: α = .92) and subscale (α = .73-.86) reliabilities. High levels of Discontinuity and Incoherence were associated with low levels in Self Directedness, an indicator of maladaptive personality functioning. Both AIDA scales were significantly different between PD-patients and controls with remarkable effect sizes (d) of 2.17 and 1.94 standard deviations. Conclusion AIDA is a reliable and valid instrument to assess normal and disturbed identity in adolescents. Studies for further validation and for
Golub, Sharon; Murphy, Denise
Frequent mood changes in adolescents are often attributed to the influence of shifting hormone levels. The presence and magnitude of menstrual-related mood changes in adolescent women were examined in 10th and 11th grade females (N=158) who completed the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). Self-reports of the onset date for the next two…
Lomas, Justine; Stough, Con; Hansen, Karen; Downey, Luke A.
In order to better understand bullying behaviours we examined for the first time the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) of adolescents, bullying behaviours and peer victimisation. The sample consisted of 68 adolescents from a secondary college. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which assessed their EI, how frequently…
Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.
This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…
Masselam, Venus Shirley
Fifty-two families of students successful in public school and 40 families of students requiring alternative school programs completed self-report instruments on their perceptions of parent-adolescent communication and family functioning. The alternative school programs included residential and day treatment programs for adolescents with emotional…
Smith, Chad E.
An exploratory study was designed to describe Internet search behaviors of deaf adolescents who used Internet search engines to complete fact-based search tasks. The study examined search behaviors of deaf high school students such as query formation, query modification, Web site identification, and Web site selection. Consisting of two fact-based…
Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Lichvar, Emily; Bobek, Molly; Henderson, Craig E.
Developing therapist-report fidelity tools to support quality delivery of evidence-based practices in usual care is a top priority for implementation science. This study tested the reliability and accuracy of two groups of community therapists who reported on their use of family therapy (FT) and motivational interviewing/cognitive-behavioral therapy (MI/CBT) interventions during routine treatment of inner-city adolescents with conduct and substance use problems. Study cases (n = 45) were randomized into two conditions: (a) Routine Family Therapy (RFT), consisting of a single site that featured family therapy as its standard of care for behavioral treatment; or (b) Treatment As Usual (TAU), consisting of five sites that featured non-family approaches. Therapists and trained observational raters provided FT and MI/CBT adherence ratings on 157 sessions (104 RFT, 53 TAU). Overall therapist reliability was adequate for averaged FT ratings (ICC = .66) but almost non-existent for MI/CBT (ICC = .06); moreover, both RFT and TAU therapists were more reliable in reporting on FT than on MI/CBT. Both groups of therapists overestimated the extent to which they implemented FT and MI/CBT interventions. Results offer support for the feasibility of using existing therapist-report methods to anchor quality assurance procedures for FT interventions in real-world settings, though not for MI/CBT. PMID:24711046
Pokorny, S B; Jason, L A; Schoeny, M; Curie, C J; Townsend, S M
A sample of 6,370 students in Grades 6 to 8 completed a questionnaire on their attitudes and use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. A subsample showed questionable data based on three criteria: missing responses, invalid responses, and inconsistent responses. Analysis indicated that this subsample was significantly different from the main group on demographic variables and self-reported life-time tobacco use. Results support efforts to identify and eliminate invalid data. PMID:11729537
Peiser, Nadine C.; Heaven, Patrick C. L.
Analyzes the effect of certain family processes on adolescents' self-reported delinquency and investigates whether self-esteem and locus of control mediate these effects. Results indicate that parental discipline style predicts self-reported delinquency. Also, a link between positive family relations and high self-esteem among males emerged. (RJM)
Cashel, Mary Louise
Study examined the validity of self-reported delinquency and socio-emotional functioning of 48 court-probated juveniles. In summary, the youth acknowledged involvement in more delinquent activities than were reported by their parents or noted in probation records. Adolescent self-report may play a critical role in the identification of effective…
Lavi, T.; Green, O.; Dekel, R.
The study examined the unique contribution of both personal characteristics and several types of exposure variables to the adjustment of Israeli adolescents following the Second Lebanon War. Two thousand three hundred and fourteen adolescents, who lived in areas that were the target of multiple missile attacks, completed self-report questionnaires…
Rahman, Mahbubur; McGrath, Christine J.; Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Berenson, Abbey B.
