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Sample records for adolescents screening positive

  1. Teen Options for Change (TOC): An Intervention for Adolescent Emergency Patients who Screen Positive for Suicide Risk

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Gipson, Polly Y; Horwitz, Adam G; Opperman, Kiel J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous research has documented the feasibility of adolescent suicide risk screening in emergency departments. This randomized trial examined the effectiveness of Teen Options for Change (TOC), an intervention for adolescents seeking medical emergency services who screen positive for suicide risk. Method Participants were 49 adolescents, ages 14 to 19, seeking services for non-psychiatric chief complaints who screened positive for suicide risk due to recent suicidal ideation/attempt and/or depression plus alcohol abuse. They were randomly assigned to TOC or enhanced treatment-as-usual. Depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation were assessed at baseline and two-month follow-up. Results Adolescents assigned to TOC showed greater reductions in depression than adolescents assigned to the comparison group (Cohen's d = 1.07; large effect size). Hopelessness, suicidal ideation and alcohol outcomes trended positively (nonsignificantly) with small to moderate effect sizes. Conclusions TOC is a promising, brief intervention for adolescents seeking emergency services who are at risk for suicide. PMID:25321886

  2. Readiness to Change in Adolescents Screening Positive for Substance Use in Urban Primary Care Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Jack; McGeehan, Jennifer; Kelleher, Kelly J.

    2010-01-01

    Primary care physicians often perceive patients as unlikely to decrease their substance use and suggest this reluctance to change diminishes their willingness to screen and intervene. The literature on readiness to change has primarily focused on adults, and the available studies on adolescents have largely included hospitalized and/or…

  3. Adolescent Communication Screen. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisthammer, Patricia; And Others

    The Adolescent Communication Screen--a criterion-based instrument designed to provide speech-language clinicians a measure for screening the communication skills of students in grades 5 through 12--is described in this document. Included in the description are the instrument's subtests: vocabulary, temporal concepts, language comprehension,…

  4. Screening Practices for Adolescent Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Puster, Kristie L.; Vazquez, Elizabeth A.; Hunter, Heather L.; Lescano, Celia M.

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to determine the screening practices of child and adolescent psychiatrists regarding adolescent dating violence (DV). A questionnaire regarding screening practices for DV and other risk behaviors was administered to 817 child and adolescent psychiatrists via the Internet and mail. Twenty-one percent of clinicians screened for DV…

  5. Adolescent health screening and counseling.

    PubMed

    Ham, Peter; Allen, Claudia

    2012-12-15

    Serious health problems, risky behavior, and poor health habits persist among adolescents despite access to medical care. Most adolescents do not seek advice about preventing leading causes of morbidity and mortality in their age group, and physicians often do not find ways to provide it. Although helping adolescents prevent unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, unintentional injuries, depression, suicide, and other problems is a community-wide effort, primary care physicians are well situated to discuss risks and offer interventions. Evidence supports routinely screening for obesity and depression, offering testing for human immunodeficiency virus infection, and screening for other sexually transmitted infections in some adolescents. Evidence validating the effectiveness of physician counseling about unintended pregnancy, gang violence, and substance abuse is scant. However, physicians should use empathic, personal messages to communicate with adolescents about these issues until studies prove the benefits of more specific methods. Effective communication with adolescents requires seeing the patient alone, tailoring the discussion to the individual patient, and understanding the role of the parents and of confidentiality. PMID:23316983

  6. Screening for Hearing Loss in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alice E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The results of an auditory screening protocol administered to 342 adolescents (ages 10-20) suggest a high level of noise exposure in the adolescent population. Overall failure rate was 25%. Significant correlations were found between firearm use and hearing loss at 6000 Hertz. Screening and education efforts are urged. (Author/CR)

  7. Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, W. Rodney; And Others

    Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT) is a health promotion program providing violence prevention programming targeted at black youth, at high risk for becoming either perpetrators or victims of violence. Conducted by the School of Professional Psychology of Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio, in cooperation with Dayton Public Schools,…

  8. The Positive Psychology of Youth and Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Grant Jewell

    2003-01-01

    Introduces this theme issue that explores the nature of adolescence and the positive psychology movement that focuses on positive aspects of adolescent development. Articles in this collection provide a window into the exploration of youth strengths. (SLD)

  9. Screening and managing depression in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jami F; Miller, Michelle R; Khan, Nida

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 10%–15% of adolescents will experience a major depressive episode. The risk factors associated with depression in adolescence include a family history of depression, being female, subthreshold depression, having a nonaffective disorder, negative cognitions, interpersonal conflict, low social support, and stressful life events. Despite the availability of measures to identify depressed adolescents and efficacious interventions to treat these adolescents, a large number of depressed adolescents go undetected and untreated. This review describes several screening measures that can be used to identify adolescents with elevated depression symptoms who would benefit from a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. If an adolescent is diagnosed with a depressive disorder, there are several efficacious treatment options, including pharmacotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy. The research supporting each of these approaches is outlined, and recommendations are made to help health professionals determine the appropriate course of treatment. Although existing treatments are effective for many depressed adolescents, approximately one-third of adolescents remain depressed following treatment. Continuing research is needed to enhance the efficacy of existing treatments for adolescent depression and to develop and study novel treatment approaches. PMID:24600264

  10. Screening Adolescents and Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Lori A.; Robison, Katina

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Recent guidelines from multiple organizations, including the USPSTF, ACS/ASCCP/ASCP, ACOG and most recently the 2013 Update to the 2006 ASCCP Consensus Guidelines, all stress screening initiation no sooner than the age of 21 years and increased screening intervals for women aged 21 to 29 years. Primary prevention with HPV vaccination has the potential to significantly impact the development of high-grade cervical lesions, including cancer, and will likely affect screening guidelines in the future. PMID:23732030

  11. Associations between dietary patterns and screen time among Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Jun, Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Data are limited on the association between dietary patterns and screen time among Korean adolescents. The present study identified dietary patterns of 691 adolescents, aged 13-18 years, who had participated in the Third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) and analyzed their associations with screen time. Screen time was defined as the time spent watching TV, using a computer, or playing video games was calculated as a sum of all these times. Dietary patterns and their factor scores were derived from a food frequency questionnaire using the factor analysis method. To analyze the association between dietary patterns and screen time, we conducted multiple linear regression analysis. We also performed multiple logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (OR) of excessive screen time (2 hours or longer per day) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We identified 2 dietary patterns labeled "the Korean healthy dietary pattern" and "the Western diet and fast foods pattern". The former included mixed grains, legumes, potatoes, red meat, eggs, fish, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, seaweeds, and mushrooms, whereas the latter included noodles, bread, red meat, poultry, fast foods, snack, and soft drinks. After controlling for potential confounding factors, factor scores for the Korean healthy dietary pattern were inversely associated (P-value for trend < 0.01) and those for the Western diet and fast foods pattern were positively associated with the screen time (P-value for trend < 0.01). Adolescents in the top tertile of the scores for the Korean healthy dietary pattern had a multivariable-adjusted OR [95% CI] of 0.44 (0.25-0.75) for excessive screen time compared with those in the lowest tertile. On the basis of these findings, adolescents who have excessive screen time may need to be encouraged to consume a more healthy diet. PMID:23964322

  12. Older Adolescents' Positive Attitudes toward Younger Adolescents as Sexual Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrom, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…

  13. Positive Health Practices of Urban Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, MaryAnn; Whalen, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors related to health practices of urban minority adolescents. Participant surveys highlighted positive correlations between social support and positive health practices and hope and positive health practices. There was no significant relationship between self-esteem and positive health practices. Implications for school nursing…

  14. Genetic screening in adolescents with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lipska, Beata S; Iatropoulos, Paraskevas; Maranta, Ramona; Caridi, Gianluca; Ozaltin, Fatih; Anarat, Ali; Balat, Ayse; Gellermann, Jutta; Trautmann, Agnes; Erdogan, Ozlem; Saeed, Bassam; Emre, Sevinc; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Azocar, Marta; Balasz-Chmielewska, Irena; Benetti, Elisa; Caliskan, Salim; Mir, Sevgi; Melk, Anette; Ertan, Pelin; Baskin, Esra; Jardim, Helena; Davitaia, Tinatin; Wasilewska, Anna; Drozdz, Dorota; Szczepanska, Maria; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Higuita, Lina Maria Serna; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Ozkaya, Ozan; Kuzma-Mroczkowska, Elzbieta; Soylemezoglu, Oguz; Ranchin, Bruno; Medynska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Peco-Antic, Amira; Akil, Ipek; Jarmolinski, Tomasz; Firszt-Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Dusek, Jiri; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Gok, Faysal; Gheissari, Alaleh; Emma, Francesco; Krmar, Rafael T; Fischbach, Michel; Printza, Nikoleta; Simkova, Eva; Mele, Caterina; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Schaefer, Franz

    2013-07-01

    Genetic screening paradigms for congenital and infantile nephrotic syndrome are well established; however, screening in adolescents has received only minor attention. To help rectify this, we analyzed an unselected adolescent cohort of the international PodoNet registry to develop a rational screening approach based on 227 patients with nonsyndromic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome aged 10-20 years. Of these, 21% had a positive family history. Autosomal dominant cases were screened for WT1, TRPC6, ACTN4, and INF2 mutations. All other patients had the NPHS2 gene screened, and WT1 was tested in sporadic cases. In addition, 40 sporadic cases had the entire coding region of INF2 tested. Of the autosomal recessive and the sporadic cases, 13 and 6%, respectively, were found to have podocin-associated nephrotic syndrome, and 56% of them were compound heterozygous for the nonneutral p.R229Q polymorphism. Four percent of the sporadic and 10% of the autosomal dominant cases had a mutation in WT1. Pathogenic INF2 mutations were found in 20% of the dominant but none of the sporadic cases. In a large cohort of adolescents including both familial and sporadic disease, NPHS2 mutations explained about 7% and WT1 4% of cases, whereas INF2 proved relevant only in autosomal dominant familial disease. Thus, screening of the entire coding sequence of NPHS2 and exons 8-9 of WT1 appears to be the most rational and cost-effective screening approach in sporadic juvenile steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. PMID:23515051

  15. Screen time and adiposity in adolescents in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lajous, Martín; Chavarro, Jorge; Peterson, Karen E; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; Cruz-Valdéz, Aurelio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of time spent viewing television, videos and videogames with measures of fat mass [body mass index (BMI)] and distribution [triceps and subscapular skin folds (TSF, SSF)]. Design Cross-sectional validated survey, self-administered to students to assess screen time (TV, videos and videogames) and lifestyle variables. Trained personnel obtained anthropometry. The association of screen time with fat mass and distribution, stratified by sex, was modeled with multivariable linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders and correlation of observations within schools. Subjects and setting 3519 males and 5613 females aged 11 to 18 years attending urban and rural schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico Results In males, ≥5 hr/day compared with < 2 hr/day of screen time, was significantly associated with a 0.13 (95%CI 0.04, 0.23) higher BMI z score, 0.73 mm (95% CI 0.24, 1.22) higher SSF and 1.08 mm (95% CI 0.36, 1.81) higher TSF. The positive association of screen time with SSF was strongest in males 11–12 yr. Sexual maturity appeared to modify the association in females; a positive between screen time and SSF was observed in those who had not undergone menarche (p-trend 0.04) but not among sexually mature females (p-trend 0.75). Conclusion Screen time is associated with fat mass and distribution among adolescent males in Mexico. Maturational tempo appears to affect the relationship of screen time with adiposity in boys and girls. Findings suggest obesity preventive interventions in the Mexican context should explore strategies to reduce screen time among youth in early adolescence. PMID:19232154

  16. Consequences of False-Positive Screening Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Fryback, Dennis G.; Hammond, Cristina S.; Hanna, Lucy G.; Grove, Margaret R.; Brown, Mary; Wang, Qianfei; Lindfors, Karen; Pisano, Etta D.

    2014-01-01

    Importance False-positive mammograms, a common occurrence in breast cancer screening programs, represent a potential screening harm that is currently being evaluated by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Objective To measure the impact of false-positive mammograms on quality of life by measuring personal anxiety, health utility and future screening attitudes. Design Longitudinal Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) quality-of-life sub-study telephone survey shortly after screening and one year later. Setting Twenty-two DMIST sites Participants Randomly-selected DMIST participants with positive and negative mammograms. Exposure(s) for observational studies Mammogram requiring follow-up testing or referral without a cancer diagnosis. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index short-form (STAI-6) and the EuroQol EQ-5D with United States scoring. Attitudes toward future screening measured by women’s self-report of future intention to undergo mammography screening and willingness to travel and stay overnight to receive a hypothetical new mammogram that would detect as many cancers with half the false-positives. Results Among 1,450 eligible women invited to participate, 1,226 women (85%) were enrolled with follow-up interviews obtained for 1,028 (84%). Anxiety was significantly higher for women with false-positive mammograms (STAI-6:35.2 vs. 32.7), but health utility did not differ and there were no significant differences between groups at one year. Future screening intentions differed by group (26% vs. 14% more likely in false-positive vs. negative); willingness to travel and stay overnight did not (11% vs. 10% in false-positive vs. negative). Future screening intention was significantly increased among women with false-positive mammograms (OR: 2.12; 95%CI:1.54, 2.93), younger age (OR:2.78; 95%CI:1.5,5.0) and poorer health (OR: 1.63; 95%CI:1.09, 2.43). Women’s anticipated high-level anxiety regarding

  17. Adolescent suicide risk screening: the effect of communication about type of follow-up on adolescents' screening responses.

    PubMed

    King, Cheryl A; Hill, Ryan M; Wynne, Henry A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical emergency services. They were randomized to a screening follow-up condition. Screening measures assessed primary risk factors for suicidal behavior, including suicidal thoughts, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and aggressive/delinquent behavior. There was no main effect of follow-up condition on adolescents' screening scores; however, significant interactions between follow-up condition and public assistance status were evident. Adolescents whose families received public assistance were less likely to report aggressive-delinquent behavior if assigned to in-person follow-up. Adolescents whose families did not receive public assistance reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation if assigned to in-person follow-up. Findings suggest that response biases impact some adolescents' responses to suicide risk screenings. Because national policy strongly recommends suicide risk screening in emergency settings, and because screening scores are used to make critical decisions regarding risk management and treatment recommendations, findings indicate the importance of improving the reliability and validity of suicide risk screening for adolescents. PMID:22540534

  18. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Lucena, Joana Marcela Sales; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Cavalcante, Thaísa Leite Mafaldo; da Silva, Vanessa Araújo; de Farias, José Cazuza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female) from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color), physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1) and it was higher in males (84.3%) compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure. PMID:26298661

  19. Screening and Assessing Adolescent Substance Use Disorders in Clinical Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Kaminer, Yifrah

    2008-01-01

    The different established screening methodologies and comprehensive assessment techniques used in evaluating adolescents suspected of or known to have substance abuse disorders are discussed. Recommendations and suggestions for establishing standards of training and professional efficiency are also highlighted to treat adolescents with substance…

  20. Should Screening for Depression among Children and Adolescents Be Demedicalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Allan V.; Wakefield, Jerome C.

    2009-01-01

    The criteria for diagnosing depressive disorders fails to place the symptoms of intense sadness in the context of major losses in life, and separating normal sadness from depressive disorder among adolescents is especially difficult. Suggested modifications to the screening of suicidal ideation among adolescents are also presented.

  1. Screening and Assessing Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Primer for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Robert C.; Smith, Shannon D.

    2003-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is an increasing problem in U. S. society. This article provides an overview of adolescent substance abuse, screening, and assessment strategies; contact information related to specific assessment instruments; and information regarding ethic important to consider during the assessment process. (Contains 16 references and…

  2. The Association of BMI Status With Adolescent Preventive Screening

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sally H.; Irwin, Charles E.; Ozer, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between BMI status (normal, overweight, and obese) and preventive screening among adolescents at their last checkup. METHODS: We used population-based data from the 2003–2007 California Health Interview Surveys, telephone interviews of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with a checkup in the past 12 months (n = 9220). Respondents were asked whether they received screening for nutrition, physical activity, and emotional distress. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight: (1) normal weight or underweight (<85th percentile); (2) overweight (85th–94th percentile); and (3) obese (>95th percentile). Multivariate logistic regression models tested how screening by topic differed according to BMI status, adjusting for age, gender, income, race/ethnicity, and survey year. RESULTS: Screening percentages in the pooled sample (all 3 years) were higher for obese, but not overweight, adolescents for physical activity (odds ratio: 1.4; P < .01) and nutrition (odds ratio: 1.6; screening did not differ P < .01). Stratified analysis by year revealed higher screening for obese (versus normal-weight) adolescents for nutrition and physical activity in 2003 and for all 3 topics in 2005. However, by 2007, screening did not differ according to BMI status. Overall screening between 2003 and 2007 declined for nutrition (75%–59%; P < .01), physical activity (74%–60%; P < .01), and emotional distress (31%–24%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents receive more preventive screening versus their normal-weight peers. Overweight adolescents do not report more screening, but standards of care dictate increased attention for this group. These results are discouraging amid a rise in pediatric obesity and new guidelines that recommend screening by BMI status. PMID:21768313

  3. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  4. Adolescent Suicide Risk Screening: The Effect of Communication about Type of Follow-Up on Adolescents' Screening Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Cheryl A.; Hill, Ryan M.; Wynne, Henry A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical…

  5. Screening as an Approach for Adolescent Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Juan B.; Caine, Eric D.

    2006-01-01

    Among the provisions of the recently signed Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Act, Congress called for the use of screening to detect adolescents who are at risk for suicide. After a review of the literature, 17 studies involving screening instruments and programs were identified. We addressed the question: What do we know about the demonstrated…

  6. The Impact of Economic Pressure on Parent Positivity, Parenting, and Adolescent Positivity into Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Shinyoung; Schofield, Thomas J.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes how positivity can be incorporated into the Family Stress Model to explain resilience to disrupted family processes in the face of economic distress. Prospective, longitudinal data came from 451 mothers, fathers, and youth participating from their adolescence through early adulthood. Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Information regarding economic pressure, parental positivity, and parenting were collected during early adolescence, positivity was collected in late adolescence and emerging adulthood. Results indicated that economic pressure was indirectly associated with adolescent positivity through parental positivity. Economic pressure was negatively associated with parent positivity, whereas parental positivity was positively associated with parenting. Moreover, parental positivity and parenting were both related to positivity in adolescence. Results suggest that personal resources linked to a positive outlook can foster nurturant parenting, even in times of economic strain. Such parenting seems to positively influence adolescent development into emerging adulthood. PMID:25678730

  7. Associations between Screen Time and Physical Activity among Spanish Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A.; Martí-Trujillo, Sara; Lera-Navarro, Angela; Dorado-García, Cecilia; González-Henríquez, Juan J.; Sanchís-Moysi, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    Background Excessive time in front of a single or several screens could explain a displacement of physical activity. The present study aimed at determining whether screen-time is associated with a reduced level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Spanish adolescents living in favorable environmental conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select 3503 adolescents (12–18 years old) from the school population of Gran Canaria, Spain. MVPA, screen-time in front of television, computer, video game console and portable console was assessed in the classroom by fulfilling a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted by a set of social-environmental variables were carried out. Forty-six percent of girls (95% CI±2.3%) and 26% of boys (95% CI±2.1%) did not meet the MVPA recommendations for adolescents. Major gender differences were observed in the time devoted to vigorous PA, video games and the total time spent on screen-based activities. Boys who reported 4 hours•week−1 or more to total screen-time showed a 64% (OR = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.44–0.86) increased risk of failing to achieve the recommended adolescent MVPA level. Participation in organized physical activities and sports competitions were more strongly associated with MVPA than screen-related behaviors. Conclusions/Significance No single screen-related behavior explained the reduction of MVPA in adolescents. However, the total time accumulated through several screen-related behaviors was negatively associated with MVPA level in boys. This association could be due to lower availability of time for exercise as the time devoted to sedentary screen-time activities increases. Participation in organized physical activities seems to counteract the negative impact of excessive time in front of screens on physical activity. PMID:21909435

  8. Screen time, weight status and the self-concept of physical attractiveness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Suchert, Vivien; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents in modern societies spend about 3 h per day in front of small recreational screens. The present study aims at investigating the relationships between screen time and different indicators of overweight. In addition, associations with the self-concept of physical attractiveness and perceived weight status will be examined. In a total sample of 1228 students (47.5% girls) aged 12-17 years (M = 13.74, SD = 0.68) cross-sectional associations were determined by conducting multiple linear regression analyses. Screen time showed a significant positive dose-response relationship with body mass index percentile, waist circumference, body fat, waist-to-height-ratio, and a negative association with self-concept of physical attractiveness independent of age, gender and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Thus, screen time seems to be associated with adolescent overweight, abdominal obesity, and body dissatisfaction. Reducing adolescents' screen time could be a promising approach for primary prevention of obesity and for the promotion of a positive physical self-concept. PMID:26854729

  9. Item Selection Methods for the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the method of item selection tested in the development of the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory. Method: The convenience sampling frame used for these analyses consisted of 26,781 Communities That Care Youth Surveys. The three item selection methods were used to assess known instrument,…

  10. Young Adolescents' Responses to Positive Events: Associations with Positive Affect and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentzler, Amy L.; Morey, Jennifer N.; Palmer, Cara A.; Yi, Chit Yuen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how maximizing and minimizing responses to positive events were associated with sustained positive feelings about the events and adjustment in a community sample of 56 young adolescents (31 boys and 25 girls, 10-14 years of age). On daily reports, adolescents reported their positive emotional reactions to their best event each…

  11. Cervical cancer screening among HIV-positive women

    PubMed Central

    Leece, Pamela; Kendall, Claire; Touchie, Claire; Pottie, Kevin; Angel, Jonathan B.; Jaffey, James

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of cervical screening among HIV-positive women who received care at a tertiary care clinic, and to determine whether screening rates were influenced by having a primary care provider. DESIGN Retrospective chart review. SETTING Tertiary care outpatient clinic in Ottawa, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Women who were HIV-positive receiving care at the Ottawa Hospital General Campus Immunodeficiency Clinic between July 1, 2002, and June 30, 2005. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Whether patients had primary care providers and whether they received cervical screening. We recorded information on patient demographics, HIV status, primary care providers, and cervical screening, including date, results, and type of health care provider ordering the screening. RESULTS Fifty-eight percent (126 of 218) of the women had at least 1 cervical screening test during the 3-year period. Thirty-three percent (42 of 126) of the women who underwent cervical screening had at least 1 abnormal test result. The proportion of women who did not have any cervical tests performed was higher among women who did not have primary care providers (8 of 12 [67%] vs 84 of 206 [41%]; relative risk 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.52, P < .05), although this group was small. CONCLUSION Despite the high proportion of abnormal cervical screening test results among HIV-positive women, screening rates remained low. Our results support our hypothesis that those women who do not have primary care providers are less likely to undergo cervical screening. PMID:21375064

  12. Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…

  13. Cervical cancer screening in Belgium and overscreening of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin

    2016-03-01

    There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25812038

  14. Screening and Treatment of Common Lipid Disorders in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bialo, Shara R; Boney, Charlotte M

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a substantial health care burden in the adult population, the roots of which begin in childhood. Universal screening for dyslipidemia in all children and adolescents has been implemented to identify cases of FH that are otherwise missed by conventional screening because untreated FH can result in early CVD and untimely death. Recommendations for medical therapy did not change with the 2011 NHLBI guidelines. LDL levels targeted for therapy usually are elevated because of primary genetic disorders such as FH. Although these recommendations remain controversial, the benefit of universal screening and subsequent treatment of high-risk patients far outweighs the risk of not screening, although more investigation is warranted to understand the long-term outcomes of CVD risk in youth. PMID:26999877

  15. A Sex-Positive Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I propose a sex-positive framework for research on adolescent sexuality in which I consider consensual sexual activities in adolescence as developmentally normative and potentially healthy. The sex-positive framework is contrasted with the predominant "risk" perspective that presumes that abstinence from sexual activity is the ideal behavioral outcome for teenagers. Evidence from longitudinal and behavioral genetic studies indicates that engaging in sexual intercourse in adolescence does not typically cause worse psychological functioning. The relationship context of sexual experience may be a critical moderator of its psychological impact. Moreover, cross-cultural data on adolescents' contraception usage, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections suggest that, despite the unacceptably high rate of negative health consequences among U.S. teenagers, adolescents can have the developmental capacity to regulate the health risks inherent in sexual activity. Understanding adolescent sexuality can be fostered by considering sexual well-being, a multidimensional construct that incorporates an adolescent's sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, feelings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction, and freedom from pain and negative affect regarding sexuality. New research is necessary to understand the development of adolescent sexual well-being, including its normative age trends, its reciprocal links with sexual behavior, and its impact on psychological and physical health. PMID:26186753

  16. Temporomandibular disorders among Brazilian adolescents: reliability and validity of a screening questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    FRANCO-MICHELONI, Ana Lucia; FERNANDES, Giovana; GONÇALVES, Daniela Aparecida de Godoi; CAMPARIS, Cinara Maria

