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Sample records for adrenal endocrine functions

  1. Abnormalities of endocrine function in patients with clinically "silent" adrenal masses.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, B; Peverelli, S; Passini, E; Re, T; Ferrario, R; Colombo, P; Sartorio, A; Faglia, G

    1995-04-01

    Because, in recent years, patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses have been encountered increasingly, their endocrine function was investigated in basal conditions and after dynamic tests. Thirty-two patients (23 women and 9 men, aged 28-74 years) were studied. Lesion diameter, as documented by computed tomography and/or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, ranged between 5 and 65 mm; the tumors were localized on the right in 22 patients, on the left in 5 and bilaterally in 5 cases. In basal conditions, urinary free cortisol (UFC) excretion, plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol levels were normal, except for 4 patients who showed high UFC and ACTH levels in the low-normal range. Ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, 1 microgram/kg iv) was given to 18 patients, inducing normal ACTH and cortisol responses in 12, blunted responses in 4 and no response in 2 cases. No reduction in ACTH and cortisol levels after suppression tests was observed in 4 of 29 patients after dexamethasone (1 mg overnight) or in 6 of 29 after loperamide. The 4 patients who were unresponsive to both tests did not show any further inhibition after high-dose dexamethasone administration, had low plasma ACTH levels and showed impaired or absent responses to the CRH test: they were diagnosed as affected with preclinical Cushing's syndrome. An exogenous ACTH test performed in 30 patients caused a normal cortisol rise. Basal mean 17-hydroxy-progesterone (17-OHP) levels were not different from those in normal subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7711879

  2. Dysregulated Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis Function Contributes to Altered Endocrine and Neurobehavioral Responses to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kinlein, Scott A.; Wilson, Christopher D.; Karatsoreos, Ilia N.

    2015-01-01

    Organisms react to environmental challenges by activating a coordinated set of brain–body responses known as the stress response. These physiological and behavioral countermeasures are, in large part, regulated by the neuroendocrine hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Normal functioning of the HPA axis ensures that an organism responds appropriately to altered environmental demands, representing an essential system to promote survival. Over the past several decades, increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that disruption of the HPA axis can lead to dysregulated stress response phenotypes, exacting a physiological cost on the organism commonly referred to as allostatic load. Furthermore, it has been recognized that high allostatic load can contribute to increased vulnerability of the organism to further challenges. This observation leads to the notion that disrupted HPA function and resulting inappropriate responses to stressors may underlie many neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. In the present set of studies, we investigate the role of both the normally functioning and disrupted HPA axis in the endocrine, neural, and behavioral responses to acute stress. Using a model of non-invasive chronic corticosterone treatment in mice, we show that dysregulating the normal function of the HPA leads to a mismatch between the hormonal and neural response to acute stress, resulting in abnormal behavioral coping strategies. We believe this model can be leveraged to tease apart the mechanisms by which altered HPA function contributes to neurobehavioral dysregulation in response to acute stress. PMID:25821436

  3. Aldo Keto Reductase 1B7 and Prostaglandin F2α Are Regulators of Adrenal Endocrine Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lambert-Langlais, Sarah; Volat, Fanny; Manin, Michèle; Coudoré, François; Val, Pierre; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Ragazzon, Bruno; Louiset, Estelle; Delarue, Catherine; Lefebvre, Hervé; Urade, Yoshihiro; Martinez, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), represses ovarian steroidogenesis and initiates parturition in mammals but its impact on adrenal gland is unknown. Prostaglandins biosynthesis depends on the sequential action of upstream cyclooxygenases (COX) and terminal synthases but no PGF2α synthases (PGFS) were functionally identified in mammalian cells. In vitro, the most efficient mammalian PGFS belong to aldo-keto reductase 1B (AKR1B) family. The adrenal gland is a major site of AKR1B expression in both human (AKR1B1) and mouse (AKR1B3, AKR1B7). Thus, we examined the PGF2α biosynthetic pathway and its functional impact on both cortical and medullary zones. Both compartments produced PGF2α but expressed different biosynthetic isozymes. In chromaffin cells, PGF2α secretion appeared constitutive and correlated to continuous expression of COX1 and AKR1B3. In steroidogenic cells, PGF2α secretion was stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and correlated to ACTH-responsiveness of both COX2 and AKR1B7/B1. The pivotal role of AKR1B7 in ACTH-induced PGF2α release and functional coupling with COX2 was demonstrated using over- and down-expression in cell lines. PGF2α receptor was only detected in chromaffin cells, making medulla the primary target of PGF2α action. By comparing PGF2α-responsiveness of isolated cells and whole adrenal cultures, we demonstrated that PGF2α repressed glucocorticoid secretion by an indirect mechanism involving a decrease in catecholamine release which in turn decreased adrenal steroidogenesis. PGF2α may be regarded as a negative autocrine/paracrine regulator within a novel intra-adrenal feedback loop. The coordinated cell-specific regulation of COX2 and AKR1B7 ensures the generation of this stress-induced corticostatic signal. PMID:19809495

  4. Adrenal function testing.

    PubMed

    Dluhy, R G

    1978-12-01

    Glucocorticoid stimulation and suppression tests are essential to the definitive diagnosis of diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, because they document abnormal physiologic control of hormonal secretion. Similarly, diseases of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis are diagnosed by mineralocorticoid stimulation and suppression testing. [Ed. Note: See Moore TJ, Williams GH: Adrenal causes of hypertension, in this issue.] Unlike tests of glucocorticoid function, testing of the renin-angiotension-aldosterone system is more complicated, because knowledge of posture and dietary sodium are necessary to interpret the results. However, measurement of the tropic hormone renin and plasma levels of aldosterone can be accurately made, allowing precise definition of this system. Errors are most commonly encountered when dynamic tests of cortisol output are performed in patients taking medications that may interfere with the assays or with the metabolism of the administered compounds, such as dexamethasone or metyrapone. Abnormal, spurious values may also be obtained in some individuals who do not have adrenocortical hyperfunction if they are very obese or if testing is performed in a setting of clinical stress. Careful attention to these pitfalls will avoid errors and allow the clinician to arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:216524

  5. Mechanisms Mediating Environmental Chemical-Induced Endocrine Disruption in the Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to hundreds of man-made chemicals that pollute the environment in addition to multiple therapeutic drug treatments administered throughout life. Some of these chemicals, known as endocrine disruptors (EDs), mimic endogenous signals, thereby altering gene expression, influencing development, and promoting disease. Although EDs are eventually removed from the market or replaced with safer alternatives, new evidence suggests that early-life exposure leaves a fingerprint on the epigenome, which may increase the risk of disease later in life. Epigenetic changes occurring in early life in response to environmental toxicants have been shown to affect behavior, increase cancer risk, and modify the physiology of the cardiovascular system. Thus, exposure to an ED or combination of EDs may represent a first hit to the epigenome. Only limited information is available regarding the effect of ED exposure on adrenal function. The adrenal gland controls the stress response, blood pressure, and electrolyte homeostasis. This endocrine organ therefore has an important role in physiology and is a sensitive target of EDs. We review herein the effect of ED exposure on the adrenal gland with particular focus on in utero exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylehyl) phthalate. We discuss the challenges associated with identifying the mechanism mediating the epigenetic origins of disease and availability of biomarkers that may identify individual or population risks. PMID:25788893

  6. Mechanisms of arsenic disruption on gonadal, adrenal and thyroid endocrine systems in humans: A review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Jie; Xiang, Ping; Luo, Jun; Hong, Huachang; Lin, Hongjun; Li, Hong-Bo; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-10-01

    Due to its toxicity as a carcinogen and wide distribution in the environment, arsenic (As) exposure in humans is of public concern globally. Many studies have manifested that As exposure induces cancers besides pathological effects in humans. Animal studies showed that chronic As exposure induces serious neurological effects. Based on recent studies, researchers proposed that As, including arsenate (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII), is also an endocrine disruptor. This review discusses the mechanisms of As toxicity on three endocrine systems including gonadal, adrenal and thyroid endocrine systems. Arsenic methylation and oxidative stress are responsible for As-induced disorders of endocrine systems, however, strong binding of AsIII to thiols also play an important role. Some studies showed AsV toxicity on endocrine systems, but mechanistic investigation is lacking. Research is needed to look into their toxicity mechanisms to help cure the illnesses caused by As-induced endocrine system disorders. PMID:27502899

  7. Functional ectopic adrenal carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jim A; Lee, Maris S; Nicholson, Matthew E; Justin, Robert B

    2014-09-01

    An 11-year-old spayed female pit bull terrier was presented with a 2-month history of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and panting. Serum chemistry, blood and urine analysis, and tests for hyperadrenocorticism suggested an adrenal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound identified a mass caudal to the right kidney. The mass was completely excised and histopathology was consistent with endocrine carcinoma. Three years later there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:25183891

  8. Computational Model of Adrenal Steroidogenesis to Predict Biochemical Response to Endocrine Disruptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroids, which have an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, are synthesized primarily in the gonads and adrenal glands through a series of enzyme mediated reactions. The activity of steroidogenic enzymes can be altered by various endocrine disrupters (ED), ...

  9. Adrenal function in patients with active tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D J; Naraqi, S; Temu, P; Turtle, J R

    1989-01-01

    Although tuberculosis is a recognised cause of adrenal insufficiency, little is known about adrenal function in patients with active tuberculosis. Ninety Melanesian adults with active tuberculosis (30 pulmonary, 30 miliary, 30 extrapulmonary) had adrenal function assessed prospectively before and three to four weeks after starting antituberculous chemotherapy. Basal serum cortisol concentrations were normal in 55 (61%) and raised in 35 (39%) of the subjects. No patient had a low basal cortisol concentration. After Synacthen stimulation, cortisol responses were normal in 81 (92%) of the patients and subnormal in seven (8%). After antituberculous chemotherapy the response to Synacthen stimulation was normal in all but one patient. It is concluded that adrenal dysfunction is an uncommon problem in patients with active tuberculosis, and that, contrary to recent reports, antituberculous chemotherapy regimens that include rifampicin do not have an adverse effect on adrenal function. PMID:2763243

  10. Endocrine-specific NIR fluorophores for adrenal gland targeting.

    PubMed

    Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Levitz, Andrew; Park, Min Ho; Hyun, Hoon; Venugopal, Vivek; Park, GwangLi; El Fakhri, Georges; Henary, Maged; Gioux, Sylvain; Frangioni, John V; Choi, Hak Soo

    2016-08-11

    The adrenal glands (AGs) are relatively small yet require definitive identification during their resection, or more commonly their avoidance. To enable image-guided surgery involving the AGs, we have developed novel near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores that target the AGs after a single intravenous injection, which provided dual-NIR image-guided resection or avoidance of the AGs during both open and minimally-invasive surgery. PMID:27476533

  11. Endocrine and metabolic emergencies in children: hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Young

    2015-12-01

    It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies should be preceded prior to the starting nonspecific treatment. Importantly, proper diagnosis depends on the collection of blood and urine specimen before nonspecific therapy (intravenous hydration, electrolytes, glucose or calcium injection). At the same time, the taking of precise history and searching for pathognomonic physical findings should be performed. This review was described for fast diagnosis and proper management of hypoglycemic emergencies, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis. PMID:26817004

  12. Endocrine and metabolic emergencies in children: hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies should be preceded prior to the starting nonspecific treatment. Importantly, proper diagnosis depends on the collection of blood and urine specimen before nonspecific therapy (intravenous hydration, electrolytes, glucose or calcium injection). At the same time, the taking of precise history and searching for pathognomonic physical findings should be performed. This review was described for fast diagnosis and proper management of hypoglycemic emergencies, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis. PMID:26817004

  13. The effect of bedrest on adrenal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Hulley, S. B.; Rambaut, P. C.; Dietlein, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    Eight male subjects were subjected to continuous bedrest for 24-80 weeks for the purpose of studying metabolic responses. Three of the subjects did supine exercises daily during part of the study. Adrenal function was examined in relation to adrenal cortical and medullary excretions. The results reveal an increase in hydrocortisone throughout the test period, a decrease in norepinephrine and no change in epinephrine. These data suggest that exercise could decrease the severity of deconditioning caused by bedrest.

  14. Endoscopic Ultrasound in Endocrinology: Imaging of the Adrenals and the Endocrine Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kann, Peter Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) imaging of adrenal glands and its application to diagnostic procedures of adrenal diseases has been reported since 1998. It can be considered a relevant advantage in the field of adrenal diseases. Indeed, EUS allows the detection of adrenal lesions (even very small ones) and their characterization, the assessment of malignancy criteria, the early detection of neoplastic recurrences, the preoperative identification of morphologically healthy parts of the glands, the differentiation of extra-adrenal from adrenal tumors, and of the pathological entities associated with adrenal insufficiency, and the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) of suspicious lesions. At the same time, its clinical relevance depends on the experience of the endosonographer. Moreover, EUS is also by far the best and most sensitive imaging technique to detect and assess the follow-up of pancreatic manifestation of MEN1 disease. It furthermore enables the preoperatively localization of insulinomas and critical structures in their neighborhood, and may be relevant in planning surgical strategy. A positive EUS in a case of insulinoma furthermore confirms the endocrine diagnosis, especially considering the differential diagnosis of hypoglycemia factitia by oral antidiabetics. It can be supplemented by EUS-FNA. Again, it has to be considered that EUS may reveal false positive and false negative results, and the quality of the findings largely depends on the endosonographer's skills and experience. The most important technical details together with the advantages and limitations of EUS, and the pathognomonic characteristic of benign and malignant disorders of the adrenals and pancreas are presented here. PMID:27003412

  15. Plasticity of renal endocrine function.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Birgül; Kurtz, Armin

    2015-03-15

    The kidneys are important endocrine organs. They secrete humoral factors, such as calcitriol, erythropoietin, klotho, and renin into the circulation, and therefore, they are essentially involved in the regulation of a variety of processes ranging from bone formation to erythropoiesis. The endocrine functions are established by cells, such as proximal or distal tubular cells, renocortical interstitial cells, or mural cells of afferent arterioles. These endocrine cells are either fixed in number, such as tubular cells, which individually and gradually upregulate or downregulate hormone production, or they belong to a pool of cells, which display a recruitment behavior, such as erythropoietin- and renin-producing cells. In the latter case, regulation of humoral function occurs via (de)recruitment of active endocrine cells. As a consequence renin- and erythropoietin-producing cells in the kidney show a high degree of plasticity by reversibly switching between distinct cell states. In this review, we will focus on the characteristics of renin- and of erythropoietin-producing cells, especially on their origin and localization, their reversible transformations, and the mediators, which are responsible for transformation. Finally, we will discuss a possible interconversion of renin and erythropoietin expression. PMID:25608752

  16. Estimation of the Mechanism of Adrenal Action of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds Using a Computational Model of Adrenal Steroidogenesis in NCI-H295R Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Ryuta; Terasaki, Natsuko; Yamazaki, Makoto; Masutomi, Naoya; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Okamoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal toxicity is one of the major concerns in drug development. To quantitatively understand the effect of endocrine-active compounds on adrenal steroidogenesis and to assess the human adrenal toxicity of novel pharmaceutical drugs, we developed a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma NCI-H295R cells. The model includes cellular proliferation, intracellular cholesterol translocation, diffusional transport of steroids, and metabolic pathways of adrenal steroidogenesis, which serially involve steroidogenic proteins and enzymes such as StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, CYP21A2, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, HSD17B3, and CYP19A1. It was reconstructed in an experimental dynamics of cholesterol and 14 steroids from an in vitro steroidogenesis assay using NCI-H295R cells. Results of dynamic sensitivity analysis suggested that HSD3B2 plays the most important role in the metabolic balance of adrenal steroidogenesis. Based on differential metabolic profiling of 12 steroid hormones and 11 adrenal toxic compounds, we could estimate which steroidogenic enzymes were affected in this mathematical model. In terms of adrenal steroidogenic inhibitors, the predicted action sites were approximately matched to reported target enzymes. Thus, our computer-aided system based on systems biological approach may be useful to understand the mechanism of action of endocrine-active compounds and to assess the human adrenal toxicity of novel pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:27057163

  17. Serotonin involvement in pituitary-adrenal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Kellar, K. J.; Kent, D.; Gonzales, C.; Berger, P. A.; Barchas, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments clarifying the effects of serotonin (5-HT) in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system are surveyed. Lesion experiments which seek to determine functional maps of serotonergic input to areas involved in regulation are reported. Investigations of the effects of 5-HT levels on the plasma ACTH response to stress and the diurnal variation in basal plasma corticosterone are summarized, and the question of whether serotonergic transmission is involved in the regulation of all aspects of pituitary-adrenal function is considered with attention to the stimulatory and inhibitory action of 5-HT.

  18. [Adrenalitis].

    PubMed

    Saeger, W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation of the adrenal glands is caused by autoimmunopathies or infections and can induce adrenal insufficiency. Autoimmune lymphocytic adrenalitis is often combined with other autoimmune diseases and the most frequent cause of Addison's disease; however, it only becomes clinically apparent when more than 90 % of the adrenal cortex has been destroyed. Histological features are characterized by lymphoplasmacytic inflammation leading to an increased destruction of adrenocortical tissue but less severe courses can also occur. The second most frequent form of adrenalitis is adrenal tuberculosis, showing typical granulomatous findings that are nearly always caused by spreading from a tuberculous pulmonary focus. Other bacterial as well as viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and others, generally affect the adrenal glands only in patients with immunodeficiency disorders. In these infections, the adrenal cortex and medulla are frequently involved to roughly the same extent. Although surgical specimens from inflammatory adrenal lesions are extremely rare, the various forms of adrenalitis play an important role in the post-mortem examination of the adrenal glands for clarification of unclear causes of death (e.g. death during an Addisonian crisis). PMID:27099224

  19. Sexual Differentiation of Circadian Clock Function in the Adrenal Gland.

    PubMed

    Kloehn, Ian; Pillai, Savin B; Officer, Laurel; Klement, Claire; Gasser, Paul J; Evans, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in glucocorticoid production are associated with increased responsiveness of the adrenal gland in females. However, the adrenal-intrinsic mechanisms that establish sexual dimorphic function remain ill defined. Glucocorticoid production is gated at the molecular level by the circadian clock, which may contribute to sexual dimorphic adrenal function. Here we examine sex differences in the adrenal gland using an optical reporter of circadian clock function. Adrenal glands were cultured from male and female Period2::Luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice to assess clock function in vitro in real time. We confirm that there is a pronounced sex difference in the intrinsic capacity to sustain PER2::LUC rhythms in vitro, with higher amplitude rhythms in adrenal glands collected from males than from females. Changes in adrenal PER2::LUC rhythms over the reproductive life span implicate T as an important factor in driving sex differences in adrenal clock function. By directly manipulating hormone levels in adult mice in vivo, we demonstrate that T increases the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in adrenal glands of both male and female mice. In contrast, we find little evidence that ovarian hormones modify adrenal clock function. Lastly, we find that T in vitro can increase the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in male adrenals but not female adrenals, which suggests the existence of sex differences in the mechanisms of T action in vivo. Collectively these results reveal that activational effects of T alter circadian timekeeping in the adrenal gland, which may have implications for sex differences in stress reactivity and stress-related disorders. PMID:27007073

  20. Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Stefan R.; Allolio, Bruno; Arlt, Wiebke; Barthel, Andreas; Don-Wauchope, Andrew; Hammer, Gary D.; Husebye, Eystein S.; Merke, Deborah P.; Murad, M. Hassan; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Torpy, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This clinical practice guideline addresses the diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency. Participants: The Task Force included a chair, selected by The Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of the Endocrine Society, eight additional clinicians experienced with the disease, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The co-sponsoring associations (European Society of Endocrinology and the American Association for Clinical Chemistry) had participating members. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration in connection with this review. Evidence: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to determine the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Consensus Process: The evidence used to formulate recommendations was derived from two commissioned systematic reviews as well as other published systematic reviews and studies identified by the Task Force. The guideline was reviewed and approved sequentially by the Endocrine Society's Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee and Clinical Affairs Core Committee, members responding to a web posting, and the Endocrine Society Council. At each stage, the Task Force incorporated changes in response to written comments. Conclusions: We recommend diagnostic tests for the exclusion of primary adrenal insufficiency in all patients with indicative clinical symptoms or signs. In particular, we suggest a low diagnostic (and therapeutic) threshold in acutely ill patients, as well as in patients with predisposing factors. This is also recommended for pregnant women with unexplained persistent nausea, fatigue, and hypotension. We recommend a short corticotropin test (250 μg) as the “gold standard” diagnostic tool to establish the diagnosis. If a short corticotropin test is not possible in the first instance, we recommend an initial screening procedure comprising the measurement of morning plasma ACTH

  1. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to Steroid 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.; Azziz, Ricardo; Baskin, Laurence S.; Ghizzoni, Lucia; Hensle, Terry W.; Merke, Deborah P.; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; Miller, Walter L.; Montori, Victor M.; Oberfield, Sharon E.; Ritzen, Martin; White, Perrin C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We developed clinical practice guidelines for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Participants: The Task Force included a chair, selected by The Endocrine Society Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee (CGS), ten additional clinicians experienced in treating CAH, a methodologist, and a medical writer. Additional experts were also consulted. The authors received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus Process: Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions. The guidelines were reviewed and approved sequentially by The Endocrine Society’s CGS and Clinical Affairs Core Committee, members responding to a web posting, and The Endocrine Society Council. At each stage, the Task Force incorporated changes in response to written comments. Conclusions: We recommend universal newborn screening for severe steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency followed by confirmatory tests. We recommend that prenatal treatment of CAH continue to be regarded as experimental. The diagnosis rests on clinical and hormonal data; genotyping is reserved for equivocal cases and genetic counseling. Glucocorticoid dosage should be minimized to avoid iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome. Mineralocorticoids and, in infants, supplemental sodium are recommended in classic CAH patients. We recommend against the routine use of experimental therapies to promote growth and delay puberty; we suggest patients avoid adrenalectomy. Surgical guidelines emphasize early single-stage genital repair for severely virilized girls, performed by experienced surgeons. Clinicians should consider patients’ quality of life, consulting mental health professionals as appropriate. At the transition to adulthood, we recommend monitoring for potential complications of CAH. Finally, we recommend judicious use of medication during pregnancy and in symptomatic patients with nonclassic CAH. PMID:20823466

  2. Recovery of Adrenal Function in Patients with Glucocorticoids Induced Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Ha; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Jung, Jung Hwa; Hahm, Jong Ryeal

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic use of glucocorticoids (GC) suppresses function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and often results in secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI). The present study aimed to determine the recovery rate of adrenal function in patients with secondary AI within 1 to 2 years and to assess the factors predictive of adrenal function recovery. Methods This was a retrospective observational study that enrolled patients diagnosed with GC-induced secondary AI between 2007 and 2013. AI was defined by peak serum cortisol levels <18 µg/dL during a standard-dose short synacthen test (SST). A follow-up SST was performed after 1 to 2 years, and responders were defined as those with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated peak serum cortisol levels ≥18 µg/dL. Results Of the total 34 patients diagnosed with GC-induced secondary AI at first, 20 patients (58.8%) recovered normal adrenal function by the time of the follow-up SST (median follow-up period, 16.5 months). Although the baseline serum ACTH and cortisol levels at the first SST did not differ between responders and non-responders, the incremental cortisol response during the first SST was higher in responders than that of non-responders (7.88 vs. 3.56, P<0.01). Additionally, higher cortisol increments during the first SST were an independent predictive factor of the adrenal function recovery (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.46; P<0.05). Conclusion In the present study, adrenal function recovery was achieved frequently in patients with GC-induced secondary AI within 1 to 2 years. Additionally, an incremental cortisol response at the first SST may be an important predictive factor of adrenal function recovery. PMID:26676337

  3. Adrenal Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is adrenal insufficiency? Did you know? The adrenal glands, located on top of the kidneys, make hormones ... body functions. The outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal glands makes three types of steroid hormones. In adrenal ...

