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Sample records for adolescents screening positive

  1. Teen Options for Change (TOC): An Intervention for Adolescent Emergency Patients who Screen Positive for Suicide Risk

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Gipson, Polly Y; Horwitz, Adam G; Opperman, Kiel J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous research has documented the feasibility of adolescent suicide risk screening in emergency departments. This randomized trial examined the effectiveness of Teen Options for Change (TOC), an intervention for adolescents seeking medical emergency services who screen positive for suicide risk. Method Participants were 49 adolescents, ages 14 to 19, seeking services for non-psychiatric chief complaints who screened positive for suicide risk due to recent suicidal ideation/attempt and/or depression plus alcohol abuse. They were randomly assigned to TOC or enhanced treatment-as-usual. Depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and two-month follow-up. Results Adolescents assigned to TOC showed greater reductions in depression than adolescents assigned to the comparison group (Cohen's d = 1.07; large effect size). Hopelessness, suicidal ideation and alcohol outcomes trended positively (nonsignificantly) with small to moderate effect sizes. Conclusions TOC is a promising, brief intervention for adolescents seeking emergency services who are at risk for suicide. PMID:25321886

  2. Readiness to Change in Adolescents Screening Positive for Substance Use in Urban Primary Care Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Jack; McGeehan, Jennifer; Kelleher, Kelly J.

    2010-01-01

    Primary care physicians often perceive patients as unlikely to decrease their substance use and suggest this reluctance to change diminishes their willingness to screen and intervene. The literature on readiness to change has primarily focused on adults, and the available studies on adolescents have largely included hospitalized and/or…

  3. Adolescent Communication Screen. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisthammer, Patricia; And Others

    The Adolescent Communication Screen--a criterion-based instrument designed to provide speech-language clinicians a measure for screening the communication skills of students in grades 5 through 12--is described in this document. Included in the description are the instrument's subtests: vocabulary, temporal concepts, language comprehension,…

  4. Screening Practices for Adolescent Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Puster, Kristie L.; Vazquez, Elizabeth A.; Hunter, Heather L.; Lescano, Celia M.

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to determine the screening practices of child and adolescent psychiatrists regarding adolescent dating violence (DV). A questionnaire regarding screening practices for DV and other risk behaviors was administered to 817 child and adolescent psychiatrists via the Internet and mail. Twenty-one percent of clinicians screened for DV…

  5. Adolescent health screening and counseling.

    PubMed

    Ham, Peter; Allen, Claudia

    2012-12-15

    Serious health problems, risky behavior, and poor health habits persist among adolescents despite access to medical care. Most adolescents do not seek advice about preventing leading causes of morbidity and mortality in their age group, and physicians often do not find ways to provide it. Although helping adolescents prevent unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, unintentional injuries, depression, suicide, and other problems is a community-wide effort, primary care physicians are well situated to discuss risks and offer interventions. Evidence supports routinely screening for obesity and depression, offering testing for human immunodeficiency virus infection, and screening for other sexually transmitted infections in some adolescents. Evidence validating the effectiveness of physician counseling about unintended pregnancy, gang violence, and substance abuse is scant. However, physicians should use empathic, personal messages to communicate with adolescents about these issues until studies prove the benefits of more specific methods. Effective communication with adolescents requires seeing the patient alone, tailoring the discussion to the individual patient, and understanding the role of the parents and of confidentiality. PMID:23316983

  6. Screening for Hearing Loss in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alice E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The results of an auditory screening protocol administered to 342 adolescents (ages 10-20) suggest a high level of noise exposure in the adolescent population. Overall failure rate was 25%. Significant correlations were found between firearm use and hearing loss at 6000 Hertz. Screening and education efforts are urged. (Author/CR)

  7. Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, W. Rodney; And Others

    Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT) is a health promotion program providing violence prevention programming targeted at black youth, at high risk for becoming either perpetrators or victims of violence. Conducted by the School of Professional Psychology of Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio, in cooperation with Dayton Public Schools,…

  8. The Positive Psychology of Youth and Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Grant Jewell

    2003-01-01

    Introduces this theme issue that explores the nature of adolescence and the positive psychology movement that focuses on positive aspects of adolescent development. Articles in this collection provide a window into the exploration of youth strengths. (SLD)

  9. Screening and managing depression in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jami F; Miller, Michelle R; Khan, Nida

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 10%–15% of adolescents will experience a major depressive episode. The risk factors associated with depression in adolescence include a family history of depression, being female, subthreshold depression, having a nonaffective disorder, negative cognitions, interpersonal conflict, low social support, and stressful life events. Despite the availability of measures to identify depressed adolescents and efficacious interventions to treat these adolescents, a large number of depressed adolescents go undetected and untreated. This review describes several screening measures that can be used to identify adolescents with elevated depression symptoms who would benefit from a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. If an adolescent is diagnosed with a depressive disorder, there are several efficacious treatment options, including pharmacotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy. The research supporting each of these approaches is outlined, and recommendations are made to help health professionals determine the appropriate course of treatment. Although existing treatments are effective for many depressed adolescents, approximately one-third of adolescents remain depressed following treatment. Continuing research is needed to enhance the efficacy of existing treatments for adolescent depression and to develop and study novel treatment approaches. PMID:24600264

  10. Screening Adolescents and Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Lori A.; Robison, Katina

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Recent guidelines from multiple organizations, including the USPSTF, ACS/ASCCP/ASCP, ACOG and most recently the 2013 Update to the 2006 ASCCP Consensus Guidelines, all stress screening initiation no sooner than the age of 21 years and increased screening intervals for women aged 21 to 29 years. Primary prevention with HPV vaccination has the potential to significantly impact the development of high-grade cervical lesions, including cancer, and will likely affect screening guidelines in the future. PMID:23732030

  11. Associations between dietary patterns and screen time among Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Jun, Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Data are limited on the association between dietary patterns and screen time among Korean adolescents. The present study identified dietary patterns of 691 adolescents, aged 13-18 years, who had participated in the Third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) and analyzed their associations with screen time. Screen time was defined as the time spent watching TV, using a computer, or playing video games was calculated as a sum of all these times. Dietary patterns and their factor scores were derived from a food frequency questionnaire using the factor analysis method. To analyze the association between dietary patterns and screen time, we conducted multiple linear regression analysis. We also performed multiple logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (OR) of excessive screen time (2 hours or longer per day) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We identified 2 dietary patterns labeled "the Korean healthy dietary pattern" and "the Western diet and fast foods pattern". The former included mixed grains, legumes, potatoes, red meat, eggs, fish, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, seaweeds, and mushrooms, whereas the latter included noodles, bread, red meat, poultry, fast foods, snack, and soft drinks. After controlling for potential confounding factors, factor scores for the Korean healthy dietary pattern were inversely associated (P-value for trend < 0.01) and those for the Western diet and fast foods pattern were positively associated with the screen time (P-value for trend < 0.01). Adolescents in the top tertile of the scores for the Korean healthy dietary pattern had a multivariable-adjusted OR [95% CI] of 0.44 (0.25-0.75) for excessive screen time compared with those in the lowest tertile. On the basis of these findings, adolescents who have excessive screen time may need to be encouraged to consume a more healthy diet. PMID:23964322

  12. Older Adolescents' Positive Attitudes toward Younger Adolescents as Sexual Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrom, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…

  13. Positive Health Practices of Urban Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, MaryAnn; Whalen, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors related to health practices of urban minority adolescents. Participant surveys highlighted positive correlations between social support and positive health practices and hope and positive health practices. There was no significant relationship between self-esteem and positive health practices. Implications for school nursing…

  14. Genetic screening in adolescents with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lipska, Beata S; Iatropoulos, Paraskevas; Maranta, Ramona; Caridi, Gianluca; Ozaltin, Fatih; Anarat, Ali; Balat, Ayse; Gellermann, Jutta; Trautmann, Agnes; Erdogan, Ozlem; Saeed, Bassam; Emre, Sevinc; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Azocar, Marta; Balasz-Chmielewska, Irena; Benetti, Elisa; Caliskan, Salim; Mir, Sevgi; Melk, Anette; Ertan, Pelin; Baskin, Esra; Jardim, Helena; Davitaia, Tinatin; Wasilewska, Anna; Drozdz, Dorota; Szczepanska, Maria; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Higuita, Lina Maria Serna; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Ozkaya, Ozan; Kuzma-Mroczkowska, Elzbieta; Soylemezoglu, Oguz; Ranchin, Bruno; Medynska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Peco-Antic, Amira; Akil, Ipek; Jarmolinski, Tomasz; Firszt-Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Dusek, Jiri; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Gok, Faysal; Gheissari, Alaleh; Emma, Francesco; Krmar, Rafael T; Fischbach, Michel; Printza, Nikoleta; Simkova, Eva; Mele, Caterina; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-07-01

    Genetic screening paradigms for congenital and infantile nephrotic syndrome are well established; however, screening in adolescents has received only minor attention. To help rectify this, we analyzed an unselected adolescent cohort of the international PodoNet registry to develop a rational screening approach based on 227 patients with nonsyndromic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome aged 10-20 years. Of these, 21% had a positive family history. Autosomal dominant cases were screened for WT1, TRPC6, ACTN4, and INF2 mutations. All other patients had the NPHS2 gene screened, and WT1 was tested in sporadic cases. In addition, 40 sporadic cases had the entire coding region of INF2 tested. Of the autosomal recessive and the sporadic cases, 13 and 6%, respectively, were found to have podocin-associated nephrotic syndrome, and 56% of them were compound heterozygous for the nonneutral p.R229Q polymorphism. Four percent of the sporadic and 10% of the autosomal dominant cases had a mutation in WT1. Pathogenic INF2 mutations were found in 20% of the dominant but none of the sporadic cases. In a large cohort of adolescents including both familial and sporadic disease, NPHS2 mutations explained about 7% and WT1 4% of cases, whereas INF2 proved relevant only in autosomal dominant familial disease. Thus, screening of the entire coding sequence of NPHS2 and exons 8-9 of WT1 appears to be the most rational and cost-effective screening approach in sporadic juvenile steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. PMID:23515051

  15. Screen time and adiposity in adolescents in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lajous, Martín; Chavarro, Jorge; Peterson, Karen E; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; Cruz-Valdéz, Aurelio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of time spent viewing television, videos and videogames with measures of fat mass [body mass index (BMI)] and distribution [triceps and subscapular skin folds (TSF, SSF)]. Design Cross-sectional validated survey, self-administered to students to assess screen time (TV, videos and videogames) and lifestyle variables. Trained personnel obtained anthropometry. The association of screen time with fat mass and distribution, stratified by sex, was modeled with multivariable linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders and correlation of observations within schools. Subjects and setting 3519 males and 5613 females aged 11 to 18 years attending urban and rural schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico Results In males, ≥5 hr/day compared with < 2 hr/day of screen time, was significantly associated with a 0.13 (95%CI 0.04, 0.23) higher BMI z score, 0.73 mm (95% CI 0.24, 1.22) higher SSF and 1.08 mm (95% CI 0.36, 1.81) higher TSF. The positive association of screen time with SSF was strongest in males 11–12 yr. Sexual maturity appeared to modify the association in females; a positive between screen time and SSF was observed in those who had not undergone menarche (p-trend 0.04) but not among sexually mature females (p-trend 0.75). Conclusion Screen time is associated with fat mass and distribution among adolescent males in Mexico. Maturational tempo appears to affect the relationship of screen time with adiposity in boys and girls. Findings suggest obesity preventive interventions in the Mexican context should explore strategies to reduce screen time among youth in early adolescence. PMID:19232154

  16. Consequences of False-Positive Screening Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Fryback, Dennis G.; Hammond, Cristina S.; Hanna, Lucy G.; Grove, Margaret R.; Brown, Mary; Wang, Qianfei; Lindfors, Karen; Pisano, Etta D.

    2014-01-01

    Importance False-positive mammograms, a common occurrence in breast cancer screening programs, represent a potential screening harm that is currently being evaluated by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Objective To measure the impact of false-positive mammograms on quality of life by measuring personal anxiety, health utility and future screening attitudes. Design Longitudinal Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) quality-of-life sub-study telephone survey shortly after screening and one year later. Setting Twenty-two DMIST sites Participants Randomly-selected DMIST participants with positive and negative mammograms. Exposure(s) for observational studies Mammogram requiring follow-up testing or referral without a cancer diagnosis. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index short-form (STAI-6) and the EuroQol EQ-5D with United States scoring. Attitudes toward future screening measured by women’s self-report of future intention to undergo mammography screening and willingness to travel and stay overnight to receive a hypothetical new mammogram that would detect as many cancers with half the false-positives. Results Among 1,450 eligible women invited to participate, 1,226 women (85%) were enrolled with follow-up interviews obtained for 1,028 (84%). Anxiety was significantly higher for women with false-positive mammograms (STAI-6:35.2 vs. 32.7), but health utility did not differ and there were no significant differences between groups at one year. Future screening intentions differed by group (26% vs. 14% more likely in false-positive vs. negative); willingness to travel and stay overnight did not (11% vs. 10% in false-positive vs. negative). Future screening intention was significantly increased among women with false-positive mammograms (OR: 2.12; 95%CI:1.54, 2.93), younger age (OR:2.78; 95%CI:1.5,5.0) and poorer health (OR: 1.63; 95%CI:1.09, 2.43). Women’s anticipated high-level anxiety regarding

  17. Adolescent suicide risk screening: the effect of communication about type of follow-up on adolescents' screening responses.

    PubMed

    King, Cheryl A; Hill, Ryan M; Wynne, Henry A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical emergency services. They were randomized to a screening follow-up condition. Screening measures assessed primary risk factors for suicidal behavior, including suicidal thoughts, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and aggressive/delinquent behavior. There was no main effect of follow-up condition on adolescents' screening scores; however, significant interactions between follow-up condition and public assistance status were evident. Adolescents whose families received public assistance were less likely to report aggressive-delinquent behavior if assigned to in-person follow-up. Adolescents whose families did not receive public assistance reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation if assigned to in-person follow-up. Findings suggest that response biases impact some adolescents' responses to suicide risk screenings. Because national policy strongly recommends suicide risk screening in emergency settings, and because screening scores are used to make critical decisions regarding risk management and treatment recommendations, findings indicate the importance of improving the reliability and validity of suicide risk screening for adolescents. PMID:22540534

  18. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Lucena, Joana Marcela Sales; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Cavalcante, Thaísa Leite Mafaldo; da Silva, Vanessa Araújo; de Farias, José Cazuza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female) from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color), physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1) and it was higher in males (84.3%) compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure. PMID:26298661

  19. Should Screening for Depression among Children and Adolescents Be Demedicalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Allan V.; Wakefield, Jerome C.

    2009-01-01

    The criteria for diagnosing depressive disorders fails to place the symptoms of intense sadness in the context of major losses in life, and separating normal sadness from depressive disorder among adolescents is especially difficult. Suggested modifications to the screening of suicidal ideation among adolescents are also presented.

  20. Screening and Assessing Adolescent Substance Use Disorders in Clinical Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Kaminer, Yifrah

    2008-01-01

    The different established screening methodologies and comprehensive assessment techniques used in evaluating adolescents suspected of or known to have substance abuse disorders are discussed. Recommendations and suggestions for establishing standards of training and professional efficiency are also highlighted to treat adolescents with substance…

  1. Screening and Assessing Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Primer for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Robert C.; Smith, Shannon D.

    2003-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is an increasing problem in U. S. society. This article provides an overview of adolescent substance abuse, screening, and assessment strategies; contact information related to specific assessment instruments; and information regarding ethic important to consider during the assessment process. (Contains 16 references and…

  2. The Association of BMI Status With Adolescent Preventive Screening

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sally H.; Irwin, Charles E.; Ozer, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between BMI status (normal, overweight, and obese) and preventive screening among adolescents at their last checkup. METHODS: We used population-based data from the 2003–2007 California Health Interview Surveys, telephone interviews of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with a checkup in the past 12 months (n = 9220). Respondents were asked whether they received screening for nutrition, physical activity, and emotional distress. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight: (1) normal weight or underweight (<85th percentile); (2) overweight (85th–94th percentile); and (3) obese (>95th percentile). Multivariate logistic regression models tested how screening by topic differed according to BMI status, adjusting for age, gender, income, race/ethnicity, and survey year. RESULTS: Screening percentages in the pooled sample (all 3 years) were higher for obese, but not overweight, adolescents for physical activity (odds ratio: 1.4; P < .01) and nutrition (odds ratio: 1.6; screening did not differ P < .01). Stratified analysis by year revealed higher screening for obese (versus normal-weight) adolescents for nutrition and physical activity in 2003 and for all 3 topics in 2005. However, by 2007, screening did not differ according to BMI status. Overall screening between 2003 and 2007 declined for nutrition (75%–59%; P < .01), physical activity (74%–60%; P < .01), and emotional distress (31%–24%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents receive more preventive screening versus their normal-weight peers. Overweight adolescents do not report more screening, but standards of care dictate increased attention for this group. These results are discouraging amid a rise in pediatric obesity and new guidelines that recommend screening by BMI status. PMID:21768313

  3. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  4. Adolescent Suicide Risk Screening: The Effect of Communication about Type of Follow-Up on Adolescents' Screening Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Cheryl A.; Hill, Ryan M.; Wynne, Henry A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical…

  5. Screening as an Approach for Adolescent Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Juan B.; Caine, Eric D.

    2006-01-01

    Among the provisions of the recently signed Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Act, Congress called for the use of screening to detect adolescents who are at risk for suicide. After a review of the literature, 17 studies involving screening instruments and programs were identified. We addressed the question: What do we know about the demonstrated…

  6. The Impact of Economic Pressure on Parent Positivity, Parenting, and Adolescent Positivity into Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Shinyoung; Schofield, Thomas J.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes how positivity can be incorporated into the Family Stress Model to explain resilience to disrupted family processes in the face of economic distress. Prospective, longitudinal data came from 451 mothers, fathers, and youth participating from their adolescence through early adulthood. Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Information regarding economic pressure, parental positivity, and parenting were collected during early adolescence, positivity was collected in late adolescence and emerging adulthood. Results indicated that economic pressure was indirectly associated with adolescent positivity through parental positivity. Economic pressure was negatively associated with parent positivity, whereas parental positivity was positively associated with parenting. Moreover, parental positivity and parenting were both related to positivity in adolescence. Results suggest that personal resources linked to a positive outlook can foster nurturant parenting, even in times of economic strain. Such parenting seems to positively influence adolescent development into emerging adulthood. PMID:25678730

  7. Associations between Screen Time and Physical Activity among Spanish Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A.; Martí-Trujillo, Sara; Lera-Navarro, Angela; Dorado-García, Cecilia; González-Henríquez, Juan J.; Sanchís-Moysi, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    Background Excessive time in front of a single or several screens could explain a displacement of physical activity. The present study aimed at determining whether screen-time is associated with a reduced level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Spanish adolescents living in favorable environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select 3503 adolescents (12–18 years old) from the school population of Gran Canaria, Spain. MVPA, screen-time in front of television, computer, video game console and portable console was assessed in the classroom by fulfilling a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted by a set of social-environmental variables were carried out. Forty-six percent of girls (95% CI±2.3%) and 26% of boys (95% CI±2.1%) did not meet the MVPA recommendations for adolescents. Major gender differences were observed in the time devoted to vigorous PA, video games and the total time spent on screen-based activities. Boys who reported 4 hours•week−1 or more to total screen-time showed a 64% (OR = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.44–0.86) increased risk of failing to achieve the recommended adolescent MVPA level. Participation in organized physical activities and sports competitions were more strongly associated with MVPA than screen-related behaviors. Conclusions/Significance No single screen-related behavior explained the reduction of MVPA in adolescents. However, the total time accumulated through several screen-related behaviors was negatively associated with MVPA level in boys. This association could be due to lower availability of time for exercise as the time devoted to sedentary screen-time activities increases. Participation in organized physical activities seems to counteract the negative impact of excessive time in front of screens on physical activity. PMID:21909435

  8. Screen time, weight status and the self-concept of physical attractiveness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Suchert, Vivien; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents in modern societies spend about 3 h per day in front of small recreational screens. The present study aims at investigating the relationships between screen time and different indicators of overweight. In addition, associations with the self-concept of physical attractiveness and perceived weight status will be examined. In a total sample of 1228 students (47.5% girls) aged 12-17 years (M = 13.74, SD = 0.68) cross-sectional associations were determined by conducting multiple linear regression analyses. Screen time showed a significant positive dose-response relationship with body mass index percentile, waist circumference, body fat, waist-to-height-ratio, and a negative association with self-concept of physical attractiveness independent of age, gender and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Thus, screen time seems to be associated with adolescent overweight, abdominal obesity, and body dissatisfaction. Reducing adolescents' screen time could be a promising approach for primary prevention of obesity and for the promotion of a positive physical self-concept. PMID:26854729

  9. Item Selection Methods for the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the method of item selection tested in the development of the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory. Method: The convenience sampling frame used for these analyses consisted of 26,781 Communities That Care Youth Surveys. The three item selection methods were used to assess known instrument,…

  10. Young Adolescents' Responses to Positive Events: Associations with Positive Affect and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentzler, Amy L.; Morey, Jennifer N.; Palmer, Cara A.; Yi, Chit Yuen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how maximizing and minimizing responses to positive events were associated with sustained positive feelings about the events and adjustment in a community sample of 56 young adolescents (31 boys and 25 girls, 10-14 years of age). On daily reports, adolescents reported their positive emotional reactions to their best event each…

  11. Cervical cancer screening among HIV-positive women

    PubMed Central

    Leece, Pamela; Kendall, Claire; Touchie, Claire; Pottie, Kevin; Angel, Jonathan B.; Jaffey, James

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of cervical screening among HIV-positive women who received care at a tertiary care clinic, and to determine whether screening rates were influenced by having a primary care provider. DESIGN Retrospective chart review. SETTING Tertiary care outpatient clinic in Ottawa, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Women who were HIV-positive receiving care at the Ottawa Hospital General Campus Immunodeficiency Clinic between July 1, 2002, and June 30, 2005. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Whether patients had primary care providers and whether they received cervical screening. We recorded information on patient demographics, HIV status, primary care providers, and cervical screening, including date, results, and type of health care provider ordering the screening. RESULTS Fifty-eight percent (126 of 218) of the women had at least 1 cervical screening test during the 3-year period. Thirty-three percent (42 of 126) of the women who underwent cervical screening had at least 1 abnormal test result. The proportion of women who did not have any cervical tests performed was higher among women who did not have primary care providers (8 of 12 [67%] vs 84 of 206 [41%]; relative risk 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.52, P < .05), although this group was small. CONCLUSION Despite the high proportion of abnormal cervical screening test results among HIV-positive women, screening rates remained low. Our results support our hypothesis that those women who do not have primary care providers are less likely to undergo cervical screening. PMID:21375064

  12. Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…

  13. Cervical cancer screening in Belgium and overscreening of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin

    2016-03-01

    There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25812038

  14. Screening and Treatment of Common Lipid Disorders in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bialo, Shara R; Boney, Charlotte M

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a substantial health care burden in the adult population, the roots of which begin in childhood. Universal screening for dyslipidemia in all children and adolescents has been implemented to identify cases of FH that are otherwise missed by conventional screening because untreated FH can result in early CVD and untimely death. Recommendations for medical therapy did not change with the 2011 NHLBI guidelines. LDL levels targeted for therapy usually are elevated because of primary genetic disorders such as FH. Although these recommendations remain controversial, the benefit of universal screening and subsequent treatment of high-risk patients far outweighs the risk of not screening, although more investigation is warranted to understand the long-term outcomes of CVD risk in youth. PMID:26999877

  15. A Sex-Positive Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I propose a sex-positive framework for research on adolescent sexuality in which I consider consensual sexual activities in adolescence as developmentally normative and potentially healthy. The sex-positive framework is contrasted with the predominant "risk" perspective that presumes that abstinence from sexual activity is the ideal behavioral outcome for teenagers. Evidence from longitudinal and behavioral genetic studies indicates that engaging in sexual intercourse in adolescence does not typically cause worse psychological functioning. The relationship context of sexual experience may be a critical moderator of its psychological impact. Moreover, cross-cultural data on adolescents' contraception usage, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections suggest that, despite the unacceptably high rate of negative health consequences among U.S. teenagers, adolescents can have the developmental capacity to regulate the health risks inherent in sexual activity. Understanding adolescent sexuality can be fostered by considering sexual well-being, a multidimensional construct that incorporates an adolescent's sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, feelings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction, and freedom from pain and negative affect regarding sexuality. New research is necessary to understand the development of adolescent sexual well-being, including its normative age trends, its reciprocal links with sexual behavior, and its impact on psychological and physical health. PMID:26186753

  16. Temporomandibular disorders among Brazilian adolescents: reliability and validity of a screening questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    FRANCO-MICHELONI, Ana Lucia; FERNANDES, Giovana; GONÇALVES, Daniela Aparecida de Godoi; CAMPARIS, Cinara Maria

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) screeners assume significant item overlap with the screening questionnaire proposed by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP). Objective To test the reliability and validity of the Portuguese version of AAOP questions for TMD screening among adolescents. Material and Methods Diagnoses from Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I were used as reference standard. Reliability was evaluated by internal consistency (KR-20) and inter-item correlation. Validity was tested by sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the relationship between the true-positive rate (sensitivity) and the false-positive rate (specificity). Test-retest reliability of AAOP questions and intra-examiner reproducibility of RDC/TMD Axis I were tested with kappa statistics. Results The sample consisted of 1307 Brazilian adolescents (56.8% girls; n=742), with mean age of 12.72 years (12.69 F/12.75 M). According to RDC/TMD, 397 [30.4% (32.7% F/27.3% M)] of adolescents presented TMD, of which 330 [25.2% (27.6% F/22.2% M)] were painful TMD. Because of low consistency, items #8 and #10 of the AAOP questionnaire were excluded. Remaining items (of the long questionnaire version) showed good consistency and validity for three positive responses or more. After logistic regression, items #4, #6, #7 and #9 also showed satisfactory consistency and validity for two or more positive responses (short questionnaire version). Both versions demonstrated excellent specificity (about 90%), but higher sensitivity for detecting painful TMD (78.2%). Better reproducibility was obtained for the short version (k=0.840). Conclusions The Portuguese version of AAOP questions showed both good reliability and validity for the screening of TMD among adolescents, especially painful TMD, according to RDC/TMD. PMID:25141204

  17. Blue-white screening liquid can eliminate false positives in blue-white colony screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y S

    2016-01-01

    Although blue-white screening based on α-complementation has been widely used in the screening of genetically modified bacteria, only a single blue-white screening is typically not enough to eliminate false positives. Sometimes, a secondary blue-white screening for the target colonies is required. In this study, two methods were used to investigate the feasibility of secondary blue-white screening for target colonies on lysogeny broth (LB)-ampicillin agar plates. The first method consisted of covering the target colonies grown on LB-ampicillin plate medium with a sterilized filter paper soaked in a solution of 60 μL 20 mg/mL X-gal and 8 μL 20% IPTG. The second method was that blue and white colonies were randomly selected from the blue-white screening plate medium and then re-streaked onto the blue-white screening medium. The colonies were then treated by two methods and incubated at 37°C for 12 h. The results showed that some of the white colonies treated by the two methods showed results similar to the colonies grown on the blue-white screening medium. These results indicate that the target colonies grown on blue-white screening medium can still be used to carry out a secondary blue-white screening. Thus, a blue-white screening liquid was successfully developed. Using the blue-white screening liquid, false positives can be eliminated directly based on the color of the target colonies. This will greatly improve the screening efficiency of positive clones and has important practical implications. PMID:27323169

  18. Performance of Children and Adolescents With Brain Injury on the Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examination for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lebby, Paul C; Pollock, Megan; Mouanoutoua, Amy; Lewey, Jennifer H

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic brain injuries are one of the leading causes of deaths and disabilities in children and adolescents. There is a need for clinicians to quickly screen for disrupted cognitive functioning to appropriately refer to specialists. The Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examination for Children and Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examination for Adolescents were developed to fill a gap in available measures and create a screening tool to quickly identify impaired neurocognitive functioning. A series of statistical analyses were conducted to determine their clinical utility. A multivariate analysis of variance found a statistically significant difference between those with brain injury (n = 59) from noninjured (n = 190) on the combined dependent variables, F(14, 234) = 46.530, P < .001; Wilks Lambda = .264; partial η(2) = .763. The Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examinations for Children and Adolescents are effective neurocognitive screening measures for children and adolescents in identifying brain injury. PMID:25403459

  19. Adolescent reactions to icon-driven response modes in a tablet-based health screening tool.

    PubMed

    Blander, Eitan; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2015-05-01

    Increasingly popular touch-screen electronic tablets offer clinics a new medium for collecting adolescent health screening data in the waiting area before visits, but there has been limited evaluation of interactive response modes. This study investigated the clarity, comprehensibility, and utility of icon-driven and gestural response functions employed in one such screening tool, TickiT. We conducted cognitive processing interviews with 30 adolescents from Vancouver (aged 14-20 years, 60% female, 30% English as a second language) as they completed the TickiT survey. Participants used seven different interactive functions to respond to questions across 30 slides, while being prompted to articulate their thoughts and reactions. The audio-recorded, transcribed interviews were analyzed for evidence of comprehension, nuances in response choices, and youth interest in the modes. Participants were quite receptive to the icon response modes. Across demographics and cultural backgrounds, they indicated question prompts were clear, response choices appropriate, and response modes intuitive. Most said they found the format engaging and would be more inclined to fill out such a screening tool than a paper-and-pencil form in a clinical setting. Given the positive responses and ready understanding of these modes among youth, clinicians may want to consider interactive icon-driven approaches for screening. PMID:25851558

  20. Moderators of Brief Motivation-Enhancing Treatments for Alcohol-Positive Adolescents Presenting to the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sara J; Jones, Richard N; Hernandez, Lynn; Graves, Hannah R; Spirito, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    A 2011 randomized controlled trial compared the effectiveness of two brief motivation-enhancing therapy (MET) models among alcohol-positive adolescents in an urban emergency department: adolescent MET-only versus MET + Family Check-Up (FCU), a parent MET model. Results indicated that among the 97 adolescents completing the 3-month assessment, both conditions were associated with reduced drinking and MET+FCU was associated with lower rates of high volume drinking than adolescent MET-only. The goal of this study was to identify predictors and moderators of high volume drinking in the original trial. Seven candidate variables were evaluated as moderators across three domains: demographic characteristics, psychological factors, and socio-contextual factors. Analyses of covariance models identified one significant predictor and one significant moderator of outcome. Older adolescents had significantly worse drinking outcomes than younger adolescents regardless of MET condition. Adolescents whose parents screened positive for problematic alcohol use at baseline had significantly worse drinking outcomes in the MET+FCU condition than the MET-only condition. Results indicate that alcohol-positive adolescents presenting to the emergency department may respond better to MET models if they are under the age of 16. Involving parents who have problematic alcohol use in a parent-focused MET may have negative effects on adolescent high volume drinking. PMID:27568507

  1. Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Friend, Sarah; Graham, Daniel J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around), and their association with physical activity (PA), dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors. PMID:22013514

  2. Positive Attributes Protect Adolescents from Risk for the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Midei, Aimee J.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Risk for cardiovascular disease develops as early as adolescence. The primary objective of the present study is to identify whether low levels of positive and high levels of negative emotions and attitudes are associated with the combination of cardiovascular risk factors known as the metabolic syndrome. Methods Participants were 239 healthy adolescents (57% black, 53% female, mean age = 15.7) from a low to middle class community. They completed measures of negative and positive emotions and attitudes, which were factor-analyzed and yielded two factors. Positive Attributes included general positive affect, optimistic attitudes, subjective social status, and self-esteem. Negative Emotions included cynical attitudes, depressive symptoms, trait anger, and general negative affect. Components of the metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, glucose, blood pressure, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were standardized and averaged to create a metabolic syndrome composite risk score. Results Linear regression analyses showed that the Positive Attributes factor was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome composite risk score, p < .01. The relationship remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, physical activity, smoking, and body mass index percentile. The Negative Emotion factor was unrelated to metabolic risk score. Conclusion Adolescents with more positive attributes had lower metabolic syndrome risk scores. This study emphasizes the importance of the development of psychosocial resources during the adolescent transition for potentially reducing future cardiovascular risk. PMID:25060290

  3. Identity styles, positive youth development, and civic engagement in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Erentaitė, Rasa; Zukauskienė, Rita

    2014-11-01

    Identity formation is a core developmental task of adolescence. Adolescents can rely on different social-cognitive styles to seek, process, and encode self-relevant information: information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant identity styles. The reliance on different styles might impact adolescents' adjustment and their active involvement in the society. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents with different identity styles report differences in positive youth development (analyzed with the Five Cs-Competence, Confidence, Character, Connection, and Caring-model) and in various forms of civic engagement (i.e., involvement in school self-government activities, volunteering activities, youth political organizations, and youth non-political organizations). The participants were 1,633 (54.1 % female) 14-19 year old adolescents (M age = 16.56, SD age = 1.22). The findings indicated that adolescents with different identity styles differed significantly on all the Five Cs and on two (i.e., involvement in volunteering activities and in youth non-political organizations) forms of civic engagement. Briefly, adolescents with an information-oriented style reported high levels of both the Five Cs and civic engagement; participants with a normative style reported moderate to high scores on the Five Cs but low rates of civic engagement; diffuse-avoidant respondents scored low both on the Five Cs and on civic engagement. These findings suggest that the information-oriented style, contrary to the diffuse-avoidant one, has beneficial effects for both the individual and the community, while the normative style has quite beneficial effects for the individual but not for his/her community. Concluding, adolescents with different identity styles display meaningful differences in positive youth development and in rates of civic engagement. PMID:24488126

  4. Apparatus Would Position Bright Spot On Projection Screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, Marc D.

    1996-01-01

    Proposed apparatus aims beam of visible light at wavelength lambda(2) to create bright spot at desired position in image on projection screen. Intended to replace handheld laser and flashlight pointers lecturers sometimes use to indicate features in projected images. Beam of light cannot be inadvertently aimed toward audience.

  5. Nutritional screening and early intervention in children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Deborah L; Loman, Deborah G; Balakas, Karen; Flowers, Marsha

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer who receive chemotherapy and/or radiation treatments are at risk for malnutrition due to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and mouth sores. Malnutrition during treatment for childhood cancer increases the risk of infection, decreases tolerance to treatment, and even affects overall survival. A retrospective analysis of 79 children, adolescents, and young adults was conducted to evaluate nutritional screening at baseline and for the first 6 months of treatment. Interventions were also documented. Forty-nine participants had a positive screen for risk of malnutrition. In the patients with a positive screen, 78% had intervention within 24 hours of the identified risk for malnutrition. Thirty-five patients had a nutritional referral, which resulted in a full nutritional assessment and plan. Key independent variables were analyzed to determine if they were associated with an increased risk of malnutrition. In addition, individual risk factors were analyzed to determine their association with malnutrition. Future studies should find whether early intervention is effective in reversing the risk of malnutrition during treatment for childhood cancer. PMID:23087250

  6. Test equality between two binary screening tests with a confirmatory procedure restricted on screen positives.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2015-01-01

    In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula. PMID:24836678

  7. Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

  8. Genomic Amplifications Cause False Positives in CRISPR Screens.

    PubMed

    Sheel, Ankur; Xue, Wen

    2016-08-01

    In CRISPR-based screens for essential genes, Munoz and colleagues and Aguirre and colleagues show that gene-independent targeting of genomic amplifications in human cancer cell lines reduces proliferation or survival. The correlation between CRISPR target site copy number and lethality demonstrates the need for scrutiny and complementary approaches to rule out off-target effects and false positives in CRISPR screens. Cancer Discov; 6(8); 824-6. ©2016 AACR.See related article by Munoz et al., p. 900See related article by Aguirre et al., p. 914. PMID:27485003

  9. The Evaluation of a Screening Tool for Children with an Intellectual Disability: The Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen; Paxton, Donna; Murray, George; Milanesi, Paula; Murray, Aja Louise

    2012-01-01

    The study outlines the evaluation of an intellectual disability screening tool, the "Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire" ("CAIDS-Q"), with two age groups. A number of aspects of the reliability and validity of the "CAIDS-Q" were assessed for these two groups, including inter-rater reliability, convergent and…

  10. Does positive youth development predict adolescent attitudes about sexuality?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex. PMID:19086667

  11. A Novel Screening and Diagnostic Tool for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders for Telepsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Mehta, Anurati; Gupta, Aarzoo; Sharma, Minali

    2015-01-01

    Background: A diagnostic tool designed as part of a telepsychiatry application for diagnosis and management of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India was developed considering the paucity of trained child psychiatrists and mental health professionals in India. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic tool consisted of screening and 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) criteria-based diagnostic algorithms for 18 psychiatric disorders seen in childhood and adolescence. Accuracy of diagnoses and feasibility of use of the tool was examined by comparing it with detailed semi-structured clinical evaluations by a qualified psychiatrist with 50 psychiatric patients (children and adolescents). Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were conducted to compare the mean number of diagnosis generated by the two interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were computed for the screening and the diagnostic sub-modules of the tool, compared to the clinical diagnoses. Kappa coefficients were computed to assess agreement between the diagnoses generated by the diagnostic sub-module and the clinical diagnoses. Results: The screening sub-module had high sensitivity, high specificity and negative predictive values for all disorders. For the diagnostic sub-module, there was moderate (kappa-0.4–0.6) to substantial agreement (kappa > 0.6) for all the disorders, (except psychosis) and high sensitivity (barring a few disorders) and specificity for almost all the disorders. Positive predictive values were found to be acceptable to high for most disorders, with consistently high negative predictive values. Conclusion: The new tool was found to be comprehensive, reasonably short and feasible. Results showed acceptable level of accuracy in diagnosis generated by the tool. PMID:26424901

  12. Screening instruments for substance use and brief interventions targeting adolescents in primary care: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pilowsky, Daniel J; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-01-01

    Background A review of the literature was conducted to examine substance use screening instruments commonly used with adolescents in medical settings, their comparative usefulness, and SBIRT (Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment). Methods We screened two databases (Ovid MEDLINE and PsycINFO) targeting journal articles dealing with screening for alcohol and drug use in adolescence as well as adolescent SBIRT. Results Adolescents preferred paper forms and computerized questionnaires over interviews with physicians or nurses. The CRAFFT was the best studied instrument for screening for alcohol/drug use and related problems, and is the only tool with data to support its use in medical settings. Other screening instruments require more testing/evaluation in more representative samples of adolescents in primary care settings. Long term follow-up data to establish the efficacy of SBIRT in adolescence are not available. Innovative computerized approaches to screening for substance use in this population have recently been proposed. Although promising, they require further evaluation. Conclusions The CRAFFT has the most consistent data to support its use in primary care settings. The effects of SBIRT in adolescence have not been adequately evaluated. Adolescents’ opinions and preferences for SBIRT should be studied to improve their acceptance. PMID:23454877

  13. Parental emotion socialization in clinically depressed adolescents: Enhancing, and dampening positive affect

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Allen, Nicholas B.; Davis, Betsy; Hunter, Erin; Leve, Craig; Sheeber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compared parental socialization of adolescent positive affect in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Participants were 107 adolescents (42 boys) aged 14 - 18 years and their parents. Half of the participants met criteria for major depressive disorder and the others were demographically matched adolescents without emotional or behavioral disorders. Results based on multi-source questionnaire and interview data indicated that mothers and fathers of depressed adolescents were less accepting of adolescents’ positive affect and more likely to use strategies that dampen adolescents’ positive affect than were parents of healthy adolescents. Additionally, fathers of depressed adolescents exhibited fewer responses likely to enhance the adolescents’ positive affect than were fathers of healthy adolescents. These findings build on those of previous work in examining parental responses to adolescent emotions, focusing on positive emotions and including both mothers and fathers. PMID:23942826

  14. Interrelationships of adolescent physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and social and psychological health

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Ronald J.; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Methods Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Results Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and quality of life were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Conclusions Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences. PMID:19639256

  15. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  16. Cross-reactivity between Lyme and syphilis screening assays: Lyme disease does not cause false-positive syphilis screens.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, Glenn; LeBlanc, Jason; Heinstein, Charles; Roberts, Catherine; Lindsay, Robbin; Hatchette, Todd F

    2016-03-01

    Increased rates of Lyme disease and syphilis in the same geographic area prompted an assessment of screening test cross-reactivity. This study supports the previously described cross-reactivity of Lyme screening among syphilis-positive sera and reports evidence against the possibility of false-positive syphilis screening tests resulting from previous Borrelia burgdorferi infection. PMID:26707064

  17. Characteristics of Mother-Child Interactions Related to Adolescents' Positive Values and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a theoretical model that considered accurate perception and acceptance of maternal values in relation to adolescents' positive values and behaviors. One hundred fifty-one mother-adolescent dyads completed measures targeting adolescent and maternal perceptions of prosocial values and adolescent behaviors (M…

  18. Screening of a positive muon by a semion gas

    SciTech Connect

    McMullen, T.; Jena, P.; Khanna, S.N. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-06-01

    {mu}SR is one of the experimental techniques used to search for manifestation of the broken T and P symmetries predicted by some theories of highly correlated electron systems. When T and P are broken, the screening of the positively charged muon by the electron system generates a magnetic field in addition to any intrinsic magnetic field that may be present. The authors estimate the magnetic field that is induced at a muon site when the muon is screened by the fractional statistics gas. In this paper, the value depends on the distance between the muon and the anyon plane, and a simple theoretical approach to the calculation of the minimum energy muon sites is outlined and some results for Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} are presented.

  19. Maternal Positive and Negative Interaction Behaviors and Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Adolescent Emotion Regulation as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided…

  20. The effect of image size on screen-positive rates for nuchal translucency screening.

    PubMed

    Teoh, M; Meagher, S E; Choong, S; Shekleton, P; Wallace, E M

    2006-04-01

    It has been shown previously that the absolute measurement of nuchal translucency (NT) thickness, one of the most effective screening tests for fetal Down syndrome, significantly decreases with increasing image size. We undertook a prospective study to assess whether this effect materially alters the NT-derived risk estimation for fetal Down syndrome. In 350 women, NT was measured at both 100 and 200% image sizes. The median NT measurement at 200% was 8% smaller than at 100%. The screen-positive rates at 100 and 200% image sizes were 5.1% (18/350) and 2.3% (8/350), respectively (P= 0.048). Altering the image magnification settings is likely to decrease the sensitivity of NT-derived Down syndrome risk estimation. Further study is required to test the effect of our finding on the sensitivity of NT screening and to assess whether adjustments in gain settings mitigate the effect. PMID:16489936

  1. Adolescent Age Moderates Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Adolescent Positivity and Negativity: Implications for Genotype-Environment Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807

  2. Factors Associated with Recruitment and Screening in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Diane E.; Hallin, Mary J.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Puumala, Susan E.; Smith, Lynette S.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine factors associated with eligibility and randomization and consider the efficiency of recruitment methods. Method: Adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years, were telephone screened (N = 2,804) followed by in-person evaluation (N = 1,088) for the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study. Separate logistic regression models,…

  3. Unusual false-positive case of urinary screening for buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Romero, Araelsis; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mercadanti, Mariella

    2011-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a centrally acting analgesic drug that is administered for the management of opioid dependence and as an analgesic drug for the treatment of chronic pain. The growing use of this substance has determined an increased need for laboratory testing for either detection and confirmation of the illicit use or monitoring compliance as a substitution therapy for opioid dependence. We describe here the case of urinary sample adulteration with exogenous buprenorphine (6,952 ng/ml), which has led to afalse-positive immunoassay test result (14.9 ng/ml) on a subsequent sample due to a phenomenon of instrumental carry-over. This unusual case confirms the importance to take into account adulteration when screening urines for buprenorphine in patients undergoing substitution therapy for opioid dependence, routinely perform a confirmation assay on positive samples, and rule out instrumental carry-over. PMID:21786326

  4. ERICA: use of screens and consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the length of exposure to screens and the prevalence of consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents in front of screens. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 12 to 17-year old adolescents from 1,247 schools in 124 Brazilian municipalities. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Its segment regarding nutrition contained questions about using TV, computers, and video game systems, having meals while watching TV, and consuming snacks in front of screens. Consumption of meals and snacks in front of screens was analyzed according to the following variables: geographical region, gender, age range, type of school (public or private), and school shift. The prevalences and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated under a complex sampling design. RESULTS A great deal of the adolescents (73.5%, 95%CI 72.3-74.7) reported spending two or more hours a day in front of screens. That habit was more frequent among male adolescents, private school students, morning shift students, and students from Brazil’s South region. More than half of the adolescents (56.6%, 95%CI 55.4-57.8) reported almost always or always having meals in front of TV, and 39.6% (95%CI 38.8-40.5) of them said they consumed snacks in front of screens exactly as often. Both situations were the most prevalent ones among the girls, who attended public schools and were from Brazil’s Midwest region. CONCLUSIONS Length of exposure to screens and consumption of meals and snacks almost always or always in front of screens are high among Brazilian adolescents. It is necessary to develop strategies aiming to reduce the length of screen use, considering the media reality that children and adolescents have been experiencing from earlier and earlier ages. That context must therefore be analyzed in an indissociable way. PMID:26910539

  5. ERICA: use of screens and consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the length of exposure to screens and the prevalence of consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents in front of screens. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 12 to 17-year old adolescents from 1,247 schools in 124 Brazilian municipalities. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Its segment regarding nutrition contained questions about using TV, computers, and video game systems, having meals while watching TV, and consuming snacks in front of screens. Consumption of meals and snacks in front of screens was analyzed according to the following variables: geographical region, gender, age range, type of school (public or private), and school shift. The prevalences and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated under a complex sampling design. RESULTS A great deal of the adolescents (73.5%, 95%CI 72.3-74.7) reported spending two or more hours a day in front of screens. That habit was more frequent among male adolescents, private school students, morning shift students, and students from Brazil's South region. More than half of the adolescents (56.6%, 95%CI 55.4-57.8) reported almost always or always having meals in front of TV, and 39.6% (95%CI 38.8-40.5) of them said they consumed snacks in front of screens exactly as often. Both situations were the most prevalent ones among the girls, who attended public schools and were from Brazil's Midwest region. CONCLUSIONS Length of exposure to screens and consumption of meals and snacks almost always or always in front of screens are high among Brazilian adolescents. It is necessary to develop strategies aiming to reduce the length of screen use, considering the media reality that children and adolescents have been experiencing from earlier and earlier ages. That context must therefore be analyzed in an indissociable way. PMID:26910539

  6. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identify the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21. Methods Prospective cohort study conducted in Denmark with baseline examination in 1996 and follow-up questionnaire in 2003 with a mean follow-up time of 6.4 years. A sample of 1,656 adolescents participated in both baseline (mean age 14.8) and follow-up (mean age 21.3). Of these, 1,402 had a body mass index (BMI = weight/height2kg/m2) corresponding to a value below 25 at baseline when adjusted for age and gender according to guidelines from International Obesity Taskforce, and were at risk of developing overweight during the study period. The exposure was parental occupational status. The main outcome measures were change in BMI and development of overweight (from BMI < 25 to BMI > = 25). Results Average BMI increased from 21.3 to 22.7 for girls and from 20.6 to 23.6 in boys during follow-up. An inverse social gradient in overweight was seen for girls at baseline and follow-up and for boys at follow-up. In the full population there was a tendency to an inverse social gradient in the overall increase in BMI for girls, but not for boys. A total of 13.4% developed overweight during the follow-up period. Girls of lower parental socioeconomic position had a higher risk of developing overweight (OR's between 4.72; CI 1.31 to 17.04 and 2.03; CI 1.10-3.74) when compared to girls of high parental socioeconomic position. A tendency for an inverse social gradient in the development of overweight for boys was seen, but it did not meet the significance criteria Conclusions The levels of overweight and obesity

  7. Screening for PTSD among Somali adolescent refugees: psychometric properties of the UCLA PTSD Index.

    PubMed

    Ellis, B Heidi; Lhewa, Dechen; Charney, Meredith; Cabral, Howard

    2006-08-01

    This study presents the psychometric properties for the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Index among a sample of Somali adolescents. Data were derived from a sample of English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 12 and 19 years (n=76). The UCLA PTSD Index showed good reliability (Cronbach's alpha=.85). Convergent validity was assessed through bivariate correlations with the Depression Self Rating Scale (r=.72, p<.001) and the War Trauma Screening Scale (r=59, p<.001). Results suggest that the UCLA PTSD Index may be a reliable and valid screening tool for PTSD symptoms for use with Somali adolescent refugees. PMID:16929510

  8. Implementation of Ultraportable Echocardiography in an Adolescent Sudden Cardiac Arrest Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Vanhecke, Thomas E; Weber, James E; Ebinger, Matthew; Bonzheim, Kimberly; Tilli, Frank; Rao, Sunilkumar; Osman, Abdulfatah; Silver, Marc; Fliegner, Karsten; Almany, Steve; Haines, David

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over a 12-month period, adolescent heart-screening programs were performed for identifying at-risk adolescents for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in our community. Novel to our study, all adolescents received an abbreviated, ultraportable echocardiography (UPE). In this report, we describe the use of UPE in this screening program. METHODS AND RESULTS Four hundred thirty-two adolescents underwent cardiac screening with medical history questionnaire, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), and an abbreviated transthoracic echocardiographic examination. There were 11 abnormalities identified with uncertain/varying clinical risk significance. In this population, 75 adolescents had a murmur or high ECG voltage, of which only three had subsequent structural abnormalities on echocardiography that may pose risk. Conversely, UPE discovered four adolescents who had a cardiovascular structural abnormality that was not signaled by the 12-lead ECG, medical history questionnaire, and/or physical examination. CONCLUSIONS The utilization of ultraportable, handheld echocardiography is feasible in large-scale adolescent cardiovascular screening programs. UPE appears to be useful for finding additional structural abnormalities and for risk-stratifying abnormalities of uncertain potential of adolescents’ sudden death. PMID:25249762

  9. Depression screening and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression is an important cause of disability among children and adolescents. Depression screening is one possible method for managing depression, and screening programs have been initiated in some school and medical settings. However, in 2005, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the United Kingdom National Institute of Clinical Excellence did not recommend depression screening among children and adolescents. By contrast, in 2009, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended that all adolescents, but not younger children, be screened for depression in medical settings with integrated depression management services, although no trials of screening were identified. The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate in children and adolescents the accuracy of depression screening tools; depression treatment efficacy; whether depression screening improves depression outcomes; and potential harms related to depression interventions and screening. Methods/design Data sources will include the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, LILACS and Web of Science, supplemented by reference harvesting of eligible articles, relevant systematic reviews, relevant guidelines and recommendations, and selected journals, and by searches for unpublished studies. Eligible studies will report data for children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years. Eligible diagnostic accuracy studies must compare a depression screening tool to a validated diagnostic interview for major depressive disorder and report diagnostic accuracy data. Eligible treatment studies must be randomized controlled trials of pharmacological, psychotherapeutic, or other depression treatments commonly available for children and adolescents in pediatric, primary-care, and family medicine settings. Eligible screening studies must be randomized controlled trials that compare depression outcomes between children or adolescents who underwent depression

  10. A Qualitative Analysis of the MAYSI-2: Screening for Co-Occurring Disorders in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, William H.; Randolph, Dwight E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument (MAYSI-2) to screen for co-occurring disorders in an adolescent outpatient treatment program and to provide a preliminary assessment of those needs. The MAYSI-2 identified youth with co-occurring disorders and the results support existing recommendations for distinct…