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) screeners assume significant item overlap with the screening questionnaire proposed by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP). Objective To test the reliability and validity of the Portuguese version of AAOP questions for TMD screening among adolescents. Material and Methods Diagnoses from Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I were used as reference standard. Reliability was evaluated by internal consistency (KR-20) and inter-item correlation. Validity was tested by sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the relationship between the true-positive rate (sensitivity) and the false-positive rate (specificity). Test-retest reliability of AAOP questions and intra-examiner reproducibility of RDC/TMD Axis I were tested with kappa statistics. Results The sample consisted of 1307 Brazilian adolescents (56.8% girls; n=742), with mean age of 12.72 years (12.69 F/12.75 M). According to RDC/TMD, 397 [30.4% (32.7% F/27.3% M)] of adolescents presented TMD, of which 330 [25.2% (27.6% F/22.2% M)] were painful TMD. Because of low consistency, items #8 and #10 of the AAOP questionnaire were excluded. Remaining items (of the long questionnaire version) showed good consistency and validity for three positive responses or more. After logistic regression, items #4, #6, #7 and #9 also showed satisfactory consistency and validity for two or more positive responses (short questionnaire version). Both versions demonstrated excellent specificity (about 90%), but higher sensitivity for detecting painful TMD (78.2%). Better reproducibility was obtained for the short version (k=0.840). Conclusions The Portuguese version of AAOP questions showed both good reliability and validity for the screening of TMD among adolescents, especially painful TMD, according to RDC/TMD. PMID:25141204

  17. Blue-white screening liquid can eliminate false positives in blue-white colony screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y S

    2016-01-01

    Although blue-white screening based on α-complementation has been widely used in the screening of genetically modified bacteria, only a single blue-white screening is typically not enough to eliminate false positives. Sometimes, a secondary blue-white screening for the target colonies is required. In this study, two methods were used to investigate the feasibility of secondary blue-white screening for target colonies on lysogeny broth (LB)-ampicillin agar plates. The first method consisted of covering the target colonies grown on LB-ampicillin plate medium with a sterilized filter paper soaked in a solution of 60 μL 20 mg/mL X-gal and 8 μL 20% IPTG. The second method was that blue and white colonies were randomly selected from the blue-white screening plate medium and then re-streaked onto the blue-white screening medium. The colonies were then treated by two methods and incubated at 37°C for 12 h. The results showed that some of the white colonies treated by the two methods showed results similar to the colonies grown on the blue-white screening medium. These results indicate that the target colonies grown on blue-white screening medium can still be used to carry out a secondary blue-white screening. Thus, a blue-white screening liquid was successfully developed. Using the blue-white screening liquid, false positives can be eliminated directly based on the color of the target colonies. This will greatly improve the screening efficiency of positive clones and has important practical implications. PMID:27323169

  18. Performance of Children and Adolescents With Brain Injury on the Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examination for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lebby, Paul C; Pollock, Megan; Mouanoutoua, Amy; Lewey, Jennifer H

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic brain injuries are one of the leading causes of deaths and disabilities in children and adolescents. There is a need for clinicians to quickly screen for disrupted cognitive functioning to appropriately refer to specialists. The Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examination for Children and Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examination for Adolescents were developed to fill a gap in available measures and create a screening tool to quickly identify impaired neurocognitive functioning. A series of statistical analyses were conducted to determine their clinical utility. A multivariate analysis of variance found a statistically significant difference between those with brain injury (n = 59) from noninjured (n = 190) on the combined dependent variables, F(14, 234) = 46.530, P < .001; Wilks Lambda = .264; partial η(2) = .763. The Lebby-Asbell Neurocognitive Screening Examinations for Children and Adolescents are effective neurocognitive screening measures for children and adolescents in identifying brain injury. PMID:25403459

  19. Adolescent reactions to icon-driven response modes in a tablet-based health screening tool.

    PubMed

    Blander, Eitan; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2015-05-01

    Increasingly popular touch-screen electronic tablets offer clinics a new medium for collecting adolescent health screening data in the waiting area before visits, but there has been limited evaluation of interactive response modes. This study investigated the clarity, comprehensibility, and utility of icon-driven and gestural response functions employed in one such screening tool, TickiT. We conducted cognitive processing interviews with 30 adolescents from Vancouver (aged 14-20 years, 60% female, 30% English as a second language) as they completed the TickiT survey. Participants used seven different interactive functions to respond to questions across 30 slides, while being prompted to articulate their thoughts and reactions. The audio-recorded, transcribed interviews were analyzed for evidence of comprehension, nuances in response choices, and youth interest in the modes. Participants were quite receptive to the icon response modes. Across demographics and cultural backgrounds, they indicated question prompts were clear, response choices appropriate, and response modes intuitive. Most said they found the format engaging and would be more inclined to fill out such a screening tool than a paper-and-pencil form in a clinical setting. Given the positive responses and ready understanding of these modes among youth, clinicians may want to consider interactive icon-driven approaches for screening. PMID:25851558

  20. Moderators of Brief Motivation-Enhancing Treatments for Alcohol-Positive Adolescents Presenting to the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sara J; Jones, Richard N; Hernandez, Lynn; Graves, Hannah R; Spirito, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    A 2011 randomized controlled trial compared the effectiveness of two brief motivation-enhancing therapy (MET) models among alcohol-positive adolescents in an urban emergency department: adolescent MET-only versus MET + Family Check-Up (FCU), a parent MET model. Results indicated that among the 97 adolescents completing the 3-month assessment, both conditions were associated with reduced drinking and MET+FCU was associated with lower rates of high volume drinking than adolescent MET-only. The goal of this study was to identify predictors and moderators of high volume drinking in the original trial. Seven candidate variables were evaluated as moderators across three domains: demographic characteristics, psychological factors, and socio-contextual factors. Analyses of covariance models identified one significant predictor and one significant moderator of outcome. Older adolescents had significantly worse drinking outcomes than younger adolescents regardless of MET condition. Adolescents whose parents screened positive for problematic alcohol use at baseline had significantly worse drinking outcomes in the MET+FCU condition than the MET-only condition. Results indicate that alcohol-positive adolescents presenting to the emergency department may respond better to MET models if they are under the age of 16. Involving parents who have problematic alcohol use in a parent-focused MET may have negative effects on adolescent high volume drinking. PMID:27568507

  1. Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Friend, Sarah; Graham, Daniel J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around), and their association with physical activity (PA), dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors. PMID:22013514

  2. Positive Attributes Protect Adolescents from Risk for the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Midei, Aimee J.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Risk for cardiovascular disease develops as early as adolescence. The primary objective of the present study is to identify whether low levels of positive and high levels of negative emotions and attitudes are associated with the combination of cardiovascular risk factors known as the metabolic syndrome. Methods Participants were 239 healthy adolescents (57% black, 53% female, mean age = 15.7) from a low to middle class community. They completed measures of negative and positive emotions and attitudes, which were factor-analyzed and yielded two factors. Positive Attributes included general positive affect, optimistic attitudes, subjective social status, and self-esteem. Negative Emotions included cynical attitudes, depressive symptoms, trait anger, and general negative affect. Components of the metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, glucose, blood pressure, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were standardized and averaged to create a metabolic syndrome composite risk score. Results Linear regression analyses showed that the Positive Attributes factor was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome composite risk score, p < .01. The relationship remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, physical activity, smoking, and body mass index percentile. The Negative Emotion factor was unrelated to metabolic risk score. Conclusion Adolescents with more positive attributes had lower metabolic syndrome risk scores. This study emphasizes the importance of the development of psychosocial resources during the adolescent transition for potentially reducing future cardiovascular risk. PMID:25060290

  3. Identity styles, positive youth development, and civic engagement in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Erentaitė, Rasa; Zukauskienė, Rita

    2014-11-01

    Identity formation is a core developmental task of adolescence. Adolescents can rely on different social-cognitive styles to seek, process, and encode self-relevant information: information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant identity styles. The reliance on different styles might impact adolescents' adjustment and their active involvement in the society. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents with different identity styles report differences in positive youth development (analyzed with the Five Cs-Competence, Confidence, Character, Connection, and Caring-model) and in various forms of civic engagement (i.e., involvement in school self-government activities, volunteering activities, youth political organizations, and youth non-political organizations). The participants were 1,633 (54.1 % female) 14-19 year old adolescents (M age = 16.56, SD age = 1.22). The findings indicated that adolescents with different identity styles differed significantly on all the Five Cs and on two (i.e., involvement in volunteering activities and in youth non-political organizations) forms of civic engagement. Briefly, adolescents with an information-oriented style reported high levels of both the Five Cs and civic engagement; participants with a normative style reported moderate to high scores on the Five Cs but low rates of civic engagement; diffuse-avoidant respondents scored low both on the Five Cs and on civic engagement. These findings suggest that the information-oriented style, contrary to the diffuse-avoidant one, has beneficial effects for both the individual and the community, while the normative style has quite beneficial effects for the individual but not for his/her community. Concluding, adolescents with different identity styles display meaningful differences in positive youth development and in rates of civic engagement. PMID:24488126

  4. Apparatus Would Position Bright Spot On Projection Screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, Marc D.

    1996-01-01

    Proposed apparatus aims beam of visible light at wavelength lambda(2) to create bright spot at desired position in image on projection screen. Intended to replace handheld laser and flashlight pointers lecturers sometimes use to indicate features in projected images. Beam of light cannot be inadvertently aimed toward audience.

  5. Nutritional screening and early intervention in children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Deborah L; Loman, Deborah G; Balakas, Karen; Flowers, Marsha

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer who receive chemotherapy and/or radiation treatments are at risk for malnutrition due to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and mouth sores. Malnutrition during treatment for childhood cancer increases the risk of infection, decreases tolerance to treatment, and even affects overall survival. A retrospective analysis of 79 children, adolescents, and young adults was conducted to evaluate nutritional screening at baseline and for the first 6 months of treatment. Interventions were also documented. Forty-nine participants had a positive screen for risk of malnutrition. In the patients with a positive screen, 78% had intervention within 24 hours of the identified risk for malnutrition. Thirty-five patients had a nutritional referral, which resulted in a full nutritional assessment and plan. Key independent variables were analyzed to determine if they were associated with an increased risk of malnutrition. In addition, individual risk factors were analyzed to determine their association with malnutrition. Future studies should find whether early intervention is effective in reversing the risk of malnutrition during treatment for childhood cancer. PMID:23087250

  6. Test equality between two binary screening tests with a confirmatory procedure restricted on screen positives.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2015-01-01

    In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula. PMID:24836678

  7. Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

  8. Genomic Amplifications Cause False Positives in CRISPR Screens.

    PubMed

    Sheel, Ankur; Xue, Wen

    2016-08-01

    In CRISPR-based screens for essential genes, Munoz and colleagues and Aguirre and colleagues show that gene-independent targeting of genomic amplifications in human cancer cell lines reduces proliferation or survival. The correlation between CRISPR target site copy number and lethality demonstrates the need for scrutiny and complementary approaches to rule out off-target effects and false positives in CRISPR screens. Cancer Discov; 6(8); 824-6. ©2016 AACR.See related article by Munoz et al., p. 900See related article by Aguirre et al., p. 914. PMID:27485003

  9. The Evaluation of a Screening Tool for Children with an Intellectual Disability: The Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen; Paxton, Donna; Murray, George; Milanesi, Paula; Murray, Aja Louise

    2012-01-01

    The study outlines the evaluation of an intellectual disability screening tool, the "Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire" ("CAIDS-Q"), with two age groups. A number of aspects of the reliability and validity of the "CAIDS-Q" were assessed for these two groups, including inter-rater reliability, convergent and…

  10. Does positive youth development predict adolescent attitudes about sexuality?

    PubMed

    Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex. PMID:19086667

  11. A Novel Screening and Diagnostic Tool for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders for Telepsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Mehta, Anurati; Gupta, Aarzoo; Sharma, Minali

    2015-01-01

    Background: A diagnostic tool designed as part of a telepsychiatry application for diagnosis and management of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India was developed considering the paucity of trained child psychiatrists and mental health professionals in India. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic tool consisted of screening and 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) criteria-based diagnostic algorithms for 18 psychiatric disorders seen in childhood and adolescence. Accuracy of diagnoses and feasibility of use of the tool was examined by comparing it with detailed semi-structured clinical evaluations by a qualified psychiatrist with 50 psychiatric patients (children and adolescents). Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were conducted to compare the mean number of diagnosis generated by the two interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were computed for the screening and the diagnostic sub-modules of the tool, compared to the clinical diagnoses. Kappa coefficients were computed to assess agreement between the diagnoses generated by the diagnostic sub-module and the clinical diagnoses. Results: The screening sub-module had high sensitivity, high specificity and negative predictive values for all disorders. For the diagnostic sub-module, there was moderate (kappa-0.4–0.6) to substantial agreement (kappa > 0.6) for all the disorders, (except psychosis) and high sensitivity (barring a few disorders) and specificity for almost all the disorders. Positive predictive values were found to be acceptable to high for most disorders, with consistently high negative predictive values. Conclusion: The new tool was found to be comprehensive, reasonably short and feasible. Results showed acceptable level of accuracy in diagnosis generated by the tool. PMID:26424901

  12. Screening instruments for substance use and brief interventions targeting adolescents in primary care: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pilowsky, Daniel J; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-01-01

    Background A review of the literature was conducted to examine substance use screening instruments commonly used with adolescents in medical settings, their comparative usefulness, and SBIRT (Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment). Methods We screened two databases (Ovid MEDLINE and PsycINFO) targeting journal articles dealing with screening for alcohol and drug use in adolescence as well as adolescent SBIRT. Results Adolescents preferred paper forms and computerized questionnaires over interviews with physicians or nurses. The CRAFFT was the best studied instrument for screening for alcohol/drug use and related problems, and is the only tool with data to support its use in medical settings. Other screening instruments require more testing/evaluation in more representative samples of adolescents in primary care settings. Long term follow-up data to establish the efficacy of SBIRT in adolescence are not available. Innovative computerized approaches to screening for substance use in this population have recently been proposed. Although promising, they require further evaluation. Conclusions The CRAFFT has the most consistent data to support its use in primary care settings. The effects of SBIRT in adolescence have not been adequately evaluated. Adolescents’ opinions and preferences for SBIRT should be studied to improve their acceptance. PMID:23454877

  13. Parental emotion socialization in clinically depressed adolescents: Enhancing, and dampening positive affect

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Allen, Nicholas B.; Davis, Betsy; Hunter, Erin; Leve, Craig; Sheeber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compared parental socialization of adolescent positive affect in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Participants were 107 adolescents (42 boys) aged 14 - 18 years and their parents. Half of the participants met criteria for major depressive disorder and the others were demographically matched adolescents without emotional or behavioral disorders. Results based on multi-source questionnaire and interview data indicated that mothers and fathers of depressed adolescents were less accepting of adolescents’ positive affect and more likely to use strategies that dampen adolescents’ positive affect than were parents of healthy adolescents. Additionally, fathers of depressed adolescents exhibited fewer responses likely to enhance the adolescents’ positive affect than were fathers of healthy adolescents. These findings build on those of previous work in examining parental responses to adolescent emotions, focusing on positive emotions and including both mothers and fathers. PMID:23942826

  14. Interrelationships of adolescent physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and social and psychological health

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Ronald J.; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Methods Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Results Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and quality of life were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Conclusions Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences. PMID:19639256

  15. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  16. Cross-reactivity between Lyme and syphilis screening assays: Lyme disease does not cause false-positive syphilis screens.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, Glenn; LeBlanc, Jason; Heinstein, Charles; Roberts, Catherine; Lindsay, Robbin; Hatchette, Todd F

    2016-03-01

    Increased rates of Lyme disease and syphilis in the same geographic area prompted an assessment of screening test cross-reactivity. This study supports the previously described cross-reactivity of Lyme screening among syphilis-positive sera and reports evidence against the possibility of false-positive syphilis screening tests resulting from previous Borrelia burgdorferi infection. PMID:26707064

  17. Characteristics of Mother-Child Interactions Related to Adolescents' Positive Values and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a theoretical model that considered accurate perception and acceptance of maternal values in relation to adolescents' positive values and behaviors. One hundred fifty-one mother-adolescent dyads completed measures targeting adolescent and maternal perceptions of prosocial values and adolescent behaviors (M…

  18. Screening of a positive muon by a semion gas

    SciTech Connect

    McMullen, T.; Jena, P.; Khanna, S.N. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-06-01

    {mu}SR is one of the experimental techniques used to search for manifestation of the broken T and P symmetries predicted by some theories of highly correlated electron systems. When T and P are broken, the screening of the positively charged muon by the electron system generates a magnetic field in addition to any intrinsic magnetic field that may be present. The authors estimate the magnetic field that is induced at a muon site when the muon is screened by the fractional statistics gas. In this paper, the value depends on the distance between the muon and the anyon plane, and a simple theoretical approach to the calculation of the minimum energy muon sites is outlined and some results for Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} are presented.

  19. Maternal Positive and Negative Interaction Behaviors and Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Adolescent Emotion Regulation as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Schwartz, Orli S.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation between mothers' positive and negative interaction behaviors during mother-child interactions and the emotion regulation (ER) and depressive symptoms of their adolescent offspring. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving interactions (PSI) were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and adolescents also provided…

  20. The effect of image size on screen-positive rates for nuchal translucency screening.

    PubMed

    Teoh, M; Meagher, S E; Choong, S; Shekleton, P; Wallace, E M

    2006-04-01

    It has been shown previously that the absolute measurement of nuchal translucency (NT) thickness, one of the most effective screening tests for fetal Down syndrome, significantly decreases with increasing image size. We undertook a prospective study to assess whether this effect materially alters the NT-derived risk estimation for fetal Down syndrome. In 350 women, NT was measured at both 100 and 200% image sizes. The median NT measurement at 200% was 8% smaller than at 100%. The screen-positive rates at 100 and 200% image sizes were 5.1% (18/350) and 2.3% (8/350), respectively (P= 0.048). Altering the image magnification settings is likely to decrease the sensitivity of NT-derived Down syndrome risk estimation. Further study is required to test the effect of our finding on the sensitivity of NT screening and to assess whether adjustments in gain settings mitigate the effect. PMID:16489936

  1. Adolescent Age Moderates Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Adolescent Positivity and Negativity: Implications for Genotype-Environment Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807

  2. Factors Associated with Recruitment and Screening in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Diane E.; Hallin, Mary J.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Puumala, Susan E.; Smith, Lynette S.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine factors associated with eligibility and randomization and consider the efficiency of recruitment methods. Method: Adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years, were telephone screened (N = 2,804) followed by in-person evaluation (N = 1,088) for the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study. Separate logistic regression models,…

  3. Unusual false-positive case of urinary screening for buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Romero, Araelsis; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mercadanti, Mariella

    2011-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a centrally acting analgesic drug that is administered for the management of opioid dependence and as an analgesic drug for the treatment of chronic pain. The growing use of this substance has determined an increased need for laboratory testing for either detection and confirmation of the illicit use or monitoring compliance as a substitution therapy for opioid dependence. We describe here the case of urinary sample adulteration with exogenous buprenorphine (6,952 ng/ml), which has led to afalse-positive immunoassay test result (14.9 ng/ml) on a subsequent sample due to a phenomenon of instrumental carry-over. This unusual case confirms the importance to take into account adulteration when screening urines for buprenorphine in patients undergoing substitution therapy for opioid dependence, routinely perform a confirmation assay on positive samples, and rule out instrumental carry-over. PMID:21786326

  4. ERICA: use of screens and consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the length of exposure to screens and the prevalence of consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents in front of screens. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 12 to 17-year old adolescents from 1,247 schools in 124 Brazilian municipalities. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Its segment regarding nutrition contained questions about using TV, computers, and video game systems, having meals while watching TV, and consuming snacks in front of screens. Consumption of meals and snacks in front of screens was analyzed according to the following variables: geographical region, gender, age range, type of school (public or private), and school shift. The prevalences and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated under a complex sampling design. RESULTS A great deal of the adolescents (73.5%, 95%CI 72.3-74.7) reported spending two or more hours a day in front of screens. That habit was more frequent among male adolescents, private school students, morning shift students, and students from Brazil’s South region. More than half of the adolescents (56.6%, 95%CI 55.4-57.8) reported almost always or always having meals in front of TV, and 39.6% (95%CI 38.8-40.5) of them said they consumed snacks in front of screens exactly as often. Both situations were the most prevalent ones among the girls, who attended public schools and were from Brazil’s Midwest region. CONCLUSIONS Length of exposure to screens and consumption of meals and snacks almost always or always in front of screens are high among Brazilian adolescents. It is necessary to develop strategies aiming to reduce the length of screen use, considering the media reality that children and adolescents have been experiencing from earlier and earlier ages. That context must therefore be analyzed in an indissociable way. PMID:26910539

  5. ERICA: use of screens and consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the length of exposure to screens and the prevalence of consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents in front of screens. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 12 to 17-year old adolescents from 1,247 schools in 124 Brazilian municipalities. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Its segment regarding nutrition contained questions about using TV, computers, and video game systems, having meals while watching TV, and consuming snacks in front of screens. Consumption of meals and snacks in front of screens was analyzed according to the following variables: geographical region, gender, age range, type of school (public or private), and school shift. The prevalences and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated under a complex sampling design. RESULTS A great deal of the adolescents (73.5%, 95%CI 72.3-74.7) reported spending two or more hours a day in front of screens. That habit was more frequent among male adolescents, private school students, morning shift students, and students from Brazil's South region. More than half of the adolescents (56.6%, 95%CI 55.4-57.8) reported almost always or always having meals in front of TV, and 39.6% (95%CI 38.8-40.5) of them said they consumed snacks in front of screens exactly as often. Both situations were the most prevalent ones among the girls, who attended public schools and were from Brazil's Midwest region. CONCLUSIONS Length of exposure to screens and consumption of meals and snacks almost always or always in front of screens are high among Brazilian adolescents. It is necessary to develop strategies aiming to reduce the length of screen use, considering the media reality that children and adolescents have been experiencing from earlier and earlier ages. That context must therefore be analyzed in an indissociable way. PMID:26910539

  6. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identify the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21. Methods Prospective cohort study conducted in Denmark with baseline examination in 1996 and follow-up questionnaire in 2003 with a mean follow-up time of 6.4 years. A sample of 1,656 adolescents participated in both baseline (mean age 14.8) and follow-up (mean age 21.3). Of these, 1,402 had a body mass index (BMI = weight/height2kg/m2) corresponding to a value below 25 at baseline when adjusted for age and gender according to guidelines from International Obesity Taskforce, and were at risk of developing overweight during the study period. The exposure was parental occupational status. The main outcome measures were change in BMI and development of overweight (from BMI < 25 to BMI > = 25). Results Average BMI increased from 21.3 to 22.7 for girls and from 20.6 to 23.6 in boys during follow-up. An inverse social gradient in overweight was seen for girls at baseline and follow-up and for boys at follow-up. In the full population there was a tendency to an inverse social gradient in the overall increase in BMI for girls, but not for boys. A total of 13.4% developed overweight during the follow-up period. Girls of lower parental socioeconomic position had a higher risk of developing overweight (OR's between 4.72; CI 1.31 to 17.04 and 2.03; CI 1.10-3.74) when compared to girls of high parental socioeconomic position. A tendency for an inverse social gradient in the development of overweight for boys was seen, but it did not meet the significance criteria Conclusions The levels of overweight and obesity

  7. Screening for PTSD among Somali adolescent refugees: psychometric properties of the UCLA PTSD Index.

    PubMed

    Ellis, B Heidi; Lhewa, Dechen; Charney, Meredith; Cabral, Howard

    2006-08-01

    This study presents the psychometric properties for the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Index among a sample of Somali adolescents. Data were derived from a sample of English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 12 and 19 years (n=76). The UCLA PTSD Index showed good reliability (Cronbach's alpha=.85). Convergent validity was assessed through bivariate correlations with the Depression Self Rating Scale (r=.72, p<.001) and the War Trauma Screening Scale (r=59, p<.001). Results suggest that the UCLA PTSD Index may be a reliable and valid screening tool for PTSD symptoms for use with Somali adolescent refugees. PMID:16929510

  8. Implementation of Ultraportable Echocardiography in an Adolescent Sudden Cardiac Arrest Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Vanhecke, Thomas E; Weber, James E; Ebinger, Matthew; Bonzheim, Kimberly; Tilli, Frank; Rao, Sunilkumar; Osman, Abdulfatah; Silver, Marc; Fliegner, Karsten; Almany, Steve; Haines, David

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over a 12-month period, adolescent heart-screening programs were performed for identifying at-risk adolescents for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in our community. Novel to our study, all adolescents received an abbreviated, ultraportable echocardiography (UPE). In this report, we describe the use of UPE in this screening program. METHODS AND RESULTS Four hundred thirty-two adolescents underwent cardiac screening with medical history questionnaire, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), and an abbreviated transthoracic echocardiographic examination. There were 11 abnormalities identified with uncertain/varying clinical risk significance. In this population, 75 adolescents had a murmur or high ECG voltage, of which only three had subsequent structural abnormalities on echocardiography that may pose risk. Conversely, UPE discovered four adolescents who had a cardiovascular structural abnormality that was not signaled by the 12-lead ECG, medical history questionnaire, and/or physical examination. CONCLUSIONS The utilization of ultraportable, handheld echocardiography is feasible in large-scale adolescent cardiovascular screening programs. UPE appears to be useful for finding additional structural abnormalities and for risk-stratifying abnormalities of uncertain potential of adolescents’ sudden death. PMID:25249762