Objective To examine the trend of provider-verified HPV vaccine initiation (≥1 dose) and completion (≥3 doses) among adolescent girls at the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended age (11-12 years). Methods We analyzed National Immunization Survey of Teens 2008-2012 data and examined the trend of provider-verified HPV vaccine initiation and completion among <13 year old girls. Results Data on age at HPV vaccine initiation and completion were available for 24,466 and 15,972 girls, respectively. The weighted proportion of girls who initiated the vaccine at <13 years of age was 14.1%, 24.1%, 35.9%, 47.7% and 55.9% in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively (p for trend <.001). The similar trend was also observed for mean age at HPV vaccine initiation and completion (p <.001). Conclusions Additional efforts are needed to increase HPV vaccine uptake among adolescent girls as only half of them receive this vaccine at ACIP recommended age. PMID:25529289
Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Gould, Madelyn S.
The association between specific types of peer victimization with depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents was examined. A self-report survey was completed by 2,342 high-school students. Regression analyses indicated that frequent exposure to all types of peer victimization was related to high risk of depression,…
Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin S.; Gould, Madelyn S.
Objective: To assess the association between bullying behavior and depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents. Method: A self-report survey was completed by 9th-through 12th-grade students (n = 2342) in six New York State high schools from 2002 through 2004. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the association…
Whyte, Lillian A.
Describes characteristics of learning disabled teenagers. Describes results of a study of 331 secondary students who completed a self-report inventory showing that childhood learning disability characteristics persist into adolescence, most seriously in the areas of visual perception, fine motor skills, and the ability to write and make spatial…
Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.
The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an average of…
Nelson, Jason M.; Gregg, Noel
Objective: To investigate depressive and anxious symptomatology among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia. Method: Transitioning adolescents and college students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia college sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety.…
Laible, Deborah J.; Carlo, Gustavo
The goal of this study was to examine how the parenting dimensions of both mothers and fathers independently and together predict adolescent outcomes in three domains: sympathy, self-worth, and social competence. One-hundred eight adolescents completed self-report measures on their perceived relationship with parents, sympathy, social competence,…
Ghazal, Nisrine; Al-Shaar, Laila; Maalouf, Joyce; Nabulsi, Mona; Arabi, Asma; Choucair, Mahmoud; Tamim, Hani; Mahfoud, Ziad; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada
We showed a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on musculoskeletal parameters in adolescent girls in a 1-year, randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial (RCT). Our objective for this study was to investigate the residual effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), at the lumbar spine and hip, lean mass, and height, 1 year after trial completion. We performed post hoc analyses in 167 adolescents, 86 girls and 81 boys, age 13.9 ± 2 years, who received vitamin D or placebo during the trial, and continued into the follow-up trial. Musculoskeletal parameters were measured at baseline, 12 months (intervention), and 24 months (follow-up). ANOVA and t tests were used to compare results between the placebo group and the merged vitamin D arms (200 or 2000 IU/day), by gender. Baseline characteristics were comparable between treatment groups at entry into the extension. Girls who had received vitamin D during the trial, had significantly larger hip BMC increments compared to those assigned to placebo, at 24 months compared to study entry, but not 24 compared to 12 months, which persisted in adjusted analyses. There were no significant differences in bone mass changes between treatment groups in boys, at 24 months compared to 12 months or to baseline. The beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on hip bone mass, achieved in girls during the trial, persisted 1 year after trial completion. These net cumulative increments, 1 year after discontinuation of supplementation, may have important implications on optimizing peak bone mass accretion in adolescent girls. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26841085
Nazar, Barry L.; Zanis, David A.; Melochick, Jennifer Ryan
This study examines early adolescent self-reported intentions about having sex during the next year. A total of 114 variables are investigated for possible associations with lower versus higher levels of intention about having sex. The sample consists of 306 early adolescents from several middle schools in a predominantly white, rural community in…
In this study, we analyzed the relationships among overt and relational victimization and adolescents' satisfaction with friends. We also tested the influence of the need for affective relationships with friends. A total of 409 Italian adolescent boys and girls (age range = 14-16, M = 15.02 years, SD = 2.58) completed a self-report measure of…
Erentaite, Rasa; Zukauskiene, Rita; Beyers, Wim; Pilkauskaite-Valickiene, Rasa
This study explored whether discussions about the media, when positively linked to interest in the news media, were related to adolescents' current and future civic engagement. A sample of 2638 adolescents (age M = 17, SD = 1.2), who participated in a school-based study on positive socialization, completed self-report measures on interest in the…
DUBOW, ERIC F.; HUESMANN, L. ROWELL; BOXER, PAUL; SMITH, CATHY
Background The key question is: are self-reports and official records equally valid indicators of criminal offending? Aims We examine the correspondence between self-reports and official records of offending, the similarity of childhood and adolescent individual and contextual predictors of both measures of offending, and the similarity of age 48 correlates of both measures of offending. Methods Men (N = 436) from the Columbia County Longitudinal Study, a sample of all 3rd graders in Columbia County, New York, in 1959–60, participated. The youth, their peers and their parents were interviewed when the youth were age 8; the youth were later interviewed at ages 19, 30 and 48. Results We found moderate to high correspondence between self-reports of having been in trouble with the law and official arrest records. Lifetime self-reports and official records of offending were generally predicted by the same childhood and adolescent variables, and were correlated with many of the same adult outcome measures. By age 48, life-course non-offenders defined by either self-reports or official records had better outcomes than offenders. Conclusions The results validate the use of adolescent and adult self-reports of offending, and the early identification of individuals at risk for adult criminal behaviour through childhood parent and peer reports and adolescent self and peer reports. PMID:25294162
Matthews, James; Moran, Aidan
Objective: To examine the degree to which the use of selected theoretically derived self-regulation strategies (eg, goal setting) could predict adolescents' self-reported leisure-time physical activity behavior. Method: Two hundred thirty-three (M age = 15.88) high school students completed measures assessing their self-regulation strategy use and…
Heinze, Justin E.; Horn, Stacey S.