  11. Small Screen Technology Use among Indigenous Boarding School Adolescents from Remote Regions of Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Oliver, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of small screen technology by adolescents is widespread, particularly in industrial nations. Whether the same is true for Australian Aboriginal youth is less clear as there is a dearth of research in this regard. Therefore, in this exploratory study the use of small screen technology by Indigenous students was examined. Twenty-four…

  12. The Social Phobia Inventory: screening and cross-cultural validation in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis Joaquín; Bermejo, Rosa Ma; Hidalgo, Ma Dolores

    2010-11-01

    Availability of brief, self-report measures to be used as screening instruments is crucial to detect correctly youth with social anxiety disorder and therefore, reach those otherwise under-detected and under-treated. A previous study revealed that the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was potentially an appropriate measure for screening social anxiety among US adolescents. However, there is a lack of information concerning its properties as a screening test in other cultures and languages. This is the main objective of this study, although further validity of the scale is provided as well. The sample consisted of 192 adolescents (a sample composed of 114 subjects with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder; and a group consisting of 78 subjects with no diagnosis of social phobia). Results suggest that the Social Phobia Inventory has demonstrated good psychometric properties and indeed may be used as a screening tool in Spanish-speaking adolescents. PMID:20977044

  13. Promoting Positive Future Expectations During Adolescence: The Role of Assets.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Pierce, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Positive future expectations can facilitate optimal development and contribute to healthier outcomes for youth. Researchers suggest that internal resources and community-level factors may influence adolescent future expectations, yet little is known about the processes through which these benefits are conferred. The present study examined the relationship between contribution to community, neighborhood collective efficacy, purpose, hope and future expectations, and tested a mediation model that linked contribution to community and collective efficacy with future expectations through purpose and hope in a sample of 7th grade youth (N = 196; Mage = 12.39; 60 % female; 40 % African American; 71 % economically disadvantaged). Greater collective efficacy and contribution to community predicted higher levels of hope and purpose. Higher levels of hope and purpose predicted more positive future expectations. Contribution to community and neighborhood collective efficacy indirectly predicted future expectations via hope. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26385095

  14. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Razzak, Rima; Elmteri, Asma; Elkanderi, Taiba; Ishaq, Fareedah; Eljasem, Munera; AlDuraie, Saja; Al-Boloushi, Jenan; Elbanay, Fatma; Eldabos, Latifa

    2013-01-01

    A relationship between blood pressure (BP) and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years) participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3%) with mean age of 15.61 ± 2.40 years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75%) with mean age of 15.02 ± 2.82 years. The mean BMI was 21.7 ± 2.23 kg/m2 for the nonobese group and 34.47 ± 4.70 kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; P < 0.0001). In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; P = 0.66). For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5%) and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%). Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman r = 0.18; P < 0.05), with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman r = 0.22; P < 0.05) and mean BP (Spearman r = 0.21; P < 0.05) in females. PMID:24349766

  15. Informing parents about positive newborn screen results: parents' recommendations.

    PubMed

    Salm, Natalie; Yetter, Elena; Tluczek, Audrey

    2012-12-01

    This descriptive study examined parents' reactions to newborn screening (NBS) results and their recommendations for improving communication. Dimensional and content analyses were conducted on interviews with 203 parents of 106 infants having positive NBS results. Diagnostic results confirmed infants as having congenital hypothyroidism (n = 37), cystic fibrosis (n = 26), or being cystic fibrosis (CF)-carriers (n = 43). Parents' reactions ranged from 'very scary' to 'not too concerned'. Most reported feeling shock, panic, and worry; some reported guilt. Parents in the CF and CF-carrier groups preferred face-to-face disclosure as the communication channel; whereas congenital hypothyroidism group parents supported telephone contacts. Parents recommended providers be well informed, honest, and calm; personalize disclosure, avoid jargon, listen carefully, encourage questions, recognize parental distress, offer realistic reassurance, pace amount and rate of information, assess parents' understanding, and refer to specialists. We conclude that provider-patient communication approach and channel can exacerbate or alleviate parents' negative reactions to positive NBS results. PMID:22984167

  16. Maternal Socialization of Positive Affect: The Impact of Invalidation on Adolescent Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relations among maternal socialization of positive affect (PA), adolescent emotion regulation (ER), and adolescent depressive symptoms. Two hundred early adolescents, 11-13 years old, provided self-reports of ER strategies and depressive symptomatology; their mothers provided self-reports of socialization responses to…

  17. A Positive Domestic Violence Screen Predicts Future Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Feldhaus, Kim; Peery, Benjamin; Abbott, Jean; Lowenstein, Steven R.; al-Bataa-de-Montero, Sameerah; Levine, Saul

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a brief screen for domestic violence (DV) predicts future violence. We conducted a cohort study of adult women who presented to an inner-city emergency department during an 8-week study period. Participants were screened for DV using the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). At 4 months, follow-up telephone…

  18. Positive illusions in adolescents: the relationship between academic self-enhancement and depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Noble, Rick N; Heath, Nancy L; Toste, Jessica R

    2011-12-01

    Positive illusions are systematically inflated self-perceptions of competence, and are frequently seen in areas of great difficulty. Although these illusions have been extensively documented in children and adults, their role in typical adolescent emotion regulation is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between positive illusions, depressive symptomatology, and school stress in a sample of 71 school-based adolescents. Findings revealed that adolescents who were achieving slightly below average in math significantly overestimated their performance, but adolescents did not overestimate their performance in spelling. Positive illusions in math were negatively related to depressive symptomatology. Implications for positive illusions theory are discussed. PMID:21695500

  19. Health Care Workers' Beliefs and Practices Around Pap Screening for Adolescents Seeking Contraception.

    PubMed

    Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Engstrom, Janet L; McFarlin, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents often avoid seeing a health care provider to obtain contraception because they do not want to undergo a pelvic exam and Pap screening for fear of stress, pain or embarrassment. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to study health care workers, attitudes and beliefs about Pap screening and to educate them on the latest evidence-based guidelines, with the hope of ultimately decreasing unnecessary screening. Results showed a modest reduction in the frequency of Pap screening; however, many adolescents continued to undergo unnecessary Pap screening. The reluctance of health care workers to change their practice demonstrates the need for better methods of translating evidence-based guidelines into practice. PMID:26058904

  20. Health complaints among adolescents: Associations with more screen-based behaviours and less physical activity.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Calmeiro, Luís; Loureiro, Nuno; Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between screen-based behaviours, physical activity, and health complaints (headaches, feeling low, irritability, and nervousness). Screen-based behaviour included TV viewing, computer use, and time spent playing video games. Data were collected from 4462 Portuguese adolescents (2394 girls) aged 11-16 years. Girls who reported engaging in more screen-based behaviour (hours/day) also reported having more headaches, feeling lower, being more irritable, and feeling more nervous. Boys who reported more screen time were more irritable. Physical activity (times/week) was negatively associated with reports of feeling nervous among girls, and with headaches, feeling low, irritability, and feeling nervous among boys. Considering that time spent using the computer is related with more health complaints, and physical activity was related with fewer health complaints among boys, it is important to develop strategies to reduce adolescents' computer screen time, and to promote physical activity. PMID:26275746

  1. A Brief Screening Measure of Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lescano, Celia M.; Hadley, Wendy S.; Beausoleil, Nancy I.; Brown, Larry K.; D'eramo, Domenic; Zimskind, Abigail

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory (ARI), designed to assess adolescent risk behaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and risk behaviors were administered to 134 youth (ages 12-19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of…

  2. Resting heart rate: its correlations and potential for screening metabolic dysfunctions in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In pediatric populations, the use of resting heart rate as a health index remains unclear, mainly in epidemiological settings. The aims of this study were to analyze the impact of resting heart rate on screening dyslipidemia and high blood glucose and also to identify its significance in pediatric populations. Methods The sample was composed of 971 randomly selected adolescents aged 11 to 17 years (410 boys and 561 girls). Resting heart rate was measured with oscillometric devices using two types of cuffs according to the arm circumference. Biochemical parameters triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose were measured. Body fatness, sleep, smoking, alcohol consumption and cardiorespiratory fitness were analyzed. Results Resting heart rate was positively related to higher sleep quality (β = 0.005, p = 0.039) and negatively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (β = −0.207, p = 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated significant potential for resting heart rate in the screening of adolescents at increased values of fasting glucose (area under curve = 0.611 ± 0.039 [0.534 – 0.688]) and triglycerides (area under curve = 0.618 ± 0.044 [0.531 – 0.705]). Conclusion High resting heart rate constitutes a significant and independent risk related to dyslipidemia and high blood glucose in pediatric populations. Sleep and cardiorespiratory fitness are two important determinants of the resting heart rate. PMID:23560541

  3. Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gary D.; Udaltsova, Natalia; Chan, James; Quesenberry, Charles P; Habel, Laurel A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We screened commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects. Methods In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case-control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched controls per case, with lag of at least two years between drug dispensing and cancer. Positive associations entailed a relative risk (RR) of 1.50, with p≤ 0.01 and higher risk for three or more, than for one prescription. Evaluation included further analyses, searches of the literature, and clinical judgment. Results There were 101 associations of interest for 61 drugs. Sixty-six associations were judged to have involved substantial confounding. We found evidence that of the remaining 35, the following associations may not be due to chance: sulindac with gallbladder cancer and leukemia, hyoscyamine with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, nortriptyline with esophageal and hepatic cancer, oxazepam with lung cancer, both fluoxetine and paroxetine with testicular cancer, hydrochlorothiazide with renal and lip cancer, and nifedipine with lip cancer. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that further studies are indicated regarding sulindac, hyoscyamine, nortriptyline, oxazepam, fluoxetine, paroxetine, hydrochlorothiazide and nifedipine. PMID:19582585

  4. ACMG position statement on prenatal/preconception expanded carrier screening.

    PubMed

    Grody, Wayne W; Thompson, Barry H; Gregg, Anthony R; Bean, Lora H; Monaghan, Kristin G; Schneider, Adele; Lebo, Roger V

    2013-06-01

    For years, clinicians have offered gene-by-gene carrier screening to patients and couples considering future pregnancy or those with an ongoing pregnancy early in gestation. Examples include ethnic-specific screening offered to Ashkenazi Jewish patients and panethnic screening for cystic fibrosis and spinal muscular atrophy. Next-generation sequencing methods now available permit screening for many more disorders with high fidelity, quick turnaround time, and lower costs. However, instituting these technologies carries with it perils that must be addressed. The basis for the selection of disorders on expanded carrier screening panels should be disclosed. The information provided about disorders with mild phenotypes, variable expression, low penetrance, and/or characterized by an adult onset should be complete and transparent, allowing patients to opt out of receiving these test results. Patients also must be made aware of the concept of residual risk following negative test results. Laboratories have a duty to participate in and facilitate this information transfer. PMID:23619275

  5. Patient and Provider Factors Associated With American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Use Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Garroutte, Eva M.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is the leading behavioral cause of death among adults 25 years or older. American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and of its sequelae. Primary care–based screening of adolescents is an integral step in the reduction of tobacco use, yet remains virtually unstudied. We examined whether delivery of tobacco screening in primary care visits is associated with patient and provider characteristics among AI/AN adolescents. Methods We used a cross-sectional analysis to examine tobacco screening among 4757 adolescent AI/AN patients served by 56 primary care providers at a large tribally managed health system between October 1, 2011 and May 31, 2014. Screening prevalence was examined in association with categorical patient characteristics (gender, age, clinic visited, insurance coverage) and provider characteristics (gender, age, tenure) using multilevel logistic regressions with individual provider identity as the nesting variable. Results Thirty-seven percent of eligible patients were screened. Gender of both providers and patients was associated with screening. Male providers delivered screening more often than female providers (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7–3.9). Male patients had 20% lower odds of screening receipt (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7–0.9) than female patients, independent of patient age and provider characteristics. Individual provider identity significantly contributed to variability in the mixed-effects model (variance component 2.2; 95% CI 1.4–3.4), suggesting individual provider effect. Conclusions Low tobacco screening delivery by female providers and the low receipt of screening among younger, male patients may identify targets for screening interventions. PMID:26319931

  6. "Media Time = Family Time": Positive Media Use in Families with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Fraser, Ashley M.; Fellows, Kaylene; Day, Randal D.

    2014-01-01

    Media use in families has generally been examined from a narrow viewpoint, focusing on monitoring or co-viewing. The current research provides an expanded view of positive media use in families with adolescents by examining associations between diverse positive media use and family and adolescents outcomes. In addition, we used qualitative methods…

  7. Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Anderson, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    To explore potential bases of positive development among gang youth, attributes of positive individual and social behavior were assessed in individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males from the same communities but involved in community-based…

  8. Screening for Metabolic and Reproductive Complications in Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Irizarry, Krystal A.; Brito, Valerie; Freemark, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a number of metabolic comorbidities. These include glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, fatty liver disease, and reproductive complications, such as polycystic ovary syndrome. The occurrence of these complications in a child or adolescent may result in progressive health decline at an early age. We, therefore, advocate screening and early diagnosis. This purpose of this review is to outline a rational, evidence-based approach to screening obese children and adolescents for metabolic and reproductive complications. In each section, the aim is to provide the primary care provider with a review of the literature supporting current screening practices. As such, this review is designed to assist the primary care provider in the selection and interpretation of screening tests and to make recommendations regarding the referral of patients for subspecialty care. PMID:25198445

  9. Screening for Spiritual Struggle in an Adolescent Transgender Clinic: Feasibility and Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Grossoehme, Daniel H; Teeters, Alexis; Jelinek, Sue; Dimitriou, Sophia M; Conard, Lee Ann E

    2016-01-01

    Spiritual struggles are associated with poorer health outcomes, including depression, which has higher prevalence among transgender individuals than the general population. This study's objective was to improve the quality of care in an outpatient transgender clinic by screening patients and caregivers for spiritual struggle and future intervention. The quality improvement questions addressed were whether screening for spiritual struggle was feasible and acceptable; and whether the sensitivity and specificity of the Rush Protocol were acceptable. Revision of the screening was based on cognitive interviews with the 115 adolescents and caregivers who were screened. Prevalence of spiritual struggle was 38-47%. Compared to the Negative R-COPE, the Rush Protocol screener had sensitivities of 44-80% and specificities of 60-74%. The Rush Protocol was acceptable to adolescents seen in a transgender clinic, caregivers, and clinic staff; was feasible to deliver during outpatient clinic visits, and offers a straightforward means of identifying transgender persons and caregivers experiencing spiritual struggle. PMID:26901280

  10. Caffeine and Screen Time in Adolescence: Associations with Short Sleep and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Amy A.; Goodwin, James L.; Silva, Graciela E.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the associations between sleep duration and obesity incidence and risk factors among pre-adolescents and adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional study of a community based cohort Setting: The Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea follow-up study (TuCASA) cohort. Participants: 319 Caucasian and Hispanics between 10-17 years. Main Outcome: Parent-reported sleep duration and BMI z-score. Outcome Measures: Surveys of electronic screen time, dietary and caffeine intake, exercise and sleep habits by parents, and anthropometric measures. Results: Parent-reported total sleep time (TST) was inversely associated with BMI z-score, but not significantly correlated with any of the examined nutritional variables or exercise components. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with significantly lower parent-reported TST and higher BMI z-score. Parent-reported TST was inversely related to electronic screen time and caffeine use, but these findings were differentially related to age. Caffeine consumption was associated with decreasing parent-reported TST primarily in older adolescents. Electronic screen time was associated with lower parent-reported TST in younger adolescents. Conclusions: Hispanic ethnicity and parental reports of TST were found to be the most closely associated with BMI z-score. Decreased TST and increased caffeine intake and screen time may result in higher obesity risk in the adolescent population. Citation: Drescher AA; Goodwin JL; Silva GE; Quan SF. Caffeine and screen time in adolescence: associations with short sleep and obesity. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(4):337-342. PMID:21897768

  11. False-positive cancer screens and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patricia M; Gross, Cynthia R; Krueger, Richard A; Engelhard, Deborah A; Cordes, Jill E; Church, Timothy R

    2004-01-01

    By design, screening tests are imperfect-unresponsive to some cancers (false negatives) while occasionally raising suspicion of cancer where none exists (false positives). This pilot study describes patients' responses to having a false-positive screening test for cancer, and identifies screening effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The pilot findings suggest issues important for incorporation in future evaluations of the impact of screening for prostate, lung, colon, or ovarian (PLCO) cancers. Seven focus groups were conducted to identify the nature and meaning of all phases of PLCO screening. Minnesota participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial who had completed screening, with at least 1 false-positive screen, participated (N = 47). Participants' reactions to abnormal screens and diagnostic work-ups were primarily emotional (eg, anxiety and distress), not physical, and ultimately positive for the majority. Health distress and fear of cancer and death were the major negative aspects of HRQoL identified. These concepts are not typically included in generic HRQoL questionnaires like the SF-36, but are highly relevant to PLCO screening. Clinicians were regarded as underestimating the discomfort of follow-up diagnostic testing. However, relief and assurance appeared to eventually outweigh the negative emotions for most participants. Implications for oncology nurses include the need to consider the emotional consequences of screening in association with screen reliability and validity. PMID:15525861

  12. The relation of standardized mental health screening and categorical assessment in detained male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Grisso, Thomas; Mulder, Eva; Vermeiren, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Having an effective triage tool is an important step toward a careful use of the restricted time and qualified personnel to perform comprehensive psychiatric assessment in juvenile justice settings. The aims of this study were to examine the construct validity of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory-second version (MAYSI-2), and its likelihood to identify youths who might have a psychiatric disorder. Data from up to 781 male adolescents (mean age = 16.73 years) were gathered as part of the standardized mental health screening and assessment in two all-male Youth Detention Centers in the Netherlands. Categorical assessments were based on two structured diagnostic interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under the curve were calculated to evaluate the likelihood of the MAYSI-2 to identify youths with a psychiatric disorder. Youths with a disorder scored significantly higher on the corresponding MAYSI-2 subscale than youths without a disorder. In the total sample, 70 % of the youths with a disorder met the Caution cut-off criteria on at least one MAYSI-2 scale, while youths without a psychiatric disorder were very unlikely to meet cut-off criteria for multiple MAYSI-2 scales. Overall, the sensitivity was slightly better when analyses were repeated in groups of youths from various ethnic origins. The findings supported the construct validity of the Dutch MAYSI-2 and suggested that the MAYSI-2 is a valid mental health screening tool that may serve relatively well as a triage tool. Its effectiveness, however, may differ between ethnic groups. PMID:25116035

  13. Score Reliability of Adolescent Alcohol Screening Measures: A Meta-Analytic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Alan L.; Campfield, Delia C.; Miller, Christopher S.; Howell, Ryan T.; Wallace, Kimberly; Weiss, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the reliability reporting practices in empirical studies using eight adolescent alcohol screening tools and characterizes and explores variability in internal consistency estimates across samples. Of 119 observed administrations of these instruments, 40 (34%) reported usable reliability information. The Personal Experience…

  14. A Collaborative Model for Community-Based Health Care Screening of Homeless Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busen, Nancy H.; Beech, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team from community organizations serving the homeless and from universities collaborated in screening 150 homeless adolescents for psychosocial and physical risks. The population had a history of physical, sexual, and substance abuse as well as high rates of HIV and hepatitis B. Case management by advanced practice nurses was…

  15. Increasing the Screening and Counseling of Adolescents for Risky Health Behaviors: A Primary Care Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Elizabeth M.; Adams, Sally H.; Lustig, Julie L.; Gee, Scott; Garber, Andrea K.; Gardner, Linda Rieder; Rehbein, Michael; Addison, Louise; Irwin, Charles E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether a systems intervention for primary care providers resulted in increased preventive screening and counseling of adolescent patients, compared with the usual standard of care. Methods: The intervention was conducted in 2 out-patient pediatric clinics; 2 other pediatric clinics in the same health maintenance…

  16. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Pressure Screening in Adolescents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. Claire; Cheung, Angela M.; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Prosser, Lisa A.; Cook, Nancy R.; Goldman, Lee; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 3 approaches to managing elevated blood pressure (BP) in adolescents in the United States: no intervention, “screen-and-treat,” and population-wide strategies to lower the entire BP distribution. Study design We used a simulation model to combine several data sources to project the lifetime costs and cardiovascular outcomes for a cohort of 15-year-old U.S. adolescents under different BP approaches and conducted cost-effectiveness analysis. We obtained BP distributions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 and used childhood-to-adult longitudinal correlation analyses to simulate the tracking of BP. We then used the coronary heart disease policy model to estimate lifetime coronary heart disease events, costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Results Among screen-and-treat strategies, finding and treating the adolescents at highest risk (eg, left ventricular hypertrophy) was most cost-effective ($18 000/QALY [boys] and $47 000/QALY [girls]). However, all screen-and-treat strategies were dominated by population-wide strategies such as salt reduction (cost-saving [boys] and $650/ QALY [girls]) and increasing physical education ($11 000/QALY [boys] and $35 000/QALY [girls]). Conclusions Routine adolescents BP screening is moderately effective, but population-based BP interventions with broader reach could potentially be less costly and more effective for early cardiovascular disease prevention and should be implemented in parallel. PMID:20850759

  17. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  18. Preliminary Validation of a Screening Tool for Adolescent Panic Disorder in Pediatric Primary Care Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, Alexander H.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a brief screening tool for adolescent panic disorder (PD) in a primary care setting. A total of 165 participants (ages 12-17 years) seen in two pediatric primary care clinics completed the Autonomic Nervous System Questionnaire (ANS; Stein et al. in Psychosomatic Med 61:359-364, 40). A subset of those screening…

  19. Negative and positive peer influence: Relations to positive and negative behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Bean, Roy A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06, SD=1.10). The study found differences and similarities in relation to respondents' ethnicity vis-à-vis indirect peer association and adolescent behavior. Although few ethnic-based differences occurred as a function of indirect negative peer association, indirect positive peer association was not as consistently or as strongly related to behaviors for minority youth as it was for European American youth. PMID:18703225

  20. Positivity Coping Style and Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, M. Dolores; Bermudez, Jose; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescence is a period when at-risk health behaviors often begin, such as tobacco and alcohol use; thus, it is a critical period for implementing preventive strategies. Method: In this context, 106 adolescents took part in this research (54 females and 52 males; mean age for both groups = 14.10). The main objectives were to first…

  1. Metal Impurities Cause False Positives in High-Throughput Screening Campaigns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Organic impurities in compound libraries are known to often cause false-positive signals in screening campaigns for new leads, but organic impurities do not fully account for all false-positive results. We discovered inorganic impurities in our screening library that can also cause positive signals for a variety of targets and/or readout systems, including biochemical and biosensor assays. We investigated in depth the example of zinc for a specific project and in retrospect in various HTS screens at Roche and propose a straightforward counter screen using the chelator TPEN to rule out inhibition caused by zinc. PMID:24900642

  2. Screening Adolescents in the Emergency Department for Weapon Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resko, Stella M.; Harrison, Stephanie Roahen; Zimmerman, Marc; Stanley, Rachel; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe prevalence and correlates of past year weapon involvement among adolescents seeking care in an inner-city ED. Methods This cross-sectional study administered a computerized survey to all eligible adolescents (age 14–18), seven days a week seeking care in the ED over an 18 month period in an inner-city Level 1 ED. Validated measures were administered including measures of demographics, sexual activity, substance use, injury, violent behavior and weapon carriage/use. Results Adolescents (N=2069, 86% response rate) completed the computerized survey. 55% were female; 56.5% were African American. In the past year, 20% of adolescents reported knife/razor carriage, 7% reported gun carriage, and 6% pulled a knife/gun on someone; zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression models were used to identify correlates of the occurrence and past year frequency of these weapon variables. Although gun carriage was more frequent among males, females were as likely to carry a knife or pull a weapon in the past year. Conclusions One fifth of all adolescent’s seeking care in this inner city ED have carried a weapon. Understanding weapon carriage among teens seeking ED care is a critical first step to future ED based injury prevention initiatives. PMID:20370746

  3. Bidirectional associations between valued activities and adolescent positive adjustment in a longitudinal study: positive mood as a mediator.

    PubMed

    DesRoches, Andrea; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-02-01

    Although activity involvement has been linked to positive youth development, the value that adolescents place on these activities (i.e., how much they enjoy the activities, find them important, and spend time on them) has received less attention. The purpose of the present study was to examine the bidirectional longitudinal association between engagement in valued activities and adolescent positive adjustment (optimism, purpose in life, and self-esteem), as well as investigate a possible underlying mechanism for this link. High school students (N = 2,270, 48.7% female) from Ontario, Canada completed questionnaires annually in grades 10, 11, and 12. Auto-regressive cross-lagged path analyses were conducted over time, controlling for gender, parental education, and academic grades. Greater engagement in valued activities predicted higher optimism, purpose, and self-esteem over time. Importantly, the results did not support an alternate hypothesis of selection effects, in that adolescents who were better adjusted were not more likely than their peers to engage in valued activities over time. We also found that the longitudinal associations between valued activities and positive adjustment may be due partly to an underlying effect of increased positive mood. Thus, engagement in valued activities appears to be important for adolescent positive adjustment, and may help to foster thriving. Communities, educators, and parents should actively support and encourage adolescents to develop valued activities, and seek to ensure that there are ample opportunities and resources available for them to do so. PMID:23625185

  4. Comparison of Subjective Wellbeing and Positive Future Expectations in Between Working and Nonworking Adolescents in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Semra; Karakoc, Ayse; Bingol, Fadime; Eren, Nurhan; Andsoy, Isil Isik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Wellbeing is one’s evaluation and judgment of one’s life. It consists of 3 dimensions: positive affectivity, negative affectivity, and life satisfaction. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the subjective wellbeing and positive future expectations between working and nonworking adolescents. Patients and Methods: The study was designed as descriptive and comparative. The study sample consisted of 420 working and 482 nonworking adolescents (n = 902) aged 15 - 20 years, who were randomly recruited from two occupational education centers in Istanbul, Turkey and two high schools (formal educations) in the same district. Results: Adolescent subjective wellbeing scale (ASWS) total mean (SD) scores for working adolescents and nonworking adolescents were 48.76 (9.50) and 49.72 (8.01), respectively. In addition, positive future expectations scale (PFES) total mean (SD) scores for working adolescents and nonworking adolescents were 18.71 (4.50) and 19.06 (3.49), respectively. In this study, no significant difference was found between the general wellbeing (scale total median score) scores of the working and nonworking adolescent groups (Z = 1.01, P = 0.315). However, significant differences were found in the family relations satisfaction (Z = 3.23, P = 0.002) and relations with significant others (Z = 2.85, P = 0.004) subscales of the ASWS. Conclusions: A positive relationship was found between adolescent subjective wellbeing and positive future expectations. It was found that nonworking adolescents scored higher on the dimensions of “family relations” and “relations with significant others” of subjective wellbeing compared to those dimensions in working adolescents. PMID:27195141

  5. Screening for Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of this screening: There is not enough evidence ... is at rest between beats. Potential Benefits and Harms The Task Force reviewed studies that looked at ...

  6. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-06-01

    We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. PMID:25193149

  7. Screen Time and Sleep among School-Aged Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-01-01

    Summary We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1.) causal association not confirmed; 2.) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3.) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. PMID:25193149

  8. Health and identity: Self-positioning in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Coralie E; van Geelen, Stefan M; van Geel, Rolf; Sinnema, Gerben; van de Putte, Elise M; Hermans, Hubert J M; Kuis, Wietse

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight into basic aspects of identity, in relation to adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In dialogical self theory, identity is regarded as incorporating multiple self-positions, such as 'I as tired', 'I as pessimistic', or 'I as decisive'. Physical and psychosocial impairment might alter the organization of these self-positions. The Personal Position Repertoire procedure, a quantitative method to analyse the prominence of self-positions, the Child Health Questionnaire, assessing health-related functioning, and the Checklist Individual Strength, measuring fatigue, were completed by 42 adolescents with CFS, 37 adolescents with JIA and 23 healthy teenagers. Adolescents with JIA report impaired physical functioning and general health. However, they position themselves very similar to healthy teenagers - i.e. as strong and healthy. While this self-positioning approach might be adequate and sustainable in adolescence, it could prove too strenuous to maintain throughout adult life. Adolescents with CFS, besides indicating severe physical difficulties, also report more psychosocial problems. They position themselves as significantly less strong and more unwell. With this emphasis on positions relating to their illness, there seems to be little room left for stronger positions. It is regarded of clinical importance to address these issues in this crucial developmental period. PMID:23060600

  9. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive results in mammographic screening.

    PubMed

    Román, Marta; Castells, Xavier; Hofvind, Solveig; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2016-06-01

    Women with false-positive results are commonly referred back to routine screening. Questions remain regarding their long-term outcome of breast cancer. We assessed the risk of screen-detected breast cancer in women with false-positive results. We conducted a joint analysis using individual level data from the population-based screening programs in Copenhagen and Funen in Denmark, Norway, and Spain. Overall, 150,383 screened women from Denmark (1991-2008), 612,138 from Norway (1996-2010), and 1,172,572 from Spain (1990-2006) were included. Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of screen-detected cancer for women with false-positive versus negative results. We analyzed information from 1,935,093 women 50-69 years who underwent 6,094,515 screening exams. During an average 5.8 years of follow-up, 230,609 (11.9%) women received a false-positive result and 27,849 (1.4%) were diagnosed with screen-detected cancer. The adjusted RR of screen-detected cancer after a false-positive result was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.93-2.09). Women who tested false-positive at first screen had a RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.77-1.96), whereas those who tested false-positive at third screening had a RR of 2.42 (95% CI: 2.21-2.64). The RR of breast cancer at the screening test after the false-positive result was 3.95 (95% CI: 3.71-4.21), whereas it decreased to 1.25 (95% CI: 1.17-1.34) three or more screens after the false-positive result. Women with false-positive results had a twofold risk of screen-detected breast cancer compared to women with negative tests. The risk remained significantly higher three or more screens after the false-positive result. The increased risk should be considered when discussing stratified screening strategies. PMID:26916154

  10. Understanding Qualities of Positive Relationship Dynamics between Adolescent Parents and Their School-Based Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Holli M.; Mitschke, Diane B.; Douthit, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This study used phenomenological methods to explore the experience of pregnant and parenting adolescents in a positive therapeutic relationship with a school counselor. Themes that emerged from semistructured interviews conducted with 36 adolescents in a teen parenting program identified relationship characteristics that strengthen the bond…

  11. Brief Report: Piloting the Positive Life Changes (PLC) Program for At-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ariel A.; Dierkhising, Carly B.; Guerra, Nancy G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot the Positive Life Changes (PLC) program, a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral intervention for at-risk adolescents that aims to promote social competencies and to prevent aggression. The program was piloted in 4 intervention groups with a sample of 31 self-referred adolescents (M age 15.64) attending an…

  12. Parenting, Community, and Religious Predictors of Positive and Negative Developmental Outcomes among Muslim Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Suandi, Turiman; Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Dahalan, Dzuhailmi; Idris, Fazilah

    2014-01-01

    Despite existing research on the contribution of social context and religiosity to adolescent behavioral outcomes, few studies have attempted to explore this topic among Muslim adolescents in non-Western settings, looking at both positive and negative outcomes. In response to this gap, the current study explored the effects of three dimensions of…

  13. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  14. A brief screening measure of adolescent risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Lescano, Celia M; Hadley, Wendy S; Beausoleil, Nancy I; Brown, Larry K; D'eramo, Domenic; Zimskind, Abigail

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory (ARI), designed to assess adolescent risk behaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and risk behaviors were administered to 134 youth (ages 12-19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of the four attitude scales (HIV Anxiety, HIV Prevention Self-Efficacy, General Distress, and General Risk) revealed excellent goodness of fit statistics. Exploratory factor analysis of the behavior items revealed three behavior factors (Sex Risk, Abuse/Self-Harm, and Acting Out). The preliminary analysis suggested that all subscales had reasonable internal consistency reliability and appeared to be independent measures, rather than part of a single unitary construct. Differences emerged based on gender, sexual activity status, and trauma history. Exploratory regression analyses revealed that, even when controlling for demographic factors and sex risk attitudes (e.g., HIV Prevention Self-Efficacy), Abuse/self-harm behaviors were highly significantly predictive of sex risk. These analyses suggest that the ARI can be useful in quickly identifying the broad range of risk behaviors found among adolescents with psychiatric disorders. PMID:17109222

  15. Screening and management of adverse endocrine outcomes in adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tonorezos, Emily S; Hudson, Melissa M; Edgar, Angela B; Kremer, Leontien C; Sklar, Charles A; Wallace, W Hamish B; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    5 year survival for childhood and adolescent cancer in developed countries is now in excess of 80% and the number of survivors of cancer continues to increase worldwide. After completion of therapy, many of these survivors will face a lifelong risk of endocrine late effects. We summarise the available evidence related to the prevalence and risk factors for endocrine late effects among adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. Present screening, surveillance, and treatment recommendations differ by country and region, so we also highlight the continued effort to harmonise the international guidelines for this population. PMID:25873569

  16. Associations among evening snacking, screen time, weight status, and overall diet quality in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J; Fryer, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among evening snacking (food choices, portion sizes), afterschool-evening screen time, overall diet quality, and weight status. Participants consisted of 1008 young adolescents (secondary analyses, n = 651) from schools in Windsor-Essex, Ontario. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, including a 24-h diet recall, was used to assess eating and screen time behaviours (television and video and computer games), as well as nutrient intake; height and weight for BMI were measured using a stadiometer. Results indicated that the majority of participants (62%) consumed an evening snack that contributed approximately 11% of their daily caloric intake. Evening snacking was associated with an overall good diet quality compared with that of non-evening snackers (p < 0.001). Increased afterschool-evening screen time was associated with fewer evening snack servings of vegetables and fruit (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in evening snack food portion sizes (p < 0.001). After accounting for other evening snacking factors, participants with greater than 6 h of afterschool-evening screen time were less likely to have a good overall diet quality compared with those with less than 1 h of afterschool-evening screen time. Therefore, increased screen time, because it is associated with greater evening snack portion sizes and overall poor diet quality, is of great concern regarding young adolescents' evening behaviour. PMID:23980738

  17. Screening in School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports: Methodological Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Many schools have adopted programming designed to promote students' behavioral aptitude. A specific type of programming with this focus is School Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS), which combines positive behavior techniques with a system wide problem solving model. Aspects of this model are still being developed in the research…

  18. Waist circumference as a marker for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Dal Molin, Bárbara; de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the relationship between the degree of waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese adolescents of both genders, analyzed according to quartiles of WC. Methods: Cross-sectional study that involved 247 obese adolescents aged 12–19 years. Mean values of the nutritional parameters and serum analyses were compared with the groups using the independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship of the parameters studied. Chi-square test for trend was used to determine the relationship between the prevalence of the NAFLD and WC quartile by gender. Results: NAFLD were presented in 60% of the study participants. Obese adolescents in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of WC presented higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared with that in the 1st quartile in both genders. The NAFLD patients had significantly higher values for body weight, BMI (body mass index), BAZ-score (BMI-for-age z-scores), total fat (% and kg), WC, visceral fat, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that an increase in WC can reliably predict the risk of NAFLD in obese adolescents. This is a low cost and easy-to-use tool that can help in screening in adolescents. PMID:26830602

  19. The influence of friends and psychosocial factors on physical activity and screen time behavior in adolescents: a mixed-methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Deutsch, Nancy L; Weltman, Arthur

    2016-08-01

    (1) Determine the association between adolescent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time with their nominated friends' behaviors and (2) explore potential mechanisms of friends' social influences on MVPA and screen time. Participants consisted of 152 adolescents (mean age: 14.5 years, 53 % female, 50 % high school, 80 % Caucasian). MVPA was measured with an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer. Demographic and psychosocial variables were assessed via questionnaires. Participants nominated up to 5 friends who completed MVPA and screen time questionnaires. A subset of adolescents (n = 108) participated in focus groups that examined potential mechanism of friends' influence on MVPA and screen time. Multiple regression analysis examined the association of demographic, psychological, and nominated friend variables with participants' MVPA and screen time. NVivo 10.0 was used to analyze qualitative data. Greater levels of friends' MVPA was associated with greater levels of MVPA in both males (p < .0001) and females (p < .0001). Greater levels of friends' screen time was associated with greater levels of screen time in males (p = .04) while psychosocial variables, such as increased screen time enjoyment, were associated with increased screen time in females (p = .01). School level was not associated with either MVPA or screen time. Focus group data indicated that friends positively influenced participants' MVPA through engaging in activity with participants, verbal encouragement, and modeling of MVPA. All participants preferred to be active with friends rather than alone, however, females preferred activity with a close friend while males preferred to be active with a group. Enjoyment of MVPA was the most cited reason for engaging in MVPA with friends. The majority of participants reported friends not having an influence on screen time. Adolescents with active friends are more likely to be physically active and spend less time engaging in

  20. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  1. Lack of utility of risk score and gynecological examination for screening for sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Eleuse MB; Guimarães, Mark DC; Vieira, Maria Aparecida S; Bontempo, Nádia M; Seixas, Mirian SS; Garcia, Mônica SD; Daud, Lyana ES; Côrtes, Rejane LM; Alves, Maria de Fátima C

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6%) were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. Results The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2) and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7). Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. Conclusion The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required. PMID:19284575

  2. Attitudes, Skills and Knowledge Change in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Workers Following AOD Screening and Brief Intervention Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Grant; Black, Stella; Dunbar, Lucy; Pulford, Justin; Wheeler, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent mental health workers are generally poor at identifying and treating co-existing alcohol and other drug (AOD) disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the utility and acceptability of an AOD screening and brief intervention (BI) training package delivered to child and adolescent mental health workers and its impact on relevant attitudes,…

  3. Adolescent Suicide Prevention: Gender Differences in Students' Perceptions of the Acceptability and Intrusiveness of School-Based Screening Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Tanya L.; Miller, David N.; Riley-Tillman, T. Christopher; DuPaul, George J.

    2006-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a significant problem among adolescents in the United States. Three types of school-based suicide prevention programs have been proposed to address this problem including curriculum programs, staff in-service training, and school-wide screening. The relative acceptability of these three programs among older adolescents was…

  4. Positive Experiences and Life Aspirations among Adolescents with and without Hearing Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen, Zipora

    1990-01-01

    Comparison of 79 normally hearing and 42 hearing-impaired adolescents found no differences regarding the intensity of their remembered positive experiences. Hearing-impaired subjects reported more positive interpersonal experiences, rarely experienced positive experiences "with self," and showed less desire for transpersonal commitment, even with…

  5. Sexuality among Adolescents with Moderate Disabilities: Promoting Positive Sexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harader, Dana L.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorne, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with moderate disabilities are not being given vital information regarding their sexuality and ways to behave responsibly with their peers. This article examines the laws that govern the education of all persons with disabilities, how societal norms and attitudes have contributed to this lack of sexuality knowledge, how these…

  6. Evaluating mental health difficulties and associated outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dow, Dorothy E; Turner, Elizabeth L; Shayo, Aisa M; Mmbaga, Blandina; Cunningham, Coleen K; O'Donnell, Karen

    2016-07-01

    AIDS-related mortality among HIV-positive adolescents has risen by 50% despite the scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART maladherence likely plays a role in the increase of AIDS-related deaths among adolescents and has shown to be associated with psychosocial and mental health difficulties. Addressing the specific mental health needs of HIV-positive adolescents is critical to ending the HIV epidemic. This cross-sectional study prospectively enrolled HIV-positive adolescents (12-24 years) in Moshi, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was administered that included questions about home, school, adherence, and measures of stigma (Berger Stigma Scale) and mental health. Mental health measures included depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), emotional/behavioral difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and traumatic experiences/post-traumatic stress symptoms (The University of California Los Angeles-post-traumatic stress disorder-Reaction Index). Mental health difficulties were prevalent among HIV-positive adolescents and were associated with incomplete adherence and stigma. Resources are needed to reduce HIV stigma and address mental health among HIV-positive adolescents in low-resource settings. This will improve not only mental health, but may also improve ART adherence and virologic suppression, improving overall health of the individual and reducing the risk of HIV transmission to others. PMID:26837437

  7. Association between screen viewing duration and sleep duration, sleep quality, and excessive daytime sleepiness among adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Mak, Yim Wah; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Hui, Donna Wing Shun; Lam, Siu Ping; Tse, Hei Yin; Yu, Wing Yan; Wong, Ho Ting

    2014-11-01

    Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices) are viewed in relation to sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among Hong Kong adolescents (N = 762). Television and computer viewing remain prevalent, but were not correlated with sleep variables. Mobile phone viewing was correlated with all sleep variables, while portable video device viewing was shown to be correlated only with daytime sleepiness. The results demonstrated a trend of increase in the prevalence and types of screen viewing and their effects on the sleep patterns of adolescents. PMID:25353062

  8. Association between Screen Viewing Duration and Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Yim Wah; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Hui, Donna Wing Shun; Lam, Siu Ping; Tse, Hei Yin; Yu, Wing Yan; Wong, Ho Ting

    2014-01-01

    Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices) are viewed in relation to sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among Hong Kong adolescents (N = 762). Television and computer viewing remain prevalent, but were not correlated with sleep variables. Mobile phone viewing was correlated with all sleep variables, while portable video device viewing was shown to be correlated only with daytime sleepiness. The results demonstrated a trend of increase in the prevalence and types of screen viewing and their effects on the sleep patterns of adolescents. PMID:25353062

  9. Broadly defined risk mental states during adolescence: disorganization mediates positive schizotypal expression.

    PubMed

    Debbané, Martin; Badoud, Deborah; Balanzin, Dario; Eliez, Stephan

    2013-06-01

    While schizotypal features are common during adolescence, they can also signal increased risk for the onset of schizophreniform disorders. Most studies with adolescents find that hallucination and delusion-like symptoms (positive schizotypal features) best predict future psychopathology. Still, the developmental process of positive schizotypy remains elusive, specifically with regards to 1) its relationships to negative and disorganization schizotypal dimensions; 2) its associations to maladaptive functioning during adolescence. This longitudinal study aimed to further characterize these relationships, thereby delineating "early and broadly defined psychosis risk mental states" (Keshavan et al., 2011). The current study presents the 3-year course of schizotypal trait expression in 34 clinical adolescents aged 12 to 18 years consulting for non-psychotic difficulties. Schizotypal expression was assessed twice using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, accompanied by an examination of internalizing/externalizing problems using the Achenbach scales. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to assess the expression and course of schizotypal dimensions; mediation analyses were further employed to highlight the developmental interactions promoting the maintenance of positive schizotypal expression. The results reveal that positive schizotypy, and more specifically unusual perceptual experiences, significantly declined during the study interval. Disorganization features were found to mediate the relationships between the negative and positive dimensions of schizotypy within and across evaluations. Somatic complaints and attentional difficulties further strengthened the expression of positive schizotypy during the study interval. These results suggest that the relationship between disorganization features and positive schizotypy may play a central role in establishing risk for psychosis during adolescence. PMID:23570898

  10. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly) was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization showed no socioeconomic

  11. The Effect of Positive Adolescent Life Skills Training on Long Term Outcomes for High-Risk Teens.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Heider, Nancy; Tuttle, Jane; Knapp, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on long term follow-up data-12 months post intervention-from a clinical trial of an intervention designed to enhance teen resilience by supporting the development of social skills needed to make positive connections and overcome the influence of negative environmental influences. Sixteen adolescents aged 12 to 16 (10 boys and 6 girls) attending an inner city urban secondary school participated in a 32 week intervention study. Subjects were randomly assigned within sex to Teen Club plus Positive Adolescent Life Skills (PALS) or Teen Club intervention groups. The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) was used to measure the dependent variables (problems related to substance use, health, mental health, family relations, peer relations, education status, vocational status, social skills, leisure and recreation, and aggression). The small sample size limited the ability to determine statistical differences between the POSIT subscale scores for PALS plus Teen Club or Teen Club only interventions. Descriptive data suggest mixed results for both interventions and sex groups. Most important were reductions in mental health problems for all boys in both groups and only slightly increased numbers of problems in substance use for PALS boys and girls over time. Other trends by group and sex are reported. PMID:21132073

  12. Sex and secrecy: How HIV-status disclosure affects safe sex among HIV-positive adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Toska, Elona; Cluver, Lucie D.; Hodes, Rebecca; Kidia, Khameer K.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-positive adolescents who engage in unsafe sex are at heightened risk for transmitting or re-acquiring HIV. Disclosure of HIV-status to sexual partners may impact on condom use, but no study has explored the effects of (i) adolescent knowledge of one's HIV-status, (ii) knowledge of partner status and (iii) disclosure to partners, on safer sex behaviour. This study aimed to identify whether knowledge of HIV-status by HIV-positive adolescents and partners was associated with safer sex. Eight fifty eight HIV-positive adolescents (10–19 years old, 52% female, 68.1% vertically infected) who had ever initiated antiretroviral treatment in 41 health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, were interviewed using standardised questionnaires. Quantitative analyses used multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for confounders. Qualitative research included interviews, focus group discussions and observations with 43 HIV-positive teenagers and their healthcare workers. N = 128 (14.9%) of the total sample had ever had sex, while N = 109 (85.1%) of sexually active adolescents had boy/girlfriend. In total, 68.1% of the sample knew their status, 41.5% of those who were sexually active and in relationships knew their partner's status, and 35.5% had disclosed to their partners. For adolescents, knowing one's status was associated with safer sex (OR = 4.355, CI 1.085–17.474, p = .038). Neither knowing their partner's status, nor disclosing one's HIV-status to a partner, were associated with safer sex. HIV-positive adolescents feared rejection, stigma and public exposure if disclosing to sexual and romantic partners. Counselling by healthcare workers for HIV-positive adolescents focused on benefits of disclosure, but did not address the fears and risks associated with disclosure. These findings challenge assumptions that disclosure is automatically protective in sexual and romantic relationships for HIV-positive adolescents, who may be ill-equipped to

  13. Sex and secrecy: How HIV-status disclosure affects safe sex among HIV-positive adolescents.

    PubMed

    Toska, Elona; Cluver, Lucie D; Hodes, Rebecca; Kidia, Khameer K

    2015-01-01

    HIV-positive adolescents who engage in unsafe sex are at heightened risk for transmitting or re-acquiring HIV. Disclosure of HIV-status to sexual partners may impact on condom use, but no study has explored the effects of (i) adolescent knowledge of one's HIV-status, (ii) knowledge of partner status and (iii) disclosure to partners, on safer sex behaviour. This study aimed to identify whether knowledge of HIV-status by HIV-positive adolescents and partners was associated with safer sex. Eight fifty eight HIV-positive adolescents (10-19 years old, 52% female, 68.1% vertically infected) who had ever initiated antiretroviral treatment in 41 health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, were interviewed using standardised questionnaires. Quantitative analyses used multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for confounders. Qualitative research included interviews, focus group discussions and observations with 43 HIV-positive teenagers and their healthcare workers. N = 128 (14.9%) of the total sample had ever had sex, while N = 109 (85.1%) of sexually active adolescents had boy/girlfriend. In total, 68.1% of the sample knew their status, 41.5% of those who were sexually active and in relationships knew their partner's status, and 35.5% had disclosed to their partners. For adolescents, knowing one's status was associated with safer sex (OR = 4.355, CI 1.085-17.474, p = .038). Neither knowing their partner's status, nor disclosing one's HIV-status to a partner, were associated with safer sex. HIV-positive adolescents feared rejection, stigma and public exposure if disclosing to sexual and romantic partners. Counselling by healthcare workers for HIV-positive adolescents focused on benefits of disclosure, but did not address the fears and risks associated with disclosure. These findings challenge assumptions that disclosure is automatically protective in sexual and romantic relationships for HIV-positive adolescents, who may be ill-equipped to

  14. Screening for Adolescent Substance-Related Disorders Using the SASSI-A2: Implications for Nonreporting Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Perry, Justin C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study (N = 137), although 70.8% of participants reported no current substance use and 42.3% reported never using, the Adolescent Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI-A2; Miller & Lazowski, 2001) screened 39.41% of the participants for a high level of probability of having a substance-related disorder. SASSI-A2 classified more…

  15. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; McCormack, Joanna; Burke, Louise M; Cox, Gregory R; Fallon, Kieran; Hislop, Matthew; Logan, Ruth; Marino, Nello; Sawyer, Susan M; Shaw, Greg; Star, Anita; Vidgen, Helen; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-10-01

    It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies. PMID:24668620

  16. Positive Psychology and Adolescent Mental Health: False Promise or True Breakthrough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The emerging field of positive psychology has pledged to improve the mental health of American adolescents. Yet, without a principle-based conceptual foundation to guide its study of optimal youth functioning, positive psychology will ultimately fail to keep its promise. This paper suggests that the principles of Mind, Thought and Consciousness…

  17. Positive Illusions in Adolescents: The Relationship between Academic Self-Enhancement and Depressive Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Rick N.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    Positive illusions are systematically inflated self-perceptions of competence, and are frequently seen in areas of great difficulty. Although these illusions have been extensively documented in children and adults, their role in typical adolescent emotion regulation is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between positive illusions,…

  18. Do Peers' Parents Matter? A New Link Between Positive Parenting and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Michael J.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Moody, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although studies have demonstrated that an adolescent's parents and friends both influence adolescent substance use, it is not known whether the parenting experienced by one's friends also affects one's own use. Drawing on conceptions of shared parenting and the tenets of coercion theory, we investigated the extent to which three domains of parenting behaviors (parental knowledge, inductive reasoning, and consistent discipline) influenced the alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use of not only their own adolescent children but also of members of their adolescents' friendship groups. Method: Analyses of friendship nominations within each of two successive ninth-grade cohorts in 27 Iowa and Pennsylvania schools (N = 7,439 students, 53.6% female) were used to identify 897 friendship groups. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine prospective associations between 9th-grade friendship group–level parenting behaviors and adolescent self-reported alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in 10th grade. Results: Adolescent substance use in 10th grade was significantly related to parenting behaviors of friends' parents, after controlling for adolescents' reports of their own substance use and their own parents' behaviors at the 9th grade level. These associations were particularly strong for parents' knowledge about their children and use of inconsistent discipline strategies. Significant interaction effects indicated that these relationships were strongest when adolescents received positive parenting at home. Some, but not all, of the main effects of friends' parents' parenting became nonsignificant after friends' substance use in ninth grade was included in the model. Conclusions: The fi ndings suggest that the parenting style in adolescents' friends' homes plays an important role in determining adolescent substance use. Implications of the joint contribution of parents and peers for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:22456247

  19. Integrating Universal Behavioral Screening within Program-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mack D.; Rispoli, Mandy; Clemens, Nathan H.; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Sanchez, Lisa; Hatton, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Universal behavioral screening is a major part of positive behavioral support and response to intervention systems. Program-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) focuses on establishing social, emotional, and behavioral competence through promotion of a small set of behavioral expectations that are agreed upon, taught, and…