  9. Depression screening and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Depression is an important cause of disability among children and adolescents. Depression screening is one possible method for managing depression, and screening programs have been initiated in some school and medical settings. However, in 2005, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and the United Kingdom National Institute of Clinical Excellence did not recommend depression screening among children and adolescents. By contrast, in 2009, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended that all adolescents, but not younger children, be screened for depression in medical settings with integrated depression management services, although no trials of screening were identified. The objectives of this systematic review are to evaluate in children and adolescents the accuracy of depression screening tools; depression treatment efficacy; whether depression screening improves depression outcomes; and potential harms related to depression interventions and screening. Methods/design Data sources will include the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, LILACS and Web of Science, supplemented by reference harvesting of eligible articles, relevant systematic reviews, relevant guidelines and recommendations, and selected journals, and by searches for unpublished studies. Eligible studies will report data for children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years. Eligible diagnostic accuracy studies must compare a depression screening tool to a validated diagnostic interview for major depressive disorder and report diagnostic accuracy data. Eligible treatment studies must be randomized controlled trials of pharmacological, psychotherapeutic, or other depression treatments commonly available for children and adolescents in pediatric, primary-care, and family medicine settings. Eligible screening studies must be randomized controlled trials that compare depression outcomes between children or adolescents who underwent depression

  10. A Qualitative Analysis of the MAYSI-2: Screening for Co-Occurring Disorders in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, William H.; Randolph, Dwight E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument (MAYSI-2) to screen for co-occurring disorders in an adolescent outpatient treatment program and to provide a preliminary assessment of those needs. The MAYSI-2 identified youth with co-occurring disorders and the results support existing recommendations for distinct…

  11. Small Screen Technology Use among Indigenous Boarding School Adolescents from Remote Regions of Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Oliver, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of small screen technology by adolescents is widespread, particularly in industrial nations. Whether the same is true for Australian Aboriginal youth is less clear as there is a dearth of research in this regard. Therefore, in this exploratory study the use of small screen technology by Indigenous students was examined. Twenty-four…

  12. The Social Phobia Inventory: screening and cross-cultural validation in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis Joaquín; Bermejo, Rosa Ma; Hidalgo, Ma Dolores

    2010-11-01

    Availability of brief, self-report measures to be used as screening instruments is crucial to detect correctly youth with social anxiety disorder and therefore, reach those otherwise under-detected and under-treated. A previous study revealed that the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was potentially an appropriate measure for screening social anxiety among US adolescents. However, there is a lack of information concerning its properties as a screening test in other cultures and languages. This is the main objective of this study, although further validity of the scale is provided as well. The sample consisted of 192 adolescents (a sample composed of 114 subjects with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder; and a group consisting of 78 subjects with no diagnosis of social phobia). Results suggest that the Social Phobia Inventory has demonstrated good psychometric properties and indeed may be used as a screening tool in Spanish-speaking adolescents. PMID:20977044

  13. Promoting Positive Future Expectations During Adolescence: The Role of Assets.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Pierce, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Positive future expectations can facilitate optimal development and contribute to healthier outcomes for youth. Researchers suggest that internal resources and community-level factors may influence adolescent future expectations, yet little is known about the processes through which these benefits are conferred. The present study examined the relationship between contribution to community, neighborhood collective efficacy, purpose, hope and future expectations, and tested a mediation model that linked contribution to community and collective efficacy with future expectations through purpose and hope in a sample of 7th grade youth (N = 196; Mage = 12.39; 60 % female; 40 % African American; 71 % economically disadvantaged). Greater collective efficacy and contribution to community predicted higher levels of hope and purpose. Higher levels of hope and purpose predicted more positive future expectations. Contribution to community and neighborhood collective efficacy indirectly predicted future expectations via hope. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26385095

  14. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Razzak, Rima; Elmteri, Asma; Elkanderi, Taiba; Ishaq, Fareedah; Eljasem, Munera; AlDuraie, Saja; Al-Boloushi, Jenan; Elbanay, Fatma; Eldabos, Latifa

    2013-01-01

    A relationship between blood pressure (BP) and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years) participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3%) with mean age of 15.61 ± 2.40 years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75%) with mean age of 15.02 ± 2.82 years. The mean BMI was 21.7 ± 2.23 kg/m2 for the nonobese group and 34.47 ± 4.70 kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; P < 0.0001). In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; P = 0.66). For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5%) and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%). Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman r = 0.18; P < 0.05), with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman r = 0.22; P < 0.05) and mean BP (Spearman r = 0.21; P < 0.05) in females. PMID:24349766

  15. Informing parents about positive newborn screen results: parents' recommendations.

    PubMed

    Salm, Natalie; Yetter, Elena; Tluczek, Audrey

    2012-12-01

    This descriptive study examined parents' reactions to newborn screening (NBS) results and their recommendations for improving communication. Dimensional and content analyses were conducted on interviews with 203 parents of 106 infants having positive NBS results. Diagnostic results confirmed infants as having congenital hypothyroidism (n = 37), cystic fibrosis (n = 26), or being cystic fibrosis (CF)-carriers (n = 43). Parents' reactions ranged from 'very scary' to 'not too concerned'. Most reported feeling shock, panic, and worry; some reported guilt. Parents in the CF and CF-carrier groups preferred face-to-face disclosure as the communication channel; whereas congenital hypothyroidism group parents supported telephone contacts. Parents recommended providers be well informed, honest, and calm; personalize disclosure, avoid jargon, listen carefully, encourage questions, recognize parental distress, offer realistic reassurance, pace amount and rate of information, assess parents' understanding, and refer to specialists. We conclude that provider-patient communication approach and channel can exacerbate or alleviate parents' negative reactions to positive NBS results. PMID:22984167

  16. Maternal Socialization of Positive Affect: The Impact of Invalidation on Adolescent Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relations among maternal socialization of positive affect (PA), adolescent emotion regulation (ER), and adolescent depressive symptoms. Two hundred early adolescents, 11-13 years old, provided self-reports of ER strategies and depressive symptomatology; their mothers provided self-reports of socialization responses to…

  17. A Positive Domestic Violence Screen Predicts Future Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Feldhaus, Kim; Peery, Benjamin; Abbott, Jean; Lowenstein, Steven R.; al-Bataa-de-Montero, Sameerah; Levine, Saul

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a brief screen for domestic violence (DV) predicts future violence. We conducted a cohort study of adult women who presented to an inner-city emergency department during an 8-week study period. Participants were screened for DV using the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). At 4 months, follow-up telephone…

  18. Positive illusions in adolescents: the relationship between academic self-enhancement and depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Noble, Rick N; Heath, Nancy L; Toste, Jessica R

    2011-12-01

    Positive illusions are systematically inflated self-perceptions of competence, and are frequently seen in areas of great difficulty. Although these illusions have been extensively documented in children and adults, their role in typical adolescent emotion regulation is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between positive illusions, depressive symptomatology, and school stress in a sample of 71 school-based adolescents. Findings revealed that adolescents who were achieving slightly below average in math significantly overestimated their performance, but adolescents did not overestimate their performance in spelling. Positive illusions in math were negatively related to depressive symptomatology. Implications for positive illusions theory are discussed. PMID:21695500

  19. Health Care Workers' Beliefs and Practices Around Pap Screening for Adolescents Seeking Contraception.

    PubMed

    Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Engstrom, Janet L; McFarlin, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents often avoid seeing a health care provider to obtain contraception because they do not want to undergo a pelvic exam and Pap screening for fear of stress, pain or embarrassment. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to study health care workers, attitudes and beliefs about Pap screening and to educate them on the latest evidence-based guidelines, with the hope of ultimately decreasing unnecessary screening. Results showed a modest reduction in the frequency of Pap screening; however, many adolescents continued to undergo unnecessary Pap screening. The reluctance of health care workers to change their practice demonstrates the need for better methods of translating evidence-based guidelines into practice. PMID:26058904

  20. Health complaints among adolescents: Associations with more screen-based behaviours and less physical activity.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Calmeiro, Luís; Loureiro, Nuno; Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between screen-based behaviours, physical activity, and health complaints (headaches, feeling low, irritability, and nervousness). Screen-based behaviour included TV viewing, computer use, and time spent playing video games. Data were collected from 4462 Portuguese adolescents (2394 girls) aged 11-16 years. Girls who reported engaging in more screen-based behaviour (hours/day) also reported having more headaches, feeling lower, being more irritable, and feeling more nervous. Boys who reported more screen time were more irritable. Physical activity (times/week) was negatively associated with reports of feeling nervous among girls, and with headaches, feeling low, irritability, and feeling nervous among boys. Considering that time spent using the computer is related with more health complaints, and physical activity was related with fewer health complaints among boys, it is important to develop strategies to reduce adolescents' computer screen time, and to promote physical activity. PMID:26275746

  1. A Brief Screening Measure of Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lescano, Celia M.; Hadley, Wendy S.; Beausoleil, Nancy I.; Brown, Larry K.; D'eramo, Domenic; Zimskind, Abigail

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory (ARI), designed to assess adolescent risk behaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and risk behaviors were administered to 134 youth (ages 12-19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of…

  2. Resting heart rate: its correlations and potential for screening metabolic dysfunctions in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In pediatric populations, the use of resting heart rate as a health index remains unclear, mainly in epidemiological settings. The aims of this study were to analyze the impact of resting heart rate on screening dyslipidemia and high blood glucose and also to identify its significance in pediatric populations. Methods The sample was composed of 971 randomly selected adolescents aged 11 to 17 years (410 boys and 561 girls). Resting heart rate was measured with oscillometric devices using two types of cuffs according to the arm circumference. Biochemical parameters triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose were measured. Body fatness, sleep, smoking, alcohol consumption and cardiorespiratory fitness were analyzed. Results Resting heart rate was positively related to higher sleep quality (β = 0.005, p = 0.039) and negatively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (β = −0.207, p = 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated significant potential for resting heart rate in the screening of adolescents at increased values of fasting glucose (area under curve = 0.611 ± 0.039 [0.534 – 0.688]) and triglycerides (area under curve = 0.618 ± 0.044 [0.531 – 0.705]). Conclusion High resting heart rate constitutes a significant and independent risk related to dyslipidemia and high blood glucose in pediatric populations. Sleep and cardiorespiratory fitness are two important determinants of the resting heart rate. PMID:23560541

  3. Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gary D.; Udaltsova, Natalia; Chan, James; Quesenberry, Charles P; Habel, Laurel A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We screened commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects. Methods In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case-control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched controls per case, with lag of at least two years between drug dispensing and cancer. Positive associations entailed a relative risk (RR) of 1.50, with p≤ 0.01 and higher risk for three or more, than for one prescription. Evaluation included further analyses, searches of the literature, and clinical judgment. Results There were 101 associations of interest for 61 drugs. Sixty-six associations were judged to have involved substantial confounding. We found evidence that of the remaining 35, the following associations may not be due to chance: sulindac with gallbladder cancer and leukemia, hyoscyamine with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, nortriptyline with esophageal and hepatic cancer, oxazepam with lung cancer, both fluoxetine and paroxetine with testicular cancer, hydrochlorothiazide with renal and lip cancer, and nifedipine with lip cancer. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that further studies are indicated regarding sulindac, hyoscyamine, nortriptyline, oxazepam, fluoxetine, paroxetine, hydrochlorothiazide and nifedipine. PMID:19582585

  4. ACMG position statement on prenatal/preconception expanded carrier screening.

    PubMed

    Grody, Wayne W; Thompson, Barry H; Gregg, Anthony R; Bean, Lora H; Monaghan, Kristin G; Schneider, Adele; Lebo, Roger V

    2013-06-01

    For years, clinicians have offered gene-by-gene carrier screening to patients and couples considering future pregnancy or those with an ongoing pregnancy early in gestation. Examples include ethnic-specific screening offered to Ashkenazi Jewish patients and panethnic screening for cystic fibrosis and spinal muscular atrophy. Next-generation sequencing methods now available permit screening for many more disorders with high fidelity, quick turnaround time, and lower costs. However, instituting these technologies carries with it perils that must be addressed. The basis for the selection of disorders on expanded carrier screening panels should be disclosed. The information provided about disorders with mild phenotypes, variable expression, low penetrance, and/or characterized by an adult onset should be complete and transparent, allowing patients to opt out of receiving these test results. Patients also must be made aware of the concept of residual risk following negative test results. Laboratories have a duty to participate in and facilitate this information transfer. PMID:23619275

  5. Patient and Provider Factors Associated With American Indian and Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Use Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Garroutte, Eva M.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is the leading behavioral cause of death among adults 25 years or older. American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and of its sequelae. Primary care–based screening of adolescents is an integral step in the reduction of tobacco use, yet remains virtually unstudied. We examined whether delivery of tobacco screening in primary care visits is associated with patient and provider characteristics among AI/AN adolescents. Methods We used a cross-sectional analysis to examine tobacco screening among 4757 adolescent AI/AN patients served by 56 primary care providers at a large tribally managed health system between October 1, 2011 and May 31, 2014. Screening prevalence was examined in association with categorical patient characteristics (gender, age, clinic visited, insurance coverage) and provider characteristics (gender, age, tenure) using multilevel logistic regressions with individual provider identity as the nesting variable. Results Thirty-seven percent of eligible patients were screened. Gender of both providers and patients was associated with screening. Male providers delivered screening more often than female providers (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7–3.9). Male patients had 20% lower odds of screening receipt (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7–0.9) than female patients, independent of patient age and provider characteristics. Individual provider identity significantly contributed to variability in the mixed-effects model (variance component 2.2; 95% CI 1.4–3.4), suggesting individual provider effect. Conclusions Low tobacco screening delivery by female providers and the low receipt of screening among younger, male patients may identify targets for screening interventions. PMID:26319931

  6. "Media Time = Family Time": Positive Media Use in Families with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Fraser, Ashley M.; Fellows, Kaylene; Day, Randal D.

    2014-01-01

    Media use in families has generally been examined from a narrow viewpoint, focusing on monitoring or co-viewing. The current research provides an expanded view of positive media use in families with adolescents by examining associations between diverse positive media use and family and adolescents outcomes. In addition, we used qualitative methods…

  7. Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Anderson, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    To explore potential bases of positive development among gang youth, attributes of positive individual and social behavior were assessed in individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males from the same communities but involved in community-based…

  8. Screening for Metabolic and Reproductive Complications in Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Irizarry, Krystal A.; Brito, Valerie; Freemark, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a number of metabolic comorbidities. These include glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, fatty liver disease, and reproductive complications, such as polycystic ovary syndrome. The occurrence of these complications in a child or adolescent may result in progressive health decline at an early age. We, therefore, advocate screening and early diagnosis. This purpose of this review is to outline a rational, evidence-based approach to screening obese children and adolescents for metabolic and reproductive complications. In each section, the aim is to provide the primary care provider with a review of the literature supporting current screening practices. As such, this review is designed to assist the primary care provider in the selection and interpretation of screening tests and to make recommendations regarding the referral of patients for subspecialty care. PMID:25198445

  9. Screening for Spiritual Struggle in an Adolescent Transgender Clinic: Feasibility and Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Grossoehme, Daniel H; Teeters, Alexis; Jelinek, Sue; Dimitriou, Sophia M; Conard, Lee Ann E

    2016-01-01

    Spiritual struggles are associated with poorer health outcomes, including depression, which has higher prevalence among transgender individuals than the general population. This study's objective was to improve the quality of care in an outpatient transgender clinic by screening patients and caregivers for spiritual struggle and future intervention. The quality improvement questions addressed were whether screening for spiritual struggle was feasible and acceptable; and whether the sensitivity and specificity of the Rush Protocol were acceptable. Revision of the screening was based on cognitive interviews with the 115 adolescents and caregivers who were screened. Prevalence of spiritual struggle was 38-47%. Compared to the Negative R-COPE, the Rush Protocol screener had sensitivities of 44-80% and specificities of 60-74%. The Rush Protocol was acceptable to adolescents seen in a transgender clinic, caregivers, and clinic staff; was feasible to deliver during outpatient clinic visits, and offers a straightforward means of identifying transgender persons and caregivers experiencing spiritual struggle. PMID:26901280

  10. Caffeine and Screen Time in Adolescence: Associations with Short Sleep and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Amy A.; Goodwin, James L.; Silva, Graciela E.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the associations between sleep duration and obesity incidence and risk factors among pre-adolescents and adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional study of a community based cohort Setting: The Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea follow-up study (TuCASA) cohort. Participants: 319 Caucasian and Hispanics between 10-17 years. Main Outcome: Parent-reported sleep duration and BMI z-score. Outcome Measures: Surveys of electronic screen time, dietary and caffeine intake, exercise and sleep habits by parents, and anthropometric measures. Results: Parent-reported total sleep time (TST) was inversely associated with BMI z-score, but not significantly correlated with any of the examined nutritional variables or exercise components. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with significantly lower parent-reported TST and higher BMI z-score. Parent-reported TST was inversely related to electronic screen time and caffeine use, but these findings were differentially related to age. Caffeine consumption was associated with decreasing parent-reported TST primarily in older adolescents. Electronic screen time was associated with lower parent-reported TST in younger adolescents. Conclusions: Hispanic ethnicity and parental reports of TST were found to be the most closely associated with BMI z-score. Decreased TST and increased caffeine intake and screen time may result in higher obesity risk in the adolescent population. Citation: Drescher AA; Goodwin JL; Silva GE; Quan SF. Caffeine and screen time in adolescence: associations with short sleep and obesity. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(4):337-342. PMID:21897768

  11. False-positive cancer screens and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patricia M; Gross, Cynthia R; Krueger, Richard A; Engelhard, Deborah A; Cordes, Jill E; Church, Timothy R

    2004-01-01

    By design, screening tests are imperfect-unresponsive to some cancers (false negatives) while occasionally raising suspicion of cancer where none exists (false positives). This pilot study describes patients' responses to having a false-positive screening test for cancer, and identifies screening effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The pilot findings suggest issues important for incorporation in future evaluations of the impact of screening for prostate, lung, colon, or ovarian (PLCO) cancers. Seven focus groups were conducted to identify the nature and meaning of all phases of PLCO screening. Minnesota participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial who had completed screening, with at least 1 false-positive screen, participated (N = 47). Participants' reactions to abnormal screens and diagnostic work-ups were primarily emotional (eg, anxiety and distress), not physical, and ultimately positive for the majority. Health distress and fear of cancer and death were the major negative aspects of HRQoL identified. These concepts are not typically included in generic HRQoL questionnaires like the SF-36, but are highly relevant to PLCO screening. Clinicians were regarded as underestimating the discomfort of follow-up diagnostic testing. However, relief and assurance appeared to eventually outweigh the negative emotions for most participants. Implications for oncology nurses include the need to consider the emotional consequences of screening in association with screen reliability and validity. PMID:15525861

  12. The relation of standardized mental health screening and categorical assessment in detained male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Grisso, Thomas; Mulder, Eva; Vermeiren, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Having an effective triage tool is an important step toward a careful use of the restricted time and qualified personnel to perform comprehensive psychiatric assessment in juvenile justice settings. The aims of this study were to examine the construct validity of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory-second version (MAYSI-2), and its likelihood to identify youths who might have a psychiatric disorder. Data from up to 781 male adolescents (mean age = 16.73 years) were gathered as part of the standardized mental health screening and assessment in two all-male Youth Detention Centers in the Netherlands. Categorical assessments were based on two structured diagnostic interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under the curve were calculated to evaluate the likelihood of the MAYSI-2 to identify youths with a psychiatric disorder. Youths with a disorder scored significantly higher on the corresponding MAYSI-2 subscale than youths without a disorder. In the total sample, 70 % of the youths with a disorder met the Caution cut-off criteria on at least one MAYSI-2 scale, while youths without a psychiatric disorder were very unlikely to meet cut-off criteria for multiple MAYSI-2 scales. Overall, the sensitivity was slightly better when analyses were repeated in groups of youths from various ethnic origins. The findings supported the construct validity of the Dutch MAYSI-2 and suggested that the MAYSI-2 is a valid mental health screening tool that may serve relatively well as a triage tool. Its effectiveness, however, may differ between ethnic groups. PMID:25116035

  13. Score Reliability of Adolescent Alcohol Screening Measures: A Meta-Analytic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Alan L.; Campfield, Delia C.; Miller, Christopher S.; Howell, Ryan T.; Wallace, Kimberly; Weiss, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the reliability reporting practices in empirical studies using eight adolescent alcohol screening tools and characterizes and explores variability in internal consistency estimates across samples. Of 119 observed administrations of these instruments, 40 (34%) reported usable reliability information. The Personal Experience…

  14. A Collaborative Model for Community-Based Health Care Screening of Homeless Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busen, Nancy H.; Beech, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team from community organizations serving the homeless and from universities collaborated in screening 150 homeless adolescents for psychosocial and physical risks. The population had a history of physical, sexual, and substance abuse as well as high rates of HIV and hepatitis B. Case management by advanced practice nurses was…

  15. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  16. Preliminary Validation of a Screening Tool for Adolescent Panic Disorder in Pediatric Primary Care Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, Alexander H.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a brief screening tool for adolescent panic disorder (PD) in a primary care setting. A total of 165 participants (ages 12-17 years) seen in two pediatric primary care clinics completed the Autonomic Nervous System Questionnaire (ANS; Stein et al. in Psychosomatic Med 61:359-364, 40). A subset of those screening…

  17. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Pressure Screening in Adolescents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. Claire; Cheung, Angela M.; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Prosser, Lisa A.; Cook, Nancy R.; Goldman, Lee; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 3 approaches to managing elevated blood pressure (BP) in adolescents in the United States: no intervention, “screen-and-treat,” and population-wide strategies to lower the entire BP distribution. Study design We used a simulation model to combine several data sources to project the lifetime costs and cardiovascular outcomes for a cohort of 15-year-old U.S. adolescents under different BP approaches and conducted cost-effectiveness analysis. We obtained BP distributions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 and used childhood-to-adult longitudinal correlation analyses to simulate the tracking of BP. We then used the coronary heart disease policy model to estimate lifetime coronary heart disease events, costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Results Among screen-and-treat strategies, finding and treating the adolescents at highest risk (eg, left ventricular hypertrophy) was most cost-effective ($18 000/QALY [boys] and $47 000/QALY [girls]). However, all screen-and-treat strategies were dominated by population-wide strategies such as salt reduction (cost-saving [boys] and $650/ QALY [girls]) and increasing physical education ($11 000/QALY [boys] and $35 000/QALY [girls]). Conclusions Routine adolescents BP screening is moderately effective, but population-based BP interventions with broader reach could potentially be less costly and more effective for early cardiovascular disease prevention and should be implemented in parallel. PMID:20850759

  18. Increasing the Screening and Counseling of Adolescents for Risky Health Behaviors: A Primary Care Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Elizabeth M.; Adams, Sally H.; Lustig, Julie L.; Gee, Scott; Garber, Andrea K.; Gardner, Linda Rieder; Rehbein, Michael; Addison, Louise; Irwin, Charles E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether a systems intervention for primary care providers resulted in increased preventive screening and counseling of adolescent patients, compared with the usual standard of care. Methods: The intervention was conducted in 2 out-patient pediatric clinics; 2 other pediatric clinics in the same health maintenance…

  19. Negative and positive peer influence: Relations to positive and negative behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Bean, Roy A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06, SD=1.10). The study found differences and similarities in relation to respondents' ethnicity vis-à-vis indirect peer association and adolescent behavior. Although few ethnic-based differences occurred as a function of indirect negative peer association, indirect positive peer association was not as consistently or as strongly related to behaviors for minority youth as it was for European American youth. PMID:18703225

  20. Positivity Coping Style and Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, M. Dolores; Bermudez, Jose; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescence is a period when at-risk health behaviors often begin, such as tobacco and alcohol use; thus, it is a critical period for implementing preventive strategies. Method: In this context, 106 adolescents took part in this research (54 females and 52 males; mean age for both groups = 14.10). The main objectives were to first…

  1. Metal Impurities Cause False Positives in High-Throughput Screening Campaigns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Organic impurities in compound libraries are known to often cause false-positive signals in screening campaigns for new leads, but organic impurities do not fully account for all false-positive results. We discovered inorganic impurities in our screening library that can also cause positive signals for a variety of targets and/or readout systems, including biochemical and biosensor assays. We investigated in depth the example of zinc for a specific project and in retrospect in various HTS screens at Roche and propose a straightforward counter screen using the chelator TPEN to rule out inhibition caused by zinc. PMID:24900642

  2. Screening Adolescents in the Emergency Department for Weapon Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resko, Stella M.; Harrison, Stephanie Roahen; Zimmerman, Marc; Stanley, Rachel; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe prevalence and correlates of past year weapon involvement among adolescents seeking care in an inner-city ED. Methods This cross-sectional study administered a computerized survey to all eligible adolescents (age 14–18), seven days a week seeking care in the ED over an 18 month period in an inner-city Level 1 ED. Validated measures were administered including measures of demographics, sexual activity, substance use, injury, violent behavior and weapon carriage/use. Results Adolescents (N=2069, 86% response rate) completed the computerized survey. 55% were female; 56.5% were African American. In the past year, 20% of adolescents reported knife/razor carriage, 7% reported gun carriage, and 6% pulled a knife/gun on someone; zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression models were used to identify correlates of the occurrence and past year frequency of these weapon variables. Although gun carriage was more frequent among males, females were as likely to carry a knife or pull a weapon in the past year. Conclusions One fifth of all adolescent’s seeking care in this inner city ED have carried a weapon. Understanding weapon carriage among teens seeking ED care is a critical first step to future ED based injury prevention initiatives. PMID:20370746

  3. Bidirectional associations between valued activities and adolescent positive adjustment in a longitudinal study: positive mood as a mediator.