  4. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  5. Fetal endocrine and metabolic adaptations to hypoxia: the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Newby, Elizabeth A; Myers, Dean A; Ducsay, Charles A

    2015-09-01

    In utero, hypoxia is a significant yet common stress that perturbs homeostasis and can occur due to preeclampsia, preterm labor, maternal smoking, heart or lung disease, obesity, and high altitude. The fetus has the extraordinary capacity to respond to stress during development. This is mediated in part by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and more recently explored changes in perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) in response to hypoxia. Obvious ethical considerations limit studies of the human fetus, and fetal studies in the rodent model are limited due to size considerations and major differences in developmental landmarks. The sheep is a common model that has been used extensively to study the effects of both acute and chronic hypoxia on fetal development. In response to high-altitude-induced, moderate long-term hypoxia (LTH), both the HPA axis and PAT adapt to preserve normal fetal growth and development while allowing for responses to acute stress. Although these adaptations appear beneficial during fetal development, they may become deleterious postnatally and into adulthood. The goal of this review is to examine the role of the HPA axis in the convergence of endocrine and metabolic adaptive responses to hypoxia in the fetus. PMID:26173460

  6. Endocrine disruptors targeting ERbeta function.

    PubMed

    Swedenborg, E; Pongratz, I; Gustafsson, J-A

    2010-04-01

    Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) circulating in the environment constitute a risk to ecosystems, wildlife and human health. Oestrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta are targeted by various kinds of EDCs but the molecular mechanisms and long-term consequences of exposure are largely unknown. Some biological effects of EDCs are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a key player in the cellular defence against xenobiotic substances. Adding complexity to the picture, there is also accumulating evidence that AhR-ER pathways have an intricate interplay at multiple levels. In this review, we discuss some EDCs that affect the oestrogen pathway by targeting ERbeta. Furthermore, we describe some effects of AhR activities on the oestrogen system. Mechanisms as well as potential adverse effects on human health are discussed. PMID:20050941

  7. Non-functioning adrenal adenomas discovered incidentally on computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Mitnick, J.S.; Bosniak, M.A.; Megibow, A.J.; Naidich, D.P.

    1983-08-01

    Eighteen patients with unilateral non-metastatic non-functioning adrenal masses were studied with computed tomography (CT). Pathological examination in cases revealed benign adrenal adenomas. The others were followed up with serial CT scans and found to show no change in tumor size over a period of six months to three years. On the basis of these findings, the authors suggest certain criteria of a benign adrenal mass, including (a) diameter less than 5 cm, (b) smooth contour, (c) well-defined margin, and (d) no change in size on follow-up. Serial CT scanning can be used as an alternative to surgery in the management of many of these patients.

  8. Brain serotonin and pituitary-adrenal functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Berger, P.; Barchas, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    It had been concluded by Scapagnini et al. (1971) that brain serotonin (5-HT) was involved in the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of the pituitary-adrenal system but not in the stress response. A study was conducted to investigate these findings further by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-HT levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. In a number of experiments brain 5-HT synthesis was inhibited with parachlorophenylalanine. In other tests it was tried to raise the level of brain 5-HT with precursors.

  9. Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex Function During Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, K. F. A.

    1978-01-01

    A proposal to study the function of the adrenal gland in the rat during stress is presented. In the proposed project, three different phases of experimentation will be undertaken. The first phase includes establishment of the circadian rhythm of both brain amines and glucocoticoids, under normal conditions and under chronic and acute stressful conditions. The second phase includes the study of the pharmacokinetics of glucocorticoid binding under normal and stress conditions. The third phase includes brain uptake and binding under different experimental conditions. In the outlined experiments brain biogenic amines will be evaluated, adrenal functions will be measured and stress effect on those parameters will be studied. It is hoped that this investigation can explain some of the complex relationships between the brain neurotransmitter and adrenal function.

  10. Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

  11. Non Functional Unilateral Adrenal Myelolipoma, A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Athanikar, Vidisha S.; Dinesh, U S; Nanjappa, Bhuvnesh; Patil, Preetam B.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipoma is characterized by presence within the adrenal gland of mature adipose tissue and active bone marrow elements. Owing to their non functional nature most cases are incidental, either at autopsy or through computer tomography scan. Occasionally the lesions attain a large size to become clinically apparent. We present a case of a 58-year-old female with mass per abdomen. Preoperative computer tomography scan of abdomen, hormonal and urine analysis showed features of non functional adrenal myelolipoma. Gross specimen consists of unilateral ovoid mass, external surface having capsule with adherent fat and areas of congestion. Microscopic examination showed well encapsulated tumour tissue composed of mature adipose tissue with major blood forming elements like myeloid, erythroid and megakaryocytic series. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination of right sided adrenalectomy specimen. PMID:26266130

  12. The Role of Cholesterol Utilization in a Computational Adrenal Steroidogenesis Model to Improve Predictability of Biochemical Responses to Endocrine Active Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroids, which have an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, are synthesized primarily in the gonads and adrenal glands through a series of enzyme-mediated reactions. The activity of steroidogenic enzymes can be altered by a variety of endocrine active chem...

  13. Localization of functional adrenal tumors by computed tomography and venous sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Doppman, J.L.; Gill, J.R. Jr.; Strott, C.A.; Keiser, H.R.; Brennan, M.F.

    1982-02-01

    Fifty-eight patients with functional lesions of the adrenal glands underwent radiographic evaluation. Twenty-eight patients had primary aldosteronism (Conn syndrome), 20 had Cushing syndrome, and 10 had pheochromocytoma. Computed tomography (CT) correctly identified adrenal tumors in 11 (61%) of 18 patients with aldosteronomas, 6 of 6 patients with benign cortisol-producing adrenal tumors, and 5 (83%) of 6 patients with pheochromocytomas. No false-positive diagnoses were encountered among patients with adrenal adenomas. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia appeared on CT scans as normal or prominent adrenal glands with a normal configuration; however, CT was not able to exclude the presence of small adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling was correct in each case, and reliably distinguished adrenal tumors from hyperplasia. Recurrent pheochromocytomas were the most difficult to loclize on CT due to the surgical changes in the region of the adrenals and the frequent extra-adrenal locations.

  14. Adrenal Function Testing Following Hormone Therapy for Infantile Spasms: Case Series and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mytinger, John R.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.

    2015-01-01

    Prednisolone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are “hormone” therapies for infantile spasms. There is limited data on the occurrence of decreased adrenal reserve or signs of clinical adrenal insufficiency after hormone therapy. This is a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to our Infantile Spasms Program. Our standardized infantile spasms management guideline began in September 2012 and initially included a post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function. Medical records were assessed for hormone treatments, adrenal function testing, and signs of adrenal insufficiency. Forty-two patients who received one or both hormone therapies met inclusion criteria. A post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function was done in 14 patients. Of these 14 patients, 2 had an abnormal laboratory assessment of adrenal function, both by adrenal stimulation testing – one after ACTH and one after prednisolone. One patient received hydrocortisone replacement and the other received stress dose hydrocortisone as needed; neither patient developed signs of adrenal insufficiency. Another patient treated with both types of hormone therapy in tandem, who did not have a post-hormone laboratory assessment, developed signs of mild adrenal insufficiency and required replacement hydrocortisone. Our study suggests that adrenal suppression can occur after modern hormone therapy regimens. We found two patients with abnormal adrenal function testing after hormone therapy and another patient with signs adrenal insufficiency. Given the seriousness of adrenal crisis, caregiver education on the signs of adrenal insufficiency is critical. Greater vigilance may be indicated in patients receiving both types of hormone therapy in tandem. Although a routine post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function may not be feasible in all patients, replacement or stress dose hydrocortisone is necessary for all patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency. PMID

  15. Fetal endocrine therapy for congenital adrenal hyperplasia should not be done.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by administering dexamethasone to a woman presumed to be carrying an at-risk fetus remains a controversial experimental treatment. Review of data from animal experimentation and human trials indicates that dexamethasone cannot be considered safe for the fetus. In animals, prenatal dexamethasone decreases birth weight, affects renal, pancreatic beta cell and brain development, increases anxiety and predisposes to adult hypertension and hyperglycemia. In human studies, prenatal dexamethasone is associated with orofacial clefts, decreased birth weight, poorer verbal working memory, and poorer self-perception of scholastic and social competence. Numerous medical societies have cautioned that prenatal treatment of adrenal hyperplasia with dexamethasone is not appropriate for routine clinical practice and should only be done in Institutional Review Board approved, prospective clinical research settings with written informed consent. The data indicate that this treatment is inconsistent with the classic medical ethical maxim to 'first do no harm'. PMID:26051303

  16. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Epidemiology, quality of life and complications of primary adrenal insufficiency: a review.

    PubMed

    Bensing, Sophie; Hulting, Anna-Lena; Husebye, Eystein S; Kämpe, Olle; Løvås, Kristian

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we review published studies covering epidemiology, natural course and mortality in primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) or Addison's disease. Autoimmune PAI is a rare disease with a prevalence of 100-220 per million inhabitants. It occurs as part of an autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome in more than half of the cases. The patients experience impaired quality of life, reduced parity and increased risk of preterm delivery. Following a conventional glucocorticoid replacement regimen leads to a reduction in bone mineral density and an increase in the prevalence of fractures. Registry studies indicate increased mortality, especially evident in patients diagnosed with PAI at a young age and in patients with the rare disease autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1. Most notably, unnecessary deaths still occur because of adrenal crises. All these data imply the need to improve the therapy and care of patients with PAI. PMID:27068688

  17. Fetal programming of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function: prenatal stress and glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Amita; Dunn, Elizabeth; Kostaki, Alice; Andrews, Marcus H; Matthews, Stephen G

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) and maternal exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids can lead to permanent modification of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function and stress-related behaviour. Both of these manipulations lead to increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are essential for many aspects of normal brain development, but exposure of the fetal brain to an excess of glucocorticoids can have life-long effects on neuroendocrine function. Both endogenous glucocorticoid and synthetic glucocorticoid exposure have a number of rapid effects in the fetal brain, including modification of neurotransmitter systems and transcriptional machinery. Such fetal exposure permanently alters HPA function in prepubertal, postpubertal and ageing offspring, in a sex-dependent manner. Prenatal stress and exogenous glucocorticoid manipulation also lead to the modification of behaviour, brain and organ morphology, as well as altered regulation of other endocrine systems. It is also becoming increasingly apparent that the timing of exposure to PS or synthetic glucocorticoids has tremendous effects on the nature of the phenotypic outcome. Permanent changes in endocrine function will ultimately impact on health in both human and animal populations. PMID:16469780

  18. THERAPY OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Perspectives on the management of adrenal insufficiency: clinical insights from across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Ashley; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Quinkler, Marcus; Zelissen, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional glucocorticoid (GC) replacement for patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) is inadequate. Patients with AI continue to have increased mortality and morbidity and compromised quality of life despite treatment and monitoring. Objectives i) To review current management of AI and the unmet medical need based on literature and treatment experience and ii) to offer practical advice for managing AI in specific clinical situations. Methods The review considers the most urgent questions endocrinologists face in managing AI and presents generalised patient cases with suggested strategies for treatment. Results Optimisation and individualisation of GC replacement remain a challenge because available therapies do not mimic physiological cortisol patterns. While increased mortality and morbidity appear related to inadequate GC replacement, there are no objective measures to guide dose selection and optimisation. Physicians must rely on experience to recognise the clinical signs, which are not unique to AI, of inadequate treatment. The increased demand for corticosteroids during periods of stress can result in a life-threatening adrenal crisis (AC) in a patient with AI. Education is paramount for patients and their caregivers to anticipate, recognise and provide proper early treatment to prevent or reduce the occurrence of ACs. Conclusions This review highlights and offers suggestions to address the challenges endocrinologists encounter in treating patients with AI. New preparations are being developed to better mimic normal physiological cortisol levels with convenient, once-daily dosing which may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:24031090

  19. Comprehensive characterization of expression patterns of protein 4.1 family members in mouse adrenal gland: implications for functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Congrong; Debnath, Gargi; Baines, Anthony J; Conboy, John G; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2010-10-01

    The members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1R, 4.1G, 4.1N, and 4.1B, are encoded by four genes, all of which undergo complex alternative splicing. It is well established that 4.1R, the prototypical member of the family, serves as an adapter that links the spectrin-actin based cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane in red cells. It is required for mechanical resilience of the membrane, and it ensures the cell surface accumulation of selected membrane proteins. However, the function of 4.1 proteins outside erythrocytes remains under-explored, especially in endocrine tissues. Transcripts of all 4.1 homologs have previously been documented to be abundantly expressed in adrenal gland. In order to begin to decipher the function of 4.1 proteins in adrenal gland, we performed a detailed characterization of the expression pattern of various 4.1 proteins and their cellular localization. We show that 4.1R (~80 and ~135 kDa) splice forms are expressed on the membrane of all cells, while a ~160 kDa 4.1G splice form is distributed in the cytoplasm and the membrane of zona glomerulosa and of medullary cells. Two 4.1N splice forms, ~135 and ~95 kDa, are present in the peri-nuclear region of both zona glomerulosa and medullary cells, while a single ~130 kDa 4.1B splice form, is detected in all layers of adrenal gland in both the cytoplasm and the membrane. The characterization of distinct splice forms of various 4.1 proteins with diverse cellular and sub-cellular localization indicates multiple functions for this family of proteins in endocrine functions of adrenal gland. PMID:20890708

  20. Autonomic and endocrine control of cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Richard; Gwathmey, Judith K; Xie, Lai-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The function of the heart is to contract and pump oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs. To achieve this goal, a normal human heart must beat regularly and continuously for one’s entire life. Heartbeats originate from the rhythmic pacing discharge from the sinoatrial (SA) node within the heart itself. In the absence of extrinsic neural or hormonal influences, the SA node pacing rate would be about 100 beats per minute. Heart rate and cardiac output, however, must vary in response to the needs of the body’s cells for oxygen and nutrients under varying conditions. In order to respond rapidly to the changing requirements of the body’s tissues, the heart rate and contractility are regulated by the nervous system, hormones, and other factors. Here we review how the cardiovascular system is controlled and influenced by not only a unique intrinsic system, but is also heavily influenced by the autonomic nervous system as well as the endocrine system. PMID:25914789

  1. Dopamine receptor expression and function in human normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pivonello, Rosario; Ferone, Diego; de Herder, Wouter W; de Krijger, Ronald R; Waaijers, Marlijn; Mooij, Diana M; van Koetsveld, Peter M; Barreca, Antonina; De Caro, Maria Laura del Basso; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2004-09-01

    Dopamine is known to play a role in the modulation of aldosterone and catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland, where dopamine receptors (DR), in particular the DR type 2 (D(2)), have been found to be expressed. DR expression has also been demonstrated in some types of benign adrenal tumors. The aims of the current study were to evaluate DR expression and D(2) localization in the normal adrenal gland and in different types of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, as well as to evaluate the in vitro effects of the dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline on hormone secretion in nontumoral adrenal cells. Adrenal tissues from 25 patients, subjected to adrenal surgery for different diseases, were studied. These included three normal adrenals; five adrenal hyperplasias; four aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two clinically nonfunctioning adrenal adenomas; two aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two androgen-secreting adrenal carcinomas; and three pheochromocytomas. In all tissues, DR and D(2) isoform (D(2long) and D(2short)) expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. D(2) localization was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a specific polyclonal antibody, whereas D(2)-like receptor expression was evaluated by receptor-ligand binding study, using the radiolabeled D(2) analog (125)I-epidepride. The effects of bromocriptine and cabergoline on baseline and ACTH and/or angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone, cortisol, and androstenedione secretion were evaluated in cell cultures derived from five different adrenal hyperplasia. At RT-PCR, both D(1)-like and D(2)-like receptors were expressed in all normal and hyperplastic adrenals. D(2) and D(4) were expressed in aldosterone- and cortisol-secreting adenomas, cortisol-secreting carcinomas, and clinically nonfunctioning adenomas, whereas no DR was expressed in aldosterone- and androgen-secreting carcinomas. D(2), D(4), and D(5) were expressed in pheochromocytomas. In all D(2

  2. (/sup 131/I) iodocholesterol scintiscan and a rare functional black adenoma of the adrenal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.M.; Lieberman, L.M.; Gould, H.R.; Hafez, G.R.

    1983-06-01

    A rare functional black adenoma (FBA) of the adrenal cortex was found to be the cause of hypertension and cushingoid features in a 34-yr-old white female., Preoperative studies included (/sup 131/I)iodocholesterol scanning (ICS) of the adrenal glands, which demonstrated the increased release of cortisol from the affected adrenal gland, with the failure of the opposite adrenal gland to record. This is evidence that cortisol was suppressing adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) output by the pituitary gland. This case documents the clinical utility of functional imaging techniques in this clinical setting.

  3. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... high or too low, you may have an endocrine disease or disorder. Endocrine diseases and disorders also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. Featured Topics Adrenal Insufficiency ... Topics Research Discoveries & News Children with Cushing ...

  4. Ferrocene Functionalized Endocrine Modulators as Anticancer Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillard, Elizabeth A.; Vessières, Anne; Jaouen, Gerard

    We present here some of our studies on the synthesis and behaviour of ferrocenyl selective endocrine receptor modulators against cancer cells, particularly breast and prostate cancers. The proliferative/anti-proliferative effects of compounds based on steroidal and non-steroidal endocrine modulators have been extensively explored in vitro. Structure-activity relationship studies of such molecules, particularly the hydroxyferrocifens and ferrocene phenols, have shown the effect of (1) the presence and the length of the N,N-dimethylamino side chain, (2) the presence and position of the phenol group, (3) the role of the ferrocenyl moiety, (4) that of conjugation, (5) phenyl functionalisation and (6) the placement of the phenyl group. Compounds possessing a ferrocene moiety linked to a p-phenol by a conjugated π-system are among the most potent of the series, with IC50 values ranging from 0.090 to 0.6µM on hormone independent breast cancer cells. Based on the SAR data and electrochemical studies, we have proposed an original mechanism to explain the unusual behaviour of these bioorganometallic species and coin the term "kronatropic" to qualify this effect, involving ROS production and bio-oxidation. In addition, the importance of formulation is underlined. We also discuss the behaviour of ferrocenyl androgens and anti-androgens for possible use against prostate cancers. In sum, ferrocene has proven to be a fascinating substituent due to its vast potential for oncology.