This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around…
Dideriksen, Mette; Soegaard, Cristina; Nielsen, Rasmus O
Dideriksen, M, Soegaard, C, and Nielsen, RO. Validity of self-reported running distance. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1592-1596, 2016-It is unclear whether there is a difference between subjective evaluation and objective global positioning systems (GPS) measurement of running distance. The purpose of this study was to investigate if such difference exists. A total of 100 participants (51% men; median age, 41.5; body mass, 78.1 kg ±13.8 SD) completed a run of free choice, then subjectively reported the distance in kilometer (km). This information was subsequently compared with the distance derived from a nondifferential GPS watch using paired t-tests and Bland-Altman's 95% limits of agreement. No significant difference was found between the mean paired differences between subjective evaluations and GPS measurements (1.86%, 95% confidence interval = -1.53%; 5.25%, p = 0.96). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement revealed considerable variation (lower limit = -28% and upper limit = 40%). Such variation exceeds the clinical error range of 10%. In conclusion, the mean running distance (km) is similar between self-reporting and GPS measurements. However, researchers should consider using GPS measurements in favor of subjective reporting of running distance because of considerable variation on an individual level. PMID:26479023
Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica K; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J
Although Web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult-to-reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a Web-based treatment for postdisaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a Web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of Web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a postdisaster context. PMID:25622071
Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.
Although web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult to reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a web-based treatment for post-disaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of PTSD, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a post-disaster context. PMID:25622071
Bauman, Laurie J.; Karasz, Alison; Hamilton, Adaoha
Although interventions based on cognitive theories can reduce rates of unsafe sexual behavior in adolescents, effect sizes remain small. This study was a qualitative investigation of inner-city adolescents' intentions to use condoms following participation in an intensive safer sex program. In-depth interviews with 26 adolescents were analyzed…
Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.
Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…
Cordaro, Millie; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Wagner, Eric F.; Morris, Staci Leon
This study documents significant differences in alliance in a predominantly Latino sample of adolescents who either completed or dropped out of a Guided Self-Change treatment program. Therapeutic alliance, working alliance, and patient involvement were assessed via ratings of audio-recorded segments of participants' counseling sessions.…
Wakefield, C E; McLoone, J; Butow, P; Lenthen, K; Cohn, R J
Young people recovering from cancer may lack adequate support post-treatment, yet little is known about the types of support and information young Australians and their families need. This study investigated adolescent/young adult cancer survivors' and their families' perceptions of care and support needs after completing cancer treatment. Seventy semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 survivors (mean age 16.1 years), 21 mothers, 15 fathers and 15 siblings. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the conceptual framework of Miles and Huberman. Post-treatment, participants regarded medical staff positively but were reluctant to ask for their help fearing it may deflect resources away from patients still receiving treatment. Appraisals of social workers' and psychologists' support post-treatment were mixed. Formal emotional support was rarely accessed and participants reported that any additional funds should be directed to greater psychological support in this period. Participants also reported the need for additional financial support post-treatment. Clinicians need to be aware that while young people and their families may not demand support post-treatment, they may 'suffer in silence' or burden family members and friends with the responsibility of providing emotional support, though they may be experiencing distress also. PMID:23730980
Kercood, Suneeta; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Kugler, Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in self-reported symptomatology and working memory (visuospatial and auditory) in college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Forty-seven college students with ADHD and 44 non-affected control participants completed two self-report questionnaires and six tests…
Morrissey, Susan L.; Whetstone, Lauren M.; Cummings, Doyle M.; Owen, Lynda J.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationships between self-reported and measured height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of eighth-grade students. The study population consisted of eighth-grade students in eastern North Carolina who completed a cross-sectional survey, self-reported their height and weight, and had their…