  20. Upward communication about cancer screening: adolescent daughter to mother.

    PubMed

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ports, Katie A

    2015-01-01

    Substantial breast and cervical cancer disparities exist in the United States, particularly among African American women with low socioeconomic status. There is considerable potential for discussions about cancer prevention between mothers and daughters. However, upward communication, from child to parent, remains a relatively novel research area, and it remains unclear how receptive mothers would be to messages from their daughter about cancer, a topic that may be considered culturally inappropriate for daughters to initiate. In this study, the authors simulated cancer message delivery to daughters and then conducted direct observation of daughters as they recalled and shared the message with their mother or female elder. The authors found that daughters were able to successfully recall and deliver a cancer appeal to their mother and mothers were generally receptive to this message. Not only did mothers listen to their daughters' appeals, but also daughters' knowledge of cancer was considerably improved by the opportunity to educate her female elder. Moreover, daughters' nonverbal communication suggested a surprisingly relaxed demeanor. The potential of young people to have an effect on the screening behavior of their female elders is very promising in terms of reducing cancer disparities. PMID:25848895

  1. Brief report: Association between socio-demographic factors, screen media usage and physical activity by type of day in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Devís-Devís, José; Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J; Tomás, José Manuel

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors, screen media time usage, and light, moderate and vigorous activities on weekdays and weekends. Cross-sectional data was collected from 323 Spanish adolescents (mean age 13.59 years) who completed an interview administered recall questionnaire. Structural equation models indicated that male and younger adolescents spent more time on vigorous activities at the weekend, while females and older adolescents showed a greater involvement in light activities both on weekdays and weekends. State school students reported engaging in light and vigorous activities for longer periods than private school students on weekends. TV viewing was negatively linked to vigorous activities during weekdays and to light and moderate activities on weekends. The amount of mobile phone usage, however, was positively linked to light activities during weekdays, but negatively on weekends. The negative relationship between adolescents' use of screen media (TV and mobile phone) and physical activity and its possible displacement, depending on the type of day, added useful comparable knowledge for policies promoting an active lifestyle. Further research is required to provide evidence of the causality in the observed relationships. PMID:21145102

  2. Enhanced Right Amygdala Activity in Adolescents during Encoding of Positively-Valenced Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Vasa, Roma A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Thorn, Julia M.; Nelson, Tess E.; Spinelli, Simona; Nelson, Eric; Maheu, Francoise S.; Ernst, Monique; Bruck, Maggie; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    While studies among adults implicate the amygdala and interconnecting brain regions in encoding emotional stimuli, few studies have examined whether developmental changes occur within this emotional-memory network during adolescence. The present study examined whether adolescents and adults differentially engaged the amygdala and hippocampus during successful encoding of emotional pictures, with either positive or negative valence. Eighteen adults and twelve adolescents underwent event-related fMRI while encoding emotional pictures. Approximately 30 minutes later, outside the scanner, subjects were asked to recall the pictures seen during the scan. Age group differences in brain activity in the amygdala and hippocampus during encoding of the pictures that were later successfully and unsuccessfully recalled were separately compared for the positive and negative pictures. Adolescents, relative to adults, demonstrated enhanced activity in the right amygdala during encoding of positive pictures that were later recalled compared to not recalled. There were no age group differences in amygdala or hippocampal activity during successful encoding of negative pictures. The findings of preferential activity within the adolescent right amygdala during successful encoding of positive pictures may have implications for the increased reward and novelty seeking behavior, as well as elevated rates of psychopathology, observed during this distinct developmental period. PMID:21127721

  3. Trait positive affect is associated with hippocampal volume and change in caudate volume across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Meg; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Byrne, Michelle L; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-03-01

    Trait positive affect (PA) in childhood confers both risk and resilience to psychological and behavioral difficulties in adolescence, although explanations for this association are lacking. Neurodevelopment in key areas associated with positive affect is ongoing throughout adolescence, and is likely to be related to the increased incidence of disorders of positive affect during this period of development. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the relationship between trait indices of PA and brain development in subcortical reward regions during early to mid-adolescence in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 89 (46 male, 43 female) adolescents participated in magnetic resonance imaging assessments during both early and mid-adolescence (mean age at baseline = 12.6 years, SD = 0.45; mean follow-up period = 3.78 years, SD = 0.21) and also completed self-report measures of trait positive and negative affect (at baseline). To examine the specificity of these effects, the relation between negative affect and brain development was also examined. The degree of volume reduction in the right caudate over time was predicted by PA. Independent of time, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with higher PA, and negative affect was associated with smaller left amygdala volume. The moderating effect of negative affect on the development of the left caudate varied as a function of lifetime psychiatric history. These findings suggest that early to mid-adolescence is an important period whereby neurodevelopmental processes may underlie key phenotypes conferring both risk and resilience for emotional and behavioral difficulties later in life. PMID:25231241

  4. Members, isolates, and liaisons: meta-analysis of adolescents' network positions and their smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Smith, Rachel A

    2013-06-01

    Existing research finds that peer networks play an important role in adolescents' smoking behaviors. To evaluate this research, meta-analysis was utilized to investigate the relationship between social positions (e.g., group members vs. isolates vs. liaisons) in friendship networks and smoking behaviors. The results (N = 5,067, k = 8) showed that adolescents from multiple countries who are isolated in friendship networks are more likely to report smoking behaviors than those with friends (members or liaisons). The results also show that these differential odds of smoking based on network position has decreased over the past 15 years. PMID:23750772

  5. Healthy Adolescents' Neural Response to Reward: Associations with Puberty, Positive Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Erika E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Phillips, Mary L.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Worthman, Carol M.; Moyles, Donna L.; Tarr, Jill A.; Sciarrillo, Samantha R.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Changes in reward-related behavior are an important component of normal adolescent affective development. Understanding the neural underpinnings of these normative changes creates a foundation for investigating adolescence as a period of vulnerability to affective disorders, substance use disorders, and health problems. Studies of reward-related brain function have revealed conflicting findings regarding developmental change in the reactivity of the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and have not considered puberty. The current study focused on puberty-specific changes in brain function and their association with mood. Method A sample of 77 healthy adolescents (26 pre/early pubertal, 51 mid/late pubertal) recruited in a narrow age range (M=11.94 years, SD=.75) were assessed for sexual maturation and circulating testosterone, completed an fMRI guessing task with monetary reward, and underwent experience sampling of mood in natural environments. For comparison, 19 healthy adults completed the fMRI assessment. Results Adolescents with more advanced pubertal maturation exhibited less striatal and more mPFC reactivity during reward outcome than similarly aged adolescents with less advanced maturation. Testosterone was positively correlated with striatal reactivity in boys during reward anticipation and negatively correlated with striatal reactivity in girls and boys during reward outcome. Striatal reactivity was positively correlated with real-world subjective positive affect and negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. mPFC reactivity was positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions Reward-related brain function changes with puberty and is associated with adolescents' positive affect and depressive symptoms. Increased reward-seeking behavior at this developmental point could serve to compensate for these changes. PMID:20215938

  6. Don't ask, they won't tell: the quality of adolescent health screening in five practice settings.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, R W; Beuhring, T; Wunderlich, M; Resnick, M D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the extent to which comprehensive, age-appropriate adolescent health screening is undertaken in the clinical setting and whether the extent of such screening varies by setting. METHODS: Charts of adolescents 13 to 17 years old (n = 788) were randomly selected from five practice settings in Minneapolis, Minn. Each was assessed for the number of biomedical and sociobehavioral health risks screened. RESULTS: In no practice setting was there screening to the level recommended. The two teen clinics screened more extensively for behavioral, psychosocial, substance use and sexual behavior risks than the community family practice setting, which, in turn, screened more extensively than either the private family practice or private pediatric practice settings, which did not differ from each other. Age differences and gender accounted for only small amounts of variance in total number of health risks screened, whereas differences among practice settings accounted for a larger amount. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest substantive deficiencies in private practice settings' implementation of preventive care screening protocols for adolescents. PMID:9003135

  7. The choice of screening instrument matters: the case of problematic cannabis use screening in spanish population of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thanki, Danica; Domingo-Salvany, Antónia; Barrio Anta, Gregorio; Sánchez Mañez, Amparo; Llorens Aleixandre, Noelia; Suelves, Josep Maria; Brime Beteta, Begoña; Vicente, Julián

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of problem cannabis use screening instruments administration within wide school surveys, their psychometric properties, overlaps, and relationships with other variables. Students from 7 Spanish regions, aged 14-18, who attended secondary schools were sampled by two-stage cluster sampling (net sample 14,589). Standardized, anonymous questionnaire including DSM-IV cannabis abuse criteria, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST), and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) was self-completed with paper and pencil in the selected classrooms. Data was analysed using classical psychometric theory, bivariate tests, and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Not responding to instruments' items (10.5-12.3%) was associated with reporting less frequent cannabis use. The instruments overlapped partially, with 16.1% of positives being positive on all three. SDS was more likely to identify younger users with lower frequency of use who thought habitual cannabis use posed a considerable problem. CAST positivity was associated with frequent cannabis use and related problems. It is feasible to use short psychometric scales in wide school surveys, but one must carefully choose the screening instrument, as different instruments identify different groups of users. These may correspond to different types of problematic cannabis use; however, measurement bias seems to play a role too. PMID:25969832

  8. Cognitive and Emotional Associations to Positive Schizotypy during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debbane, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Eliez, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sub-clinical symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations and delusions, known as positive schizotypy, constitute one of the strongest predictive factors for adult psychotic disorders. Recent cognitive models suggest that the expression of positive schizotypy is associated with depression, anxiety, metacognitive beliefs and…

  9. Development of a Sexual Health Screening Tool for Adolescent Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Monika K.; Shea, Judy A.; Hayes, Katie L.; Badolato, Gia; Chamberlain, James M.; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Fein, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Develop a content-valid audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) sexual health survey (SHS) that is understandable and acceptable to adolescents and can be feasibly implemented in a pediatric emergency department (ED) for sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk assessment. Methods Multi-step iterative qualitative study utilizing a Delphi panel of key informants for survey development and content validity, cognitive interviews with end-users to evaluate understanding, and pilot testing with end-users to evaluate acceptability and feasibility. Results We developed a 20-item questionnaire through an iterative modified Delphi process with experts in adolescent and pediatric emergency medicine. All items were assessed as understandable by >90% of adolescents during the cognitive interviews. All respondents found the SHS easy to use. 76.5% preferred answering questions related to sexual health through the SHS compared to face-to-face interviews. Mean length of survey completion was 17.5 minutes (SD +/−6.7) and 88.6% of participants found survey length to be “just right.” With respect to feasibility testing, there was no statistically significant difference in median ED length of stay between those who piloted the SHS and those who did not (230.0 vs 219.0 minutes; p=0.7). Conclusions We developed a content-valid ACASI for the identification of adolescents at risk for STIs that was understandable, acceptable, and easy to use by adolescent patients and feasible for implementation in the pediatric ED. Future planned steps include the evaluation of the SHS in providing clinical decision support for targeted STI screening in the ED. PMID:27126128

  10. T Cell Adolescence: Maturation Events Beyond Positive Selection.

    PubMed

    Hogquist, Kristin A; Xing, Yan; Hsu, Fan-Chi; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2015-08-15

    Single-positive thymocytes that successfully complete positive and negative selection must still undergo one final step, generally termed T cell maturation, before they gain functional competency and enter the long-lived T cell pool. Maturation initiates after positive selection in single-positive thymocytes and continues in the periphery in recent thymic emigrants, before these newly produced T cells gain functional competency and are ready to participate in the immune response as peripheral naive T cells. Recent work using genetically altered mice demonstrates that T cell maturation is not a single process, but a series of steps that occur independently and sequentially after positive selection. This review focuses on the changes that occur during T cell maturation, as well as the molecules and pathways that are critical at each step. PMID:26254267

  11. Recall rate and positive predictive value of MSUD screening is not influenced by hydroxyproline.

    PubMed

    Fingerhut, Ralph

    2009-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by the deficiency of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase (BCOA-DH) complex. The worldwide incidence is approximately 1 in 185,000. MSUD is integrated in many "expanded" newborn screening (NBS) programs that use electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Elevated leucine, isoleucine, and alloisoleucine in the dried blood samples (DBS) of newborns are diagnostic parameters. However, with the applied method, it is not possible to distinguish the amino acids from each other, and also not from the other isobaric amino acid, hydroxyproline. While the branched chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, and alloisoleucine are no diagnostic problem, because they are all elevated in MSUD patients, and, rather, increase the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, hydroxyproline may cause false-positive screening results. Hydroxyproline is elevated in the benign familial condition hyperhydroxyprolinemia, which needs no medical intervention. The detection of cases with hyperhydroxyprolinemia have formerly been reported from screening programs that used thin-layer chromatography for phenylketonuria (PKU) screening, and, recently, two more cases have been reported, detected by ESI-MS/MS-based NBS. However, the detection of non-diseases is a heavy burden for screening programs and should be avoided if possible. With optimal settings for the quantitation of BCAAs and interpretation rules, elevated hydroxyproline should not cause false-positive screening results. PMID:18682982

  12. Screening for adolescent psychopathy among at-risk youth: initial validation of the Survey of Attitudes and Life Experiences.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard; Vitacco, Michael J; Cruise, Keith R; Sewell, Kenneth W; Neumann, Craig S

    2002-12-01

    Psychopathic youth pose special challenges to clinicians in providing effective treatment and safe management. Because comprehensive assessments of psychopathy are time intensive and require specialized training, programmatic research is needed to develop time-efficient and useful screens that eliminate from further consideration acting-out adolescents who are unlikely to be psychopathic. The clinical utility of the Survey of Attitudes and Life Erperiences as a psychopathy screen was investigated by combining three samples of adolescent offenders (total N = 223). Its primary purpose was the identification of nonpsychopaths who were distinguished from adolescents in either the mixed or psychopathic ranges. A Psychopathy Screen (PS) Scale was developed with 24-item (PS-24) and 11-item (PS-11) versions. Both appeared moderately effective in excluding nonpsychopaths from further evaluation. Preliminary data on response styles suggest that these scales are not susceptible to social desirability. PMID:12462754

  13. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    PubMed

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators. PMID:20164062

  14. BAP Position Statement: Off-label prescribing of psychotropic medication to children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aditya N; Arango, Celso; Coghill, David; Gringras, Paul; Nutt, David J; Pratt, Peter; Young, Allan H; Hollis, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The off-label use of medicines for children and adolescents remains a common and important issue for prescribing practice across child and adolescent psychiatry, paediatrics and primary care. This editorial focusses on psychotropic drug treatment, which plays an essential part in the comprehensive management of a range of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Despite a growing evidence base for drug treatment in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, much psychotropic medication continues to be prescribed off-label (i.e. outside the limits of the marketing authorisation or product license). The reasons for and implications of off-label prescribing, including the potential clinical benefits/risks and medico-legal implications, are often poorly understood by both patients and prescribers. An important unintended consequence of the uncertainties and confusion surrounding the status of off-label prescribing for children and adolescents may be that effective drug treatments are being withheld or underused. This BAP Position Statement aims to clarify these issues, challenge some of the myths surrounding off-label prescribing for children and adolescents and offer practical guidance for prescribers. PMID:27098018

  15. T cell adolescence: maturation events beyond positive selection1

    PubMed Central

    Hogquist, Kristin A.; Xing, Yan; Hsu, Fan-Chi; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2015-01-01

    Single positive (SP) thymocytes that successfully complete positive and negative selection must still undergo one final step, generally termed T cell maturation, before they gain functional competency and enter the long-lived T cell pool. Maturation initiates after positive selection in SP thymocytes, and continues in the periphery in recent thymic emigrants (RTEs), before these newly produced T cells gain functional competency and are ready to participate in the immune response as peripheral naïve T cells. Recent work using genetically altered mice demonstrates that T cell maturation is not a single process, but a series of steps that occur independently and sequentially after positive selection. This review will focus on the changes that occur during T maturation, and the molecules and pathways that are critical at each step. PMID:26254267

  16. Concordance Between Self-Report and Urine Drug Screen Data in Adolescent Opioid Dependent Clinical Trial Participants

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12 weeks buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the “gold standard”. Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition. PMID:23811060

  17. Concordance between self-report and urine drug screen data in adolescent opioid dependent clinical trial participants.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George

    2013-10-01

    Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the "gold standard". Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition. PMID:23811060

  18. Epidemiological Comparisons of Problems and Positive Qualities Reported by Adolescents in 24 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Broberg, Anders; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Forns, Maria; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age…

  19. Predicting Positive Citizenship from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of a Civic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaff, Jonathan F.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that programs to promote positive citizenship should begin with an opportunity for adolescents to participate in civic activities, such as community service or political volunteering. In this article we extend the theory by arguing that a more systemic approach is needed, in which a civic context is developed to promote…

  20. Contribution of Socioeconomic Position to Health Inequalities of British Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris

    2007-01-01

    We examined the contribution of socioeconomic position to the health and mental health status of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities in a sample of 10,438 British children. Intellectual disability was a significant risk factor for poorer general health, OR = 4.5, emotional disorders, OR = 2.0, and conduct disorders, OR = 7.7.…

  1. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…

  2. The Influence of Positive Mother-Child Verbal Interactions on Adolescent Mothers' Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Heather-Lee M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this six-month qualitative microethnographic case study was to determine what influence a family literacy program based on positive mother-child verbal interactions would have on the participating adolescent mothers' literacy skills. The design of the program was founded on the Hart and Risley study (1995) and their findings…

  3. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  4. Positive Adult Support and Depression Symptoms in Adolescent Females: The Partially Mediating Role of Eating Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…

  5. Adolescent Diet and Time Use Clusters and Associations with Overweight and Obesity and Socioeconomic Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrar, Katia; Golley, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity include low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low socioeconomic position (SEP). To date, the vast majority of research investigating associations between lifestyle behaviors and weight status analyze dietary and time use factors…

  6. Positive Adjustment and Associated Protective Factors in Children of Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhule, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spieker, Susan J.; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that children of adolescent mothers are at an increased risk for a variety of negative outcomes, even after controlling for diverse social and health factors. However, relatively less research has examined positive adjustment in these children, or protective factors associated with such adjustment. We examined the…

  7. Retrospective and Prospective Cognitions in Adolescents: Anxiety, Depression, and Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Helen; MacLeod, Andrew K.; Pote, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Research with anxious and depressed adults has suggested that anxiety is related to an increased anticipation of both negative memories and negative expectancies whereas depression is related to a reduction in positive memories and expectancies. The present study examined whether anxiety and depression in 123 school-aged adolescents would show the…

  8. Social Media Use and Social Connectedness in Adolescents: The Positives and the Potential Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kelly A.; Ryan, Tracii; Gray, DeLeon L.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Waters, Lea

    2014-01-01

    As social media use is rising among adolescents, the issue of whether this use leads to positive or negative outcomes warrants greater understanding. This article critically reviews the literature related to this important topic. Specifically, we examine how social media use affects social connectedness in terms of three elements of adolescent…

  9. Positive Peer Culture -- An Alternative Treatment for the Disturbed and/or Disturbing Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lybarger, William A.

    Reviewed are literature and research on the use of the positive peer culture (PPC) approach with socially maladjusted and/or emotionally disturbed adolescents. Studies presented focus on the effects of PPC on inappropriate behavior and parole performance. Findings are noted to be inconclusive. (SB)

  10. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  11. The association of adolescent socioeconomic position and adult height: variation across racial/ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Tracy K.; Walls, Courtney E.; Subramanian, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the association of childhood socioeconomic position and adult height. Many have suggested the use of adult height as a marker of overall childhood well-being. However, few studies have examined the relationship between child/adolescent socioeconomic position and adult height in a racially/ethnically diverse cohort. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined the association of child/adolescent SEP (maternal education and maternal report of household income) and measured adult height in a diverse cohort of US adolescents/young adults. We found a positive gradient effect of maternal education on height in the overall population and in White and Mixed race males and females; no such gradient existed in Hispanic, Asian, or Black males or females. Only in Mixed race females was household income positively associated with height. These findings emphasize the need to recognize differential effects of socioeconomic status on height in different racial/ethnic and gender subpopulations. PMID:22824806

  12. Positive Development, Sense of Belonging, and Support of Peers among Early Adolescents: Perspectives of Different Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Marie; Arcand, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Trusting relationships at school and within other social networks emerge as protective factors that are crucial to the positive development of early adolescents. School is one of the critical environments where they can develop a sense of belonging. This study involved 20 qualitative interviews with school staff and youth workers recruited from…

  13. Look What They Said about Us: Social Positioning Work of Adolescent Appalachians in English Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Audra

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the social positioning work three Appalachian adolescents engaged in during two literacy events drawn from a year-long critical teacher-researcher ethnographic study in a twelfth-grade English class in a rural Appalachian high school. Data analysis indicates that in these literacy events, the focal students positioned…

  14. Schoolwide Screening and Programs of Positive Behavior Support: Informing Universal Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Michelle; Anderson, Darlene H.; Caldarella, Paul; Fisher, Adam; Young, Benjamin J.; Young, K. Richard

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that screening, identification, and treatment are important components of comprehensive systems of positive behavior support. The authors highlight a procedure for using multiple data sources to develop strategies at the universal intervention level. Examples of schoolwide assessments include interviews, observations,…

  15. Adolescent perceptions of cholesterol screening results: “young invincibles” or developing adults?

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Sheldrick, R. Christopher; Leslie, Laurel K.; Shah, Supriya; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Mackie, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines recommend cholesterol screening for all adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 17-21 years. Little is known about how screening results impact perceptions of AYA health. Methods We recruited 37 AYAs and 35 parents of AYAs with differing risk for abnormal cholesterol results: (1) familial hypercholesterolemia, (2) obesity, and (3) generally healthy. Participants completed quantitative health status ratings using visual analog scales (VAS) and semi-structured interviews regarding three hypothetical cholesterol screening scenarios: a) high likelihood of cardiovascular disease (CVD) before age 40 (“high-risk”), b) some risk of CVD before age 70 (“moderate-risk”), and c) low risk for CVD despite a strong family history of CVD (“low-risk”). We analyzed VAS data with logistic regression and qualitative data with a priori and emergent coding using multiple coders. Results Each group perceived all three cholesterol screening scenarios as comparatively less than perfect health; the high-risk result fell furthest from perfect health. While there was no significant difference between AYAs and parents in VAS ratings, qualitative analyses revealed AYAs were more likely than parents to discount the impact of moderate-risk results due to longer length of time before predicted CVD. Conclusions AYAs’ and parents’ perceptions of the impact of cholesterol screening results on AYA health varied by presented scenario, ranging from mild to significant decreases in perceptions of AYA health. As universal cholesterol screening continues to be adopted in this age group, further studies of the real-life impact on AYA risk perceptions and subsequent behavior is warranted. PMID:27155960

  16. Positive psychology and adolescent mental health: false promise or true breakthrough?

    PubMed

    Kelley, Thomas M

    2004-01-01

    The emerging field of positive psychology has pledged to improve the mental health of American adolescents. Yet, without a principle-based conceptual foundation to guide its study of optimal youth functioning, positive psychology will ultimately fail to keep its promise. This paper suggests that the principles of Mind, Thought and Consciousness can provide positive psychology with a clearer understanding of optimal psychological functioning, serve as a unifying conceptual framework to guide its proposed mission, and lead to a true breakthrough in adolescent mental health. It first describes how the logic of these principles accounts for all subjective human experience. It then demonstrates how optimal mental health is generated, and how it can be maintained irrespective of present or past circumstances. Finally, it discusses how several contemporary models of positive psychology (i.e., Csikszentmihalyi's flow. Seligman's learned optimism, Goleman's emotional intelligence, and Buss's evolutionary perspective) can be simplified and clarified using the logic of the above three principles. PMID:15563037

  17. Screen media usage, sleep time and academic performance in adolescents: clustering a self-organizing maps analysis.

    PubMed

    Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; González, Luis M; García-Massó, Xavier; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Devís-Devís, José

    2014-01-01

    Screen media usage, sleep time and socio-demographic features are related to adolescents' academic performance, but interrelations are little explored. This paper describes these interrelations and behavioral profiles clustered in low and high academic performance. A nationally representative sample of 3,095 Spanish adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was surveyed on 15 variables linked to the purpose of the study. A Self-Organizing Maps analysis established non-linear interrelationships among these variables and identified behavior patterns in subsequent cluster analyses. Topological interrelationships established from the 15 emerging maps indicated that boys used more passive videogames and computers for playing than girls, who tended to use mobile phones to communicate with others. Adolescents with the highest academic performance were the youngest. They slept more and spent less time using sedentary screen media when compared to those with the lowest performance, and they also showed topological relationships with higher socioeconomic status adolescents. Cluster 1 grouped boys who spent more than 5.5 hours daily using sedentary screen media. Their academic performance was low and they slept an average of 8 hours daily. Cluster 2 gathered girls with an excellent academic performance, who slept nearly 9 hours per day, and devoted less time daily to sedentary screen media. Academic performance was directly related to sleep time and socioeconomic status, but inversely related to overall sedentary screen media usage. Profiles from the two clusters were strongly differentiated by gender, age, sedentary screen media usage, sleep time and academic achievement. Girls with the highest academic results had a medium socioeconomic status in Cluster 2. Findings may contribute to establishing recommendations about the timing and duration of screen media usage in adolescents and appropriate sleep time needed to successfully meet the demands of school academics and to improve

  18. Screen Media Usage, Sleep Time and Academic Performance in Adolescents: Clustering a Self-Organizing Maps Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; González, Luis M.; García-Massó, Xavier; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Devís-Devís, José

    2014-01-01

    Screen media usage, sleep time and socio-demographic features are related to adolescents' academic performance, but interrelations are little explored. This paper describes these interrelations and behavioral profiles clustered in low and high academic performance. A nationally representative sample of 3,095 Spanish adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was surveyed on 15 variables linked to the purpose of the study. A Self-Organizing Maps analysis established non-linear interrelationships among these variables and identified behavior patterns in subsequent cluster analyses. Topological interrelationships established from the 15 emerging maps indicated that boys used more passive videogames and computers for playing than girls, who tended to use mobile phones to communicate with others. Adolescents with the highest academic performance were the youngest. They slept more and spent less time using sedentary screen media when compared to those with the lowest performance, and they also showed topological relationships with higher socioeconomic status adolescents. Cluster 1 grouped boys who spent more than 5.5 hours daily using sedentary screen media. Their academic performance was low and they slept an average of 8 hours daily. Cluster 2 gathered girls with an excellent academic performance, who slept nearly 9 hours per day, and devoted less time daily to sedentary screen media. Academic performance was directly related to sleep time and socioeconomic status, but inversely related to overall sedentary screen media usage. Profiles from the two clusters were strongly differentiated by gender, age, sedentary screen media usage, sleep time and academic achievement. Girls with the highest academic results had a medium socioeconomic status in Cluster 2. Findings may contribute to establishing recommendations about the timing and duration of screen media usage in adolescents and appropriate sleep time needed to successfully meet the demands of school academics and to improve

  19. Recreational Screen-Time Among Chinese Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Hardy, Louise L.; Ding, Ding; Baur, Louise A.; Shi, Hui-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization in China has led to a proliferation of electronic entertainment media among youth. Prolonged screen time (ST; includes watching television and playing on computers, video game consoles, or mobile phones) is linked to poor health profiles. The aim of this study was to report recreational ST behaviors and ST correlates among Chinese adolescents living in two regions with different degrees of urbanization. Methods A cross-sectional, school-based survey (n = 3461 adolescents; aged 12–14 years old) living in inner-city Shanghai and a peri-urban region of Hangzhou. Students completed a questionnaire including family characteristics, daily ST, and information on family environment related to screen use. Recreational ST was categorized into two groups according to recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics (< or ≥2 h/day). Parents reported their own ST and also reported educational attainment as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Results ST was higher among boys than girls and on weekends than weekdays. Peri-urban girls were more likely to exceed 2 h/day ST compared to inner-city girls on weekends. Having a father with no university degree, mother’s TV viewing ≥2 h/day, no ST rules at home, and eating meals in front of the TV were associated with higher ST on both weekdays and weekends, and regional differences were found for weekend ST. Conclusions TV viewing and playing on the computer were the most prevalent ST behaviors among Chinese adolescents. Mobile phone playing was less prevalent but persistent throughout the week. More population-level surveillance and research is needed to monitor the trends in ST behaviors and to better understand the characteristics of those who are at risk. PMID:24930472

  20. Video game genre preference, physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Hayden T; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Babic, Mark J; Lubans, David R

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between the types of video games played by adolescent boys and their participation in physical activity and recreational screen-time. Participants were 320 boys (mean age = 12.7, ±0.5 years) from 14 secondary schools located in low-income areas of New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes included height, weight, physical activity (accelerometers), total screen-time, and video game genre preference. Significant differences in both weekday and weekend screen-time were found between video game genre groups. In addition, significant differences in overall activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were found between genre groups on weekdays. Between-group differences in physical activity on weekends were not statistically significant. This cross-sectional study has demonstrated that video game genre preference is associated with physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities. PMID:25448829

  1. Violence Screening and Viral Load Suppression Among HIV-Positive Women of Color

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jason; Precht, Allison; Matoff-Stepp, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent research suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly experienced by many people living with HIV/AIDS, which can complicate their care. We introduce a novel approach to screening for history of violence among 102 women of color living with HIV and receiving care at an outpatient public health clinic. Using a composite measure composed of data from a variety of screening tools, we were able to determine that 70.6% of the women had a history of violence using the composite measure, and that 43% screened positive using multiple screening tools. Although overall viral load suppression rate was high at 81.4%, women with a history of violence were less likely to be virally suppressed when compared to those without such a history (76.4% versus 93.3%, p<0.05). Our findings suggest using a variety of screening questions at entry and at follow-up care appointments may be key to identifying and supporting women survivors who may not disclose violence when first asked. Future research should foster further development, analysis, and use of a variety of screening tools such as those used in this study. PMID:25561308

  2. Positive Screening for Autism in Ex-preterm Infants: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Limperopoulos, Catherine; Bassan, Haim; Sullivan, Nancy R.; Soul, Janet S.; Robertson, Richard L.; Moore, Marianne; Ringer, Steven A.; Volpe, Joseph J.; du Plessis, Adré J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The survival of very low birth weight infants has increased markedly in recent years. Unfortunately, the prevalence of significant and lifelong motor, cognitive, and behavioral dysfunction has remained a major problem confronting these children. The objective of this study was to perform screening tests for early autistic features in children with a history of very low birth weight and to identify risk factors associated with a positive screening result. METHODS We studied 91 ex-preterm infants ≤ 1500 g at birth. Infants underwent conventional MRI studies at preterm and/or term-adjusted age. We collected pertinent demographic, prenatal, intrapartum, acute postnatal, and short-term outcome data for all infants. Follow-up assessments were performed at a mean age of 21.9 ± 4.7 months, using the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS Twenty-six percent of ex-preterm infants had a positive result on the autism screening tool. Abnormal scores correlated highly with internalizing behavioral problems on the Child Behavior Checklist and socialization and communication deficits on the Vineland Scales. Lower birth weight, gestational age, male gender, chorioamnionitis, acute intrapartum hemorrhage, illness severity on admission, and abnormal MRI studies were significantly associated with an abnormal autism screening score. CONCLUSIONS Early autistic behaviors seem to be an underrecognized feature of very low birth weight infants. The results from this study suggest that early screening for signs of autism may be warranted in this high-risk population followed by definitive autism testing in those with positive screening results. PMID:18381541

  3. Contribution of personal and environmental factors on positive psychological functioning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents. PMID:26093819

  4. Linkage to care for HIV-positive adolescents: A multi-site study of the Adolescent Medicine Trials Units of the Adolescent Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Martinez, Jaime; Rudy, Bret J; Monte, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To understand linkage to care practices in sites providing clinical services for newly diagnosed HIV-positive adolescents. Methods Qualitative analysis of detailed interviews conducted with 28 personnel involved in linkage to care at 15 sites providing specialty care for HIV-positive adolescents. Results We showed that multiple models exist for linkage to care, and that both formal and informal community relationships are important for successful linkage to care. Stigma was seen as a universal issue, enhancing the importance of the balance of confidentiality and social support. Barriers to care such as mental health issues, substance use, and transportation are common. Conclusions We conclude that the complexity of linkage to care requires thought and planning as HIV testing is expanded to lower risk populations. PMID:23174464

  5. False-positive interferences of common urine drug screen immunoassays: a review.

    PubMed

    Saitman, Alec; Park, Hyung-Doo; Fitzgerald, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Urine drug screen (UDS) immunoassays are a quick and inexpensive method for determining the presence of drugs of abuse. Many cross-reactivities exist with other analytes, potentially causing a false-positive result in an initial drug screen. Knowledge of these potential interferents is important in determining a course of action for patient care. We present an inclusive review of analytes causing false-positive interferences with drugs-of-abuse UDS immunoassays, which covers the literature from the year 2000 to present. English language articles were searched via the SciFinder platform with the strings 'false positive [drug] urine' yielding 173 articles. These articles were then carefully analyzed and condensed to 62 that included data on causes of false-positive results. The discussion is separated into six sections by drug class with a corresponding table of cross-reacting compounds for quick reference. False-positive results were described for amphetamines, opiates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide and barbiturates. These false-positive results support the generally accepted practice that immunoassay positive results are considered presumptive until confirmed by a second independent chemical technique. PMID:24986836

  6. The Factor Structure of the BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Form, Child/Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Bridget V.; Mays, Kristen L.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Dowdy, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher, Child/Adolescent Form (BESS Teacher Form C/A; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007) is a brief teacher-report rating scale designed to identify students who are at-risk for behavioral and emotional problems. The aim of this study was to describe the latent dimensions that underlie the responses to…

  7. Screen Time, How Much Is Too Much? The Social and Emotional Costs of Technology on the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeese, Katherine Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Screen time no longer means just the amount of time one spends in front of the television. Now it is an aggregate amount of time spent on smartphones, computers as well as multitasking with different devices. How much are the glowing rectangles taking away from adolescent social and emotional health? How is it changing how students learn and how…

  8. Participation in Vigorous Sports, Not Moderate Sports, Is Positively Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Daniel R.; Pratt, Charlotte; Charneco, Eileen Y.; Dowda, Marsha; Phillips, Jennie A.; Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is controversy regarding whether moderately-intense sports can improve physical fitness, which declines throughout adolescence among girls. The objective was to estimate the association between moderate and vigorous sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness in a racially diverse sample of adolescent girls. Methods Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a modified physical work capacity test in 1029 eighth-grade girls participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Girls reported sports in which they participated in the last year on an organized activity questionnaire. Using general linear mixed models, the study regressed absolute and relative fitness on the number of vigorous and moderate sports in which girls participated, race/ethnicity, age, treatment group, fat mass, fat-free mass, and an interaction between race and fat-free mass. Results The number of vigorous sports in which girls participated was positively associated with absolute fitness (β = 10.20, P = .04) and relative fitness (β = 0.17, P = .04). Associations were reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for MET-weighted MVPA. Participation in moderate sports was not associated with either fitness measure. Conclusions Vigorous sports participation is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Future longitudinal research should analyze whether promoting vigorous sports at an early age can prevent age-related declines in cardiorespiratory fitness among adolescent girls. PMID:23493300

  9. Early Sexual Intercourse: Prospective Associations with Adolescents Physical Activity and Screen Time

    PubMed Central

    Wijtzes, Anne; van de Bongardt, Daphne; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra; Bannink, Rienke; Raat, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study conducted in the Netherlands. The analysis sample consisted of 2,141 adolescents aged 12 to 14 years (mean age at baseline = 12.2 years, SD = 0.43). Physical activity (e.g., sports outside school), screen time (e.g., computer use), and early sexual intercourse initiation were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression models were tested to assess the associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time (separately and simultaneously) with early sexual intercourse initiation, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographics and substance use). Interaction effects with gender were tested to assess whether these associations differed significantly between boys and girls. Results The only physical activity behavior that was a significant predictor of early sexual intercourse initiation was sports club membership. Adolescent boys and girls who were members of a sports club) were more likely to have had early sex (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.33, 3.56. Significant gender interaction effects indicated that boys who watched TV ≥2 hours/day (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.08, 3.68) and girls who used the computer ≥2 hours/day (OR = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.76, 8.69) were also significantly more likely to have engaged in early sex. Conclusion These findings have implications for professionals in general pediatric healthcare, sexual health educators, policy makers, and parents, who should be aware of these possible prospective links between sports club membership, TV watching (for boys), and computer use (for girls), and early sexual intercourse initiation. However, continued research on determinants of adolescents’ early sexual initiation is needed to further contribute to

  10. Quality Indicator Development for Positive Screen Follow-up for Sickle Cell Disease and Trait.

    PubMed

    Faro, Elissa Z; Wang, C Jason; Oyeku, Suzette O

    2016-07-01

    Extensive variation exists in the follow-up of positive screens for sickle cell disease. Limited quality indicators exist to measure if the public health goals of screening-early initiation of treatment and enrollment to care-are being achieved. This manuscript focuses on the development of quality indicators related to the follow-up care for individuals identified with sickle cell disease and trait through screening processes. The authors used a modified Delphi method to develop the indicators. The process included a comprehensive literature review with rating of the evidence followed by ratings of draft indicators by an expert panel held in September 2012. The expert panel was nominated by leaders of various professional societies, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and met face to face to discuss and rate each indicator. The panel recommended nine quality indicators focused on key aspects of follow-up care for individuals with positive screens for sickle cell disease and trait. Public health programs and healthcare institutions can use these indicators to assess the quality of follow-up care and provide a basis for improvement efforts to ensure appropriate family education, early initiation of treatment, and appropriate referral to care for individuals identified with sickle cell disease and trait. PMID:27320465

  11. False-positive methadone urine drug screen in a patient treated with quetiapine.

    PubMed

    Lasić, Davor; Uglesić, Boran; Zuljan-Cvitanović, Marija; Supe-Domić, Daniela; Uglesić, Lovro

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of T.M. admitted to University Department of Psychiatry, Split University Hospital Center, in Croatia, because of the acute psychotic reaction (F23.9). The patient's urine tested positive for methadone without a history of methadone ingestion. Urine drug screen was performed with the COBAS Integra Methadone II test kit (kinetic interaction of microparticles in solution /KIMS/ methodology) by Roche. Drugs that have been shown to cross-react with methadone feature a tricyclic structure with a sulfur and nitrogen atom in the middle ring, which is common for both quetiapine and methadone. Therefore, it is plausible that this structural similarity between quetiapine and methadone could underlie the cross-reactivity on methadone drug screen. Besides quetiapine, a number of routinely prescribed medications have been associated with triggering false-positive urine drug screen results. Verification of the test results with a different screening test or additional analytical tests should be performed to avoid adverse consequences for the patients. PMID:23115954

  12. The psychological impact of a false-positive screening mammogram in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Espasa, Rebecca; Murta-Nascimento, Cristiane; Bayés, Ramón; Sala, Maria; Casamitjana, Montserrat; Macià, Francesc; Castells, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the psychological impact of mammographic screening for women who receive negative results and for those who need additional non-invasive and invasive complementary investigations to exclude breast cancer (false positives). One hundred fifty women who attended a breast cancer screening programme in Barcelona, aged 50-69 years, were included in this study: 50 with negative results and 100 with false positive mammograms (50 underwent non-invasive and 50 underwent invasive complementary investigations). Participants worried little until they underwent mammography, but worries increased when a telephone call notified the women of the need for further testing. A substantial proportion of women requiring further assessment reported that they were at least somewhat worried about having breast cancer throughout the screening process (P < 0.0001). Nevertheless, levels of anxiety and depression, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, showed no statistically significant differences among the three groups. In conclusion, although the women showed no psychological morbidity, there is a substantial psychological response in those with an abnormal screening mammogram. PMID:22477233

  13. Health inequality in adolescence. Does stratification occur by familial social background, family affluence, or personal social position?

    PubMed Central

    LK, Koivusilta; AH, Rimpelä; SM, Kautiainen

    2006-01-01

    Background Two new sets of stratification indicators – family's material affluence and adolescent's personal social position- were compared with traditional indicators of familial social position based on parental occupation and education for their ability to detect health inequality among adolescents. Methods Survey data were collected in the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey in 2003 from nationally representative samples of 12-, 14- and 16-year-old Finns (number of respondents 5394, response rate 71%). Indicators of the familial social position were father's socio-economic status, parents' education, parents' labour market position. Indicators of material affluence were number of cars, vacation travels, and computers in the family, own room and amount of weekly spending money. Adolescent's personal social position was measured as school performance. Measures of health were long-standing illness, overweight, use of mental health services, poor self-rated health and number of weekly health complaints. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was applied to study the associations between stratification indicators and health variables. Results All three groups of indicators of social stratification showed inequality in health, but the strongest associations were observed with the adolescent's personal social position. Health inequality was only partly identifiable by the traditional indicators of familial social position. The direction of the inequality was as expected when using the traditional indicators or personal social position: adolescents from higher social positions were healthier than those from lower positions. The indicators of family's material affluence showed mainly weak or no association with health and some of the indicators were inversely associated, although weakly. Conclusion In addition to traditional indicators describing the socio-structural influences on the distribution of health among adolescents, indicators of family's material affluence

  14. Neurocognitive screening of lead-exposed andean adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the utility of two psychometric tests with putative minimal cultural bias for use in field screening of lead (Pb)-exposed Ecuadorian Andean workers. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness in Pb-exposed adolescents and young adults of a nonverbal reasoning test standardized for younger children, and compared the findings with performance on a test of auditory memory. The Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was used as a test of nonverbal intelligence, and the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler IV intelligence scale was used to assess auditory memory/attention. The participants were 35 chronically Pb-exposed Pb-glazing workers, aged 12-21 yr. Blood lead (PbB) levels for the study group ranged from 3 to 86 microg/dl, with 65.7% of the group at and above 10 microg/dl. Zinc protoporphyrin heme ratios (ZPP/heme) ranged from 38 to 380 micromol/mol, with 57.1% of the participants showing abnormal ZPP/heme (>69 micromol/mol). ZPP/heme was significantly correlated with PbB levels, suggesting chronic Pb exposure. Performance on the RCPM was less than average on the U.S., British, and Puerto Rican norms, but average on the Peruvian norms. Significant inverse associations between PbB/ZPP concentrations and RCPM standard scores using the U.S., Puerto Rican, and Peruvian norms were observed, indicating decreasing RCPM test performance with increasing PbB and ZPP levels. RCPM scores were significantly correlated with performance on the Digit Span test for auditory memory. Mean Digit Span scale score was less than average, suggesting auditory memory/attention deficits. In conclusion, both the RCPM and Digit Span tests were found to be effective instruments for field screening of visual-spatial reasoning and auditory memory abilities, respectively, in Pb-exposed Andean adolescents and young adults. PMID:19308847

  15. Validity of Brief Screening Instrument for Adolescent Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kirk, Arethusa; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Schwartz, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism developed an alcohol screening instrument for youth based on epidemiologic data. This study examines the concurrent validity of this instrument, expanded to include tobacco and drugs, among pediatric patients, as well as the acceptability of its self-administration on an iPad. METHODS: Five hundred and twenty-five patients (54.5% female; 92.8% African American) aged 12 to 17 completed the Brief Screener for Tobacco, Alcohol, and other Drugs (BSTAD) via interviewer-administration or self-administration using an iPad. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition substance use disorders (SUDs) were identified using a modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-2 Substance Abuse Module. Receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivities, and specificities were obtained to determine optimal cut points on the BSTAD in relation to SUDs. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-nine (30.3%) adolescents reported past-year use of ≥1 substances on the BSTAD: 113 (21.5%) used alcohol, 84 (16.0%) used marijuana, and 50 (9.5%) used tobacco. Optimal cut points for past-year frequency of use items on the BSTAD to identify SUDs were ≥6 days of tobacco use (sensitivity = 0.95; specificity = 0.97); ≥2 days of alcohol use (sensitivity = 0.96; specificity = 0.85); and ≥2 days of marijuana use (sensitivity = 0.80; specificity = 0.93). iPad self-administration was preferred over interviewer administration (z = 5.8; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The BSTAD is a promising screening tool for identifying problematic tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in pediatric settings. Even low frequency of substance use among adolescents may indicate need for intervention. PMID:24753528

  16. When Parents' Affection Depends on Child's Achievement: Parental Conditional Positive Regard, Self-Aggrandizement, Shame and Coping in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and…

  17. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group.…

  18. The Mediation Effect of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Teacher Support, Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telef, Bülent Baki; Arslan, Gökmen; Mert, Abdullah; Kalafat, Sezai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among teacher support, positive emotions, school satisfaction and life satisfaction in adolescences. The study had the participation of 344 adolescents from different socio-economic levels studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three public middle schools in the province of…

  19. Examining the bidirectional relationship between physical activity, screen time, and symptoms of anxiety and depression over time during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gunnell, Katie E; Flament, Martine F; Buchholz, Annick; Henderson, Katherine A; Obeid, Nicole; Schubert, Nicholas; Goldfield, Gary S

    2016-07-01

    More physical activity (PA) and less screen time (ST) are positively associated with mental health in adolescents; however, research is limited by short-term designs and the exclusion of ST when examining PA. We examined: (a) changes in PA, ST, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of anxiety over four assessments spanning 11years, and (b) bidirectional relationships between initial PA, ST, and symptoms of depression and anxiety as predictors of change in each other during adolescence. Between 2006 and 2010, participants from Ottawa Canada (Time1; N=1160, Mean age=13.54years) completed questionnaires at four points covering the ages from 10 to 21years. Latent growth modeling was used. PA decreased over time whereas ST and symptoms of depression and anxiety increased over time. Controlling for sex, ethnicity, school location, zBMI, birth year, and parents' education, initially higher anxiety was associated with initially higher ST (covariance=.88, p<.05) and initially lower PA (covariance=-6.84, p=.07) independent of initial symptoms of depression. Higher initial depression was associated with higher initial ST (covariance=2.55, p<.05). Increases in anxiety were associated with increases in ST (covariance=.07, p=.06) and increases in depression (covariance=.41, p<.05). Examining bidirectional relationships, higher initial symptoms of depression predicted greater decreases in PA (b=-.28, p<.05). No other significant findings between initial PA, ST, anxiety, or depression were found as predictors of change in each other. Interventions targeting depression around age 13 may be useful to prevent further declines in PA. Similarly, interventions to reduce ST may be beneficial for concurrent reductions in symptoms of depression and anxiety, irrespective of PA. PMID:27090920

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time. PMID:26424720

  1. Adolescent romance and depressive symptoms: the moderating effects of positive coping and perceived friendship competence.

    PubMed

    Szwedo, David E; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-White) assessed at ages 15 to 19 and 21, as well as a subsample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and nonreplacement of their romantic relationship. Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences. PMID:24645877

  2. A Web-Based Adolescent Positive Psychology Program in Schools: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Batterham, Philip J; Miller, Leonie M; Talbot, Elizabeth; Lum, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent mental health is characterized by relatively high rates of psychiatric disorders and low levels of help-seeking behaviors. Existing mental health programs aimed at addressing these issues in adolescents have repeated inconsistent results. Such programs have generally been based on techniques derived from cognitive behavioral therapy, which may not be ideally suited to early intervention among adolescent samples. Positive psychology, which seeks to improve well-being rather than alleviate psychological symptoms, offers an alternative approach. A previous community study of adolescents found that informal engagement in an online positive psychology program for up to 6 weeks yielded significant improvements in both well-being and depression symptoms. However, this approach had not been trialed among adolescents in a structured format and within a school setting. Objective This study examines the feasibility of an online school-based positive psychology program delivered in a structured format over a 6-week period utilizing a workbook to guide students through website content and interactive exercises. Methods Students from four high schools were randomly allocated by classroom to either the positive psychology condition, "Bite Back", or the control condition. The Bite Back condition consisted of positive psychology exercises and information, while the control condition used a series of non-psychology entertainment websites. Both interventions were delivered online for 6 hours over a period of 4-6 weeks during class time. Symptom measures and measures of well-being/flourishing and life satisfaction were administered at baseline and post intervention. Results Data were analyzed using multilevel linear modeling. Both conditions demonstrated reductions in depression, stress, and total symptom scores without any significant differences between the two conditions. Both the Bite Back and control conditions also demonstrated significant improvements in

  3. Case Reports of Aripiprazole Causing False-Positive Urine Amphetamine Drug Screens in Children.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Justin; Shah, Pooja; Faley, Brian; Siegel, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    Urine drug screens (UDSs) are used to identify the presence of certain medications. One limitation of UDSs is the potential for false-positive results caused by cross-reactivity with other substances. Amphetamines have an extensive list of cross-reacting medications. The literature contains reports of false-positive amphetamine UDSs with multiple antidepressants and antipsychotics. We present 2 cases of presumed false-positive UDSs for amphetamines after ingestion of aripiprazole. Case 1 was a 16-month-old girl who accidently ingested 15 to 45 mg of aripiprazole. She was lethargic and ataxic at home with 1 episode of vomiting containing no identifiable tablets. She remained sluggish with periods of irritability and was admitted for observation. UDS on 2 consecutive days came back positive for amphetamines. Case 2 was of a 20-month-old girl who was brought into the hospital after accidental ingestion of an unknown quantity of her father's medications which included aripiprazole. UDS on the first day of admission came back positive only for amphetamines. Confirmatory testing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on the blood and urine samples were also performed for both patients on presentation to detect amphetamines and were subsequently negative. Both patients returned to baseline and were discharged from the hospital. To our knowledge, these cases represent the first reports of false-positive amphetamine urine drug tests with aripiprazole. In both cases, aripiprazole was the drug with the highest likelihood of causing the positive amphetamine screen. The implications of these false-positives include the possibility of unnecessary treatment and monitoring of patients. PMID:26527556

  4. Economic Hardship, Parent Positive Communication and Mental Health in Urban Adolescents Seeking Outpatient Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Sara R.; Javdani, Shabnam; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2014-01-01

    Economic hardship and poor parenting behaviors are associated with increased risk for mental health problems in community adolescents. However, less is known about the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) and parenting behaviors on youth at elevated risk for mental health problems, such as teens seeking outpatient psychiatric care. This study examined whether family SES and parent positive communication were directly and indirectly associated with mental health symptoms six months later in urban teens seeking outpatient treatment, after accounting for baseline levels of symptoms. At baseline, adolescent participants (N = 346; 42% female; 61% African-American) ages 12 to 19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and their primary caregivers reported on SES and teen internalizing and externalizing symptoms and engaged in a videotaped discussion of a real-life conflict to assess parent positive communication. At 6-month follow-up, 81% (N = 279) of families were retained and teens and caregivers again reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypothesized models with a sample of 338, using the full information likelihood method to adjust for missing data. For parent-reported externalizing symptoms, SEM revealed support for the indirect association of SES with follow-up externalizing symptoms via parent positive communication and externalizing symptoms at baseline. For parent reported internalizing symptoms, there was a direct association between SES and follow-up internalizing symptoms, but not an indirect effect via parent positive communication. Youth-reported symptoms were not associated with SES nor with parent positive communication. Current findings extend prior research on adolescent mental health in a diverse sample of urban youth seeking outpatient psychiatric care. These families may benefit from interventions that directly target SES-related difficulties and parent positive communication. PMID:25750502

  5. Impact of Cell-Free Fetal DNA Screening on Patients’ Choice of Invasive Procedures after a Positive California Prenatal Screen Result

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Forum T.; Steinhaus French, Kathryn; Osann, Kathryn E.; Bocian, Maureen; Jones, Marilyn C.; Korty, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, maternal serum analyte levels paired with sonographic fetal nuchal translucency measurement was the most accurate prenatal screen available for Trisomies 18 and 21, (91% and 94% detection and false positive rates of 0.31% and 4.5% respectively). Women with positive California Prenatal Screening Program (CPSP) results have the option of diagnostic testing to determine definitively if the fetus has a chromosomal abnormality. Cell-free fetal (cff-) DNA screening for Trisomies 13, 18, and 21 was first offered in 2012, allowing women with positive screens to choose additional screening before diagnostic testing. Cff-DNA sensitivity rates are as high as 99.9% and 99.1%, with false positive rates of 0.4% and 0.1%, for Trisomies 18 and 21, respectively. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2012 on 500 CPSP referrals at the University of California, San Diego Thornton Hospital. Data were collected prior to and after the introduction of cff-DNA. There was a significant increase in the number of participants who chose to pursue additional testing and a decrease in the number of invasive procedures performed after cff-DNA screening was available. We conclude that as fetal aneuploidy screening improves, the number of invasive procedures will continue to decrease. PMID:26237481

  6. Impact of Cell-Free Fetal DNA Screening on Patients' Choice of Invasive Procedures after a Positive California Prenatal Screen Result.