  5. Adipose Tissue and Adrenal Glands: Novel Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kargi, Atil Y.; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or “adipokines” have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of “cross talk” between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals. PMID:25018768

  6. Maturation Rate, Endocrine Functioning and Female Career Typicalness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sue W.; McCullers, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Compared maturation rate and endocrine functioning according to career typicalness in 28 employed women. Results provided only limited evidence that women in nontraditional careers matured later than women in traditional careers. Found subjects in traditional categories married and had children at earlier age than did subjects in nontraditional…

  7. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS AS A THREAT TO NEUROLOGICAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disruption is a concept and principle whose origins can be traced to the beginnings of the environmental movement in the 1960s. It began with puzzlement about and the flaring of research on the decline of wildlife, particularly avian species. The proposed causes accented pesticides, especially persistent organochlorines such as DDT. Its scope gradually widened beyond pesticides, and, as endocrine disruption offered an explanation for the wildlife phenomena, it seemed to explain, as well, changes in fertility and disorders of male reproduction such as testicular cancer. Once disturbed gonadal hormone function became the most likely explanation, it provoked other questions. The most challenging arose because of how critical gonadal hormones are to brain function, especially as determinants of brain sexual differentiation. Pursuit of such connections has generated a robust literature embracing a broad swath of chemical classes. How endocrine disrupting chemicals influence the adult and aging brain is a question, so far mostly ignored because of the emphasis on early development, that warrants vigorous investigation. Gonadal hormones are crucial to optimal brain function during maturity and even senescence. They are pivotal to the processes of neurogenesis. They exert protective actions against neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and support smoothly functioning cognitive activities. The limited research conducted so far on endocrine disruptors, aging, and neurogenesis argues that they should be overlooked no longer. PMID:21474148

  8. [Modification of endocrine function of trophoblasts by thyroid hormone].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, H; Maruo, T; Hayashi, M; Mochizuki, M

    1991-11-01

    Direct effects of L-triiodothyronine(T3) on placental endocrine function were investigated in vitro with an organ culture system for human placental tissues. Explants of trophoblastic tissues obtained from early and term placentas were cultured with or without graded doses of T3 in a serum-free condition. The addition of an optimal concentration of T3(10(-3) M T3) stimulated daily secretion of progesterone and estradiol from cultured early placental tissues by acting at the level of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and aromatase enzyme activity, together with the enhancement of hCG(alpha, beta) and hPL secretion. The addition of higher or lower concentrations of T3 gave attenuated effects and the addition of an excessive concentration of T3(10(-3) M T3) resulted in remarkable inhibition of progesterone and estradiol secretion by cultured early placental tissues. These results suggest that the optimal concentration of thyroid hormone acts as a biological amplifier of endocrine function of cultured trophoblasts obtained from early placentas. Unlike the early placental tissues, cultured term placental tissues did not respond to the addition of graded doses of T3 with increased endocrine function. Thus, the frequent occurrence of spontaneous abortion in early pregnancy during the state of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism may represent a direct consequence of inadequate thyroid hormone availability at the level of the trophoblast, followed by diminished endocrine function of early placental trophoblasts. PMID:1940550

  9. Endocrine and exocrine function of the bovine testis. Chapter 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is devoted to the endocrine and exocrine function of the normal bovine male testes. The discussion begins with a historical review of the literature dating back to Aristotle’s (300 BC) initial description of the anatomy of the mammalian testes. The first microscopic examination of the t...

  10. Effect of Space Flight on Adrenal Medullary Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelkes, Peter I.

    1999-01-01

    We hypothesize that microgravity conditions during space flight alter the expression and specific activities of the adrenal medullary CA synthesizing enzymes (CASE). Previously, we examined adrenals from six rats flown for six days aboard STS 54 and reported that microgravity induced a decrease in the expression and specific activity of rat adrenal medullary tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme of CA synthesis, without affecting the expression of other CASE. In the past, we analyzed some of the > 300 adrenals from two previous Space Shuttle missions (PARE 03 and SLS 2). The preliminary results (a) attest to the good state of tissue preservation, thus proving the feasibility of subsequent large-scale evaluation, and (b) confirm and extend our previous findings. With this grant we will be able to expeditiously analyze all our specimens and to complete our studies in a timely fashion.

  11. Serotonin and pituitary-adrenal function. [in rat under stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, P. A.; Barchas, J. D.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to evaluate the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stress stimulus in the rat. In the investigation brain serotonin synthesis was inhibited with p-chlorophenylalanine. In other tests the concentration of serotonin was enhanced with precursors such as tryptophan or 5-hydroxytryptophan. On the basis of the results obtained in the study it is speculated that in some disease states there is a defect in serotonergic neuronal processes which impairs pituitary-adrenal feedback mechanisms.

  12. Fetal programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and behavior by synthetic glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amita; Petropoulos, Sophie; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-03-01

    Reduced fetal growth has been closely associated with an increased risk for the development of chronic disease in later life. Accumulating evidence indicates that fetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids represents a critical mechanism underlying this association. Approximately 7% of pregnant women are at risk of preterm delivery and these women are routinely treated with synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC) between 24 and 34 of weeks gestation to improve neonatal outcome. Animal studies have demonstrated that maternally administered sGC crosses the placenta, affecting fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) development, resulting in changes in HPA axis function that persist throughout life. These changes appear to be modulated at the level of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the brain and pituitary. As the HPA axis interacts with many other physiological pathways, the changes in endocrine function are also sex-specific and age-dependent. Alterations in behavior, particularly locomotion, in animals exposed to sGC in utero have also been demonstrated. Consistent with the finding in animal models, emerging human data are indicating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in children exposed to repeated courses of sGC in utero. This behavioral phenotype is likely linked to alterations in dopamine (DA) signaling, suggesting that sGC are able to permanently modify or 'program' this system. Finally, it is emerging that changes in HPA axis function and behavior following antenatal exposure to sGC are transgenerational and likely involve epigenetic mechanisms. A comprehensive understanding of the acute and long-term impact of sGC exposure in utero is necessary to begin to develop recommendations and treatment options for pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery. PMID:17716742

  13. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Imrich, R; Rovensky, J; Zlnay, M; Radikova, Z; Macho, L; Vigas, M; Koska, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess basal function and responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis during dynamic testing. Methods: Insulin induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) (Actrapid HM 0.1 IU/kg, as intravenous bolus) was induced in 17 patients and 11 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Concentrations of glucose, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) were determined in plasma. Results: Comparable basal cortisol levels were found in the two groups, with a trend to be lower in ankylosing spondylitis. In the ankylosing spondylitis group, there were higher concentrations of IL-6 (mean (SEM): 16.6 (2.8) pg/ml v 1.41 (0.66) pg/ml in controls; p<0.001) and TNFα (8.5 (1.74) pg/ml v 4.08 (0.42) pg/ml in controls; p<0.01). Glucose, insulin, ACTH, DHEAS, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone did not differ significantly from control. The IIH test was carried out successfully in 11 of the 17 patients with ankylosing spondylitis, and the ACTH and cortisol responses were comparable with control. General linear modelling showed a different course of glycaemia (p = 0.041) in the ankylosing spondylitis patients who met the criteria for a successful IIH test compared with the controls. Conclusions: The results suggest there is no difference in basal HPA axis activity and completely preserved responsiveness of the HPA axis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The interpretation of the different course of glycaemia during IIH in ankylosing spondylitis requires further investigation. PMID:15140773

  14. Adrenocortical endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal has been neglected in endocrine disruption regulatory testing strategy. The adrenal is a vital organ, adrenocortical insufficiency is recognised in life threatening "adrenal crises" and Addison's disease, and the consequences of off-target toxicological inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenesis is well recognised in clinical medicine, where drugs such as aminoglutethimide and etomidate killed patients via unrecognised inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenic enzymes (e.g. CYP11B1) along the cortisol and aldosterone pathways. The consequences of adrenocortical dysfunction during early development are also recognised in the congenital salt wasting and adrenogenital syndromes presenting neonatally, yet despite a remit to focus on developmental and reproductive toxicity mechanisms of endocrine disruption by many regulatory agencies (USEPA EDSTAC; REACH) the assessment of adrenocortical function has largely been ignored. Further, every step in the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathway (ACTH receptor, StAR, CYP's 11A1, 17, 21, 11B1, 11B2, and 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Δ4,5 isomerase) is known to be a potential target with multiple examples of chemicals inhibiting these targets. Many of these chemicals have been detected in human and wildlife tissues. This raises the question of whether exposure to low level environmental chemicals may be affecting adrenocortical function. This review examines the omission of adrenocortical testing in the current regulatory frameworks; the characteristics that make the adrenal cortex particularly vulnerable to toxic insult; chemicals and their toxicological targets within the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathways; the typical manifestations of adrenocortical toxicity (e.g. human iatrogenically induced pharmacotoxicological adrenal insufficiency, manifestations in typical mammalian regulatory general toxicology studies, manifestations in wildlife) and models of adrenocortical functional assessment. The utility of the

  15. Changes in the adrenals in lead treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, A.R.; Gautam, A.K.; Rao, R.V.; Sathwara, N.G.; Parikh, D.J.; Chatterjee, B.B.

    1986-07-01

    That the endocrine functions of tests, ovary, thyroid, and adrenals were affected by lead are known from observations on either man or laboratory animals. In one study adrenal steroid excretion was first found to increase and then to decrease considerably during advanced stages of lead intoxication in exposed workers. No comprehensive studies on this aspect of lead poisoning seem to have been carried out. The present investigation was undertaken to contribute to a better understanding of the adrenal functions in rats treated with different dosages of lead.

  16. GGCX and VKORC1 inhibit osteocalcin endocrine functions

    PubMed Central

    Lacombe, Julie; Germain, Amélie; Oury, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Osteocalcin (OCN) is an osteoblast-derived hormone favoring glucose homeostasis, energy expenditure, male fertility, brain development, and cognition. Before being secreted by osteoblasts in the bone extracellular matrix, OCN is γ-carboxylated by the γ-carboxylase (GGCX) on three glutamic acid residues, a cellular process requiring reduction of vitamin K (VK) by a second enzyme, a reductase called VKORC1. Although circumstantial evidence suggests that γ-carboxylation may inhibit OCN endocrine functions, genetic evidence that it is the case is still lacking. Here we show using cell-specific gene inactivation models that γ-carboxylation of OCN by GGCX inhibits its endocrine function. We further show that VKORC1 is required for OCN γ-carboxylation in osteoblasts, whereas its paralogue, VKORC1L1, is dispensable for this function and cannot compensate for the absence of VKORC1 in osteoblasts. This study genetically and biochemically delineates the functions of the enzymes required for OCN modification and demonstrates that it is the uncarboxylated form of OCN that acts as a hormone. PMID:25753038

  17. GGCX and VKORC1 inhibit osteocalcin endocrine functions.

    PubMed

    Ferron, Mathieu; Lacombe, Julie; Germain, Amélie; Oury, Franck; Karsenty, Gérard

    2015-03-16

    Osteocalcin (OCN) is an osteoblast-derived hormone favoring glucose homeostasis, energy expenditure, male fertility, brain development, and cognition. Before being secreted by osteoblasts in the bone extracellular matrix, OCN is γ-carboxylated by the γ-carboxylase (GGCX) on three glutamic acid residues, a cellular process requiring reduction of vitamin K (VK) by a second enzyme, a reductase called VKORC1. Although circumstantial evidence suggests that γ-carboxylation may inhibit OCN endocrine functions, genetic evidence that it is the case is still lacking. Here we show using cell-specific gene inactivation models that γ-carboxylation of OCN by GGCX inhibits its endocrine function. We further show that VKORC1 is required for OCN γ-carboxylation in osteoblasts, whereas its paralogue, VKORC1L1, is dispensable for this function and cannot compensate for the absence of VKORC1 in osteoblasts. This study genetically and biochemically delineates the functions of the enzymes required for OCN modification and demonstrates that it is the uncarboxylated form of OCN that acts as a hormone. PMID:25753038

  18. ESCI Award 2006. Mitochondrial function and endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Stark, R; Roden, M

    2007-04-01

    Mitochondria are fundamental for oxidative energy production and impairment of their functionality can lead to reduced ATP synthesis and contribute to initiation of apoptosis. Endocrine tissues critically rely on oxidative phosphorylation so that mitochondrial abnormalities may either be causes or consequences of diminished hormone production or action. Abnormalities typical for diseases caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations such as Kearns-Sayre syndrome or mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome are also seen in certain endocrine diseases. Lack or excess of thyroid hormones, major ubiquitous regulators of mitochondrial content and activity, cause muscular abnormalities and multisystem disorders. Mitochondria are a further prerequisite for steroidogenesis as well as insulin secretion and action. Recent studies showed that reduced mitochondrial ATP synthesis in skeletal muscle is a feature of certain hereditary and acquired forms of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Finally, ageing is not only accompanied by various degrees of hormonal deficiency and insulin resistance but is also associated with a progressive decline of mitochondrial number and function. Future research is needed to examine whether mitochondrial abnormalities are the cause or consequence of ageing and frequent metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to address mitochondria as a target for novel therapeutic regimes. PMID:17373958

  19. New insights into the controversy of adrenal function during critical illness.

    PubMed

    Boonen, Eva; Bornstein, Stefan R; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-10-01

    Critical illness represents a life-threatening disorder necessitating recruitment of defence mechanisms for survival. Herein, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is essential. However, the relevance of a relative insufficiency of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in critical illness, which is diagnosed by a suppressed cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) irrespective of the plasma cortisol concentration, is controversial. Findings from several studies have provided insights that clarify at least part of this controversy. Rather than an activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, ACTH-independent regulators have been reported to contribute to increased cortisol availability during critical illness. One of these regulators is reduced cortisol breakdown, mediated by suppressed expression and activity of cortisol metabolising enzymes in the liver and kidneys. This downstream mechanism increases concentrations of plasma cortisol, but the ensuing feedback-inhibited ACTH release, when sustained for more than 1 week, has been shown to negatively affect adrenocortical integrity and function. Reduced adrenocortical ACTH signalling could explain reduced cortisol responses to exogenous ACTH. Whether such reduced cortisol responses in the presence of raised plasma (free) cortisol identifies adrenal failure needing treatment is unlikely. Additionally, reduced cortisol breakdown affects the optimum dose of hydrocortisone treatment during critical illness. Identification of patients with an insufficient hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response and the optimum treatment for this disorder clearly need more well designed preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26071883

  20. Functional atrial natriuretic peptide receptor in human adrenal tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Shionoiri, H.; Hirawa, N.; Takasaki, I.; Ishikawa, Y.; Oda, H.; Minamisawa, K.; Sugimoto, K.; Matsukawa, T.; Ueda, S.; Miyajima, E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of synthetic human atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on the release of catecholamines, aldosterone, or cortisol were observed in human adrenal tumors obtained surgically from patients with pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, or Cushing's syndrome, respectively. Each tumor tissue or adjacent normal cortical tissue was sectioned into slices, which were incubated in medium-199 in the presence or absence of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and ANP. The amounts of epinephrine, norepinephrine, aldosterone, or cortisol released into the medium were measured. Existence of ANP receptors on the adrenal tissues was examined by binding assays, affinity labeling, and immunohistochemistry. Release of catecholamines from pheochromocytoma tissues was inhibited by ANP, and the presence of the ANP receptor on pheochromocytoma was further demonstrated by both binding assays and affinity labeling; Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of binding sites for ANP with a Kd of 1.0 nM and a Bmax of 0.4 pmol/mg of protein and the molecular size was estimated as 140 and a 70 kDa under nonreducing and reducing conditions, respectively. The presence of ANP receptors in pheochromocytoma was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. ANP inhibited both basal and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone secretion in the slices of normal cortex, and localization of ANP receptors in zona glomerulosa cells was also demonstrated. However, ANP did not inhibit basal and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone and cortisol secretion in both tissue slices from aldosteronoma and Cushing's adenoma. Consistent with these observations, the absence of ANP receptors in adenoma tissues was determined by binding assays, affinity labeling, and immunohistochemistry.

  1. [Adrenal cortex functional activity in pantothenate deficiency and the administration of the vitamin or its derivatives].

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Iu A; Sheĭbak, V M; Moĭseenok, A G

    1985-01-01

    Study of the corticosteroid content in the adrenals and blood of rats under pantothenate deficiency has demonstrated a decrease in adrenocortical function. A single administration of pantothenate in a dose of 3.3 mg/kg reduced the influence of hypovitaminosis on the adrenals. The pantothenate derivatives (pantethine, 4'-phosphopantothenate and CoA in particular) injected to intact animals in a single dose equimolar to 3.3 mg/kg calcium pantothenate per kg bw had a marked steroidogenous effect. PMID:4060684

  2. Marital Conflict and Endocrine Function: Are Men Really More Physiologically Affected than Women?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessed marital conflict and endocrine function in 90 newlywed couples. Blood samples were examined to provide composite and daytime values for three stress hormones and three related hormones. Data provided a window on endocrine function in couples for whom the day included conflicts. Discusses findings in the context of gender models of marital…

  3. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  4. Adrenal Incidentaloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  5. Role of DAX-1 (NR0B1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (NR5A1) in human adrenal function.

    PubMed

    El-Khairi, Ranna; Martinez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lin, Lin; Achermann, John C

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear receptor transcription factors DAX-1 (NR0B1) and SF-1 (NR5A1) regulate many aspects of adrenal and reproductive development and function. Disruption of the genes encoding these factors can be associated with pediatric adrenal disease. DAX-1 mutations are classically associated with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and impaired spermatogenesis. However, other phenotypes are also being reported, such as isolated mineralocorticoid insufficiency, premature sexual development, primary adrenal insufficiency in a 46, XX patient and late-onset X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. SF-1 mutations have also been associated with primary adrenal insufficiency, together with 46, XY disorders of sex development. However it is emerging that SF-1 changes are a relatively rare cause of primary adrenal failure in humans, and most individuals with SF-1 mutations have a spectrum of 46, XY disorders of sex development phenotypes. These conditions range from 46, XY females with streak gonads and müllerian structures, through children with ambiguous genitalia and inguinal testes, to severe penoscrotal hypospadias with undescended testes. Therefore, the human gonad appears to be more sensitive than the adrenal gland to loss of SF-1 function. This review will focus on the expanding range of phenotypes associated with DAX-1 and SF-1 mutations. PMID:21164257

  6. Adrenocorticotropin receptors: Functional expression from rat adrenal mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, L.M.; Catt, K.J. )

    1991-10-01

    The adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) receptor, which binds corticotropin and stimulates adenylate cyclase and steroidogenesis in adrenocortical cells, was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with rat adrenal poly(A){sup +} RNA. Expression of the ACTH receptor in individual stage 5 and 6 oocytes was monitored by radioimmunoassay of ligand-stimulated cAMP production. Injection of 5-40 ng of adrenal mRNA caused dose-dependent increases in ACTH-responsive cAMP production. Size fractionation of rat adrenal poly(A){sup +}RNA by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation revealed that mRNA encoding the ACTH receptor was present in the 1.1-to 2.0-kilobase fraction. These data indicate that ACTH receptors can be expressed from adrenal mRNA in Xenopus oocytes and are fully functional in terms of ligand specificity and signal generation. The extracellular cAMP response to ACTH is a sensitive and convenient index of receptor expression. This system should permit more complete characterization and expression cloning of the ACTH receptor.