    PubMed

    DesRoches, Andrea; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-02-01

    Although activity involvement has been linked to positive youth development, the value that adolescents place on these activities (i.e., how much they enjoy the activities, find them important, and spend time on them) has received less attention. The purpose of the present study was to examine the bidirectional longitudinal association between engagement in valued activities and adolescent positive adjustment (optimism, purpose in life, and self-esteem), as well as investigate a possible underlying mechanism for this link. High school students (N = 2,270, 48.7% female) from Ontario, Canada completed questionnaires annually in grades 10, 11, and 12. Auto-regressive cross-lagged path analyses were conducted over time, controlling for gender, parental education, and academic grades. Greater engagement in valued activities predicted higher optimism, purpose, and self-esteem over time. Importantly, the results did not support an alternate hypothesis of selection effects, in that adolescents who were better adjusted were not more likely than their peers to engage in valued activities over time. We also found that the longitudinal associations between valued activities and positive adjustment may be due partly to an underlying effect of increased positive mood. Thus, engagement in valued activities appears to be important for adolescent positive adjustment, and may help to foster thriving. Communities, educators, and parents should actively support and encourage adolescents to develop valued activities, and seek to ensure that there are ample opportunities and resources available for them to do so. PMID:23625185

  4. Comparison of Subjective Wellbeing and Positive Future Expectations in Between Working and Nonworking Adolescents in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Semra; Karakoc, Ayse; Bingol, Fadime; Eren, Nurhan; Andsoy, Isil Isik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Wellbeing is one’s evaluation and judgment of one’s life. It consists of 3 dimensions: positive affectivity, negative affectivity, and life satisfaction. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the subjective wellbeing and positive future expectations between working and nonworking adolescents. Patients and Methods: The study was designed as descriptive and comparative. The study sample consisted of 420 working and 482 nonworking adolescents (n = 902) aged 15 - 20 years, who were randomly recruited from two occupational education centers in Istanbul, Turkey and two high schools (formal educations) in the same district. Results: Adolescent subjective wellbeing scale (ASWS) total mean (SD) scores for working adolescents and nonworking adolescents were 48.76 (9.50) and 49.72 (8.01), respectively. In addition, positive future expectations scale (PFES) total mean (SD) scores for working adolescents and nonworking adolescents were 18.71 (4.50) and 19.06 (3.49), respectively. In this study, no significant difference was found between the general wellbeing (scale total median score) scores of the working and nonworking adolescent groups (Z = 1.01, P = 0.315). However, significant differences were found in the family relations satisfaction (Z = 3.23, P = 0.002) and relations with significant others (Z = 2.85, P = 0.004) subscales of the ASWS. Conclusions: A positive relationship was found between adolescent subjective wellbeing and positive future expectations. It was found that nonworking adolescents scored higher on the dimensions of “family relations” and “relations with significant others” of subjective wellbeing compared to those dimensions in working adolescents. PMID:27195141

  5. Health and identity: Self-positioning in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Coralie E; van Geelen, Stefan M; van Geel, Rolf; Sinnema, Gerben; van de Putte, Elise M; Hermans, Hubert J M; Kuis, Wietse

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight into basic aspects of identity, in relation to adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In dialogical self theory, identity is regarded as incorporating multiple self-positions, such as 'I as tired', 'I as pessimistic', or 'I as decisive'. Physical and psychosocial impairment might alter the organization of these self-positions. The Personal Position Repertoire procedure, a quantitative method to analyse the prominence of self-positions, the Child Health Questionnaire, assessing health-related functioning, and the Checklist Individual Strength, measuring fatigue, were completed by 42 adolescents with CFS, 37 adolescents with JIA and 23 healthy teenagers. Adolescents with JIA report impaired physical functioning and general health. However, they position themselves very similar to healthy teenagers - i.e. as strong and healthy. While this self-positioning approach might be adequate and sustainable in adolescence, it could prove too strenuous to maintain throughout adult life. Adolescents with CFS, besides indicating severe physical difficulties, also report more psychosocial problems. They position themselves as significantly less strong and more unwell. With this emphasis on positions relating to their illness, there seems to be little room left for stronger positions. It is regarded of clinical importance to address these issues in this crucial developmental period. PMID:23060600

  6. Screening for Primary Hypertension in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of this screening: There is not enough evidence ... is at rest between beats. Potential Benefits and Harms The Task Force reviewed studies that looked at ...

  7. Screen Time and Sleep among School-Aged Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-01-01

    Summary We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1.) causal association not confirmed; 2.) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3.) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. PMID:25193149

  8. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-06-01

    We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. PMID:25193149

  9. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive results in mammographic screening.

    PubMed

    Román, Marta; Castells, Xavier; Hofvind, Solveig; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2016-06-01

    Women with false-positive results are commonly referred back to routine screening. Questions remain regarding their long-term outcome of breast cancer. We assessed the risk of screen-detected breast cancer in women with false-positive results. We conducted a joint analysis using individual level data from the population-based screening programs in Copenhagen and Funen in Denmark, Norway, and Spain. Overall, 150,383 screened women from Denmark (1991-2008), 612,138 from Norway (1996-2010), and 1,172,572 from Spain (1990-2006) were included. Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of screen-detected cancer for women with false-positive versus negative results. We analyzed information from 1,935,093 women 50-69 years who underwent 6,094,515 screening exams. During an average 5.8 years of follow-up, 230,609 (11.9%) women received a false-positive result and 27,849 (1.4%) were diagnosed with screen-detected cancer. The adjusted RR of screen-detected cancer after a false-positive result was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.93-2.09). Women who tested false-positive at first screen had a RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.77-1.96), whereas those who tested false-positive at third screening had a RR of 2.42 (95% CI: 2.21-2.64). The RR of breast cancer at the screening test after the false-positive result was 3.95 (95% CI: 3.71-4.21), whereas it decreased to 1.25 (95% CI: 1.17-1.34) three or more screens after the false-positive result. Women with false-positive results had a twofold risk of screen-detected breast cancer compared to women with negative tests. The risk remained significantly higher three or more screens after the false-positive result. The increased risk should be considered when discussing stratified screening strategies. PMID:26916154

  10. Understanding Qualities of Positive Relationship Dynamics between Adolescent Parents and Their School-Based Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Holli M.; Mitschke, Diane B.; Douthit, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This study used phenomenological methods to explore the experience of pregnant and parenting adolescents in a positive therapeutic relationship with a school counselor. Themes that emerged from semistructured interviews conducted with 36 adolescents in a teen parenting program identified relationship characteristics that strengthen the bond…

  11. Brief Report: Piloting the Positive Life Changes (PLC) Program for At-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ariel A.; Dierkhising, Carly B.; Guerra, Nancy G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot the Positive Life Changes (PLC) program, a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral intervention for at-risk adolescents that aims to promote social competencies and to prevent aggression. The program was piloted in 4 intervention groups with a sample of 31 self-referred adolescents (M age 15.64) attending an…

  12. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  13. Parenting, Community, and Religious Predictors of Positive and Negative Developmental Outcomes among Muslim Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Suandi, Turiman; Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Dahalan, Dzuhailmi; Idris, Fazilah

    2014-01-01

    Despite existing research on the contribution of social context and religiosity to adolescent behavioral outcomes, few studies have attempted to explore this topic among Muslim adolescents in non-Western settings, looking at both positive and negative outcomes. In response to this gap, the current study explored the effects of three dimensions of…

  14. A brief screening measure of adolescent risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Lescano, Celia M; Hadley, Wendy S; Beausoleil, Nancy I; Brown, Larry K; D'eramo, Domenic; Zimskind, Abigail

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the factor structure and reliability of a brief but comprehensive measure, the adolescent risk inventory (ARI), designed to assess adolescent risk behaviors and attitudes. Measures assessing demographics and risk behaviors were administered to 134 youth (ages 12-19) in psychiatric treatment. A confirmatory factor analysis of the four attitude scales (HIV Anxiety, HIV Prevention Self-Efficacy, General Distress, and General Risk) revealed excellent goodness of fit statistics. Exploratory factor analysis of the behavior items revealed three behavior factors (Sex Risk, Abuse/Self-Harm, and Acting Out). The preliminary analysis suggested that all subscales had reasonable internal consistency reliability and appeared to be independent measures, rather than part of a single unitary construct. Differences emerged based on gender, sexual activity status, and trauma history. Exploratory regression analyses revealed that, even when controlling for demographic factors and sex risk attitudes (e.g., HIV Prevention Self-Efficacy), Abuse/self-harm behaviors were highly significantly predictive of sex risk. These analyses suggest that the ARI can be useful in quickly identifying the broad range of risk behaviors found among adolescents with psychiatric disorders. PMID:17109222

  15. Screening and management of adverse endocrine outcomes in adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tonorezos, Emily S; Hudson, Melissa M; Edgar, Angela B; Kremer, Leontien C; Sklar, Charles A; Wallace, W Hamish B; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    5 year survival for childhood and adolescent cancer in developed countries is now in excess of 80% and the number of survivors of cancer continues to increase worldwide. After completion of therapy, many of these survivors will face a lifelong risk of endocrine late effects. We summarise the available evidence related to the prevalence and risk factors for endocrine late effects among adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. Present screening, surveillance, and treatment recommendations differ by country and region, so we also highlight the continued effort to harmonise the international guidelines for this population. PMID:25873569

  16. Associations among evening snacking, screen time, weight status, and overall diet quality in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J; Fryer, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among evening snacking (food choices, portion sizes), afterschool-evening screen time, overall diet quality, and weight status. Participants consisted of 1008 young adolescents (secondary analyses, n = 651) from schools in Windsor-Essex, Ontario. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, including a 24-h diet recall, was used to assess eating and screen time behaviours (television and video and computer games), as well as nutrient intake; height and weight for BMI were measured using a stadiometer. Results indicated that the majority of participants (62%) consumed an evening snack that contributed approximately 11% of their daily caloric intake. Evening snacking was associated with an overall good diet quality compared with that of non-evening snackers (p < 0.001). Increased afterschool-evening screen time was associated with fewer evening snack servings of vegetables and fruit (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in evening snack food portion sizes (p < 0.001). After accounting for other evening snacking factors, participants with greater than 6 h of afterschool-evening screen time were less likely to have a good overall diet quality compared with those with less than 1 h of afterschool-evening screen time. Therefore, increased screen time, because it is associated with greater evening snack portion sizes and overall poor diet quality, is of great concern regarding young adolescents' evening behaviour. PMID:23980738

  17. Screening in School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports: Methodological Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Many schools have adopted programming designed to promote students' behavioral aptitude. A specific type of programming with this focus is School Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS), which combines positive behavior techniques with a system wide problem solving model. Aspects of this model are still being developed in the research…

  18. Waist circumference as a marker for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Dal Molin, Bárbara; de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the relationship between the degree of waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese adolescents of both genders, analyzed according to quartiles of WC. Methods: Cross-sectional study that involved 247 obese adolescents aged 12–19 years. Mean values of the nutritional parameters and serum analyses were compared with the groups using the independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship of the parameters studied. Chi-square test for trend was used to determine the relationship between the prevalence of the NAFLD and WC quartile by gender. Results: NAFLD were presented in 60% of the study participants. Obese adolescents in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of WC presented higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared with that in the 1st quartile in both genders. The NAFLD patients had significantly higher values for body weight, BMI (body mass index), BAZ-score (BMI-for-age z-scores), total fat (% and kg), WC, visceral fat, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that an increase in WC can reliably predict the risk of NAFLD in obese adolescents. This is a low cost and easy-to-use tool that can help in screening in adolescents. PMID:26830602

  19. The influence of friends and psychosocial factors on physical activity and screen time behavior in adolescents: a mixed-methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jeanette M; Sirard, John R; Deutsch, Nancy L; Weltman, Arthur

    2016-08-01

    (1) Determine the association between adolescent moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time with their nominated friends' behaviors and (2) explore potential mechanisms of friends' social influences on MVPA and screen time. Participants consisted of 152 adolescents (mean age: 14.5 years, 53 % female, 50 % high school, 80 % Caucasian). MVPA was measured with an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer. Demographic and psychosocial variables were assessed via questionnaires. Participants nominated up to 5 friends who completed MVPA and screen time questionnaires. A subset of adolescents (n = 108) participated in focus groups that examined potential mechanism of friends' influence on MVPA and screen time. Multiple regression analysis examined the association of demographic, psychological, and nominated friend variables with participants' MVPA and screen time. NVivo 10.0 was used to analyze qualitative data. Greater levels of friends' MVPA was associated with greater levels of MVPA in both males (p < .0001) and females (p < .0001). Greater levels of friends' screen time was associated with greater levels of screen time in males (p = .04) while psychosocial variables, such as increased screen time enjoyment, were associated with increased screen time in females (p = .01). School level was not associated with either MVPA or screen time. Focus group data indicated that friends positively influenced participants' MVPA through engaging in activity with participants, verbal encouragement, and modeling of MVPA. All participants preferred to be active with friends rather than alone, however, females preferred activity with a close friend while males preferred to be active with a group. Enjoyment of MVPA was the most cited reason for engaging in MVPA with friends. The majority of participants reported friends not having an influence on screen time. Adolescents with active friends are more likely to be physically active and spend less time engaging in

  20. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  1. Lack of utility of risk score and gynecological examination for screening for sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Eleuse MB; Guimarães, Mark DC; Vieira, Maria Aparecida S; Bontempo, Nádia M; Seixas, Mirian SS; Garcia, Mônica SD; Daud, Lyana ES; Côrtes, Rejane LM; Alves, Maria de Fátima C

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6%) were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. Results The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2) and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7). Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. Conclusion The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required. PMID:19284575

  2. Adolescent Suicide Prevention: Gender Differences in Students' Perceptions of the Acceptability and Intrusiveness of School-Based Screening Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Tanya L.; Miller, David N.; Riley-Tillman, T. Christopher; DuPaul, George J.

    2006-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a significant problem among adolescents in the United States. Three types of school-based suicide prevention programs have been proposed to address this problem including curriculum programs, staff in-service training, and school-wide screening. The relative acceptability of these three programs among older adolescents was…

  3. Attitudes, Skills and Knowledge Change in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Workers Following AOD Screening and Brief Intervention Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Grant; Black, Stella; Dunbar, Lucy; Pulford, Justin; Wheeler, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent mental health workers are generally poor at identifying and treating co-existing alcohol and other drug (AOD) disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the utility and acceptability of an AOD screening and brief intervention (BI) training package delivered to child and adolescent mental health workers and its impact on relevant attitudes,…

  4. Positive Experiences and Life Aspirations among Adolescents with and without Hearing Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen, Zipora

    1990-01-01

    Comparison of 79 normally hearing and 42 hearing-impaired adolescents found no differences regarding the intensity of their remembered positive experiences. Hearing-impaired subjects reported more positive interpersonal experiences, rarely experienced positive experiences "with self," and showed less desire for transpersonal commitment, even with…

  5. Sexuality among Adolescents with Moderate Disabilities: Promoting Positive Sexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harader, Dana L.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorne, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with moderate disabilities are not being given vital information regarding their sexuality and ways to behave responsibly with their peers. This article examines the laws that govern the education of all persons with disabilities, how societal norms and attitudes have contributed to this lack of sexuality knowledge, how these…

  6. Evaluating mental health difficulties and associated outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dow, Dorothy E; Turner, Elizabeth L; Shayo, Aisa M; Mmbaga, Blandina; Cunningham, Coleen K; O'Donnell, Karen

    2016-07-01

    AIDS-related mortality among HIV-positive adolescents has risen by 50% despite the scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART maladherence likely plays a role in the increase of AIDS-related deaths among adolescents and has shown to be associated with psychosocial and mental health difficulties. Addressing the specific mental health needs of HIV-positive adolescents is critical to ending the HIV epidemic. This cross-sectional study prospectively enrolled HIV-positive adolescents (12-24 years) in Moshi, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was administered that included questions about home, school, adherence, and measures of stigma (Berger Stigma Scale) and mental health. Mental health measures included depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), emotional/behavioral difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and traumatic experiences/post-traumatic stress symptoms (The University of California Los Angeles-post-traumatic stress disorder-Reaction Index). Mental health difficulties were prevalent among HIV-positive adolescents and were associated with incomplete adherence and stigma. Resources are needed to reduce HIV stigma and address mental health among HIV-positive adolescents in low-resource settings. This will improve not only mental health, but may also improve ART adherence and virologic suppression, improving overall health of the individual and reducing the risk of HIV transmission to others. PMID:26837437

  7. Association between screen viewing duration and sleep duration, sleep quality, and excessive daytime sleepiness among adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Mak, Yim Wah; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Hui, Donna Wing Shun; Lam, Siu Ping; Tse, Hei Yin; Yu, Wing Yan; Wong, Ho Ting

    2014-11-01

    Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices) are viewed in relation to sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among Hong Kong adolescents (N = 762). Television and computer viewing remain prevalent, but were not correlated with sleep variables. Mobile phone viewing was correlated with all sleep variables, while portable video device viewing was shown to be correlated only with daytime sleepiness. The results demonstrated a trend of increase in the prevalence and types of screen viewing and their effects on the sleep patterns of adolescents. PMID:25353062

  8. Association between Screen Viewing Duration and Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Yim Wah; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Hui, Donna Wing Shun; Lam, Siu Ping; Tse, Hei Yin; Yu, Wing Yan; Wong, Ho Ting

    2014-01-01

    Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices) are viewed in relation to sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among Hong Kong adolescents (N = 762). Television and computer viewing remain prevalent, but were not correlated with sleep variables. Mobile phone viewing was correlated with all sleep variables, while portable video device viewing was shown to be correlated only with daytime sleepiness. The results demonstrated a trend of increase in the prevalence and types of screen viewing and their effects on the sleep patterns of adolescents. PMID:25353062

  9. Broadly defined risk mental states during adolescence: disorganization mediates positive schizotypal expression.

    PubMed

    Debbané, Martin; Badoud, Deborah; Balanzin, Dario; Eliez, Stephan

    2013-06-01

    While schizotypal features are common during adolescence, they can also signal increased risk for the onset of schizophreniform disorders. Most studies with adolescents find that hallucination and delusion-like symptoms (positive schizotypal features) best predict future psychopathology. Still, the developmental process of positive schizotypy remains elusive, specifically with regards to 1) its relationships to negative and disorganization schizotypal dimensions; 2) its associations to maladaptive functioning during adolescence. This longitudinal study aimed to further characterize these relationships, thereby delineating "early and broadly defined psychosis risk mental states" (Keshavan et al., 2011). The current study presents the 3-year course of schizotypal trait expression in 34 clinical adolescents aged 12 to 18 years consulting for non-psychotic difficulties. Schizotypal expression was assessed twice using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, accompanied by an examination of internalizing/externalizing problems using the Achenbach scales. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted to assess the expression and course of schizotypal dimensions; mediation analyses were further employed to highlight the developmental interactions promoting the maintenance of positive schizotypal expression. The results reveal that positive schizotypy, and more specifically unusual perceptual experiences, significantly declined during the study interval. Disorganization features were found to mediate the relationships between the negative and positive dimensions of schizotypy within and across evaluations. Somatic complaints and attentional difficulties further strengthened the expression of positive schizotypy during the study interval. These results suggest that the relationship between disorganization features and positive schizotypy may play a central role in establishing risk for psychosis during adolescence. PMID:23570898

  10. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly) was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization showed no socioeconomic

  11. The Effect of Positive Adolescent Life Skills Training on Long Term Outcomes for High-Risk Teens.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Heider, Nancy; Tuttle, Jane; Knapp, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on long term follow-up data-12 months post intervention-from a clinical trial of an intervention designed to enhance teen resilience by supporting the development of social skills needed to make positive connections and overcome the influence of negative environmental influences. Sixteen adolescents aged 12 to 16 (10 boys and 6 girls) attending an inner city urban secondary school participated in a 32 week intervention study. Subjects were randomly assigned within sex to Teen Club plus Positive Adolescent Life Skills (PALS) or Teen Club intervention groups. The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) was used to measure the dependent variables (problems related to substance use, health, mental health, family relations, peer relations, education status, vocational status, social skills, leisure and recreation, and aggression). The small sample size limited the ability to determine statistical differences between the POSIT subscale scores for PALS plus Teen Club or Teen Club only interventions. Descriptive data suggest mixed results for both interventions and sex groups. Most important were reductions in mental health problems for all boys in both groups and only slightly increased numbers of problems in substance use for PALS boys and girls over time. Other trends by group and sex are reported. PMID:21132073

  12. Sex and secrecy: How HIV-status disclosure affects safe sex among HIV-positive adolescents.

    PubMed

    Toska, Elona; Cluver, Lucie D; Hodes, Rebecca; Kidia, Khameer K

    2015-01-01

    HIV-positive adolescents who engage in unsafe sex are at heightened risk for transmitting or re-acquiring HIV. Disclosure of HIV-status to sexual partners may impact on condom use, but no study has explored the effects of (i) adolescent knowledge of one's HIV-status, (ii) knowledge of partner status and (iii) disclosure to partners, on safer sex behaviour. This study aimed to identify whether knowledge of HIV-status by HIV-positive adolescents and partners was associated with safer sex. Eight fifty eight HIV-positive adolescents (10-19 years old, 52% female, 68.1% vertically infected) who had ever initiated antiretroviral treatment in 41 health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, were interviewed using standardised questionnaires. Quantitative analyses used multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for confounders. Qualitative research included interviews, focus group discussions and observations with 43 HIV-positive teenagers and their healthcare workers. N = 128 (14.9%) of the total sample had ever had sex, while N = 109 (85.1%) of sexually active adolescents had boy/girlfriend. In total, 68.1% of the sample knew their status, 41.5% of those who were sexually active and in relationships knew their partner's status, and 35.5% had disclosed to their partners. For adolescents, knowing one's status was associated with safer sex (OR = 4.355, CI 1.085-17.474, p = .038). Neither knowing their partner's status, nor disclosing one's HIV-status to a partner, were associated with safer sex. HIV-positive adolescents feared rejection, stigma and public exposure if disclosing to sexual and romantic partners. Counselling by healthcare workers for HIV-positive adolescents focused on benefits of disclosure, but did not address the fears and risks associated with disclosure. These findings challenge assumptions that disclosure is automatically protective in sexual and romantic relationships for HIV-positive adolescents, who may be ill-equipped to

  13. Sex and secrecy: How HIV-status disclosure affects safe sex among HIV-positive adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Toska, Elona; Cluver, Lucie D.; Hodes, Rebecca; Kidia, Khameer K.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-positive adolescents who engage in unsafe sex are at heightened risk for transmitting or re-acquiring HIV. Disclosure of HIV-status to sexual partners may impact on condom use, but no study has explored the effects of (i) adolescent knowledge of one's HIV-status, (ii) knowledge of partner status and (iii) disclosure to partners, on safer sex behaviour. This study aimed to identify whether knowledge of HIV-status by HIV-positive adolescents and partners was associated with safer sex. Eight fifty eight HIV-positive adolescents (10–19 years old, 52% female, 68.1% vertically infected) who had ever initiated antiretroviral treatment in 41 health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, were interviewed using standardised questionnaires. Quantitative analyses used multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for confounders. Qualitative research included interviews, focus group discussions and observations with 43 HIV-positive teenagers and their healthcare workers. N = 128 (14.9%) of the total sample had ever had sex, while N = 109 (85.1%) of sexually active adolescents had boy/girlfriend. In total, 68.1% of the sample knew their status, 41.5% of those who were sexually active and in relationships knew their partner's status, and 35.5% had disclosed to their partners. For adolescents, knowing one's status was associated with safer sex (OR = 4.355, CI 1.085–17.474, p = .038). Neither knowing their partner's status, nor disclosing one's HIV-status to a partner, were associated with safer sex. HIV-positive adolescents feared rejection, stigma and public exposure if disclosing to sexual and romantic partners. Counselling by healthcare workers for HIV-positive adolescents focused on benefits of disclosure, but did not address the fears and risks associated with disclosure. These findings challenge assumptions that disclosure is automatically protective in sexual and romantic relationships for HIV-positive adolescents, who may be ill-equipped to

  14. Screening for Adolescent Substance-Related Disorders Using the SASSI-A2: Implications for Nonreporting Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Perry, Justin C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study (N = 137), although 70.8% of participants reported no current substance use and 42.3% reported never using, the Adolescent Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI-A2; Miller & Lazowski, 2001) screened 39.41% of the participants for a high level of probability of having a substance-related disorder. SASSI-A2 classified more…

  15. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; McCormack, Joanna; Burke, Louise M; Cox, Gregory R; Fallon, Kieran; Hislop, Matthew; Logan, Ruth; Marino, Nello; Sawyer, Susan M; Shaw, Greg; Star, Anita; Vidgen, Helen; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-10-01

    It is the position of Sports Dietitians Australia (SDA) that adolescent athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the demands of growth and development. As such, SDA established an expert multidisciplinary panel to undertake an independent review of the relevant scientific evidence and consulted with its professional members to develop sports nutrition recommendations for active and competitive adolescent athletes. The position of SDA is that dietary education and recommendations for these adolescent athletes should reinforce eating for long term health. More specifically, the adolescent athlete should be encouraged to moderate eating patterns to reflect daily exercise demands and provide a regular spread of high quality carbohydrate and protein sources over the day, especially in the period immediately after training. SDA recommends that consideration also be given to the dietary calcium, Vitamin D and iron intake of adolescent athletes due to the elevated risk of deficiency of these nutrients. To maintain optimal hydration, adolescent athletes should have access to fluids that are clean, cool and supplied in sufficient quantities before, during and after participation in sport. Finally, it is the position of SDA that nutrient needs should be met by core foods rather than supplements, as the recommendation of dietary supplements to developing athletes over-emphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training and dietary strategies. PMID:24668620