    PubMed

    Shah, Forum T; French, Kathryn Steinhaus; Osann, Kathryn E; Bocian, Maureen; Jones, Marilyn C; Korty, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, maternal serum analyte levels paired with sonographic fetal nuchal translucency measurement was the most accurate prenatal screen available for Trisomies 18 and 21, (91% and 94% detection and false positive rates of 0.31% and 4.5% respectively). Women with positive California Prenatal Screening Program (CPSP) results have the option of diagnostic testing to determine definitively if the fetus has a chromosomal abnormality. Cell-free fetal (cff-) DNA screening for Trisomies 13, 18, and 21 was first offered in 2012, allowing women with positive screens to choose additional screening before diagnostic testing. Cff-DNA sensitivity rates are as high as 99.9% and 99.1%, with false positive rates of 0.4% and 0.1%, for Trisomies 18 and 21, respectively. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2012 on 500 CPSP referrals at the University of California, San Diego Thornton Hospital. Data were collected prior to and after the introduction of cff-DNA. There was a significant increase in the number of participants who chose to pursue additional testing and a decrease in the number of invasive procedures performed after cff-DNA screening was available. We conclude that as fetal aneuploidy screening improves, the number of invasive procedures will continue to decrease. PMID:26237481

  7. Positive youth development among African American adolescents: examining single parents as a factor.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Shani R; Lewis, Rhonda K; Carmack, Chakema

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades researchers have begun to examine the importance of understanding positive youth development and the many contexts in which youth find themselves. The social contexts in which adolescent development occurs are varied and complex, particularly the development among African American youth. African American youth are faced with a number of challenges including living in single-parent homes, high teen pregnancy rates, and poor neighborhoods, yet many of these youth continue to thrive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family structure (single-parenting) and adolescent outcomes such as educational aspirations and sexual activity among African American adolescent youth aged 12-17. Approximately 462 African American youth were surveyed. A number of positive results emerged; for instance, there was a negative correlation between family structure and educational aspirations. The number of parents in the home did not interfere with youth wanting to complete high school and go on to college (r = - .218, r² = .04, p < .05). The results also showed that as educational aspirations increased, the number of sexual partners decreased (r = - .141, meaning that the more adolescents reported a desire to complete high school, they were less likely to report having sexual intercourse. These positive results should be promoted among African American youth so that those faced with these challenges will note that others have overcome and accomplished their goals. In this population educational aspirations were important. Limitations and future research are discussed. PMID:21992021

  8. Recommendations for promoting the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    PubMed

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents. PMID:23521897

  9. Cumulative risk of false positive test in relation to breast symptoms in mammography screening: a historical prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Malila, Nea; Anttila, Ahti

    2016-09-01

    Mammography has been found effective as the primary screening test for breast cancer. We estimated the cumulative probability of false positive screening test results with respect to symptom history reported at screen. A historical prospective cohort study was done using individual screening data from 413,611 women aged 50-69 years with 2,627,256 invitations for mammography screening between 1992 and 2012 in Finland. Symptoms (lump, retraction, and secretion) were reported at 56,805 visits, and 48,873 visits resulted in a false positive mammography result. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of at least one false positive test and true positive at screening visits. The estimates were compared among women with and without symptoms history. The estimated cumulative probabilities were 18 and 6 % for false positive and true positive results, respectively. In women with a history of a lump, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 45 and 16 %, respectively, compared to 17 and 5 % with no reported lump. In women with a history of any given symptom, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 38 and 13 %, respectively. Likewise, women with a history of a 'lump and retraction' had the cumulative false positive probability of 56 %. The study showed higher cumulative risk of false positive tests and more cancers detected in women who reported symptoms compared to women who did not report symptoms at screen. The risk varies substantially, depending on symptom types and characteristics. Information on breast symptoms influences the balance of absolute benefits and harms of screening. PMID:27496148

  10. [Physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents: the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Gabriel Gustavo; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Camargo, Aline Lins; Matijasevich, Alicia; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, followed at 11 (N = 4,452), 15 (N = 4,325), and 18 years of age (N = 4,106). The study recorded the use of medicines in the previous 15 days, continuous use of some medication, level of physical activity (by questionnaire and accelerometry), and screen time (TV, computer, and videogame). One-third of adolescents had used at least one medicine in the previous 15 days and approximately 10% were on some continuous medication. In the adjusted analysis, the results showed that higher levels of physical activity at 18 years and less screen time at 15 years in boys were associated with lower overall use of medicines (p < 0.05). For boys, physical activity at 11 and 18 years were inversely related to continuous medication (p < 0.05). More physically active boys and those with less screen time in adolescence showed lower use of medicines at 18 years of age. PMID:27167041

  11. Vitamin D in Health and Disease in Adolescents: When to Screen, Whom to Treat, and How to Treat.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Carey, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    The existing guidelines on screening and treatment are confusing because different guidelines target different populations. The IOM and AAP guidelines target generally healthy populations, whereas the Endocrine Society and other subspecialty guidelines target individuals with specific medical conditions associated with increased bone fragility. These distinctions have not always been well articulated. For healthy adolescents, the AAP does not recommend universal screening or screening of obese or dark-skinned individuals. Increased dietary intake of vitamin D is recommended, and vitamin D supplementation can be considered if the RDA cannot be met. For adolescents with chronic medical illnesses associated with increased fracture risk, screening for vitamin D deficiency should be performed by obtaining a serum 25-OHD level. Those found to be deficient (25-OHD level < 20 ng/mL) should be treated with doses of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 higher than the daily requirement (as discussed in the section on vitamin D and chronic disease), followed by a maintenance dose. A repeat 25-OHD level should be obtained after the therapeutic course is completed. Some experts advocate for achievement of 25-OHD levels greater than 30 ng/mL in conditions associated with increased bone fragility, and several pediatric subspecialty organizations have made recommendations specific to the diseases they treat. In such instances, the recommendations of the pediatric subspecialty organizations should take precedence over the AAP recommendations for adolescents with chronic illnesses associated with increased bone fragility because the AAP recommendations were primarily targeted at a healthy population. PMID:27363237

  12. Characteristics of Low-income Racial/Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women Screening Positive for Alcohol Risk.

    PubMed

    Washio, Yukiko; Mericle, Amy A; Cassey, Heather; Daubert, Angela M; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics associated with alcohol risk among low-income, predominantly racial/ethnic minority pregnant women in an urban area. We surveyed 225 pregnant women receiving nutritional care. Twenty-six percent screened positive for alcohol risk. Current smoking status (AOR 2.9, p = 0.018, 95 % CI [1.2, 7.0]) and a history of marijuana use (AOR 3.1, p = 0.001, 95 % CI [1.6, 6.2]) were the strongest predictors of alcohol risk status. This study underscores the need for screening for alcohol risk, smoking, and illicit drug use among low-income, racial/ethnic minority pregnant women and highlights the usefulness of the TWEAK in identifying alcohol risk in WIC settings. PMID:26187172

  13. Lipid Screening in Children and Adolescents in Community Practice 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Karen L.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Trower, Nicole K.; Daley, Matthew F.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Lo, Joan C.; Kharbanda, Elyse O.; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Magid, David J.; Parker, Emily D.; Chandra, Malini; Tavel, Heather M.; O'Connor, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated guidelines on cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children issued in 2011 newly recommended universal screening for dyslipidemia in children at 9-11 years and 17-21 years. Methods and Results We determined the frequency and results of lipid testing in 301,080 children and adolescents aged 3-19 enrolled in three large U.S. health systems in 2007-2010 before the 2011 guidelines were issued. Overall, 9.8% of the study population was tested for lipids. The proportion tested varied by BMI percentile (5.9% of normal weight, 10.8% of overweight and 26.9% of obese children) and age (8.9% of 9-11 year olds and 24.3% of 17-19 year olds). In normal weight individuals, 2.8% of 9-11 year olds and 22.0% of 17-19 year olds were tested. In multivariable models, age and BMI category remained strongly associated with lipid testing. Sex, race, ethnicity, and blood pressure were weakly associated with testing. Abnormal lipid levels were found in 8.6% for total cholesterol, 22.5% for HDL-C, 12.0% for non-HDL-C, 8.0% for LDL-C and 21% for triglycerides (age 10-19). There was a strong and graded association of abnormal lipid levels with BMI, particularly for HDL-C and triglycerides (2- to 6-fold higher odds ratio in obese compared with normal weight children). Conclusions Lipid screening was uncommon in 9-11 year olds and was performed in a minority of 17-19 year olds during 2007-2010. These data serve as a benchmark for assessing change in practice patterns after the new recommendations for pediatric lipid screening and management. PMID:25160839

  14. BODIMOJO: EFFECTIVE INTERNET-BASED PROMOTION OF POSITIVE BODY IMAGE IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    PubMed Central

    Franko, Debra L.; Cousineau, Tara M.; Rodgers, Rachel F.; Roehrig, James P.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of an Internet-based health promotion program, BodiMojo, designed to promote positive body image in adolescents. Participants were 178 students (mean age 15.2 years, 67.6% ethnic minority) in three public high schools. Intervention groups used BodiMojo for four weekly health class periods, while controls participated in their usual health curriculum. Body image measures were given at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months. Girls reported decreased body dissatisfaction (p < .05), decreased physical appearance comparison (p < .05), and increased appearance satisfaction (p < .05), relative to controls. Effects were not maintained at 3 month follow-up. No significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups with boys. Moderation analyses suggested positive effects for diverse adolescents as well as those who were overweight or indicated baseline high body dissatisfaction. BodiMojo appears to be modestly effective in decreasing body image concerns among adolescent girls in the short term. PMID:23768797

  15. Posttest risk calculation following positive noninvasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA in maternal plasma.

    PubMed

    Benn, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) for fetal chromosome defects has high sensitivity and specificity but is not fully diagnostic. In response to a desire to provide more information to individual women with positive NIPS results, 2 online calculators have been developed to calculate posttest risk (PTR). Use of these calculators is critically reviewed. There is a mathematically dictated requirement for a precise estimate for the specificity to provide an accurate PTR. This is illustrated by showing that a 0.1% decrease in the value for specificities for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 can reduce the PTR from 79-64% for trisomy 21, 39-27% for trisomy 18, and 21-13% for trisomy 13, respectively. Use of the calculators assumes that sensitivity and specificity are constant for all women receiving the test but there is evidence that discordancy between screening results and true fetal karyotype is more common for older women. Use of an appropriate value for the prior risk is also important and for rare disorders there is considerable uncertainty regarding prevalence. For example, commonly used rates for trisomy 13, monosomy-X, triploidy, and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome can vary by >4-fold and this can translate into large differences in PTR. When screening for rare disorders, it may not be possible to provide a reliable PTR if there is uncertainty over the false-positive rate and/or prevalence. These limitations, per se, do not negate the value of screening for rare conditions. However, counselors need to carefully weigh the validity of PTR before presenting them to patients. Additional epidemiologic and NIPS outcome data are needed. PMID:26772793

  16. Predicting Positive Citizenship from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of a Civic Context.

    PubMed

    Zaff, Jonathan F; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that programs to promote positive citizenship should begin with an opportunity for adolescents to participate in civic activities, such as community service or political volunteering. In this article we extend the theory by arguing that a more systemic approach is needed, in which a civic context is developed to promote citizenship. We hypothesize that living within a consistent civic context leads to civic engagement in late adolescence and into young adulthood. We use a diverse, longitudinal dataset to test this hypothesis. We find that social interactions with peers, parent modeling of civic behaviors, and cultural factors, such as ethnicity-specific practices, cumulatively result in a higher level of civic activities among youth and that a continued context that includes these factors results in a higher level of civic activities into adulthood. The implications of our findings are discussed with regard to program and policy development. PMID:22837638

  17. Predicting Positive Citizenship from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of a Civic Context

    PubMed Central

    Zaff, Jonathan F.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that programs to promote positive citizenship should begin with an opportunity for adolescents to participate in civic activities, such as community service or political volunteering. In this article we extend the theory by arguing that a more systemic approach is needed, in which a civic context is developed to promote citizenship. We hypothesize that living within a consistent civic context leads to civic engagement in late adolescence and into young adulthood. We use a diverse, longitudinal dataset to test this hypothesis. We find that social interactions with peers, parent modeling of civic behaviors, and cultural factors, such as ethnicity-specific practices, cumulatively result in a higher level of civic activities among youth and that a continued context that includes these factors results in a higher level of civic activities into adulthood. The implications of our findings are discussed with regard to program and policy development. PMID:22837638

  18. Socioeconomic position, macroeconomic environment and overweight among adolescents in 35 countries

    PubMed Central

    Due, P; Damsgaard, MT; Rasmussen, M; Holstein, BE; Wardle, J; Merlo, J; Currie, C; Ahluwalia, N; Sørensen, TIA; Lynch, J

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is important to understand levels and social inequalities in childhood overweight within and between countries. This study examined prevalence and social inequality in adolescent overweight in 35 countries, and associations with macroeconomic factors. Design International cross-sectional survey in national samples of schools. Subjects A total of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds from 35 countries in Europe and North America in 2001–2002 (N = 162 305). Measurements The main outcome measure was overweight based on self-reported height and weight (body mass index cut-points corresponding to body mass index of 25 kg/m2 at the age of 18 years). Measures included family and school affluence (within countries), and average country income and economic inequality (between countries). Results There were large variations in adolescent overweight, from 3.5% in Lithuanian girls to 31.7% in boys from Malta. Prevalence of overweight was higher among children from less affluent families in 21 of 24 Western and 5 of 10 Central European countries. However, children from more affluent families were at higher risk of overweight in Croatia, Estonia and Latvia. In Poland, Lithuania, Macedonia and Finland, girls from less affluent families were more overweight whereas the opposite was found for boys. Average country income was associated with prevalence and inequality in overweight when considering all countries together. However, economic inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient was differentially associated with prevalence and socioeconomic inequality in overweight among the 23-high income and 10-middle income countries, with a positive relationship among the high income countries and a negative association among the middle income countries. Conclusion The direction and magnitude of social inequality in adolescent overweight shows large international variation, with negative social gradients in most countries, but positive social gradients, especially for boys, in some

  19. Prenatal Ultrasound Screening: False Positive Soft Markers May Alter Maternal Representations and Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Viaux-Savelon, Sylvie; Dommergues, Marc; Rosenblum, Ouriel; Bodeau, Nicolas; Aidane, Elizabeth; Philippon, Odile; Mazet, Philippe; Vibert-Guigue, Claude; Vauthier-Brouzes, Danièle; Feldman, Ruth; Cohen, David

    2012-01-01

    Background In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a “soft marker” (SM) that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction. Methodology and Principal Findings Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction. Conclusion False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences. PMID:22292077

  20. Male adolescent rites of passage: positive visions of multiple developmental pathways.

    PubMed

    Pollack, William S

    2004-12-01

    Unlike the separation-based, stereotyped views of boys' developmental movement into adulthood, this paper will argue that there are more modern and relational models, as well as multiple pathways, for young males to journey through such rites of passage. Indeed, it will be suggested and supported by both qualitative and quantitative data that the more classic models depend on a "boy code" of traumatic separation from mother and the feminine, a process that is not only negative rather than positive in its developmental trajectory, but also likely to create a premature traumatic separation, leaving boys at risk for emotional maladjustment, everyday sadness, increased incidence of depression and the potential for violence toward the self, suicide, as well as violence toward others. More-positive visions and versions of male rites of passage will be posited and described. The definition of emotional "resilience" during this significant period will be re-addressed as one of "healthy vulnerability," sustained through connection to loving adults, rather than a classic belief in stoicism and release from relational ties. Attachment theory will be brought to bear and the desperate yearnings of adolescent males not only for connection to adult mentors, but also for non-romanticized friendships with adolescent females, will be discussed. Finally, the understanding and substitution of these new, more positive, developmental pathways will be linked to the prevention of violence. PMID:15817735

  1. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls. PMID:26727595

  2. A review of the psychosocial effects of false-positive results on parents and current communication practices in newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, J; Waisbren, S E

    2006-10-01

    As more states adopt expanded newborn screening for metabolic disorders, the overall number of false positives increases. False-positive screening results have been associated with increased anxiety and stress in parents of infants who require follow-up testing, even after the infant's good health is confirmed. This article reviews the literature on the negative impact of false-positive newborn screening results on parents, along with a review of current communication practices for follow-up screening. The results of this review suggest that parental stress and anxiety can be reduced with improved education and communication to parents, specifically at the time of follow-up screening. Communication strategies with sample materials are proposed. PMID:16917730

  3. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group. Fifty-seven eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (30 boys and 27 girls) volunteered to participate in the assessments and were used as the comparison group. Additionally, 15 experimental students were recruited to be observed and interviewed. Paired t-tests, correlations, and analyses of covariance assessed the similarity and differences between groups. The findings were that the experimental group significantly outperformed its counterpart on positive thinking and emotional perceptions, and all participants' positive thinking scores were significantly related to their emotional perceptions about learning science. Recommendations for integrating science and societal implication for adolescents are provided.

  4. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction, and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Leung, Hildie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies), life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior). Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families. PMID:24400264

  5. Cardiovascular screening in adolescents and young adults: a prospective study comparing the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition and ECG

    PubMed Central

    Fudge, Jessie; Harmon, Kimberly G; Owens, David S; Prutkin, Jordan M; Salerno, Jack C; Asif, Irfan M; Haruta, Alison; Pelto, Hank; Rao, Ashwin L; Toresdahl, Brett G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the accuracy of cardiovascular screening in active adolescents and young adults using a standardised history, physical examination and resting 12-lead ECG. Methods Participants were prospectively screened using a standardised questionnaire based on the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition (PPE-4), physical examination and ECG interpreted using modern standards. Participants with abnormal findings had focused echocardiography and further evaluation. Primary outcomes included disorders associated with sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Results From September 2010 to July 2011, 1339 participants underwent screening: age 13–24 (mean 16) years, 49% male, 68% Caucasian, 17% African-American and 1071 (80%) participating in organised sports. Abnormal history responses were reported on 916 (68%) questionnaires. After physician review, 495/ 916 (54%) participants with positive questionnaires were thought to have non-cardiac symptoms and/or a benign family history and did not warrant additional evaluation. Physical examination was abnormal in 124 (9.3%) participants, and 72 (5.4%) had ECG abnormalities. Echocardiograms were performed in 586 (44%) participants for abnormal history (31%), physical examination (8%) or ECG (5%). Five participants (0.4%) were identified with a disorder associated with SCA, all with ECG-detected Wolff-Parkinson-White. The false-positive rates for history, physical examination and ECG were 31.3%, 9.3% and 5%, respectively. Conclusions A standardised history and physical examination using the PPE-4 yields a high false-positive rate in a young active population with limited sensitivity to identify those at risk for SCA. ECG screening has a low false-positive rate using modern interpretation standards and improves detection of primary electrical disease at risk of SCA. PMID:24948082

  6. An Actor-Based Model of Social Network Influence on Adolescent Body Size, Screen Time, and Playing Sports

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, David A.; Tong, Liping; Lamberson, Peter J.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Zhang, Jun; Dugas, Lara; Kaufman, Jay S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that obesity may be “contagious” between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence), however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves) or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM) framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI), screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network) and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151). Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers’ influence on one another, rather than treating “high risk” adolescents in isolation. PMID:22768124

  7. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) for Adolescents and Young Adults: Scale Development and Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Jelenchick, Lauren A.; Eickhoff, Jens; Christakis, Dimitri A; Brown, Richard L.; Zhang, Chong; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale’s reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population. PMID:24882938

  8. Positive screening and carrier results for the England-wide universal newborn sickle cell screening programme by ethnicity and area for 2005–07

    PubMed Central

    Latinovic, Radoslav; Henthorn, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Aims The overall aim of the new national newborn programme is to identify infants at risk of sickle cell disease to allow early detection and to minimise deaths and complications. Methods Universal screening for sickle cell disease was introduced in England between September 2003 and July 2006. The 13 newborn laboratories each screen between 25 000 and 110 000 babies a year using the existing dried bloodspot cards. The specified conditions to be screened for include sickle cell anaemia (Hb SS), Hb SC disease, Hb S/β thalassaemia, Hb S/DPunjab and Hb S/OArab. Data are reported on screening results by ethnic group and geographical area. Results The prevalence of screen positive results across England is 1:2000. There is a 25-fold variation by geographical area. African babies make up 61% of all screen positive results despite representing only 4% of total births. Combined carrier rates vary widely by ethnicity, from 1.85 per 1000 (1:540) in ‘White British’ to 145 per 1000 (1:7) in ‘African’ babies. Refusal rates for screening show variation by ethnicity. Conclusions These results provide useful information both about the frequency of these conditions and the carrier state and their geographic and ethnic distribution across England. This can be used to refine counselling information and are also useful to target and plan services and public information. PMID:20591912

  9. Mortality salience and positive affect influence adolescents' attitudes toward peers with physical disabilities: terror management and broaden and build theories.

    PubMed

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown either a picture depicting an adolescent sitting on a regular chair or in a wheelchair and were asked to assess the characteristics of the person in the picture and their willingness to be in his or her company. The findings suggest that both types of manipulations enhanced the personality assessment and social acceptance of adolescents with disabilities compared to adolescents without disabilities and compared to the control condition. Girls reported more favorable attitudes toward another adolescent than boys did. The study indicates that seemingly contradictory manipulations may lead to social acceptance of adolescents with disabilities. PMID:24501847

  10. HIV-Positive Mothers With Late Adolescent/Early Adult Children: “Empty Nest” Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Debra A.; Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    In-depth interviews about the “empty nest” were conducted with 57 HIV-positive mothers of late adolescent/early adult children. Empty nest worries included: (1) identity loss, (2) loss of social support, (3) financial insecurity, (4) worsening of physical health, and (5) death/dying. Hopes included: (1) self-improvement, (2) change of life focus, (3) travel, (4) romantic partners, and (5) familial ties. Respondents’ HIV/AIDS status colored their thoughts/feelings about the empty nest; some worries were specific to being HIV-positive, and would not occur for non-ill mothers. Midlife HIV positive women need healthcare/social service resources as they navigate health and social-psychological challenges to successful aging. PMID:22420679

  11. Graduated exposure and positive reinforcement to overcome setting and activity avoidance in an adolescent with autism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Luiselli, James K; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when prompted to enter these areas. Using graduated exposure combined with positive reinforcement, he learned to enter these settings without resisting and eventually to participate in activities within the settings. This article discusses this intervention approach for reducing and eliminating avoidant behavior. PMID:22987915

  12. Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life of HIV-Positive Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Loos, Jasna; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Access to antiretroviral treatment among adolescents living with HIV (ALH) is increasing. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is relevant for monitoring the impact of the disease on both well-being and treatment outcomes. However, adequate screening tools to assess HRQOL in low-resource settings are scarce. This study aims to fill this research gap, by 1) assessing the psychometric properties and reliability of an Eastern African English version of a European HRQOL scale for adolescents (KIDSCREEN) and 2) determining which version of the KIDSCREEN (52-, 27- and 10-item version) is most suitable for low-resource settings. Methods The KIDSCREEN was translated into Eastern African English, Luganda (Uganda) and Dholuo (Kenya) according to standard procedures. The reconciled version was administered in 2011 to ALH aged 13–17 in Kenya (n = 283) and Uganda (n = 299). All three KIDSCREEN versions were fitted to the data with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). After comparison, the most suitable version was adapted based on the CFA outcomes utilizing the results of previous formative research. In order to develop a general HRQOL factor, a second-order measurement model was fitted to the data. Results The CFA results showed that without adjustments, the KIDSCREEN cannot be used for measuring the HRQOL of HIV-positive adolescents. After comparison, the most suitable version for low-resource settings - the 27-item version - was adapted further. The introduction of a negative wording factor was required for the Dholuo model. The Dholuo (CFI: 0.93; RMSEA: 0.039) and the Luganda model (CFI: 0.90; RMSEA: 0.052) showed a good fit. All cronbach’s alphas of the factors were 0.70 or above. The alpha value of the Dholuo and Lugandan HRQOL second-order factor was respectively 0.84 and 0.87. Conclusions The study showed that the adapted KIDSCREEN-27 is an adequate tool for measuring HRQOL in low-resource settings with high HIV prevalence. PMID

  13. Risk Factors for Distress in the Adolescent Children of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Drug-Abusing Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Castro, Felipe G.; Tiburcio, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to previous research on parental drug abuse, the present study examined comorbid drug addiction and HIV infection in the father as related to his adolescent child’s psychological distress. Individual structured interviews were administered to 505 HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug-abusing fathers and one of their children, aged 12–20. Structural equation modeling tested an hypothesized model linking paternal latent variables, ecological factors, and adolescent substance use to adolescent distress. Results demonstrated a direct pathway between paternal and adolescent distress, as well as an indirect pathway; namely, paternal distress was linked with paternal teaching of coping skills to the child, which in turn was related to adolescent substance use and, ultimately, to the adolescent’s distress. There was also an association between paternal drug addiction/HIV and adolescent distress, which was mediated by both ecological factors and adolescent substance use. Findings suggest an increased risk for distress in the adolescent children of fathers with comorbid drug addiction and HIV/AIDS, which may be further complicated by paternal distress. Results suggest several opportunities for prevention and treatment programs for the children of drug-abusing fathers. PMID:18278619

  14. Colorectal cancer screening: factors associated with colonoscopy after a positive faecal occult blood test

    PubMed Central

    Ferrat, E; Le Breton, J; Veerabudun, K; Bercier, S; Brixi, Z; Khoshnood, B; Paillaud, E; Attali, C; Bastuji-Garin, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Contextual socio-economic factors, health-care access, and general practitioner (GP) involvement may influence colonoscopy uptake and its timing after positive faecal occult blood testing (FOBT). Our objectives were to identify predictors of delayed or no colonoscopy and to assess the role for GPs in colonoscopy uptake. Methods: We included all residents of a French district with positive FOBTs (n=2369) during one of the two screening rounds (2007–2010). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to identify individual and area-level predictors of delayed colonoscopy, no colonoscopy, and no information on colonoscopy. Results: A total of 998 (45.2%) individuals underwent early, 989 (44.8%) delayed, and 102 (4.6%) no colonoscopy; no information was available for 119 (5.4%) individuals. Delayed colonoscopy was independently associated with first FOBT (odds ratio, (OR)), 1.61; 95% confidence interval ((95% CI), 1.16–2.25); and no colonoscopy and no information with first FOBT (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.02–3.97), FOBT kit not received from the GP (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.67–3.14), and socio-economically deprived area (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.98–5.08). Colonoscopy uptake varied significantly across GPs (P=0.01). Conclusion: Socio-economic factors, GP-related factors, and history of previous FOBT influenced colonoscopy uptake after a positive FOBT. Interventions should target GPs and individuals performing their first screening FOBT and/or living in socio-economically deprived areas. PMID:23989948

  15. An Examination and Replication of the Psychometric Properties of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Edition (MAYSI-2) Among Adolescents in Detention Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Robert P.; Stredny, Rebecca Vauter; Mason, John A.; Arnau, Randolph C.

    2004-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of psychological disorders among adolescents in detention facilities. The need for a simple, effective screening tool led to the development of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument (MAYSI) and its successor, the MAYSI-2. This study evaluated the MAYSI-2 psychometric properties based on the records of 704 youths…

  16. Clinician Adherence to Recommendations for Screening of Adolescents for Sexual Activity and Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Monika K; Witt, Rachel; Hayes, Katie L; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Gerber, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate clinician adherence to guidelines for documentation of sexual history and screening for sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV during routine adolescent well visits. Secondary objectives were to determine patient and clinician factors associated with sexual history documentation and STI/HIV testing. Study design Retrospective, cross-sectional study of 1000 randomly selected 13–19 year old routine well visits at all 29 pediatric primary care practices affiliated with a children’s hospital. We evaluated frequency of documentation of sexual history and testing for gonorrhea/chlamydia (GC/CT) and HIV testing. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with documentation and testing. Results Of the 1000 patient visits reviewed, 212 (21.2%; 95% CI 18.7, 23.7) had a documented sexual history, of which 45 adolescents’ (21.2%; 95% CI 15.7, 26.8) encounters were documented as being sexually active. Overall, 26 (2.6%; 95% CI 1.6, 3.6) patients were tested for GC/CT and 16 (1.6%; 95% CI 0.8, 2.4) for HIV. In multivariable analyses, factors associated with sexual history documentation included older patient age, non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, non-private insurance status, and care by female clinician. Factors associated with GC/CT testing included male gender, non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, and non-private insurance. HIV testing was more likely to be performed on older adolescents, those of non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, and those with non-private insurance. Conclusions Pediatric primary care clinicians infrequently document sexual histories and perform STI and HIV testing on adolescent patients. Future studies should investigate provider beliefs, clinical decision-making principles, and perceived barriers to improve the sexual health care of adolescents and evaluate interventions to increase rates of adolescent sexual health screening. PMID:24840761

  17. Positive and Negative Self-Esteem among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents: Social and Cultural Sources and Threats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2003-01-01

    Studied positive and negative self-esteem among 1,070 Turkish and Moroccan early adolescents in the Netherlands. Findings show the usefulness of distinguishing between positive and negative self-esteem when studying global self-esteem among a dolescents. (SLD)

  18. Positive Peer Culture and Assertiveness Training: Complementary Modalities for Dealing with Disturbed and Disturbing Adolescents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Dewey J.

    1980-01-01

    Many institutions and school systems have adopted the Positive Peer Culture (PPC) method for helping disturbed adolescents by turning the peer culture from a negative to a positive "caring" force. The paper discusses some of the major limitations and how assertion training, in conjunction with PPC, provides a successful resolution. (Author/SB)

  19. A screening sampling plan to detect Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-positive dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Serraino, A; Arrigoni, N; Ostanello, F; Ricchi, M; Marchetti, G; Bonilauri, P; Bonfante, E; Giacometti, F

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic contagious bacterial disease primarily affecting dairy cattle. Paratuberculosis represents a dual problem for the milk production chain: in addition to economic losses to affected herds, MAP may have zoonotic potential. Infected herds must be identified in order to implement programs designed to reduce the incidence of disease within and between herds and to prevent MAP from entering the food chain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a screening sampling plan (SSP) to detect MAP-positive dairy herds by repetitive analysis of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples by ELISA and in-line milk filter (ILMF) samples by PCR. Samples from BTM and ILMF were collected twice from 569 dairy herds in southern Italy. Additionally, 12,016 individual milk samples were collected: 9,509 from 102 SSP-positive herds (SSP MAP-positive) and 2,507 from 21 randomly selected SSP-negative herds (SSP MAP-negative). There was a total of 126 SSP MAP-positive herds (i.e., 21.3% SSP MAP-positive herds; 95% confidence interval=18.0-24.9); the within-herd apparent prevalence (AP) ranged between 0.00 and 22.73% (mean 6.07%). A significant difference in within-herd AP was shown between SSP MAP-positive herds and SSP MAP-negative herds. A highly significant association was shown between the median AP herd status (>5%) and positivity to at least one ILMF or BTM sample. The SSP detected a minimum of 56.25% of low AP herds (AP ≤ 2.0%) up to a maximum of 100% of herds with a within-herd AP ≥ 8.0%. Overall, the SSP detected 85.57% of herds in which at least one individual milk sample was positive by ELISA. The proposed SSP was an inexpensive and useful tool to detect MAP-positive herds with a higher risk of infection diffusion and milk contamination. Although the SSP cannot be used for MAP-free certification of herds, it could be useful to prioritize appropriate

  20. From Adolescent Daughter to Mother: Exploring Message Design Strategies for Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Genderson, Maureen Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of breast and cervical cancers is one preventive behavior that may provide the adolescent daughter with a unique opportunity to provide encouragement to her mother or guardian to obtain screening. This study explored the design strategies necessary for developing an effective daughter-initiated message about screening for breast and cervical cancers. Thirty-two (N=64) African-American mother-daughter dyads were interviewed about parenting style, goodwill, and daughters’ credibility and risk behaviors that might influence receptivity toward a screening appeal. Mothers indicated that a tailored, emotional appeal combined with cancer facts delivered in a private setting would be most effective. Daughters were perceived as highly credible messengers and were perceived to have high levels of goodwill toward their mothers, regardless of risk behaviors. PMID:23813491

  1. Screening for Sleep Reduction in Adolescents through Self-Report: Development and Validation of the Sleep Reduction Screening Questionnaire (SRSQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maanen, Annette; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F.; Oort, Frans J.; de Bruin, Eduard J.; Smits, Marcel G.; Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Kerkhof, Gerard A.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep reduction, resulting from insufficient or poor sleep, is a common phenomenon in adolescents. Due to its severe negative psychological and behavioral daytime consequences, it is important to have a short reliable and valid measure to assess symptoms of sleep reduction. Objective: This study aims to validate the Sleep Reduction…

  2. Factors affecting linkage to care and engagement in care for newly diagnosed HIV-positive adolescents within fifteen adolescent medicine clinics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Philbin, Morgan M; Tanner, Amanda E; DuVal, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan M; Xu, Jiahong; Kapogiannis, Bill; Bethel, Jim; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Early linkage to care and engagement in care are critical for initiation of medical interventions. However, over 50 % of newly diagnosed persons do not receive HIV-related care within 6 months of diagnosis. We evaluated a linkage to care and engagement in care initiative for HIV-positive adolescents in 15 U.S.-based clinics. Structural and client-level factors (e.g. demographic and behavioral characteristics, clinic staff and location) were evaluated as predictors of successful linkage and engagement. Within 32 months, 1,172/1,679 (69.8 %) of adolescents were linked to care of which 1,043/1,172 (89 %) were engaged in care. Only 62.1 % (1,043/1,679) of adolescents were linked and engaged in care. Linkage to care failure was attributed to adolescent, provider, and clinic-specific factors. Many adolescents provided incomplete data during the linkage process or failed to attend appointments, both associated with failure to linkage to care. Additional improvements in HIV care will require creative approaches to coordinated data sharing, as well as continued outreach services to support newly diagnosed adolescents. PMID:24682848

  3. False-positive findings in mammography screening induces short-term distress - breast cancer-specific concern prevails longer.

    PubMed

    Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M; van der Ploeg, E; van der Kamp, L J

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine psychological distress in a mammography screening process as a consequence of screening after adjusting for background, personality and prescreening distress. Subjects, aged 50 years, were invitees at their first screening. There were three groups; normal findings (n=1407), false-positive findings (n=492) and referents from outside the screening programme (n=1718, age 48-49 years). Distress was measured as illness worry, anxiety, depression, cancer beliefs and early detection behaviour. Measurements were one month before screening invitation with follow-ups at 2 and 12 months postscreening. At 2 months, there was a moderate multivariate effect of group on distress; and intrusive thinking and worry about breast cancer, in particular, were most frequent amongst the false positives. Intrusive thinking still prevailed at 12 months, in addition to a higher perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes. PMID:10854941

  4. Usefulness of combined history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and limited echocardiogram in screening adolescent athletes for risk for sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey B; Grenier, Michelle; Edwards, Nicholas M; Madsen, Nicolas L; Czosek, Richard J; Spar, David S; Barnes, Allison; Pratt, Jesse; King, Eileen; Knilans, Timothy K

    2014-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death in the young (SCDY) is the leading cause of death in young athletes during sport. Screening young athletes for high-risk cardiac defects is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility and feasibility of a comprehensive cardiac screening protocol in an adolescent population. Adolescent athletes were recruited from local schools and/or sports teams. Each subject underwent a history and/or physical examination, an electrocardiography (ECG), and a limited echocardiography (ECHO). The primary outcome measure was identification of cardiac abnormalities associated with an elevated risk for sudden death. We secondarily identified cardiac abnormalities not typically associated with a short-term risk of sudden death. A total of 659 adolescent athletes were evaluated; 64% men. Five subjects had cardiac findings associated with an elevated risk for sudden death: prolonged QTc >500 ms (n = 2) and type I Brugada pattern (n = 1), identified with ECG; dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1) and significant aortic root dilation; and z-score = +5.5 (n = 1). History and physical examination alone identified 76 (11.5%) subjects with any cardiac findings. ECG identified 76 (11.5%) subjects in which a follow-up ECHO or cardiology visit was recommended. Left ventricular mass was normal by ECHO in all but 1 patient with LVH on ECG. ECHO identified 34 (5.1%) subjects in whom a follow-up ECHO or cardiology visit was recommended. In conclusion, physical examination alone was ineffective in identification of subjects at elevated risk for SCDY. Screening ECHO identified patients with underlying cardiac disease not associated with immediate risk for SCDY. Cost of comprehensive cardiac screening is high. PMID:25307198

  5. Concurrent Associations of Physical Activity and Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior on Obesity Among US Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngdeok; Barreira, Tiago V.; Kang, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Independent associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with obesity are well documented. However, little is known about the combined associations of these behaviors with obesity in adolescents. The present study examines the prevalence of concurrent levels of PA and SB, and their associations with obesity among US adolescents. Methods Data from a total of 12 081 adolescents who participated in the Youth Risk Behaviors Survey during 2012–2013 were analyzed. A latent class analysis was performed to identify latent subgroups with varying combined levels of subjectively measured PA and screen-based SB. Follow-up analysis examined the changes in the likelihood of being obese as determined by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention Growth Chart between latent subgroups. Results Four latent subgroups with varying combined levels of PA and SB were identified across gender. The likelihood of being obese was significantly greater for the subgroups featuring either or both Low PA or High SB when compared with High PA/Low SB across genders (odds ratio [OR] ranges, 2.1–2.7 for males and 9.6–23.5 for females). Low PA/High SB showed the greater likelihood of being obese compared to subgroups featuring either or both High PA and Low SB (OR ranges, 2.2–23.5) for female adolescents only. Conclusions The findings imply that promoting sufficient levels of PA while reducing SB should be encouraged in order to reduce obesity risk among adolescents, particularly for males. The risk of obesity for female adolescents can be reduced by engaging in either high levels of PA or low levels of SB. PMID:26477996

  6. A Family Focused Randomized Controlled Trial to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol and Tobacco Use: The Moderating Roles of Positive Parenting and Adolescent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Olson, Ardis L.; Forehand, Rex; Gaffney, Cecelia A.; Zens, Michael S.; Bau, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    Four years of longitudinal data from 2,153 families with a 5th- or 6th-grade preadolescent participating in a family-focused pediatric primary-care-based prevention program were used to examine whether prevention effects were moderated by positive parenting and/or adolescent gender. Alcohol and tobacco use, internalizing problems, and…

  7. Urine Toxicology Screen in Multiple Sleep Latency Test: The Correlation of Positive Tetrahydrocannabinol, Drug Negative Patients, and Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dzodzomenyo, Samuel; Stolfi, Adrienne; Splaingard, Deborah; Earley, Elizabeth; Onadeko, Oluwole; Splaingard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Drugs can influence results of multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). We sought to identify the effect of marijuana on MSLT results in pediatric patients evaluated for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Methods: This is a retrospective study of urine drug screens performed the morning before MSLT in 383 patients < 21 years old referred for EDS. MSLT results were divided into those with (1) (−) urine drug screens, (2) urine drug screens (+) for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone or THC plus other drugs, and (3) urine drug screens (+) for drugs other than THC. Groups were compared with Fisher exact tests or one-way ANOVA. Results: 38 (10%) urine drug tests were (+): 14 for THC and 24 for other drugs. Forty-three percent of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy, 0% consistent with idiopathic hypersomnia, 29% other, and 29% normal. This was statistically different from those with (−) screens (24% narcolepsy, 20% idiopathic hypersomnia, 6% other, 50% normal), and those (+) for drugs other than THC (17% narcolepsy, 33% idiopathic hypersomnia, 4% other, 46% normal (p = 0.01). Six percent (6/93) of patients with MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy were drug screen (+) for THC; 71% of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had multiple sleep onset REM periods (SOREMS). There were no (+) urine drug screens in patients < 13 years old. Conclusion: Many pediatric patients with (+) urine drug screens for THC met MSLT criteria for narcolepsy or had multiple SOREMs. Drug screening is important in interpreting MSLT findings for children ≥ 13 years. Citation: Dzodzomenyo S, Stolfi A, Splaingard D, Earley E, Onadeko O, Splaingard M. Urine toxicology screen in multiple sleep latency test: the correlation of positive tetrahydrocannabinol, drug negative patients, and narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):93–99. PMID:25348245

  8. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a screening instrument for norwegian child and adolescent mental health services, application of UK scoring algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of screening instruments can reduce waiting lists and increase treatment capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) with the original UK scoring algorithms, when used as a screening instrument to detect mental health disorders among patients in the Norwegian Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) North Study. Methods A total of 286 outpatients, aged 5 to 18 years, from the CAMHS North Study were assigned diagnoses based on a Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). The main diagnostic groups (emotional, hyperactivity, conduct and other disorders) were then compared to the SDQ scoring algorithms using two dichotomisation levels: 'possible' and 'probable' levels. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio (ORD) were calculated. Results Sensitivity for the diagnostic categories included was 0.47-0.85 ('probable' dichotomisation level) and 0.81-1.00 ('possible' dichotomisation level). Specificity was 0.52-0.87 ('probable' level) and 0.24-0.58 ('possible' level). The discriminative ability, as measured by ORD, was in the interval for potentially useful tests for hyperactivity disorders and conduct disorders when dichotomised on the 'possible' level. Conclusions The usefulness of the SDQ UK-based scoring algorithms in detecting mental health disorders among patients in the CAMHS North Study is only partly supported in the present study. They seem best suited to identify children and adolescents who do not require further psychiatric evaluation, although this as well is problematic from a clinical point of view. PMID:21992589

  9. Relationship between Socioeconomic Position and Suicide Attempts among the Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship of the subjective socioeconomic position (SEP) as well as the objective SEP with the rate of suicide attempts in 74,186 adolescents from the 2012 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS). The SEP was measured by the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) and the self-rated household economic status. The low perceived SEP for either the high or low FAS score was related to the elevated likelihood of suicide attempts in both genders. As compared with the adolescents in both the high level of perceived SEP and FAS score after adjusting for other confounding factors, the middle school students were more likely to attempt suicide in both low level of perceived SEP and FAS score (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.18-2.78 for boys, OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.13-1.90 for girls). The high school students were more likely to attempt suicide in the low perceived SEP and high FAS score (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.14-1.81 for boys, OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.07-1.56 for girls). In conclusion, the relationship of subjective SEP is important in suicide attempts as much as objective SEP and far more important in the high school students. PMID:25246749

  10. Relationship between socioeconomic position and suicide attempts among the Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ko, Min Jung; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Kirang

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the relationship of the subjective socioeconomic position (SEP) as well as the objective SEP with the rate of suicide attempts in 74,186 adolescents from the 2012 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS). The SEP was measured by the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) and the self-rated household economic status. The low perceived SEP for either the high or low FAS score was related to the elevated likelihood of suicide attempts in both genders. As compared with the adolescents in both the high level of perceived SEP and FAS score after adjusting for other confounding factors, the middle school students were more likely to attempt suicide in both low level of perceived SEP and FAS score (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.18-2.78 for boys, OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.13-1.90 for girls). The high school students were more likely to attempt suicide in the low perceived SEP and high FAS score (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.14-1.81 for boys, OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.07-1.56 for girls). In conclusion, the relationship of subjective SEP is important in suicide attempts as much as objective SEP and far more important in the high school students. PMID:25246749

  11. Adolescent diet and time use clusters and associations with overweight and obesity and socioeconomic position.

    PubMed

    Ferrar, Katia; Golley, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity include low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low socioeconomic position (SEP). To date, the vast majority of research investigating associations between lifestyle behaviors and weight status analyze dietary and time use factors separately. Our research aimed to describe Australian youth time use and diet clusters and explore relationships with weight status and SEP (parental education and income). Cluster analysis of the National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data from Australians aged 9 to 16 years (random sample n = 1,853) was conducted. Time use data (17 age-adjusted time use variables) and dietary data (7 age-adjusted diet variables) were collected via 24-hour recalls. Two clusters were associated with a reduced frequency of overweight and obesity (the boys' Active Sitter and girls' Healthy Academic clusters) and one with an increased frequency of overweight and obesity (the boys' Unhealthy cluster). Of these three clusters, two demonstrated associations with parental income and/or parental education level. The boys' Unhealthy cluster was associated with low SEP status (parental income and education), and the girls' Healthy Academic cluster was associated with high parental income. Not all unhealthy adolescent clusters were associated with overweight and obesity. The findings suggest sex-specific diet and activity clusters can be used to identify at-risk subgroups and inform multifaceted interventions to address overweight and obesity. PMID:25576499

  12. Positive association of video game playing with left frontal cortical thickness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Simone; Lorenz, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Walaszek, Bernadetta; Schumann, Gunter; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical thickness across the whole cortical surface was correlated with self-reported duration of video gaming (hours per week). A robust positive association between cortical thickness and video gaming duration was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left frontal eye fields (FEFs). No regions showed cortical thinning in association with video gaming frequency. DLPFC is the core correlate of executive control and strategic planning which in turn are essential cognitive domains for successful video gaming. The FEFs are a key region involved in visuo-motor integration important for programming and execution of eye movements and allocation of visuo-spatial attention, processes engaged extensively in video games. The results may represent the biological basis of previously reported cognitive improvements due to video game play. Whether or not these results represent a-priori characteristics or consequences of video gaming should be studied in future longitudinal investigations. PMID:24633348

  13. Positive Association of Video Game Playing with Left Frontal Cortical Thickness in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Simone; Lorenz, Robert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J.; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Ströhle, Andreas; Walaszek, Bernadetta; Schumann, Gunter; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Playing video games is a common recreational activity of adolescents. Recent research associated frequent video game playing with improvements in cognitive functions. Improvements in cognition have been related to grey matter changes in prefrontal cortex. However, a fine-grained analysis of human brain structure in relation to video gaming is lacking. In magnetic resonance imaging scans of 152 14-year old adolescents, FreeSurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness. Cortical thickness across the whole cortical surface was correlated with self-reported duration of video gaming (hours per week). A robust positive association between cortical thickness and video gaming duration was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left frontal eye fields (FEFs). No regions showed cortical thinning in association with video gaming frequency. DLPFC is the core correlate of executive control and strategic planning which in turn are essential cognitive domains for successful video gaming. The FEFs are a key region involved in visuo-motor integration important for programming and execution of eye movements and allocation of visuo-spatial attention, processes engaged extensively in video games. The results may represent the biological basis of previously reported cognitive improvements due to video game play. Whether or not these results represent a-priori characteristics or consequences of video gaming should be studied in future longitudinal investigations. PMID:24633348

  14. Maternal and birth risk factors for children screening positive for autism spectrum disorders on M-CHAT-R.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Saranya; Chandrasekaran, Venkatesh; Kattimani, Shivanand; Subramanian, Mahadevan

    2016-08-01

    This study was carried out to screen children aged 16-30 months, attending pediatric outpatient department of JIPMER, Puducherry, during June to August 2014, for ASD using modified checklist for autism in toddlers-revised (MCHAT-R) and to find association between maternal, birth and postnatal risk factors with risk of ASD. A total of 350 mother-child pairs with children aged between 16 and 30 months were recruited. M-CHAT-R was administered to all mothers to screen for ASD along with risk checklist. Based on screen result children were classified as ASD (high risk) and no ASD (low and medium risk) group. The association between risk factors and screen positivity for ASD was studied using odds ratio. According to our study, 33 (9.4%) screened positive for ASD. Mean age was 21 months. High mean paternal age at birth (P value 0.025), need for resuscitation at birth (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.47-8.10), NICU stay >12h (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.26-9.94), late initiation of breastfeeding (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.83-8.39), neonatal seizures (OR 11.8, 95% CI 5.38-26.25) were associated with screen positivity for ASD. After adjusting for confounding, neonatal seizures, and maternal concern about child development were associated with increased odds of screening positive for ASD whereas exclusive breast feeding in the first 6 months of life is associated with decreased odds. Screening for ASD in children with above risk factors might help in early initiation of remedial interventions. PMID:27520889

  15. Brief report: Attention to positive information mediates the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y

    2015-07-01

    This study tested the mediating roles of cognitive reappraisal and attentional preferences in the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being among 712 adolescents. Results of the structural equation modeling revealed that the beneficial relation of hope to subjective happiness, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties was partially mediated by attention to positive information but not cognitive reappraisal. Findings of this study may inform the design of intervention research by highlighting the importance of hopeful thinking style and attention to positive information in mental health of adolescents. PMID:25968107

  16. Newborn screening for CF in a regional paediatric centre: the psychosocial effects of false-positive IRT results on parents.