Erickson, Deborah; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael
Assessing health-related quality of life (HQOL) for children or adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) to corroborate a diagnosis and monitor treatment outcomes, is usually relegated to parent, teacher and physician observation of the child/adolescent. Allowing adults to act as proxy reporters for children/adolescents…
Kramer, Michael R; Cooper, Hannah LF; Rosenberg, Eli S; Sullivan, Patrick S
Background Place is critical to our understanding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. However, within the scientific literature, place is almost always represented by residential location, suggesting a fundamental assumption of equivalency between neighborhood of residence, place of risk, and place of prevention. However, the locations of behaviors among MSM show significant spatial variation, and theory has posited the importance of nonresidential contextual exposures. This focus on residential locations has been at least partially necessitated by the difficulties in collecting detailed geolocated data required to explore nonresidential locations. Objective Using a Web-based map tool to collect locations, which may be relevant to the daily lives and health behaviors of MSM, this study examines the completeness and reliability of the collected data. Methods MSM were recruited on the Web and completed a Web-based survey. Within this survey, men used a map tool embedded within a question to indicate their homes and multiple nonresidential locations, including those representing work, sex, socialization, physician, and others. We assessed data quality by examining data completeness and reliability. We used logistic regression to identify demographic, contextual, and location-specific predictors of answering all eligible map questions and answering specific map questions. We assessed data reliability by comparing selected locations with other participant-reported data. Results Of 247 men completing the survey, 167 (67.6%) answered the entire set of eligible map questions. Most participants (>80%) answered specific map questions, with sex locations being the least reported (80.6%). Participants with no college education were less likely than those with a college education to answer all map questions (prevalence ratio, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8). Participants who reported sex at their partner’s home
This study examined effects of food and nutrition knowledge on the self-reported behaviors of preschool teacher candidates who completed a 10-week course. Self-reported information was gathered at entry, after completion of the course, and follow up 4 months after completion of the course. A paired t-test compared responses at pre, post and follow…
Comparing Patients’ Opinions on the Hospital Discharge Process Collected With a Self-Reported Questionnaire Completed Via the Internet or Through a Telephone Survey: An Ancillary Study of the SENTIPAT Randomized Controlled Trial
Carrat, Fabrice; Hejblum, Gilles
Background Hospital discharge, a critical stage in the hospital-to-home transition of patient care, is a complex process with potential dysfunctions having an impact on patients’ health on their return home. No study has yet reported the feasibility and usefulness of an information system that would directly collect and transmit, via the Internet, volunteer patients’ opinions on their satisfaction concerning the organization of hospital discharge. Objective Our primary objective was to compare patients’ opinions on the discharge process collected with 2 different methods: self-questionnaire completed on a dedicated website versus a telephone interview. The secondary goal was to estimate patient satisfaction. Methods We created a questionnaire to examine hospital discharge according to 3 dimensions: discharge logistics organization, preplanned posthospital continuity-of-care organization, and patients’ impressions at the time of discharge. A satisfaction score (between 0 and 1) for each of those dimensions and an associated total score were calculated. Taking advantage of the randomized SENTIPAT trial that questioned patients recruited at hospital discharge about the evolution of their health after returning home and randomly assigned them to complete a self-questionnaire directly online or during a telephone interview, we conducted an ancillary study comparing satisfaction with the organization of hospital discharge for these 2 patient groups. The questionnaire was proposed to 1141 patients included in the trial who were hospitalized for ≥2 days, among whom 867 eligible patients had access to the Internet at home and were randomized to the Internet or telephone group. Results Of the 1141 patients included, 755 (66.17%) completed the questionnaire. The response rates for the Internet (39.1%, 168/430) and telephone groups (87.2%, 381/437) differed significantly (P<.001), but their total satisfaction scores did not (P=.08) nor did the satisfaction subscores
Green, Robert G.
Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family competence from…
Kelly, Adrian B.; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Smith, Rachel; Chan, Gary C. K.; Toumbourou, John W.; Patton, George C.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Hall, Wayne D.; Catalano, Richard F.