  16. Positive Psychology and Adolescent Mental Health: False Promise or True Breakthrough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The emerging field of positive psychology has pledged to improve the mental health of American adolescents. Yet, without a principle-based conceptual foundation to guide its study of optimal youth functioning, positive psychology will ultimately fail to keep its promise. This paper suggests that the principles of Mind, Thought and Consciousness…

  17. Positive Illusions in Adolescents: The Relationship between Academic Self-Enhancement and Depressive Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Rick N.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    Positive illusions are systematically inflated self-perceptions of competence, and are frequently seen in areas of great difficulty. Although these illusions have been extensively documented in children and adults, their role in typical adolescent emotion regulation is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between positive illusions,…

  18. Do Peers' Parents Matter? A New Link Between Positive Parenting and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Michael J.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Moody, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although studies have demonstrated that an adolescent's parents and friends both influence adolescent substance use, it is not known whether the parenting experienced by one's friends also affects one's own use. Drawing on conceptions of shared parenting and the tenets of coercion theory, we investigated the extent to which three domains of parenting behaviors (parental knowledge, inductive reasoning, and consistent discipline) influenced the alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use of not only their own adolescent children but also of members of their adolescents' friendship groups. Method: Analyses of friendship nominations within each of two successive ninth-grade cohorts in 27 Iowa and Pennsylvania schools (N = 7,439 students, 53.6% female) were used to identify 897 friendship groups. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine prospective associations between 9th-grade friendship group–level parenting behaviors and adolescent self-reported alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in 10th grade. Results: Adolescent substance use in 10th grade was significantly related to parenting behaviors of friends' parents, after controlling for adolescents' reports of their own substance use and their own parents' behaviors at the 9th grade level. These associations were particularly strong for parents' knowledge about their children and use of inconsistent discipline strategies. Significant interaction effects indicated that these relationships were strongest when adolescents received positive parenting at home. Some, but not all, of the main effects of friends' parents' parenting became nonsignificant after friends' substance use in ninth grade was included in the model. Conclusions: The fi ndings suggest that the parenting style in adolescents' friends' homes plays an important role in determining adolescent substance use. Implications of the joint contribution of parents and peers for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:22456247

  19. Integrating Universal Behavioral Screening within Program-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mack D.; Rispoli, Mandy; Clemens, Nathan H.; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Sanchez, Lisa; Hatton, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Universal behavioral screening is a major part of positive behavioral support and response to intervention systems. Program-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) focuses on establishing social, emotional, and behavioral competence through promotion of a small set of behavioral expectations that are agreed upon, taught, and…

  20. Upward communication about cancer screening: adolescent daughter to mother.

    PubMed

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ports, Katie A

    2015-01-01

    Substantial breast and cervical cancer disparities exist in the United States, particularly among African American women with low socioeconomic status. There is considerable potential for discussions about cancer prevention between mothers and daughters. However, upward communication, from child to parent, remains a relatively novel research area, and it remains unclear how receptive mothers would be to messages from their daughter about cancer, a topic that may be considered culturally inappropriate for daughters to initiate. In this study, the authors simulated cancer message delivery to daughters and then conducted direct observation of daughters as they recalled and shared the message with their mother or female elder. The authors found that daughters were able to successfully recall and deliver a cancer appeal to their mother and mothers were generally receptive to this message. Not only did mothers listen to their daughters' appeals, but also daughters' knowledge of cancer was considerably improved by the opportunity to educate her female elder. Moreover, daughters' nonverbal communication suggested a surprisingly relaxed demeanor. The potential of young people to have an effect on the screening behavior of their female elders is very promising in terms of reducing cancer disparities. PMID:25848895

  1. Brief report: Association between socio-demographic factors, screen media usage and physical activity by type of day in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Devís-Devís, José; Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J; Tomás, José Manuel

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors, screen media time usage, and light, moderate and vigorous activities on weekdays and weekends. Cross-sectional data was collected from 323 Spanish adolescents (mean age 13.59 years) who completed an interview administered recall questionnaire. Structural equation models indicated that male and younger adolescents spent more time on vigorous activities at the weekend, while females and older adolescents showed a greater involvement in light activities both on weekdays and weekends. State school students reported engaging in light and vigorous activities for longer periods than private school students on weekends. TV viewing was negatively linked to vigorous activities during weekdays and to light and moderate activities on weekends. The amount of mobile phone usage, however, was positively linked to light activities during weekdays, but negatively on weekends. The negative relationship between adolescents' use of screen media (TV and mobile phone) and physical activity and its possible displacement, depending on the type of day, added useful comparable knowledge for policies promoting an active lifestyle. Further research is required to provide evidence of the causality in the observed relationships. PMID:21145102

  2. Enhanced Right Amygdala Activity in Adolescents during Encoding of Positively-Valenced Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Vasa, Roma A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Thorn, Julia M.; Nelson, Tess E.; Spinelli, Simona; Nelson, Eric; Maheu, Francoise S.; Ernst, Monique; Bruck, Maggie; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    While studies among adults implicate the amygdala and interconnecting brain regions in encoding emotional stimuli, few studies have examined whether developmental changes occur within this emotional-memory network during adolescence. The present study examined whether adolescents and adults differentially engaged the amygdala and hippocampus during successful encoding of emotional pictures, with either positive or negative valence. Eighteen adults and twelve adolescents underwent event-related fMRI while encoding emotional pictures. Approximately 30 minutes later, outside the scanner, subjects were asked to recall the pictures seen during the scan. Age group differences in brain activity in the amygdala and hippocampus during encoding of the pictures that were later successfully and unsuccessfully recalled were separately compared for the positive and negative pictures. Adolescents, relative to adults, demonstrated enhanced activity in the right amygdala during encoding of positive pictures that were later recalled compared to not recalled. There were no age group differences in amygdala or hippocampal activity during successful encoding of negative pictures. The findings of preferential activity within the adolescent right amygdala during successful encoding of positive pictures may have implications for the increased reward and novelty seeking behavior, as well as elevated rates of psychopathology, observed during this distinct developmental period. PMID:21127721

  3. Trait positive affect is associated with hippocampal volume and change in caudate volume across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Meg; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Byrne, Michelle L; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-03-01

    Trait positive affect (PA) in childhood confers both risk and resilience to psychological and behavioral difficulties in adolescence, although explanations for this association are lacking. Neurodevelopment in key areas associated with positive affect is ongoing throughout adolescence, and is likely to be related to the increased incidence of disorders of positive affect during this period of development. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the relationship between trait indices of PA and brain development in subcortical reward regions during early to mid-adolescence in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 89 (46 male, 43 female) adolescents participated in magnetic resonance imaging assessments during both early and mid-adolescence (mean age at baseline = 12.6 years, SD = 0.45; mean follow-up period = 3.78 years, SD = 0.21) and also completed self-report measures of trait positive and negative affect (at baseline). To examine the specificity of these effects, the relation between negative affect and brain development was also examined. The degree of volume reduction in the right caudate over time was predicted by PA. Independent of time, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with higher PA, and negative affect was associated with smaller left amygdala volume. The moderating effect of negative affect on the development of the left caudate varied as a function of lifetime psychiatric history. These findings suggest that early to mid-adolescence is an important period whereby neurodevelopmental processes may underlie key phenotypes conferring both risk and resilience for emotional and behavioral difficulties later in life. PMID:25231241

  4. Members, isolates, and liaisons: meta-analysis of adolescents' network positions and their smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Smith, Rachel A

    2013-06-01

    Existing research finds that peer networks play an important role in adolescents' smoking behaviors. To evaluate this research, meta-analysis was utilized to investigate the relationship between social positions (e.g., group members vs. isolates vs. liaisons) in friendship networks and smoking behaviors. The results (N = 5,067, k = 8) showed that adolescents from multiple countries who are isolated in friendship networks are more likely to report smoking behaviors than those with friends (members or liaisons). The results also show that these differential odds of smoking based on network position has decreased over the past 15 years. PMID:23750772

  5. Healthy Adolescents' Neural Response to Reward: Associations with Puberty, Positive Affect, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Erika E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Phillips, Mary L.; Manuck, Stephen B.; Worthman, Carol M.; Moyles, Donna L.; Tarr, Jill A.; Sciarrillo, Samantha R.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Changes in reward-related behavior are an important component of normal adolescent affective development. Understanding the neural underpinnings of these normative changes creates a foundation for investigating adolescence as a period of vulnerability to affective disorders, substance use disorders, and health problems. Studies of reward-related brain function have revealed conflicting findings regarding developmental change in the reactivity of the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and have not considered puberty. The current study focused on puberty-specific changes in brain function and their association with mood. Method A sample of 77 healthy adolescents (26 pre/early pubertal, 51 mid/late pubertal) recruited in a narrow age range (M=11.94 years, SD=.75) were assessed for sexual maturation and circulating testosterone, completed an fMRI guessing task with monetary reward, and underwent experience sampling of mood in natural environments. For comparison, 19 healthy adults completed the fMRI assessment. Results Adolescents with more advanced pubertal maturation exhibited less striatal and more mPFC reactivity during reward outcome than similarly aged adolescents with less advanced maturation. Testosterone was positively correlated with striatal reactivity in boys during reward anticipation and negatively correlated with striatal reactivity in girls and boys during reward outcome. Striatal reactivity was positively correlated with real-world subjective positive affect and negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. mPFC reactivity was positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions Reward-related brain function changes with puberty and is associated with adolescents' positive affect and depressive symptoms. Increased reward-seeking behavior at this developmental point could serve to compensate for these changes. PMID:20215938

  6. Don't ask, they won't tell: the quality of adolescent health screening in five practice settings.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, R W; Beuhring, T; Wunderlich, M; Resnick, M D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the extent to which comprehensive, age-appropriate adolescent health screening is undertaken in the clinical setting and whether the extent of such screening varies by setting. METHODS: Charts of adolescents 13 to 17 years old (n = 788) were randomly selected from five practice settings in Minneapolis, Minn. Each was assessed for the number of biomedical and sociobehavioral health risks screened. RESULTS: In no practice setting was there screening to the level recommended. The two teen clinics screened more extensively for behavioral, psychosocial, substance use and sexual behavior risks than the community family practice setting, which, in turn, screened more extensively than either the private family practice or private pediatric practice settings, which did not differ from each other. Age differences and gender accounted for only small amounts of variance in total number of health risks screened, whereas differences among practice settings accounted for a larger amount. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest substantive deficiencies in private practice settings' implementation of preventive care screening protocols for adolescents. PMID:9003135

  7. Cognitive and Emotional Associations to Positive Schizotypy during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debbane, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Eliez, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sub-clinical symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations and delusions, known as positive schizotypy, constitute one of the strongest predictive factors for adult psychotic disorders. Recent cognitive models suggest that the expression of positive schizotypy is associated with depression, anxiety, metacognitive beliefs and…

  8. The choice of screening instrument matters: the case of problematic cannabis use screening in spanish population of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thanki, Danica; Domingo-Salvany, Antónia; Barrio Anta, Gregorio; Sánchez Mañez, Amparo; Llorens Aleixandre, Noelia; Suelves, Josep Maria; Brime Beteta, Begoña; Vicente, Julián

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of problem cannabis use screening instruments administration within wide school surveys, their psychometric properties, overlaps, and relationships with other variables. Students from 7 Spanish regions, aged 14-18, who attended secondary schools were sampled by two-stage cluster sampling (net sample 14,589). Standardized, anonymous questionnaire including DSM-IV cannabis abuse criteria, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST), and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) was self-completed with paper and pencil in the selected classrooms. Data was analysed using classical psychometric theory, bivariate tests, and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Not responding to instruments' items (10.5-12.3%) was associated with reporting less frequent cannabis use. The instruments overlapped partially, with 16.1% of positives being positive on all three. SDS was more likely to identify younger users with lower frequency of use who thought habitual cannabis use posed a considerable problem. CAST positivity was associated with frequent cannabis use and related problems. It is feasible to use short psychometric scales in wide school surveys, but one must carefully choose the screening instrument, as different instruments identify different groups of users. These may correspond to different types of problematic cannabis use; however, measurement bias seems to play a role too. PMID:25969832

  9. Development of a Sexual Health Screening Tool for Adolescent Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Monika K.; Shea, Judy A.; Hayes, Katie L.; Badolato, Gia; Chamberlain, James M.; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Fein, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Develop a content-valid audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) sexual health survey (SHS) that is understandable and acceptable to adolescents and can be feasibly implemented in a pediatric emergency department (ED) for sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk assessment. Methods Multi-step iterative qualitative study utilizing a Delphi panel of key informants for survey development and content validity, cognitive interviews with end-users to evaluate understanding, and pilot testing with end-users to evaluate acceptability and feasibility. Results We developed a 20-item questionnaire through an iterative modified Delphi process with experts in adolescent and pediatric emergency medicine. All items were assessed as understandable by >90% of adolescents during the cognitive interviews. All respondents found the SHS easy to use. 76.5% preferred answering questions related to sexual health through the SHS compared to face-to-face interviews. Mean length of survey completion was 17.5 minutes (SD +/−6.7) and 88.6% of participants found survey length to be “just right.” With respect to feasibility testing, there was no statistically significant difference in median ED length of stay between those who piloted the SHS and those who did not (230.0 vs 219.0 minutes; p=0.7). Conclusions We developed a content-valid ACASI for the identification of adolescents at risk for STIs that was understandable, acceptable, and easy to use by adolescent patients and feasible for implementation in the pediatric ED. Future planned steps include the evaluation of the SHS in providing clinical decision support for targeted STI screening in the ED. PMID:27126128

  10. T Cell Adolescence: Maturation Events Beyond Positive Selection.

    PubMed

    Hogquist, Kristin A; Xing, Yan; Hsu, Fan-Chi; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2015-08-15

    Single-positive thymocytes that successfully complete positive and negative selection must still undergo one final step, generally termed T cell maturation, before they gain functional competency and enter the long-lived T cell pool. Maturation initiates after positive selection in single-positive thymocytes and continues in the periphery in recent thymic emigrants, before these newly produced T cells gain functional competency and are ready to participate in the immune response as peripheral naive T cells. Recent work using genetically altered mice demonstrates that T cell maturation is not a single process, but a series of steps that occur independently and sequentially after positive selection. This review focuses on the changes that occur during T cell maturation, as well as the molecules and pathways that are critical at each step. PMID:26254267

  11. Recall rate and positive predictive value of MSUD screening is not influenced by hydroxyproline.

    PubMed

    Fingerhut, Ralph

    2009-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by the deficiency of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase (BCOA-DH) complex. The worldwide incidence is approximately 1 in 185,000. MSUD is integrated in many "expanded" newborn screening (NBS) programs that use electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Elevated leucine, isoleucine, and alloisoleucine in the dried blood samples (DBS) of newborns are diagnostic parameters. However, with the applied method, it is not possible to distinguish the amino acids from each other, and also not from the other isobaric amino acid, hydroxyproline. While the branched chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, and alloisoleucine are no diagnostic problem, because they are all elevated in MSUD patients, and, rather, increase the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, hydroxyproline may cause false-positive screening results. Hydroxyproline is elevated in the benign familial condition hyperhydroxyprolinemia, which needs no medical intervention. The detection of cases with hyperhydroxyprolinemia have formerly been reported from screening programs that used thin-layer chromatography for phenylketonuria (PKU) screening, and, recently, two more cases have been reported, detected by ESI-MS/MS-based NBS. However, the detection of non-diseases is a heavy burden for screening programs and should be avoided if possible. With optimal settings for the quantitation of BCAAs and interpretation rules, elevated hydroxyproline should not cause false-positive screening results. PMID:18682982

  12. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    PubMed

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators. PMID:20164062

  13. Screening for adolescent psychopathy among at-risk youth: initial validation of the Survey of Attitudes and Life Experiences.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard; Vitacco, Michael J; Cruise, Keith R; Sewell, Kenneth W; Neumann, Craig S

    2002-12-01

    Psychopathic youth pose special challenges to clinicians in providing effective treatment and safe management. Because comprehensive assessments of psychopathy are time intensive and require specialized training, programmatic research is needed to develop time-efficient and useful screens that eliminate from further consideration acting-out adolescents who are unlikely to be psychopathic. The clinical utility of the Survey of Attitudes and Life Erperiences as a psychopathy screen was investigated by combining three samples of adolescent offenders (total N = 223). Its primary purpose was the identification of nonpsychopaths who were distinguished from adolescents in either the mixed or psychopathic ranges. A Psychopathy Screen (PS) Scale was developed with 24-item (PS-24) and 11-item (PS-11) versions. Both appeared moderately effective in excluding nonpsychopaths from further evaluation. Preliminary data on response styles suggest that these scales are not susceptible to social desirability. PMID:12462754

  14. BAP Position Statement: Off-label prescribing of psychotropic medication to children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aditya N; Arango, Celso; Coghill, David; Gringras, Paul; Nutt, David J; Pratt, Peter; Young, Allan H; Hollis, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The off-label use of medicines for children and adolescents remains a common and important issue for prescribing practice across child and adolescent psychiatry, paediatrics and primary care. This editorial focusses on psychotropic drug treatment, which plays an essential part in the comprehensive management of a range of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Despite a growing evidence base for drug treatment in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, much psychotropic medication continues to be prescribed off-label (i.e. outside the limits of the marketing authorisation or product license). The reasons for and implications of off-label prescribing, including the potential clinical benefits/risks and medico-legal implications, are often poorly understood by both patients and prescribers. An important unintended consequence of the uncertainties and confusion surrounding the status of off-label prescribing for children and adolescents may be that effective drug treatments are being withheld or underused. This BAP Position Statement aims to clarify these issues, challenge some of the myths surrounding off-label prescribing for children and adolescents and offer practical guidance for prescribers. PMID:27098018

  15. T cell adolescence: maturation events beyond positive selection1

    PubMed Central

    Hogquist, Kristin A.; Xing, Yan; Hsu, Fan-Chi; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2015-01-01

    Single positive (SP) thymocytes that successfully complete positive and negative selection must still undergo one final step, generally termed T cell maturation, before they gain functional competency and enter the long-lived T cell pool. Maturation initiates after positive selection in SP thymocytes, and continues in the periphery in recent thymic emigrants (RTEs), before these newly produced T cells gain functional competency and are ready to participate in the immune response as peripheral naïve T cells. Recent work using genetically altered mice demonstrates that T cell maturation is not a single process, but a series of steps that occur independently and sequentially after positive selection. This review will focus on the changes that occur during T maturation, and the molecules and pathways that are critical at each step. PMID:26254267

  16. Concordance Between Self-Report and Urine Drug Screen Data in Adolescent Opioid Dependent Clinical Trial Participants

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12 weeks buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the “gold standard”. Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition. PMID:23811060

  17. Concordance between self-report and urine drug screen data in adolescent opioid dependent clinical trial participants.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Nakazawa, Masato; Woody, George

    2013-10-01

    Objective measures of drug use are very important in treatment outcome studies of persons with substance use disorders, but obtaining and interpreting them can be challenging and not always practical. Thus, it is important to determine if, and when, drug-use self-reports are valid. To this end we explored the relationships between urine drug screen results and self-reported substance use among adolescents and young adults with opioid dependence participating in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-naloxone. In this study, 152 individuals seeking treatment for opioid dependence were randomized to a 2-week detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone (DETOX) or 12weeks of buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP), each with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Urine drug screens and self-reported frequency of drug use were obtained weekly, and patients were paid $5 for completing weekly assessments. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, more extensive assessments were done, and participants were reimbursed $75. Self-report data were dichotomized (positive vs. negative), and for each major drug class we computed the kappa statistic and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of self-report using urine drug screens as the "gold standard". Generalized linear mixed models were used to explore the effect of treatment group assignment, compensation amounts, and participant characteristics on self-report. In general, findings supported the validity of self-reported drug use. However, those in the BUP group were more likely to under-report cocaine and opioid use. Therefore, if used alone, self-report would have magnified the treatment effect of the BUP condition. PMID:23811060

  18. Positive Parenting of Young Adolescents by Male Cohabiting Partners: The Roles of Coparenting Conflict and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Fathers have often been ignored in the parenting literature. The current study focused on male cohabiting partners (MCPs) who can serve as "social stepfathers" and examined the association of coparent support and conflict with their positive parenting behavior (i.e., acceptance, firm control, and monitoring) of adolescents. Participants…

  19. Positive Adult Support and Depression Symptoms in Adolescent Females: The Partially Mediating Role of Eating Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…

  20. Adolescent Diet and Time Use Clusters and Associations with Overweight and Obesity and Socioeconomic Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrar, Katia; Golley, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity include low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low socioeconomic position (SEP). To date, the vast majority of research investigating associations between lifestyle behaviors and weight status analyze dietary and time use factors…

  1. Positive Adjustment and Associated Protective Factors in Children of Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhule, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spieker, Susan J.; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that children of adolescent mothers are at an increased risk for a variety of negative outcomes, even after controlling for diverse social and health factors. However, relatively less research has examined positive adjustment in these children, or protective factors associated with such adjustment. We examined the…

  2. Epidemiological Comparisons of Problems and Positive Qualities Reported by Adolescents in 24 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Broberg, Anders; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Forns, Maria; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age…

  3. Predicting Positive Citizenship from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of a Civic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaff, Jonathan F.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that programs to promote positive citizenship should begin with an opportunity for adolescents to participate in civic activities, such as community service or political volunteering. In this article we extend the theory by arguing that a more systemic approach is needed, in which a civic context is developed to promote…

  4. Contribution of Socioeconomic Position to Health Inequalities of British Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris

    2007-01-01

    We examined the contribution of socioeconomic position to the health and mental health status of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities in a sample of 10,438 British children. Intellectual disability was a significant risk factor for poorer general health, OR = 4.5, emotional disorders, OR = 2.0, and conduct disorders, OR = 7.7.…

  5. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…

  6. The Influence of Positive Mother-Child Verbal Interactions on Adolescent Mothers' Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Heather-Lee M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this six-month qualitative microethnographic case study was to determine what influence a family literacy program based on positive mother-child verbal interactions would have on the participating adolescent mothers' literacy skills. The design of the program was founded on the Hart and Risley study (1995) and their findings…

  7. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  8. The association of adolescent socioeconomic position and adult height: variation across racial/ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Tracy K.; Walls, Courtney E.; Subramanian, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the association of childhood socioeconomic position and adult height. Many have suggested the use of adult height as a marker of overall childhood well-being. However, few studies have examined the relationship between child/adolescent socioeconomic position and adult height in a racially/ethnically diverse cohort. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined the association of child/adolescent SEP (maternal education and maternal report of household income) and measured adult height in a diverse cohort of US adolescents/young adults. We found a positive gradient effect of maternal education on height in the overall population and in White and Mixed race males and females; no such gradient existed in Hispanic, Asian, or Black males or females. Only in Mixed race females was household income positively associated with height. These findings emphasize the need to recognize differential effects of socioeconomic status on height in different racial/ethnic and gender subpopulations. PMID:22824806

  9. Look What They Said about Us: Social Positioning Work of Adolescent Appalachians in English Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Audra

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the social positioning work three Appalachian adolescents engaged in during two literacy events drawn from a year-long critical teacher-researcher ethnographic study in a twelfth-grade English class in a rural Appalachian high school. Data analysis indicates that in these literacy events, the focal students positioned…

  10. Positive Development, Sense of Belonging, and Support of Peers among Early Adolescents: Perspectives of Different Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Marie; Arcand, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Trusting relationships at school and within other social networks emerge as protective factors that are crucial to the positive development of early adolescents. School is one of the critical environments where they can develop a sense of belonging. This study involved 20 qualitative interviews with school staff and youth workers recruited from…

  11. Positive Peer Culture -- An Alternative Treatment for the Disturbed and/or Disturbing Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lybarger, William A.