    PubMed

    Moran, Janette; Quirk, Kirsten; Duff, Alistair J A; Brownlee, Keith G

    2007-05-01

    Neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) has been established in Leeds since 1975. The current method is measuring IRT and genotyping. Newborn screening for CF results in a small but significant number of false positives. This study explored the psychosocial reactions to such results in a group of parents (N=21) using semi-structured interviews. Responses were analysed using descriptive statistics and well-validated content analysis. Mothers described a range of emotions during the screening process including anxiety, distress and upset. Waiting for the repeat IRT test results was identified as the most emotionally difficult stage. Discussion focuses on good practice and implications for CF services. PMID:17056302

  17. Characteristics of Screen Media Use Associated With Higher BMI in Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Blood, Emily A.; Walls, Courtney E.; Shrier, Lydia A.; Rich, Michael

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigates how characteristics of young adolescents’ screen media use are associated with their BMI. By examining relationships between BMI and both time spent using each of 3 screen media and level of attention allocated to use, we sought to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms linking media use and obesity. METHODS: We measured heights and weights of 91 13- to 15-year-olds and calculated their BMIs. Over 1 week, participants completed a weekday and a Saturday 24-hour time-use diary in which they reported the amount of time they spent using TV, computers, and video games. Participants carried handheld computers and responded to 4 to 7 random signals per day by completing onscreen questionnaires reporting activities to which they were paying primary, secondary, and tertiary attention. RESULTS: Higher proportions of primary attention to TV were positively associated with higher BMI. The difference between 25th and 75th percentiles of attention to TV corresponded to an estimated +2.4 BMI points. Time spent watching television was unrelated to BMI. Neither duration of use nor extent of attention paid to video games or computers was associated with BMI. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the notion that attention to TV is a key element of the increased obesity risk associated with TV viewing. Mechanisms may include the influence of TV commercials on preferences for energy-dense, nutritionally questionable foods and/or eating while distracted by TV. Interventions that interrupt these processes may be effective in decreasing obesity among screen media users. PMID:23569098

  18. LGBTQ adolescents and young adults raised within a Christian religious context: positive and negative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Angie L; Galliher, Renee V

    2012-12-01

    Religious contexts have traditionally been understood as protective for a variety of psychosocial health outcomes. However, the generalizability of these findings to youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer (LGBTQ) is questioned due to denominational teachings on same-sex attractions and sexual behavior. Eight adolescents (15-17 years) and 11 young adults (19-24 years) who identify as LGBTQ raised in Christian religious affiliations (16 participants raised in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 2 participants raised Catholic and 1 participant raised Presbyterian) participated in individual in-depth interviews, journal writings, and focus groups to provide greater insight into the lived experiences of LGBTQ individuals raised within a Christian religious environment. Findings suggest the religious context is related to both positive and negative outcomes. Eight themes are explored using participant's own words and experiences. Directions for future research and implications are discussed. PMID:22910195

  19. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and bone mineral density in adolescents--the Black Box Warning: a Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cromer, Barbara A; Scholes, Delia; Berenson, Abbey; Cundy, Tim; Clark, M Kathleen; Kaunitz, Andrew M

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this Position Paper is to review the published Black Box Warning regarding depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and bone loss as it relates to adolescent girls. The scientific findings that prompted the Food and Drug Administration to issue the warning are reviewed and the following additional issues are considered: (1) likely low risk of fracture related to DMPA use, (2) evidence of at least partial recovery after discontinuation of the method, and (3) the need to balance the physical, social and economic cost of adolescent pregnancy versus the immediate and long-term impact of DMPA on bone. A list of clinical guidelines is included, the main recommendation of which is to continue prescription of DMPA, with counseling about the risks and benefits, in most of the adolescent population desiring to use this contraceptive method. PMID:16857545

  20. Resilience against All Odds: A Positive Psychology Perspective of Adolescent-Headed Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lethale, Praline S.; Pillay, Jace

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the AIDS pandemic, adolescent-headed families are becoming a common trend in South Africa. However, little is known about the experiences of the adolescent, especially within the school context. Hence the purpose of this article was to explore the experiences of adolescents within the school context. During our initial review of…

  1. Does a Happy Marriage Make Positive Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Self-Satisfied Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masche, J. Gowert

    This study examined the impact of parental marriage quality on two aspects of self-esteem in their adolescent children, mediated by parent-adolescent relationship quality. Participating in the study were mothers, fathers, and 16- to 18-year-olds from 54 intact families. The first assessment was completed before the adolescents left middle school,…

  2. Reduced intra-amygdala activity to positively valenced faces in adolescent schizophrenia offspring.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Tracy; Murphy, Eric; Pruitt, Patrick; Eickhoff, Simon B; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Rajan, Usha; Zajac-Benitez, Caroline; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2010-11-01

    Studies suggest that the affective response is impaired in both schizophrenia and adolescent offspring of schizophrenia patients. Adolescent offspring of patients are developmentally vulnerable to impairments in several domains, including affective responding, yet the bases of these impairments and their relation to neuronal responses within the limbic system are poorly understood. The amygdala is the central region devoted to the processing of emotional valence and its sub-nuclei including the baso-lateral and centro-medial are organized in a relative hierarchy of affective processing. Outputs from the centro-medial nucleus converge on regions involved in the autonomous regulation of behavior, and outputs from the baso-lateral nucleus modulate the response of reward processing regions. Here using fMRI we assessed the intra-amygdala response to positive, negative, and neutral valenced faces in a group of controls (with no family history of psychosis) and offspring of schizophrenia parents (n=44 subjects in total). Subjects performed an affective continuous performance task during which they continually appraised whether the affect signaled by a face on a given trial was the same or different from the previous trial (regardless of facial identity). Relative to controls, offspring showed reduced activity in the left centro-medial nucleus to positively (but not negatively or neutral) valenced faces. These results were independent of behavioral/cognitive performance (equal across groups) suggesting that an impaired affective substrate in the intra-amygdala response may lie at the core of deficits of social behavior that have been documented in this population. PMID:20716480

  3. The Revised DCDQ: Is It a Suitable Screening Measure for Motor Difficulties in Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannekoek, Linda; Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Barrett, Nicholas C.; Schoemaker, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The parent-rated Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ) has been revised to incorporate a wider age range, including adolescence. In this exploratory study, internal consistency and validity of the DCDQ-2007 was assessed using a community-based sample of 87 adolescents. Psychometric properties of the DCDQ-2007 were investigated…

  4. Pastoral care use among post-9/11 veterans who screen positive for mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Nieuwsma, Jason A; Fortune-Greeley, Alice K; Jackson, George L; Meador, Keith G; Beckham, Jean C; Elbogen, Eric B

    2014-08-01

    As a result of their military experience, veterans with mental health problems may have unique motivations for seeking help from clergy. Patterns and correlates of seeking pastoral care were examined using a nationwide representative survey that was conducted among veterans of post-9/11 conflicts (adjusted N = 1,068; 56% response rate). Separate multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine veteran characteristics associated with seeking pastoral care and seeking mental health services. Among post-9/11 veterans with a probable mental disorder (n = 461)-defined as a positive screen for posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, or alcohol misuse-20.2% reported talking to a "pastoral counselor" in the preceding year, 44.7% reported talking to a mental health professional, and 46.6% reported talking to neither. In a multivariate analysis for veterans with a probable mental disorder, seeing a pastoral counselor was associated with an increased likelihood of seeing a mental health professional in the past year (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: [1.28, 3.65]). In a separate bivariate analysis, pastoral counselors were more likely to be seen by veterans who indicated concerns about stigma or distrust of mental health care. These results suggest that pastoral and mental health care services may complement one another and underscore the importance of enhancing understanding and collaboration between these disciplines so as to meet the needs of the veterans they serve. PMID:24933105

  5. Examining the Factor Structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a Multiethnic Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villodas, Feion; Villodas, Miguel T.; Roesch, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule were examined in a multiethnic sample of adolescents. Results from confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the original two-factor model did not adequately fit the data. Exploratory factor analyses revealed that four items were not pure markers of the factors. (Contains 1…

  6. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? the Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakos, Holly L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data.…

  7. Positive outlook as a moderator of the effectiveness of an HIV/STI intervention with adolescents in detention.

    PubMed

    Schmiege, Sarah J; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Hendershot, Christian S; Bryan, Angela D

    2011-06-01

    Justice-involved adolescents engage in high levels of risky sexual behavior, underscoring the need for targeted, effective, prevention interventions geared toward this population. In a randomized controlled trial, 484 detained adolescents received a theory-based intervention or an information-only control. We have previously demonstrated that the theory-based intervention was superior to the control condition in changing theoretical mediators and in producing longitudinal decreases in risky sexual behavior. In the present study, we examined differential response to the intervention based on the adolescents' level of positive outlook (composed of self-esteem, perceived control over the future and optimism toward the future). Changes to putative theoretical mediators (attitudes, perceived norms, self-efficacy and intentions) were measured immediately post-intervention, and behavioral data were obtained 3, 6, 9 and 12 months later. Positive outlook significantly moderated program effects both in the context of the mediational path model and in the context of the longitudinal growth model. Specifically, intervention effects were strongest for those scoring relatively lower on the positive outlook dimension, whereas adolescents high in positive outlook demonstrated greater attitudes and self-efficacy and decreased risky sexual behavior, regardless of condition. Findings are discussed in terms of targeting and tailoring of intervention content. PMID:20926554

  8. Training Workers Implementing Adolescent Prevention and Positive Youth Development Programs: What Have We Learned from the Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Wai, C. L. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies are evaluating the effectiveness of adolescent prevention and positive youth development programs, training programs for workers implementing such programs are seldom examined. In this paper, such programs indexed in several databases were reviewed. The basic characteristics, objectives, content, theory, process, and…

  9. Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of hepatitis B screening: People who are at ... that slow down the virus). Potential Benefits and Harms of Hepatitis B Screening and Treatment The Task ...

  10. Screening for Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of suicide screening by primary care clinicians: There ... not enough evidence to weigh the benefits and harms of screening the general population for suicide risk. ...

  11. Reduced Uptake of Family Screening in Genotype-Negative Versus Genotype-Positive Long QT Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hanninen, Mikael; Klein, George J; Laksman, Zachary; Conacher, Susan S; Skanes, Allan C; Yee, Raymond; Gula, Lorne J; Leong-Sit, Peter; Manlucu, Jaimie; Krahn, Andrew D

    2015-08-01

    The acceptance and yield of family screening in genotype-negative long QT syndrome (LQTS) remains incompletely characterized. In this study of family screening for phenotype-definite Long QT Syndrome (LQTS, Schwartz score ≥3.5), probands at a regional Inherited Cardiac Arrhythmia clinic were reviewed. All LQTS patients were offered education by a qualified genetic counselor, along with materials for family screening including electronic and paper correspondence to provide to family members. Thirty-eight qualifying probands were identified and 20 of these had family members who participated in cascade screening. The acceptance of screening was found to be lower among families without a known pathogenic mutation (33 vs. 77 %, p = 0.02). A total of 52 relatives were screened; fewer relatives were screened per index case when the proband was genotype-negative (1.7 vs. 3.1, p = 0.02). The clinical yield of screening appeared to be similar irrespective of gene testing results (38 vs. 33 %, p = 0.69). Additional efforts to promote family screening among gene-negative long QT families may be warranted. PMID:25273952

  12. Positive associations between consumerism and tobacco and alcohol use in early adolescence: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen N; Bhaskar, Abita; Hunt, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Background There is concern about the negative impact of modern consumer culture on young people's mental health, but very few studies have investigated associations with substance use. In those which have, positive associations have been attributed to attempts to satisfy the unmet needs of more materialistic individuals. Objectives This study examines associations between different dimensions of consumerism and tobacco and alcohol use among Scottish early adolescents. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants 2937 (92% of those eligible) secondary school pupils (ages 12–14) completed questionnaires in examination conditions. Analyses were restricted to those with complete data on all relevant variables (N=2736 smoking; N=2737 drinking). Measures Dependent variables comprised ever smoking and current drinking. Measures of consumerism comprised number of ‘premium’ (range 0–7) and ‘standard’ (range 0–5) material possessions and three Consumer Involvement subscales, ‘dissatisfaction’, ‘consumer orientation’ and ‘brand awareness’ (each range 3–12). Analyses also included school-year group and family affluence. Results Ever smoking and current drinking were both more prevalent among adolescents with more ‘premium’ and ‘standard’ material possessions, greater consumer ‘dissatisfaction’ and ‘brand awareness’ (mutually adjusted analyses including school-year group and family affluence). The strongest relationships occurred for ‘brand awareness’: for each unit increase in ‘brand awareness’ the ORs (95% CI) of ever smoking were 1.17 (1.08 to 1.26) and 1.23 (1.14 to 1.33) in males and females, respectively; and those for drinking were 1.15 (1.08 to 1.23) and 1.21 (1.13 to 1.30). ‘Brand awareness’ had an equal or stronger relationship with both smoking and drinking than did family affluence. Conclusions These results suggest aassociations between consumerism and both smoking and drinking might arise because

  13. Multiple-Stage Screening for the Identification of Depression among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettelson, Rebecca; Laurent, Jeff

    Multiple-stage screening is discussed in the context of the prevention literature. Earlier multiple-stage screening studies are presented to illustrate different goals and methods employed. A multiple-stage screening procedure is described for the identification of depression among high school students. Students in grades 9-12 (N=862) completed a…

  14. Effect of protocol-related variables and women's characteristics on the cumulative false-positive risk in breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Román, R.; Sala, M.; Salas, D.; Ascunce, N.; Zubizarreta, R.; Castells, X.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing the false-positive risk in breast cancer screening is important. We examined how the screening-protocol and women's characteristics affect the cumulative false-positive risk. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 1 565 364 women aged 45–69 years who underwent 4 739 498 screening mammograms from 1990 to 2006. Multilevel discrete hazard models were used to estimate the cumulative false-positive risk over 10 sequential mammograms under different risk scenarios. Results: The factors affecting the false-positive risk for any procedure and for invasive procedures were double mammogram reading [odds ratio (OR) = 2.06 and 4.44, respectively], two mammographic views (OR = 0.77 and 1.56, respectively), digital mammography (OR = 0.83 for invasive procedures), premenopausal status (OR = 1.31 and 1.22, respectively), use of hormone replacement therapy (OR = 1.03 and 0.84, respectively), previous invasive procedures (OR = 1.52 and 2.00, respectively), and a familial history of breast cancer (OR = 1.18 and 1.21, respectively). The cumulative false-positive risk for women who started screening at age 50–51 was 20.39% [95% confidence interval (CI) 20.02–20.76], ranging from 51.43% to 7.47% in the highest and lowest risk profiles, respectively. The cumulative risk for invasive procedures was 1.76% (95% CI 1.66–1.87), ranging from 12.02% to 1.58%. Conclusions: The cumulative false-positive risk varied widely depending on the factors studied. These findings are relevant to provide women with accurate information and to improve the effectiveness of screening programs. PMID:21430183

  15. Control of adolescents' arbitrary matching-to-sample by positive and negative stimulus relations.

    PubMed Central

    Stromer, R; Osborne, J G

    1982-01-01

    In Experiment 1, four developmentally delayed adolescents were taught an A-B matching-to-sample task with nonidentical stimuli: given Sample A1, select Comparison B1; given A2, select B2. During nonreinforced test trials, appropriate matching occurred when B stimuli appeared as samples and A stimuli as comparisons, i.e., the sample and comparison functions were symmetrical (B-A matching). During A-B or B-A matching test trials in which familiar samples and correct comparisons were presented along with novel comparisons, the subjects selected the correct comparisons. In tests with familiar samples and both incorrect and novel comparisons, subjects selected the novel comparisons, demonstrating control by both positive ("matching") and negative ("nonmatching") stimulus relations in A-B and B-A arrays. In Experiment 2, 12 developmentally delayed subjects were taught a two-stage arbitrary-matching task (e.g., A-B, C-B matching). Test sessions showed sample-comparison symmetry (e.g., B-A, B-C matching) and derived sample-comparison relations (e.g., A-C, C-A matching) for 11 subjects. These subjects also demonstrated control by positive and negative stimulus relations in the derived relations. PMID:6178786

  16. Development and content validity of a screening instrument for gaming addiction in adolescents: the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT).

    PubMed

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-08-01

    This study describes the development of a screening tool for gaming addiction in adolescents - the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT). Its development was based on the research literature on gaming and addiction. An expert panel comprising professional raters (n = 7), experiential adolescent raters (n = 10), and parent raters (n = 10) estimated the content validity of each item (I-CVI) as well as of the whole scale (S-CVI/Ave), and participated in a cognitive interview about the GAIT scale. The mean scores for both I-CVI and S-CVI/Ave ranged between 0.97 and 0.99 compared with the lowest recommended I-CVI value of 0.78 and the S-CVI/Ave value of 0.90. There were no sex differences and no differences between expert groups regarding ratings in content validity. No differences in the overall evaluation of the scale emerged in the cognitive interviews. Our conclusions were that GAIT showed good content validity in capturing gaming addiction. The GAIT needs further investigation into its psychometric properties of construct validity (convergent and divergent validity) and criterion-related validity, as well as its reliability in both clinical settings and in community settings with adolescents. PMID:25615802

  17. Improved statistical evaluation of group differences in connectomes by screening-filtering strategy with application to study maturation of brain connections between childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Meskaldji, Djalel-Eddine; Vasung, Lana; Romascano, David; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hagmann, Patric; Morgenthaler, Stephan; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2015-03-01

    Detecting local differences between groups of connectomes is a great challenge in neuroimaging, because the large number of tests that have to be performed and the impact on multiplicity correction. Any available information should be exploited to increase the power of detecting true between-group effects. We present an adaptive strategy that exploits the data structure and the prior information concerning positive dependence between nodes and connections, without relying on strong assumptions. As a first step, we decompose the brain network, i.e., the connectome, into subnetworks and we apply a screening at the subnetwork level. The subnetworks are defined either according to prior knowledge or by applying a data driven algorithm. Given the results of the screening step, a filtering is performed to seek real differences at the node/connection level. The proposed strategy could be used to strongly control either the family-wise error rate or the false discovery rate. We show by means of different simulations the benefit of the proposed strategy, and we present a real application of comparing connectomes of preschool children and adolescents. PMID:25498390

  18. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    HighlightsDifferent measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth.Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity.Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position - community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12-22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents' lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth-specific. Adolescents and

  19. Adrenal Venous Sampling in Patients With Positive Screening but Negative Confirmatory Testing for Primary Aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Umakoshi, Hironobu; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Wada, Norio; Ichijo, Takamasa; Kamemura, Kohei; Matsuda, Yuichi; Fujii, Yuichi; Kai, Tatsuya; Fukuoka, Tomikazu; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Ogo, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tomoko; Nanba, Kazutaka; Tsuiki, Mika

    2016-05-01

    Adrenal venous sampling is considered to be the most reliable diagnostic procedure to lateralize aldosterone excess in primary aldosteronism (PA). However, normative criteria have not been established partially because of a lack of data in non-PA hypertensive patients. The aim of the study was to investigate aldosterone concentration and its gradient in the adrenal vein of non-PA hypertensive patients. We retrospectively studied the results of cosyntropin-stimulated adrenal venous sampling in 40 hypertensive patients who showed positive screening testing but negative results in 2 confirmatory tests/captopril challenge test and saline infusion test. Plasma aldosterone concentration, aldosterone/cortisol ratio, its higher/lower ratio (lateralization index) in the adrenal vein with cosyntropin stimulation were measured. Median plasma aldosterone concentration in the adrenal vein was 25 819 pg/mL (range, 5154-69 920) in the higher side and 12 953 (range, 1866-36 190) pg/mL in the lower side (P<0.001). There was a significant gradient in aldosterone/cortisol ratio between the higher and the lower sides (27.2 [5.4-66.0] versus 17.3 [4.0-59.0] pg/mL per μg/dL;P<0.001) with lateralization index ranging from 1.01 to 3.87. The aldosterone lateralization gradient was between 1 to 2 in 32 patients and 2 to 4 in 8 patients. None of the patients showed lateralization index ≥4. The present study demonstrated that plasma aldosterone concentration in the adrenal veins showed significant variation and lateralization gradient even in non-PA hypertensive patients. Adrenal venous sampling aldosterone lateralization gradients between 2 and 4 should be interpreted with caution in patients with PA because these gradients can be found even in patients with negative confirmatory testing for PA. PMID:26975712

  20. Mediational pathways through which positive and negative emotionality contribute to anhedonic symptoms of depression: a prospective study of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wetter, Emily K; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2009-05-01

    This study takes a developmental psychopathological approach to examine mechanisms through which baseline levels of positive emotionality (PE) and negative emotionality (NE) prospectively predict increases in anhedonic depressive symptoms in a community sample of 350 adolescents (6th-10th graders). Dependent stressors mediated the relationship between baseline levels of NE and anhedonic depressive symptoms after controlling for initial symptoms. Supportive relationships mediated the relationship between baseline levels of PE and anhedonic depressive symptoms, after controlling for baseline symptoms. In addition, NE X PE interacted to predict later anhedonic depressive symptoms, such that adolescents with low levels of PE and high levels of NE experienced the greatest increase in anhedonic depressive symptoms. Last, supportive relationships interacted with baseline PE to predict prospective changes in anhedonic depressive symptoms, such that adolescents with low PE and low supportive relationships experienced the greatest increase in anhedonic depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of current theoretical models of the link between temperament and depression. PMID:19184402

  1. Personality and emotional processing: A relationship between extraversion and the late positive potential in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady D; Perlman, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are multifaceted affective-laden personality traits that have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Research and theory have argued that extraversion, and particularly its facet positive emotionality, is specific to MDD, while neuroticism is common across internalizing disorders. Converging evidence has suggested that MDD is associated with reduced engagement with emotional stimuli, but it remains unclear whether either extraversion, neuroticism, or both modulate reactivity to emotional cues. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related brain potential that is uniquely suited to assess engagement with emotional stimuli because it reflects sustained attention toward emotional content. The current study examined the LPP in relation to personality traits that may confer risk for depression by examining the relationship between the LPP and both neuroticism and extraversion in never-depressed adolescent girls. Specifically, 550 girls aged 13.5-15.5 with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task, and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Personality traits were gathered via self- and informant report. Results indicated that high extraversion was associated with a potentiated LPP to emotional pictures-and this effect was accounted for by positive emotionality in particular. In contrast, there was no association between the LPP and neuroticism or its facets. The present study is one of the first to demonstrate that extraversion is associated with variation in neural indices of emotional picture processing, similar to what has been observed among individuals with depression and at high risk for depression. PMID:25847353

  2. Improving screening recall services for women with false-positive mammograms: a comparison of qualitative evidence with UK guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Mary; Garside, Ruth; Hyde, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To gain an understanding of the views of women with false-positive screening mammograms of screening recall services, their ideas for service improvements and how these compare with current UK guidelines. Methods Inductive qualitative content analysis of semistructured interviews of 21 women who had false-positive screening mammograms. These were then compared with UK National Health Service (NHS) guidelines. Results Participants’ concerns about mammography screening recall services focused on issues of communication and choice. Many of the issues raised indicated that the 1998 NHS Breast Screening Programme guidelines on improving the quality of written information sent to women who are recalled, had not been fully implemented. This included being told a clear reason for recall, who may attend with them, the length of appointment, who they will see and what tests will be carried out. Additionally women voiced a need for: reassurance that a swift appointment did not imply they had cancer; choice about invasive assessment or watchful waiting; the offer of a follow-up mammogram for those uncertain about the validity of their all-clear and an extension of the role of the clinical nurse specialist, outlined in the 2012 NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) guidelines, to include availability at the clinic after the all-clear for women with false-positive mammograms. Conclusions It is time the NHSBSP 1998 recall information guidelines were fully implemented. Additionally, the further suggestions from this research, including extending the role of the clinical nurses from the 2012 NHSBSP guidelines, should be considered. These actions have the potential to reduce the anxiety of being recalled. PMID:25618139

  3. A Nationwide Survey on the Daily Screen Time of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN - IV Study

    PubMed Central

    Jari, Mohsen; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leisure time activity is an important life-style habit. This study aims to determine the screen time of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted as part of the fourth survey of a surveillance system. The participants consisted of 14880 students, with aged range from 6 to 18 years, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Screen time, i.e. the time spent on watching television (TV)/video and computer games during leisure time, was assessed by using the questionnaire of the Globasl Student Health Survey of the World Health Organization. Results: The study participants were 13486 school students (participation rate of 90.6%) with a mean age of 12. 47 (3.36) years. Overall, 75.6% of students were from urban and 24.4% from rural areas and 50.8% were boys respectively. Overall, 33.4% and 53% of students watched TV/video more than 2 h a day in their leisure time during school days and holidays, respectively. Likewise, 6.3% and 10.9% of students used computer more than 2 h a day in their leisure time during the school days and holidays, respectively. Overall, 47.1% of urban students and 24.2% of rural students used personal computer in their leisure time during the school days. The corresponding figures were 50.8% and 27.2% in weekends and holidays, respectively. Conclusions: The time spent on screen activities is long in a considerably high number of Iranian children and adolescents. It should be reduced by increasing the public awareness and by providing facilities for regular daily physic activity for students’ leisure times. PMID:24627751

  4. Positive posttraumatic stress disorder screens among first-time medical cannabis patients: prevalence and association with other substance use.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Kipling M; Perron, Brian E; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kleinberg, Felicia; Jannausch, Mary; Ilgen, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation allowing for the use of medical cannabis for those individuals with qualifying medical conditions, which include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for a growing number of states. Little information is available regarding PTSD among medical cannabis patients. This study seeks to provide initial data on this topic by examining the prevalence and correlates of positive PTSD screens among a sample of patients seeking medical cannabis certification for the first time (n=186). Twenty-three percent (42/186; 95% confidence interval [CI] =17%-29%) of the patients in the study sample screened positive for PTSD. Moreover, the group that screened positive for PTSD had higher percentages of lifetime prescription opioid, cocaine, prescription sedative, and street opioid use, as well as a higher percentage of recent prescription sedative use, than the group that screened negative for PTSD. These findings highlight the relatively common use of other substances among medical cannabis patients with significant PTSD symptoms, even when compared with other patients seeking medical cannabis for the first time. As a growing number of states include PTSD among the list of qualifying medical conditions for medical cannabis, additional research is needed to better characterize the longitudinal relationship between medical cannabis use and PTSD symptoms. PMID:24930048

  5. Problems, solutions, and perspectives in the evaluation of interval cancers in Italian mammography screening programmes: a position paper from the Italian group for mammography screening (GISMa).

    PubMed

    Bucchi, Lauro; Frigerio, Alfonso; Zorzi, Manuel; Fedato, Chiara; Angiolucci, Giovanni; Bernardi, Daniela; Campari, Cinzia; Crocetti, Emanuele; Ferretti, Stefano; Giorgi, Daniela; Marchisio, Francesca; Morrone, Doralba; Naldoni, Carlo; Petrella, Marco; Ponti, Antonio; Ravaioli, Alessandra; Saguatti, Gianni; Santini, Dolores; Sassoli de Bianchi, Priscilla; Serafini, Monica; Vergini, Viviana; Giordano, Livia

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper, a self-convened team of experts from the Italian Group for Mammography Screening (Gruppo italiano screening mammografico, GISMa) pointed out the problems that increasingly hamper the feasibility and validity of the estimate of the proportional incidence of interval breast cancer (IBC) in Italy, suggested potential solutions and an agenda for research, and proposed that the question of the sensitivity of mammography be viewed in a larger perspective, with a greater attention to radiological review activities and breast radiology quality assurance programmes. The main problems are as follows: the coverage of cancer registration is incomplete; the robustness of using the pre-screening incidence rates as underlying rates decreases with time since the start of screening; the intermediate mammograms performed for early detection purposes may cause an overrepresentation of IBCs; the classification of many borderline screening histories is prone to subjectivity; and, finally, the composition of cohorts of women with negative screening results is uncertain, because several mammography reports are neither clearly negative nor clearly positive, and because of the limitations and instability of the electronic mammography records. Several possibilities can be considered to cope with these issues: standard methods for using the hospital discharge records in the identification of IBCs should be established; for the calculation of regional estimates of the underlying incidence, a suitable mathematical model should be identified; the definition of IBC according to the 2008 GISMa guidelines needs to be updated, especially with respect to in situ cancers and to invasive cancers with borderline screening histories; a closer adherence to standard screening protocols, with a simplified patient management, would make it easier to objectively identify IBCs; alternative methods for estimating the sensitivity of mammography should be taken into consideration; and

  6. A Manual for Promoting Positive Alternatives to Adolescent Pregnancy. Better Beginnings for Virginia's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Elisabeth S.; And Others

    This guide advocates an alliance among diverse groups for the purpose of decreasing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and improving the outcome of pregnancies that do occur. It provides useful information for communities interested in developing pregnancy prevention activities. Statistics about adolescent pregnancies are given and the…

  7. Healthy Adolescents' Neural Response to Reward: Associations with Puberty, Positive Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Erika E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Phillips, Mary L.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Worthman, Carol M.; Moyles, Donna L.; Tarr, Jill A.; Sciarrillo, Samantha R.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Changes in reward-related behavior are an important component of normal adolescent affective development. Understanding the neural underpinnings of these normative changes creates a foundation for investigating adolescence as a period of vulnerability to affective disorders, substance use disorders, and health problems. Studies of…

  8. Minority Ethnic Adolescents' Wellbeing: Child Rearing Practices and Positive Family Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochieng, Bertha M. N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines Black adolescents' experiences and views on the interrelationships between their families' parenting practices and their wellbeing. Method: The material is drawn from a community-based qualitative study on the health and wellbeing experiences of Black African families and adolescents. A total of 53…

  9. Obesity Reduction and Awareness and Screening of Noncommunicable Diseases through Group Education in Children and Adolescents (ORANGE): Methodology Paper (ORANGE-1)

    PubMed Central

    Sonya, Jagadesan; Ranjani, Harish; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2010-01-01

    Aim Our goal is to estimate the prevalence of obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome among urban children and adolescents aged 6–19 years and to raise awareness about noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) among school children in Chennai, South India. Methods The Obesity Reduction and Awareness and Screening of Noncommunicable Diseases through Group Education project plans to reach out to children and adolescents using two approaches: the school and the community approach. The school approach aims to reach out to a representative sample of approximately 20,000 urban school children and adolescents, aged 6–19 years, covering 50 schools from all parts of Chennai. Anthropometric measures will include height, weight, waist, body fat, and blood pressure. Data on demographics, family profile, behavioral aspects, physical activity, and food pattern will be obtained by using a validated questionnaire. Awareness about metabolic NCDs like obesity and diabetes will be increased by educating the children and adolescents about healthy lifestyles. Through the community approach, 2000 children and adolescents from randomly selected residential colonies in Chennai will be screened for obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Expected Outcomes Awareness about NCDs will be increased among children and their parents in Chennai. This study will also provide valuable epidemiological data on obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents in urban India. PMID:20920448

  10. Patients' & Healthcare Professionals' Values Regarding True- & False-Positive Diagnosis when Colorectal Cancer Screening by CT Colonography: Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Darren; Mallett, Susan; Zhu, Shihua; Yao, Guiqing Lily; Bell, Nichola; Ghanouni, Alex; von Wagner, Christian; Taylor, Stuart A.; Altman, Douglas G.; Lilford, Richard; Halligan, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To establish the relative weighting given by patients and healthcare professionals to gains in diagnostic sensitivity versus loss of specificity when using CT colonography (CTC) for colorectal cancer screening. Materials and Methods Following ethical approval and informed consent, 75 patients and 50 healthcare professionals undertook a discrete choice experiment in which they chose between “standard” CTC and “enhanced” CTC that raised diagnostic sensitivity 10% for either cancer or polyps in exchange for varying levels of specificity. We established the relative increase in false-positive diagnoses participants traded for an increase in true-positive diagnoses. Results Data from 122 participants were analysed. There were 30 (25%) non-traders for the cancer scenario and 20 (16%) for the polyp scenario. For cancer, the 10% gain in sensitivity was traded up to a median 45% (IQR 25 to >85) drop in specificity, equating to 2250 (IQR 1250 to >4250) additional false-positives per additional true-positive cancer, at 0.2% prevalence. For polyps, the figure was 15% (IQR 7.5 to 55), equating to 6 (IQR 3 to 22) additional false-positives per additional true-positive polyp, at 25% prevalence. Tipping points were significantly higher for patients than professionals for both cancer (85 vs 25, p<0.001) and polyps (55 vs 15, p<0.001). Patients were willing to pay significantly more for increased sensitivity for cancer (p = 0.021). Conclusion When screening for colorectal cancer, patients and professionals believe gains in true-positive diagnoses are worth much more than the negative consequences of a corresponding rise in false-positives. Evaluation of screening tests should account for this. PMID:24349014

  11. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA. PMID:26716791

  12. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) for Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Adolescents: Evaluation of a Pediatric Residency Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sheryl A.; Martel, Shara; Pantalon, Michael; Martino, Steve; Tetrault, Jeanette; Thung, Stephen F.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Auinger, Peggy; Green, Michael L.; Fiellin, David A.; O'Connor, Patrick G.; D'Onofrio, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the integration of a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) curriculum for alcohol and other drug use into a pediatric residency program. Pediatric and medicine/pediatric residents in an adolescent medicine rotation located in an urban teaching hospital participated in the…

  13. Screen Media Time Usage of 12-16 Year-Old Spanish School Adolescents: Effects of Personal and Socioeconomic Factors, Season and Type of Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Tomas, Jose Manuel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined screen media time usage (SMTU) and its association with personal and socioeconomic factors, as well as the effect of season and type of day, in a Spanish sample of 12-16 year-old school adolescents (N=323). The research design was a cross-sectional survey, in which an interviewer-administered recall questionnaire was used.…

  14. Brief Report: Association between Socio-Demographic Factors, Screen Media Usage and Physical Activity by Type of Day in Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Tomas, Jose Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors, screen media time usage, and light, moderate and vigorous activities on weekdays and weekends. Cross-sectional data was collected from 323 Spanish adolescents (mean age 13.59 years) who completed an interview administered recall questionnaire. Structural equation models…

  15. Perspectives on Mammography After Receipt of Secondary Screening Due to a False Positive

    PubMed Central

    Siminoff, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The utility of mammography screening as an efficacious tool for early detection is being contested due to the risk of potential harms including psychological distress and exposure to unnecessary procedures associated with FPs and over-diagnosis. Yet there is little research regarding women’s experiences, values or preferences for participating in mammography programs. Our aim was to explore women’s actual experiences of a FP mammography screen and their perceptions of the value, risks and benefits given their recent experience. METHODS We conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 women who experienced a recent FP mammogram. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A directed content analysis was used to identify and explore primary themes. Knowledge of breast cancer risk was also assessed. FINDINGS Receiving a FP mammography screen generated significant worry among 60% (n=24) of women. Yet 70% maintained that mammography screening was necessary despite the worry incurred. Women also described the experience as stimulating greater interest in additional cancer prevention activities (32.5%; n=13) and one third discussed needing more information about the risks and benefits of mammography screening. Less than one quarter of women (22.5%; n=9) correctly identified a women’s lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, 20% (n=8) overestimated and 57.5% (n=23) underestimated this risk. CONCLUSION Women reported needing more information about the risks and benefits of mammography screening but also considered FPs an acceptable risk. Further, our results suggest that breast cancer screening programs may provide a unique opportunity to deliver additional breast cancer prevention interventions. PMID:25648490

  16. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Different measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth. Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity. Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position – community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12–22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents’ lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth

  17. Screening and Assessing Adolescents for Substance Use Disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    This TIP is designed to teach juvenile justice, health services, education, and substance abuse treatment personnel about how to identify, screen, and assess people 11-to-21 years old who may be experiencing substance-related problems. It details warning signs of substance use disorders, when to screen, when to assess, what domains besides…

  18. High positive affect shortly after missile attacks and the heightened risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among Israeli adolescents.

    PubMed

    Israel-Cohen, Yael; Kashy-Rosenbaum, Gabriela; Kaplan, Oren

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that positive emotions help build psychological resources and facilitate adaptation to stress, yet few studies have considered the possible negative effects of positive emotions on stress. This study examined the relationship between high arousal, positive and negative affect, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among 503 Israeli adolescents following a period of escalated missile attacks on their city. Our findings revealed that not only negative affect, but also positive affect at very high levels exhibited 2 weeks following missile attacks were independently associated with PTSD symptoms 2½ months later (η(2) = .09, η(2) = .02, respectively). Although the literature recognizes the risk factor of negative affect on the development of PTSD, we suggest that also positive affect at high levels immediately after such experiences may be a case of emotion context insensitivity and thus a maladaptive response to trauma. Further research should examine the mechanisms associated with positive emotions and PTSD. PMID:24801888

  19. Associations of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Piñero, José

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents. PMID:22158258

  20. ‘WHAT I GOT TO GO THROUGH’: NORMALIZATION AND HIV-POSITIVE ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Philbin, Morgan M

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic breakthroughs have transformed HIV into an illness that is routinized within the clinic. It is unclear, however, how these breakthroughs shape the lives of newly infected adolescents who are beginning to receive what will be life-long care and treatment. The reframing of HIV as no longer exceptional influences the lived experience of urban adolescents, whose futures must shift to incorporate expectations that they live a full life with HIV. They must now manage the clinical demands of a chronic and infectious disease, while navigating the transition from adolescence to a ‘normal’ adulthood, which, for some, means completing education, findings jobs, and building careers. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, I examine the tensions adolescents face as their experiences with HIV conflict with policy makers and researchers’ reframing of HIV as a disease like any other. PMID:24964722

  1. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-Time in Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lubans, David R.; Smith, Jordan J.; Skinner, Geoff; Morgan, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app) designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys considered “at-risk” of obesity. Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the “Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time” (ATLAS) program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial with 361 boys (12.7 ± 0.5 years) in 14 secondary schools. Following the completion of the study, participants in the intervention group completed a process evaluation questionnaire and focus groups were conducted with 42 students to explore their general perceptions of the ATLAS program and their experience with the smartphone app. Barriers and challenges encountered in the development, implementation, and evaluation of the app are also described. Results: Participation in the study was not contingent on ownership of a smartphone, but 70% of participants in the intervention group reported having access to a smartphone or tablet device. Focus group participants reported an enjoyment of the program, and felt that it had provided them with new skills, techniques, and routines for the future. However, their engagement with the smartphone app was limited, due to a variety of reasons. Barriers to the implementation and evaluation of the app included limited access to smartphone devices, technical problems with the push notifications, lack of access to usage data, and the challenges of maintaining participants’ interest in using the app. Conclusion: Although participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the ATLAS program in general, the smartphone app was not used extensively. Additional strategies and features may be needed to enhance engagement in adolescent boys. PMID:24904909

  2. A Randomized Trial of the Positive Thoughts and Action Program for Depression among Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Carolyn A.; Violette, Heather D.; Duong, Mylien T.; Cruz, Rick A.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to compare the outcomes of a group-based cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention (Positive Thoughts and Actions, or PTA) tailored to youth in middle school with a brief, individually administered supportive intervention (Individual Support Program, or ISP). Method A randomized, clinical trial was conducted with 120 early adolescents (72 girls and 48 boys; age 11–15 years) who had elevated depressive symptoms and were selected from a school-based population. Measures of internalizing problems, externalizing problems, personal adjustment, school problems, and interpersonal relations, were obtained from parents, youth, and/or teachers at pre-intervention (Time1) and post-intervention (Time 2, 5–7 months after pre-intervention). Results General linear model repeated measures analyses yielded a significant group × time interaction on youth-reported, but not parent-reported, depressive symptoms and internalizing symptoms. Youth in the PTA group showed greater decreases following intervention compared to youth who received ISP, yielding effect sizes (Cohen’s d) of 0.36 for depressive symptoms [95% CI: −.02, .73], and 0.44 [95% CI: .05, .82], for internalizing symptoms. PTA youth also showed improvements in their personal adjustment (sense of inadequacy, self-esteem), and parent-reported social skills, but no differences emerged between groups for externalizing symptoms, school problems or interpersonal relationships. Conclusions Cognitive-behavioral preventive interventions in which youth engage in personal goal-setting and practice social-emotional skills, such as PTA, may be beneficial for the reduction of depressive symptoms over and above general support and empathy. PMID:23560384

  3. Positive association between concentration of phthalate metabolites in urine and microparticles in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Lo, Shyh-Chyi; Chen, Pau-Chung; Torng, Pao-Ling; Hu, Anren; Sung, Fung-Chang; Su, Ta-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been used worldwide in various products for many years. In vitro studies have shown that exposure to DEHP and its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) induces endothelial cell apoptosis. Moreover, exposure to DEHP had been linked to cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in epidemiological studies. Circulating microparticles have been known to be indicators of vascular injury. However, whether DEHP or its metabolites are independently associated with microparticles in humans remains unknown. From 2006 to 2008, we recruited 793 subjects (12-30years) from a population-based sample to participate in this cardiovascular disease prevention examination. Each participant was subjected to interviews and biological sample collection to determine the relationship between concentrations of DEHP metabolites MEHP, mono(ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethly-5-oxoheyl) phthalate in urine and concentrations of endothelial microparticles (CD62E and CD31+/CD42a-), platelet microparticles (CD62P and CD31+/CD42a+), and CD14 in serum. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that an ln-unit increase in MEHP concentration in urine was positively associated with an increase in serum microparticle counts/μL of 0.132 (±0.016) in CD31+/CD42a- (endothelial apoptosis marker), 0.117 (±0.023) in CD31+/CD42a+ (platelet apoptosis marker), and 0.026 (±0.007) in CD14 (monocyte, macrophage, and neutrophil activation marker). There was no association between DEHP metabolite concentration and CD62E or CD62P. In conclusion, a higher MEHP concentration in urine was associated with an increase in endothelial and platelet microparticles in this cohort of adolescents and young adults. Further studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between exposure to DEHP and atherosclerosis. PMID:27104673

  4. Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: Meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747

  5. Noise-driven diamagnetic susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots: Role of anisotropy, position-dependent effective mass and position-dependent dielectric screening function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Aindrila; Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-08-01

    We explore Diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. In view of this profiles of DMS have been pursued with variations of geometrical anisotropy and dopant location. We have invoked position-dependent effective mass (PDEM) and position-dependent dielectric screening function (PDDSF) of the system. Presence of noise sometimes suppresses and sometimes amplifies DMS from that of noise-free condition and the extent of suppression/amplification depends on mode of application of noise. It is important to mention that the said suppression/amplification exhibits subtle dependence on use of PDEM, PDDSF and geometrical anisotropy. The study reveals that DMS, or more fundamentally, the effective confinement of LDSS, can be tuned by appropriate mingling of geometrical anisotropy/effective mass/dielectric constant of the system with noise and also on the pathway of application of latter.

  6. No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit. PMID:24903627

  7. The effect of positive group psychotherapy on self-esteem and state anger among adolescents at Korean immigrant churches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to describe participants' experiences and examine the effects of group therapy on self-esteem and state anger among the adolescent children of immigrants in the US. A quasi-experimental design and qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Group therapy was conducted for 8weeks. Thirty-three adolescents took part in the study. Quantitative results revealed that group therapy improved self-esteem (t=2.222. p<.05) but not state anger. However, qualitative results suggested that group therapy helped improve interpersonal relationships and communication skills, the forgiveness of others, and the management of anger. Furthermore, group therapy utilizing positive psychology strategies improved self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and communication skills. PMID:25858203

  8. Survey of United States Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Cardiac Screening Practices Prior to Starting Patients on Stimulants

    PubMed Central

    Rodday, Angie Mae; Saunders, Tully S.; Cohen, Joshua T.; Wong, John B.; Sheldrick, R. Christopher; Parsons, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine psychiatrists' barriers, attitudes, and practices regarding cardiac screening prior to initiating stimulants in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Background Professional and federal oversight organizations recently have debated the evidence regarding sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk with stimulants, and have published guidelines recommending cardiac screening. It is not known how psychiatrists have responded. Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey of 1,600 randomly-selected U.S. members of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results Response rate was 40%; 96% met eligibility criteria. Barriers to identifying cardiac disorders in general included ability to perform a routine physical examination (74%) and care coordination with primary care providers (35%). Only 27% agreed that SCD risk warranted cardiac assessment. Prior to starting a patient on stimulants, 95% of psychiatrists obtained a routine history. The majority either conducted (9%), or relied on primary care providers to conduct (67%) a physical examination; 26% did not obtain a physical examination. Nineteen percent of psychiatrists ordered an electrocardiogram (ECG), of those, non-mutually exclusive reasons for ordering an ECG included standard practice procedure (62%), clinical findings (27%), medicolegal considerations (25%), and guideline adherence (24%). On multivariate modeling, psychiatrists were less likely to conduct cardiac screening themselves if in private practice (referent: academic medical center), if >50% of their patients had private insurance, or if they believed their ability to perform a physical examination to be a barrier. When modeling cardiac screening performed by any healthcare professional (e.g., psychiatrist, primary care practitioner), screening was less likely if the psychiatrist was practicing in a

  9. Application of computer-extracted breast tissue texture features in predicting false-positive recalls from screening mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Shonket; Choi, Jae Y.; Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2014-03-01

    Mammographic texture features have been shown to have value in breast cancer risk assessment. Previous models have also been developed that use computer-extracted mammographic features of breast tissue complexity to predict the risk of false-positive (FP) recall from breast cancer screening with digital mammography. This work details a novel locallyadaptive parenchymal texture analysis algorithm that identifies and extracts mammographic features of local parenchymal tissue complexity potentially relevant for false-positive biopsy prediction. This algorithm has two important aspects: (1) the adaptive nature of automatically determining an optimal number of region-of-interests (ROIs) in the image and each ROI's corresponding size based on the parenchymal tissue distribution over the whole breast region and (2) characterizing both the local and global mammographic appearances of the parenchymal tissue that could provide more discriminative information for FP biopsy risk prediction. Preliminary results show that this locallyadaptive texture analysis algorithm, in conjunction with logistic regression, can predict the likelihood of false-positive biopsy with an ROC performance value of AUC=0.92 (p<0.001) with a 95% confidence interval [0.77, 0.94]. Significant texture feature predictors (p<0.05) included contrast, sum variance and difference average. Sensitivity for false-positives was 51% at the 100% cancer detection operating point. Although preliminary, clinical implications of using prediction models incorporating these texture features may include the future development of better tools and guidelines regarding personalized breast cancer screening recommendations. Further studies are warranted to prospectively validate our findings in larger screening populations and evaluate their clinical utility.