  7. Rhythmic expression of functional MT1 melatonin receptors in the rat adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hans G; Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Garcia-Sesnich, Jocelyn; Abarzua-Catalan, Lorena; Henriquez, Mauricio G; Alvarez-Felmer, Mauro; Gaete, Fernando; Rehren, German E; Seron-Ferre, Maria

    2008-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that melatonin is involved in the regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid production in diurnal primates through activation of MT1 membrane-bound melatonin receptors. However, whether melatonin has a similar role in nocturnal rodents remains unclear. Using an integrative approach, here we show that the adult rat adrenal gland expresses a functional MT1 melatonin receptor in a rhythmic fashion. We found that: 1) expression of the cognate mRNA encoding for the MT1 membrane-bound melatonin receptor, displaying higher levels in the day/night transition (1800-2200 h); 2) expression of the predicted 37-kDa MT1 polypeptide in immunoblots from adrenals collected at 2200 h but not 1000 h; 3) no expression of the MT2 melatonin receptor mRNA and protein; 4) specific high-affinity 2-[(125)I]iodomelatonin binding in membrane fractions and frozen sections from adrenals collected at 2200 h but not 0800 h (dissociation constant = 14.22 +/- 1.23 pm; maximal binding capacity = 0.88 +/- 0.02 fmol/mg protein); and 5) in vitro clock time-dependent inhibition of ACTH-stimulated corticosterone production by 1-100 nm melatonin, which was reversed by 1 microm luzindole (a melatonin membrane receptor antagonist). Our findings indicate not only expression but also high amplitude diurnal variation of functional MT1 melatonin receptors in the rat adrenal gland. It is conceivable that plasma melatonin may play a role to fine-tune corticosterone production in nocturnal rodents, probably contributing to the down slope of the corticosterone rhythm. PMID:18039783

  8. Integrated Neural and Endocrine Control of Gastrointestinal Function.

    PubMed

    Furness, John B

    2016-01-01

    The activity of the digestive system is dynamically regulated by external factors, including body nutritional and activity states, emotions and the contents of the digestive tube. The gut must adjust its activity to assimilate a hugely variable mixture that is ingested, particularly in an omnivore such as human for which a wide range of food choices exist. It must also guard against toxins and pathogens. These nutritive and non-nutritive components of the gut contents interact with the largest and most vulnerable surface in the body, the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. This requires a gut sensory system that can detect many classes of nutrients, non-nutrient components of food, physicochemical conditions, toxins, pathogens and symbionts (Furness et al., Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 10:729-740, 2013). The gut sensors are in turn coupled to effector systems that can respond to the sensory information. The responses are exerted through enteroendocrine cells (EEC), the enteric nervous system (ENS), the central nervous system (CNS) and the gut immune and tissue defence systems. It is apparent that the control of the digestive organs is an integrated function of these effectors. The peripheral components of the EEC, ENS and CNS triumvirate are extensive. EEC cells have traditionally been classified into about 12 types (disputed in this review), releasing about 20 hormones, together making the gut endocrine system the largest endocrine organ in the body. Likewise, in human the ENS contains about 500 million neurons, far more than the number of neurons in the remainder of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Together gut hormones, the ENS and the CNS control or influence functions including satiety, mixing and propulsive activity, release of digestive enzymes, induction of nutrient transporters, fluid transport, local blood flow, gastric acid secretion, evacuation and immune responses. Gut content receptors, including taste, free fatty acid, peptide and

  9. Evaluation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Chrousos, George P.; Kino, Tomoshige; Charmandari, Evangelia

    2009-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important role in the maintenance of basal and stress-related homeostasis. The hypothalamus controls the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary, which in turn stimulates the secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. Glucocorticoids, the final effectors of the HPA axis, regulate a broad spectrum of physiologic functions essential for life and exert their effects through their ubiquitously distributed intracellular receptors. Alterations in the activity of the HPA axis may present with symptoms and signs of glucocorticoid deficiency or excess. Detailed endocrinologic evaluation is of primary importance in determining the diagnosis and/or etiology of the underlying condition. We review the most common endocrinologic investigations used in the evaluation of the HPA axis integrity and function. PMID:19571588

  10. Social subordination impairs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Reding, Katherine M; Wilson, Mark E; Toufexis, Donna

    2012-09-01

    Linear dominance hierarchies organize and maintain stability in female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social groups regardless of group size. As a consequence of their low social status, subordinate females suffer from an array of adverse outcomes including reproductive compromise, impaired immune function, and poor cardiovascular health. However, data that differentiate limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (LHPA) parameters between dominant from subordinate female monkeys are inconsistent, bringing into question whether social subordination alters the LHPA axis in female macaques. One difficulty in examining LHPA function in macaques may be the confounding effects of cycling ovarian steroids that are known to modulate LHPA activity. The current study used ovariectomized dominant and subordinate female rhesus monkeys to examine the effect that social subordination has on LHPA function by measuring morning and diurnal serum cortisol levels, dexamethasone (Dex) suppression of cortisol, metabolic clearance of Dex, and ACTH stimulation of adrenal cortisol release and cortisol response following exposure to acute social isolation. Compared to dominant females, subordinate females showed diminished morning peak cortisol secretion, weakened glucocorticoid negative feedback, and decreased adrenal cortisol response to an ACTH challenge as well as a restrained cortisol response following social isolation. However, the metabolism of Dex did not account for differences in Dex suppression between dominant and subordinate females. These results indicate that the ability to mount and limit glucocorticoid release is significantly reduced by psychosocial stress in female rhesus macaques, suggesting a hyporesponsive LHPA phenotype which resembles that observed in several human psychopathologies. PMID:22940527

  11. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  12. Effect of placental factors on growth and function of the human fetal adrenal in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Riopel, L.; Branchaud, C.L.; Goodyer, C.G.; Zweig, M.; Lipowski, L.; Adkar, V.; Lefebvre, Y. )

    1989-11-01

    Conditioned medium from human placental monolayer cultures (PM) had a marked stimulatory effect on proliferation (3H-thymidine uptake) of human fetal zone adrenal cells in primary monolayer culture, even in the absence of serum. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) also significantly stimulated fetal adrenal cell growth. However, the effects of PM differed from those of EGF and FGF in several respects: (1) maximal response to PM was 2-5 times greater; (2) mitogenic effects of EGF and FGF were suppressed by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), whereas that of 50% PM was not; (3) PM inhibited ACTH-stimulated steroidogenesis (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol), but EGF and FGF did not. Preliminary characterization studies have indicated that approximately half of the placental growth-promoting activity is heat resistant and sensitive to bacterial proteases, and that 50-60% of the activity is lost after dialysis with membranes having a molecular weight cutoff of 3500. These findings suggest a role for the placenta in the growth and differentiated function of the human fetal adrenal gland.

  13. Acute and chronic methyl mercury poisoning impairs rat adrenal and testicular function

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, G.V.; Meikle, A.W.

    1980-05-01

    Animals poisoned with methyl mercury (CH/sub 3/Hg) exhibit stress intolerance and decreased sexual activity, which suggest both adrenal and testicular dysfunction. Adrenal and testicular function was studied in male rats after treatment with CH/sub 3/Hg. In animals treated chronically, the adrenal glands were markedly hyperplastic with enlargement of the zona fasciculata. The mean basal serum levels of corticosterone were similar in experimental (17.8 ..mu..g/dl) and control (16.8 ..mu..g/dl) groups. However, with ether stress, experimental animals had a subnormal response, and the mean serum levels of corticosterone increased to only 23.9 ..mu../dl compared to 40.6 ..mu..g/dl in the controls. Exogenous ACTH stimulation produced a mean level of 19.0 ..mu..g/dl in the CH/sub 3/Hg-treated animals and 49.7 ..mu..g/dl in the controls. In vitro studies demonstrated a defect in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. A profound impairment in swimming was partially reversed with glucocorticoid therapy. In animals treated with CH/sub 3/Hg, serum testosterone was lower than normal in the basal state. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation increased the mean serum concentration of testosterone to 23.4 ng/ml in controls, but it was only 4.50 ng/ml in experimental animals. The data indicate that CH/sub 3/Hg poisoning impairs adrenal and testicular steroid hormone secretion, which accounts in part for the diminished stress tolerance and decreased sexual activity observed in CH/sub 3/Hg-intoxicated animals.

  14. The development and endocrine functions of adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White adipose tissue is a mesenchymal tissue that begins developing in the fetus. Classically known for storing the body’s fuel reserves, adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ. As such, the secretions from adipose tissue are known to affect several systems such as the vascular and...

  15. Functional Zonation of the Adult Mammalian Adrenal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Gavin P.

    2016-01-01

    The standard model of adrenocortical zonation holds that the three main zones, glomerulosa, fasciculata, and reticularis each have a distinct function, producing mineralocorticoids (in fact just aldosterone), glucocorticoids, and androgens respectively. Moreover, each zone has its specific mechanism of regulation, though ACTH has actions throughout. Finally, the cells of the cortex originate from a stem cell population in the outer cortex or capsule, and migrate centripetally, changing their phenotype as they progress through the zones. Recent progress in understanding the development of the gland and the distribution of steroidogenic enzymes, trophic hormone receptors, and other factors suggests that this model needs refinement. Firstly, proliferation can take place throughout the gland, and although the stem cells are certainly located in the periphery, zonal replenishment can take place within zones. Perhaps more importantly, neither the distribution of enzymes nor receptors suggest that the individual zones are necessarily autonomous in their production of steroid. This is particularly true of the glomerulosa, which does not seem to have the full suite of enzymes required for aldosterone biosynthesis. Nor, in the rat anyway, does it express MC2R to account for the response of aldosterone to ACTH. It is known that in development, recruitment of stem cells is stimulated by signals from within the glomerulosa. Furthermore, throughout the cortex local regulatory factors, including cytokines, catecholamines and the tissue renin-angiotensin system, modify and refine the effects of the systemic trophic factors. In these and other ways it more and more appears that the functions of the gland should be viewed as an integrated whole, greater than the sum of its component parts. PMID:27378832

  16. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

  17. Adrenal Mitochondria and Steroidogenesis: From Individual Proteins to Functional Protein Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Midzak, Andrew; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex is critical for physiological function as the central site of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid synthesis. It possesses a great degree of specialized compartmentalization at multiple hierarchical levels, ranging from the tissue down to the molecular levels. In this paper, we discuss this functionalization, beginning with the tissue zonation of the adrenal cortex and how this impacts steroidogenic output. We then discuss the cellular biology of steroidogenesis, placing special emphasis on the mitochondria. Mitochondria are classically known as the “powerhouses of the cell” for their central role in respiratory adenosine triphosphate synthesis, and attention is given to mitochondrial electron transport, in both the context of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial steroid metabolism. Building on work demonstrating functional assembly of large protein complexes in respiration, we further review research demonstrating a role for multimeric protein complexes in mitochondrial cholesterol transport, steroidogenesis, and mitochondria–endoplasmic reticulum contact. We aim to highlight with this review the shift in steroidogenic cell biology from a focus on the actions of individual proteins in isolation to the actions of protein assemblies working together to execute cellular functions. PMID:27524977

  18. Adrenal Mitochondria and Steroidogenesis: From Individual Proteins to Functional Protein Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Midzak, Andrew; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex is critical for physiological function as the central site of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid synthesis. It possesses a great degree of specialized compartmentalization at multiple hierarchical levels, ranging from the tissue down to the molecular levels. In this paper, we discuss this functionalization, beginning with the tissue zonation of the adrenal cortex and how this impacts steroidogenic output. We then discuss the cellular biology of steroidogenesis, placing special emphasis on the mitochondria. Mitochondria are classically known as the "powerhouses of the cell" for their central role in respiratory adenosine triphosphate synthesis, and attention is given to mitochondrial electron transport, in both the context of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial steroid metabolism. Building on work demonstrating functional assembly of large protein complexes in respiration, we further review research demonstrating a role for multimeric protein complexes in mitochondrial cholesterol transport, steroidogenesis, and mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum contact. We aim to highlight with this review the shift in steroidogenic cell biology from a focus on the actions of individual proteins in isolation to the actions of protein assemblies working together to execute cellular functions. PMID:27524977

  19. Maternal flaxseed diet during lactation changes adrenal function in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; de Oliveira, Elaine; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2015-10-14

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been a focus of interest in the field of functional foods because of its potential health benefits. However, we hypothesised that maternal flaxseed intake during lactation could induce several metabolic dysfunctions in adult offspring. In the present study, we aimed to characterise the adrenal function of adult offspring whose dams were supplemented with whole flaxseed during lactation. At birth, lactating Wistar rats were divided into two groups: rats from dams fed the flaxseed diet (FLAX) with 25% of flaxseed and controls dams. Pups received standard diet after weaning and male offspring were killed at age 180 days old to collect blood and tissues. We evaluated body weight and food intake during development, corticosteronaemia, adrenal catecholamine content, hepatic cholesterol, TAG and glycogen contents, and the protein expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and adrenaline β2 receptor at postnatal day 180 (PN180). After weaning, pups from the FLAX group had a higher body weight (+10 %) and food intake (+10%). At PN180, the FLAX offspring exhibited higher serum corticosterone (+48%) and lower adrenal catecholamine ( - 23%) contents, lower glycogen ( - 30%), higher cholesterol (4-fold increase) and TAG (3-fold-increase) contents in the liver, and higher 11β-HSD1 (+62%) protein expression. Although the protein expression of hypothalamic CRH was unaffected, the FLAX offspring had lower protein expression of pituitary ACTH ( - 34%). Therefore, induction of hypercorticosteronaemia by dietary flaxseed during lactation may be due to an increased hepatic activation of 11β-HSD1 and suppression of ACTH. The changes in the liver fat content of the FLAX group are suggestive of steatosis, in which hypercorticosteronaemia may play an important role. Thus, it is recommended that lactating women restrict the intake of flaxseed during

  20. Mutations of the p53 gene in human functional adrenal neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu-Ru Lin; Yau-Jiunn Lee; Juei-Hsiung Tsai

    1994-02-01

    To clarify gene alterations in functional human adrenal tumors, the authors performed molecular analysis for p53 abnormalities in 23 cases with adrenal neoplasms. The immunohistochemical study with anti-p53 monoclonal antibody pAb1801 demonstrated that 10 of 23 (43.5%) cases overexpressed p53 protein in the tumor cells. Using a polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism study, 5 of 6 (83.3%) pheochromocytoma tissues (1 malignant and 5 benign) and 11 of 15 (73.3%) adrenocortical adenomas (2 with Cushing`s syndrome and 13 with primary aldosteronism, all benign) showed an apparent electrophoretic mobility shift between the tumor and its paired adjacent normal adrenal tissue. Such differences were detected in exon 4 (12 cases), exon 5 (2 cases), and exon 7 (3 cases). The types of these mutations in exon 4 were a substitution from threonine (ACC) to isoleucine (ATC) at codon 102 in 5 cases, from glutamine (CAG) to histidine (CAC) at codon 104 in 1 case, from glycine (GGG) to alanine (CGG) at codon 117 in 1 case, from glutamate (GAG) to glutamine (CAG) at codon 68 in 1 case, and single base changes resulting in a premature stop codon at codon 100 in 2 cases. A 2-basepair deletion at codon 175 in exon 5 resulting in a frame shift was identified in 1 case. A single point mutation was identified, resulting in the substitution of glutamine (CAG) for arginine (CGG) at codon 248 of exon 7 in 1 case. A single basepair deletion at codon 249 resulted in a frame shift in 2 cases. There was 1 case with malignant pheochromocytoma that combined a single point mutation in exon 4 and a single base deletion in exon 7. Only 2 of 23 cases showed a loss of a normal allele encoding in the p53 gene. Northern blot analysis with 1.8-kilobase p53 cDNA revealed that p53 mRNA was overexpressed in 6 cases. The results indicate that high frequencies of p53 gene mutation, especially in exon 4, exist in functional adrenal tumors. 39 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Searching for additional endocrine functions of the skeleton: genetic approaches and implications for therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jianwen; Flaherty, Stephen; Karsenty, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of whole organism physiology has greatly advanced in the past decades through mouse genetics. In particular, genetic studies have revealed that most organs interact with one another through hormones in order to maintain normal physiological functions and the homeostasis of the entire organism. Remarkably, through these studies many unexpected novel endocrine means to regulate physiological functions have been uncovered. The skeletal system is one example. In this article, we review a series of studies that over the years have identified bone as an endocrine organ. The mechanism of action, pathological relevance, and therapeutic implications of the functions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin are discussed. In the last part of this review we discuss the possibility that additional endocrine functions of the skeleton may exist.

  2. Morphological and functional manifestations of rat adrenal-cortex response to sodium bromide administration under hypodynamic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirichek, L. T.; Zholudeva, V. I.

    1979-01-01

    Functional and morphological manifestations of adrenal cortex response to hypodynamia (2-hr immobilization on an operating table) under the influence of bromine preparations were studied. The sodium bromide was administered intraperitoneally in 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg doses once and repeatedly during ten days. The adrenal gland was evaluated functionally by ascorbic acid and cholesterol content and morphologically by coloring it with hematoxylin-eosin and Sudans for lipid revealing at freezing. Results are displayed in two tables and microphotographs. They are summarized as follows: the bromine weakens the functional state of the adrenal cortex in intact rats, causing changes similar to those under stress. During immobilization combined with preliminary bromine administration, a less pronounced stress reaction is noticeable.

  3. Nitric oxide plays a role in the regulation of adrenal blood flow and adrenocorticomedullary functions in the llama fetus

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Raquel A; Sánchez, Gina; Liberona, Leonel; Sanhueza, Emilia M; Giussani, Dino A; Blanco, Carlos E; Hanson, Mark A; Llanos, Aníbal J

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that nitric oxide plays a key role in the regulation of adrenal blood flow and plasma concentrations of cortisol and catecholamines under basal and hypoxaemic conditions in the llama fetus was tested. At 0.6-0.8 of gestation, 11 llama fetuses were surgically prepared for long-term recording under anaesthesia with vascular and amniotic catheters. Following recovery all fetuses underwent an experimental protocol based on 1 h of normoxaemia, 1 h of hypoxaemia and 1 h of recovery. In nine fetuses, the protocol occurred during fetal i.v. infusion with saline and in five fetuses during fetal i.v. treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NAME. Adrenal blood flow was determined by the radiolabelled microsphere method during each of the experimental periods during saline infusion and treatment with l-NAME. Treatment with l-NAME during normoxaemia led to a marked fall in adrenal blood flow and a pronounced increase in plasma catecholamine concentrations, but it did not affect plasma ACTH or cortisol levels. In saline-infused fetuses, acute hypoxaemia elicited an increase in adrenal blood flow and in plasma ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations. Treatment with l-NAME did not affect the increase in fetal plasma ACTH, but prevented the increments in adrenal blood flow and in plasma cortisol and adrenaline concentrations during hypoxaemia in the llama fetus. In contrast, l-NAME further enhanced the increase in fetal plasma noradrenaline. These data support the hypothesis that nitric oxide has important roles in the regulation of adrenal blood flow and adrenal corticomedullary functions during normoxaemia and hypoxaemia functions in the late gestation llama fetus. PMID:12356897

  4. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol in comparison to one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on markers of endocrine function

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Ulla M; Anttilat, Marjatta; Mäenpää-Liukko, Kristiina; Rantala, Maija-Liisa; Rautiainen, Hilkka; Sommer, Werner F; Mommers, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effects of two monophasic combined oral contraceptives, containing either nomegestrol acetate/17β-oestradiol (NOMAC/E2) or levonorgestrel/ ethinylestradiol (LNG/EE) on endocrine function, androgens, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Methods Randomised, open-label, multi-centre trial involving 121 healthy women, aged 18-50 years old. Participants received NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) in a 24/4-day regimen (n = 60) or LNG/EE (150 μg/30 μg) in a 21/7-day regimen (n = 61) for six cycles. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to cycle 6 in markers of adrenal and thyroid function, androgens, and SHBG. Results Total cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) increased from baseline in both groups, with significantly greater increases in the LNG/EE group. No relevant changes from baseline or differences between the groups were observed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4). Androgens and androgen precursors decreased from baseline in both groups, with significantly greater decreases in the LNG/EE group (except for free testosterone). A greater increase in SHBG was observed with NOMAC/E2 than with LNG/EE. Conclusions NOMAC/E2 has significantly less influence on markers of adrenal and thyroid function and androgens than LNG/EE. The clinical relevance of these findings requires further study. PMID:21942708

  5. Development and Function of the Human Fetal Adrenal Cortex: A Key Component in the Feto-Placental Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to unraveling the biophysiology and development of the human fetal adrenal cortex, which is structurally and functionally unique from other species. It plays a pivotal role, mainly through steroidogenesis, in the regulation of intrauterine homeostasis and in fetal development and maturation. The steroidogenic activity is characterized by early transient cortisol biosynthesis, followed by its suppressed synthesis until late gestation, and extensive production of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, precursors of placental estrogen, during most of gestation. The gland rapidly grows through processes including cell proliferation and angiogenesis at the gland periphery, cellular migration, hypertrophy, and apoptosis. Recent studies employing modern technologies such as gene expression profiling and laser capture microdissection have revealed that development and/or function of the fetal adrenal cortex may be regulated by a panoply of molecules, including transcription factors, extracellular matrix components, locally produced growth factors, and placenta-derived CRH, in addition to the primary regulator, fetal pituitary ACTH. The role of the fetal adrenal cortex in human pregnancy and parturition appears highly complex, probably due to redundant and compensatory mechanisms regulating these events. Mounting evidence indicates that actions of hormones operating in the human feto-placental unit are likely mediated by mechanisms including target tissue responsiveness, local metabolism, and bioavailability, rather than changes only in circulating levels. Comprehensive study of such molecular mechanisms and the newly identified factors implicated in adrenal development should help crystallize our understanding of the development and physiology of the human fetal adrenal cortex. PMID:21051591

  6. Effects of long term inhaled high dose beclomethasone dipropionate on adrenal function.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M J; Hodson, M E

    1983-01-01

    Studies of adrenal function were performed on 54 asthmatic patients who were taking long term high doses of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate ranging from 500 to 2000 micrograms/day for between six and 60 months. Of the 43 patients taking up to 1500 micrograms/day, 39 (91%) had normal basal plasma cortisol concentrations and normal short tetracosactrin responses and 24 hour urinary free cortisol excretion was within the normal range in eight of nine patients tested. Some evidence of adrenal suppression was found in patients taking 2000 micrograms/day, with basal plasma cortisol below the normal range in four out of 11 patients and 24 hour urinary free cortisol excretion below the normal range in five out of six patients tested. Only one of the 11 patients taking 2000 micrograms/day had a short tetracosactrin response below the normal range: the mean rise in plasma cortisol was, however, significantly lower in this group than in those taking 1000 micrograms/day (328 (SE 30) and 506 (34) nmol/l respectively) (p less than 0.01). Patients taking more than 1500 micrograms/day of inhaled beclomethasone may require systemic corticosteroids during prolonged stress. PMID:6684806

  7. Standards of ultrasound imaging of the adrenal glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław S.; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna A.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal glands are paired endocrine glands located over the upper renal poles. Adrenal pathologies have various clinical presentations. They can coexist with the hyperfunction of individual cortical zones or the medulla, insufficiency of the adrenal cortex or retained normal hormonal function. The most common adrenal masses are tumors incidentally detected in imaging examinations (ultrasound, tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), referred to as incidentalomas. They include a range of histopathological entities but cortical adenomas without hormonal hyperfunction are the most common. Each abdominal ultrasound scan of a child or adult should include the assessment of the suprarenal areas. If a previously non-reported, incidental solid focal lesion exceeding 1 cm (incidentaloma) is detected in the suprarenal area, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be conducted to confirm its presence and for differentiation and the tumor functional status should be determined. Ultrasound imaging is also used to monitor adrenal incidentaloma that is not eligible for a surgery. The paper presents recommendations concerning the performance and assessment of ultrasound examinations of the adrenal glands and their pathological lesions. The article includes new ultrasound techniques, such as tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, three-dimensional ultrasound, elastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and parametric imaging. The guidelines presented above are consistent with the recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society. PMID:26807295

  8. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  9. Functional characteristics of the bovine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis vary with temperament.