Aims Failure to complete high school predicts substantial economic and social disadvantage in adult life. The aim was to determine the longitudinal association of mid-adolescent polydrug use and high school non-completion, relative to other drug use profiles. Design A longitudinal analysis of the relationship between polydrug use in three cohorts at Grade 9 (age 14–15) and school non-completion (reported post high school). Setting A State-representative sample of students across Victoria, Australia. Participants 2287 secondary school students from 152 high schools. The retention rate was 85%. Measurements The primary outcome was noncompletion of Grade 12 (assessed at age 19–23 years). At Grade 9, predictors included 30 day use of eight drugs, school commitment, academic failure, and peer drug use. Other controls included socioeconomic status, family relationship quality, depressive symptoms, gender, age, and cohort. Findings Three distinct classes of drug use were identified - no drug use (31.7%), mainly alcohol use (61.8%), and polydrug use (6.5%). Polydrug users were characterised by high rates of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use. In the full model, mainly alcohol users and polydrug users were less likely to complete school than nondrug users [OR = 1.54 (95% CIs 1.17–2.03), and OR = 2.51 (95% CIs 1.45–4.33), respectively, ps < .001]. These effects were independent of school commitment, academic failure, peer drug use, and other controls. Conclusions Mid-adolescent polydrug use in Australia predicts subsequent school non-completion after accounting for a range of potential confounding factors. Adolescents who mainly consume alcohol are also at elevated risk of school non-completion. PMID:25510264
Ronnlund, Michael; Karlsson, Erika
The authors examined the relation between dimensions of attachment and internalizing and externalizing problems in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents (n = 62) who completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ; J. Feeney, P. Noller, & M. Hanrahan, 1994) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR; T. M. Achenbach, 1991). In total, the ASQ dimensions accounted…
Bosacki, Sandra; Dane, Andrew; Marini, Zopito
This study examined whether self-esteem mediated the association between peer relationships and internalizing problems (i.e., depression and social anxiety). A total of 7290 (3756 girls) adolescents (ages 13-18 years) completed self-report measures of peer relationships, including direct and indirect victimization, social isolation, friendship…
Husky, Mathilde M.; McGuire, Leslie; Flynn, Laurie; Chrostowski, Christine; Olfson, Mark
This study compared demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics of adolescents at risk for mental health problems who either did or did not request help during a voluntary mental health screening. High school students completed a self-report to identify risk of mental health problems (n = 364). Students at risk were administered a clinical…
Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri
This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…
Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.
Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body…
Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kakarani, Styliani; Kolovou, Demetra
The present study examined the relationships between shyness, a number of personal and interpersonal variables (i.e. social skills, self-esteem, attachment style, advanced Theory of Mind skills and peer relations) in a sample of 243 Greek pre-adolescents. Participants completed self-reports of the variables. Results indicated that females scored…
Daigneault, Isabelle; Hebert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc
This study aims to assess the predictive value of two sets of variables, self-attributions, and coping behaviors, on sexually abused (SA) teenagers' functioning, while controlling for abuse-related and family variables. A total of 103 female adolescents completed self-report measures to assess their psychological functioning in terms of anxiety,…
Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul
Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…
Wallace, Scyatta A.; Fisher, Celia B.
This study examined the influence of perceived parental, peer, and cultural factors on Black American adolescent attitudes toward substance use. One-hundred-eight Black American youth (grades 9-12) from economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods of New York, completed self-report measures on: (a) parent-child involvement, parental supervision,…
Brown, P. Margaret; Cornes, Andrew
This study investigated the mental health problems of 89 deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) adolescents in New South Wales, Tasmania, and Western Australia. Participants completed the written (for oral students) or signed version for competent Australian Sign Language (Auslan) users version of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Students were educated in a…
Maxwell, Melissa A.; Cole, David A.
One community sample (N = 607) of youths generated self-reported responses to body dissatisfaction, from which the Adolescent Responses to Body Dissatisfaction (ARBD) inventory was constructed. A 2nd, similar sample (N = 830) completed this measure as well as measures of coping, body dissatisfaction, body mass index, depressive symptoms, and…
The author attempted to explore potential antecedents of achievement goals and relations of teacher and parental autonomy support versus psychological control to Taiwanese adolescents' perfectionistic tendencies. A total of 512 eighth-grade students completed self-reported questionnaires assessing variables of interest. Results indicated that…
Scull, Tracy M.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Parker, Alison E.; Elmore, Kristen C.; Benson, Jessica W.
Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample…
Auerbach, Randy Patrick; Bigda-Peyton, Joseph S.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Webb, Christian A.; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo
The goal of the current study is to examine the relationship amongst social support, stress, and depressive symptoms within a transactional and diathesis-stress framework using a multi-wave, longitudinal design. At the initial assessment, adolescents (n = 258) completed self-report measures assessing social support (peer, classmate, parent, and…
Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.