    Reviewed are literature and research on the use of the positive peer culture (PPC) approach with socially maladjusted and/or emotionally disturbed adolescents. Studies presented focus on the effects of PPC on inappropriate behavior and parole performance. Findings are noted to be inconclusive. (SB)

  12. Social Media Use and Social Connectedness in Adolescents: The Positives and the Potential Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kelly A.; Ryan, Tracii; Gray, DeLeon L.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Waters, Lea

    2014-01-01

    As social media use is rising among adolescents, the issue of whether this use leads to positive or negative outcomes warrants greater understanding. This article critically reviews the literature related to this important topic. Specifically, we examine how social media use affects social connectedness in terms of three elements of adolescent…

  13. Retrospective and Prospective Cognitions in Adolescents: Anxiety, Depression, and Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Helen; MacLeod, Andrew K.; Pote, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Research with anxious and depressed adults has suggested that anxiety is related to an increased anticipation of both negative memories and negative expectancies whereas depression is related to a reduction in positive memories and expectancies. The present study examined whether anxiety and depression in 123 school-aged adolescents would show the…

  14. Schoolwide Screening and Programs of Positive Behavior Support: Informing Universal Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Michelle; Anderson, Darlene H.; Caldarella, Paul; Fisher, Adam; Young, Benjamin J.; Young, K. Richard

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that screening, identification, and treatment are important components of comprehensive systems of positive behavior support. The authors highlight a procedure for using multiple data sources to develop strategies at the universal intervention level. Examples of schoolwide assessments include interviews, observations,…

  15. Positive psychology and adolescent mental health: false promise or true breakthrough?

    PubMed

    Kelley, Thomas M

    2004-01-01

    The emerging field of positive psychology has pledged to improve the mental health of American adolescents. Yet, without a principle-based conceptual foundation to guide its study of optimal youth functioning, positive psychology will ultimately fail to keep its promise. This paper suggests that the principles of Mind, Thought and Consciousness can provide positive psychology with a clearer understanding of optimal psychological functioning, serve as a unifying conceptual framework to guide its proposed mission, and lead to a true breakthrough in adolescent mental health. It first describes how the logic of these principles accounts for all subjective human experience. It then demonstrates how optimal mental health is generated, and how it can be maintained irrespective of present or past circumstances. Finally, it discusses how several contemporary models of positive psychology (i.e., Csikszentmihalyi's flow. Seligman's learned optimism, Goleman's emotional intelligence, and Buss's evolutionary perspective) can be simplified and clarified using the logic of the above three principles. PMID:15563037

  16. Adolescent perceptions of cholesterol screening results: “young invincibles” or developing adults?

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Sheldrick, R. Christopher; Leslie, Laurel K.; Shah, Supriya; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Mackie, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines recommend cholesterol screening for all adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 17-21 years. Little is known about how screening results impact perceptions of AYA health. Methods We recruited 37 AYAs and 35 parents of AYAs with differing risk for abnormal cholesterol results: (1) familial hypercholesterolemia, (2) obesity, and (3) generally healthy. Participants completed quantitative health status ratings using visual analog scales (VAS) and semi-structured interviews regarding three hypothetical cholesterol screening scenarios: a) high likelihood of cardiovascular disease (CVD) before age 40 (“high-risk”), b) some risk of CVD before age 70 (“moderate-risk”), and c) low risk for CVD despite a strong family history of CVD (“low-risk”). We analyzed VAS data with logistic regression and qualitative data with a priori and emergent coding using multiple coders. Results Each group perceived all three cholesterol screening scenarios as comparatively less than perfect health; the high-risk result fell furthest from perfect health. While there was no significant difference between AYAs and parents in VAS ratings, qualitative analyses revealed AYAs were more likely than parents to discount the impact of moderate-risk results due to longer length of time before predicted CVD. Conclusions AYAs’ and parents’ perceptions of the impact of cholesterol screening results on AYA health varied by presented scenario, ranging from mild to significant decreases in perceptions of AYA health. As universal cholesterol screening continues to be adopted in this age group, further studies of the real-life impact on AYA risk perceptions and subsequent behavior is warranted. PMID:27155960

  17. Screen Media Usage, Sleep Time and Academic Performance in Adolescents: Clustering a Self-Organizing Maps Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; González, Luis M.; García-Massó, Xavier; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Devís-Devís, José

    2014-01-01

    Screen media usage, sleep time and socio-demographic features are related to adolescents' academic performance, but interrelations are little explored. This paper describes these interrelations and behavioral profiles clustered in low and high academic performance. A nationally representative sample of 3,095 Spanish adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was surveyed on 15 variables linked to the purpose of the study. A Self-Organizing Maps analysis established non-linear interrelationships among these variables and identified behavior patterns in subsequent cluster analyses. Topological interrelationships established from the 15 emerging maps indicated that boys used more passive videogames and computers for playing than girls, who tended to use mobile phones to communicate with others. Adolescents with the highest academic performance were the youngest. They slept more and spent less time using sedentary screen media when compared to those with the lowest performance, and they also showed topological relationships with higher socioeconomic status adolescents. Cluster 1 grouped boys who spent more than 5.5 hours daily using sedentary screen media. Their academic performance was low and they slept an average of 8 hours daily. Cluster 2 gathered girls with an excellent academic performance, who slept nearly 9 hours per day, and devoted less time daily to sedentary screen media. Academic performance was directly related to sleep time and socioeconomic status, but inversely related to overall sedentary screen media usage. Profiles from the two clusters were strongly differentiated by gender, age, sedentary screen media usage, sleep time and academic achievement. Girls with the highest academic results had a medium socioeconomic status in Cluster 2. Findings may contribute to establishing recommendations about the timing and duration of screen media usage in adolescents and appropriate sleep time needed to successfully meet the demands of school academics and to improve

  18. Screen media usage, sleep time and academic performance in adolescents: clustering a self-organizing maps analysis.

    PubMed

    Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; González, Luis M; García-Massó, Xavier; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Devís-Devís, José

    2014-01-01

    Screen media usage, sleep time and socio-demographic features are related to adolescents' academic performance, but interrelations are little explored. This paper describes these interrelations and behavioral profiles clustered in low and high academic performance. A nationally representative sample of 3,095 Spanish adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was surveyed on 15 variables linked to the purpose of the study. A Self-Organizing Maps analysis established non-linear interrelationships among these variables and identified behavior patterns in subsequent cluster analyses. Topological interrelationships established from the 15 emerging maps indicated that boys used more passive videogames and computers for playing than girls, who tended to use mobile phones to communicate with others. Adolescents with the highest academic performance were the youngest. They slept more and spent less time using sedentary screen media when compared to those with the lowest performance, and they also showed topological relationships with higher socioeconomic status adolescents. Cluster 1 grouped boys who spent more than 5.5 hours daily using sedentary screen media. Their academic performance was low and they slept an average of 8 hours daily. Cluster 2 gathered girls with an excellent academic performance, who slept nearly 9 hours per day, and devoted less time daily to sedentary screen media. Academic performance was directly related to sleep time and socioeconomic status, but inversely related to overall sedentary screen media usage. Profiles from the two clusters were strongly differentiated by gender, age, sedentary screen media usage, sleep time and academic achievement. Girls with the highest academic results had a medium socioeconomic status in Cluster 2. Findings may contribute to establishing recommendations about the timing and duration of screen media usage in adolescents and appropriate sleep time needed to successfully meet the demands of school academics and to improve

  19. Recreational Screen-Time Among Chinese Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Hardy, Louise L.; Ding, Ding; Baur, Louise A.; Shi, Hui-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization in China has led to a proliferation of electronic entertainment media among youth. Prolonged screen time (ST; includes watching television and playing on computers, video game consoles, or mobile phones) is linked to poor health profiles. The aim of this study was to report recreational ST behaviors and ST correlates among Chinese adolescents living in two regions with different degrees of urbanization. Methods A cross-sectional, school-based survey (n = 3461 adolescents; aged 12–14 years old) living in inner-city Shanghai and a peri-urban region of Hangzhou. Students completed a questionnaire including family characteristics, daily ST, and information on family environment related to screen use. Recreational ST was categorized into two groups according to recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics (< or ≥2 h/day). Parents reported their own ST and also reported educational attainment as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Results ST was higher among boys than girls and on weekends than weekdays. Peri-urban girls were more likely to exceed 2 h/day ST compared to inner-city girls on weekends. Having a father with no university degree, mother’s TV viewing ≥2 h/day, no ST rules at home, and eating meals in front of the TV were associated with higher ST on both weekdays and weekends, and regional differences were found for weekend ST. Conclusions TV viewing and playing on the computer were the most prevalent ST behaviors among Chinese adolescents. Mobile phone playing was less prevalent but persistent throughout the week. More population-level surveillance and research is needed to monitor the trends in ST behaviors and to better understand the characteristics of those who are at risk. PMID:24930472

  20. Video game genre preference, physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Hayden T; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Babic, Mark J; Lubans, David R

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between the types of video games played by adolescent boys and their participation in physical activity and recreational screen-time. Participants were 320 boys (mean age = 12.7, ±0.5 years) from 14 secondary schools located in low-income areas of New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes included height, weight, physical activity (accelerometers), total screen-time, and video game genre preference. Significant differences in both weekday and weekend screen-time were found between video game genre groups. In addition, significant differences in overall activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were found between genre groups on weekdays. Between-group differences in physical activity on weekends were not statistically significant. This cross-sectional study has demonstrated that video game genre preference is associated with physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities. PMID:25448829

  1. Violence Screening and Viral Load Suppression Among HIV-Positive Women of Color

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jason; Precht, Allison; Matoff-Stepp, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent research suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly experienced by many people living with HIV/AIDS, which can complicate their care. We introduce a novel approach to screening for history of violence among 102 women of color living with HIV and receiving care at an outpatient public health clinic. Using a composite measure composed of data from a variety of screening tools, we were able to determine that 70.6% of the women had a history of violence using the composite measure, and that 43% screened positive using multiple screening tools. Although overall viral load suppression rate was high at 81.4%, women with a history of violence were less likely to be virally suppressed when compared to those without such a history (76.4% versus 93.3%, p<0.05). Our findings suggest using a variety of screening questions at entry and at follow-up care appointments may be key to identifying and supporting women survivors who may not disclose violence when first asked. Future research should foster further development, analysis, and use of a variety of screening tools such as those used in this study. PMID:25561308

  2. Positive Screening for Autism in Ex-preterm Infants: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Limperopoulos, Catherine; Bassan, Haim; Sullivan, Nancy R.; Soul, Janet S.; Robertson, Richard L.; Moore, Marianne; Ringer, Steven A.; Volpe, Joseph J.; du Plessis, Adré J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The survival of very low birth weight infants has increased markedly in recent years. Unfortunately, the prevalence of significant and lifelong motor, cognitive, and behavioral dysfunction has remained a major problem confronting these children. The objective of this study was to perform screening tests for early autistic features in children with a history of very low birth weight and to identify risk factors associated with a positive screening result. METHODS We studied 91 ex-preterm infants ≤ 1500 g at birth. Infants underwent conventional MRI studies at preterm and/or term-adjusted age. We collected pertinent demographic, prenatal, intrapartum, acute postnatal, and short-term outcome data for all infants. Follow-up assessments were performed at a mean age of 21.9 ± 4.7 months, using the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS Twenty-six percent of ex-preterm infants had a positive result on the autism screening tool. Abnormal scores correlated highly with internalizing behavioral problems on the Child Behavior Checklist and socialization and communication deficits on the Vineland Scales. Lower birth weight, gestational age, male gender, chorioamnionitis, acute intrapartum hemorrhage, illness severity on admission, and abnormal MRI studies were significantly associated with an abnormal autism screening score. CONCLUSIONS Early autistic behaviors seem to be an underrecognized feature of very low birth weight infants. The results from this study suggest that early screening for signs of autism may be warranted in this high-risk population followed by definitive autism testing in those with positive screening results. PMID:18381541

  3. Contribution of personal and environmental factors on positive psychological functioning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents. PMID:26093819

  4. Linkage to care for HIV-positive adolescents: A multi-site study of the Adolescent Medicine Trials Units of the Adolescent Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Martinez, Jaime; Rudy, Bret J; Monte, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To understand linkage to care practices in sites providing clinical services for newly diagnosed HIV-positive adolescents. Methods Qualitative analysis of detailed interviews conducted with 28 personnel involved in linkage to care at 15 sites providing specialty care for HIV-positive adolescents. Results We showed that multiple models exist for linkage to care, and that both formal and informal community relationships are important for successful linkage to care. Stigma was seen as a universal issue, enhancing the importance of the balance of confidentiality and social support. Barriers to care such as mental health issues, substance use, and transportation are common. Conclusions We conclude that the complexity of linkage to care requires thought and planning as HIV testing is expanded to lower risk populations. PMID:23174464

  5. False-positive interferences of common urine drug screen immunoassays: a review.

    PubMed

    Saitman, Alec; Park, Hyung-Doo; Fitzgerald, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Urine drug screen (UDS) immunoassays are a quick and inexpensive method for determining the presence of drugs of abuse. Many cross-reactivities exist with other analytes, potentially causing a false-positive result in an initial drug screen. Knowledge of these potential interferents is important in determining a course of action for patient care. We present an inclusive review of analytes causing false-positive interferences with drugs-of-abuse UDS immunoassays, which covers the literature from the year 2000 to present. English language articles were searched via the SciFinder platform with the strings 'false positive [drug] urine' yielding 173 articles. These articles were then carefully analyzed and condensed to 62 that included data on causes of false-positive results. The discussion is separated into six sections by drug class with a corresponding table of cross-reacting compounds for quick reference. False-positive results were described for amphetamines, opiates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide and barbiturates. These false-positive results support the generally accepted practice that immunoassay positive results are considered presumptive until confirmed by a second independent chemical technique. PMID:24986836

  6. The Factor Structure of the BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Form, Child/Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Bridget V.; Mays, Kristen L.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Dowdy, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher, Child/Adolescent Form (BESS Teacher Form C/A; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007) is a brief teacher-report rating scale designed to identify students who are at-risk for behavioral and emotional problems. The aim of this study was to describe the latent dimensions that underlie the responses to…

  7. Screen Time, How Much Is Too Much? The Social and Emotional Costs of Technology on the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeese, Katherine Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Screen time no longer means just the amount of time one spends in front of the television. Now it is an aggregate amount of time spent on smartphones, computers as well as multitasking with different devices. How much are the glowing rectangles taking away from adolescent social and emotional health? How is it changing how students learn and how…

  8. Participation in Vigorous Sports, Not Moderate Sports, Is Positively Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Daniel R.; Pratt, Charlotte; Charneco, Eileen Y.; Dowda, Marsha; Phillips, Jennie A.; Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is controversy regarding whether moderately-intense sports can improve physical fitness, which declines throughout adolescence among girls. The objective was to estimate the association between moderate and vigorous sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness in a racially diverse sample of adolescent girls. Methods Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a modified physical work capacity test in 1029 eighth-grade girls participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Girls reported sports in which they participated in the last year on an organized activity questionnaire. Using general linear mixed models, the study regressed absolute and relative fitness on the number of vigorous and moderate sports in which girls participated, race/ethnicity, age, treatment group, fat mass, fat-free mass, and an interaction between race and fat-free mass. Results The number of vigorous sports in which girls participated was positively associated with absolute fitness (β = 10.20, P = .04) and relative fitness (β = 0.17, P = .04). Associations were reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for MET-weighted MVPA. Participation in moderate sports was not associated with either fitness measure. Conclusions Vigorous sports participation is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Future longitudinal research should analyze whether promoting vigorous sports at an early age can prevent age-related declines in cardiorespiratory fitness among adolescent girls. PMID:23493300

  9. Early Sexual Intercourse: Prospective Associations with Adolescents Physical Activity and Screen Time

    PubMed Central

    Wijtzes, Anne; van de Bongardt, Daphne; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra; Bannink, Rienke; Raat, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prospective associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time with early sexual intercourse initiation (i.e., before 15 years) in a large sample of adolescents. Methods We used two waves of data from the Rotterdam Youth Monitor, a longitudinal study conducted in the Netherlands. The analysis sample consisted of 2,141 adolescents aged 12 to 14 years (mean age at baseline = 12.2 years, SD = 0.43). Physical activity (e.g., sports outside school), screen time (e.g., computer use), and early sexual intercourse initiation were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires. Logistic regression models were tested to assess the associations of physical activity behaviors and screen time (separately and simultaneously) with early sexual intercourse initiation, controlling for confounders (i.e., socio-demographics and substance use). Interaction effects with gender were tested to assess whether these associations differed significantly between boys and girls. Results The only physical activity behavior that was a significant predictor of early sexual intercourse initiation was sports club membership. Adolescent boys and girls who were members of a sports club) were more likely to have had early sex (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.33, 3.56. Significant gender interaction effects indicated that boys who watched TV ≥2 hours/day (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.08, 3.68) and girls who used the computer ≥2 hours/day (OR = 3.92; 95% CI = 1.76, 8.69) were also significantly more likely to have engaged in early sex. Conclusion These findings have implications for professionals in general pediatric healthcare, sexual health educators, policy makers, and parents, who should be aware of these possible prospective links between sports club membership, TV watching (for boys), and computer use (for girls), and early sexual intercourse initiation. However, continued research on determinants of adolescents’ early sexual initiation is needed to further contribute to

  10. The psychological impact of a false-positive screening mammogram in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Espasa, Rebecca; Murta-Nascimento, Cristiane; Bayés, Ramón; Sala, Maria; Casamitjana, Montserrat; Macià, Francesc; Castells, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the psychological impact of mammographic screening for women who receive negative results and for those who need additional non-invasive and invasive complementary investigations to exclude breast cancer (false positives). One hundred fifty women who attended a breast cancer screening programme in Barcelona, aged 50-69 years, were included in this study: 50 with negative results and 100 with false positive mammograms (50 underwent non-invasive and 50 underwent invasive complementary investigations). Participants worried little until they underwent mammography, but worries increased when a telephone call notified the women of the need for further testing. A substantial proportion of women requiring further assessment reported that they were at least somewhat worried about having breast cancer throughout the screening process (P < 0.0001). Nevertheless, levels of anxiety and depression, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, showed no statistically significant differences among the three groups. In conclusion, although the women showed no psychological morbidity, there is a substantial psychological response in those with an abnormal screening mammogram. PMID:22477233

  11. False-positive methadone urine drug screen in a patient treated with quetiapine.

    PubMed

    Lasić, Davor; Uglesić, Boran; Zuljan-Cvitanović, Marija; Supe-Domić, Daniela; Uglesić, Lovro

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of T.M. admitted to University Department of Psychiatry, Split University Hospital Center, in Croatia, because of the acute psychotic reaction (F23.9). The patient's urine tested positive for methadone without a history of methadone ingestion. Urine drug screen was performed with the COBAS Integra Methadone II test kit (kinetic interaction of microparticles in solution /KIMS/ methodology) by Roche. Drugs that have been shown to cross-react with methadone feature a tricyclic structure with a sulfur and nitrogen atom in the middle ring, which is common for both quetiapine and methadone. Therefore, it is plausible that this structural similarity between quetiapine and methadone could underlie the cross-reactivity on methadone drug screen. Besides quetiapine, a number of routinely prescribed medications have been associated with triggering false-positive urine drug screen results. Verification of the test results with a different screening test or additional analytical tests should be performed to avoid adverse consequences for the patients. PMID:23115954

  12. Quality Indicator Development for Positive Screen Follow-up for Sickle Cell Disease and Trait.

    PubMed

    Faro, Elissa Z; Wang, C Jason; Oyeku, Suzette O

    2016-07-01

    Extensive variation exists in the follow-up of positive screens for sickle cell disease. Limited quality indicators exist to measure if the public health goals of screening-early initiation of treatment and enrollment to care-are being achieved. This manuscript focuses on the development of quality indicators related to the follow-up care for individuals identified with sickle cell disease and trait through screening processes. The authors used a modified Delphi method to develop the indicators. The process included a comprehensive literature review with rating of the evidence followed by ratings of draft indicators by an expert panel held in September 2012. The expert panel was nominated by leaders of various professional societies, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and met face to face to discuss and rate each indicator. The panel recommended nine quality indicators focused on key aspects of follow-up care for individuals with positive screens for sickle cell disease and trait. Public health programs and healthcare institutions can use these indicators to assess the quality of follow-up care and provide a basis for improvement efforts to ensure appropriate family education, early initiation of treatment, and appropriate referral to care for individuals identified with sickle cell disease and trait. PMID:27320465

  13. Health inequality in adolescence. Does stratification occur by familial social background, family affluence, or personal social position?

    PubMed Central

    LK, Koivusilta; AH, Rimpelä; SM, Kautiainen

    2006-01-01

    Background Two new sets of stratification indicators – family's material affluence and adolescent's personal social position- were compared with traditional indicators of familial social position based on parental occupation and education for their ability to detect health inequality among adolescents. Methods Survey data were collected in the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey in 2003 from nationally representative samples of 12-, 14- and 16-year-old Finns (number of respondents 5394, response rate 71%). Indicators of the familial social position were father's socio-economic status, parents' education, parents' labour market position. Indicators of material affluence were number of cars, vacation travels, and computers in the family, own room and amount of weekly spending money. Adolescent's personal social position was measured as school performance. Measures of health were long-standing illness, overweight, use of mental health services, poor self-rated health and number of weekly health complaints. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was applied to study the associations between stratification indicators and health variables. Results All three groups of indicators of social stratification showed inequality in health, but the strongest associations were observed with the adolescent's personal social position. Health inequality was only partly identifiable by the traditional indicators of familial social position. The direction of the inequality was as expected when using the traditional indicators or personal social position: adolescents from higher social positions were healthier than those from lower positions. The indicators of family's material affluence showed mainly weak or no association with health and some of the indicators were inversely associated, although weakly. Conclusion In addition to traditional indicators describing the socio-structural influences on the distribution of health among adolescents, indicators of family's material affluence

  14. Validity of Brief Screening Instrument for Adolescent Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kirk, Arethusa; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Schwartz, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism developed an alcohol screening instrument for youth based on epidemiologic data. This study examines the concurrent validity of this instrument, expanded to include tobacco and drugs, among pediatric patients, as well as the acceptability of its self-administration on an iPad. METHODS: Five hundred and twenty-five patients (54.5% female; 92.8% African American) aged 12 to 17 completed the Brief Screener for Tobacco, Alcohol, and other Drugs (BSTAD) via interviewer-administration or self-administration using an iPad. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition substance use disorders (SUDs) were identified using a modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-2 Substance Abuse Module. Receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivities, and specificities were obtained to determine optimal cut points on the BSTAD in relation to SUDs. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-nine (30.3%) adolescents reported past-year use of ≥1 substances on the BSTAD: 113 (21.5%) used alcohol, 84 (16.0%) used marijuana, and 50 (9.5%) used tobacco. Optimal cut points for past-year frequency of use items on the BSTAD to identify SUDs were ≥6 days of tobacco use (sensitivity = 0.95; specificity = 0.97); ≥2 days of alcohol use (sensitivity = 0.96; specificity = 0.85); and ≥2 days of marijuana use (sensitivity = 0.80; specificity = 0.93). iPad self-administration was preferred over interviewer administration (z = 5.8; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The BSTAD is a promising screening tool for identifying problematic tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in pediatric settings. Even low frequency of substance use among adolescents may indicate need for intervention. PMID:24753528

  15. Neurocognitive screening of lead-exposed andean adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the utility of two psychometric tests with putative minimal cultural bias for use in field screening of lead (Pb)-exposed Ecuadorian Andean workers. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness in Pb-exposed adolescents and young adults of a nonverbal reasoning test standardized for younger children, and compared the findings with performance on a test of auditory memory. The Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was used as a test of nonverbal intelligence, and the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler IV intelligence scale was used to assess auditory memory/attention. The participants were 35 chronically Pb-exposed Pb-glazing workers, aged 12-21 yr. Blood lead (PbB) levels for the study group ranged from 3 to 86 microg/dl, with 65.7% of the group at and above 10 microg/dl. Zinc protoporphyrin heme ratios (ZPP/heme) ranged from 38 to 380 micromol/mol, with 57.1% of the participants showing abnormal ZPP/heme (>69 micromol/mol). ZPP/heme was significantly correlated with PbB levels, suggesting chronic Pb exposure. Performance on the RCPM was less than average on the U.S., British, and Puerto Rican norms, but average on the Peruvian norms. Significant inverse associations between PbB/ZPP concentrations and RCPM standard scores using the U.S., Puerto Rican, and Peruvian norms were observed, indicating decreasing RCPM test performance with increasing PbB and ZPP levels. RCPM scores were significantly correlated with performance on the Digit Span test for auditory memory. Mean Digit Span scale score was less than average, suggesting auditory memory/attention deficits. In conclusion, both the RCPM and Digit Span tests were found to be effective instruments for field screening of visual-spatial reasoning and auditory memory abilities, respectively, in Pb-exposed Andean adolescents and young adults. PMID:19308847

  16. When Parents' Affection Depends on Child's Achievement: Parental Conditional Positive Regard, Self-Aggrandizement, Shame and Coping in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and…

  17. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group.…

  18. The Mediation Effect of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Teacher Support, Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telef, Bülent Baki; Arslan, Gökmen; Mert, Abdullah; Kalafat, Sezai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among teacher support, positive emotions, school satisfaction and life satisfaction in adolescences. The study had the participation of 344 adolescents from different socio-economic levels studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three public middle schools in the province of…

  19. Examining the bidirectional relationship between physical activity, screen time, and symptoms of anxiety and depression over time during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gunnell, Katie E; Flament, Martine F; Buchholz, Annick; Henderson, Katherine A; Obeid, Nicole; Schubert, Nicholas; Goldfield, Gary S

    2016-07-01

    More physical activity (PA) and less screen time (ST) are positively associated with mental health in adolescents; however, research is limited by short-term designs and the exclusion of ST when examining PA. We examined: (a) changes in PA, ST, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of anxiety over four assessments spanning 11years, and (b) bidirectional relationships between initial PA, ST, and symptoms of depression and anxiety as predictors of change in each other during adolescence. Between 2006 and 2010, participants from Ottawa Canada (Time1; N=1160, Mean age=13.54years) completed questionnaires at four points covering the ages from 10 to 21years. Latent growth modeling was used. PA decreased over time whereas ST and symptoms of depression and anxiety increased over time. Controlling for sex, ethnicity, school location, zBMI, birth year, and parents' education, initially higher anxiety was associated with initially higher ST (covariance=.88, p<.05) and initially lower PA (covariance=-6.84, p=.07) independent of initial symptoms of depression. Higher initial depression was associated with higher initial ST (covariance=2.55, p<.05). Increases in anxiety were associated with increases in ST (covariance=.07, p=.06) and increases in depression (covariance=.41, p<.05). Examining bidirectional relationships, higher initial symptoms of depression predicted greater decreases in PA (b=-.28, p<.05). No other significant findings between initial PA, ST, anxiety, or depression were found as predictors of change in each other. Interventions targeting depression around age 13 may be useful to prevent further declines in PA. Similarly, interventions to reduce ST may be beneficial for concurrent reductions in symptoms of depression and anxiety, irrespective of PA. PMID:27090920

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a Non-Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Arab, Arwa; El Keshky, Mogeda; Hadwin, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined the reliability, convergent validity and factor structure of the self-report Screen for Child Anxiety Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:545-553, 1997) in a large community sample of children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire showed moderate to high internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 2 week period. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between reported anxiety symptoms with parent report behavioural difficulties. The five factor structure model of the SCARED also had a good model fit in this population. The results showed that self-report anxiety symptoms decreased with age (for boys and not girls) and were higher in adolescent girls. The results suggest that the SCARED could be useful in this population to identify individuals who are at risk of developing anxiety disorders in childhood with a view to implementing prevention and intervention methods to ensure positive developmental outcome over time. PMID:26424720

  1. Adolescent romance and depressive symptoms: the moderating effects of positive coping and perceived friendship competence.