    PubMed

    Curley, Kevin O; Neuendorff, Don A; Lewis, Andrew W; Cleere, Jason J; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D

    2008-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, in Brahman heifers of differing temperament, was evaluated using separate challenges with CRH and ACTH. Exit velocity (EV) measurement was used to classify heifer temperament as calm [C; consisted of 6 slowest heifers (EV=1.05+/-0.05 m/s)] or temperamental [T; 6 fastest heifers (EV=3.14+/-0.22 m/s)]. During the 6 h prior to CRH challenge, areas under the ACTH (P=0.025) and cortisol (P<0.001) curves were greater in the temperamental heifers. Baseline cortisol (P<0.001) but not ACTH (P=0.10) differed between temperament groups. Following CRH challenge, areas under the ACTH (P=0.057) and cortisol (P<0.01) response curves were greater in the calm animals. The same animals were subjected to an ACTH challenge 14 d following their utilization in the CRH stimulation experiment. Prior to ACTH challenge, baseline cortisol concentrations were higher (P<0.001) in the temperamental heifers (T=18+/-2.6, C=4.3+/-0.6 ng/mL). Following ACTH administration, area under the cortisol response curve was greater (P=0.07) in the calm heifers. After declining below baseline concentrations during the post-challenge recovery period, cortisol in temperamental animals was again greater (P=0.02) than in the calm heifers. These data demonstrate that cattle with an excitable temperament exhibit increased stress responsiveness to handling, increased baseline adrenal function but not increased basal pituitary function, and a muted responsiveness to pharmacological stimulus. Thus, functional characteristics of the HPA axis vary with animal temperament. PMID:17916358

  10. Bilateral adrenal masses: a single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bandgar, Tushar; Khare, Shruti; Jadhav, Swati; Lila, Anurag; Goroshi, Manjunath; Kasaliwal, Rajeev; Khadilkar, Kranti; Shah, Nalini S

    2016-01-01

    Background Bilateral adrenal masses may have aetiologies like hyperplasia and infiltrative lesions, besides tumours. Hyperplastic and infiltrative lesions may have coexisting hypocortisolism. Bilateral tumours are likely to have hereditary/syndromic associations. The data on clinical profile of bilateral adrenal masses are limited. Aims To analyse clinical, biochemical and radiological features, and management outcomes in patients with bilateral adrenal masses. Methods Retrospective analysis of 70 patients with bilateral adrenal masses presenting to a single tertiary care endocrine centre from western India (2002–2015). Results The most common aetiology was pheochromocytoma (40%), followed by tuberculosis (27.1%), primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) (10%), metastases (5.7%), non-functioning adenomas (4.3%), primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (4.3%), and others (8.6%). Age at presentation was less in patients with pheochromocytoma (33 years) and tuberculosis (41 years) compared with PAL (48 years) and metastases (61 years) (P<0.001). The presenting symptoms for pheochromocytoma were hyperadrenergic spells (54%) and abdominal pain (29%), whereas tuberculosis presented with adrenal insufficiency (AI) (95%). The presenting symptoms for PAL were AI (57%) and abdominal pain (43%), whereas all cases of metastasis had abdominal pain. Mean size of adrenal masses was the largest in lymphoma (5.5cm) followed by pheochromocytoma (4.8cm), metastasis (4cm) and tuberculosis (2.1cm) (P<0.001). Biochemically, most patients with pheochromocytoma (92.8%) had catecholamine excess. Hypocortisolism was common in tuberculosis (100%) and PAL (71.4%) and absent with metastases (P<0.001). Conclusion In evaluation of bilateral adrenal masses, age at presentation, presenting symptoms, lesion size, and biochemical features are helpful in delineating varied underlying aetiologies. PMID:27037294

  11. Endocrine regulation of circadian physiology.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Anthony H; Astiz, Mariana; Friedrichs, Maureen; Oster, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks regulate 24-h rhythms of behavior and physiology to align with external time. The endocrine system serves as a major clock output to regulate various biological processes. Recent findings suggest that some of the rhythmic hormones can also provide feedback to the circadian system at various levels, thus contributing to maintaining the robustness of endogenous rhythmicity. This delicate balance of clock-hormone interaction is vulnerable to modern lifestyle factors such as shiftwork or high-calorie diets, altering physiological set points. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the communication between the circadian timing and endocrine systems, with a focus on adrenal glucocorticoids and metabolic peptide hormones. We explore the potential role of hormones as systemic feedback signals to adjust clock function and their relevance for the maintenance of physiological and metabolic circadian homeostasis. PMID:27106109

  12. Non-Functional Adrenal Gland Ganglioneuroma Masquerading as Chronic Calculus Cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rashmi D; Vanikar, Aruna V; Trivedi, H L

    2015-09-01

    Adrenal ganglioneuromas in young adults are rare and ill-understood. We report an incidentally detected adrenal gland tumor diagnosed as ganglioneuroma (mature type) in 33 years old man who presented with vomiting and epigastric pain for 2 months. Histopathology examination revealed a well-encapsulated benign tumor of mature ganglion cells and Schwann-like cells arranged in fascicles, staining strongly with NSE and s-100 proteins, with adjacent unremarkable adrenal cortex and medulla. PMID:27608876

  13. Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…

  14. Changes of Pain Perception, Autonomic Function, and Endocrine Parameters during Treatment of Anorectic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Karl-Jurgen; Boettger, Silke; Wagner, Gerd; Wilsdorf, Christine; Gerhard, Uwe Jens; Boettger, Michael K.; Blanz, Bernhard; Sauer, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The underlying mechanisms of reduced pain perception in anorexia nervosa (AN) are unknown. To gain more insight into the pathology, the authors investigated pain perception, autonomic function, and endocrine parameters before and during successful treatment of adolescent AN patients. Method: Heat pain perception was assessed in 15…

  15. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  16. Ewes With Divergent Cortisol Responses to ACTH Exhibit Functional Differences in the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis.

    PubMed

    Hewagalamulage, Sakda D; Clarke, Iain J; Rao, Alexandra; Henry, Belinda A

    2016-09-01

    Within any population, the cortisol response to ACTH covers a considerable range. High responders (HRs) exhibit a greater cortisol secretory response to stress or ACTH, compared with individuals classified as low cortisol responders (LRs). We administered ACTH (0.2 μg/kg, iv) to 160 female sheep and selected subpopulations of animals as LR and HR. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in HR and LR and to identify factors that underlie the differing cortisol responses to ACTH. Hypothalami, pituitaries, and adrenals were collected from nonstressed HR and LR ewes. Expression of genes for CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptor, and mineralocorticoid receptor were measured by in situ hybridization in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression was measured in the anterior pituitary. Expression of CRH, AVP, and POMC was higher in HR, with no differences in either glucocorticoid receptor or mineralocorticoid receptor expression. Oxytocin expression was greater in LR. In the adrenal gland, real-time PCR analysis indicated that expression of the ACTH receptor and a range of steroidogenic enzymes was similar in HR and LR. Adrenal weights, the cortex to medulla ratio and adrenal cortisol content were also similar in LR and HR. In conclusion, LR and HR display innate differences in the steady-state expression of CRH, AVP, oxytocin, and POMC, indicating that selection for cortisol responsiveness identifies distinct subpopulations that exhibit innate differences in the gene expression/function of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis markers. PMID:27414744

  17. Spectrum of Adrenal Dysfunction in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Evaluation of Adrenal and Pituitary Reserve with ACTH and Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Testing.

    PubMed

    Freda, P U; Papadopoulos, A D; Wardlaw, S L; Goland, R S

    1997-07-01

    Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been reported to develop abnormalities of the endocrine system and in particular of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To define the abnormalities of HPA function in AIDS patients better, we performed ACTH and ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (oCRH) testing in a group of AIDS patients and oCRH testing in a group of healthy subjects. Our study found that in AIDS patients with normal ACTH testing, oCRH testing revealed a variety of subclinical abnormalities of ACTH and cortisol responses. Although we did not find frank adrenal insufficiency in any of these AIDS patients, it remains to be determined if any of the subclinical abnormalities we identified are predictive of clinically significant adrenal insufficiency; it may be that as AIDS patients live longer, the subclinical abnormalities will progress to adrenal insufficiency. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:173-180). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. PMID:18406803

  18. Therapeutic innovations in endocrine diseases - Part 2: Modified-release glucocorticoid compounds: What good do they provide to the adrenal insufficient patient?

    PubMed

    Reznik, Yves

    2016-06-01

    Intensive researches on modified-release hydrocortisone compounds developed in the last decade have paved the way for obtaining near-physiological glucocorticoid replacement in the adrenal insufficient patient. The dual-release Duocort (Plenadren) allows a unique morning intake and closely mimics the circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion, except for the progressive nocturnal increase and the morning cortisol peak observed in healthy subjects. Duocort treatment during a 6-month period was associated with favorable changes in weight, blood pressure and glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. Chronocort, a multiparticulate formulation with sustained-release properties replaces endogenous cortisol in a near-physiologic manner and fully restores the end of night cortisol peak. A twice-daily Chronocort regimen was effective in controlling androgen excess in adults with CAH. Recently, the new multiparticulate formulation Infacort was designed for the treatment of adrenal insufficiency during infancy. Long term effectiveness and safety studies are needed until these promising hydrocortisone formulations become routine therapeutic tools in adrenal insufficiency. PMID:27260966

  19. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.A.; Eroschenko, V.P.; Fox, G.A.; Fry, D.M.; Gorsline, J.

    1984-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  20. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Eroschenko, V.P.; Fox, G.A.; Fry, D.M.; Gorsline, J.

    1984-01-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  1. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  2. Functional reconstitution of prostaglandin E receptor from bovine adrenal medulla with guanine nucleotide binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Negishi, M.; Ito, S.; Yokohama, H.; Hayashi, H.; Katada, T.; Ui, M.; Hayaishi, O.

    1988-05-15

    Prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PEG/sub 2/) was found to bind specifically to a 100,000 x g pellet prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. The PGE receptor was associated with a GTP-binding protein (G-protein) and could be covalently cross-linked with this G-protein by dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) in the 100,000 x g pellet. In order to characterize the G-protein associated with the PGE receptor and reconstitute these proteins in phospholipid vesicles, the authors purified the G-protein to apparent homogeneity from the 100,000 x g pellet. The G-protein served as a substrate of pertussis toxin but differed in its ..cap alpha.. subunit from two known pertussis toxin substrate G-proteins (G/sub i/ and G/sub 0/) purified from bovine brain. The molecular weight of the ..cap alpha.. subunit was 40,000, which is between those of G/sub i/ and G/sub 0/. The purified protein was also distinguished immunologically from G/sub i/ and G/sub 0/ and was referred to as G/sub am/. Reconstitution of the PGE receptor with pure C/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G/sub 0/ in phospholipid vesicles resulted in a remarkable restoration of (/sup 3/H)PGE/sub 2/ binding activity in a GTP-dependent manner. The efficiency of these three G-proteins in this capacity was roughly equal. When pertussis toxin- or N-ethylmaleimide-treated G-proteins, instead of the native ones, were reconstituted into vesicles, the restoration of binding activity was no longer observed. These results indicate that the PGE receptor can couple functionally with G/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G/sub 0/ in phospholipid vesicles and suggest that G/sub am/ may be involved in signal transduction of the PGE receptor in bovine adrenal medulla.

  3. Percutaneous Ablation of Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Locklin, Julia; Dupuy, Damian E.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2010-01-01

    Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms, and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma and adrenal metastases. Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation, microwave ablation and chemical ablation. Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland’s unique anatomic and physiologic features. The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article. Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed. PMID:20540918

  4. Endocrine Dysregulation in Anorexia Nervosa Update

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder with serious endocrine consequences, including dysregulation of the gonadal, adrenal, and GH axes, and severe bone loss. This Update reviews recent advances in the understanding of the endocrine dysregulation observed in this state of chronic starvation, as well as the mechanisms underlying the disease itself. Evidence Acquisition: Findings of this update are based on a PubMed search and the author's knowledge of this field. Evidence Synthesis: Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying endocrine dysregulation in states of chronic starvation as well as the etiology of anorexia nervosa itself. This includes a more complex understanding of the pathophysiologic bases of hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, GH resistance, appetite regulation, and bone loss. Nevertheless, the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown, and effective therapies for the endocrine complications and for the disease itself are lacking. Conclusions: Despite significant progress in the field, further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of anorexia nervosa and its endocrine complications. Such investigations promise to yield important advances in the therapeutic approach to this disease as well as to the understanding of the regulation of endocrine function, skeletal biology, and appetite regulation. PMID:21976742

  5. Developmental plasticity in adrenal function and leptin production primed by nicotine exposure during lactation: gender differences in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Oliveira, E; Trevenzoli, I H; Manhães, A C; Santos-Silva, A P; Younes-Rapozo, V; Claudio-Neto, S; Santana, A C; Nascimento-Saba, C C A; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2011-09-01

    Neonate male rats whose mothers were nicotine-treated during lactation have higher adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and adrenal dysfunction. At adulthood, they still present higher adiposity and hyperleptinemia, but there was no report about their adrenal function. Also, there was no report of this developmental plasticity on females. Here, we evaluated the adrenal function and leptin content in adipocytes and muscle of male and female adult offspring whose mothers were nicotine-treated during lactation. On the 2nd postnatal day (PN2), dams were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic minipumps releasing nicotine (NIC-6 mg/kg/day) or saline for 14 days (12 litters/group and 2 rats/litter). Male and female offspring were killed on PN180. Significant data were p<0.05. Male NIC offspring presented higher adrenal catecholamine content (+ 89%) and TH expression (+ 38%), lower "in vitro" catecholamine release (- 19%), and higher adrenergic β3 receptor (ADRB3, + 59%) content in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Serum corticosterone was higher (+ 77%) in male NIC group, coherent with the increase of both CRH and ACTH immunostaining in hypothalamus and pituitary, respectively. Leptin content was higher in VAT (+ 23%), which may justify the observed hyperleptinemia. Female NIC offspring presented lower ADRB3 content in VAT (- 39%) and lower leptin content in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (- 46%), but higher leptin content in soleus muscle (+ 22%), although leptinemia was normal. We evidenced a sex dimorphism in the model of maternal nicotine exposure during lactation. The adrenal function in adult offspring was primed only in male offspring while the female offspring displayed relevant alterations in leptin content on muscle and adipocytes. PMID:21932173

  6. Functional and structural roles of residues in the third extramembrane segment of adrenal cytochrome b561.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; da Silva, Giordano F Z; Wu, Gang; Palmer, Graham; Tsai, Ah-Lim; Kulmacz, Richard J

    2011-04-19

    Several residues in the third extramembrane segment (EM3) of adrenal cytochrome b(561) have been proposed to be involved in this cytochrome's interaction with ascorbate, but there has been no systematic evaluation of residues in the segment. We used alanine scanning mutagenesis to assess the functional and structural roles of the EM3 residues and several adjacent residues (residues 70-85) in the bovine cytochrome. Each alanine mutant was expressed in a bacterial system, solubilized with detergent, and affinity-purified. The recombinant proteins contained approximately two hemes per monomer and, except for R74A, retained basic functionality (≥ 94% reduced by 20 mM ascorbate). Equilibrium spectrophotometric titrations with ascorbate were used to analyze the α-band line shape and amplitude during reduction of the high- and low-potential heme centers (b(H) and b(L), respectively) and the midpoint ascorbate concentrations for the b(H) and b(L) transitions (C(H) and C(L), respectively). Y73A and K85A markedly narrowed the b(H) α-band peak; other mutants had weaker effects or no effect on b(H) or b(L) spectra. Relative changes in C(H) for the mutants were larger than changes in C(L), with 1.5-2.9-fold increases in C(H) for L70A, L71A, Y73A, R74A, N78A, and K85A. The amounts of functional b(H) and b(L) centers in additional Arg74 mutants, assessed by ascorbate titration and EPR spectroscopy, declined in concert in the following order: wild type > R74K > R74Q > R74T and R74Y > R74E. The results of this first comprehensive experimental test of the proposed roles of EM3 residues have identified residues with a direct or indirect impact on ascorbate interactions, on the environment of the b(H) heme center, and on formation of the native b(H)-b(L) unit. Surprisingly, no individual EM3 residue was by itself indispensable for the interaction with ascorbate, and the role of the segment appears to be more subtle than previously thought. These results also support our

  7. A case of androgen-secreting adrenal carcinoma with non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Varma, Tarun; Panchani, Roopal; Goyal, Ashutosh; Maskey, Robin

    2013-10-01

    Androgen excess is one of the most common and disturbing endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women, affecting approximately 7% of this population Androgen excess results in the development of androgenic features in the women affected, with the development of hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, ovulatory dysfunction, and, if extreme, even virilization and masculinization. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy accounting for 0.02% of all annual cancers reported. About 60% are functional tumors secreting hormones, with its consequent clinical manifestations, the Cushing's syndrome due to cortisone, virilization due to androgens, feminization due to estrogens, or hypertension due to aldosterone. Adrenal tumors that secrete androgens exclusively are extremely rare. Here, we present a rare case of androgen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma with non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:24251173

  8. A Prospective Multicenter Study of Adrenal Function in Critically Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Kusum; Ward, Roxanne E.; Lawson, Margaret L.; Gaboury, Isabelle; Hutchison, James S.; Hébert, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Adrenal insufficiency is a clinical condition associated with fluid- and catecholamine-resistant hypotension. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of adrenal insufficiency, risk factors and potential mechanisms for its development, and its association with clinically important outcomes in critically ill children. Methods A prospective, cohort study was conducted from 2005 to 2008 in seven tertiary-care, pediatric intensive care units in Canada on patients up to 17 years of age with existing vascular access. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests (1 μg) were performed and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels measured in all participants. Measurements and Main Results A total of 381 patients had adrenal testing on admission. The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency was 30.2% (95% confidence interval, 25.9–35.1). Patients with adrenal insufficiency had higher baseline cortisol levels (28.6 μg/dl vs. 16.7 μg/dl, P < 0.001) and were significantly older (11.5 yr vs. 2.3 yr, P < 0.001) than those without adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency was associated with an increased need for catecholamines (P <0.001) and more fluid boluses (P = 0.026). The sensitivity and specificity of the low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test were 100% and 84%, respectively. Conclusions Adrenal insufficiency occurs in many disease conditions in critically ill children and is associated with an increased use of catecholamines and fluid boluses. It is likely multifactorial in etiology and is associated with high baseline cortisol levels. Further research is necessary to determine which of these critically ill children are truly cortisol deficient before any treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:20299532

  9. Indices of adrenal deficiency involved in brain plasticity and functional control reorganization in hemodialysis patients with polysulfone membrane: BOLD-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Belaïch, Rachida; Boujraf, Saïd; Benzagmout, Mohammed; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Housni, Abdelkhalek; Batta, Fatima; Tizniti, Siham; Magoul, Rabia; Sqalli, Tarik

    2016-06-01

    This work purpose was to estimate the implication of suspected adrenal function deficiencies, which was influenced by oxidative stress (OS) that are generating brain plasticity, and reorganization of the functional control. This phenomenon was revealed in two-hemodialysis patients described in this paper. Blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) revealed a significant activation of the motor cortex. Hemodialysis seems to originate an inflammatory state of the cerebral tissue reflected by increased OS, while expected to decrease since hemodialysis eliminates free radicals responsible for OS. Considering adrenal function deficiencies, sensitivity to OS and assessed hyponatremia and hypercalcemia, adrenal function deficiencies is strongly suspected in both patients. This probably contributes to amplify brain plasticity and a reorganization of functional control after hemodialysis that is compared to earlier reported studies. Brain plasticity and functional control reorganization was revealed by BOLD-fMRI with a remarkable sensitivity. Brain plastic changes are originated by elevated OS associating indices of adrenal function deficiencies. These results raise important issues about adrenal functional deficiencies impact on brain plasticity in chronic hemodialysis-patients. This motivates more global studies of plasticity induced factors in this category of patients including adrenal functional deficiencies and OS. PMID:27301905