This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…
Markstrom, Carol A.; Huey, Erron; Stiles, Bethanie Morris; Krause, Amanda L.
Caring and helping are suggested as mechanisms that link empathy to religiosity and spirituality. To test this assertion, 428 adolescents completed self-report measures of religious attendance, importance of spiritual or religious beliefs, care, volunteerism, and affective and cognitive subscales of empathy. Sex differences also were examined.…
Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.
The current study investigates the longitudinal association, across a 1-year period, between self-esteem and narcissism with bullying and peer victimization. The sample consisted of 1,416 (50.1% girls) Greek Cypriot early adolescents ("M" age = 12.89) who completed a battery of self-report measures. The small correlation found between…
Valid, reliable instruments that are sensitive enough to detect changes produced by interventions yet inexpensive and easy to administer are needed. The goal of this study was to develop a scoring algorithm and evaluate the reliability and validity of scores from the Child and Adolescent Trial for ...
Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.
The authors evaluated self-report instruments currently being used to assess children and adolescents with psychopathic personality traits with respect to their reliability, validity, and research utility. Comprehensive searches across multiple computerized bibliographic databases were conducted and supplemented with manual searches. A total of 30…
Nooner, Kate B.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Thompson, Richard; Margolis, Benjamin; English, Diana J.; Knight, Elizabeth D.; Everson, Mark D.; Roesch, Scott
Objective: To determine if meaningful groups of at-risk pre-adolescent youth could be identified based on their self-report of physical and sexual abuse histories. Methods: Youth participating in a consortium of ongoing longitudinal studies were interviewed using an audio-computer assisted self-interview (A-CASI) when they were approximately 12…
Wehmeyer, Michael L.
Presents findings from the field test of 261 adolescents with mild mental retardation and learning disabilities on a student self-report measure of self-determination. The four primary domains of the scale were autonomy, self-regulation, psychological empowerment, and self-realization. The utility of the scale for instructional and research…
Beerthuizen, Marinus G. C. J.; Brugman, Daniel; Basinger, Karen S.
This study investigated the relationships among oppositional defiant attitudes, moral reasoning, moral value evaluation and self-reported delinquent behaviour in adolescents ("N" = 351, "M"[subscript AGE] = 13.8 years, "SD"[subscript AGE] = 1.1). Of particular interest were the moderating effects of age, educational…
Poythress, Norman G.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Falkenbach, Diana; Cruise, Keith; Lee, Zina; Murrie, Daniel C.; Vitacco, Michael
The self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) has become a popular measure for assessing psychopathic features in justice-involved adolescents. However, the internal consistency reliability of its component scales (Narcissism, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity) has been questioned in several studies. This study…
Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L; Atkins, Joseph E; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D
Amateur athletic programs often use computerized cognitive testing as part of their concussion management programs. There is evidence that athletes with preexisting attention problems will have worse cognitive performance and more symptoms at baseline testing. The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention problems affect assessments differently for male and female athletes. Participants were drawn from a database that included 6,840 adolescents from Maine who completed Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) at baseline (primary outcome measure). The final sample included 249 boys and 100 girls with self-reported attention problems. Each participant was individually matched for sex, age, number of past concussions, and sport to a control participant (249 boys, 100 girls). Boys with attention problems had worse reaction time than boys without attention problems. Girls with attention problems had worse visual-motor speed than girls without attention problems. Boys with attention problems reported more total symptoms, including more cognitive-sensory and sleep-arousal symptoms, compared with boys without attention problems. Girls with attention problems reported more cognitive-sensory, sleep-arousal, and affective symptoms than girls without attention problems. When considering the assessment, management, and outcome from concussions in adolescent athletes, it is important to consider both sex and preinjury attention problems regarding cognitive test results and symptom reporting. PMID:25923339
Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce
This study examined the associations between adolescent self-report of aggression and adolescents’ perceptions of parenting practices in a sample of African American early adolescents living in low-income, urban communities. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers’ parenting practices at two time points during the school year. Path model findings reveal that adolescent-reported aggression at Time 1 predicted higher levels of perceived parent psychological control and perceived parent expectations for aggressive solutions to conflicts at Time 2. Findings suggest that early adolescent aggression elicits negative parenting behaviors at a subsequent time point. PMID:27087729
Beguy, Donatien; Kabiru, Caroline W.; Nderu, Evangeline N.; Ngware, Moses W.