    PubMed

    Szwedo, David E; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-White) assessed at ages 15 to 19 and 21, as well as a subsample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and nonreplacement of their romantic relationship. Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences. PMID:24645877

  2. A Web-Based Adolescent Positive Psychology Program in Schools: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Batterham, Philip J; Miller, Leonie M; Talbot, Elizabeth; Lum, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent mental health is characterized by relatively high rates of psychiatric disorders and low levels of help-seeking behaviors. Existing mental health programs aimed at addressing these issues in adolescents have repeated inconsistent results. Such programs have generally been based on techniques derived from cognitive behavioral therapy, which may not be ideally suited to early intervention among adolescent samples. Positive psychology, which seeks to improve well-being rather than alleviate psychological symptoms, offers an alternative approach. A previous community study of adolescents found that informal engagement in an online positive psychology program for up to 6 weeks yielded significant improvements in both well-being and depression symptoms. However, this approach had not been trialed among adolescents in a structured format and within a school setting. Objective This study examines the feasibility of an online school-based positive psychology program delivered in a structured format over a 6-week period utilizing a workbook to guide students through website content and interactive exercises. Methods Students from four high schools were randomly allocated by classroom to either the positive psychology condition, "Bite Back", or the control condition. The Bite Back condition consisted of positive psychology exercises and information, while the control condition used a series of non-psychology entertainment websites. Both interventions were delivered online for 6 hours over a period of 4-6 weeks during class time. Symptom measures and measures of well-being/flourishing and life satisfaction were administered at baseline and post intervention. Results Data were analyzed using multilevel linear modeling. Both conditions demonstrated reductions in depression, stress, and total symptom scores without any significant differences between the two conditions. Both the Bite Back and control conditions also demonstrated significant improvements in

  3. Case Reports of Aripiprazole Causing False-Positive Urine Amphetamine Drug Screens in Children.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Justin; Shah, Pooja; Faley, Brian; Siegel, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    Urine drug screens (UDSs) are used to identify the presence of certain medications. One limitation of UDSs is the potential for false-positive results caused by cross-reactivity with other substances. Amphetamines have an extensive list of cross-reacting medications. The literature contains reports of false-positive amphetamine UDSs with multiple antidepressants and antipsychotics. We present 2 cases of presumed false-positive UDSs for amphetamines after ingestion of aripiprazole. Case 1 was a 16-month-old girl who accidently ingested 15 to 45 mg of aripiprazole. She was lethargic and ataxic at home with 1 episode of vomiting containing no identifiable tablets. She remained sluggish with periods of irritability and was admitted for observation. UDS on 2 consecutive days came back positive for amphetamines. Case 2 was of a 20-month-old girl who was brought into the hospital after accidental ingestion of an unknown quantity of her father's medications which included aripiprazole. UDS on the first day of admission came back positive only for amphetamines. Confirmatory testing with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on the blood and urine samples were also performed for both patients on presentation to detect amphetamines and were subsequently negative. Both patients returned to baseline and were discharged from the hospital. To our knowledge, these cases represent the first reports of false-positive amphetamine urine drug tests with aripiprazole. In both cases, aripiprazole was the drug with the highest likelihood of causing the positive amphetamine screen. The implications of these false-positives include the possibility of unnecessary treatment and monitoring of patients. PMID:26527556

  4. Economic Hardship, Parent Positive Communication and Mental Health in Urban Adolescents Seeking Outpatient Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Sara R.; Javdani, Shabnam; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2014-01-01

    Economic hardship and poor parenting behaviors are associated with increased risk for mental health problems in community adolescents. However, less is known about the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) and parenting behaviors on youth at elevated risk for mental health problems, such as teens seeking outpatient psychiatric care. This study examined whether family SES and parent positive communication were directly and indirectly associated with mental health symptoms six months later in urban teens seeking outpatient treatment, after accounting for baseline levels of symptoms. At baseline, adolescent participants (N = 346; 42% female; 61% African-American) ages 12 to 19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and their primary caregivers reported on SES and teen internalizing and externalizing symptoms and engaged in a videotaped discussion of a real-life conflict to assess parent positive communication. At 6-month follow-up, 81% (N = 279) of families were retained and teens and caregivers again reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypothesized models with a sample of 338, using the full information likelihood method to adjust for missing data. For parent-reported externalizing symptoms, SEM revealed support for the indirect association of SES with follow-up externalizing symptoms via parent positive communication and externalizing symptoms at baseline. For parent reported internalizing symptoms, there was a direct association between SES and follow-up internalizing symptoms, but not an indirect effect via parent positive communication. Youth-reported symptoms were not associated with SES nor with parent positive communication. Current findings extend prior research on adolescent mental health in a diverse sample of urban youth seeking outpatient psychiatric care. These families may benefit from interventions that directly target SES-related difficulties and parent positive communication. PMID:25750502

  5. Impact of Cell-Free Fetal DNA Screening on Patients’ Choice of Invasive Procedures after a Positive California Prenatal Screen Result

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Forum T.; Steinhaus French, Kathryn; Osann, Kathryn E.; Bocian, Maureen; Jones, Marilyn C.; Korty, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, maternal serum analyte levels paired with sonographic fetal nuchal translucency measurement was the most accurate prenatal screen available for Trisomies 18 and 21, (91% and 94% detection and false positive rates of 0.31% and 4.5% respectively). Women with positive California Prenatal Screening Program (CPSP) results have the option of diagnostic testing to determine definitively if the fetus has a chromosomal abnormality. Cell-free fetal (cff-) DNA screening for Trisomies 13, 18, and 21 was first offered in 2012, allowing women with positive screens to choose additional screening before diagnostic testing. Cff-DNA sensitivity rates are as high as 99.9% and 99.1%, with false positive rates of 0.4% and 0.1%, for Trisomies 18 and 21, respectively. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2012 on 500 CPSP referrals at the University of California, San Diego Thornton Hospital. Data were collected prior to and after the introduction of cff-DNA. There was a significant increase in the number of participants who chose to pursue additional testing and a decrease in the number of invasive procedures performed after cff-DNA screening was available. We conclude that as fetal aneuploidy screening improves, the number of invasive procedures will continue to decrease. PMID:26237481

  6. Impact of Cell-Free Fetal DNA Screening on Patients' Choice of Invasive Procedures after a Positive California Prenatal Screen Result.

    PubMed

    Shah, Forum T; French, Kathryn Steinhaus; Osann, Kathryn E; Bocian, Maureen; Jones, Marilyn C; Korty, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, maternal serum analyte levels paired with sonographic fetal nuchal translucency measurement was the most accurate prenatal screen available for Trisomies 18 and 21, (91% and 94% detection and false positive rates of 0.31% and 4.5% respectively). Women with positive California Prenatal Screening Program (CPSP) results have the option of diagnostic testing to determine definitively if the fetus has a chromosomal abnormality. Cell-free fetal (cff-) DNA screening for Trisomies 13, 18, and 21 was first offered in 2012, allowing women with positive screens to choose additional screening before diagnostic testing. Cff-DNA sensitivity rates are as high as 99.9% and 99.1%, with false positive rates of 0.4% and 0.1%, for Trisomies 18 and 21, respectively. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2012 on 500 CPSP referrals at the University of California, San Diego Thornton Hospital. Data were collected prior to and after the introduction of cff-DNA. There was a significant increase in the number of participants who chose to pursue additional testing and a decrease in the number of invasive procedures performed after cff-DNA screening was available. We conclude that as fetal aneuploidy screening improves, the number of invasive procedures will continue to decrease. PMID:26237481

  7. Positive youth development among African American adolescents: examining single parents as a factor.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Shani R; Lewis, Rhonda K; Carmack, Chakema

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades researchers have begun to examine the importance of understanding positive youth development and the many contexts in which youth find themselves. The social contexts in which adolescent development occurs are varied and complex, particularly the development among African American youth. African American youth are faced with a number of challenges including living in single-parent homes, high teen pregnancy rates, and poor neighborhoods, yet many of these youth continue to thrive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family structure (single-parenting) and adolescent outcomes such as educational aspirations and sexual activity among African American adolescent youth aged 12-17. Approximately 462 African American youth were surveyed. A number of positive results emerged; for instance, there was a negative correlation between family structure and educational aspirations. The number of parents in the home did not interfere with youth wanting to complete high school and go on to college (r = - .218, r² = .04, p < .05). The results also showed that as educational aspirations increased, the number of sexual partners decreased (r = - .141, meaning that the more adolescents reported a desire to complete high school, they were less likely to report having sexual intercourse. These positive results should be promoted among African American youth so that those faced with these challenges will note that others have overcome and accomplished their goals. In this population educational aspirations were important. Limitations and future research are discussed. PMID:21992021

  8. Recommendations for promoting the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    PubMed

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents. PMID:23521897

  9. Cumulative risk of false positive test in relation to breast symptoms in mammography screening: a historical prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Malila, Nea; Anttila, Ahti

    2016-09-01

    Mammography has been found effective as the primary screening test for breast cancer. We estimated the cumulative probability of false positive screening test results with respect to symptom history reported at screen. A historical prospective cohort study was done using individual screening data from 413,611 women aged 50-69 years with 2,627,256 invitations for mammography screening between 1992 and 2012 in Finland. Symptoms (lump, retraction, and secretion) were reported at 56,805 visits, and 48,873 visits resulted in a false positive mammography result. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of at least one false positive test and true positive at screening visits. The estimates were compared among women with and without symptoms history. The estimated cumulative probabilities were 18 and 6 % for false positive and true positive results, respectively. In women with a history of a lump, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 45 and 16 %, respectively, compared to 17 and 5 % with no reported lump. In women with a history of any given symptom, the cumulative probabilities of false positive test and true positive were 38 and 13 %, respectively. Likewise, women with a history of a 'lump and retraction' had the cumulative false positive probability of 56 %. The study showed higher cumulative risk of false positive tests and more cancers detected in women who reported symptoms compared to women who did not report symptoms at screen. The risk varies substantially, depending on symptom types and characteristics. Information on breast symptoms influences the balance of absolute benefits and harms of screening. PMID:27496148

  10. [Physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents: the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Gabriel Gustavo; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Camargo, Aline Lins; Matijasevich, Alicia; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, followed at 11 (N = 4,452), 15 (N = 4,325), and 18 years of age (N = 4,106). The study recorded the use of medicines in the previous 15 days, continuous use of some medication, level of physical activity (by questionnaire and accelerometry), and screen time (TV, computer, and videogame). One-third of adolescents had used at least one medicine in the previous 15 days and approximately 10% were on some continuous medication. In the adjusted analysis, the results showed that higher levels of physical activity at 18 years and less screen time at 15 years in boys were associated with lower overall use of medicines (p < 0.05). For boys, physical activity at 11 and 18 years were inversely related to continuous medication (p < 0.05). More physically active boys and those with less screen time in adolescence showed lower use of medicines at 18 years of age. PMID:27167041

  11. Vitamin D in Health and Disease in Adolescents: When to Screen, Whom to Treat, and How to Treat.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Carey, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    The existing guidelines on screening and treatment are confusing because different guidelines target different populations. The IOM and AAP guidelines target generally healthy populations, whereas the Endocrine Society and other subspecialty guidelines target individuals with specific medical conditions associated with increased bone fragility. These distinctions have not always been well articulated. For healthy adolescents, the AAP does not recommend universal screening or screening of obese or dark-skinned individuals. Increased dietary intake of vitamin D is recommended, and vitamin D supplementation can be considered if the RDA cannot be met. For adolescents with chronic medical illnesses associated with increased fracture risk, screening for vitamin D deficiency should be performed by obtaining a serum 25-OHD level. Those found to be deficient (25-OHD level < 20 ng/mL) should be treated with doses of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 higher than the daily requirement (as discussed in the section on vitamin D and chronic disease), followed by a maintenance dose. A repeat 25-OHD level should be obtained after the therapeutic course is completed. Some experts advocate for achievement of 25-OHD levels greater than 30 ng/mL in conditions associated with increased bone fragility, and several pediatric subspecialty organizations have made recommendations specific to the diseases they treat. In such instances, the recommendations of the pediatric subspecialty organizations should take precedence over the AAP recommendations for adolescents with chronic illnesses associated with increased bone fragility because the AAP recommendations were primarily targeted at a healthy population. PMID:27363237

  12. Characteristics of Low-income Racial/Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women Screening Positive for Alcohol Risk.

    PubMed

    Washio, Yukiko; Mericle, Amy A; Cassey, Heather; Daubert, Angela M; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics associated with alcohol risk among low-income, predominantly racial/ethnic minority pregnant women in an urban area. We surveyed 225 pregnant women receiving nutritional care. Twenty-six percent screened positive for alcohol risk. Current smoking status (AOR 2.9, p = 0.018, 95 % CI [1.2, 7.0]) and a history of marijuana use (AOR 3.1, p = 0.001, 95 % CI [1.6, 6.2]) were the strongest predictors of alcohol risk status. This study underscores the need for screening for alcohol risk, smoking, and illicit drug use among low-income, racial/ethnic minority pregnant women and highlights the usefulness of the TWEAK in identifying alcohol risk in WIC settings. PMID:26187172

  13. Lipid Screening in Children and Adolescents in Community Practice 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Karen L.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Trower, Nicole K.; Daley, Matthew F.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Lo, Joan C.; Kharbanda, Elyse O.; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Magid, David J.; Parker, Emily D.; Chandra, Malini; Tavel, Heather M.; O'Connor, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated guidelines on cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children issued in 2011 newly recommended universal screening for dyslipidemia in children at 9-11 years and 17-21 years. Methods and Results We determined the frequency and results of lipid testing in 301,080 children and adolescents aged 3-19 enrolled in three large U.S. health systems in 2007-2010 before the 2011 guidelines were issued. Overall, 9.8% of the study population was tested for lipids. The proportion tested varied by BMI percentile (5.9% of normal weight, 10.8% of overweight and 26.9% of obese children) and age (8.9% of 9-11 year olds and 24.3% of 17-19 year olds). In normal weight individuals, 2.8% of 9-11 year olds and 22.0% of 17-19 year olds were tested. In multivariable models, age and BMI category remained strongly associated with lipid testing. Sex, race, ethnicity, and blood pressure were weakly associated with testing. Abnormal lipid levels were found in 8.6% for total cholesterol, 22.5% for HDL-C, 12.0% for non-HDL-C, 8.0% for LDL-C and 21% for triglycerides (age 10-19). There was a strong and graded association of abnormal lipid levels with BMI, particularly for HDL-C and triglycerides (2- to 6-fold higher odds ratio in obese compared with normal weight children). Conclusions Lipid screening was uncommon in 9-11 year olds and was performed in a minority of 17-19 year olds during 2007-2010. These data serve as a benchmark for assessing change in practice patterns after the new recommendations for pediatric lipid screening and management. PMID:25160839

  14. BODIMOJO: EFFECTIVE INTERNET-BASED PROMOTION OF POSITIVE BODY IMAGE IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    PubMed Central

    Franko, Debra L.; Cousineau, Tara M.; Rodgers, Rachel F.; Roehrig, James P.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of an Internet-based health promotion program, BodiMojo, designed to promote positive body image in adolescents. Participants were 178 students (mean age 15.2 years, 67.6% ethnic minority) in three public high schools. Intervention groups used BodiMojo for four weekly health class periods, while controls participated in their usual health curriculum. Body image measures were given at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months. Girls reported decreased body dissatisfaction (p < .05), decreased physical appearance comparison (p < .05), and increased appearance satisfaction (p < .05), relative to controls. Effects were not maintained at 3 month follow-up. No significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups with boys. Moderation analyses suggested positive effects for diverse adolescents as well as those who were overweight or indicated baseline high body dissatisfaction. BodiMojo appears to be modestly effective in decreasing body image concerns among adolescent girls in the short term. PMID:23768797

  15. Posttest risk calculation following positive noninvasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA in maternal plasma.

    PubMed

    Benn, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) for fetal chromosome defects has high sensitivity and specificity but is not fully diagnostic. In response to a desire to provide more information to individual women with positive NIPS results, 2 online calculators have been developed to calculate posttest risk (PTR). Use of these calculators is critically reviewed. There is a mathematically dictated requirement for a precise estimate for the specificity to provide an accurate PTR. This is illustrated by showing that a 0.1% decrease in the value for specificities for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 can reduce the PTR from 79-64% for trisomy 21, 39-27% for trisomy 18, and 21-13% for trisomy 13, respectively. Use of the calculators assumes that sensitivity and specificity are constant for all women receiving the test but there is evidence that discordancy between screening results and true fetal karyotype is more common for older women. Use of an appropriate value for the prior risk is also important and for rare disorders there is considerable uncertainty regarding prevalence. For example, commonly used rates for trisomy 13, monosomy-X, triploidy, and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome can vary by >4-fold and this can translate into large differences in PTR. When screening for rare disorders, it may not be possible to provide a reliable PTR if there is uncertainty over the false-positive rate and/or prevalence. These limitations, per se, do not negate the value of screening for rare conditions. However, counselors need to carefully weigh the validity of PTR before presenting them to patients. Additional epidemiologic and NIPS outcome data are needed. PMID:26772793

  16. Predicting Positive Citizenship from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of a Civic Context

    PubMed Central

    Zaff, Jonathan F.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that programs to promote positive citizenship should begin with an opportunity for adolescents to participate in civic activities, such as community service or political volunteering. In this article we extend the theory by arguing that a more systemic approach is needed, in which a civic context is developed to promote citizenship. We hypothesize that living within a consistent civic context leads to civic engagement in late adolescence and into young adulthood. We use a diverse, longitudinal dataset to test this hypothesis. We find that social interactions with peers, parent modeling of civic behaviors, and cultural factors, such as ethnicity-specific practices, cumulatively result in a higher level of civic activities among youth and that a continued context that includes these factors results in a higher level of civic activities into adulthood. The implications of our findings are discussed with regard to program and policy development. PMID:22837638

  17. Predicting Positive Citizenship from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of a Civic Context.

    PubMed

    Zaff, Jonathan F; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that programs to promote positive citizenship should begin with an opportunity for adolescents to participate in civic activities, such as community service or political volunteering. In this article we extend the theory by arguing that a more systemic approach is needed, in which a civic context is developed to promote citizenship. We hypothesize that living within a consistent civic context leads to civic engagement in late adolescence and into young adulthood. We use a diverse, longitudinal dataset to test this hypothesis. We find that social interactions with peers, parent modeling of civic behaviors, and cultural factors, such as ethnicity-specific practices, cumulatively result in a higher level of civic activities among youth and that a continued context that includes these factors results in a higher level of civic activities into adulthood. The implications of our findings are discussed with regard to program and policy development. PMID:22837638

  18. Socioeconomic position, macroeconomic environment and overweight among adolescents in 35 countries

    PubMed Central

    Due, P; Damsgaard, MT; Rasmussen, M; Holstein, BE; Wardle, J; Merlo, J; Currie, C; Ahluwalia, N; Sørensen, TIA; Lynch, J

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is important to understand levels and social inequalities in childhood overweight within and between countries. This study examined prevalence and social inequality in adolescent overweight in 35 countries, and associations with macroeconomic factors. Design International cross-sectional survey in national samples of schools. Subjects A total of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds from 35 countries in Europe and North America in 2001–2002 (N = 162 305). Measurements The main outcome measure was overweight based on self-reported height and weight (body mass index cut-points corresponding to body mass index of 25 kg/m2 at the age of 18 years). Measures included family and school affluence (within countries), and average country income and economic inequality (between countries). Results There were large variations in adolescent overweight, from 3.5% in Lithuanian girls to 31.7% in boys from Malta. Prevalence of overweight was higher among children from less affluent families in 21 of 24 Western and 5 of 10 Central European countries. However, children from more affluent families were at higher risk of overweight in Croatia, Estonia and Latvia. In Poland, Lithuania, Macedonia and Finland, girls from less affluent families were more overweight whereas the opposite was found for boys. Average country income was associated with prevalence and inequality in overweight when considering all countries together. However, economic inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient was differentially associated with prevalence and socioeconomic inequality in overweight among the 23-high income and 10-middle income countries, with a positive relationship among the high income countries and a negative association among the middle income countries. Conclusion The direction and magnitude of social inequality in adolescent overweight shows large international variation, with negative social gradients in most countries, but positive social gradients, especially for boys, in some

  19. Prenatal Ultrasound Screening: False Positive Soft Markers May Alter Maternal Representations and Mother-Infant Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Viaux-Savelon, Sylvie; Dommergues, Marc; Rosenblum, Ouriel; Bodeau, Nicolas; Aidane, Elizabeth; Philippon, Odile; Mazet, Philippe; Vibert-Guigue, Claude; Vauthier-Brouzes, Danièle; Feldman, Ruth; Cohen, David

    2012-01-01

    Background In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a “soft marker” (SM) that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction. Methodology and Principal Findings Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction. Conclusion False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences. PMID:22292077

  20. Male adolescent rites of passage: positive visions of multiple developmental pathways.

    PubMed

    Pollack, William S

    2004-12-01

    Unlike the separation-based, stereotyped views of boys' developmental movement into adulthood, this paper will argue that there are more modern and relational models, as well as multiple pathways, for young males to journey through such rites of passage. Indeed, it will be suggested and supported by both qualitative and quantitative data that the more classic models depend on a "boy code" of traumatic separation from mother and the feminine, a process that is not only negative rather than positive in its developmental trajectory, but also likely to create a premature traumatic separation, leaving boys at risk for emotional maladjustment, everyday sadness, increased incidence of depression and the potential for violence toward the self, suicide, as well as violence toward others. More-positive visions and versions of male rites of passage will be posited and described. The definition of emotional "resilience" during this significant period will be re-addressed as one of "healthy vulnerability," sustained through connection to loving adults, rather than a classic belief in stoicism and release from relational ties. Attachment theory will be brought to bear and the desperate yearnings of adolescent males not only for connection to adult mentors, but also for non-romanticized friendships with adolescent females, will be discussed. Finally, the understanding and substitution of these new, more positive, developmental pathways will be linked to the prevention of violence. PMID:15817735

  1. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls. PMID:26727595

  2. A review of the psychosocial effects of false-positive results on parents and current communication practices in newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, J; Waisbren, S E

    2006-10-01

    As more states adopt expanded newborn screening for metabolic disorders, the overall number of false positives increases. False-positive screening results have been associated with increased anxiety and stress in parents of infants who require follow-up testing, even after the infant's good health is confirmed. This article reviews the literature on the negative impact of false-positive newborn screening results on parents, along with a review of current communication practices for follow-up screening. The results of this review suggest that parental stress and anxiety can be reduced with improved education and communication to parents, specifically at the time of follow-up screening. Communication strategies with sample materials are proposed. PMID:16917730

  3. Effects of an Integrated Science and Societal Implication Intervention on Promoting Adolescents' Positive Thinking and Emotional Perceptions in Learning Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway R.; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.

    2012-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of integrating science and societal implication on adolescents' positive thinking and emotional perceptions about learning science. Twenty-five eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (9 boys and 16 girls) volunteered to participate in a 12-week intervention and formed the experimental group. Fifty-seven eighth-grade Taiwanese adolescents (30 boys and 27 girls) volunteered to participate in the assessments and were used as the comparison group. Additionally, 15 experimental students were recruited to be observed and interviewed. Paired t-tests, correlations, and analyses of covariance assessed the similarity and differences between groups. The findings were that the experimental group significantly outperformed its counterpart on positive thinking and emotional perceptions, and all participants' positive thinking scores were significantly related to their emotional perceptions about learning science. Recommendations for integrating science and societal implication for adolescents are provided.