  10. Identifying Adolescents at Risk through Voluntary School-Based Mental Health Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Kaplan, Adam; McGuire, Leslie; Flynn, Laurie; Chrostowski, Christine; Olfson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study compares referrals for mental health services among high school students randomized to two means of referral to mental health services: referral via systematic identification through a brief mental health screening procedure (n = 365) or referral via the usual process of identification by school personnel, parents, or students…

  11. Protective Factors Based Model for Screening for Posttraumatic Distress in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Kenan, Avraham Max; Achituv, Michal; Bachar, Eytan

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing application of school-based screening to identify post-traumatic distress in students following exposure to trauma. The consensus method is based on self-report questionnaires that assess posttraumatic symptoms, functional impairment, depression or anxiety. Objective: The current research explored the possibility of…

  12. Enhanced screening for posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid diagnoses in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Verlinden, Eva; Opmeer, Brent C.; Van Meijel, Els P. M.; Beer, Renée; De Roos, Carlijn; Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Olff, Miranda; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be a debilitating disorder and often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders, such as mood, behavioral, and anxiety disorders. Early identification of PTSD and psychiatric comorbidity is highly relevant in order to offer children appropriate and timely treatment. The Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13) is a reliable and valid self-report measure designed to screen children for PTSD. However, this measure is not useful as a screen for psychiatric comorbidity in children with probable PTSD. Objective This study evaluated the screening accuracy of the CRIES-Plus, that is, the CRIES-13 combined with 12 additional items to detect psychiatric comorbidity. Method The CRIES-Plus was completed by 398 Dutch children (7–18 years) exposed to various traumatic events. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Child version. Results Six additional items were significantly associated with mood disorders, three items were associated with behavioral disorders, and five items with anxiety disorders. Additional items associated with mood and anxiety disorders demonstrated good discriminatory ability, with cut-off scores of ≥14 and ≥10, respectively. Items associated with behavioral disorders had poor to fair discriminatory ability, with no clear cut-off point. Conclusions Our findings support the use of the CRIES-Plus to screen for PTSD and comorbid disorders which may help clinicians in assigning appropriate follow-up diagnostic and clinical care. PMID:26320743

  13. Barriers to asymptomatic screening and other STD services for adolescents and young adults: focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    Tilson, Elizabeth C; Sanchez, Victoria; Ford, Chandra L; Smurzynski, Marlene; Leone, Peter A; Fox, Kimberley K; Irwin, Kathleen; Miller, William C

    2004-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health problem among young people and can lead to the spread of HIV. Previous studies have primarily addressed barriers to STD care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of our study was to identify perceptions about existing barriers to and ideal services for STDs, especially asymptomatic screening, among young people in a southeastern community. Methods Eight focus group discussions including 53 White, African American, and Latino youth (age 14–24) were conducted. Results Perceived barriers to care included lack of knowledge of STDs and available services, cost, shame associated with seeking services, long clinic waiting times, discrimination, and urethral specimen collection methods. Perceived features of ideal STD services included locations close to familiar places, extended hours, and urine-based screening. Television was perceived as the most effective route of disseminating STD information. Conclusions Further research is warranted to evaluate improving convenience, efficiency, and privacy of existing services; adding urine-based screening and new services closer to neighborhoods; and using mass media to disseminate STD information as strategies to increase STD screening. PMID:15189565

  14. Psychometric validation of measures of alcohol expectancies, retrospective subjective response, and positive drinking consequences for use with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Morean, M E; Zellers, S; Tamler, M; Krishnan-Sarin, S

    2016-07-01

    The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale (AEAS), the Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale, and the Positive Drinking Consequences Questionnaire (PDCQ) are psychometrically sound measures of alcohol expectancies (expectancies), subjective response to alcohol, and positive drinking consequences, respectively, for use with adults. Prior research using these measures suggests that expectancies, subjective response, and positive drinking consequences are related yet distinct determinants of drinking. The current study presents psychometric evaluations of these measures for use with adolescents including confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of the previously identified latent structures, internal consistency, and test-criterion relationships. Legally, alcohol cannot be administered to adolescents, so we assessed retrospective subjective response (during the first drinking episode ever [SEAS First] and the most recent drinking episode [SEAS Recent]). The sample comprised 248 Connecticut high school students (53.6% male; mean age 16.50 [1.19] years; 71.4% White) who completed an anonymous survey. CFA confirmed the latent factor structures for each measure. The AEAS, SEAS First, SEAS Recent and the PDCQ were internally consistent (mean α AEAS=0.83; SEAS First=0.88; SEAS Recent=0.89, PDCQ=0.87). AEAS subscales evidenced moderate overlap with corresponding SEAS First subscales (mean=0.36) and SEAS Recent subscales (mean=0.46) and modest overlap with the PDCQ (mean=0.17). Expectancies, subjective response, and positive drinking consequences also accounted for significant variance in monthly drinking, lifetime maximum number of drinks consumed, and alcohol-related problems. In sum, the AEAS, the retrospective SEAS, and the PDCQ are psychometrically sound measures for use with adolescents. PMID:26967911

  15. Selecting At-Risk First-Grade Readers for Early Intervention: Eliminating False Positives and Exploring the Promise of a Two-Stage Gated Screening Process

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo; Crouch, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to identify measures that when added to a base 1st-grade screening battery help eliminate false positives and (b) to investigate gains in efficiency associated with a 2-stage gated screening procedure. We tested 355 children in the fall of 1st grade, and assessed for reading difficulty at the end of 2nd grade. The base screening model, included measures of phonemic awareness, rapid naming skill, oral vocabulary, and initial word identification fluency (WIF). Short-term WIF progress monitoring (intercept and slope), dynamic assessment, running records, and oral reading fluency were each considered as an additional screening measure in contrasting models. Results indicated that the addition of WIF progress monitoring and dynamic assessment, but not running records or oral reading fluency, significantly decreased false positives. The 2-stage gated screening process using phonemic decoding efficiency in the first stage significantly reduced the number of children requiring the full screening battery. PMID:20689725

  16. Adolescent Reading/Viewing of Advertisements: Understandings from Transactional and Positioning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begoray, Deborah; Higgins, Joan Wharf; Harrison, Janie; Collins-Emery, Amy

    2013-01-01

    We examined middle years adolescents' (ages 12-13) responses to reading and viewing advertisements as part of integrated language arts and health education lessons. We report here on the qualitative results from student and teacher focus groups, and from student journals. Three regular classroom teachers co-developed (with university…

  17. Adolescent Literacy Practices and Positive Youth Development through Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Greathouse, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was not to disprove the effects of the current, common remedial literacy course design and the literacy practices within that help adolescent RLLs pass statewide assessment tests, but to describe the potential long-term impact of an innovative comprehensive approach to literacy (CAL) framed through an integrated course…

  18. Positioning a "Mature" Self in Interactive Practices: How Adolescent Males Negotiate "Physical Attraction" in Group Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korobov, Neill; Bamberg, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a discursive psychological approach in examining the ways that adolescent boys (ages 12-15 years) accomplish a sense of "maturity" by bringing off and managing certain features of "heterosexuality" in group interaction. We focus on and analyse moments when the boys negotiate implicit challenges, make evaluations and offer…

  19. Parental Education Level Positively Affects Self-Esteem of Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on self-esteem has a long and prolific history in Turkey regarding which demographics may influence the self-esteem of adolescents. The research findings are intricate and undermine the need of further research in Turkey. This cross-sectional study re-examined the effects of age, grade level and education level of a mother…

  20. Africentric Cultural Values: Their Relation to Positive Mental Health in African American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Alleyne, Vanessa L.; Wallace, Barbara C.; Franklin-Jackson, Deidre C.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test a path model exploring the relationships among Africentric cultural values, self-esteem, perceived social support satisfaction, and life satisfaction in a sample of 147 African American adolescent girls. This investigation also examined the possible mediating effects of self-esteem and perceived social…

  1. Behavioural Development of Early Adolescents by Dint of Positive School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Dharma Raja, B. William

    2011-01-01

    Early adolescence is the period where the transition from child to adult takes place gradually. A major physical and cognitive change during this period is accompanied by social and emotional development. The growth spurt in this period makes them stronger and plays an important role in developing self identities. The journey through this crucial…

  2. Positive Effects of Promoting Prosocial Behavior in Early Adolescence: Evidence from a School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Kanacri, Bernadette Paula Luengo; Gerbino, Maria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Alessandri, Guido; Vecchio, Giovanni; Caprara, Eva; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bridglall, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pilot school-based intervention called CEPIDEA, designed to promote prosocial behavior in early adolescence. The study took place in a middle school located in a small city near Rome. The intervention group included 151 students (52.3% males; M[subscript age] = 12.4), and the control group…

  3. Encouraging Lifelong Healthy Habits for a Positive Body Image in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Christine

    This article discusses issues related to body image in adolescents, explaining what school practitioners can do to encourage lifelong healthy habits that enhance body image. Body image is the picture of physical self carried in the mind's eye. This impression can have little resemblance to how a teen actually looks. Body image culturalization is…

  4. Adolescent Boys' and Girls' Views of Fatherhood in the Context of the Changing Women's Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakka, Despina; Deliyanni-Kouimtzi, Vassiliki

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims at exploring how Greek adolescents understand the notion of fatherhood. One hundred and ten pupils (64 boys and 46 girls), who attended four high schools of the area of Thessaloniki, Greece, participated in the study; they were aged from 14- to 16-years. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data were selected…

  5. Adolescent Health Care in School-Based Health Centers. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2008

    2008-01-01

    School-based health centers (SBHCs) are considered one of the most effective strategies for delivering preventive care, including reproductive and mental health care services, to adolescents--a population long considered difficult to reach. National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) recommends practices and policies to assure…

  6. Graduated Exposure and Positive Reinforcement to Overcome Setting and Activity Avoidance in an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Luiselli, James K.; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when…

  7. Mental health inequalities in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents explained by personal social position and family socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Methods Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national ‘Health Behavior in School-aged Children’ study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Results Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p < 0.001), 1.5-times higher odds of low life satisfaction (p = 0.008), and a greater chance of a lower quality of life and a higher SDQ score than boys (p = 0.001). The adolescents who perceived their family’s material welfare as worse had 4-times higher odds (p < 0.001) of a low life satisfaction, a greater chance of a low quality of life, and a higher SDQ score than those who perceived it as better (p < 0.001). Adolescents with no friends had lower KIDSCREEN-10 and higher SDQ scores than those who had more than three friends. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia is among the EU members with the lowest rates of social inequalities, it was found that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on

  8. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  9. Brief Report: Accuracy of a 16-Item Questionnaire Based on the HEADSS Approach (QBH-16) in the Screening of Mental Disorders in Adolescents with Behavioral Problems in Secondary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagel, Lilian Day; Mainieri, Alberto Scolfano; Zeni, Cristian Patrick; Wagner, Mario Bernardes

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare a questionnaire based on the HEADSS approach (QBH-16) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in the screening of mental disorder in adolescents with behavioral problems. Methods: Adolescents from both genders 12-17 years-old presenting behavioral problems without a previous diagnosis of mental disorder were referred from…

  10. Screen-based media use clusters are related to other activity behaviours and health indicators in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Screen-based media (SBM) occupy a considerable portion of young peoples’ discretionary leisure time. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether distinct clusters of SBM use exist, and if so, to examine the relationship of any identified clusters with other activity/sedentary behaviours and physical and mental health indicators. Methods The data for this study come from 643 adolescents, aged 14 years, who were participating in the longitudinal Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study through May 2003 to June 2006. Time spent on SBM, phone use and reading was assessed using the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults. Height, weight, muscle strength were measured at a clinic visit and the adolescents also completed questionnaires on their physical activity and psychosocial health. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to analyse groupings of SBM use. Results Three clusters of SBM use were found; C1 ‘instrumental computer users’ (high email use, general computer use), C2 ‘multi-modal e-gamers’ (both high console and computer game use) and C3 ‘computer e-gamers’ (high computer game use only). Television viewing was moderately high amongst all the clusters. C2 males took fewer steps than their male peers in C1 and C3 (-13,787/week, 95% CI: -4619 to -22957, p = 0.003 and -14,806, 95% CI: -5,306 to -24,305, p = 0.002) and recorded less MVPA than the C1 males (-3.5 h, 95% CI: -1.0 to -5.9, p = 0.005). There was no difference in activity levels between females in clusters C1 and C3. Conclusion SBM use by adolescents did cluster and these clusters related differently to activity/sedentary behaviours and both physical and psychosocial health indicators. It is clear that SBM use is not a single construct and future research needs to take consideration of this if it intends to understand the impact SBM has on health. PMID:24330626

  11. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? The Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Karakos, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes of peer support are discussed in terms of positive peer support, negative peer influence, peer relationships, and sense of community. In general, recovery school staff members discuss peers in the school as sources of positive support and peers outside the schools as sources of risky influence. Themes and quotes are presented to highlight the diverse ways that staff members discussed peer influence. Limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24839335

  12. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  13. Use of faecal markers in screening for colorectal neoplasia: a European group on tumor markers position paper.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Michael J; van Rossum, Leo G M; van Turenhout, Sietze T; Malminiemi, Outi; Sturgeon, Catherine; Lamerz, Rolf; Nicolini, Andrea; Haglund, Caj; Holubec, Lubos; Fraser, Callum G; Halloran, Stephen P

    2011-01-01

    Several randomized controlled trials have shown that population-based screening using faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) can reduce mortality from colorectal neoplasia. Based on this evidence, a number of countries have introduced screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and high-risk adenoma and many others are considering its introduction. The aim of this article is to critically review the current status of faecal markers as population-based screening tests for these neoplasia. Most of the available faecal tests involve the measurement of either occult blood or a panel of DNA markers. Occult blood may be measured using either the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or a faecal immunochemical test (iFOBT). Although iFOBT may require a greater initial investment, they have several advantages over gFOBT, including greater analytical sensitivity and specificity. Their use results in improved clinical performance and higher uptake rates. Importantly for population screening, some of the iFOBTs can be automated and provide an adjustable cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. However, samples for iFOBT, may be less stable after collection than for gFOBT. For new centres undertaking FOBT for colorectal neoplasia, the European Group on Tumour Markers recommends use of a quantitative iFOBT with an adjustable cutoff point and high throughput analysis. All participants with positive FOBT results should be offered colonoscopy. The panel recommends further research into increasing the stability of iFOBT and the development of improved and affordable DNA and proteomic-based tests, which reduce current false negative rates, simplify sample transport and enable automated analysis. PMID:20824704

  14. Costs and Cost Effectiveness of Three Approaches for Cervical Cancer Screening among HIV-Positive Women in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Phiri, Jane; Michelow, Pam; Smith, Jennifer S.; Firnhaber, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Background South Africa has high rates of HIV and HPV and high incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. However, cervical cancer is largely preventable when early screening and treatment are available. We estimate the costs and cost-effectiveness of conventional cytology (Pap), visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and HPV DNA testing for detecting cases of CIN2+ among HIV-infected women currently taking antiretroviral treatment at a public HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Method effectiveness was derived from a validation study completed at the clinic. Costs were estimated from the provider perspective using micro-costing between June 2013-April 2014. Capital costs were annualized using a discount rate of 3%. Two different service volume scenarios were considered. Threshold analysis was used to explore the potential for reducing the cost of HPV DNA testing. Results VIA was least costly in both scenarios. In the higher volume scenario, the average cost per procedure was US$ 3.67 for VIA, US$ 8.17 for Pap and US$ 54.34 for HPV DNA. Colposcopic biopsies cost on average US$ 67.71 per procedure. VIA was least sensitive but most cost-effective at US$ 17.05 per true CIN2+ case detected. The cost per case detected for Pap testing was US$ 130.63 using a conventional definition for positive results and US$ 187.52 using a more conservative definition. HPV DNA testing was US$ 320.09 per case detected. Colposcopic biopsy costs largely drove the total and per case costs. A 71% reduction in HPV DNA screening costs would make it competitive with the conservative Pap definition. Conclusions Women need access to services which meet their needs and address the burden of cervical dysplasia and cancer in this region. Although most cost-effective, VIA may require more frequent screening due to low sensitivity, an important consideration for an HIV-positive population with increased risk for disease progression. PMID:26569487

  15. The effects of positioning, reason for screening and the referring veterinarian on prevalence estimates of canine hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, B J G; Verhoeven, G; Coopman, F; Van Haeringen, W; Bosmans, T; Gielen, I; Henckens, S; Saunders, J H; van Bree, H; Van Ryssen, B; Verbeke, V; Van Steendam, K; Van Nieuwerburgh, F; Deforce, D

    2014-09-01

    Although the prevalence of canine hip dysplasia (HD) has been the subject of a number of published studies, estimates vary widely. This study evaluated several possible causes for these differences. Sixty Belgian, Dutch and German veterinarians were asked to submit all hip radiographs obtained for screening purposes (irrespective of HD status) over a 2-year period, resulting in a database of 583 dogs. Each set of radiographs was accompanied by information on the reason for screening (breeding soundness examination, clinical complaint, assistance dogs, or other reasons), and dog breed, date of birth and age. Dog positioning exerted an effect at multiple levels. The agreement among different observers regarding correct or incorrect positioning was limited and incorrect positioning itself reduced the inter-observer agreement for radiographic hip conformation. Dysplastic dogs were more commonly positioned incorrectly than non-dysplastic dogs. The clinical complaint population had a high prevalence of dysplastic dogs (>70%) compared with the breeding population (11%) and the assistance dogs (6%). There was a significantly lower prevalence of HD among cases referred by veterinarians who frequently submitted hip-extended radiographs for evaluation (P = 0.002) compared to those who refer less frequently. However, this was likely to be selection bias, as radiographs that were from dogs suspected to be dysplastic were not submitted by frequent senders. The prevalence of dysplastic dogs varied widely between breeds (16.7-71.4%). Dogs diagnosed with dysplasia were significantly older than dogs considered healthy (P = 0.001) and dogs classified as borderline dysplastic (P = 0.035). Inter-observer agreement for hip conformation was moderately low, resulting in >7% variation in prevalence estimates for dysplasia. PMID:24986314

  16. Substance Use in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients: Self-Report, Health Care Providers' Clinical Impressions, and Urine Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Laurent; Pihet, Sandrine; Passini, Christina Moses; Feijo, Isabelle; Camus, Didier; Eap, Chin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of substance use among adolescent psychiatric outpatients using a variety of data sources. Method: Using a questionnaire, 3-month prevalence of substance use data were obtained from 50 adolescents and their health care providers. Adolescents' self-reports and providers' clinical impressions were…

  17. [Expert research on sera yielding false-positive results for HIV antibodies during screening].

    PubMed

    Noskov, F S; Smol'skaia, T T; Konikova, R E; Borisova, V V; Leshchinskaia, N P; Noskova, O V; Lobanova, A L; Marennikova, S S; Matsevich, G R; Shelukhina, E M

    1992-04-01

    The significance of different serological methods and assay systems for the verification of false positive cases of HIV infection has been analyzed on the basis of materials obtained in arbitration studies. As demonstrated by this analysis, the use of such highly specific and sensitive systems as Huma-Lab, Enzygnost, Serodia and Erythrorecombinant has made it possible to obtain a reliable result as early as at the first stage of expert diagnosis in the enzyme immunoassay and the agglutination test. The methods of radioimmunoprecipitation and indirect immunofluorescence have permitted a more precise differentiation of doubtful results than that achieved by immune blotting. PMID:1496871

  18. HIV Testing Characteristics Among Hispanic Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A

    2016-02-01

    Hispanic adolescents are disproportionally impacted by HIV/AIDS. Among Hispanic people living with HIV, delayed testing and late entry into HIV care have been documented. The current study examined Hispanic adolescents' HIV testing characteristics and factors related to testing. Adolescents aged 13-16 (N = 223) completed a survey on HIV testing motivation, perceptions, and experience, sexual behavior, and substance use. Results indicate few adolescents (9%) had taken an HIV test. Among those who have not been tested, 32.5% expressed interest in testing. HIV testing was favorably perceived with 82.4% reported testing should be done with all youth or those are sexually active. Adolescents who had engaged in high risk behaviors (history of sexual intercourse, substance use) were more likely to have been tested or to express interest in testing. Given that HIV testing is positively perceived by Hispanic adolescents, prevention efforts should focus on minimizing barriers and enhancing accessibility to HIV screening. PMID:26093652

  19. Increasing Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention in Comparison to the Effects of Therapeutic Alliance, Youth Factors, and Expectancy for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jessica Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the variance in subjective well-being (SWB) of early adolescents ( n = 54) exposed to a positive psychology intervention aimed at increasing positive affect and life satisfaction as well as decreasing negative affect through intentional activities (e.g., gratitude journals, acts of kindness, use of character strengths,…

  20. Measuring Evaluation Fears in Adolescence: Psychometric Validation of the Portuguese Versions of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale and the Specific Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagos, Paula; Salvador, Maria do Céu; Rijo, Daniel; Santos, Isabel M.; Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Modified measures of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Fear of Positive Evaluation were examined among Portuguese adolescents. These measures demonstrated replicable factor structure, internal consistency, and positive relationships with social anxiety and avoidance. Gender differences were found. Implications for evaluation and intervention are…

  1. Oral HPV prevalence in women positive for cervical HPV infection and their sexual partners: a German screening study.

    PubMed

    Uken, Ralf B; Brummer, Oliver; von Schubert-Bayer, Carolin; Brodegger, Thomas; Teudt, Ingo U

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) is on the rise. With the HPV-positive uterine cervix as a reservoir, HPV-positive OSCC is discussed as a sexually transmitted disease. Mechanisms of HPV transmission to the oral cavity are poorly understood. To gain more insight into HPV-transmission routes, cervically HPV-positive women and their sexual partners are screened for oral HPV infection. Women with cervical dysplasia underwent HPV testing of the uterine cervix and tonsillar region via brush test. In addition, sexual partners received oral HPV testing. Tonsillar brush tests of patients admitted for routine surgery served as the control group. The HPV-PCR (Roche Linear Array Kit) was used to differentiate 37 HPV types. All participants completed a risk-factor questionnaire focusing on sexual habits. 101 women were tested HPV-positive at the cervix. Only 3/101 (3 %) were tested HPV-positive in the oropharynx. In 60/101 (60 %) women the sexual partner could be tested for oral HPV infection: testing was positive in 3/60 (5 %). No oral HPV was detected in the control group. The risk-factor questionnaire revealed significant differences between the female study- and control group in terms of age at first sexual intercourse and smoking habits. The limited data suggest that among sexual partners in Germany, HPV transmission to the oropharynx by oral-genital sex or by autoinoculation is a rare and unlikely event with low HPV concordance. Another explanation for the low oral prevalence could be an independent clearance of HPV from the oropharyngeal site compared to cervix uteri or at different time intervals. PMID:26961518

  2. Leisure time physical activity, screen time, social background, and environmental variables in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mota, Jorge; Gomes, Helena; Almeida, Mariana; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Santos, Maria Paula

    2007-08-01

    This study analyzes the relationships between leisure time physical activity (LTPA), sedentary behaviors, socioeconomic status, and perceived environmental variables. The sample comprised 815 girls and 746 boys. In girls, non-LTPA participants reported significantly more screen time. Girls with safety concerns were more likely to be in the non-LTPA group (OR = 0.60) and those who agreed with the importance of aesthetics were more likely to be in the active-LTPA group (OR = 1.59). In girls, an increase of 1 hr of TV watching was a significant predictor of non-LTPA (OR = 0.38). LTPA for girls, but not for boys, seems to be influenced by certain modifiable factors of the built environment, as well as by time watching TV. PMID:18019587

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging investigations of position of conus medullaris in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis as a peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hesarikia, Hamid; Azma, Kamran; Kousari, Aliasghar; Nikouei, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a structural 3-dimensional deformity the spine, which is occurring between 10 years of age and skeletal maturity and it mostly affects prepuberbal girls. The etiology of AIS remains unknown and seems should be multifactorial. According to the theories, there could be a shorter spinal cord or a higher location of the conus medullaris and disproportionate growth in neuro-osseous system. This study wants to investigate the position of the conus medullaris in AIS patients with a large curve magnitude in comparison with healthy adolescents. 94 AIS patients consisting of 25 males and 69 females between 11 and 25 years old, based on physical examination and standing posteroanterior roentgenography of the total spine with a Cobb angle more than 40 degrees was chosen. The main curve magnitude of every AIS patient was measured by the Cobb method. Apex of deformity was determined based on SRS definition. Patients' deformity were calcified based on Lenke classification. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the total spine were performed in the AIS group, by means of a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging system. The position of conus medullaris was defined according to the method by saffiudin et al and was assessed based on the age, sex, type of deformity, severity of deformity, kyphosis, lordosis, flexibility, apical vertebra, stable vertebra. The mean age of patients were 16.34 with 6.77 of conus medullaris position in mean, which was lower one-third of L1. Our study showed no significant correlation between the position of conus medullaris with age, weight, preoperative curve, flexibility, types of deformity based on Lenke classification and degree of kyphosis and lordisis. In conclusion, there is the same mean and the distribution of the conus medullaris locations for AIS patients and normal populations. PMID:26131185

  4. Clinical Experience with Daptomycin for the Treatment of Gram-positive Infections in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Syriopoulou, Vassiliki; Dailiana, Zoe; Dmitriy, Nisichenko; Utili, Riccardo; Pathan, Rashidkhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This subgroup analysis of the European Cubicin Outcomes Registry Experience evaluated the safety and effectiveness of daptomycin in children and adolescent patients (<18 years). Methods: Clinical outcomes at the end of therapy were assessed as success (cured or improved), failure or nonevaluable. Safety was assessed for up to 30 days post treatment. Results: Eighty-one children and adolescent patients were included in this study. The most common primary infections were bacteremia (19.8%), complicated skin and soft-tissue infection (18.5%), osteomyelitis (13.6%), endocarditis (12.3%), foreign body/prosthetic infection (12.3%), uncomplicated skin and soft-tissue infection (9.9%) and other (13.6%). Daptomycin doses ranged from 4 to >10 mg/kg/day. Median duration of therapy was 12.5 (interquartile range, 7–25; mean, 16.7; standard deviation, 12.8) days. Staphylococcus aureus (46.7%) was the most commonly isolated pathogen (23.8% methicillin-resistant S. aureus). Forty-nine (60.5%) patients completed daptomycin therapy without further antibiotics, 27 (33.3%) switched to another antibiotic, 4 (4.9%) discontinued because of adverse events (AEs) and 1 (1.2%) discontinued because of other reason. Overall, 75 (92.6%; 95% confidence interval: 95.2–100.0%) patients achieved clinical success; 39 of 41 (95.1%) patients receiving daptomycin monotherapy and 36 of 40 (90.0%) patients receiving concomitant antibiotics. Six (7.4%) patients reported AEs, including 1 patient with increased blood creatine phosphokinase. Three (3.7%) patients had serious AEs; 1 (1.2%) had a serious AE possibly related to daptomycin. Conclusion: Daptomycin, alone or combined with other antibiotics and/or surgery, demonstrated high clinical success rates against a wide variety of infections and was well tolerated in children and adolescents. PMID:26849158

  5. Cell-Based Small-Molecule Compound Screen Identifies Fenretinide as Potential Therapeutic for Translocation-Positive Rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Herrero Martín, David; Boro, Aleksandar; Schäfer, Beat W.

    2013-01-01

    A subset of paediatric sarcomas are characterized by chromosomal translocations encoding specific oncogenic transcription factors. Such fusion proteins represent tumor specific therapeutic targets although so far it has not been possible to directly inhibit their activity by small-molecule compounds. In this study, we hypothesized that screening a small-molecule library might identify already existing drugs that are able to modulate the transcriptional activity of PAX3/FOXO1, the fusion protein specifically found in the pediatric tumor alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS). Towards this end, we established a reporter cell line based on the well characterized PAX3/FOXO1 target gene AP2ß. A library enriched in mostly FDA approved drugs was screened using specific luciferase activity as read-out and normalized for cell viability. The most effective inhibitor identified from this screen was Fenretinide. Treatment with this compound resulted in down-regulation of PAX3/FOXO1 mRNA and protein levels as well as in reduced expression of several of its direct target genes, but not of wild-type FOXO1, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, fenretinide induced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis as shown by caspase 9 and PARP cleavage and upregulated miR-9. Importantly, it demonstrated a significant anti-tumor effect in vivo. These results are similar to earlier reports for two other pediatric tumors, namely neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma, where fenretinide is under clinical development. Our results suggest that fenretinide might represent a novel treatment option also for translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:23372815

  6. Cell-based small-molecule compound screen identifies fenretinide as potential therapeutic for translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Herrero Martín, David; Boro, Aleksandar; Schäfer, Beat W

    2013-01-01

    A subset of paediatric sarcomas are characterized by chromosomal translocations encoding specific oncogenic transcription factors. Such fusion proteins represent tumor specific therapeutic targets although so far it has not been possible to directly inhibit their activity by small-molecule compounds. In this study, we hypothesized that screening a small-molecule library might identify already existing drugs that are able to modulate the transcriptional activity of PAX3/FOXO1, the fusion protein specifically found in the pediatric tumor alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS). Towards this end, we established a reporter cell line based on the well characterized PAX3/FOXO1 target gene AP2ß. A library enriched in mostly FDA approved drugs was screened using specific luciferase activity as read-out and normalized for cell viability. The most effective inhibitor identified from this screen was Fenretinide. Treatment with this compound resulted in down-regulation of PAX3/FOXO1 mRNA and protein levels as well as in reduced expression of several of its direct target genes, but not of wild-type FOXO1, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, fenretinide induced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis as shown by caspase 9 and PARP cleavage and upregulated miR-9. Importantly, it demonstrated a significant anti-tumor effect in vivo. These results are similar to earlier reports for two other pediatric tumors, namely neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma, where fenretinide is under clinical development. Our results suggest that fenretinide might represent a novel treatment option also for translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:23372815

  7. Correlation between hyoid bone position and airway dimensions in Chinese adolescents by cone beam computed tomography analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y-Y

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation between upper airway dimensions and hyoid bone position in Chinese adolescents based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. CBCT images from a total of 254 study subjects were included. The upper airway and hyoid bone parameters were measured by Materialism's interactive medical image control system (MIMICS) v.16.01 (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The airway dimensions were evaluated in terms of volume, cross-sectional area (CSA), mean CSA, length, anteroposterior dimension of the cross-section (AP), lateral dimension of the cross-section (LAT), and LAT/AP ratio. The hyoid bone position was evaluated using eight linear parameters and two angular parameters. Facial characteristics were evaluated using three linear parameters and three angular parameters. Most hyoid bone position parameters (especially the distance between the hyoid bone and hard palate) were significantly associated with most airway dimension parameters. Significant correlations were also observed between the different facial characteristic parameters and hyoid bone position parameters. Most airway dimension parameters showed significant correlations with linear facial parameters, but they displayed significant correlations with only a few angular facial parameters. These findings provide an understanding of the static relationship between the hyoid bone position and airway dimensions, which may serve as a reference for surgeons before orthodontic or orthognathic surgery. PMID:26949129

  8. An Integrated Approach for Screening and Identification of Positive Allosteric Modulators of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Jambrina, Enrique; Cerne, Rok; Smith, Emery; Scampavia, Louis; Cuadrado, Maria; Findlay, Jeremy; Krambis, Michael J; Wakulchik, Mark; Chase, Peter; Brunavs, Michael; Burris, Kevin D; Gallagher, Peter; Spicer, Timothy P; Ursu, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors that play an important role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory formation. Malfunctioning of NMDARs, in particular the reduction in NMDAR activity, is thought to be implicated in major neurological disorders. NMDAR positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) represent potential therapeutic interventions for restoring normal NMDAR function. We report a novel screening approach for identification and characterization of NMDAR-PAMs. The approach combines high-throughput fluorescence imaging with automated electrophysiological recording of glutamate-evoked responses in HEK-293 cells expressing NR1/NR2A NMDAR subunits. Initial high-throughput screening (HTS) of a chemical library containing >810,000 compounds using a calcium flux assay in 1536-well plate format identified a total of 864 NMDAR-PAMs. Concentration response determination in both calcium flux and automated electrophysiological assays found several novel chemical series with EC50 values between 0.49 and 10 µM. A small subset (six series) was selected and analyzed for pharmacological properties, subtype selectivity, mode of action, and activity at native NMDARs. Our approach demonstrates the successful application of HTS functional assays that led to identification of NMDAR-PAMs providing the foundation for further medicinal chemistry work that may lead to novel therapies for treatment of cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:26838761

  9. The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    Sedentary screen time may be an important determinant of childhood obesity. A number of potential mechanisms to explain the link between screen time and increased bodyweight have been proposed; however, the relationship appears to be best explained by the effects on dietary intake, which is attributed to either food advertising or effects independent of food advertising. Technological advances have allowed for greater accessibility and exposure to advertisement-free screen-based media. This review was conducted to systematically synthesise the evidence from laboratory based studies which have investigated the non-advertising effects of screen time (TV viewing, sedentary video games, and computer use) on dietary intake in children, adolescents, and young adults. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Embase were searched from inception through 5 July 2013. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Risk of study bias was judged to range from low to high. Screen time in the absence of food advertising was consistently found to be associated with increased dietary intake compared with non-screen behaviours. Suggested explanations for this relationship included: distraction, interruption of physiologic food regulation, screen time as a conditioned cue to eat, disruption of memory formation, and the effects of the stress-induced reward system. Due to the limited number of high-quality studies available for this review, our findings are preliminary. More work is required to better establish the link between dietary intake and advertisement-free screen time and assess whether differences exist between the different screen-based activities. PMID:24001394

  10. Molecular screening for alkane hydroxylase genes in Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains.

    PubMed

    Smits, T H; Röthlisberger, M; Witholt, B; van Beilen, J B

    1999-08-01

    We have developed highly degenerate oligonucleotides for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of genes related to the Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo1 and Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 alkane hydroxylases, based on a number of highly conserved sequence motifs. In all Gram-negative and in two out of three Gram-positive strains able to grow on medium- (C6-C11) or long-chain n-alkanes (C12-C16), PCR products of the expected size were obtained. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced and found to encode peptides with 43.2-93.8% sequence identity to the corresponding fragment of the P. oleovorans GPo1 alkane hydroxylase. Strains that were unable to grow on n-alkanes did not yield PCR products with homology to alkane hydroxylase genes. The alkane hydroxylase genes of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus EB104 and Pseudomonas putida P1 were cloned using the PCR products as probes. The two genes allow an alkane hydroxylase-negative mutant of Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 and an Escherichia coli recombinant containing all P. oleovorans alk genes except alkB, respectively, to grow on n-alkanes, showing that the cloned genes do indeed encode alkane hydroxylases. PMID:11207749

  11. Household symptomatic contact screening of newly diagnosed sputum smears positive tuberculosis patients - An effective case detection tool

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mridul; Saibannavar, Anita A; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Primary objective was to assess the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among household contacts of newly diagnosed sputum smear (SS) positive TB index cases. Secondary objectives were the evaluation of risk factors in household contacts for acquiring TB disease; and the evaluation of various characteristics of index cases which influence the transmission of disease to household contacts. Settings and Design: This exploratory cohort study included 521 household contacts of 133 newly diagnosed SS positive TB patients who were registered under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program at the Directly Observed Treatment-Short Course Centres of District Tuberculosis Centre, Kolhapur, Maharashtra from July 1, 2013 to February 28, 2014 (8 months). Subjects and Methods: Household contacts with symptoms suggestive to TB were subjected to SS examination of two samples for acid fast bacilli by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and for X-ray chest postero-anterior view. Presence of risk factors in symptomatic contacts was also recorded. Results: Eighteen contacts out of 521 (3.45%) had symptoms suggestive of TB. Of these, 6 contacts were diagnosed to have TB; 5 being sputum positive cases and one with X-ray suggestive of TB; giving a prevalence of 1.15 %. The study achieved a yield of 4.51% secondary cases. Conclusions: Household contact screening of newly diagnosed TB index cases provides modest yield of cases. Relatively fewer secondary symptomatic persons need to be investigated by this method for achieving additional yield proving it to be a practical and feasible approach. PMID:27051103

  12. The Upward Spiral of Adolescents' Positive School Experiences and Happiness: Investigating Reciprocal Effects over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Gnambs, Timo; Gamsjager, Manuela; Batinic, Bernad

    2013-01-01

    In line with self-determination theory and Fredrickson's (2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, this study adopts a positive perspective on students' school experiences and their general psychological functioning. The reciprocal effects of positive school experiences and happiness, a dimension of affective well-being, are examined…

  13. It Hurts to Be Lonely! Loneliness and Positive Mental Wellbeing in Australian Rural and Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; Hattie, John; Carroll, Annemaree; Wood, Lisa; Baffour, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations between loneliness, a construct associated with serious adverse mental health outcomes, and positive mental wellbeing. Validated measures of loneliness (represented by friendship-related loneliness, isolation, positive attitude to solitude, and negative attitude to solitude) and positive mental wellbeing were…

  14. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Caceres, A; Alvarez, A V; Ovando, A E; Samayoa, B E

    1991-02-01

    Respiratory ailments are important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews conducted in Guatemala during 1986-88 showed that 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin, have been used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Three Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68 of the most commonly used plants for activity. Twenty-eight of these (41.2%) inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against Streptococcus pyogenes. Plants of American origin which exhibited antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia alba, Lippia dulcis, Physalis philadelphica, Satureja brownei, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida. These preliminary in vitro results provide scientific basis for the use of these plants against bacterial respiratory infections. PMID:2023428

  15. Neck Circumference as a Useful Marker for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Mehri; Kajbaf, Tahereh Ziaei; Taheri, Mohammad-Reza; Aminzadeh, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Overweight and obesity at an early age are an important criterion for predicting chronic diseases. Each anthropometric method available to assess obesity has its limitations. Recently, one of the indices proposed to better detect this complication is neck circumference (NC). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between NC, and body mass index (BMI), and to find a cutoff NC size to identify children with a high BMI. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 864 students aged 6–17 years from the schools in Ahvaz, Iran. Measurements, including height, weight, neck, mid-arm, and waist circumference (WC), and clinical information were collected by trained physicians. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated between NC and other obesity indices, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the best cutoff value of NC in predicting high BMI. Results NC in both genders was significantly correlated with BMI, WC, and mid-arm circumference. The best cutoff value of NC to identify boys with a high BMI was 27.5–38.3 cm, and for girls was 26.7–33.4 cm. Conclusions NC is significantly correlated with overweight and obesity. It can be used with great reliability to screen overweight and obesity in children, and to identify those with a high BMI. PMID:27162586

  16. Sexually transmitted infection screening and reproductive health counseling in adolescent renal transplant recipients: Perceptions and practice patterns. A study from the Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Ashoor, Isa F; Dharnidharka, Vikas R

    2015-11-01

    We wanted to identify practice patterns and perceived barriers among pediatric nephrologists regarding STI screening and reproductive health counseling in adolescent renal transplant recipients. We created an online Likert-scaled survey. Response rate was 54%. The majority (83%) believed STI risk in their patients was similar to or higher than healthy teens. Interestingly, while 67% felt moderately or very confident in asking about sexual activity and counseling about safer sex, only 43% routinely or always inquired about sexual activity, and only 42% routinely or always counseled about safer sex. Fifty-four percent routinely or always discussed contraceptive options and implications of unintentional pregnancy. Fifty-one percent routinely or always referred patients to a gynecologist or adolescent provider for contraception prescription. The most common counseling mechanism was informal discussions in clinic (87%). Ten percent had no mechanism in place. Major barriers included time limitations, adolescents' fear regarding confidentiality, and lack of professional training. This is the first report of perceptions and practice patterns of pediatric nephrologists regarding STI screening and reproductive health counseling. Providers seem to recognize the importance of counseling; however, translation into practice remains low. Professional training in this area and increased encounter time could improve counseling delivery and thereby reduce risk in this population. PMID:26260626

  17. Explicit and Implicit Positive Alcohol Expectancies in Problem and Non-Problem Drinkers: Differences Across Age Groups from Young Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vilenne, Aurélie; Quertemont, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence. Methods: Adolescent (13–16 year old), young adult (17–18 year old), and adult (35–55 year old) participants were recruited. On the basis of their score on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), they were classified as non-problem (AUDIT ≤ 7) or problem (AUDIT ≥ 11) drinkers. The participants completed the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) and performed two unipolar Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess implicit associations between alcohol and the concepts of “stimulation” and “sedation”. Results: Problem drinkers from the three age groups reported significantly higher positive alcohol expectancies than non-problem drinkers on all AEQ subscales. Positive alcohol explicit expectancies also gradually decreased with age, with adolescent problem drinkers reporting especially high positive expectancies. This effect was statistically significant for all positive expectancies, with the exception of relaxation expectancies that were only close to statistical significance. In contrast, stimulation and sedation alcohol implicit associations were not significantly different between problem and non-problem drinkers and did not change with age. Conclusion: These results indicate that explicit positive alcohol effect expectancies predict current alcohol consumption levels, especially in adolescents. Positive alcohol expectancies also gradually decrease with age in the three cross-sectional groups of adolescents, young adults, and adults. This effect might be related to changes in the physiological response to alcohol. PMID:26635680

  18. Toxicology screen

    MedlinePlus

    Barbiturates - screen; Benzodiazepines - screen; Amphetamines - screen; Analgesics - screen; Antidepressants - screen; Narcotics - screen; Phenothiazines - screen; Drug abuse screen; Blood alcohol test

  19. A false positive newborn screening result due to a complex allele carrying two frequent CF-causing variants.

    PubMed

    Bergougnoux, Anne; Boureau-Wirth, Amandine; Rouzier, Cécile; Altieri, Jean-Pierre; Verneau, Fanny; Larrieu, Lise; Koenig, Michel; Claustres, Mireille; Raynal, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    The detection of two frequent CFTR disease-causing variations in the context of a newborn screening program (NBS) usually leads to the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) and a relevant genetic counseling in the family. In the present study, CF-causing variants p.Phe508del (F508del) and c.3140-26A>G (3272-26A>G) were identified on a neonate with positive ImmunoReactive Trypsinogen test by the Elucigene™ CF30 kit. The CF diagnosis initially suggested, despite three inconclusive Sweat Chloride Tests (SCT), was finally ruled out after the familial segregation study combined with a negative SCT. Haplotype studies, based on the comparison of 80 p.Phe508del haplotypes, suggested a probable de novo occurrence of c.3140-26A>G on the p.Phe508del ancestral allele in this family. This false positive case emphasizes the importance of SCT in the NBS strategy. Moreover, it raises the need for familial segregation studies in CF and in overall molecular diagnosis strategy of autosomal recessive diseases. PMID:27117206

  20. Cool Girls, Inc.: Promoting the Positive Development of Urban Preadolescent and Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Thomason, Jessica; DiMeo, Michelle; Broomfield-Massey, Kimberley

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a transformation in youth programming toward a comprehensive positive youth development (YD) framework. Cool Girls, Inc., a YD program, focuses on improving girls' life chances by promoting positive behaviors and attitudes in multiple domains. These include self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and…

  1. Life Satisfaction, Positive Youth Development, and Problem Behaviour among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships among life satisfaction, positive youth development, and problem behaviour. A total of 7,975 Secondary One students (4,169 boys and 3,387 girls; with most aged 12) of Chinese ethnicity recruited from 48 schools responded to validated measures of life satisfaction, positive youth development and problem…

  2. Selecting At-Risk First-Grade Readers for Early Intervention: Eliminating False Positives and Exploring the Promise of a Two-Stage Gated Screening Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo; Crouch, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to identify measures that when added to a base 1st-grade screening battery help eliminate false positives and (b) to investigate gains in efficiency associated with a 2-stage gated screening procedure. We tested 355 children in the fall of 1st grade and assessed for reading difficulty at the end of 2nd grade.…

  3. Positive behavioural support in schools for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities whose behaviour challenges: An exploration of the economic case.

    PubMed

    Iemmi, Valentina; Knapp, Martin; Brown, Freddy Jackson

    2016-09-01

    Decision-makers with limited budgets want to know the economic consequences of their decisions. Is there an economic case for positive behavioural support (PBS)? A small before-after study assessing the impact of PBS on challenging behaviours and positive social and communication skills in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge was followed by an evaluation of costs. Results were compared with the costs of alternative packages of care currently available in England obtained from a Delphi exercise conducted alongside the study. Children and adolescents supported with PBS showed improvement in challenging behaviours and social and communication skills, at a total weekly cost of GBP 1909 (and GBP 1951 including carer-related costs). PBS in schools for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities and behaviours that challenge may help to support them in the community with potential improvements in outcomes and also cost advantages. PMID:26912505

  4. Political Violence and Adolescent Out-group Attitudes and Prosocial Behaviors: Implications for Positive Inter-group Relations

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    The negative impact of political violence on adolescent adjustment is well-established. Less is known about factors that affect adolescents’ positive outcomes in ethnically-divided societies, especially influences on prosocial behaviors toward the outgroup, which may promote constructive relations. For example, understanding how intergroup experiences and attitudes motivate outgroup helping may foster intergroup cooperation and help to consolidate peace. The current study investigated adolescents’ overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors across two time points in Belfast, Northern Ireland (N = 714 dyads; 49% male; Time 1: M = 14.7, SD = 2.0, years old). Controlling for Time 1 prosocial behaviors, age and gender, multivariate structural equation modeling showed that experience with intergroup sectarian threat predicted fewer outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2 at the trend level. On the other hand, greater experience of intragroup nonsectarian threat at Time 1 predicted more overall and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 2. Moreover, positive outgroup attitudes strengthened the link between intragroup threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors one year later. Finally, experience with intragroup nonsectarian threat and outgroup prosocial behaviors at Time 1 was related to more positive outgroup attitudes at Time 2. The implications for youth development and intergroup relations in post-accord societies are discussed. PMID:26457005

  5. College of Radiology, Academy of Medicine of Malaysia position on whole body screening CT scans in healthy asymptomatic individuals (2008)

    PubMed Central

    Ho, ELM; Abdullah, BJJ; Tang, AAL; Nordin, AJ; Nair, AR; Lim, GCC; Samad-Cheung, H; Ng, KH; Ponnusamy, S; Abbas, SF; Bux, SI; Arasaratnam, S; Abdul Aziz, YF; Venugopal, S; Musa, Z; Abdul Manaf, Z

    2008-01-01

    To date, the College of Radiology (CoR) does not see any clear benefit in performing whole body screening computed tomography (CT) examinations in healthy asymptomatic individuals. There are radiation risk issues in CT and principles of screening should be adhered to. There may be a role for targeted cardiac screening CT that derives calcium score, especially for asymptomatic medium-risk individuals and CT colonography when used as part of a strategic programme for colorectal cancer screening in those 50 years and older. However, population based screening CT examinations may become appropriate when evidence emerges regarding a clear benefit for the patient outweighing the associated radiation risks. PMID:21611021

  6. Arkansas School Nurses' Role in Statewide Assessment of Body Mass Index to Screen for Overweight Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Bushmiaer, Margo

    2005-01-01

    National surveys that have tracked weight and physical activity in the United States for more than 40 years have shown a continuing increase in the number of overweight children and adolescents. Overweight children and adolescents are showing an increase in diseases related to overweight: Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and…

  7. Dopamine receptor D4 gene moderates the effect of positive and negative peer experiences on later delinquency: the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Tina; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Veenstra, René

    2013-11-01

    The quality of adolescents' relationships with peers can have a lasting impact on later psychosocial adjustment, mental health, and behavior. However, the effect of peer relations on later problem behavior is not uniformly strong, and genetic factors might influence this association. This study used four-wave longitudinal (11-19 years) data (n = 1,151) from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a Dutch cohort study into adolescent development to test whether the dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism moderates the impact of negative (i.e., victimization) and positive peer experiences (i.e., social well-being) on later delinquency. Contrary to our expectations, results showed that carriers of the dopamine receptor D4 gene 4-repeat homozygous variant instead of those carrying the 7-repeat allele were more susceptible to the effects of both peer victimization and social well-being on delinquency later in adolescence. Findings of our study are discussed in light of other studies into genetic moderation of peer effects on adolescent development and the possibility that developmental specifics in adolescence, such as maturation processes in brain structure and functioning, may affect the interplay of environmental and genetic factors in this period in life. PMID:24229552

  8. Brief Report: Perceptions of Positive and Negative Support--Do They Differ for Pregnant/Parenting Adolescents and Nonpregnant, Nonparenting Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Sedahlia Jasper; Hockaday, Cathy; McCarville, Pamela Cooper

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine perceptions of type, source, and amount of social support reported by pregnant and/or parenting (PP) and nonpregnant, nonparenting (NPNP) adolescents. Greater support generally was reported by NPNP than by PP adolescents. The groups did not differ with respect to their perceptions of types of support reported on…

  9. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Screening and Fully Automated Brief Motivational Intervention for Adolescent Substance Use: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Elgán, Tobias H; De Paepe, Nina; Tønnesen, Hanne; Csémy, Ladislav; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Background Mid-to-late adolescence is a critical period for initiation of alcohol and drug problems, which can be reduced by targeted brief motivational interventions. Web-based brief interventions have advantages in terms of acceptability and accessibility and have shown significant reductions of substance use among college students. However, the evidence is sparse among adolescents with at-risk use of alcohol and other drugs. Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of a targeted and fully automated Web-based brief motivational intervention with no face-to-face components on substance use among adolescents screened for at-risk substance use in four European countries. Methods In an open-access, purely Web-based randomized controlled trial, a convenience sample of adolescents aged 16-18 years from Sweden, Germany, Belgium, and the Czech Republic was recruited using online and offline methods and screened online for at-risk substance use using the CRAFFT (Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble) screening instrument. Participants were randomized to a single session brief motivational intervention group or an assessment-only control group but not blinded. Primary outcome was differences in past month drinking measured by a self-reported AUDIT-C-based index score for drinking frequency, quantity, and frequency of binge drinking with measures collected online at baseline and after 3 months. Secondary outcomes were the AUDIT-C-based separate drinking indicators, illegal drug use, and polydrug use. All outcome analyses were conducted with and without Expectation Maximization (EM) imputation of missing follow-up data. Results In total, 2673 adolescents were screened and 1449 (54.2%) participants were randomized to the intervention or control group. After 3 months, 211 adolescents (14.5%) provided follow-up data. Compared to the control group, results from linear mixed models revealed significant reductions in self-reported past-month drinking in favor of the

  10. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Rumination, Positive Reappraisal, Acceptance, and Distancing when Thinking about a Stressful Event on Affect States in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13-18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how to think about that event in each condition.…

  11. Improving the Confidence of Pre-Adolescent Girls by Focusing on the Development of Positive Self-Esteem, Body Image, and Assertiveness Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combes, Alice S.

    This practicum was designed to focus on: (1) the improvement of the confidence of pre-adolescent girls; (2) the establishment of a positive body image; and (3) the strengthening of assertiveness skills. The writer worked in a group of 20 girls over a period of 8 months using exercises designed to facilitate their growth. A curriculum was developed…

  12. Screen Time on School Days and Risks for Psychiatric Symptoms and Self-Harm in Mainland Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingli; Ming, Qingsen; Yi, Jinyao; Wang, Xiang; Yao, Shuqiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations of television and of video game or non-educational computer use (VG/CU) exposure volumes in a typical school day with psychiatric symptoms and suicidal ideation/self-injurious behavior (self-harm), in mainland Chinese adolescents. Methods: Secondary school pupils (N = 13,659; mean age: 15.18 ± 1.89) from 10 urban areas sampled from different regions of mainland China were recruited. The subjects were divided into the following four screen exposure volume groups for television and VG/CU respectively based on a self-administered questionnaire: 0 h/day, >0 to ≤1 h/day, >1 to ≤2 h/day, and >2 h/day. Demographic and psychiatric symptoms were recorded for each respondent. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for several types of psychological problems and self-harm were calculated. Results: More than 2 h per school day television watching was associated with higher risk of depression in both boys (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.02–1.73) and girls (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.19–2.21), of anxiety in boys (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.05–1.95), of general emotional, behavioral, and social problems (GEBSPs; OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.01–2.39), and of oppositional defiant problems (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.09–2.50) in girls, compared with no television exposure. Conversely, television exposure of no more than 1 h per school day was associated with lower self-harm risk in boys (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.67–0.99) compared with no television exposure. High school day VG/CU time (>2 h) compared with no VG/CU were associated with higher risks of anxiety (OR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.06–1.86) and of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (ADHPs; OR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.02–2.38) in boys. And any school day VG/CU exposure was associated with higher risks of self-harm and all other psychiatric problems in boys and all psychiatric problems (including anxiety and ADHPs) in girls (ORs, 1.44–3.69), compared to no VG/CU exposure. Conclusion: For secondary school

  13. Motor Competence in Early Childhood Is Positively Associated With Bone Strength in Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Alex; Sayers, Adrian; Deere, Kevin C; Emond, Alan; Tobias, Jon H

    2016-05-01

    The onset of walking in early childhood results in exposure of the lower limb to substantial forces from weight bearing activity that ultimately contribute to adult bone strength. Relationships between gross motor score (GMS), at 18 months and bone outcomes measured at age 17 years were examined in 2327 participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Higher GMS indicated greater motor competence in weight-bearing activities. Total hip bone mineral density (BMD) and hip cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) were assessed from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone measures including cortical bone mineral content (BMC), periosteal circumference (PC), cortical thickness (CT), cortical bone area (CBA), cortical BMD (BMDC ) and cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at 50% distal-proximal length. Before adjustment, GMS was associated with hip BMD, CSMI, and tibia BMC, PC, CT, CBA and CSMI (all p < 0.001) but not BMDC (p > 0.25). Strongest associations (standardized regression coefficients with 95% CI) were between GMS and hip BMD (0.086; 95% CI, 0.067 to 0.105) and tibia BMC (0.105; 95% CI, 0.089 to 0.121). With the exception of hip BMD, larger regression coefficients were observed in males (gender interactions all p < 0.05). Adjustment for lean mass resulted in substantial attenuation of regression coefficients, suggesting associations between impaired motor competence and subsequent bone development are partly mediated by alterations in body composition. In conclusion, impaired motor competence in childhood is associated with lower adolescent bone strength, and may represent a risk factor for subsequent osteoporosis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR). PMID:26713753

  14. Motor Competence in Early Childhood Is Positively Associated With Bone Strength in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Adrian; Deere, Kevin C; Emond, Alan; Tobias, Jon H

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The onset of walking in early childhood results in exposure of the lower limb to substantial forces from weight bearing activity that ultimately contribute to adult bone strength. Relationships between gross motor score (GMS), at 18 months and bone outcomes measured at age 17 years were examined in 2327 participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Higher GMS indicated greater motor competence in weight‐bearing activities. Total hip bone mineral density (BMD) and hip cross‐sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) were assessed from dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone measures including cortical bone mineral content (BMC), periosteal circumference (PC), cortical thickness (CT), cortical bone area (CBA), cortical BMD (BMDC) and cross‐sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at 50% distal‐proximal length. Before adjustment, GMS was associated with hip BMD, CSMI, and tibia BMC, PC, CT, CBA and CSMI (all p < 0.001) but not BMDC (p > 0.25). Strongest associations (standardized regression coefficients with 95% CI) were between GMS and hip BMD (0.086; 95% CI, 0.067 to 0.105) and tibia BMC (0.105; 95% CI, 0.089 to 0.121). With the exception of hip BMD, larger regression coefficients were observed in males (gender interactions all p < 0.05). Adjustment for lean mass resulted in substantial attenuation of regression coefficients, suggesting associations between impaired motor competence and subsequent bone development are partly mediated by alterations in body composition. In conclusion, impaired motor competence in childhood is associated with lower adolescent bone strength, and may represent a risk factor for subsequent osteoporosis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR). PMID:26713753

  15. Relationship between leisure time screen activity and aggressive and violent behaviour in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV Study.