  10. Comparative endocrinology of testicular, adrenal and thyroid function in captive Asian and African elephant bulls.

    PubMed

    Brown, Janine L; Somerville, Malia; Riddle, Heidi S; Keele, Mike; Duer, Connie K; Freeman, Elizabeth W

    2007-04-01

    Concentrations of serum testosterone, cortisol, thyroxine (free and total T4), triiodothyronine (free and total T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured to assess adrenal and thyroid function as they relate to testicular activity and musth in captive elephants. Blood samples were collected approximately weekly from Asian (n=8) and African (n=12) bulls at seven facilities for periods of 4 months to 9.5 years. Age ranges at study onset were 8-50 years for Asian and 10-21 years for African elephants. Based on keeper logs, seven Asian and three African bulls exhibited behavioral and/or physical (temporal gland secretion, TGS, or urine dribbling, UD) signs of musth, which lasted 2.8+/-2.5 months in duration. Serum testosterone was elevated during musth, with concentrations often exceeding 100 ng/ml. Patterns of testosterone secretion and musth varied among bulls with no evidence of seasonality (P>0.05). Only three bulls at one facility exhibited classic, well-defined yearly musth cycles. Others exhibited more irregular cycles, with musth symptoms often occurring more than once a year. A number of bulls (1 Asian, 9 African) had consistently low testosterone (<10 ng/ml) and never exhibited significant TGS or UD. At facilities with multiple bulls (n=3), testosterone concentrations were highest in the oldest, most dominant male. There were positive correlations between testosterone and cortisol for six of seven Asian and all three African males that exhibited musth (range, r=0.23-0.52; P<0.05), but no significant correlations for bulls that did not (P>0.05). For the three bulls that exhibited yearly musth cycles, TSH was positively correlated (range, r=0.22-0.28; P<0.05) and thyroid hormones (T3, T4) were negatively correlated (range, r=-0.25 to -0.47; P<0.05) to testosterone secretion. In the remaining bulls, there were no clear relationships between thyroid activity and musth status. Overall mean testosterone and cortisol concentrations increased with age

  11. Stress sensitivity in metastatic breast cancer: analysis of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Giese-Davis, Janine; Taylor, C Barr; Kraemer, Helena

    2006-11-01

    The normal diurnal cortisol cycle has a peak in the morning, decreasing rapidly over the day, with low levels during the night, then rising rapidly again to the morning peak. A pattern of flatter daytime slopes has been associated with more rapid cancer progression in both animals and humans. We studied the relationship between the daytime slopes and other daytime cortisol responses to both pharmacological and psychosocial challenges of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function as well as DHEA in a sample of 99 women with metastatic breast cancer, in hopes of elucidating the dysregulatory process. We found that the different components of HPA regulation: the daytime cortisol slope, the rise in cortisol from waking to 30 min later, and cortisol response to various challenges, including dexamethasone (DEX) suppression, corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) activation, and the Trier Social Stress Task, were at best modestly associated. Escape from suppression stimulated by 1mg of DEX administered the night before was moderately but significantly associated with flatter daytime cortisol slopes (r=0.28 to .30 at different times of the post DEX administration day, all p<.01). Daytime cortisol slopes were also moderately but significant associated with the rise in cortisol from waking to 30 min after awakening (r=.29, p=.004, N=96), but not with waking cortisol level (r=-0.13, p=.19). However, we could not detect any association between daytime cortisol slope and activation of cortisol secretion by either CRF infusion or the Trier Social Stress Task. The CRF activation test (following 1.5mg of DEX to assure that the effect was due to exogenous CRF) produced ACTH levels that were correlated (r=0.66, p<.0001, N=74) with serum cortisol levels, indicating adrenal responsiveness to ACTH stimulation. Daytime cortisol slopes were significantly correlated with the slope of DHEA (r=.21, p=.04, N=95). Our general findings suggest that flatter daytime cortisol slopes among

  12. Sleep and the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. PMID:26972038

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHINYLESTRADIOL-MEDIATED CHANGES IN ENDOCRINE FUNCTION AND REPRODUCTION IMPAIRMENT IN JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many biochemical endpoints currently are used to describe endocrine function in fish; however, the sensitivity of these parameters as biomarkers of impaired reproduction or sexual development is not well understood. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) we...

  14. The endocrine function of human placenta: an overview.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mariana A

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy, several tightly coordinated and regulated processes take place to enable proper fetal development and gestational success. The formation and development of the placenta is one of these critical pregnancy events. This organ plays essential roles during gestation, including fetal nourishment, support and protection, gas exchange and production of several hormones and other mediators. Placental hormones are mainly secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast, in a highly and tightly regulated way. These hormones are important for pregnancy establishment and maintenance, exerting autocrine and paracrine effects that regulate decidualization, placental development, angiogenesis, endometrial receptivity, embryo implantation, immunotolerance and fetal development. In addition, because they are released into maternal circulation, the profile of their blood levels throughout pregnancy has been the target of intense research towards finding potential robust and reliable biomarkers to predict and diagnose pregnancy-associated complications. In fact, altered levels of these hormones have been associated with some pathologies, such as chromosomal anomalies or pre-eclampsia. This review proposes to revise and update the main pregnancy-related hormones, addressing their major characteristics, molecular targets, function throughout pregnancy, regulators of their expression and their potential clinical interest. PMID:26615903

  15. Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function associated with captivity in Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii).

    PubMed

    Romero, L M; Wingfield, J C

    1999-01-01

    Gambel's white-crowned sparrows were captured and brought into captivity in order to study seasonal changes in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in captive birds. 30 min of restraint elicited a rise in corticosterone titers that varied depending upon the season and physiological state of the birds. Restraint elevated corticosterone titers significantly more during the fall (within 2 weeks of capture from the wild) than during either the winter or during a prealternate or prebasic molt. We also examined what changes in the HPA axis could account for altered corticosterone levels. Exogenous ACTH significantly elevated corticosterone levels beyond the response to restraint during the fall, indicating a dramatic enhancement of the adrenal's ability to secrete corticosterone. Exogenous ACTH was ineffective at other times, suggesting that the adrenal's ability to release corticosterone often limits circulating levels. We further inferred the pituitary's ACTH secretory ability by injecting exogenous corticotrophin-releasing factor, arginine vasotocin, and mesotocin and measuring corticosterone release. Pituitaries failed to respond to any exogenous releasing factor during the fall, suggesting that the pituitary may be the site in the HPA axis regulating corticosterone release at this time. When compared to wild-caught birds, these results suggest that captivity alters both adrenal and pituitary function during restraint in white-crowned sparrows, and that this change depends upon the season and/or physiological state of the animal. Captivity thus appears to have a profound affect on the function of the HPA axis, and these results reiterate the caution that must be used to extrapolate laboratory data to field conditions. PMID:10327590

  16. [Hypotension from endocrine origin].

    PubMed

    Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Douillard, Claire; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie

    2012-11-01

    Hypotension is defined by a low blood pressure either permanently or only in upright posture (orthostatic hypotension). In contrast to hypertension, there is no threshold defining hypotension. The occurrence of symptoms for systolic and diastolic measurements respectively below 90 and 60 mm Hg establishes the diagnosis. Every acute hypotensive event should suggest shock, adrenal failure or an iatrogenic cause. Chronic hypotension from endocrine origin may be linked to adrenal failure from adrenal or central origin, isolated hypoaldosteronism, pseudohypoaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, neuro-endocrine tumors (carcinoïd syndrome) or diabetic dysautonomia. Hypotension related to hypoaldosteronism associates low blood sodium and above all high blood potassium levels. They are generally classified according to their primary (hyperreninism) or secondary (hyporeninism) adrenal origin. Isolated primary hypoaldosteronisms are rare in adults (intensive care unit, selective injury of the glomerulosa area) and in children (aldosterone synthase deficiency). Isolated secondary hypoaldosteronism is related to mellitus diabetes complicated with dysautonomia, kidney failure, age, iatrogenic factors, and HIV infections. In both cases, they can be associated to glucocorticoid insufficiency from primary adrenal origin (adrenal failure of various origins with hyperreninism, among which congenital 21 hydroxylase deficiency with salt loss) or from central origin (hypopituitarism with hypo-reninism). Pseudohypoaldosteronisms are linked to congenital (type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism) or acquired states of resistance to aldosterone. Acquired salt losses from enteric (total colectomy with ileostomy) or renal (interstitial nephropathy, Bartter and Gitelman syndromes…) origin might be responsible for hypotension and are associated with hyperreninism-hyperaldosteronism. Hypotension is a rare manifestation of pheochromocytomas, especially during surgical removal when the patient has not been

  17. New Roles of Carboxypeptidase E in Endocrine and Neural Function and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Niamh X.; Wetsel, William C.; Murthy, Saravana R. K.; Park, Joshua J.; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) or carboxypeptidase H was first discovered in 1982 as an enkephalin-convertase that cleaved a C-terminal basic residue from enkephalin precursors to generate enkephalin. Since then, CPE has been shown to be a multifunctional protein that subserves many essential nonenzymatic roles in the endocrine and nervous systems. Here, we review the phylogeny, structure, and function of CPE in hormone and neuropeptide sorting and vesicle transport for secretion, alternative splicing of the CPE transcript, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in humans. With this and the analysis of mutant and knockout mice, the data collectively support important roles for CPE in the modulation of metabolic and glucose homeostasis, bone remodeling, obesity, fertility, neuroprotection, stress, sexual behavior, mood and emotional responses, learning, and memory. Recently, a splice variant form of CPE has been found to be an inducer of tumor growth and metastasis and a prognostic biomarker for metastasis in endocrine and nonendocrine tumors. PMID:22402194

  18. Testicular endocrine function, seasonality and semen quality of the stallion.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, B; Landeck, A

    1999-10-31

    To gain further information on gonadal function of the stallion, concentrations of testicular steroids in blood plasma (bpl) and seminal plasma (spl) and their distribution in the ejaculate were determined. Blood and semen samples from a total of 11 stallions were collected from November to July. Estrone (E1), estrone sulfate (E1S), estradiol-17beta (E2beta) and testosterone (T) were determined in bpl and spl, and in addition androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT) were measured in spl. At certain points of time, aliquots of an ejaculate were centrifuged, washed and the distribution of E1, E1S, E2beta and T into seminal plasma and the sperm fraction was assessed. Hormone assay was by RIA, partly after prior separation by HPLC. Mean concentrations (X(g) x DF) were as follows: E2beta (bpl) 31.1 (1.16), (spl) 24.2 (1.42) pg ml(-1); E1 (bpl) 143.3 (1.21), (spl) 117.7 (1.53) pg ml(-1); E1S (bpl) 157.3 (1.44), (spl) 2.92 (1.42) ng ml(-1); T (bpl) 570.6 (1.43), (spl) 23.1 (1.68) pg ml(-1); A (spl) 17.9 (1.39) pg ml(-1); DHEH (spl) 12.4 (1.51) pg ml(-1); 5alpha-DHT (spl) 9.7 (1.29) pg ml(-1). Except for E2beta and A in seminal plasma, a seasonal pattern was established for all other steroids with lowest mean values occurring from November to April. From the semen parameters determined, only motility was correlated to season. There was a higher correlation among oestrogen in blp than in spl and the only correlation identified between oestrogenic and androgenic steroids was between T and E2beta in blp. In spl, T was correlated with A and 5alpha-DHT. T was the dominant free steroid in bpl while it was E1 in spl; T and E1S concentrations were about 23- and 54-fold lower in spl compared to bpl with E1S, however, showing the highest absolute values in both fluids. In the fractionated ejaculate an association of free oestrogens, particularly E2beta, with spermatozoa was observed. PMID:10565441

  19. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  20. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Overview What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia? Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or CAH, is a disorder that affects the adrenal glands. The adrenal ...

  1. Delayed Diagnosis of Graves' Thyrotoxicoisis Presenting as Recurrent Adrenal Crisis in Primary Adrenal Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Naik, Dukhabandhu; Jebasingh, K Felix; Thomas, Nihal

    2016-04-01

    Adrenal crisis is a potential life threatening complication. The common causes of adrenal crisis are infections, surgical stress and abrupt cessation of steroid medications. Endocrine causes like Graves' disease with thyrotoxicosis is one of the less common causes of an adrenal crisis. We report a 42-year-old female who presented with recurrent episodes of adrenal crisis due to delayed diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. She was initially treated with Carbimazole followed by Radio-iodine ablation and currently she is euthyroid. Her adrenal insufficiency was initially treated with hydrocortisone during the time of adrenal crisis followed by Prednisolone 5 mg once daily in the morning along with fludrocortisone 50 mcg once daily. This case highlights the need for high index of suspicion and less common causes like thyrotoxicosis should be ruled out in patients with adrenal crisis. PMID:27190873

  2. Delayed Diagnosis of Graves’ Thyrotoxicoisis Presenting as Recurrent Adrenal Crisis in Primary Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Dukhabandhu; Jebasingh, K Felix

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal crisis is a potential life threatening complication. The common causes of adrenal crisis are infections, surgical stress and abrupt cessation of steroid medications. Endocrine causes like Graves’ disease with thyrotoxicosis is one of the less common causes of an adrenal crisis. We report a 42-year-old female who presented with recurrent episodes of adrenal crisis due to delayed diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. She was initially treated with Carbimazole followed by Radio-iodine ablation and currently she is euthyroid. Her adrenal insufficiency was initially treated with hydrocortisone during the time of adrenal crisis followed by Prednisolone 5 mg once daily in the morning along with fludrocortisone 50 mcg once daily. This case highlights the need for high index of suspicion and less common causes like thyrotoxicosis should be ruled out in patients with adrenal crisis. PMID:27190873

  3. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring of ovarian and adrenal activity in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) females during pregnancy, parturition and early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Galeano, María G; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Gilman, Christine; Ponzio, Marina F

    2015-03-01

    The chinchilla is a rodent that bears one of the finest and most valuable pelts in the world. The wild counterpart is, however, almost extinct because of a drastic past and ongoing population decline. The present work was developed to increase our knowledge of the reproductive physiology of pregnancy and post-partum estrus in the chinchilla, characterizing the endocrine patterns of urinary progesterone, estradiol, LH and cortisol metabolites throughout gestation and post-partum estrus and estimating the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus. Longitudinal urine samples were collected once per week throughout pregnancy and analyzed for creatinine, cortisol, LH, estrogen and progesterone metabolite concentrations. To indirectly determine the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus, a second experiment was performed using pregnant females subjected to a post-partum in vivo fertilization scheme. Urinary progestagen metabolites increased above baseline levels in early pregnancy between weeks-8 and -11 respectively to parturition, and slightly declined at parturition time. Urinary estrogens showed rising levels throughout mid- and late pregnancy (weeks-9 to -6 and a further increase at week-5 to parturition) and decreased in a stepwise manner after parturition, returning to baseline levels two weeks thereafter. Cortisol metabolite levels were relatively constant throughout pregnancy with a tendency for higher levels in the last third of gestation and after the pups' birth. Parturition was associated with dramatic reductions in urinary concentrations of sex steroids (especially progestagens). Observations in breeding farms indicated that the females that resulted in a second pregnancy after mating, did so on the second day after parturition. These data were in agreement with an LH peak detected 24h after parturition. Urinary steroid hormone patterns of estrogen and progestagen metabolites provided valuable information on endocrine events during pregnancy and after

  4. Positive iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) adrenal images can precede return of adrenocortical function after o,p' DDD treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sparagana, M.; Ackerman, L.

    1988-05-01

    A patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, due to the ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) syndrome, received a 3-month course of treatment with 1,1 dichloro-2(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p' DDD), which caused adrenal hypofunction requiring steroid therapy. Eleven months later, Cushing's syndrome recurred. His CT scan showed a left adrenal gland that was enlarged and a normal-sized right adrenal gland. However, the NP-59 image showed increased uptake by both glands. Venous effluent was sampled from each adrenal vein. The plasma cortisol level from the left gland was 1392 ng/ml, and that from the right gland was 667 ng/ml. The latter value was not significantly different from the values obtained at peripheral sites (517-744 ng/ml). In the course of recovery from o,p' DDD damage, the ability of the adrenal gland to take up NP-59 may be restored before the return of its biosynthetic and secretory functions. Serial NP-59 adrenal images can anticipate the recurrence of Cushing's syndrome after adrenolytic therapy, thereby permitting early retreatment.

  5. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECT OF EARLY LIFE TRAUMA ON HYPOTHALAMIC–PITUITARY–ADRENAL AXIS FUNCTIONING

    PubMed Central

    DeSantis, Stacia M.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Back, Sudie E.; Spratt, Eve; Ciolino, Jody D.; Maria, Megan Moran-Santa; Dipankar, Bandyopadhyay; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine the modifying effect of gender on the association between early life trauma and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis response to a pharmacologic challenge and a social stress task in men and women. Participants (16 men, 23 women) were the control sample of a larger study examining HPA axis function. Individuals with major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, or psychotic or eating disorders were excluded. Methods In two test sessions, subjects received 1 μg/kg of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) intravenously and participated in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Primary outcomes included plasma cortisol and corticotropin levels measured at baseline and more than five time points following the challenges. Predictors included gender and early life trauma, as measured by the Early Trauma Index. Using factor analysis, the domains general trauma, severe trauma, and the effects of trauma were established. Using regression, these constructs were used to predict differential HPA reactivity in men and women following the challenges. Results The three factors accounted for the majority of the variance in the ETI. Following the CRH challenge, women had higher overall corticotropin response as dictated by the area under the curve analysis. There were no significant associations between trauma and neuroendocrine response to the TSST. Conclusions CRH challenge results indicate that gender differences in the impact of early trauma may help explain the differential gender susceptibility to psychopathology following adverse childhood events. This may help explain gender differences in some stress-sensitive psychiatric disorders. PMID:21328636

  6. Chronic ethanol consumption depresses hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in aged rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, C.J.; Bestervelt, L.L.; Mousigian, C.A.; Maimansomsuk, P.; Yong Cai; Piper, W.N. )

    1991-01-01

    In separate experiments, nine (n=20) and fifteen (n=12) month old rats were treated with either 6% ethanol or 12% sucrose in the drinking water to examine the effect of chronic ethanol consumption on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of aged rats. Blood was collected and plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. Adrenal glands were cleaned, quartered and used to test in vitro responsiveness to ACTH. Anterior pituitary glands from all 15 month old rats and one half of the nine month old rats were collected, frozen and extracted for measurement of tissue ACTH concentration. The remaining anterior pituitary glands from the nine month old rats were challenged with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) to test in vitro responsiveness. In nine month old rats, chronic ethanol consumption decreased plasma ACTH and corticosterone. Pituitary ACTH concentrations were unchanged in treated nine month old rats, but the amount of pituitary ACTH released in response to CRH was decreased in rats consuming ethanol. In vitro responsiveness of the adrenal gland to ACTH in nine month old rats consuming ethanol was unchanged. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations were also decreased in 15 month old rats chronically consuming ethanol. No differences were noted in responsiveness of the adrenal gland or in the amount of pituitary ACTH due to ethanol consumptions in 15 month old rats.

  7. Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis Functioning in Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) reactivity and proactive and reactive aggression in pre-pubertal children. After a 30-min controlled base line period, 73 7-year-old children (40 males and 33 females) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental tasks designed to…

  8. Functional test of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of sows housed in various environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the behavioral state of sows housed in various housing systems, and determine if the regulation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis had been altered. In Experiment 1, 33 sows were housed in either gestation stalls, group housed with no bedding, or ...