  4. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction, and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Leung, Hildie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies), life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior). Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families. PMID:24400264

  5. Cardiovascular screening in adolescents and young adults: a prospective study comparing the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition and ECG

    PubMed Central

    Fudge, Jessie; Harmon, Kimberly G; Owens, David S; Prutkin, Jordan M; Salerno, Jack C; Asif, Irfan M; Haruta, Alison; Pelto, Hank; Rao, Ashwin L; Toresdahl, Brett G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the accuracy of cardiovascular screening in active adolescents and young adults using a standardised history, physical examination and resting 12-lead ECG. Methods Participants were prospectively screened using a standardised questionnaire based on the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition (PPE-4), physical examination and ECG interpreted using modern standards. Participants with abnormal findings had focused echocardiography and further evaluation. Primary outcomes included disorders associated with sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Results From September 2010 to July 2011, 1339 participants underwent screening: age 13–24 (mean 16) years, 49% male, 68% Caucasian, 17% African-American and 1071 (80%) participating in organised sports. Abnormal history responses were reported on 916 (68%) questionnaires. After physician review, 495/ 916 (54%) participants with positive questionnaires were thought to have non-cardiac symptoms and/or a benign family history and did not warrant additional evaluation. Physical examination was abnormal in 124 (9.3%) participants, and 72 (5.4%) had ECG abnormalities. Echocardiograms were performed in 586 (44%) participants for abnormal history (31%), physical examination (8%) or ECG (5%). Five participants (0.4%) were identified with a disorder associated with SCA, all with ECG-detected Wolff-Parkinson-White. The false-positive rates for history, physical examination and ECG were 31.3%, 9.3% and 5%, respectively. Conclusions A standardised history and physical examination using the PPE-4 yields a high false-positive rate in a young active population with limited sensitivity to identify those at risk for SCA. ECG screening has a low false-positive rate using modern interpretation standards and improves detection of primary electrical disease at risk of SCA. PMID:24948082

  6. An Actor-Based Model of Social Network Influence on Adolescent Body Size, Screen Time, and Playing Sports

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, David A.; Tong, Liping; Lamberson, Peter J.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Zhang, Jun; Dugas, Lara; Kaufman, Jay S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that obesity may be “contagious” between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence), however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves) or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM) framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI), screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network) and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151). Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers’ influence on one another, rather than treating “high risk” adolescents in isolation. PMID:22768124

  7. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) for Adolescents and Young Adults: Scale Development and Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Jelenchick, Lauren A.; Eickhoff, Jens; Christakis, Dimitri A; Brown, Richard L.; Zhang, Chong; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale’s reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population. PMID:24882938

  8. Positive screening and carrier results for the England-wide universal newborn sickle cell screening programme by ethnicity and area for 2005–07

    PubMed Central

    Latinovic, Radoslav; Henthorn, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Aims The overall aim of the new national newborn programme is to identify infants at risk of sickle cell disease to allow early detection and to minimise deaths and complications. Methods Universal screening for sickle cell disease was introduced in England between September 2003 and July 2006. The 13 newborn laboratories each screen between 25 000 and 110 000 babies a year using the existing dried bloodspot cards. The specified conditions to be screened for include sickle cell anaemia (Hb SS), Hb SC disease, Hb S/β thalassaemia, Hb S/DPunjab and Hb S/OArab. Data are reported on screening results by ethnic group and geographical area. Results The prevalence of screen positive results across England is 1:2000. There is a 25-fold variation by geographical area. African babies make up 61% of all screen positive results despite representing only 4% of total births. Combined carrier rates vary widely by ethnicity, from 1.85 per 1000 (1:540) in ‘White British’ to 145 per 1000 (1:7) in ‘African’ babies. Refusal rates for screening show variation by ethnicity. Conclusions These results provide useful information both about the frequency of these conditions and the carrier state and their geographic and ethnic distribution across England. This can be used to refine counselling information and are also useful to target and plan services and public information. PMID:20591912

  9. Mortality salience and positive affect influence adolescents' attitudes toward peers with physical disabilities: terror management and broaden and build theories.

    PubMed

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown either a picture depicting an adolescent sitting on a regular chair or in a wheelchair and were asked to assess the characteristics of the person in the picture and their willingness to be in his or her company. The findings suggest that both types of manipulations enhanced the personality assessment and social acceptance of adolescents with disabilities compared to adolescents without disabilities and compared to the control condition. Girls reported more favorable attitudes toward another adolescent than boys did. The study indicates that seemingly contradictory manipulations may lead to social acceptance of adolescents with disabilities. PMID:24501847

  10. HIV-Positive Mothers With Late Adolescent/Early Adult Children: “Empty Nest” Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Debra A.; Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    In-depth interviews about the “empty nest” were conducted with 57 HIV-positive mothers of late adolescent/early adult children. Empty nest worries included: (1) identity loss, (2) loss of social support, (3) financial insecurity, (4) worsening of physical health, and (5) death/dying. Hopes included: (1) self-improvement, (2) change of life focus, (3) travel, (4) romantic partners, and (5) familial ties. Respondents’ HIV/AIDS status colored their thoughts/feelings about the empty nest; some worries were specific to being HIV-positive, and would not occur for non-ill mothers. Midlife HIV positive women need healthcare/social service resources as they navigate health and social-psychological challenges to successful aging. PMID:22420679

  11. Graduated exposure and positive reinforcement to overcome setting and activity avoidance in an adolescent with autism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Luiselli, James K; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when prompted to enter these areas. Using graduated exposure combined with positive reinforcement, he learned to enter these settings without resisting and eventually to participate in activities within the settings. This article discusses this intervention approach for reducing and eliminating avoidant behavior. PMID:22987915

  12. Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life of HIV-Positive Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Loos, Jasna; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Access to antiretroviral treatment among adolescents living with HIV (ALH) is increasing. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is relevant for monitoring the impact of the disease on both well-being and treatment outcomes. However, adequate screening tools to assess HRQOL in low-resource settings are scarce. This study aims to fill this research gap, by 1) assessing the psychometric properties and reliability of an Eastern African English version of a European HRQOL scale for adolescents (KIDSCREEN) and 2) determining which version of the KIDSCREEN (52-, 27- and 10-item version) is most suitable for low-resource settings. Methods The KIDSCREEN was translated into Eastern African English, Luganda (Uganda) and Dholuo (Kenya) according to standard procedures. The reconciled version was administered in 2011 to ALH aged 13–17 in Kenya (n = 283) and Uganda (n = 299). All three KIDSCREEN versions were fitted to the data with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). After comparison, the most suitable version was adapted based on the CFA outcomes utilizing the results of previous formative research. In order to develop a general HRQOL factor, a second-order measurement model was fitted to the data. Results The CFA results showed that without adjustments, the KIDSCREEN cannot be used for measuring the HRQOL of HIV-positive adolescents. After comparison, the most suitable version for low-resource settings - the 27-item version - was adapted further. The introduction of a negative wording factor was required for the Dholuo model. The Dholuo (CFI: 0.93; RMSEA: 0.039) and the Luganda model (CFI: 0.90; RMSEA: 0.052) showed a good fit. All cronbach’s alphas of the factors were 0.70 or above. The alpha value of the Dholuo and Lugandan HRQOL second-order factor was respectively 0.84 and 0.87. Conclusions The study showed that the adapted KIDSCREEN-27 is an adequate tool for measuring HRQOL in low-resource settings with high HIV prevalence. PMID

  13. Risk Factors for Distress in the Adolescent Children of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Drug-Abusing Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Castro, Felipe G.; Tiburcio, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to previous research on parental drug abuse, the present study examined comorbid drug addiction and HIV infection in the father as related to his adolescent child’s psychological distress. Individual structured interviews were administered to 505 HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug-abusing fathers and one of their children, aged 12–20. Structural equation modeling tested an hypothesized model linking paternal latent variables, ecological factors, and adolescent substance use to adolescent distress. Results demonstrated a direct pathway between paternal and adolescent distress, as well as an indirect pathway; namely, paternal distress was linked with paternal teaching of coping skills to the child, which in turn was related to adolescent substance use and, ultimately, to the adolescent’s distress. There was also an association between paternal drug addiction/HIV and adolescent distress, which was mediated by both ecological factors and adolescent substance use. Findings suggest an increased risk for distress in the adolescent children of fathers with comorbid drug addiction and HIV/AIDS, which may be further complicated by paternal distress. Results suggest several opportunities for prevention and treatment programs for the children of drug-abusing fathers. PMID:18278619

  14. Colorectal cancer screening: factors associated with colonoscopy after a positive faecal occult blood test

    PubMed Central

    Ferrat, E; Le Breton, J; Veerabudun, K; Bercier, S; Brixi, Z; Khoshnood, B; Paillaud, E; Attali, C; Bastuji-Garin, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Contextual socio-economic factors, health-care access, and general practitioner (GP) involvement may influence colonoscopy uptake and its timing after positive faecal occult blood testing (FOBT). Our objectives were to identify predictors of delayed or no colonoscopy and to assess the role for GPs in colonoscopy uptake. Methods: We included all residents of a French district with positive FOBTs (n=2369) during one of the two screening rounds (2007–2010). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to identify individual and area-level predictors of delayed colonoscopy, no colonoscopy, and no information on colonoscopy. Results: A total of 998 (45.2%) individuals underwent early, 989 (44.8%) delayed, and 102 (4.6%) no colonoscopy; no information was available for 119 (5.4%) individuals. Delayed colonoscopy was independently associated with first FOBT (odds ratio, (OR)), 1.61; 95% confidence interval ((95% CI), 1.16–2.25); and no colonoscopy and no information with first FOBT (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.02–3.97), FOBT kit not received from the GP (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.67–3.14), and socio-economically deprived area (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.98–5.08). Colonoscopy uptake varied significantly across GPs (P=0.01). Conclusion: Socio-economic factors, GP-related factors, and history of previous FOBT influenced colonoscopy uptake after a positive FOBT. Interventions should target GPs and individuals performing their first screening FOBT and/or living in socio-economically deprived areas. PMID:23989948

  15. An Examination and Replication of the Psychometric Properties of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Edition (MAYSI-2) Among Adolescents in Detention Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Robert P.; Stredny, Rebecca Vauter; Mason, John A.; Arnau, Randolph C.

    2004-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of psychological disorders among adolescents in detention facilities. The need for a simple, effective screening tool led to the development of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument (MAYSI) and its successor, the MAYSI-2. This study evaluated the MAYSI-2 psychometric properties based on the records of 704 youths…

  16. Clinician Adherence to Recommendations for Screening of Adolescents for Sexual Activity and Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Monika K; Witt, Rachel; Hayes, Katie L; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Gerber, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate clinician adherence to guidelines for documentation of sexual history and screening for sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV during routine adolescent well visits. Secondary objectives were to determine patient and clinician factors associated with sexual history documentation and STI/HIV testing. Study design Retrospective, cross-sectional study of 1000 randomly selected 13–19 year old routine well visits at all 29 pediatric primary care practices affiliated with a children’s hospital. We evaluated frequency of documentation of sexual history and testing for gonorrhea/chlamydia (GC/CT) and HIV testing. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with documentation and testing. Results Of the 1000 patient visits reviewed, 212 (21.2%; 95% CI 18.7, 23.7) had a documented sexual history, of which 45 adolescents’ (21.2%; 95% CI 15.7, 26.8) encounters were documented as being sexually active. Overall, 26 (2.6%; 95% CI 1.6, 3.6) patients were tested for GC/CT and 16 (1.6%; 95% CI 0.8, 2.4) for HIV. In multivariable analyses, factors associated with sexual history documentation included older patient age, non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, non-private insurance status, and care by female clinician. Factors associated with GC/CT testing included male gender, non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, and non-private insurance. HIV testing was more likely to be performed on older adolescents, those of non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, and those with non-private insurance. Conclusions Pediatric primary care clinicians infrequently document sexual histories and perform STI and HIV testing on adolescent patients. Future studies should investigate provider beliefs, clinical decision-making principles, and perceived barriers to improve the sexual health care of adolescents and evaluate interventions to increase rates of adolescent sexual health screening. PMID:24840761

  17. Positive and Negative Self-Esteem among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents: Social and Cultural Sources and Threats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2003-01-01

    Studied positive and negative self-esteem among 1,070 Turkish and Moroccan early adolescents in the Netherlands. Findings show the usefulness of distinguishing between positive and negative self-esteem when studying global self-esteem among a dolescents. (SLD)

  18. Positive Peer Culture and Assertiveness Training: Complementary Modalities for Dealing with Disturbed and Disturbing Adolescents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Dewey J.

    1980-01-01

    Many institutions and school systems have adopted the Positive Peer Culture (PPC) method for helping disturbed adolescents by turning the peer culture from a negative to a positive "caring" force. The paper discusses some of the major limitations and how assertion training, in conjunction with PPC, provides a successful resolution. (Author/SB)

  19. A screening sampling plan to detect Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-positive dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Serraino, A; Arrigoni, N; Ostanello, F; Ricchi, M; Marchetti, G; Bonilauri, P; Bonfante, E; Giacometti, F

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic contagious bacterial disease primarily affecting dairy cattle. Paratuberculosis represents a dual problem for the milk production chain: in addition to economic losses to affected herds, MAP may have zoonotic potential. Infected herds must be identified in order to implement programs designed to reduce the incidence of disease within and between herds and to prevent MAP from entering the food chain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a screening sampling plan (SSP) to detect MAP-positive dairy herds by repetitive analysis of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples by ELISA and in-line milk filter (ILMF) samples by PCR. Samples from BTM and ILMF were collected twice from 569 dairy herds in southern Italy. Additionally, 12,016 individual milk samples were collected: 9,509 from 102 SSP-positive herds (SSP MAP-positive) and 2,507 from 21 randomly selected SSP-negative herds (SSP MAP-negative). There was a total of 126 SSP MAP-positive herds (i.e., 21.3% SSP MAP-positive herds; 95% confidence interval=18.0-24.9); the within-herd apparent prevalence (AP) ranged between 0.00 and 22.73% (mean 6.07%). A significant difference in within-herd AP was shown between SSP MAP-positive herds and SSP MAP-negative herds. A highly significant association was shown between the median AP herd status (>5%) and positivity to at least one ILMF or BTM sample. The SSP detected a minimum of 56.25% of low AP herds (AP ≤ 2.0%) up to a maximum of 100% of herds with a within-herd AP ≥ 8.0%. Overall, the SSP detected 85.57% of herds in which at least one individual milk sample was positive by ELISA. The proposed SSP was an inexpensive and useful tool to detect MAP-positive herds with a higher risk of infection diffusion and milk contamination. Although the SSP cannot be used for MAP-free certification of herds, it could be useful to prioritize appropriate

  20. From Adolescent Daughter to Mother: Exploring Message Design Strategies for Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening

    PubMed Central

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Genderson, Maureen Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of breast and cervical cancers is one preventive behavior that may provide the adolescent daughter with a unique opportunity to provide encouragement to her mother or guardian to obtain screening. This study explored the design strategies necessary for developing an effective daughter-initiated message about screening for breast and cervical cancers. Thirty-two (N=64) African-American mother-daughter dyads were interviewed about parenting style, goodwill, and daughters’ credibility and risk behaviors that might influence receptivity toward a screening appeal. Mothers indicated that a tailored, emotional appeal combined with cancer facts delivered in a private setting would be most effective. Daughters were perceived as highly credible messengers and were perceived to have high levels of goodwill toward their mothers, regardless of risk behaviors. PMID:23813491

  1. Screening for Sleep Reduction in Adolescents through Self-Report: Development and Validation of the Sleep Reduction Screening Questionnaire (SRSQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maanen, Annette; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F.; Oort, Frans J.; de Bruin, Eduard J.; Smits, Marcel G.; Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Kerkhof, Gerard A.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep reduction, resulting from insufficient or poor sleep, is a common phenomenon in adolescents. Due to its severe negative psychological and behavioral daytime consequences, it is important to have a short reliable and valid measure to assess symptoms of sleep reduction. Objective: This study aims to validate the Sleep Reduction…

  2. Factors affecting linkage to care and engagement in care for newly diagnosed HIV-positive adolescents within fifteen adolescent medicine clinics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Philbin, Morgan M; Tanner, Amanda E; DuVal, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan M; Xu, Jiahong; Kapogiannis, Bill; Bethel, Jim; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Early linkage to care and engagement in care are critical for initiation of medical interventions. However, over 50 % of newly diagnosed persons do not receive HIV-related care within 6 months of diagnosis. We evaluated a linkage to care and engagement in care initiative for HIV-positive adolescents in 15 U.S.-based clinics. Structural and client-level factors (e.g. demographic and behavioral characteristics, clinic staff and location) were evaluated as predictors of successful linkage and engagement. Within 32 months, 1,172/1,679 (69.8 %) of adolescents were linked to care of which 1,043/1,172 (89 %) were engaged in care. Only 62.1 % (1,043/1,679) of adolescents were linked and engaged in care. Linkage to care failure was attributed to adolescent, provider, and clinic-specific factors. Many adolescents provided incomplete data during the linkage process or failed to attend appointments, both associated with failure to linkage to care. Additional improvements in HIV care will require creative approaches to coordinated data sharing, as well as continued outreach services to support newly diagnosed adolescents. PMID:24682848

  3. False-positive findings in mammography screening induces short-term distress - breast cancer-specific concern prevails longer.

    PubMed

    Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M; van der Ploeg, E; van der Kamp, L J

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine psychological distress in a mammography screening process as a consequence of screening after adjusting for background, personality and prescreening distress. Subjects, aged 50 years, were invitees at their first screening. There were three groups; normal findings (n=1407), false-positive findings (n=492) and referents from outside the screening programme (n=1718, age 48-49 years). Distress was measured as illness worry, anxiety, depression, cancer beliefs and early detection behaviour. Measurements were one month before screening invitation with follow-ups at 2 and 12 months postscreening. At 2 months, there was a moderate multivariate effect of group on distress; and intrusive thinking and worry about breast cancer, in particular, were most frequent amongst the false positives. Intrusive thinking still prevailed at 12 months, in addition to a higher perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes. PMID:10854941

  4. Usefulness of combined history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and limited echocardiogram in screening adolescent athletes for risk for sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey B; Grenier, Michelle; Edwards, Nicholas M; Madsen, Nicolas L; Czosek, Richard J; Spar, David S; Barnes, Allison; Pratt, Jesse; King, Eileen; Knilans, Timothy K

    2014-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death in the young (SCDY) is the leading cause of death in young athletes during sport. Screening young athletes for high-risk cardiac defects is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility and feasibility of a comprehensive cardiac screening protocol in an adolescent population. Adolescent athletes were recruited from local schools and/or sports teams. Each subject underwent a history and/or physical examination, an electrocardiography (ECG), and a limited echocardiography (ECHO). The primary outcome measure was identification of cardiac abnormalities associated with an elevated risk for sudden death. We secondarily identified cardiac abnormalities not typically associated with a short-term risk of sudden death. A total of 659 adolescent athletes were evaluated; 64% men. Five subjects had cardiac findings associated with an elevated risk for sudden death: prolonged QTc >500 ms (n = 2) and type I Brugada pattern (n = 1), identified with ECG; dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1) and significant aortic root dilation; and z-score = +5.5 (n = 1). History and physical examination alone identified 76 (11.5%) subjects with any cardiac findings. ECG identified 76 (11.5%) subjects in which a follow-up ECHO or cardiology visit was recommended. Left ventricular mass was normal by ECHO in all but 1 patient with LVH on ECG. ECHO identified 34 (5.1%) subjects in whom a follow-up ECHO or cardiology visit was recommended. In conclusion, physical examination alone was ineffective in identification of subjects at elevated risk for SCDY. Screening ECHO identified patients with underlying cardiac disease not associated with immediate risk for SCDY. Cost of comprehensive cardiac screening is high. PMID:25307198

  5. Concurrent Associations of Physical Activity and Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior on Obesity Among US Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngdeok; Barreira, Tiago V.; Kang, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Independent associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with obesity are well documented. However, little is known about the combined associations of these behaviors with obesity in adolescents. The present study examines the prevalence of concurrent levels of PA and SB, and their associations with obesity among US adolescents. Methods Data from a total of 12 081 adolescents who participated in the Youth Risk Behaviors Survey during 2012–2013 were analyzed. A latent class analysis was performed to identify latent subgroups with varying combined levels of subjectively measured PA and screen-based SB. Follow-up analysis examined the changes in the likelihood of being obese as determined by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention Growth Chart between latent subgroups. Results Four latent subgroups with varying combined levels of PA and SB were identified across gender. The likelihood of being obese was significantly greater for the subgroups featuring either or both Low PA or High SB when compared with High PA/Low SB across genders (odds ratio [OR] ranges, 2.1–2.7 for males and 9.6–23.5 for females). Low PA/High SB showed the greater likelihood of being obese compared to subgroups featuring either or both High PA and Low SB (OR ranges, 2.2–23.5) for female adolescents only. Conclusions The findings imply that promoting sufficient levels of PA while reducing SB should be encouraged in order to reduce obesity risk among adolescents, particularly for males. The risk of obesity for female adolescents can be reduced by engaging in either high levels of PA or low levels of SB. PMID:26477996

  6. A Family Focused Randomized Controlled Trial to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol and Tobacco Use: The Moderating Roles of Positive Parenting and Adolescent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Olson, Ardis L.; Forehand, Rex; Gaffney, Cecelia A.; Zens, Michael S.; Bau, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    Four years of longitudinal data from 2,153 families with a 5th- or 6th-grade preadolescent participating in a family-focused pediatric primary-care-based prevention program were used to examine whether prevention effects were moderated by positive parenting and/or adolescent gender. Alcohol and tobacco use, internalizing problems, and…

  7. Urine Toxicology Screen in Multiple Sleep Latency Test: The Correlation of Positive Tetrahydrocannabinol, Drug Negative Patients, and Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dzodzomenyo, Samuel; Stolfi, Adrienne; Splaingard, Deborah; Earley, Elizabeth; Onadeko, Oluwole; Splaingard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Drugs can influence results of multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). We sought to identify the effect of marijuana on MSLT results in pediatric patients evaluated for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Methods: This is a retrospective study of urine drug screens performed the morning before MSLT in 383 patients < 21 years old referred for EDS. MSLT results were divided into those with (1) (−) urine drug screens, (2) urine drug screens (+) for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone or THC plus other drugs, and (3) urine drug screens (+) for drugs other than THC. Groups were compared with Fisher exact tests or one-way ANOVA. Results: 38 (10%) urine drug tests were (+): 14 for THC and 24 for other drugs. Forty-three percent of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy, 0% consistent with idiopathic hypersomnia, 29% other, and 29% normal. This was statistically different from those with (−) screens (24% narcolepsy, 20% idiopathic hypersomnia, 6% other, 50% normal), and those (+) for drugs other than THC (17% narcolepsy, 33% idiopathic hypersomnia, 4% other, 46% normal (p = 0.01). Six percent (6/93) of patients with MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy were drug screen (+) for THC; 71% of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had multiple sleep onset REM periods (SOREMS). There were no (+) urine drug screens in patients < 13 years old. Conclusion: Many pediatric patients with (+) urine drug screens for THC met MSLT criteria for narcolepsy or had multiple SOREMs. Drug screening is important in interpreting MSLT findings for children ≥ 13 years. Citation: Dzodzomenyo S, Stolfi A, Splaingard D, Earley E, Onadeko O, Splaingard M. Urine toxicology screen in multiple sleep latency test: the correlation of positive tetrahydrocannabinol, drug negative patients, and narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):93–99. PMID:25348245

  8. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a screening instrument for norwegian child and adolescent mental health services, application of UK scoring algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of screening instruments can reduce waiting lists and increase treatment capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) with the original UK scoring algorithms, when used as a screening instrument to detect mental health disorders among patients in the Norwegian Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) North Study. Methods A total of 286 outpatients, aged 5 to 18 years, from the CAMHS North Study were assigned diagnoses based on a Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). The main diagnostic groups (emotional, hyperactivity, conduct and other disorders) were then compared to the SDQ scoring algorithms using two dichotomisation levels: 'possible' and 'probable' levels. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio (ORD) were calculated. Results Sensitivity for the diagnostic categories included was 0.47-0.85 ('probable' dichotomisation level) and 0.81-1.00 ('possible' dichotomisation level). Specificity was 0.52-0.87 ('probable' level) and 0.24-0.58 ('possible' level). The discriminative ability, as measured by ORD, was in the interval for potentially useful tests for hyperactivity disorders and conduct disorders when dichotomised on the 'possible' level. Conclusions The usefulness of the SDQ UK-based scoring algorithms in detecting mental health disorders among patients in the CAMHS North Study is only partly supported in the present study. They seem best suited to identify children and adolescents who do not require further psychiatric evaluation, although this as well is problematic from a clinical point of view. PMID:21992589

  9. Adolescent diet and time use clusters and associations with overweight and obesity and socioeconomic position.

    PubMed

    Ferrar, Katia; Golley, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity include low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low socioeconomic position (SEP). To date, the vast majority of research investigating associations between lifestyle behaviors and weight status analyze dietary and time use factors separately. Our research aimed to describe Australian youth time use and diet clusters and explore relationships with weight status and SEP (parental education and income). Cluster analysis of the National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data from Australians aged 9 to 16 years (random sample n = 1,853) was conducted. Time use data (17 age-adjusted time use variables) and dietary data (7 age-adjusted diet variables) were collected via 24-hour recalls. Two clusters were associated with a reduced frequency of overweight and obesity (the boys' Active Sitter and girls' Healthy Academic clusters) and one with an increased frequency of overweight and obesity (the boys' Unhealthy cluster). Of these three clusters, two demonstrated associations with parental income and/or parental education level. The boys' Unhealthy cluster was associated with low SEP status (parental income and education), and the girls' Healthy Academic cluster was associated with high parental income. Not all unhealthy adolescent clusters were associated with overweight and obesity. The findings suggest sex-specific diet and activity clusters can be used to identify at-risk subgroups and inform multifaceted interventions to address overweight and obesity. PMID:25576499

  10. Relationship between Socioeconomic Position and Suicide Attempts among the Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship of the subjective socioeconomic position (SEP) as well as the objective SEP with the rate of suicide attempts in 74,186 adolescents from the 2012 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS). The SEP was measured by the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) and the self-rated household economic status. The low perceived SEP for either the high or low FAS score was related to the elevated likelihood of suicide attempts in both genders. As compared with the adolescents in both the high level of perceived SEP and FAS score after adjusting for other confounding factors, the middle school students were more likely to attempt suicide in both low level of perceived SEP and FAS score (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.18-2.78 for boys, OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.13-1.90 for girls). The high school students were more likely to attempt suicide in the low perceived SEP and high FAS score (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.14-1.81 for boys, OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.07-1.56 for girls). In conclusion, the relationship of subjective SEP is important in suicide attempts as much as objective SEP and far more important in the high school students. PMID:25246749