    PubMed

    Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Jari, Mohsen

    2014-08-21

    Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between leisure time spent watching television (TV) and at a computer and aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Methods: In this nationwide study, 14,880 school students, aged 6-18 years, were selected by cluster and stratified multi-stage sampling method from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization Global School-based Health Survey questionnaire (WHO-GSHS) was used. Results: Overall, 13,486 children and adolescents (50·8% boys, 75·6% urban residents) completed the study (participation rate 90·6%). The risk of physical fighting and quarrels increased by 29% (OR 1·29, 95% CI 1·19-1·40) with watching TV for >2 hr/day, by 38% (OR 1·38, 95% CI 1·21-1·57) with leisure time computer work of >2 hr/day, and by 42% (OR 1·42, 95% CI 1·28-1·58) with the total screen time of >2 hr/day. Watching TV or leisure time spent on a computer or total screen time of >2 hr/day increased the risk of bullying by 30% (OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·18-1·43), 57% (1·57, 95% CI 1·34-1·85) and 62% (OR 1·62, 95% CI 1·43-1·83). Spending >2 hr/day watching TV and total screen time increased the risk of being bullied by 12% (OR 1·12, 95% CI 1·02-1·22) and 15% (OR 1·15, 95% CI 1·02-1·28), respectively. This relationship was not statistically significant for leisure time spent on a computer (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·9-1·27). Conclusions: Prolonged leisure time spent on screen activities is associated with violent and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents. In addition to the duration of screen time, the association is likely to be explained also by the media content. PMID:25146837

  16. AB093. A case of exogenous C5-acylcarnitine giving rise to a false positive result in newborn screening (NBS)

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Shu Jun; Tan, Ee Shien; Saumya, Jamuar; Poh, Sherry; Lim, James

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective NBS Screening by MS/MS is considered an effective screening test. However, the technique cannot distinguish between isobaric compounds, thus contributing to some false positive results. One such compound is C5-acylcarnitine in the in the identification of isovaleric acidemia (IVA) in the MS/MS profile. To report and contrast the findings of two newborns with C5-acylcarnitine elevations in newborn screening (NBS). Methods Blood collected on Guthrie card from newborns between 24-72 hours of life is analyzed by MS/MS. C5-acylcarnitine and its related ratios are measured in DBS sample to identify at risk newborn. Results Newborn A: DBS sample C5: 7.96 µmol/L (normal <0.50), C5/C0: 0.99 (normal <0.025), C5/C3: 16.1 (normal <0.40); Plasma acylcarnitines profile: C5: 9.42 µmol/L (normal 0.06-0.29). Urine organic acid profiles showed marked elevations of isovalerylglycine (IVG), ketone bodies and lactate. This profile is consistent with a patient presenting with a diagnosis of IVA. Newborn B: DBS sample C5: 0.84 µmol/L (normal <0.50), C5/C0: 0.041 (normal <0.025), C5/C3: 0.46 (normal <0.40); Despite the abnormal plasma acylcarnitines profile (C5: 4.38 µmol/L, normal 0.06-0.29), the urine acylglycine profile was normal [IVG: 1.02 mg/g Cr (normal 0.3-14.3 mg/g); 2-MBG: 0.16 mg/g Cr (normal: 0.3-7.5 mg/g)]. A 2nd plasma acylcarnitine showed a lower C5 level (1.49 µmol/L) and a repeat urine organic acid profile was normal; no IVG and 2-MBG detected. Mother’s (Newborn B) plasma acylcarnitines and urine organic acid profiles were normal, ruling out a possible maternal condition. Moreover, it was confirmed that mother and newborn were not on any antibiotics or steroids, which have been previously reported as the causal agents of falsely elevated C5-acylcarnitine. Further investigation revealed mom was using Mustela Nursing Comfort Balm which contained neopentanoate, a compound demonstrated by Boemer et al. [2014] as the causal agent for the false

  17. The Effect of “In Favor of Myself”: Preventive Program to Enhance Positive Self and Body Image among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noaa; Tamir, Snait

    2013-01-01

    Background Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements and family connectedness are considered protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examined the effect of an interactive, community-based, media literacy and dissonance wellness program, In Favor of Myself, on the self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behavior of young adolescents. A preliminary cohort study was conducted among 972 program participants who did not take part in the controlled trial. Over 75% of participants said they would recommend the program to their friends. Methods A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate program acceptability, efficacy and effectiveness among 259 participants (210 in the intervention group and 49 in the control group), aged 12–14 years, who completed questionnaires during at least two assessment times. Program materials were provided, along with leaders' training, in order to ensure quality program delivery and creation of a wide network of committed program leaders. Results The program significantly reduced drive for thinness and self-worth contingent upon others' approval, the gap between current body figure and ideal figure, and the impact of mood on girls' self-image. Superiority was found among those participating in the intervention group with respect to recognizing media strategies, the influence of media on desire to change, and the influence of appearance on self-confidence and drive for thinness. Conclusions In Favor of Myself shows promising results for strengthening adolescents' ability to cope with the challenges of their life stage. Suggestions for improving In Favor of Myself are presented. PMID:24265681

  18. Social Aggression and Social Position in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence: Burning Bridges or Building Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2010-01-01

    Because the mechanism of harm used in social aggression generally involves the manipulation of peer relationships, it is important to consider its social correlates. The current article uses social dominance theory as a frame to review developmental research on social aggression perpetration and three indicators of social position: sociometric…

  19. Empowering Adolescents as Servant-Leaders: Promoting Resiliency, Positive Networking, and Community Stewardship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothaus, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The leadership training model profiled here espouses the belief that all youth are gifted and are capable of making a positive difference in their communities. The program incorporates the key elements of a deliberate psychological education and embraces the philosophy of servant-leadership. Selected at-risk youth participated in a 7-month,…

  20. Perceptions of Academic Performance: Positive Illusions in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Nancy; Roberts, Elizabeth; Toste, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with academic and behavioral difficulties have been found to report overly positive self-perceptions of performance in their areas of specific deficit. Researchers typically investigate self-perceptions in reference to both actual performance and ratings by teachers, peers, and parents. However, few studies have investigated whether or…

  1. Game On: Diminishing Risks for Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence through Positive Involvement in Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Erin M.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2006-01-01

    While research shows that low levels of social acceptance and elevated body dissatisfaction increase risks for depressive symptoms among both girls and boys, little is known about protective factors that can mediate these risks. We test the hypothesis that positive team sports involvement mediates the effects of these risks on depression in a…

  2. Interplay of Network Position and Peer Substance Use in Early Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobus, Kimberly; Henry, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Network position ("isolate," "member," "liaison"), peer-group substance use, and their interaction were examined as predictors of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in a sample of 163 urban sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Two measures of peer substance use were compared: one based on social network analysis (SNA), the other on perceptions…

  3. A Student's Perspective: Fictional Characters in Books as Positive Role Models for Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Samantha

    2002-01-01

    Any girl who watches TV or listens to the radio is bombarded not only with negative stereotypes of females, but also with the message that the most important qualities to possess are physical and aesthetic. From where, then, are girls supposed to derive positive role models? The author began asking herself this question two years ago as an eighth…

  4. Global positive expectancies in adolescence and health-related behaviours: Longitudinal models of latent growth and cross-lagged effects

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Constructs representative of global positive expectancies (GPE) such as dispositional optimism and hope have been theoretically and empirically linked to many positive mental and physical health outcomes. However such expectancies’ health implications for adolescents, as well as their trajectory over time, are less well understood than for adult populations. This study tested whether GPE predict the key indicators of adolescents’ future physical health status, their health-related behaviours. A prospective longitudinal study design was employed whereby a diverse population-based cohort (N = 744; mean age at baseline = 12) completed three surveys over approximately 18 months. Rigorous tests of causal predominance and reciprocal effects were conducted through latent growth and cross-panel structural equation models. Results showed GPE systematically decreased during the course of the study, yet higher initial levels of GPE predicted less alcohol drinking, healthier food choice and greater physical activity over time. GPE’s protective relationships towards health protective behaviours (vs. health risk behaviours that also included tobacco smoking) appear more independent from depressive symptomatology, and the primary findings were robust across socio-demographic groups. PMID:22149606

  5. A comparative study between conventional and liquid-based cytology in screening for anal intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Maia, Livia Bravo; Marinho, Larissa Cardoso; Wanderley Paes Barbosa, Tania; Batalha Filho, Eronides Salustiano; Ribeiro Velasco, Lara Franciele; Garcia Costa, Patrícia Godoy; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; de Oliveira, Paulo Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is associated with HPV infection and can be detected by cytological screening. While conventional exfoliative cytology (CC) is a low-cost and nonaggressive method, liquid-based cytology (LBC) tends to give clearer readings. Although studies of the efficacy of anal cancer screening methods would be of great importance for groups at high risk for AIN, few such studies have been conducted. The aim of the present study was to assess the concordance of CC and LBC in diagnosing anal pre-neoplastic lesions, and to compare cytological results with anoscopy, histopathological, and molecular biology findings. Comparative study involving 33 HIV-positive patients, who underwent anoscopy and biopsy of suspected lesions. Concordance between the two cytology methods was calculated, as were the associations between cytology results and findings from other screening methods. A total of 54.5% of cases were considered AIN-negative by CC and LBC, and concordance between the two methods was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Anoscopy was negative in 15 of the 18 CC- and LBC-negative cases. CC identified 75% of patients with positive biopsy, while LBC identified 85.71% of these patients. Molecular biology results showed that patients with LSIL tested positive for the highest number of HPV subtypes. The associations between positive biopsy and high grade HPV, HPV 16, and multiple HPV infections were not statistically significant. Conventional and liquid-based cytology are equally effective in screening for anal preneoplastic lesions. PMID:24591207

  6. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF ADENOVIRAL TRANSDUCTION OF AN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR POSITIVE CELL LINE WITH AN MMTV-LUC REPORTER FOR ENDOCRINE SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standardization and Validation of Adenoviral Transduction of an Androgen Receptor Positive Cell Line with an MMTV-Luc Reporter for Endocrine Screening P. Hartig, K . Bobseine,
    M. Cardon, C. Lambright and L. E. Gray, Jr. USEPA, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, RTP, NC...

  7. Effects of "Like Type" Sex Pairings between Applicants-Principals and Type of Focal Position Considered at the Screening Stage of the Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. Phillip

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the screening decisions for a national random sample of high school principals as viewed from the attraction-similarity theory of interpersonal perceptions. Independent variables are the sex of principals, sex of applicants, and the type of focal positions sought by hypothetical job applicants (teacher or counselor). Dependent…

  8. Temporal Trends in Overweight and Obesity, Physical Activity and Screen Time among Czech Adolescents from 2002 to 2014: A National Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Badura, Petr; Kalman, Michal; Hamrik, Zdenek; Pavelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a recent 12-year study period. Nationally representative samples consisted of 19,940 adolescents (9760 boys and 10,180 girls) aged 10.5–16.5 years from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (≥60 min per day of MVPA) and excessive ST (>2 h per day) were estimated using logistic regression. Significant increases (p < 0.001) in the prevalence of overweight/obesity between the years 2002 and 2014 were evident for both adolescent boys (18.3%2002–24.8%2014) and girls (8.3%2002–11.9%2014). Compared to 2002, in 2014 significant decreases (p < 0.001) in meeting MVPA recommendations were observed among boys (32.2%2002–25.6%2014) and girls (23.2%2002–19.2%2014). Moreover, in boys we observed significant increases (p < 0.001) in excessive ST on weekdays (75.1%2002–88.8%2014), as well as on weekends (78.3%2002–91.9%2014) between the years 2002 and 2014. Increases in overweight/obesity with concomitant decreases in PA provide evidence in support of the current and upcoming efforts of government and commercial organizations in implementing interventions aimed at reducing excessive body weight among Czech adolescents. PMID:26393638

  9. Self-Efficacy for Sexual Risk Reduction and Partner HIV Status as Correlates of Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Positive Adolescent Girls and Women

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Melissa R.; Cherenack, Emily M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the correlates of sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive adolescent girls and women in the United States. This study investigates two potential factors related to unprotected vaginal and anal intercourse (UVAI) that have yet to be thoroughly studied in this group: self-efficacy for sexual risk reduction and partner HIV status. Data was analyzed from 331 HIV-positive adolescent girls and women between 12 and 24 years old who reported vaginal and/or anal intercourse with a male partner in the past 3 months at fifteen sites across the United States. Results show that overall self-efficacy (B = −0.15, p=0.01), self-efficacy to discuss safe sex with one's partner (B = −0.14, p=0.01), and self-efficacy to refuse unsafe sex (B = −0.21, p=0.01) are related to UVAI episodes. Participants with only HIV-positive partners or with both HIV-positive and HIV-negative partners showed a trend towards higher percentages of UVAI episodes compared to participants with only HIV-negative partners (F(2, 319)=2.80, p=0.06). These findings point to the importance of including self-efficacy and partner HIV status in risk-reduction research and interventions developed for HIV-positive adolescent girls and young women. PMID:25856632

  10. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with screening-detected celiac disease, before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of gluten-free diet, a prospective nested case-referent study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals in which a small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy is precipitated by dietary gluten. It can be difficult to diagnose because signs and symptoms may be absent, subtle, or not recognized as CD related and therefore not prompt testing within routine clinical practice. Thus, most people with CD are undiagnosed and a public health intervention, which involves screening the general population, is an option to find those with unrecognized CD. However, how these screening-detected individuals experience the diagnosis and treatment (gluten-free diet) is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of adolescents with screening-detected CD before and one year after diagnosis and treatment. Methods A prospective nested case-referent study was done involving Swedish adolescents who had participated in a CD screening study when they were in the sixth grade and about 12 years old. Screening-detected adolescents (n = 103) and referents without CD who participated in the same screening (n = 483) answered questionnaires at the time of the screening and approximately one year after the screening-detected adolescents had received their diagnosis that included the EQ-5D instrument used to measure health status and report HRQoL. Results The HRQoL for the adolescents with screening-detected CD is similar to the referents, both before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of the gluten-free diet, except in the dimension of pain at follow-up. In the pain dimension at follow-up, fewer cases reported problems than referents (12.6% and 21.9% respectively, Adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27-0.94). However, a sex stratified analysis revealed that the significant difference was for boys at follow-up, where fewer screening-detected boys reported problems (4.3%) compared to referent boys (18.8%) (Adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0

  11. Automated Primary Care Screening in Pediatric Waiting Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Implementing US Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Pediatrics preventive service guidelines within the short duration of a visit is difficult because identifying which of a large number of guidelines apply to a particular patient is impractical. Clinical decision support system integrated with electronic medical records offer a good strategy for implementing screening in waiting rooms. Our objective was to determine rates of positive risk screens during typical well-care visits among children and adolescents in a primary care setting. METHODS: Child Health Improvement through Computer Automation (CHICA) is a pediatric clinical decision support system developed by our research group. CHICA encodes clinical guidelines as medical logic modules to generate scanable paper forms: the patient screening form to collect structured data from patient families in the waiting room and the physician worksheet to provide physician assessments at each visit. By using visit as a unit of analysis from CHICA’s database, we have determined positive risk screen rates in our population. RESULTS: From a cohort of 16 963 patients, 408 601 questions were asked in 31 843 visits. Of the questions asked, 362 363 (89%) had a response. Of those, 39 176 (11%) identified positive risk screens in both the younger children and the adolescent age groups. CONCLUSIONS: By automating the process of screening and alerting the physician to those who screened positive, we have significantly decreased the burden of identifying relevant guidelines and screening of patient families in our clinics. PMID:22508925

  12. Screening Outcomes in Older US Women Undergoing Multiple Mammograms in Community Practice: Does Interval, Age, or Comorbidity Score Affect Tumor Characteristics or False Positive Rates?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Uncertainty exists about the appropriate use of screening mammography among older women because comorbid illnesses may diminish the benefit of screening. We examined the risk of adverse tumor characteristics and false positive rates according to screening interval, age, and comorbidity. Methods From January 1999 to December 2006, data were collected prospectively on 2993 older women with breast cancer and 137 949 older women without breast cancer who underwent mammography at facilities that participated in a data linkage between the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and Medicare claims. Women were aged 66 to 89 years at study entry to allow for measurement of 1 year of preexisting illnesses. We used logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds of advanced (IIb, III, IV) stage, large (>20 millimeters) tumors, and 10-year cumulative probability of false-positive mammography by screening frequency (1 vs 2 years), age, and comorbidity score. The comorbidity score was derived using the Klabunde approximation of the Charlson score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Adverse tumor characteristics did not differ statistically significantly by comorbidity, age, or interval. Cumulative probability of a false-positive mammography result was higher among annual screeners than biennial screeners irrespective of comorbidity: 48.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 46.1% to 49.9%) of annual screeners aged 66 to 74 years had a false-positive result compared with 29.0% (95% CI = 28.1% to 29.9%) of biennial screeners. Conclusion Women aged 66 to 89 years who undergo biennial screening mammography have similar risk of advanced-stage disease and lower cumulative risk of a false-positive recommendation than annual screeners, regardless of comorbidity. PMID:23385442

  13. Prevalence, characteristics and correlates of a positive-dementia screen in patients on antiretroviral therapy in Bamenda, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study we assess the prevalence, characteristics as well as socio-demographic and clinical correlates of a positive screen for HIV-associated dementia in a group of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Bamenda, Cameroon. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a structured questionnaire was used to collect data on 400 patients attending the Bamenda Regional Hospital AIDS-treatment Centre. Patients were assessed for neurocognitive function using the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) to assess finger-tapping (FT), alternating hand sequence (AHS) and a 4-word recall (4WR), each scored on a maximum of four. Results A total of 297 (74%) participants were females. The total IHDS score ranged from 6–12 with a mean of 9.02 and 85% of subjects screened positive for dementia (≤10 on IHDS). Participants performed worst in the AHS assessment with a mean of 2.25 (IQR: 2–3). In multivariable analyses, screening positive for dementia was significantly associated with having primary education or less (aOR: 8.33, 95%CI: 3.85, 16.67), and having HIV symptoms (aOR: 12.16, 95%CI: 3.08, 48.05). Conclusions A very high proportion of patients on ART screened positive for dementia using the IHDS. This could potentially be an indication of a high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in this population and or a poor performance of the IHDS in patients on ART. Future studies will need to assess the validity of the IHDS in this population of patients on ART and also evaluate long term outcomes in patients with positive dementia screens. PMID:23855622

  14. Community-Based Health Education has Positive Influence on the Attitude to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Sunila; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Afset, Jan Egil; Bofin, Anna; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Syversen, Unni; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal and explore the feasibility and impact of a community-based awareness program on cervical cancer. Community-based educational meetings on cervical cancer and its prevention were conducted among women's groups in rural Nepal. Through a questionnaire, the women's baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and perceived risk of cervical cancer were identified. The willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening was compared before and after the educational meeting. The meetings were followed by a cervical cancer screening program. Among the 122 participants at the educational meeting, only 6 % had heard of cervical cancer. Their baseline knowledge of risk factors and symptoms was poor. The proportion of women willing to participate in cervical screening increased from 15.6 to 100 % after attending the educational meeting. All the study subjects participated in the screening program. Additionally, the study participants recruited a further 222 of their peers for screening. Poor knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal highlights the urgency of public awareness programs for cervical cancer at a national level. A community-based awareness program can change women's attitude to cervical screening, and women's groups can play a major role in promoting participation in cervical cancer screening programs. PMID:26031906

  15. Positive Outlook as a Moderator of the Effectiveness of an HIV/STI Intervention with Adolescents in Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiege, Sarah J.; Ewing, Sarah W. Feldstein; Hendershot, Christian S.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    Justice-involved adolescents engage in high levels of risky sexual behavior, underscoring the need for targeted, effective, prevention interventions geared toward this population. In a randomized controlled trial, 484 detained adolescents received a theory-based intervention or an information-only control. We have previously demonstrated that the…

  16. Academic Competence for Adolescents Who Bully and Who Are Bullied: Findings from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lang; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    School bullying has negative implications for adolescent academic competence, making it important to explore what factors promote such competence for adolescents who bully and who are bullied. Potential contextual and individual variables linked to academic competence were examined in the context of bullying. Data were derived from the Grades 5…

  17. Factors Affecting Parent-Child Relationships One Year After Positive Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis or Congenital Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Brown, Roger L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine factors that mediate parent-infant relationships 12 months after positive newborn screening (NBS). Method We examined effects of infant diagnosis, parents’ perceptions of child vulnerability and child attachment, parental depression and anxiety on parent-infant feeding interactions for 131 mothers and 118 fathers of 131 infants whose NBS and diagnostics confirmed cystic fibrosis (CF, n=23), congenital hypothyroidism (CH, n=35), CF carrier status (CF-C, n=38), or healthy, normal NBS (H, n=35). Results Separate composite indicator structural equation models for mothers and fathers showed neonatal diagnosis was not associated with increased anxiety or depression. In comparison to the H group, CF group parents reported higher perceptions of child vulnerability (p< 0.001, p=0.002); and CF-C group fathers viewed their children as more attached (p=0.021). High maternal perception of child vulnerability was associated with low perceptions of child attachment (p=0.001) which was associated with task-oriented feeding behavior (p=0.016, p=0.029). Parental task-oriented feeding behavior was associated with less positive (p< 0.001, p< 0.001) and more negative interactions (p< 0.001, p= 0.001) with their infants. High paternal perception of child vulnerability was associated with negative parent interactions (p< 0.001). High parental affective involvement and verbalization was associated with high infant affective expressiveness, communicative skills, and social responsiveness (mothers’ p< 0.001, fathers’ p< 0.001). High parental negative affect and/or inconsistent and intrusive behavior was associated with infant dysregulation and irritability (mothers’ p< 0.001, fathers’ p< 0.001). Conclusion The severity of conditions identified through NBS can affect parents’ perceptions of their child’s vulnerability and attachment. Infant feeding problems in the context of chronic health conditions, like CF, could represent signs of more deeply rooted

  18. [Physiological adolescence, pathological adolescence].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Gourion, David; Canceil, Olivier; Lôo, Henri

    2006-11-01

    The uncertainties of looming adulthood, nostalgia for childhood, and a general malaise explain the crisis of adolescence. Rebellion, conflict, occasional failure at school or in society, and at-risk behaviors are not always signs of future psychiatric illness. In contrast, the physician must be in a position to identify tell-tale signs such as dysmorphophobia, existential anxiety, a feeling of emptiness, and school or social breakdown. Most psychiatric disorders that begin in adolescence are only diagnosed several years after onset. Yet early diagnosis is of utmost importance, as treatment becomes less effective and the long-term prognosis worsens with time. Suicide is the second cause of death during adolescence. All signs of suicidal behavior require hospitalization and evaluation in a psychiatric unit. Antidepressants may be necessary in adolescence. The recent controversy concerning a possible increase in the suicidal risk during antidepressant treatment should not mask the fact that the real public health issue is depression, and not antidepressants. Eating disorders are especially frequent among adolescent girls; it is important to identify psychiatric comorbidities such as schizophrenia, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, and to assess the vital risk. Illicit drug and alcohol consumption are frequent during adolescence; for example, close to half of all French adolescents have tried cannabis at least once. Once again, it is important to detect psychiatric comorbidities in substance-abusing adolescents. Phobia is an underdiagnosed anxiety disorder among adolescents; it may become chronic if proper treatment is not implemented, leading to suffering and disability. Finally, two major psychiatric disorders--schizophrenia and bipolar disorder--generally begin in adolescence. Treatment efficacy and the long-term prognosis both depend on early diagnosis. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. "Borderline" states are over

  19. Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence: Findings from two European cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Ricardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Indicators of SEP were mother’s education and household income. CA was estimated with IQ scores, derived from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Internalising and externalising problems were measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in ALSPAC and with the Child Behavior Checklist in TRAILS. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) for each outcome; the RII provides the odds ratio comparing the most to least deprived for each measure of SEP. In fully adjusted models an association of mother’s education with externalising problems was observed [ALSPAC RII 1.42 (95%CI: 1.01–1.99); TRAILS RII 2.21 (95%CI: 1.37–3.54)], and of household income with internalising and externalising problems [pooled ALSPAC & TRAILS internalising RII 1.30 (95%CI: 0.99–1.71); pooled ALSPAC & TRAILS externalising RII 1.38 (95%CI: 1.03–1.84)]. No consistent associations were observed between mother’s education and internalising problems. Results of stratified analyses and interaction-terms showed no evidence that CA moderated the association of SEP with internalising or externalising problems. PMID:20535529

  20. Detection of the marijuana metabolite 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in oral fluid specimens and its contribution to positive results in screening assays.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christine; Ross, Wayne; Coulter, Cynthia; Adams, Laura; Rana, Sumandeep; Vincent, Michael; Soares, James

    2006-09-01

    The detection of the marijuana metabolite 11-nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in oral fluid specimens is described, and its contribution to an immunoassay for the detection of cannabinoids is investigated. Oral fluid specimens, screened using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay (ELISA), were carried forward to confirmation for both tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and THC-COOH using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). One hundred and fifty-three specimens were analyzed, of which 143 screened positive for cannabinoids. Ninety-five (66.4%) of these specimens were positive for both THC and THC-COOH; 14 (9.7%) were positive for THC-COOH only, and 27 (18.8%) were positive for THC only. The GC-MS assay for the detection of THC-COOH in oral fluid was linear to 160 pg/mL with a limit of quantitation of 2 pg/mL. The detection of the marijuana metabolite, THC-COOH, in 76.2% of oral fluid specimens screening positive for cannabinoids is reported. As a potential defense against passive exposure claims, proposed SAMHSA regulations may require the simultaneous collection of a urine sample when oral fluid samples are used. The detection of the metabolite, THC-COOH, is a significant alternative to this approach because its presence in oral fluid minimizes the argument for passive exposure to marijuana in drug testing cases. PMID:16959132

  1. The Adolescent Behavior Checklist: normative data and sensitivity and specificity of a screening tool for diagnosable psychiatric disorders in adolescents with mental retardation and other development disabilities.

    PubMed

    Demb, H B; Brier, N; Huron, R; Tomor, E

    1994-01-01

    Individuals with mental retardation are almost twice as likely to demonstrate severe behavioral problems or symptoms of mental illness as are nonmentally retarded individuals. At present, however, the ability to diagnose a mental disorder in an individual with mental retardation is difficult, and instruments are needed to help facilitate this process. The Adolescent Behavior Checklist was developed with this purpose in mind. This self-report scale is used to assess the likelihood that an adolescent with mild mental retardation or borderline intelligence has a diagnosable mental illness. The 86-item yes/no self-report scale renders scores on eight subscales derived from DSM III-R. The checklist has been found to have good criterion and congruent validity and good test-retest reliability. Data regarding interrater reliability and the sensitivity and specificity of the scale are presented, as are implications for future research. PMID:8085031

  2. Intentional Self-Regulation and Positive Youth Development in Early Adolescence: Findings from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Lerner, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    In this research, the authors examined the development of intentional self-regulation in early adolescence, which was operationalized through the use of a measure derived from the model of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC). This model describes the individual's contributions to mutually influential relations between the person and…

  3. The syphilis care cascade: tracking the course of care after screening positive among men and transgender women who have sex with men in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Eric C; Segura, Eddy R; Clark, Jesse L; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Syphilis is endemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in Latin America. The objective of this study was to assess if those who screen positive for syphilis are receiving appropriate care and treatment. Methods We use data from the 2011 Peruvian National HIV Sentinel Surveillance to describe the syphilis care cascade among high-risk MSM and transgender women. Medical records from participants who had a positive syphilis screening test at two of the enrolment sites in Lima were reviewed to determine their subsequent course of care. Results We identified a cohort of 314 syphilis seropositive participants (median age: 30, 33.7% self-identified as transgender). Only 284/314 (90.4%) participants saw a physician for evaluation within 28 days of their positive test. Of these, 72/284 (25.4%) were asked to return for confirmatory results before deciding whether or not to start treatment; however, 45/72 (62.5%) of these participants did not follow up within 28 days. Of the people prescribed three weekly doses of penicillin, 34/63 (54%) received all three doses on time. Conclusions Many MSM and transgender women with a positive syphilis screening test are lost at various steps along the syphilis care cascade and may have persistent infection. Interventions in this population are needed to increase testing, link seropositive patients into care and ensure that they receive appropriate and timely treatment. PMID:26384725

  4. Utilization of Professional Mental Health Services Related to Population-Level Screening for Anxiety, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Public High School Students.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, John D; Le, Vi Donna; Baillargeon, Jacques; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    This study examines results from three mental health screening measures in a cohort of adolescent public school students in seven public schools in Southeast Texas affiliated with the Dating it Safe study. We estimated the odds of receiving professional mental health treatment in the previous year given results from different mental health screening batteries: the CES-D 10 battery for depression screening, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, and the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen. Overall, students with higher scores on screening instruments for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and combinations of screening instruments were more likely to have sought past-year professional mental health treatment than non-symptomatic youth. However, the proportion of students screening positive and receiving professional treatment was low, ranging from 11 to 16 %. This study emphasizes the need for broader evaluation of population-based mental health screening among adolescents. PMID:26733335

  5. AMSSM Position Statement on Cardiovascular Preparticipation Screening in Athletes: Current Evidence, Knowledge Gaps, Recommendations and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Drezner, Jonathan A; O'Connor, Francis G; Harmon, Kimberly G; Fields, Karl B; Asplund, Chad A; Asif, Irfan M; Price, David E; Dimeff, Robert J; Bernhardt, David T; Roberts, William O

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular screening in young athletes is widely recommended and routinely performed prior to participation in competitive sports. While there is general agreement that early detection of cardiac conditions at risk for sudden cardiac arrest and death (SCA/D) is an important objective, the optimal strategy for cardiovascular screening in athletes remains an issue of considerable debate. At the center of the controversy is the addition of a resting electrocardiogram (ECG) to the standard preparticipation evaluation using history and physical examination. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) formed a task force to address the current evidence and knowledge gaps regarding preparticipation cardiovascular screening in athletes from the perspective of a primary care sports medicine physician. The absence of definitive outcomes-based evidence at this time precludes AMSSM from endorsing any single or universal cardiovascular screening strategy for all athletes, including legislative mandates. This statement presents a new paradigm to assist the individual physician in assessing the most appropriate cardiovascular screening strategy unique to their athlete population, community needs, and resources. The decision to implement a cardiovascular screening program, with or without the addition of ECG, necessitates careful consideration of the risk of SCA/D in the targeted population and the availability of cardiology resources and infrastructure. Importantly, it is the individual physician's assessment in the context of an emerging evidence-base that the chosen model for early detection of cardiac disorders in the specific population provides greater benefit than harm. AMSSM is committed to advancing evidenced-based research and educational initiatives that will validate and promote the most efficacious strategies to foster safe sport participation and reduce SCA/D in athletes. PMID:27618246

  6. AMSSM Position Statement on Cardiovascular Preparticipation Screening in Athletes: Current Evidence, Knowledge Gaps, Recommendations, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Drezner, Jonathan A; OʼConnor, Francis G; Harmon, Kimberly G; Fields, Karl B; Asplund, Chad A; Asif, Irfan M; Price, David E; Dimeff, Robert J; Bernhardt, David T; Roberts, William O

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) screening in young athletes is widely recommended and routinely performed before participation in competitive sports. While there is general agreement that early detection of cardiac conditions at risk for sudden cardiac arrest and death (SCA/D) is an important objective, the optimal strategy for CV screening in athletes remains an issue of considerable debate. At the center of the controversy is the addition of a resting electrocardiogram (ECG) to the standard preparticipation evaluation using history and physical examination. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) formed a task force to address the current evidence and knowledge gaps regarding preparticipation CV screening in athletes from the perspective of a primary care sports medicine physician. The absence of definitive outcomes-based evidence at this time precludes AMSSM from endorsing any single or universal CV screening strategy for all athletes including legislative mandates. This statement presents a new paradigm to assist the individual physician in assessing the most appropriate CV screening strategy unique to their athlete population, community needs, and resources. The decision to implement a CV screening program, with or without the addition of ECG, necessitates careful consideration of the risk of SCA/D in the targeted population and the availability of cardiology resources and infrastructure. Importantly, it is the individual physician's assessment in the context of an emerging evidence base that the chosen model for early detection of cardiac disorders in the specific population provides greater benefit than harm. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine is committed to advancing evidenced-based research and educational initiatives that will validate and promote the most efficacious strategies to foster safe sport participation and reduce SCA/D in athletes. PMID:27598018

  7. The Prevalence of Hemoglobinopathies in Young Adolescents in the Province of Muğla in Turkey: Results of a Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Topal, Yaşar; Topal, Hatice; Ceyhan, Mustafa Nuri; Azik, Fatih; Çapanoğlu, Murat; Kocabaş, Can Naci

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is an autosomal recessive inherited blood disorder. It is prevalent in Mediterranean countries such as Sardinia, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Lebanon and also Southeast Asia. Our aim was to investigate the carrier prevalence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in adolescents who live in Muğla Province, Turkey. We analyzed retrospectively the surveys conducted at primary schools between 1997 and 2013. Complete blood count (CBC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to screen for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies. Patients were diagnosed as having thalassemia trait if the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was ≤ 80.0 fL, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) was ≤ 27.0 pg and Hb A2 levels were ≥ 3.5%. A total of 164,814 students were analyzed. The median age of the students was 13.5 years (minimum 13.0, maximum 14.0). The total number of students with abnormal HPLC results was 5861 (3.8%). There was a significant decrease in the newborn of new thalassemia patients found with screening programs for hemoglobinopathies in Muğla Province from 1997 to 2013. The number of students with abnormal HPLC results for thalassemia, sickle cell disease and other Hb traits were 3.2, 0.15 and 0.4%, respectively. It is important to recognize that including Hb, MCV, red blood cell (RBC) count and HPLC tests for carrier screening are necessary to find hemoglobinopathies. Our study supported that the number of new patients significantly decreased using these screening programs from 1997 to 2013. PMID:26120034

  8. Psychopathy in adolescent offenders: an item response theory study of the antisocial process screening device-self report and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Crystal L; Salekin, Randall T; Barker, Edward D; Grimes, Ross D

    2013-04-01

    Few studies have examined the item functioning of youth psychopathy measures or compared the functioning of clinician and self-report based indices. Even fewer studies have made these comparisons in both male and female adolescent samples. The present study examined the applicability of items from two psychopathy measures, the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick, P. J., & Hare, R. D., 2001, The Antisocial Process Screening Device. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems) and Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, A. E., Kosson, D. S., & Hare, R. D., 2003, The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems), to adolescent boys and girls who had come into contact with the law. Item Response Theory was used to test item functioning of the two psychopathy indices. Examination of the Item Response Theory trace lines indicated that the APSD and the PCL:YV have both highly discriminating and poorly discriminating items and that the measures differ in the regions of psychopathy they cover. The PCL:YV is particularly effective at assessing interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy and to a lesser extent, lifestyle and antisocial features. The APSD appears to be effective at assessing narcissism and impulsivity but not callousness. In addition, the items most discriminating of the underlying construct of psychopathy for males and females demonstrate some important differences. These findings suggest that the measures may tap different underlying elements of the same overlaying construct. This may account for modest correlations between the measures. The findings suggest that clinicians should be aware of the regions that each measure best taps and also suggest that continued refinement and revisions to the youth psychopathy measures may be required. PMID:22686465

  9. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  10. Extremely reduced motion in front of screens: investigating real-world physical activity of adolescents by accelerometry and electronic diary.

    PubMed

    Streb, Judith; Kammer, Thomas; Spitzer, Manfred; Hille, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports accelerometer and electronic dairy data on typical daily activities of 139 school students from grade six and nine. Recordings covered a typical school day for each student and lasted on average for 23 h. Screen activities (watching television and using the computer) are compared to several other activities performed while sitting (e.g., playing, eating, sitting in school, and doing homework). Body movement was continuously recorded by four accelerometers and transformed into a motion sore. Our results show that extremely low motion scores, as if subjects were freezing, emerge to a greater extent in front of screens compared to other investigated activities. Given the substantial amount of time young people spend in front of screens and the rising obesity epidemic, our data suggest a mechanism for the association of screen time and obesity. PMID:25955531

  11. Extremely Reduced Motion in Front of Screens: Investigating Real-World Physical Activity of Adolescents by Accelerometry and Electronic Diary

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Judith; Kammer, Thomas; Spitzer, Manfred; Hille, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports accelerometer and electronic dairy data on typical daily activities of 139 school students from grade six and nine. Recordings covered a typical school day for each student and lasted on average for 23 h. Screen activities (watching television and using the computer) are compared to several other activities performed while sitting (e.g., playing, eating, sitting in school, and doing homework). Body movement was continuously recorded by four accelerometers and transformed into a motion sore. Our results show that extremely low motion scores, as if subjects were freezing, emerge to a greater extent in front of screens compared to other investigated activities. Given the substantial amount of time young people spend in front of screens and the rising obesity epidemic, our data suggest a mechanism for the association of screen time and obesity. PMID:25955531

  12. Counsellors' Perceptions of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the perceptions Israeli secondary-school counselors have of adolescence. Results reveal that, in general, counselors have a favorable view of adolescents and do not perceive adolescence as a "difficult stage." Counselors also believe that they are perceived positively by their adolescent students. Identifies five types of adolescents…

  13. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess: results of microbial screening and identification of positive cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently we reported methods for microbial screening and production of polyol oils from soybean oil through bioprocessing (Hou and Lin, 2013). Soy-polyol oils (oxygenated acylglycerols) are important starting materials for the manufacture of polymers such as polyurethane. Currently, they are produce...

  14. Prevalence of a positive screen for PTSD among OEF/OIF and OEF/OIF-era veterans in a large population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Dursa, Erin K; Reinhard, Matthew J; Barth, Shannon K; Schneiderman, Aaron I

    2014-10-01

    Multiple studies have reported the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans; however, these studies have been limited to populations who use the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for health care, specialty clinic populations, or veterans who deployed. The 3 aims of this study were to report weighted prevalence estimates of a positive screen for PTSD among OEF/OIF and nondeployed veterans, demographic subgroups, and VA health care system users and nonusers. The study analyzed data from the National Health Study for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans, a large population-based cohort of OEF/OIF and OEF/OIF-era veterans. The overall weighted prevalence of a positive screen for PTSD in the study population was 13.5%: 15.8% among OEF/OIF veterans and 10.9% in nondeployed veterans. Among OEF/OIF veterans, there was increased risk of a positive screen for PTSD among VA health care users (OR = 2.71), African Americans (OR = 1.61), those who served in the Army (OR = 2.67), and those on active duty (OR = 1.69). The same trend with decreased magnitude was observed in nondeployed veterans. PTSD is a significant public health problem in OEF/OIF-era veterans, and should not be considered an outcome solely related to deployment. PMID:25267288

  15. Screening for latent tuberculosis in Norwegian health care workers: high frequency of discordant tuberculin skin test positive and interferon-gamma release assay negative results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) presents globally a significant health problem and health care workers (HCW) are at increased risk of contracting TB infection. There is no diagnostic gold standard for latent TB infection (LTBI), but both blood based interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) and the tuberculin skin test (TST) are used. According to the national guidelines, HCW who have been exposed for TB should be screened and offered preventive anti-TB chemotherapy, but the role of IGRA in HCW screening is still unclear. Methods A total of 387 HCW working in clinical and laboratory departments in three major hospitals in the Western region of Norway with possible exposure to TB were included in a cross-sectional study. The HCW were asked for risk factors for TB and tested with TST and the QuantiFERON®TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT). A logistic regression model analyzed the associations between risk factors for TB and positive QFT or TST. Results A total of 13 (3.4%) demonstrated a persistent positive QFT, whereas 214 (55.3%) had a positive TST (≥ 6 mm) and 53 (13.7%) a TST ≥ 15 mm. Only ten (4.7%) of the HCW with a positive TST were QFT positive. Origin from a TB-endemic country was the only risk factor associated with a positive QFT (OR 14.13, 95% CI 1.37 - 145.38, p = 0.026), whereas there was no significant association between risk factors for TB and TST ≥ 15 mm. The five HCW with an initial positive QFT that retested negative all had low interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses below 0.70 IU/ml when first tested. Conclusions We demonstrate a low prevalence of LTBI in HCW working in hospitals with TB patients in our region. The “IGRA-only” seems like a desirable screening strategy despite its limitations in serial testing, due to the high numbers of discordant TST positive/IGRA negative results in HCW, probably caused by BCG vaccination or boosting due to repetitive TST testing. Thus, guidelines for TB screening in HCW should be updated in order to

  16. The roles of general and technology-related parenting in managing youth screen time.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Wesley; Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Breslend, Nicole Lafko

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the associations of 2 types of parenting practices-general adaptive parenting and technology-related strategies-with youth screen time. We hypothesized that technology-related parenting focused on behavioral control would relate directly to screen time and serve to link general parenting to screen time. Participants were 615 parents drawn from 3 community samples of families with children across 3 development stages: young childhood (3-7 years; n = 210), middle childhood (8-12 years; n = 200), and adolescents (13-17 years; n = 205). Using structural equation modeling, we found that general adaptive parenting was not related to child screen time but was positively related to technology-related parenting strategies for all 3 samples. For the young and, to some extent, middle childhood samples, but not for the adolescent sample, general adaptive parenting was positively linked to youth screen time through technology-related parenting strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751759

  17. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yahaya, Ismail; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Soares, Joaquim; Macassa, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%). At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse. PMID:23797565

  18. Position statement: Gender dysphoria in childhood and adolescence. Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN).

    PubMed

    Esteva de Antonio, Isabel; Asenjo Araque, Nuria; Hurtado Murillo, Felipe; Fernández Rodríguez, María; Vidal Hagemeijer, Ángela; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; Lucio Pérez, María Jesús; López Siguero, Juan Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood and adolescence is a complex condition where early detection and comprehensive treatment are essential to improve quality of life, decrease mental comorbidity, and improve GD. In this position statement, the Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN), consisting of specialists in Endocrinology, Psychology, Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Sociology, sets out recommendations for evaluation and treatment of GD in children and adolescents. Interdisciplinary management of GD should be carried out at specialized units (UTIGs), considering that any clinical intervention should follow the principles of scientific rigor, experience, ethical and deontological principles, and the necessary caution in front of chronic, aggressive, and irreversible treatments. PMID:25935352

  19. Intrinsic religiousness and spirituality as predictors of mental health and positive psychological functioning in Latter-Day Saint adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Peter W; Allen, G E Kawika; Fischer, Lane; Richards, P Scott; Morgan, David T; Potts, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the relationships between religiousness and spirituality and various indicators of mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in three separate samples of college students. A total of 898 students at Brigham Young University participated in the three studies. The students ranged in age from 17 to 26 years old, with the average age of 20.9 across all three samples. Our results indicate that intrinsic religiousness, spiritual maturity, and self-transcendence were significantly predictive of better mental health and positive functioning, including lower levels of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness, and higher levels of global self-esteem, identity integration, moral self-approval, and meaning in life. Intrinsic religiousness was not predictive of shame, perfectionism, and eating disorder symptoms. These findings are consistent with many prior studies that have found religiousness and spirituality to be positively associated with better mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25854319

  20. A Brief Motivational Interview in a Pediatric Emergency Department, Plus 10-Day Telephone Follow-Up, Increases Attempts to Quit Drinking Among Youth and Young Adults Who Screen Positive for Problematic Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Judith; Heeren, Timothy; Edward, Erika; Dorfman, David; Bliss, Caleb; Winter, Michael; Bernstein, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Adolescents in their late teens and early twenties have the highest alcohol consumption in the United States; binge drinking peaks at age 21 years. Underage drinking is associated with many negative consequences, including academic problems and risk of intentional and unintentional injuries. This study tested the effectiveness of pediatric emergency department (PED) screening and brief intervention to reduce alcohol consumption and associated risks. Methods A three-group randomized assignment trial was structured to test differences between intervention (I) and standard assessed control (AC) groups in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related behaviors from baseline to 12 months, and to compare the AC group with a minimally assessed control group (MAC) to adjust for the effect of assessment reactivity on control group behavior. Patients aged 14–21 years were eligible if they screened positive on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), or for binge drinking or high-risk behaviors. The MAC group received a resource handout, written advice about alcohol-related risks, and a 12-month follow-up appointment. Patients in the AC group were assessed using standardized instruments in addition to the MAC protocol. The intervention group received a peer-conducted motivational intervention, erral to community resources and treatment if indicated, and a ten-day booster in addition to assessment. Measurements included 30 day self-report of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related behaviors, screens for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, and self-report of attempts to quit, cut back, or change conditions of use, all repeated at follow-up. Motor vehicle records and medical records were also analyzed for changes from baseline to one year follow-up. Results Among 7,807 PED patients screened, 1,202 were eligible; 853 enrolled (I n = 283; AC n = 284; MAC n = 286), with a 12-month follow-up rate of 72%. At 12 months, more than half of enrollees in RAP

  1. Radiologists' interpretive efficiency and variability in true- and false-positive detection when screen-reading with tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) relative to standard mammography in population screening.

    PubMed

    Svahn, Tony M; Macaskill, Petra; Houssami, Nehmat

    2015-12-01

    We examined interpretive efficiency and variability in true- and false-positive detection (TP, FP) for radiologists screen-reading with digital breast tomosynthesis as adjunct to full-field digital mammography (2D/3D) relative to 2D alone in population-based screening studies. A systematic literature search was performed to identify screening studies that provided radiologist-specific data for TP and FP detection. Radiologist interpretive efficiency (trade-off between TPs and FPs) was calculated using the FP:TP ratio which expresses the number of FP recalls for each screen-detected breast cancer. We modeled a pooled FP:TP ratio to assess variability in radiologists' interpretive efficiency at study-level using random effects logistic regression. FP:TP ratio improved (ratio decreased) for 2D/3D screen-reading (relative to 2D) for a majority of radiologists (18 of 22) across all studies. Variability in radiologists' FP:TP ratio was consistently lower in all studies for 2D/3D screen-reading, as suggested by lower variance in ratios. Study-level pooled FP:TP ratio for 2D- and 2D/3D-mammography respectively, were 5.96 (95%CI: 4.08 to 8.72) and 3.17 (95%CI: 2.25 to 4.47) for the STORM trial; 10.25 (95%CI: 6.42 to 16.35) and 7.07 (95%CI: 4.99 to 10.02) for the Oslo trial; and 20.84 (95%CI: 13.95 to 31.12) and 8.37 (95%CI: 5.87 to 11.93) for the Houston study. This transfers into study-level improved interpretative efficiencies of 48%, 30% and 55%, respectively, for 2D/3D screen-reading (relative to 2D). In summary, study-level FP:TP trade-off improved using 2D/3D-mammography for all studies, which was also seen for most individual radiologists. There was variability in the FP:TP trade-off between readers and studies for 2D-as well as for 2D/3D-interpretations but variability in radiologists' interpretive efficiency was relatively lower using 2D/3D-mammography. PMID:26433751

  2. Brief Screening Instrument of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for Children and Adolescents 7-15 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, AiZhong; Tan, Hongzhuan; Zhou, Jia; Li, Shuoqi; Yang, Tubao; Sun, Zhenqiu; Wen, Shi Wu

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a brief screening instrument of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for young victims of natural disasters. Data were derived from flood victims in 1998 and 1999 in Hunan, China. A representative population sample of 6,852 subjects 7-15 years of age was selected. Among them, 6,073 (88.6%) were…

  3. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary A; Sucato, Gina S

    2014-10-01

    A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions. PMID:25266435

  4. Brief Report: The Effects of Exercise on the Self-Stimulatory Behaviors and Positive Responding of Adolescents with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal-Malek, Andrea; Mitchell, Stella

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on the self-stimulatory behaviors and academic performance of five adolescent males with autism. Results found there was a significant decrease in self-stimulatory behavior following the physical exercise. Academic performance increased after the aerobic exercise as compared to classroom…

  5. Positive Parenting in Adolescence and Its Relation to Low Point Narration and Identity Status in Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Tara M.; Lawford, Heather; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Pratt, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined identity development using the life story model (McAdams, 2001), in addition to a traditional identity status approach, in order to explore the association between perceived parenting in adolescence and the subsequent quality of life story narration in emerging adulthood. Participants (N = 100) were given a…

  6. The Well at the Bottom of the World: Positionality and New Zealand [Aotearoa] Adolescents' Conceptions of Historical Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levstik, Linda S.

    A study investigated early adolescent Maori, Pacific Islander, and European New Zealanders' understanding of significance in New Zealand (Aotearoa) history through open-ended interviews with 49 11-13-year-old students. Participants understood history to have a dual purpose. First, history linked them to various national, racial, and ethnic…

  7. Ready To Eat Cereal (RTEC) Consumption Positively Affects Total Daily Nutrient Intakes in Hispanic Children and Adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the impact of breakfast meal pattern on nutrient intake status of Hispanic children and adolescents (N=3220), we compared breakfast skippers (S), RTEC, and other breakfast consumers using 24-hour recall data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our data ind...

  8. Social Support and Maternal Depression from Pregnancy to Postpartum: The Association with Positive Maternal Behaviours among Brazilian Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Sílvia H.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent motherhood is a risky situation related to poorer quality of infant caregiving. The lack of social support and increased odds for maternal depression are the main concerns. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal-foetal attachment, social support and maternal depression measured during pregnancy and after birth were associated…

  9. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  10. Positive Outcomes following Participation in a Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Greher, Gena; Poto, Nataliya; Dougherty, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Music interventions are frequently utilized with those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and have shown a range of benefits. However, empirical evaluations are lacking and would be a timely step forward in the field. Here we report the findings of our pilot music program for adolescents and young adults with ASD. Evaluation of the program…

  11. Positive Mental Well-Being in Australian Adolescents: Evaluating the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Simon C.; Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    While there is increasing recognition of the need to go beyond measures of mental ill health, there is a relative dearth of validated tools for assessing mental well-being among adolescents. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) is a promising tool for use in this context, and this study evaluated its use in an Australian context.…

  12. A genome-wide screen for copy number alterations in an adolescent pilot cohort with Müllerian anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Murry, Jaclyn B.; Santos, Xiomara; Wang, Xiaoling; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.; Dietrich, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether pathogenic CNCs can be identified in DNA from females with different classes of Müllerian anomalies. Design We conducted array-based CNV analysis using an oligonucleotide array from DNA in 12 adolescent females with different types of Müllerian anomalies. Setting University-affiliated tertiary care institution Patients 20 adolescent females with clinically confirmed Müllerian anomalies Interventions array-based CNV analysis Main Outcome Measure(s) Copy number changes and/or regions with absence of heterozygosity Results 192 copy-number variants that we identified in these samples were previously annotated as polymorphic. Three copy number changes that were identified in regions with minimal to no overlap with annotated polymorphisms failed significance criteria with detailed inspection. One subject harbored a 5.1 Mb region of absence of heterozygosity at Xq23 that is of unknown significance. Conclusions In conclusion, we did not identify pathogenic CNCs in this small pilot cohort of patients with various Müllerian anomalies, but larger studies will be needed to further investigate more comprehensively whether CNCs are associated with all classes of Müllerian anomalies. PMID:25492685

  13. Suicide screening in schools, primary care and emergency departments

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Lisa M.; Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Pao, Maryland

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Every year, suicide claims the lives of tens of thousands of young people worldwide. Despite its high prevalence and known risk factors, suicidality is often undetected. Early identification of suicide risk may be an important method of mitigating this public health crisis. Screening youth for suicide may be a critical step in suicide prevention. This paper reviews suicide screening in three different settings: schools, primary care clinics and emergency departments (EDs). Recent findings Unrecognized and thus untreated suicidality leads to substantial morbidity and mortality. With the onus of detection falling on nonmental health professionals, brief screening tools can be used to initiate more in-depth evaluations. Nonetheless, there are serious complexities and implications of screening all children and adolescents for suicide. Recent studies show that managing positive screens is a monumental challenge, including the problem of false positives and the burden subsequently posed on systems of care. Furthermore, nearly 60% of youth in need of mental health services do not receive the care they need, even after suicide attempt. Schools, primary care clinics and EDs are logical settings where screening that leads to intervention can be initiated. Summary Valid, brief and easy-to-administer screening tools can be utilized to detect risk of suicide in children and adolescents. Targeted suicide screening in schools, and universal suicide screening in primary care clinics and EDs may be the most effective way to recognize and prevent self-harm. These settings must be equipped to manage youth who screen positive with effective and timely interventions. Most importantly, the impact of suicide screening in various settings needs to be further assessed. PMID:19617829

  14. Gender Related Differences in Response to “In Favor of Myself” Wellness Program to Enhance Positive Self & Body Image among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noa; Tamir, Snait

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program – “In Favor of Myself” – on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. Methods Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5) participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. Results Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to “In Favor of Myself”. Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain “thin”. At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. Conclusions Girls exhibited more gains than boys from ‘In Favor of Myself’ which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups vs

  15. Genetic Screening

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Wylie; Tarini, Beth; Press, Nancy A.; Evans, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Current approaches to genetic screening include newborn screening to identify infants who would benefit from early treatment, reproductive genetic screening to assist reproductive decision making, and family history assessment to identify individuals who would benefit from additional prevention measures. Although the traditional goal of screening is to identify early disease or risk in order to implement preventive therapy, genetic screening has always included an atypical element—information relevant to reproductive decisions. New technologies offer increasingly comprehensive identification of genetic conditions and susceptibilities. Tests based on these technologies are generating a different approach to screening that seeks to inform individuals about all of their genetic traits and susceptibilities for purposes that incorporate rapid diagnosis, family planning, and expediting of research, as well as the traditional screening goal of improving prevention. Use of these tests in population screening will increase the challenges already encountered in genetic screening programs, including false-positive and ambiguous test results, overdiagnosis, and incidental findings. Whether this approach is desirable requires further empiric research, but it also requires careful deliberation on the part of all concerned, including genomic researchers, clinicians, public health officials, health care payers, and especially those who will be the recipients of this novel screening approach. PMID:21709145

  16. The adolescent emotional coping after an earthquake: a risk factor for suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Stratta, Paolo; Capanna, Cristina; Carmassi, Claudia; Patriarca, Sara; Di Emidio, Gabriella; Riccardi, Ilaria; Collazzoni, Alberto; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Rossi, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to investigate the relationship of suicidal ideation with coping and resilience in a sample of adolescents who survived an earthquake. Three hundred forty-three adolescents who had experienced the L'Aquila earthquake were investigated for a screening distinguishing Suicidal Screen-Negative (SSN) from the Positive (SSP) subjects. Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) and Brief Cope were administered. Emotion-focused coping score was significantly higher in SSP subjects. In the SSN but not in the SSP sample the READ total score correlated with problem-focused total score. A positive correlation was seen between emotion-focused and problem-focused scores in both samples, with a higher coefficient in SSP sample. Externalising problems and maladaptive behaviours can arise in adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Attention should be paid in reducing risk factors and in the development of psychological abilities, improving the coping strategies that can protect from emotional despair and suicidal ideation. PMID:24931563

  17. Benign and Deleterious Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Mutations Identified by Sequencing in Positive Cystic Fibrosis Newborn Screen Children from California

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Danieli B.; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Azen, Colleen; Young, Suzanne; Raraigh, Karen S.; Keens, Thomas G.; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Of the 2007 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutations, 202 have been assigned disease liability. California’s racially diverse population, along with CFTR sequencing as part of newborn screening model, provides the opportunity to examine the phenotypes of children with uncategorized mutations to help inform disease liability and penetrance. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on children screened from 2007 to 2011 and followed for two to six years. Newborns that screened positive were divided into three genotype groups: those with two CF-causing mutations (CF-C); those with one mutation of varying clinic consequence (VCC); and those with one mutation of unknown disease liability (Unknown). Sweat chloride tests, pancreatic sufficiency status, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization were compared. Results Children with two CF-causing mutations had a classical CF phenotype, while 5% of VCC (4/78) and 11% of Unknown (27/244) met diagnostic criteria of CF. Children carrying Unknown mutations 2215insG with D836Y, and T1036N had early and classical CF phenotype, while others carrying 1525-42G>A, L320V, L967S, R170H, and 296+28A>G had a benign clinical presentation, suggesting that these are non-CF causing. Conclusions While most infants with VCC and Unknown CFTR mutations do not meet diagnostic criteria for CF, a small proportion do. These findings highlight the range of genotypes and phenotypes in the first few years of life following CF newborn screening when CFTR sequencing is performed. PMID:27214204

  18. Physical Activity-Associated Bone Loading During Adolescence and Young Adulthood Is Positively Associated With Adult Bone Mineral Density in Men.