  9. Adolescent Survivors of Hurricane Katrina: A Pilot Study of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; Nitiéma, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis constitutes an important biological component of the stress response commonly studied through the measurement of cortisol. Limited research has examined HPA axis dysregulation in youth exposed to disasters. Objective: This study examined HPA axis activation in adolescent Hurricane Katrina…

  10. Efficacy of single serum cortisol reading obtained between 9 AM and 10 AM as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Goto, Masahiro; Shibata, Nao; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2016-07-01

    To find a simple method to screen for iatrogenic childhood adrenal insufficiency, we retrospectively examined the results of CRH stimulation tests performed 212 times on 111 subjects (68 males; age at commencement of initial treatment ranged 0.0-19.8 yr; median age, 5.8 yr). Before the commencement of this study, 97 subjects had been treated with glucocorticoids and 14 subjects with West syndrome had been treated with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone. Duration of the primary treatment ranged from 15 to 2150 days. CRH stimulation tests were conducted between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM and peak cortisol values less than 15 µg/dL were considered indicative of adrenal insufficiency. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the optimal basal serum cortisol cut-off values when screening for adrenal suppression ranged from 5.35 to 5.80 µg/dL depending on the primary disease. All subjects having a serum cortisol value of less than 2.3 µg/dL had insufficient adrenal function while all subjects having greater than 11 µg/dL had intact adrenal function. We concluded that single serum cortisol values obtained between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM had the potential to serve as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone. PMID:27507908

  11. Efficacy of single serum cortisol reading obtained between 9 AM and 10 AM as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Masahiro; Shibata, Nao; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. To find a simple method to screen for iatrogenic childhood adrenal insufficiency, we retrospectively examined the results of CRH stimulation tests performed 212 times on 111 subjects (68 males; age at commencement of initial treatment ranged 0.0–19.8 yr; median age, 5.8 yr). Before the commencement of this study, 97 subjects had been treated with glucocorticoids and 14 subjects with West syndrome had been treated with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone. Duration of the primary treatment ranged from 15 to 2150 days. CRH stimulation tests were conducted between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM and peak cortisol values less than 15 µg/dL were considered indicative of adrenal insufficiency. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the optimal basal serum cortisol cut-off values when screening for adrenal suppression ranged from 5.35 to 5.80 µg/dL depending on the primary disease. All subjects having a serum cortisol value of less than 2.3 µg/dL had insufficient adrenal function while all subjects having greater than 11 µg/dL had intact adrenal function. We concluded that single serum cortisol values obtained between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM had the potential to serve as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone. PMID:27507908

  12. Cellular expression of Noc2, a Rab effector protein, in endocrine and exocrine tissues in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Teramae, Hiroki; Fujimoto, Wakako; Seino, Susumu; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2007-01-01

    Noc2 is a Rab effector which participates in regulated exocytosis. It is expressed abundantly in endocrine cells but at low levels in exocrine tissues. Noc2-deficient mice, however, exhibit marked accumulation of secretory granules in exocrine cells rather than endocrine cells. In the present study, we investigated localization of Noc2 immunohistochemically in various endocrine and exocrine tissues in normal mice. Western blotting detected a Noc2-immunoreactive band of 38 kDa in isolated pancreatic islets, the adrenal gland, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland. Immunostaining for Noc2 labeled endocrine cells in the adrenal medulla and adenohypophysis, pancreatic islet cells, thyroid parafollicular cells, and gut endocrine cells, supporting the notion that Noc2 is a Rab effector protein shared by amine/peptide-secreting endocrine cells. Besides endocrine tissues, granular ducts in salivary glands contained Noc2. Although immunostaining failed to detect Noc2 in acinar cells of all exocrine glands examined, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis detected the mRNA expression in exocrine pancreas. Ultrastructurally, Noc2 immunoreactivity was associated with the limiting membrane of granules in both pancreatic endocrine and salivary duct exocrine cells. The cellular and subcellular localizations of Noc2 should yield key information on its functional significance as well as account for the phenotype in Noc2-deficient mice. PMID:16835753

  13. Gonadal steroid hormones and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Handa, Robert J; Weiser, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents a complex neuroendocrine feedback loop controlling the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Central to its function is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) where neurons expressing corticotropin releasing factor reside. These HPA motor neurons are a primary site of integration leading to graded endocrine responses to physical and psychological stressors. An important regulatory factor that must be considered, prior to generating an appropriate response is the animal's reproductive status. Thus, PVN neurons express androgen and estrogen receptors and receive input from sites that also express these receptors. Consequently, changes in reproduction and gonadal steroid levels modulate the stress response and this underlies sex differences in HPA axis function. This review examines the make up of the HPA axis and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the interactions between the two that should be considered when exploring normal and pathological responses to environmental stressors. PMID:24246855

  14. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES AND EFFECTS ON SEXUAL MATURATION AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE RAT. A FOCUS ON THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTER SCREENING AND TESTING ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid function in the male rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations. Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Committee.

    Stoker TE, Parks LG, Gray LE, Cooper RL.

  15. Ectopic and abnormal hormone receptors in adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, A; Ndiaye, N; Tremblay, J; Hamet, P

    2001-02-01

    The mechanism by which cortisol is produced in adrenal Cushing's syndrome, when ACTH is suppressed, was previously unknown and was referred to as being "autonomous." More recently, several investigators have shown that some cortisol and other steroid-producing adrenal tumors or hyperplasias are under the control of ectopic (or aberrant, illicit, inappropriate) membrane hormone receptors. These include ectopic receptors for gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), beta-adrenergic agonists, or LH/hCG; a similar outcome can result from altered activity of eutopic receptors, such as those for vasopressin (V1-AVPR), serotonin (5-HT4), or possibly leptin. The presence of aberrant receptors places adrenal cells under stimulation by a trophic factor not negatively regulated by glucocorticoids, leading to increased steroidogenesis and possibly to the proliferative phenotype. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the abnormal expression and function of membrane hormone receptors are still largely unknown. Identification of the presence of these illicit receptors can eventually lead to new pharmacological therapies as alternatives to adrenalectomy, now demonstrated by the long-term control of ectopic P-AR- and LH/hCGR-dependent Cushing's syndrome by propanolol and leuprolide acetate. Further studies will potentially identify a larger diversity of hormone receptors capable of coupling to G proteins, adenylyl cyclase, and steroidogenesis in functional adrenal tumors and probably in other endocrine and nonendocrine tumors. PMID:11159817

  16. Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands.

  17. Adrenal myelolipoma.

    PubMed

    Cyran, K M; Kenney, P J; Memel, D S; Yacoub, I

    1996-02-01

    In 1905, Gierke [1] first described the occurrence of a tumor in the adrenal composed of mature fat and mixed myeloid and erythroid cells, subsequently termed "formations myelolipomatoses" by Oberling [2] in 1929. PMID:8553954

  18. Significance of Ovarian Function Suppression in Endocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer in Pre-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Scharl, A.; Salterberg, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian function suppression (OFS) for treating breast cancer in pre-menopausal women was introduced for the first time in the late 19th century as bilateral oophorectomy. It was not until the 1960s that the oestrogen receptor was identified and a test for detecting endocrine sensitivity of the breast cancer was developed. A weakness of early trials on OFS for breast cancer treatment is therefore their failure to take receptor sensitivity into account when selecting participants. A meta-analysis performed in the early 1990s first proved that adjuvant OFS significantly improved the cure rate of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in pre-menopausal women regardless of whether it was carried out through oophorectomy, radiation-induced ablation or drug therapy. In the 1970s, tamoxifen was synthesized. It became one of the most important cancer drugs and today constitutes the gold standard for endocrine adjuvant therapy. Taking tamoxifen for a five-year period lowers mortality by 30 % over 15 years. Ten years of tamoxifen therapy reduces mortality even further, with increased side effects, however. Research over the past ten years has proven that for post-menopausal women, aromatase inhibitors have benefits over tamoxifen. Current trial results have rekindled the debate about the combination of OFS with tamoxifen or with aromatase inhibitors for adjuvant breast cancer treatment of pre-menopausal women. These trials have reported an improvement in disease-free survival in patients with a high risk of recurrence when they are treated with a combination of OFS plus tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, especially in women younger than 35. However, combination therapy causes significantly more side effects, which could negatively impact compliance. Endocrine treatments administered over a period of many years show waning compliance, which tends to be only around 50 % after five years. Inadequate compliance compromises efficacy and increases the risk of mortality. For

  19. Circadian, endocrine, and metabolic effects of prolonged bedrest: Two 56-day bedrest studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Winget, C. M.; Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1974-01-01

    Two bedrest studies of 56 days each have been conducted to evaluate the effects of prolonged bedrest on circadian synchrony and endocrine and metabolic function. Measurements included the pituitary-adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, insulin-glucose-growth hormones, catecholamine excretion, body temperature, and heart rate. The results indicated that a rigorous regimen of exercise did not prevent the endocrine and metabolic effects of prolonged bedrest. Changes in circadian, endocrine, and metabolic functions in bedrest appear to be due to changes in hydrostatic pressure and lack of postural cues rather than to inactivity, confinement, or the bleeding schedule. Prolonged bedrest, particularly beyond 24 days, resulted in rhythm desynchronization in spite of well regulated light/dark cycles, temperature, humidity, activity, and meal times and meal composition and in increased lability of all endocrine parameter measured. It also resulted in an apparent insensitivity of the glucose response to insulin, of cortisol secretion to ACTH, and of growth hormone secretion to hypoglycemia.

  20. The gastrin-releasing peptide analog bombesin preserves exocrine and endocrine pancreas morphology and function during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph F; Neuman, Joshua C; Brill, Allison L; Brar, Harpreet K; Thompson, Mary F; Cadena, Mark T; Connors, Kelsey M; Busch, Rebecca A; Heneghan, Aaron F; Cham, Candace M; Jones, Elaina K; Kibbe, Carly R; Davis, Dawn B; Groblewski, Guy E; Kudsk, Kenneth A; Kimple, Michelle E

    2015-09-15

    Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression. BBS itself had no effect on islet function, as reflected in low expression of BBS receptors in islet samples. Intestinal BBS receptor expression was enhanced in PN with BBS, and circulating active GLP-1 levels were significantly enhanced in BBS-treated PN mice. We hypothesized that BBS preserved islet function indirectly, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. We confirmed the ability of BBS to directly stimulate intestinal enteroid cells to express the GLP-1 precursor preproglucagon. In conclusion, BBS preserves the exocrine and endocrine pancreas functions during PN; however, the endocrine stimulation is likely indirect, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. PMID:26185331

  1. Long-term effects of treatment on endocrine function in children with brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Duffner, P.K.; Cohen, M.E.; Anderson, S.W.; Voorhess, M.L.; MacGillivray, M.H.; Panahon, A.; Brecher, M.L.

    1983-11-01

    Fourteen children with brain tumors received endocrine evaluations at least one year following completion of cranial irradiation. Treatment consisted of operation (13 patients), craniospinal irradiation (6), whole brain irradiation (5), posterior fossa irradiation (3), and chemotherapy (10). Endocrine evaluation included bone age roentgenography and measurement of growth hormone (using sequential arginine and insulin stimulation), thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, plasma cortisol, testosterone, prolactin, and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Ten of 12 children (83%) had abnormal responses to both tests of growth hormone stimulation. All growth hormone-deficient patients treated prior to puberty and tested at least 2 years following completion of cranial irradiation had decelerated linear growth. Results of thyroid function tests were abnormal in 4 patients: 2 patients had evidence of primary hypothyroidism, and 2 showed secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism. Two patients had inadequate cortisol responses to insulin hypoglycemia. Urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, serum prolactin, and serum testosterone levels were appropriate for age in all patients.

  2. What Are the Treatments for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Treatments for CAH ... pepubs/cah.pdf (PDF - 751 KB) [top] Screening, Technology and Research in Genetics ... Endocrine Society. (2010). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to steroid 21- ...

  3. Endocrine function after immunosuppression of pancreatic allograft by ionizing irradiation in the primate

    SciTech Connect

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Louw, G.; Zuurmond, T.; Laker, L.; Els, D.; Weideman, A.; Wolfe-Coote, S.; Du Toit, L.B.

    1986-05-01

    The object of this preliminary study was to evaluate the endocrine function after heterotopic intraperitoneal segmental pancreatic allotransplantation with unligated duct in irradiated, totally pancreatectomized primates. All allograft recipients received, pre- and peroperative donor-specific blood transfusions and peroperative external irradiation from a linear accelerator; 200 rads was administered weekly and increased to a total dose of 1,500 rads. Pancreatic transplantation was performed between 2 and 6 weeks after completion of irradiation and preoperative blood transfusions. As previously reported, only minimal pancreatic allograft survival was achieved following preoperative irradiation. One recipient remained normoglycaemic for greater than 100 days after transplantation, the longest surviving pancreatic allograft recipient reported from this laboratory. Intravenous glucose tolerance test results in this recipient revealed normoglycaemia, reduced K-value, hypoinsulinaemia, normal glucagon response, reduced C-peptide values, and moderate glucose intolerance. Aortography and electron-microscopic examination of allograft biopsy tissue confirmed the presence of a functioning allograft.

  4. Update of Endocrine Dysfunction following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Reifschneider, Kent; Auble, Bethany A.; Rose, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are common occurrences in childhood, often resulting in long term, life altering consequences. Research into endocrine sequelae following injury has gained attention; however, there are few studies in children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology and current literature documenting risk for endocrine dysfunction in children suffering from TBI. Primary injury following TBI often results in disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and antidiuretic hormone production and release, with implications for both acute management and survival. Secondary injuries, occurring hours to weeks after TBI, result in both temporary and permanent alterations in pituitary function. At five years after moderate to severe TBI, nearly 30% of children suffer from hypopituitarism. Growth hormone deficiency and disturbances in puberty are the most common; however, any part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis can be affected. In addition, endocrine abnormalities can improve or worsen with time, having a significant impact on children’s quality of life both acutely and chronically. Since primary and secondary injuries from TBI commonly result in transient or permanent hypopituitarism, we conclude that survivors should undergo serial screening for possible endocrine disturbances. High indices of suspicion for life threatening endocrine deficiencies should be maintained during acute care. Additionally, survivors of TBI should undergo endocrine surveillance by 6–12 months after injury, and then yearly, to ensure early detection of deficiencies in hormonal production that can substantially influence growth, puberty and quality of life. PMID:26287247

  5. The adrenal capsule is a signaling center controlling cell renewal and zonation through Rspo3.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Valerie; Sacco, Sonia; Rocha, Ana Sofia; da Silva, Fabio; Panzolini, Clara; Dumontet, Typhanie; Doan, Thi Mai Phuong; Shan, Jingdong; Rak-Raszewska, Aleksandra; Bird, Tom; Vainio, Seppo; Martinez, Antoine; Schedl, Andreas

    2016-06-15

    Adrenal glands are zonated endocrine organs that are essential in controlling body homeostasis. How zonation is induced and maintained and how renewal of the adrenal cortex is ensured remain a mystery. Here we show that capsular RSPO3 signals to the underlying steroidogenic compartment to induce β-catenin signaling and imprint glomerulosa cell fate. Deletion of RSPO3 leads to loss of SHH signaling and impaired organ growth. Importantly, Rspo3 function remains essential in adult life to ensure replenishment of lost cells and maintain the properties of the zona glomerulosa. Thus, the adrenal capsule acts as a central signaling center that ensures replacement of damaged cells and is required to maintain zonation throughout life. PMID:27313319

  6. [Dementia due to Endocrine Diseases].

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Akiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine diseases affecting various organs, such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, occasionally cause dementia. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and is untreatable, dementia caused by endocrine diseases is treatable in most cases. However, patients with dementia associated with endocrine diseases show memory impairments similar to those found in AD, often leading to misdiagnoses. Patients with endocrine diseases often present with other characteristic systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by altered hormone levels. Such neuropsychiatric symptoms include involuntary movements, depression, seizures, and muscle weakness. In these cases, abnormalities in imaging and blood or urine tests are helpful in making a differential diagnosis. As delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients may cause irreversible brain damage, it is imperative for clinicians to carefully exclude the possibility of latent endocrine diseases when treating patients with dementia. PMID:27056858

  7. Disruption of insulin receptor function inhibits proliferation in endocrine resistant breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jie Ying; LaPara, Kelly; Yee, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is a well-studied growth regulatory pathway implicated in breast cancer biology. Clinical trials testing monoclonal antibodies directed against the type I IGF receptor (IGF1R) in combination with estrogen receptor-α (ER) targeting have been completed, but failed to show benefits in patients with endocrine resistant tumors compared to ER targeting alone. We have previously shown that the closely related insulin receptor (InsR) is expressed in tamoxifen resistant breast cancer cells. Here we examined if inhibition of InsR affected tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) breast cancer cells. InsR function was inhibited by three different mechanisms: InsR shRNA, a small InsR blocking peptide, S961 and an InsR monoclonal antibody (mAb). Suppression of InsR function by these methods in TamR cells successfully blocked insulin-mediated signaling, monolayer proliferation, cell cycle progression and anchorage-independent growth. This strategy was not effective in parental cells likely due to the presence of IGFR/InsR hybrid receptors. Down-regulation of IGF1R in conjunction with InsR inhibition was more effective in blocking IGF- and insulin-mediated signaling and growth in parental cells compared to single receptor targeting alone. Our findings show TamR cells were stimulated by InsR and were not sensitive to IGF1R inhibition, whereas in tamoxifen-sensitive parental cancer cells, the presence of both receptors, especially hybrid receptors, allowed cross-reactivity of ligand-mediated activation and growth. To suppress the IGF system, targeting of both IGF1R and InsR is optimal in endocrine sensitive and resistant breast cancer. PMID:26876199

  8. Stress and its relation to endocrine function in captive female Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri).

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Edwards, Thea M; Moore, Brandon C; Main, Kevan L; Guillette, Louis J

    2007-01-01

    Stress responses to numerous environmental conditions have been studied in a wide range of fish species. Defining the relationship between stress and endocrine function is particularly critical to long-lived species such as sturgeons, whose economic viability relies heavily on proper endocrine function for the production of caviar. In this study, we examined the induced stress response, defined by plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations, and its relationship to plasma 17beta-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone concentrations in cultured female Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri). Fish were acutely stressed using capture and confinement for a period of 4 h, and blood samples were drawn according to four treatment regimens: treatment 1, fish were bled at 0 h; treatment 2, fish were serially bled at 0 h, 1 h and 4 h; treatment 3, fish were bled at 1 h and 4 h; treatment 4, fish were bled at 4 h only. Fish were surgically sexed immediately after drawing blood at 0 h. After 1 h of acute stress, fish demonstrated a marked increase in plasma cortisol concentration, which remained elevated throughout the 4-h sampling period. The plasma concentration of sex steroids did not exhibit an inverse relationship with plasma cortisol concentration. Plasma testosterone concentration was significantly elevated during the periods of greatest stress. Plasma estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) concentrations were not affected by the acute stressors in this experiment. Serial bleedings, however, affected the associated stress response, which is an important consideration for future studies with this species. This is the first study to define the relationship between stress and possible changes in sex steroid concentration in this threatened and commercially important species. PMID:17622217

  9. Disruption of insulin receptor function inhibits proliferation in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, J Y; LaPara, K; Yee, D

    2016-08-11

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is a well-studied growth regulatory pathway implicated in breast cancer biology. Clinical trials testing monoclonal antibodies directed against the type I IGF receptor (IGF1R) in combination with estrogen receptor-α (ER) targeting have been completed, but failed to show benefits in patients with endocrine-resistant tumors compared to ER targeting alone. We have previously shown that the closely related insulin receptor (InsR) is expressed in tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) breast cancer cells. Here we examined if inhibition of InsR affected TamR breast cancer cells. InsR function was inhibited by three different mechanisms: InsR short hairpin RNA, a small InsR-blocking peptide, S961 and an InsR monoclonal antibody (mAb). Suppression of InsR function by these methods in TamR cells successfully blocked insulin-mediated signaling, monolayer proliferation, cell cycle progression and anchorage-independent growth. This strategy was not effective in parental cells likely because of the presence of IGFR /InsR hybrid receptors. Downregulation of IGF1R in conjunction with InsR inhibition was more effective in blocking IGF- and insulin-mediated signaling and growth in parental cells compared with single-receptor targeting alone. Our findings show TamR cells were stimulated by InsR and were not sensitive to IGF1R inhibition, whereas in tamoxifen-sensitive parental cancer cells, the presence of both receptors, especially hybrid receptors, allowed cross-reactivity of ligand-mediated activation and growth. To suppress the IGF system, targeting of both IGF1R and InsR is optimal in endocrine-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer. PMID:26876199

  10. Adrenal Disorders and the Paediatric Brain: Pathophysiological Considerations and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Polizzi, Agata; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Romeo, Anna Claudia; Dipasquale, Valeria; Chirico, Valeria; Arrigo, Teresa; Ruggieri, Martino

    2014-01-01

    Various neurological and psychiatric manifestations have been recorded in children with adrenal disorders. Based on literature review and on personal case-studies and case-series we focused on the pathophysiological and clinical implications of glucocorticoid-related, mineralcorticoid-related, and catecholamine-related paediatric nervous system involvement. Childhood Cushing syndrome can be associated with long-lasting cognitive deficits and abnormal behaviour, even after resolution of the hypercortisolism. Exposure to excessive replacement of exogenous glucocorticoids in the paediatric age group (e.g., during treatments for adrenal insufficiency) has been reported with neurological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities (e.g., delayed myelination and brain atrophy) due to potential corticosteroid-related myelin damage in the developing brain and the possible impairment of limbic system ontogenesis. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), a disorder of unclear pathophysiology characterised by increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, has been described in children with hypercortisolism, adrenal insufficiency, and hyperaldosteronism, reflecting the potential underlying involvement of the adrenal-brain axis in the regulation of CSF pressure homeostasis. Arterial hypertension caused by paediatric adenomas or tumours of the adrenal cortex or medulla has been associated with various hypertension-related neurological manifestations. The development and maturation of the central nervous system (CNS) through childhood is tightly regulated by intrinsic, paracrine, endocrine, and external modulators, and perturbations in any of these factors, including those related to adrenal hormone imbalance, could result in consequences that affect the structure and function of the paediatric brain. Animal experiments and clinical studies demonstrated that the developing (i.e., paediatric) CNS seems to be particularly vulnerable to alterations induced by adrenal

  11. SPECIES DIFFERENCES IN ANDROGEN AND ESTROGEN RECEPTOR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION AMONG VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES: INTERSPECIES EXTRAPOLATIONS REGARDING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species Differences in Androgen and Estrogen Receptor Structure and Function Among Vertebrates and Invertebrates: Interspecies Extrapolations regarding Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
    VS Wilson1, GT Ankley2, M Gooding 1,3, PD Reynolds 1,4, NC Noriega 1, M Cardon 1, P Hartig1,...