Purpose Accurate and reliable data on the prevalence of adolescents' sexual behavior are paramount for effective sexual and reproductive health intervention. Adolescents' sexual behavior has been widely studied. However, scholars have raised concerns about the accuracy and reliability of self-reported sexual behavior by adolescents. Previous research shows high levels of adolescent sexual activity in urban informal settlements; yet, the accuracy of self-reported sexual experience in these settings is understudied. Methods The objective of this article is to assess consistency of self-reported sexual activity among 2324 adolescents living in slum and nonslum settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. We examine two forms of inconsistencies, namely, what we term “reborn virgins” and inconsistent timing of sexual debut, during two rounds of survey. Factors influencing inconsistent reporting are explored through logistic regression. Results A total of 469 (20%) adolescents gave inconsistent information on whether they have ever had sex (n = 190) or timing of first intercourse (n = 279). Males, slum residents, and adolescents attending school were more likely to give inconsistent sexual information. Among inconsistent reporters, slum residents, adolescents reporting substance use, and those with secondary (vs. primary) education were more likely to reclaim virginity status than to misreport the timing of first sex. However, older adolescents were less likely to reclaim virginity status. Conclusions We found significant differences between adolescents who provide consistent reports and those who misreport sexual behavior data. We argue that researchers should account for biases stemming from misreporting of sensitive information among young people and, in particular, should be cognizant of how reporting quality may vary across demographic groups. PMID:19931832
Milanesi, Fernanda Carpes; Kauer, Bruno; Wagner, Tassiane Panta; Daudt, Luciana Dondonis; Haas, Alex Nogueira
Halitosis is still poorly studied in young adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of self-reported halitosis and associate it with demographic and behavioral factors in young adult dental students. This cross-sectional study was designed as a census of students enrolled in three initial and three final semesters of a dental course in a Brazilian public university. Of 284 eligible students, 257 (90.5%) completed a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported halitosis was the primary study outcome, and was assessed with the question "do you feel you have bad breath?". Data on age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing and interproximal cleaning, tongue cleaning, mouth rinse use and dry mouth were collected using the questionnaire, and were considered independent variables. Of the students surveyed, 26.5% reported as never, 51.7% as rarely, 21.4% as sometimes, and 0.4% as always feeling they had halitosis. Morning halitosis was reported by 90.6% of those who reported halitosis. In the final multiple model, last semester students had a 55% lower chance of reporting halitosis, compared with students from the first semesters [odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95%CI 0.24-0.89]. Women had a 2.57fold higher chance of reporting halitosis (OR = 2.57; 95%CI 1.12-5.93). Dry mouth increased the chance of self-reported halitosis 3.95-fold, compared with absence of dry mouth (OR = 3.95; 95%CI 2.03-7.68). It can be concluded that self-reports of halitosis were low among dental students, but may represent an important complaint. Gender, dry mouth and level of college education of the dentist were factors significantly associated with self-reported halitosis. PMID:27556677
Greydanus, Donald E., Ed.
The second in a three-volume series of childcare books developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics and Feeling Fine Programs, this reference book addresses medical and parenting concerns related to raising an adolescent. The book provides scientific information and advice on how to promote the physical, emotional, cognitive, and psychological…
Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Joyce, Ann Marie
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by excessive daydreaming, mental confusion, slowness, and low motivation. Several teacher- and parent-report measures of SCT have recently been developed but a child self-report measure of SCT does not yet exist despite clear links between SCT and internalizing psychopathology (for which self-report is often desired). This study examined the initial reliability and validity of the Child Concentration Inventory (CCI), a child self-report measure of SCT symptoms, in a school-based sample of 124 children (ages 8-13; 55% female). Children completed the CCI and measures of academic/social functioning, emotion regulation, and self-esteem. Teachers completed measures of psychopathology symptoms (including SCT) and academic/social functioning. Although exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) supported a 3-factor model of the CCI (consisting of slow, sleepy, and daydreamer scales closely resembling the factor structure of the parent-report version of this measure), bifactor modeling and omega reliability indices indicated that the CCI is best conceptualized as unidimensional. CCI scores were significantly correlated with teacher-rated SCT and were statistically distinct from teacher-rated ADHD and child-rated anxiety/depression. After controlling for sex, grade, and other psychopathology symptoms, the CCI total score was significantly associated with poorer child-reported academic/social functioning and self-worth in addition to increased loneliness and emotion dysregulation. Child ratings on the CCI were moderately to strongly correlated with poorer teacher-rated academic/social functioning but these associations were reduced to nonsignificance after controlling for demographics and other psychopathology symptoms. Findings provide preliminary support for the CCI, and future directions include replication with adolescents and clinical samples in order to further examine the CCI's factor structure, reliability, validity
Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Burstein, Marcy
The current study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among a community sample of 118 African American students (58 females; ages 14-19 years; mean age = 15.79) in an urban, parochial high school. Adolescents completed the MASC and several other self-report measures of…
Fowler, Barbara Ann
Investigated relationship of body image perception and weight status to recent change in weight status of adolescent females. Nonobese, overweight, and obese girls (N=90) aged 13 through 17 completed Body-Cathexis Scale and self-report recent change in weight status and demographic questionnaire. Results revealed significant positive correlation…
Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Hankin, Benjamin L.