    PubMed

    Strope, Matthew A; Nigh, Peggy; Carter, Melissa I; Lin, Nantian; Jiang, Jun; Hinton, Pamela S

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity during growth increases bone mass and strength; however, it remains unclear whether these benefits persist. The purpose of this study was to determine: (a) if bone loading during adolescence (13-18 years) or young adulthood (19-29 years) in men is associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood; (b) if current participation in high-impact activity (ground reaction force>4×body weight) and/or resistance training is associated with greater BMD; and, (c) if continuous participation in a high-impact activity from adolescence to adulthood is associated with greater BMD. Apparently healthy, physically active men aged 30 to 65 years (n=203) participated in this cross-sectional study. Exercise-associated bone loading was estimated based on ground reaction forces of historical physical activity. Current BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Participants were grouped based on current participation in a high-impact activity (n=18), resistance training (n=57), both (n=14), or neither (n=114); groups were compared by two-way analysis of covariance. Bone loading during adolescence and young adulthood were significant, positive predictors of BMD of the whole body, total hip, and lumbar spine, adjusting for lean body mass and/or age in the regression models. Individuals who currently participate in a high-impact activity had greater lumbar spine BMD than nonparticipants. Men who continuously participated in a high-impact activity had greater hip and lumbar spine BMD than those who did not. In conclusion, physical activity-associated bone loading both during and after skeletal growth is positively associated with adult bone mass. PMID:25237041

  19. Validation of 5-item and 2-item questionnaires in Chinese version of Dizziness Handicap Inventory for screening objective benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Shu, Liang; Wang, Qian; Pan, Hui; Wu, Jing; Fang, Jie; Sun, Xu-Hong; Zhai, Yu; Dong, You-Rong; Liu, Jian-Ren

    2016-08-01

    As possible candidate screening instruments for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), studies to validate the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) sub-scale (5-item and 2-item) and total scores are rare in China. From May 2014 to December 2014, 108(55 with and 53 without BPPV) patients complaining of episodic vertigo in the past week from a vertigo outpatient clinic were enrolled for DHI evaluation, as well as demographic and other clinical data. Objective BPPV was subsequently determined by positional evoking maneuvers under the record of optical Frenzel glasses. Cronbach's coefficient α was used to evaluate the reliability of psychometric scales. The validity of DHI total, 5-item and 2-item questionnaires to screen for BPPV was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. It revealed that the DHI 5-item questionnaire had good internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = 0.72). Area under the curve of total DHI, 5-item and 2-item scores for discriminating BPPV from those without was 0.678 (95 % CI 0.578-0.778), 0.873(95 % CI 0.807-0.940) and 0.895(95 % CI 0.836-0.953), respectively. It revealed 74.5 % sensitivity and 88.7 % specificity in separating BPPV and those without, with a cutoff value of 12 in the 5-item questionnaire. The corresponding rate of sensitivity and specificity was 78.2 and 88.7 %, respectively, with a cutoff value of 6 in 2-item questionnaire. The present study indicated that both 5-item and 2-item questionnaires in the Chinese version of DHI may be more valid than DHI total score for screening objective BPPV and merit further application in clinical practice in China. PMID:27071688

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Personalized Text Message Reminders to Promote Medication Adherence Among HIV-Positive Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Hotton, Anna; Johnson, Amy; Muldoon, Abigail; Rice, Dion

    2016-05-01

    HIV-positive adolescents and young adults often experience suboptimal medication adherence, yet few interventions to improve adherence in this group have shown evidence of efficacy. We conducted a randomized trial of a two-way, personalized daily text messaging intervention to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among N = 105 poorly adherent HIV-positive adolescents and young adults, ages 16-29. Adherence to ART was assessed via self-reported visual analogue scale (VAS; 0-100 %) at 3 and 6-months for mean adherence level and proportion ≥90 % adherent. The average effect estimate over the 6-month intervention period was significant for ≥90 % adherence (OR = 2.12, 95 % CI 1.01-4.45, p < .05) and maintained at 12-months (6 months post-intervention). Satisfaction scores for the intervention were very high. These results suggest both feasibility and initial efficacy of this approach. Given study limitations, additional testing of this intervention as part of a larger clinical trial with objective and/or clinical outcome measures of adherence is warranted. PMID:26362167

  1. Sedentary behavior, depressed affect, and indicators of mental well-being in adolescence: Does the screen only matter for girls?

    PubMed

    Suchert, Vivien; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated the effects of sedentary behavior (SB) on mental well-being and examined differences between screen-based (sSB) and non-screen-based sedentary behaviors (nSB) separately by gender. In a total sample of 1296 students (609 girls) aged 12-17 (m = 13.7, SD = 0.67), SB, depressed affect, self-esteem, physical self-concept, general self-efficacy and physical activity were assessed through self-administered questionnaires. Among girls, lower scores in self-esteem, physical self-concept as well as general self-efficacy were associated with higher sSB but not nSB. Among boys higher levels of sSB related to higher self-esteem, nSB but not sSB predicted higher scores in depressed affect, and there was a u-shaped association between sSB and general self-efficacy. Results replicate the inverse association between SB and mental well-being, and suggest a distinction between nSB and sSB especially among girls. Additional studies will be necessary to replicate, and further examine mediating mechanisms. PMID:25910467

  2. Screening the risk of bipolar spectrum disorders: Validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather sources of validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) in young adults for its use as a screening tool for bipolar spectrum disorders. The sample was composed of 1,002 participants, 268 men (26.7%). The mean age of participants was 21.1 years (SD=3.9). The results showed that between 3 and 59% of the sample reported some hypomanic experience. Gender differences were found in the total score of the MDQ. The analysis of the internal structure by exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors, called Energy-Activity and Disinhibition-Attention. This dimensional structure was replicated in the exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and also had factorial equivalence by gender. Participants who met the cut-off points of the MDQ reported a worse perceived mental health status and more consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, compared to the low scores group. These findings indicate that the MDQ has adequate psychometric properties in non-clinical samples, and could be useful as a screening tool in psychopathology, with the possibility of optimizing strategies for early identification and prevention in individuals at high risk for bipolar disorders. Future studies should further explore the role of subclinical bipolar phenotype and conduct longitudinal studies in samples of the general population. PMID:26055933

  3. Screening for anxiety symptoms and social desirability in children and adolescents living with chronic illnesses in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Arabiat, Diana H; Jabery, Mohammad Al; Wardam, Lina

    2013-03-01

    This research aims to investigate the rate and nature of anxiety symptoms in a group of children and adolescents living with chronic illnesses in Jordan, and their relation to social desirability in a cultural sample not previously researched. Using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS), anxiety and social desirability data were obtained from 114 children diagnosed with chronic illnesses and 162 healthy control participants. Based on children's self-report, participants were categorized according to their adaptive style paradigm as either high anxious, low anxious, or repressor. It was proposed that children who score high on social desirability and low on anxiety are repressors. The prevalence of these categories was compared across the two groups. Anxiety was reported in 9.64 percent of the chronic illnesses and 12.34 percent of the healthy peers. Using the data obtained in the present study, the rate and nature of anxiety in children with chronic illnesses were lower for children in Jordan when compared to previous studies. However, social desirability values were similar to those established in Western societies suggesting a significantly higher percentage of children identified as repressors in children with long-term illnesses. These results supported the hypothesis regarding the relationship between social desirability and expressed anxiety symptoms. PMID:23242812

  4. Exploring the Contributions of School Belonging to Complete Mental Health Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffa, Kathryn; Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the many positive outcomes associated with adolescents' sense of school belonging, including psychological functioning, it is possible that including an assessment of school belonging within a complete mental health screening process could contribute to the prediction of students' future mental health status. This exploratory study…

  5. Physical activity and screen-based media use: cross-sectional associations with health-related quality of life and the role of body satisfaction in a representative sample of German adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Finne, Emily; Bucksch, Jens; Lampert, Thomas; Kolip, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although it is widely accepted that physical activity (PA) positively, and screen-based media use (SBM) negatively, affects well-being, there is a lack of studies relating PA and SBM to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents. We examined these associations in German adolescents for different HRQoL subdomains and explored the role of body satisfaction as a possible mediator. Methods: The 11–17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (2003–2006) was analysed (N = 6813; 51.3% male). Cross-sectional associations of self-reported PA frequency and amount of daily SBM with HRQoL subscale scores (according to KINDL-R) were examined by hierarchical linear regression models, adjusting for the clustering of the sample and for a variety of possible confounders. The size and significance of indirect effects via body (dis)satisfaction (BDS) were examined by mediation analyses. Results: Higher PA frequency was significantly associated with higher HRQoL on nearly all subscales and dose–response-relationships were observable. Variations were greatest in terms of social well-being in boys (effect size d = 0.59) and physical well-being in girls (d = 0.43). Higher SBM was related to lower HRQoL on all subscales in girls and on some subscales in boys, with the largest effects for school functioning in both genders (d = 0.31 and 0.37, respectively). The mediated effects for PA and SBM were significant in both genders, but the sizes and the proportions of total effects mediated by body satisfaction were rather small. Conclusions: Higher PA frequency was associated with higher self-reported HRQoL, and higher SBM was associated with lower self-reported HRQoL in both genders, even after adjusting for relevant covariates. The results support the assumption of independent health impacts of both behaviours, although no causal relationship can be confirmed with these cross-sectional data. Mechanisms other than body satisfaction must

  6. Hospital length of stay in individuals with schizophrenia with and without cocaine-positive urine drug screens at hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanjing Emily; Mohite, Satyajit; Ngana, Ikenna; Burns, Wilma; Shah, Nurun; Schneider, Laurie; Schmitz, Joy M; Lane, Scott D; Okusaga, Olaoluwa O

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of cocaine use disorder (CUD) in individuals with schizophrenia, current understanding of the effect of cocaine on psychiatric hospital length of stay (LOS) in individuals with schizophrenia is limited. We therefore retrospectively examined the medical records of 5106 hospital admissions due to exacerbation of schizophrenia. Linear regression and t-test were used to compare LOS between individuals with schizophrenia with cocaine-positive urine drug test results and those with negative test results. Individuals with schizophrenia who were also positive for cocaine had shorter LOS from both unadjusted (geometric mean LOS, 8.07 ± 1.92 vs. 11.83 ± 1.83 days; p < 0.001) and adjusted (β = 0.69; confidence interval, 0.63-0.76; p < 0.001) analyses. Our results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia who also have comorbid CUD may require shorter inpatient treatment during periods of exacerbation of symptoms. Replication of this finding has relevance in treatment planning and resource allocation for the subpopulation of individuals with schizophrenia who also have stimulant use disorders. PMID:25489749

  7. Using Positive Youth Development to Predict Contribution and Risk Behaviors in Early Adolescence: Findings from the First Two Waves of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Helena; Bobek, Deborah L.; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.

    2007-01-01

    Theories of positive youth development (PYD) regard such development as bases of both community contributions and lessened likelihood of risk/problem behaviors. Using data from the 4-H Study of PYD, we tested these expectations by examining if PYD in Grade 5 predicted both youth contributions and risk behaviors and depression in Grade 6. Results…

  8. Dynamic Association Between Interpersonal Functioning and Positive Symptom Dimensions of Psychosis Over Time: A Longitudinal Study of Healthy Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Collip, Dina; Wigman, Johanna T. W.; Nelson, Barnaby; Oorschot, Margreet; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Ryan, Jaymee; Baksheev, Gennedy; Wichers, Marieke; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Yung, Alison R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cross-sectional studies have indicated that alterations in social functioning, particularly interpersonal functioning, are associated with the occurrence of psychotic symptoms and experiences at different levels of the extended psychosis phenotype (ranging from population psychometric expression of liability to overt psychotic disorder). However, more research is needed on the development of this association over time. Methods: Cross-lagged path modeling was used to analyze bidirectional, longitudinal associations between 4 dimensions of subclinical psychotic experiences (persecutory ideation, bizarre experiences, perceptual abnormalities, and magical thinking) and interpersonal functioning in an adolescent general population sample (N = 881 at T1, N = 652 at T2, and N = 512 at T3) assessed 3 times in 3 years. Results: All symptom dimensions showed some association with interpersonal functioning over time, but only bizarre experiences and persecutory ideation were consistently and longitudinally associated with interpersonal functioning. Poorer interpersonal functioning predicted higher levels of bizarre experiences and persecutory ideation at later measurement points (both T1 to T2 and T2 to T3). Conclusions: Poor interpersonal functioning in adolescence may reflect the earliest expression of neurodevelopmental alterations preceding expression of psychotic experiences in a symptom-specific fashion. PMID:21930645

  9. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    structured algorithm for specific recommended responses based on level of risk. Adolescents who are at low or moderate risk for a substance use disorder, who constitute most of those seen in general medical settings, may be effectively counseled with a few minutes of brief advice, particularly after being primed with screening, feedback, and education before seeing their physician. High-risk patients (screen-positives) should receive a brief follow-up assessment to determine the appropriate level of care needed and a BI, using MI principles, to enhance motivation for behavioral change and help-seeking. Indications of acute danger or addiction may necessitate breaking confidentiality to protect patient safety and begin RT. Our review shows a small but growing body of research on the effectiveness of opportunistic BIs following screening of adolescents in clinical settings. Studies to date have largely tested brief alcohol-focused MI-based interventions with adolescents in the ED or trauma care settings; however, the number of studies conducted in primary health care settings is increasing. The strongest BI effects found in these studies tend to be related to harm reduction, such as reduction of substance-related driving/riding, alcohol-related injuries, unplanned sex, and other negative consequences of use. Effects on substance use have been more modest and tend to be stronger at shorter (< or = 6 months) rather than longer follow-up (> or = 12 months). However, many of these studies compared BI to active control conditions, which often included elements of BI (eg, assessment, brief advice, informational handouts). Significant reductions in substance use and related harms were also seen in these control groups, likely making detection ofa BI effect more difficult. A few studies have shown initial support for a prevention effect of BI among abstinent adolescents. At the opposite end of the spectrum, little is known about the effects of BI for adolescents with dependence and

  10. Exploring the Language of Youth Purpose: References to Positive States and Coping Styles by Adolescents with Different Kinds of Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariano, Jennifer Menon; Savage, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This study used an exploratory mixed methods design to address the questions: (1) "Is there a positive language of youth purpose, and if so, what is it like?" and (2) "Which kinds of purpose best predict reports of positive states and coping styles?" Qualitative coding identified references to positive states and coping strategies in 172…

  11. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH

  12. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    PubMed Central

    Spjut Jansson, Birgitta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Westerlund, Joakim; Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL) – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular) and only home-based (IL Modified) and eclectic interventions. Results There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. PMID:27621636

  13. Screening of eye-position related genes with DD-RT-PCR and RDA in the hybrids between Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanjie; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie; Sun, Yeying; Zhong, Qiwang; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Shuo; Li, Chunmei

    2009-02-01

    Flatfish or flounder moves one eye to change body proportion into vertebral asymmetry during metamorphosis, during which some become sinistral while others dextral. However, the mechanism behinds the eye-position has not been well understood. In this research, hybrids between Japanese flounder(♀) and stone flounder (♂) show mixed eye-location in both dextral type and sinistral type, and thus become good samples for studying the eye-migration. mRNAs from pro-metamorphosis sinistral and dextral hybrids larvae were screened with classical differential display RT-PCR (DD-RT-PCR) and representational difference analysis of cDNA (cDNA-RDA); 30 and 47 putative fragments were isolated, respectively. The cDNA fragments of creatine kinase and trypsinogen 2 precursor genes isolated by cDNA-RDA exhibited eye-position expression patterns during metamorphosis. However, none of the fragments was proved to be related to flatfishes’ eye-position specifically. Therefore, further studies and more sensitive gene isolated methods are needed to solve the problems.

  14. The enzymology of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation and its application to follow-up analysis of positive neonatal screening results

    PubMed Central

    Ruiter, Jos P. N.; IJlst, Lodewijk; Waterham, Hans R.; Houten, Sander M.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a key physiological process in higher eukaryotes including humans. The importance of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation system in humans is exemplified by the existence of a group of genetic diseases in man caused by an impairment in the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. Identification of patients with a defect in mitochondrial beta-oxidation has long remained notoriously difficult, but the introduction of tandem-mass spectrometry in laboratories for genetic metabolic diseases has revolutionalized the field by allowing the rapid and sensitive analysis of acylcarnitines. Equally important is that much progress has been made with respect to the development of specific enzyme assays to identify the enzyme defect in patients subsequently followed by genetic analysis. In this review, we will describe the current state of knowledge in the field of fatty acid oxidation enzymology and its application to the follow-up analysis of positive neonatal screening results. PMID:20490924

  15. Update on Substance Use in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Durand, Simone C; Fogger, Susanne A; McGuinness, Teena M

    2016-08-01

    With alarming frequency, an individual's first substance use occurs in childhood or adolescence. However, the use of many types of substances among individuals younger than 18 has been gradually declining over the past 6 years, and our understanding of risk factors for youth substance use has improved. Risk factors identified as possibly contributing to a young individual's first encounter with cigarettes or alcohol include parents' own substance use or mental health problems. Mental disorders of children have been implicated in substance use as well. Screening and interventions are available to reduce the frequency and intensity of adolescent substance use and are suggested in the current article. Nurses are in a position to identify adolescents who are at risk for substance use disorders and link the family system to effective intervention. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(8), 24-27.]. PMID:27479476

  16. Identifying Adolescents at Highly Elevated Risk for Suicidal Behavior in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Berona, Johnny; Czyz, Ewa; Horwitz, Adam G.; Gipson, Polly Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The feasibility and concurrent validity of adolescent suicide risk screening in medical emergency departments (EDs) has been documented. The objectives of this short-term prospective study of adolescents who screened positive for suicide risk in the ED were: 1) to examine adolescents' rate of suicidal behavior during the 2 months following their ED visits and compare it with reported rates for psychiatric samples; and 2) to identify possible predictors of acute risk for suicidal behavior in this at-risk sample. Method: Participants were 81 adolescents, ages 14–19 years, seeking services for psychiatric and nonpsychiatric chief complaints, who screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, a suicide attempt, and/or depression plus alcohol or substance misuse. A comprehensive assessment of suicidal behavior, using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, was conducted at baseline and 2 month follow-up. Results: Six adolescents (7.4%) reported a suicide attempt and 15 (18.5%) engaged in some type of suicidal behavior (actual, aborted, or interrupted suicide attempt; preparatory behavior) during the 2 months following their ED visit. These rates suggest that this screen identified a high-risk sample. Furthermore, adolescents who screened positive for suicidal ideation and/or attempt plus depression and alcohol/substance misuse were most likely to engage in future suicidal behavior (38.9%). Conclusions: In this study, use of a higher screen threshold (multiple suicide risk factors) showed promise for identifying highly elevated acute risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:25746114

  17. Feasibility of using text messaging for unhealthy behaviors screening in a clinical setting: a case study on adolescent hazardous alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Underage alcohol use is the leading cause of preventable mortality among adolescents in the USA. Moreover, the average age of onset of underage drinking is 13 years. This study examined the feasibility of using a text messaging survey (TMS) to assess adolescent alcohol use. A sample of 29 adolescents, aged 13–17 years, was recruited from two primary care clinics. They completed a 16 question TMS while in the waiting room and a two-question exit TMS. The participation rate was 87%. Two out of 25 (8%) adolescents met the criteria for hazardous drinking and 28% reported alcohol use. It was found that 38% and 25% of adolescents who completed the exit TMS were asked or advised about drinking, respectively. Text messaging to assess adolescent alcohol use in this setting seems feasible, does not disrupt patient workflow, and can assess many health behaviors before a clinical encounter. PMID:22759622

  18. Life Stressors as Mediators of the Relation between Socioeconomic Position and Mental Health Problems in Early Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Ormel, Johan; Huisman, Martijn; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Burger, Huibert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Life stressors and family socioeconomic position have often been associated with mental health status. The aim of the present study is to contribute to the understanding of the pathways from low socioeconomic position and life stressors to mental problems. Method: In a cross-sectional analysis using data from a longitudinal study of…

  19. Effects of the Maytiv positive psychology school program on early adolescents' well-being, engagement, and achievement.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, Anat; Steinmetz, Sarit; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv

    2016-08-01

    As positive psychology is a nascent area of research, there are very few empirical studies assessing the impact and sustained effects of positive psychology school interventions. The current study presents a 2-year longitudinal evaluation of the effects of a school-based positive psychology program on students' subjective well-being, school engagement, and academic achievements. The study investigated the effectiveness of the Maytiv school program using a positive psychology-based classroom-level intervention with 2517 seventh- to ninth-grade students in 70 classrooms, from six schools in the center of Israel. The classes were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions, which were comparable in terms of students' age, gender, and socio-economic status. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed positive intervention effects on positive emotions, peer relations, emotional engagement in school, cognitive engagement, and grade point average scores (Cohen's ds 0.16-0.71). In the control group, there were significant decreases in positive emotions and cognitive engagement, and no significant changes in peer relations, emotional engagement or school achievements. These findings demonstrate the significant socio-emotional and academic benefits of incorporating components of positive psychology into school curricula. PMID:27425567

  20. Habitual Levels of High, But Not Moderate or Low, Impact Activity Are Positively Related to Hip BMD and Geometry: Results From a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin; Sayers, Adrian; Rittweger, Jörn; Tobias, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    Whether a certain level of impact needs to be exceeded for physical activity (PA) to benefit bone accrual is currently unclear. To examine this question, we performed a cross-sectional analysis between PA and hip BMD in 724 adolescents (292 boys, mean 17.7 years) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), partitioning outputs from a Newtest accelerometer into six different impact bands. Counts within 2.1 to 3.1g, 3.1 to 4.2g, 4.2 to 5.1g, and >5.1g bands were positively related to femoral neck (FN) BMD, in boys and girls combined, in our minimally adjusted model including age, height, and sex (0.5–1.1g: beta = −0.007, p = 0.8; 1.1–2.1g: beta = 0.003, p = 0.9; 2.1–3.1g: beta = 0.042, p = 0.08; 3.1–4.2g: beta = 0.058, p = 0.009; 4.2–5.1g: beta = 0.070, p = 0.001; >5.1g: beta = 0.080, p < 0.001) (beta = SD change per doubling in activity). Similar positive relationships were observed between high-impact bands and BMD at other hip sites (ward's triangle, total hip), hip structure indices derived by hip structural analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (FN width, cross-sectional area, cortical thickness), and predicted strength (cross-sectional moment of inertia). In analyses where adjacent bands were combined and then adjusted for other impacts, high impacts (>4.2g) were positively related to FN BMD, whereas, if anything, moderate (2.1–4.2g) and low impacts (0.5–2.1g) were inversely related (low: beta = −0.052, p = 0.2; medium: beta = −0.058, p = 0.2; high: beta = 0.137, p < 0.001). Though slightly attenuated, the positive association between PA and FN BMD, confined to high impacts, was still observed after adjustment for fat mass, lean mass, and socioeconomic position (high: beta = 0.096, p = 0.016). These results suggest that PA associated with impacts >4.2g, such as jumping and running (which further studies suggested requires speeds >10 km/h) is positively related to hip BMD and structure in adolescents

  1. Measurement and Interpretation of Body Mass Index during Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of childhood health and disease has changed over the past century, and school nurses are now in a unique position to address the conditions that lead to chronic disease, such as obesity. Measuring body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is the recommended method for screening and/or monitoring obesity in school…

  2. The Amusement Arcade as a Social Space for Adolescents: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Sue

    1995-01-01

    Gathered data on arcade use in adolescents (n=460). "Regular" arcade visitors varied sufficiently from the more "casual" visitors in their orientation to, and experience in, arcades. Regular visitors were more likely to score positively on indices screening for addiction. Raises questions about children's access to potentially addictive…

  3. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... A positive result on a screening test does not confirm that the person has HIV infection. More tests are needed to confirm HIV infection. A negative test ...

  4. The role of affect in the positive self: Two longitudinal investigations of young adolescents in the United States and China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Pomerantz, Eva M; Setoh, Peipei; Qu, Yang; Wang, Meifang

    2016-07-01

    This research investigated the role of American and Chinese children's affect in the valence of their views of themselves. In 2 studies (Ns = 825 and 397), children in the United States and China reported on their affect (e.g., positive and negative emotions) and described themselves multiple times over the 7th and 8th grades. The more positive and less negative children's affect, the more positive their descriptions of themselves over time in both studies. These pathways were more consistent than those in the reverse direction (i.e., from children's self-descriptions to their affect). Notably, regardless of direction, the strength of the pathways was similar in the United States and China. The findings suggest that counter to some theoretical perspectives, affect is not more important in American than Chinese children's judgments about the self. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26653897

  5. Teacher Ratings and Achievement Measures of At-Risk Adolescent Black Males in the Positive Impact Program (PIP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobbs, Charles R.; Enger, John M.

    The Positive Impact Program (PIP) is a program that involves the community through role models as mentors in striving to meet the needs of at-risk students. The program is directed by 16 black men who work every week with school-age black males (N=18) who have been identified as being "at-risk" by their teachers. The teachers identified the…

  6. Applying Positive Youth Development and Life-Course Research to the Treatment of Adolescents Involved with the Judicial System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Brown, Jennifer Southwick; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary perspectives on positive youth development are considered in light of multidisciplinary life-course research regarding the development of serious behavior problems. Strategies are provided for applying the youth development perspective and life-course research to clinical interventions for court-involved youth. (Contains 1 table.)

  7. School-Based Positive Psychoeducation in Early Adolescents: Effects on Happiness, Depression, Anxiety, School Engagement, and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that voluntary activity accounts for 40% of individual happiness and can be purposefully manipulated to make meaningful changes in one's reported level of happiness (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005a; Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006). The current study explored the utility of a school-based positive psychology psychoeducation…

  8. Background for Community-Level Work on Positive Citizenship in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaff, Jonathan F.; Michelsen, Erik

    Although American youth seem to be knowledgeable about civic matters and say they wish to participate in civic activities, a relatively low percentage of youth are engaged in their communities. This review examines various antecedents of positive citizenship among 12- to 18-year-olds, focusing on proximal and distal influences on organized forms…

  9. Engagement as Flourishing: The Contribution of Positive Emotions and Coping to Adolescents' Engagement at School and with Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Amy L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Appleton, James J.; Antaramian, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden and build theory postulates that the experience of frequent positive emotions serves to broaden humans' thoughts and behaviors, resulting in accrual of resources, including coping resources, which catalyze upward spirals toward future well-being. Initial research supports the tenets of broaden and build; however,…

  10. Exploring the Meso-System: The Roles of Community, Family, and Peers in Adolescent Delinquency and Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Faulk, Monique; Sizer, Monteic A.

    2016-01-01

    Community contexts are important ecological settings related to problem behavior and positive youth development (PYD). While substantial work has focused on neighborhood disadvantage, the current study explores the role of community assets, specifically linkages to important institutional resources and people in those settings. These concepts are…

  11. Mortality Salience and Positive Affect Influence Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities: Terror Management and Broaden and Build Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…

  12. Peer-Perceived Admiration and Social Preference: Contextual Correlates of Positive Peer Regard among Suburban and Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to understand further the heterogeneity of popularity, by exploring contextual correlates of two dimensions of positive peer regard among seventh graders within two highly disparate sociodemographic groups: affluent suburban and low-income urban (N = 636). Three sets of attributes were examined, all…

  13. The Structure and Developmental Course of Positive Youth Development (PYD) in Early Adolescence: Implications for Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Erin; Zimmerman, Stacy; Warren, A. E. A.; Jelicic, Helena; von Eye, Alexander; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Grades 5 to 7 of the longitudinal 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD), this research assessed the structure and development of PYD. Building on Grade 5 findings, that "Five Cs" (Competence, Confidence, Connection, Character, and Caring) could be empirically defined as latent constructs converging on a second-order…

  14. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Substance Use: Does Monitoring and Positive Parenting Moderate Risk in Urban Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether monitoring and positive parenting moderate the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and youth substance use. Analyses utilized a subsample (N = 2197) of a cross-sectional, ethnically diverse, urban school district sample. Dependent variables were any past year alcohol or drug use (AOD) and binge…

  15. Meeting the needs of adolescent parents and their children.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent parents and their children present to health care practitioners as two paediatric patients, each with unique health care needs. Young parents and their children may be at risk for negative health outcomes, not directly as a consequence of maternal age but because of poverty and other inequities in the social determinants of health. The health needs of child and mother are best assessed using a nonjudgmental approach, appropriate screening tools and open questions that address both preventative and acute health issues. The dyad's coexisting needs may be anticipated as they relate to growth and development, infant and adolescent mental health, nutrition and food security, safety, relationships, parenting, education, sexual health and the facilitation of supports and resources. Care providers who understand adolescent development and integrate medical home elements of a patient-centred 'medical home' into their practices are ideally positioned to facilitate positive health outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:27441025

  16. Does Childhood Positive Self-Perceptual Bias Mediate Adolescent Risky Behavior in Youth from the MTA* Study?

    PubMed Central

    Hoza, Betsy; McQuade, Julia D.; Murray-Close, Dianna; Shoulberg, Erin; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James; Hechtman, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study’s primary aim was to examine whether the positive self-perceptual bias present in many youth with ADHD (Hoza et al., 2004; Hoza, Pelham, Dobbs, Owens, & Pillow, 2002) mediates the relation of childhood ADHD status to later risky behaviors. Method Using a subset of children with ADHD and comparison children (n = 645) from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD, we predicted that a positive bias in childhood would partially or fully mediate the relation between having ADHD and risky driving and sexual behaviors eight years later. Results Results strongly supported this hypothesis for risky driving behavior, but only provided limited support for risky sexual behavior. Conclusions Taken together, findings suggest that future research should explore whether self-perceptual bias may be a useful target of intervention for children with ADHD. PMID:23834228

  17. Characteristics of Individuals Screening Positive for Substance Use in a Welfare Setting: Implications for Welfare and Substance-Use Disorders Treatment Systems*

    PubMed Central

    MORGENSTERN, JON; HOGUE, AARON; DASARO, CHRISTOPHER; KUERBIS, ALEXIS; DAUBER, SARAH

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined barriers to employability, motivation to abstain from substances and to work, and involvement in multiple service systems among male and female welfare applicants with alcohol- and drug-use problems. Method A representative sample (N = 1,431) of all persons applying for public assistance who screened positive for substance involvement over a 2-year period in a large urban county were recruited in welfare offices. Legal, education, general health, mental health, employment, housing, and child welfare barriers to employability were assessed, as were readiness to abstain from substance use and readiness to work. Results Only 1 in 20 participants reported no barrier other than substance use, whereas 70% reported at least two other barriers and 40% reported three or more. Moreover, 70% of participants experienced at least one additional barrier classified as “severe” and 30% experienced two or more. The number and type of barriers differed by gender. Latent class analysis revealed four main barriers-plus-readiness profiles among participants: (1) multiple barriers, (2) work experienced, (3) criminal justice, and (4) unstable housing. Conclusions Findings suggest that comprehensive coordination among social service systems is needed to address the complex problems of low-income Americans with substance-use disorders. Classifying applicants based on barriers and readiness is a promising approach to developing innovative welfare programs to serve the diverse needs of men and women with substance-related problems. PMID:18612572

  18. Parent–child relationships and offspring’s positive mental wellbeing from adolescence to early older age

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana L.; Gale, Catharine R.; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    We examined parent-child relationship quality and positive mental well-being using Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development data. Well-being was measured at ages 13–15 (teacher-rated happiness), 36 (life satisfaction), 43 (satisfaction with home and family life) and 60–64 years (Diener Satisfaction With Life scale and Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale). The Parental Bonding Instrument captured perceived care and control from the father and mother to age 16, recalled by study members at age 43. Greater well-being was seen for offspring with higher combined parental care and lower combined parental psychological control (p < 0.05 at all ages). Controlling for maternal care and paternal and maternal behavioural and psychological control, childhood social class, parental separation, mother’s neuroticism and study member’s personality, higher well-being was consistently related to paternal care. This suggests that both mother–child and father–child relationships may have short and long-term consequences for positive mental well-being. PMID:27019664

  19. Connectedness and Perceived Burdensomeness among Adolescents at Elevated Suicide Risk: An Examination of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Opperman, Kiel; Czyz, Ewa K; Gipson, Polly Y; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior emphasizes the constructs of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capacity, which warrant investigation in adolescents at risk for suicide due to interpersonal stressors. This study examined one component of the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior, "suicidal desire" (suicidal ideation), in 129 adolescents (12-15 years) recruited from a general medical emergency department who screened positive for bully victimization, bully perpetration, or low interpersonal connectedness. Greater perceived burdensomeness combined with low family connectedness was a significant predictor of suicidal ideation. This suggests the importance of addressing connectedness and perceptions of burdensomeness in prevention and early intervention efforts with at-risk adolescents. PMID:25751375

  20. Putting the Screen in Screening

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sion Kim; Knight, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is strongly linked to the leading causes of adolescent and adult mortality and health problems, making medical settings such as primary care and emergency departments important venues for addressing alcohol use. Extensive research evidence supports the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (SBIs) in medical settings, but this valuable strategy remains underused, with medical staff citing lack of time and training as major implementation barriers. Technology-based tools may offer a way to improve efficiency and quality of SBI delivery in such settings. This review describes the latest research examining the feasibility and efficacy of computer- or other technology-based alcohol SBI tools in medical settings, as they relate to the following three patient populations: adults (18 years or older); pregnant women; and adolescents (17 years or younger). The small but growing evidence base generally shows strong feasibility and acceptability of technology-based SBI in medical settings. However, evidence for effectiveness in changing alcohol use is limited in this young field. PMID:26259001

  1. Positive Youth Development in Turkey: A Critical Review of Research on the Social and Emotional Learning Needs of Turkish Adolescents, 2000-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robin Ann; Alacaci, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a critical and systematic review of 52 articles published from 2000 to 2012 about research conducted in Turkey concerning adolescents' social and emotional learning needs. In correspondence with international research, articles were examined across three categories in which adolescent needs could be addressed by educational…

  2. Adolescent suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Field, T; Diego, M; Sanders, C E

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent suicidal ideation and its relationship to other variables was tapped by a self-report questionnaire administered to 88 high school seniors. Eighteen percent responded positively to the statement "sometimes I feel suicidal." Those who reported suicidal ideation were found to differ from those who did not on a number of variables, including family relationships (quality of relationship with mother, intimacy with parents, and closeness to siblings), family history of depression (maternal depression), peer relations (quality of peer relationships, popularity, and number of friends), emotional well-being (happiness, anger, and depression), drug use (cigarettes, marijuana, and cocaine), and grade point average. Stepwise regression indicated that happiness explained 46% of the variance in suicidal ideation, and number of friends, anger, and marijuana use explained an additional 20%, for a total of 66% of the variance. While 34% of the variance remained unexplained, it is suggested that the questions used to measure these four variables be included in global screenings to identify adolescents at risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:11572303

  3. Urinary Screening for Detection of Renal Abnormalities in Asymptomatic School Children

    PubMed Central

    Parakh, Prince; Bhatta, Nisha K; Mishra, Om P; Shrestha, Pramod; Budhathoki, Sunil; Majhi, Shankar; Sinha, Arvind; Dhungel, Kanchan; Prabhakar, Rahul; Haldhar, Niladri

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary screening tests for early detection of renal diseases in asymptomatic school children and adolescents are important in the detection of silent renal diseases. Objectives The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of occult renal diseases by dipstick test (reagent strips) in asymptomatic Nepalese children. Patients and Methods A total of 2,243 school children, aged 5–15 years, were screened for urinary abnormalities using dipstick test screening. The children who tested positive in the first screening were re-tested after 2–4 weeks. Results In the first screening, 123 children (5.5%) tested positive for isolated hematuria and proteinuria and for combined hematuria and proteinuria. Of these children, 16 (0.71%) cases tested positive in a second screening. Subsequently, 1 child from the secondary screening group was lost to follow up, 5 tested normal and 10 revealed abnormalities. Glomerulonephritis was the most commonly detected disorder (50%). Conclusions Urinary screening was found to be useful in identifying occult renal diseases in asymptomatic children. Urinary screening would therefore not only help in early detection but also in the prevention of the deterioration of renal function later in life. PMID:23573484

  4. Kinome wide functional screen identifies role of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) in hormone-independent, ER-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhola, Neil; Jansen, Valerie M.; Bafna, Sangeeta; Giltnane, Jennifer M.; Balko, Justin M.; Estrada, Mónica V.; Meszoely, Ingrid; Mayer, Ingrid; Abramson, Vandana; Ye, Fei; Sanders, Melinda; Dugger, Teresa C.; Van Allen, Eliezer; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancers initially respond to antiestrogens but eventually become estrogen-independent and recur. ER+ breast cancer cells resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) exhibit hormone-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth. A kinome-wide siRNA screen using a library targeting 720 kinases identified Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) as one of the top genes whose downregulation resulted in inhibition of estrogen-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth of LTED cells. High PLK1 mRNA and protein correlated with a high Ki67 score in primary ER+ breast cancers after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PLK1 inhibited ER expression, estrogen-independent growth and ER transcription in MCF7 and HCC1428 LTED cells. Pharmacological inhibition of PLK1 with volasertib, a small molecule ATP-competitive PLK1 inhibitor, decreased LTED cell growth, ER transcriptional activity and ER expression. Volasertib in combination with the ER antagonist, fulvestrant, decreased MCF7 xenograft growth in ovariectomized mice more potently than each drug alone. JUNB, a component of the AP-1 complex, was expressed 16-fold higher in MCF7/LTED compared to parental MCF7 cells. Further, JUNB and BCL2L1 (which encodes anti-apoptotic BCL-xL) mRNA levels were markedly reduced upon volasertib treatment in MCF7/LTED cells while they were increased in parental MCF7 cells. Finally, JUNB knockdown decreased ER expression and transcriptional activity in MCF7/LTED cells, suggesting that PLK1 drives ER expression and estrogen-independent growth via JUNB. These data support a critical role of PLK1 in acquired hormone-independent growth of ER+ human breast cancer and is therefore a promising target in tumors that have escaped estrogen deprivation therapy. PMID:25480943

  5. Vitamin D: still a topical matter in children and adolescents. A position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Vidailhet, M; Mallet, E; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Ghisolfi, J; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U; Turck, D

    2012-03-01

    The aims of the present position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics were to summarize the recently published data on vitamin D in infants, children and adolescents, i.e., on metabolism, physiological effects, and requirements and to make recommendations on supplementation after careful review of the evidence. Scientific evidence indicates that calcium and vitamin D play key roles in bone health. The current evidence, limited to observational studies, however, does not support other benefits for vitamin D. More targeted research should continue, especially interventional studies. In the absence of any underlying risk of vitamin D deficiency, the recommendations are as follows: pregnant women: a single dose of 80,000 to 100,000 IU at the beginning of the 7th month of pregnancy; breastfed infants: 1000 to 1200 IU/day; children less than 18 months of age, receiving milk supplemented with vitamin D: an additional daily dose of 600 to 800 IU; children less than 18 months of age receiving milk not supplemented with vitamin D: daily dose of 1000 to 1200 IU; children from 18 months to 5 years of age: 2 doses of 80,000 to 100,000 IU every winter (November and February). In the presence of an underlying risk of vitamin D deficiency (dark skin; lack of exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B [UVB] radiation from sunshine in summer; skin disease responsible for decreased exposure of the skin to UVB radiation from sunshine in summer; wearing skin-covering clothes in summer; intestinal malabsorption or maldigestion; cholestasis; renal insufficiency; nephrotic syndrome; drugs [rifampicin; antiepileptic treatment: phenobarbital, phenytoin]; obesity; vegan diet), it may be justified to start vitamin D supplementation in winter in children 5 to 10 years of age as well as to maintain supplementation of vitamin D every 3 months all year long in children 1 to 10 years of age and in adolescents. In some pathological conditions, doses of vitamin D can

  6. A Guide to Adolescent Health Care EPSDT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Care Financing Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This document provides guidelines for individuals giving health care to adolescents through the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) Program. Chapter One briefly indicates needs of adolescents and outlines legal aspects of health care for adolescents such as age of majority, informed consent, confidentiality, disclosure of…

  7. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  8. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  9. High-Content Positional Biosensor Screening Assay for Compounds to Prevent or Disrupt Androgen Receptor and Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2 Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The androgen receptor–transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein–protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) “prey” and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) “bait” components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active

  10. Brief report: Using global positioning system (GPS) enabled cell phones to examine adolescent travel patterns and time in proximity to alcohol outlets.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Morrison, Christopher N; Wiebe, Douglas J; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    As adolescents gain freedom to explore new environments unsupervised, more time in proximity to alcohol outlets may increase risks for alcohol and marijuana use. This pilot study: 1) Describes variations in adolescents' proximity to outlets by time of day and day of the week, 2) Examines variations in outlet proximity by drinking and marijuana use status, and 3) Tests feasibility of obtaining real-time data to study adolescent proximity to outlets. U.S. adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 (50% female) carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week with their locations tracked. The geographic areas where adolescents spend time, activity spaces, were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding spatial buffers around routes. Proximity to outlets was greater during after school and evening hours. Drinkers and marijuana users were in proximity to outlets 1½ to 2 times more than non-users. Findings provide information about where adolescents spend time and times of greatest risk, informing prevention efforts. PMID:27214713

  11. Effects of omega-3 dietary supplement in prevention of positive, negative and cognitive symptoms: a study in adolescent rats with ketamine-induced model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gama, Clarissa S; Canever, Lara; Panizzutti, Bruna; Gubert, Carolina; Stertz, Laura; Massuda, Raffael; Pedrini, Mariana; de Lucena, David F; Luca, Renata D; Fraga, Daiane B; Heylmann, Alexandra S; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I

    2012-11-01

    Omega-3 has shown efficacy to prevent schizophrenia conversion in ultra-high risk population. We evaluated the efficacy of omega-3 in preventing ketamine-induced effects in an animal model of schizophrenia and its effect on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Omega-3 or vehicle was administered in Wistar male rats, both groups at the 30th day of life for 15days. Each group was split in two to receive along the following 7days ketamine or saline. Locomotor and exploratory activities, memory test and social interaction between pairs were evaluated at the 52nd day of life. Prefrontal-cortex, hippocampus and striatum tissues were extracted right after behavioral tasks for mRNA BDNF expression analysis. Bloods for serum BDNF were withdrawn 24h after the end of behavioral tasks. Locomotive was increased in ketamine-treated group compared to control, omega-3 and ketamine plus omega-3 groups. Ketamine group had fewer contacts and interaction compared to other groups. Working memory and short and long-term memories were significantly impaired in ketamine group compared to others. Serum BDNF levels were significantly higher in ketamine plus omega-3 group. There was no difference between groups in prefrontal-cortex, hippocampus and striatum for mRNA BDNF expression. Administration of omega-3 in adolescent rats prevents positive, negative and cognitive symptoms in a ketamine animal model of schizophrenia. Whether these findings are consequence of BDNF increase it is unclear. However, this study gives compelling evidence for larger clinical trials to confirm the use of omega-3 to prevent schizophrenia and for studies to reinforce the beneficial role of omega-3 in brain protection. PMID:22954755

  12. Cervical cancer screening of HPV vaccinated populations: Cytology, molecular testing, both or none.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Mariam; Richardson, Lyndsay; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer control includes primary prevention through vaccination to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and secondary prevention through screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. This review summarizes the evidence for the population impact of vaccines against oncogenic HPV types in reducing the prevalence of cervical precancerous lesions. We examine the gradual shift in screening technology from cervical cytology alone to cytology and HPV cotesting, and finally to the recognition that HPV testing can serve alone as the new screening paradigm, particularly in the initial post-vaccination era. We should expect an impact on screening performance and practices, as cohorts of HPV-vaccinated girls and adolescents reach cervical cancer screening age. In preparation for changes in the screening paradigm for the vaccination era, we propose that policymaking on cervical cancer screening should mirror current practices with other cancers as benchmarks. Cervical precancerous lesions will become a very rare condition following the widespread implementation of HPV vaccines with broader coverage in the number of preventable oncogenic types. Irrespective of screening technology, the false positive results will far outnumber the true positive ones, a tipping point that will herald a new period when the harms from cervical cancer screening will outweigh its benefits. We present a conceptual framework to guide decision making when we reach this point within 25-30 years. PMID:26631958

  13. Multiple Victimization Experiences, Resources, and Co-Occurring Mental Health Problems Among Substance-Using Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Bushra; Coohey, Carol; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between multiple types of victimization experiences, psychological and social resources, and co-occurring mental health problems among substance-using adolescents. Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from a multisite research project in which adolescents ages 11–18 years participated in a comprehensive screening program for substance misuse. Multiple types of victimization, low self-efficacy beliefs, lack of support for victimization issues, and available sources of emotional support were positively related to co-occurring mental health problems. These findings suggest that treatment planning and interventions may focus on helping adolescents cope effectively with their victimization experiences and addressing their mental health needs. Particular emphasis may be placed on enhancing self-efficacy and social skills so that adolescents may benefit from their available sources of social support. PMID:23155724

  14. Victimization of obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-08-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and teasing as a result of being overweight or obese. The victimization may be overt or relational. Obese adolescents are at risk of victimization, because their peers view them as different and undesirable. Although peer victimization occurs commonly among adolescents, obese adolescents are more susceptible than their average-weight peers. Because school nurses are often the first line of defense for obese adolescents, they are in an excellent position to identify forms of peer victimization and be prepared to intervene with the victims. School nurses can potentially preserve the psychosocial integrity of obese adolescents by promoting healthy peer interactions and experiences. PMID:16856773

  15. Age Variability in the Association between Heavy Episodic Drinking and Adolescent Suicide Attempts: Findings from a Large-Scale, School-Based Screening Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Schilling, Elizabeth A.; James, Amy; Glanovsky, Jaime L.; Jacobs, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is significantly linked to the suicidal behavior of adolescents according to the data on 32,217 students aged 11 to 19 years old. A substantial age variation is seen with youths aged 13 years and younger roughly 2.6 times more likely to report an attempt as compared to 1.2 times among youths aged 18 years and older.

  16. Update on Adolescent Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Desai, Nirav K; Wulkan, Mark L; Inge, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    Childhood obesity remains a significant public health issue. Approximately 8% of adolescent girls and 7% of adolescent boys have severe (≥class 2) obesity. Adolescent severe obesity is associated with numerous comorbidities, and persists into adulthood. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment available, resulting in major weight loss and resolution of important comorbid conditions. Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric obesity treatment recommend consideration of surgery after failure of behavioral approaches. Careful screening and postoperative management of patients by a multidisciplinary team is required. Long-term studies are needed to assess the impact of adolescent bariatric surgery. PMID:27519138

  17. Evidence-Based Suicide Prevention Screening in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Bryant, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Screening for suicidality, as called for by the President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, is a major public health concern. As a place where adolescents spend a considerable amount of their waking hours, school is an important venue for screening adolescents for suicidal behaviors and providing preventive education and risk management.…

  18. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. PMID:26990666

  19. A Metric for Reducing False Positives in the Computer-Aided Detection of Breast Cancer from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based Screening Examinations of High-Risk Women.

    PubMed

    Levman, Jacob E D; Gallego-Ortiz, Cristina; Warner, Ellen; Causer, Petrina; Martel, Anne L

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-enabled cancer screening has been shown to be a highly sensitive method for the early detection of breast cancer. Computer-aided detection systems have the potential to improve the screening process by standardizing radiologists to a high level of diagnostic accuracy. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. This study compares the performance of a proposed method for computer-aided detection (based on the second-order spatial derivative of the relative signal intensity) with the signal enhancement ratio (SER) on MRI-based breast screening examinations. Comparison is performed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis as well as free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve analysis. A modified computer-aided detection system combining the proposed approach with the SER method is also presented. The proposed method provides improvements in the rates of false positive markings over the SER method in the detection of breast cancer (as assessed by FROC analysis). The modified computer-aided detection system that incorporates both the proposed method and the SER method yields ROC results equal to that produced by SER while simultaneously providing improvements over the SER method in terms of false positives per noncancerous exam. The proposed method for identifying malignancies outperforms the SER method in terms of false positives on a challenging dataset containing many small lesions and may play a useful role in breast cancer screening by MRI as part of a computer-aided detection system. PMID:26293705

  20. Transition from School to Work for Handicapped Adolescents: Swedish Position Report to the OECD/CERI Project concerning the Education of Handicapped Adolescents--Innovative Approaches in the Transition to Adult and Working Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soder, Marten

    The report describes the Swedish educational and employment system and efforts underway to facilitate the transition from school to work for handicapped adolescents. A review of the general education system touches upon administrative structure, finance, and trends in compulsory comprehensive school and in upper secondary schools. The next section…