This study used a multiwave design to examine the short-term longitudinal and bidirectional associations between depressive symptoms and peer relationship qualities among a sample of early to middle adolescents (N = 350, 6th-10th graders). Youth completed self-report measures of relationship quality and depressive symptoms at three time points…
Lo Cascio, Valentina; Guzzo, Giovanni; Pace, Francesco; Pace, Ugo
In this study, we explored the unique and common contributions of anxiety, self-esteem, and family communication on indecisiveness among adolescents. Three hundred and fifty pupils from 13 to 16 years of age completed self-report measures on indecisiveness, quality of family communication, trait anxiety, and self-esteem. The findings in this study…
Nishikawa, Saori; Sundbom, Elisabet; Hagglof, Bruno
We examined the associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment style, self-concept, and mental health problems among Japanese adolescents. About 193 high school students (143 boys and 50 girls, mean = 16.4) completed a set of self-report questionnaires including EMBU-C (My Memories of Child Upbringing for Children), AQC (Attachment…
Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.
We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…
Smith, Carolyn A; Ireland, Timothy O; Thornberry, Terence P; Elwyn, Laura
Although accurate assessment of maltreatment is critical to understanding and interrupting its impact on the life course, comparison of different measurement approaches is rare. The goal of this study is to compare maltreatment reports from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records with retrospectively self-reported measures. Research questions address the prevalence and concordance of each type of measure, their relationship to social disadvantage, and their prediction to four antisocial outcomes in adolescence and early adulthood including arrest, self-reported violence, general offending, and illegal drug use. Data to address this comparison come from the Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS), a longitudinal panel study of 1,000 adolescents. Findings indicate that self-reported retrospective maltreatment is somewhat more prevalent (29%) than official substantiated maltreatment (21%). Among those with official reports, in young adulthood about half self-reported maltreatment, whereas 37% of those self-reporting have an official report. In general, both sources suggest that maltreatment is associated with a higher prevalence of antisocial behavior. It is not clear that combining sources of information improves prediction. PMID:18954181
FELTON, JULIA; COLE, DAVID A.; TILGHMAN-OSBORNE, CARLOS; MAXWELL, MELISSA A.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders lists weight gain or weight loss as a symptom of depression at all ages, but no study of adolescent depression has examined its relation to actual (not just self-reported) weight change. In the current longitudinal study, 215 adolescents provided physical and self-report measures of change in weight, body mass, and body fat over a 4-month time interval. They also completed psychological measures of body dissatisfaction, problematic eating attitudes, and depressive symptoms. The relation between physical measures of weight change and depressive symptoms varied with age. These relations were explained by individual differences in body dissatisfaction, eating attitudes, and behaviors, leading to questions about weight change as a symptom of depression in adolescence. PMID:20102656
Voltas, Núria; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa
The polymorphism upstream of the gene for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-uVNTR) is reported to be an important enzyme involved in human physiology and behavior. With a sample of 228 early-adolescents from a community sample (143 girls) and adjusting for environmental variables, we examined the influence of MAOA-uVNTR alleles on the scores obtained in the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders and in the Child Symptom Inventory-4. Our results showed that girls with the high-activity MAOA allele had higher scores for generalized and total anxiety than their low-activity peers, whereas boys with the low-activity allele had higher social phobia scores than boys with the high-activity allele. Results for conduct disorder symptoms did not show a significant relationship between the MAOA alleles and the presence of these symptoms. Our findings support a possible association, depending on gender, between the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism and psychopathological disorders such as anxiety, which affects high rates of children and adolescents. PMID:25747527
Torgoff, Irving; And Others
The feelings and perceptions of adolescents, apart from objective indices, warrent attention from those who are concerned with adolescent development and psychological stress. There is a need for a reliable baseline measure of adolescent subjective well-being, as manifested by self-reports of life satisfaction, to which future measurements can be…
Bamber, James H.
This study investigated the self-reported fears and some personality characteristics of a sample of 1112 adolescents ranging in age from 12 to 18 years (attending grammar and secondary schools in Northern Ireland). (CS)