  12. HIGH INFORMATION CONTENT TOXICITY SCREENING USING MOUSE AND HUMAN STEM CELL MODELS OF ENDOCRINE DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project will result in the rapid assessment of chemicals for adverse effects on the development of gametes, adipocytes, and islet B-cells; and on the adipocyte and B-cell endocrine signaling function in human and murine embryonic stem cells. Based on the data, hierarchical...

  13. Identification of hot spots of DNA methylation in the adult male adrenal in response to in utero exposure to the ubiquitous endocrine disruptor plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Arguelles, D B; Papadopoulos, V

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxicants during fetal development alters gene expression and promotes disease later in life. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used for the manufacturing of consumer products. Exposure to DEHP has been associated with obesity, asthma, and low T levels. In utero exposure of pregnant dams to DEHP from gestational day 14 until birth resulted in reduced levels of serum T and aldosterone in the adult male offspring. Because DEHP is rapidly cleared from the body, the effects observed in the adult are likely epigenetic in origin. Under the same experimental conditions, we used reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing to assess changes in DNA methylation. We identified hot spots of DNA methylation changes primarily within CpG islands followed by shelf regions of the genome known to control regional gene expression. We also identified epigenomic areas responsive to exposure to environmental levels of DEHP and found the chromosomal region that houses genes controlling immune responsiveness to be a primary target of DEHP. These data suggest that DEHP phthalate exposure early in life induces epigenetic changes that may be linked to altered gene expression and function in the adult. PMID:25330100

  14. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure alters hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function and blood pressure in mature male guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Banjanin, Sonja; Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2004-01-01

    Pregnant guinea pigs were treated with dexamethasone (1 mg kg−1) or vehicle on days 40–41, 50–51 and 60–61 of gestation, after which animals delivered normally. Adult male offspring were catheterized at 145 days of age and subjected to tests of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function in basal and activated states. Animals exposed to dexamethasone in utero (mat-dex) exhibited increased hippocampus-to-brain weight ratio, increased adrenal-to-body weight ratio and increased mean arterial pressure. There were no effects on gestation length, birth weight and postnatal growth. There were no overall differences in diurnal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol profiles, though there were subtle differences during the subjective afternoon between control and mat-dex offspring. A significant decrease in initial ACTH suppression was observed following dexamethasone injection in mat-dex offspring compared to control offspring. Molecular analysis revealed significantly increased MR mRNA expression in the limbic system and particularly in the dentate gyrus in mat-dex offspring. In the anterior pituitary, both pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels were significantly elevated in mat-dex offspring. In conclusion, (1) repeated prenatal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) permanently programmes organ growth, blood pressure and HPA regulation in mature male offspring and these changes involve modification of corticosteroid receptor expression in the brain and pituitary; (2) the effects of prenatal sGC exposure on HPA function appear to change as a function of age, indicating the importance of investigating HPA and cardiovascular outcome at multiple time points throughout life. PMID:15146051

  15. Endocrine function following high dose proton therapy for tumors of the upper clivus

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, J.D.; Austin-Seymour, M.; Munzenrider, J.; Birnbaum, S.; Carroll, R.; Klibanski, A.; Riskind, P.; Urie, M.; Verhey, L.; Goitein, M.

    1988-09-01

    The endocrine status of patients receiving proton radiation for tumors of the upper clivus was reviewed to evaluate the effect of high dose treatment on the pituitary gland. The fourteen patients had chordomas or low grade chondrosarcomas and were all treated by the same techniques. The median tumor dose was 69.7 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) with a range from 66.6 to 74.4 CGE. (CGE is used because modulated protons have an RBE of 1.1 compared to 60Co). The daily fraction size was 1.8-2.1 CGE. The median follow-up time is 48 months, ranging from 30 to 68 months. All treatments were planned using a computerized multi-dimensional system with the position of the pituitary outlined on the planning CT scan. Review of the dose distribution indicated that the dose to the pituitary ranged from 60.5 to 72.3 CGE, with a median of 67.6 CGE. One female patient had decreased thyroid and gonadotropin function at the time of diagnosis and has been on hormone replacement since that time. The other three females were all pre-menopausal at the time of radiotherapy. At this time four patients (3 males and 1 female) have developed endocrine abnormalities 14 to 45 months after irradiation. All four had evidence of hypothyroidism and two have also developed corticotropin deficiency. The three males had decreased testosterone levels; the female patient developed amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. All four are asymptomatic with ongoing hormone replacement.

  16. Function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system in models of acute stress in domestic farm animals.

    PubMed

    Minton, J E

    1994-07-01

    In response to stressors, the central nervous system of livestock (and other mammalian species) evokes physiological responses that ultimately result in activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the sympatho-adrenal axis. The responses of these major systems are presumed to have adaptive and homeostatic value during periods of stress. The major hormone regulating the synthesis and secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids is ACTH. In sheep, cattle, and pigs, both corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) participate in the regulation of secretion of ACTH, and the two peptides seem to interact to enhance that secretion. In cattle and pigs, CRH is the more potent peptide, whereas VP is the more potent in sheep. In addition to its better-known role in regulating pituitary function, CRH also may participate as a neurotransmitter acting centrally to enhance sympathetic activation of the adrenal medulla. Many experimental models of stress have been evaluated that reliably activate the HPA axis and the sympatho-adrenal medullary axis, and some of these model systems also reduce functions of cells of the immune system. Recent data support an important role of stressor-activation of the sympathetics rather than increased glucocorticoids per se in modulating some measures of immune function in response to stress. Thus, current dogma of glucocorticoids as the primary mediator of stressor-associated alteration in immune function of domestic livestock may require reevaluation. PMID:7928769

  17. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lodish, Maya B.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs. PMID:20603395

  18. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin receptors on cultured bovine adrenal fasciculata cells. Role of these peptides on adrenal cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Penhoat, A.; Chatelain, P.G.; Jaillard, C.; Saez, J.M.

    1988-06-01

    We have characterized insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin receptors in cultured bovine adrenal cells by binding and cross-linking affinity experiments. At equilibrium the dissociation constant and the number of binding sites per cell for IGF-I were 1.4 +/- (SE) 0.3 x 10(-9) M and 19,200 +/- 2,100, respectively. Under reduction conditions, disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked (/sup 125/I)iodo-IGF-I to one receptor complex with an Mr of 125,000. Adrenal cells also contain specific insulin receptors with an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 10(-9) M. Under reduction conditions (/sup 125/I)iodo-insulin binds to one band with an approximate Mr of 125,000. IGF-I and insulin at micromolar concentrations, but not at nanomolar concentrations, slightly stimulated DNA synthesis, but markedly potentiated the mitogenic action of fibroblast growth factor. Adrenal cells cultured in a serum-free medium containing transferrin, ascorbic acid, and insulin (5 micrograms/ml) maintained fairly constant angiotensin-II (A-II) receptor concentration per cell and increased cAMP release on response to ACTH and their steroidogenic response to both ACTH and A-II. When the cells were cultured in the same medium without insulin, the number of A-II receptors significantly decreased to 65% and the increased responsiveness was blunted. Treatment of such cells for 3 days with increasing concentrations of IGF-I (1-100 ng/ml) produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in A-II receptors and enhanced the cAMP response (3- to 4-fold) to ACTH and the steroidogenic response (4- to 6-fold) to ACTH and A-II. These effects were time and dose dependent (ED50 approximately equal to 10(-9) M). Insulin at micromolar concentrations produced an effect similar to that of IGF-I, but at nanomolar concentrations the effect was far less.

  19. [The subcapsular blastema of the adrenal cortex of the swine after continuous long-term infusion of exogenous ACTH].

    PubMed

    Zintzsch, I; Gutte, G

    1976-01-01

    After long time application of homologous ACTH the morphokinesis of the adrenal cortex of the pig was investigated experimentally. Following results were obtained: 1. In view of the controls the absolute and relative weight of the adrenals is raised considerably. 2. The progressive transformation is followed by the disappearance of the zonal structure of the adrenal cortex, and the parenchyma get the picture of fasciculata cells generally. 3. Nearly exclusive the zona fasciculata consists of great, pale activated spongiocytes with 2 nucleoli frequently. Topochemically glycogen and the lipids are inconstant, however the histochemical activity of succinodehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatase are considerable raised in regard of the controls. 4. The zona fasciculata contains degenerated cells isolated only. Signs of extensive regressive changes are not present. 5. The zona glomerulosa is dissolving or eliminating respectively. The consequences for the synthesis of the adrenal steroid hormones are discussed. 6. A large, spongy subcapsular blastema with several cell layers and a rich capillary network develop between the fibrous capsula of the adrenal and the zona fasiculata. The fasciculata cells are the direct continuation of the subcapsular blastema. The blastema contains neither glycogen nor lipids and histochemical activities of the enzymes are absent, too. The significance of the subcapsular blastema for the morphological and functional adaptation of the adrenal cortex in stress are discussed. Under the conditions of the closed hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal control system the new origin of cells (hyperplasia) is not significant for the morphokinetic adaptive reactions of the adrenal cortex. Rather the subcapsular blastema represents a reserve area which after the destruction of the endocrine parenchyma through specific pathogens the organism enabled to the regeneration of the adrenal cortex. PMID:188714

  20. Prevalence of endocrine complications in beta-thalassaemia major in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Karamifar, H; Shahriari, M; Sadjadian, N

    2003-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of endocrine dysfunction in Iranians with beta-thalassaemia, we assessed thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic and adrenal function in 150 beta-thalassaemic patients aged 10-22 years at the Paediatrics Unit, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Primary hypothyroidism was found in 6.0% of patients (mean age: 14.6 +/- 1.9 years), hypoparathyroidism in 7.3% (14.5 +/- 3.2 years), type 1 diabetes mellitus in 7.3% (13.9 +/- 2.8 years) and adrenal insufficiency in 1 patient. The relatively high frequency of endocrine dysfunction found in our study may be a result of poor disease control and management in early life when irreversible tissue damage occurs due to iron overload. These findings reinforce the importance of regular follow-up of patients with beta-thalassaemia major for early detection and management of associated complications. PMID:15562733

  1. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and the metabolic syndrome X of obesity.

    PubMed

    Gohil, B C; Rosenblum, L A; Coplan, J D; Kral, J G

    2001-07-01

    Obesity has negative health consequences related to fat distribution, particularly the central or visceral accumulation of fat. The major complications associated with visceral obesity, termed the "Metabolic Syndrome of Obesity," or "Syndrome X," are type II diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. As with certain mood disorders, the syndrome may be a consequence of neuroendocrine perturbations typically associated with chronic stress. Our work with bonnet macaque monkeys provides an animal model for the relationship between early stress, behavioral and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, and Syndrome X. During their infant's first half-year, mothers face a variable foraging demand (VFD), in which ample food varies unpredictably in the difficulty of its acquisition, and the offspring show persistent abnormalities in systems known to modulate stress and affective regulation. Early work on the bonnet macaque noted the emergence of a sample of spontaneously obese subjects as they matured. Using the VFD model, the current study showed that there was a clear relationship between early cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor levels and subsequently measured body mass index, supporting the hypotheses regarding the interactive roles of early experience and HPA axis dysregulation in the ontogeny of both metabolic and mood disorders. PMID:15573024

  2. Intraoperative identification of adrenal-renal fusion.

    PubMed

    Boll, Griffin; Rattan, Rishi; Yilmaz, Osman; Tarnoff, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal - renal fusion is a rare entity defined as incomplete encapsulation of the adrenal gland and kidney with histologically adjacent functional tissue. This report describes the first published intraoperative identification of this anomaly during laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The patient was a 59-year-old man with chronic hypertension refractory to multiple antihypertensives found to be caused by a right-sided aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in the setting of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. During laparoscopic adrenalectomy, the normal avascular plane between the kidney and adrenal gland was absent. Pathologic evaluation confirmed adrenal - renal fusion without adrenal heterotopia. Identified intraoperatively, this may be misdiagnosed as invasive malignancy, and thus awareness of this anomaly may help prevent unnecessarily morbid resection. PMID:26195881

  3. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage leading to adrenal crisis

    PubMed Central

    McGowan-Smyth, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A 77-year-old man presented with an acute worsening of chronic back pain. CT showed dense bilateral adrenal glands suggestive of adrenal haemorrhage which was confirmed by MRI. Despite appropriate glucocorticoid replacement for adrenal insufficiency, 7 days after admission this patient suffered an adrenal crisis. Owing to the timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment was given and the patient survived. Large bilateral adrenal haemorrhage however, can lead to cardiovascular collapse and death if not appropriately diagnosed and managed promptly. Despite its rarity, bilateral adrenal haemorrhage should always be considered as a differential for back pain in the setting of an acute illness due to its potentially fatal consequences. PMID:24969071

  4. Endocrine and metabolic function in male Carioca High-conditioned Freezing rats.

    PubMed

    Mousovich-Neto, F; Lourenço, A L; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Corrêa da Costa, V M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Carioca High-conditioned Freezing rats (CHF) regarding their endocrine and metabolic backgrounds. We found an increase in serum corticosterone (CTRL: 96.7 ± 21.65 vs CHF: 292.0 ± 4 0.71 ng/ml) and leptin (CTRL: 9.5 ± 1.51 vs CHF: 19.2 ± 4.32 ng/ml). Serum testosterone (CTRL: 3.3 ± 0.29 vs CHF: 2.0 ± 0.28 ng/ml) and T3 (CTRL: 52.4 ± 2.74 vs CHF: 42.7 ± 2.94 ng/dl) were decreased in the CHF group, but serum TSH and T4 were unaffected. Body weight and food intake were unchanged, nevertheless retroperitoneal fat (CTRL: 2.2 ± 0.24 vs CHF: 4.8 ± 0.64 g) and epididymal fat (CTRL: 2.6 ± 0.20 vs CHF: 4.8 ± 0.37 g) depot weights were around 2-fold higher in CHF animals. BAT weight was similar in both groups. Serum triglycerides (CTRL: 41.4 ± 6.03 vs CHF: 83.2 ± 17.09 mg/dl) and total cholesterol (CTRL: 181.6 ± 5.61 vs CHF: 226.4 ± 13.04 mg/dl) were higher in the CHF group. Fasting glycemia (CTRL: 68.7 ± 3.04 vs CHF: 82.3 ± 2.99 mg/dl) was also higher in the CHF group, however glucose tolerance test response and serum insulin levels were similar between the groups. Oxygen consumption (CTRL: 10.5 ± 0.40 vs CHF: 7.9 ± 0.58 VO2ml/min/kg(0.75)) and BAT D2 activity (CTRL: 0.7 ± 0.17 vs CHF: 0.3 ± 0.04 fmolT4/min/mg ptn) were lower in the CHF group. Our data show that anxiety could impair endocrine and metabolic functions and may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases. PMID:25623541

  5. Opioids and endocrine dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The endocrine effects of opioids used for the management of persistent pain are poorly understood by clinicians and patients, and hormone levels are rarely measured. It is recognized that opioids exert this effect via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Additional effects on adrenal hormones, weight, blood pressure and bone density may also occur. Symptoms and signs of sex hormone deficiency occur in both men and women but are under-reported and are often clinically unrecognized. The potential effects of long term opioid therapy on the endocrine system should be explained to patients before opioid therapy is commenced. Monitoring of sex hormones is recommended; if there are deficiencies opioids should be tapered and withdrawn, if this is clinically acceptable. If opioid therapy has to continue, hormone replacement therapy should be initiated and monitored by an endocrinologist. PMID:26516462

  6. Endocrine disrupters as obesogens

    PubMed Central

    Grün, Felix; Blumberg, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in obesity rates is an alarming global health trend that consumes an ever increasing portion of health care budgets in Western countries. The root cause of obesity is thought to be a prolonged positive energy balance. Hence, the major focus of preventative programs for obesity has been to target overeating and inadequate physical exercise. Recent research implicates environmental risk factors, including nutrient quality, stress, fetal environment and pharmaceutical or chemical exposure as relevant contributing influences. Evidence points to endocrine disrupting chemicals that interfere with the body's adipose tissue biology, endocrine hormone systems or central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as suspects in derailing the homeostatic mechanisms important to weight control. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the molecular targets and mechanisms of action for these compounds and areas of future research needed to evaluate the significance of their contribution to obesity. PMID:19433244

  7. Thyroid hormone signaling in the Xenopus laevis embryo is functional and susceptible to endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Fini, J B; Le Mével, S; Palmier, K; Darras, V M; Punzon, I; Richardson, S J; Clerget-Froidevaux, M S; Demeneix, B A

    2012-10-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for vertebrate brain development. Most research on TH and neuronal development focuses on late development, mainly the perinatal period in mammals. However, in human infants neuromotor development correlates best with maternal TH levels in the first trimester of pregnancy, suggesting that TH signaling could affect early brain development. Studying TH signaling in early embryogenesis in mammals is experimentally challenging. In contrast, free-living embryos, such as Xenopus laevis, permit physiological experimentation independent of maternal factors. We detailed key elements of TH signaling: ligands, receptors (TR), and deiodinases during early X. laevis development, before embryonic thyroid gland formation. Dynamic profiles for all components were found. Between developmental stages 37 and 41 (~48 h after hatching, coincident with a phase of continuing neurogenesis) significant increases in T(3) levels as well as in mRNA encoding deiodinases and TR occurred. Exposure of embryos at this developmental stage for 24 h to either a TH antagonist, NH-3, or to tetrabromobisphenol A, a flame retardant and known TH disruptor, differentially modulated the expression of a number of TH target genes implicated in neural stem cell function or neural differentiation. Moreover, 24-h exposure to either NH-3 or tetrabromobisphenol A diminished cell proliferation in the brain. Thus, these data show first, that TH signaling exerts regulatory roles in early X. laevis neurogenesis and second, that this period represents a potential window for endocrine disruption. PMID:22968643

  8. Clinicopathological correlates of adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kai; Hernandez, Karen Gomez; Mete, Ozgur

    2015-06-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisol-producing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decision-making and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease. PMID:26045561

  9. Clinicopathological correlates of adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kai; Gomez Hernandez, Karen; Mete, Ozgur

    2015-03-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisol-producing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decision-making and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease. PMID:25425660

  10. Thymus-associated parathyroid hormone has two cellular origins with distinct endocrine and immunological functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijie; Farley, Alison; Chen, Lizhen; Kirby, Beth J; Kovacs, Christopher S; Blackburn, C Clare; Manley, Nancy R

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of extracellular calcium and inorganic phosphorus homeostasis. Although the parathyroid glands were thought to be the only source of PTH, extra-parathyroid PTH production in the thymus, which shares a common origin with parathyroids during organogenesis, has been proposed to provide an auxiliary source of PTH, resulting in a higher than expected survival rate for aparathyroid Gcm2⁻/⁻ mutants. However, the developmental ontogeny and cellular identity of these "thymic" PTH-expressing cells is unknown. We found that the lethality of aparathyroid Gcm2⁻/⁻ mutants was affected by genetic background without relation to serum PTH levels, suggesting a need to reconsider the physiological function of thymic PTH. We identified two sources of extra-parathyroid PTH in wild-type mice. Incomplete separation of the parathyroid and thymus organs during organogenesis resulted in misplaced, isolated parathyroid cells that were often attached to the thymus; this was the major source of thymic PTH in normal mice. Analysis of thymus and parathyroid organogenesis in human embryos showed a broadly similar result, indicating that these results may provide insight into human parathyroid development. In addition, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) express PTH in a Gcm2-independent manner that requires TEC differentiation and is consistent with expression as a self-antigen for negative selection. Genetic or surgical removal of the thymus indicated that thymus-derived PTH in Gcm2⁻/⁻ mutants did not provide auxiliary endocrine function. Our data show conclusively that the thymus does not serve as an auxiliary source of either serum PTH or parathyroid function. We further show that the normal process of parathyroid organogenesis in both mice and humans leads to the generation of multiple small parathyroid clusters in addition to the main parathyroid glands, that are the likely source of physiologically relevant "thymic

  11. Adrenal suppression in patients taking inhaled glucocorticoids is highly prevalent and management can be guided by morning cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Conor P; Argese, Nicola; Chapman, Matthew; Boot, Christopher; Webster, Rachel; Dabhi, Vijay; Grossman, Ashley B; Toogood, Andrew A; Arlt, Wiebke; Stewart, Paul M; Crowley, Rachel K; Tomlinson, Jeremy W

    2015-01-01

    Context Up to 3% of US and UK populations are prescribed glucocorticoids (GC). Suppression of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis with the potential risk of adrenal crisis is a recognized complication of therapy. The 250 μg short Synacthen stimulation test (SST) is the most commonly used dynamic assessment to diagnose adrenal insufficiency. There are challenges to the use of the SST in routine clinical practice, including both the staff and time constraints and a significant recent increase in Synacthen cost. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis to determine the prevalence of adrenal suppression due to prescribed GCs and the utility of a morning serum cortisol for rapid assessment of adrenal reserve in the routine clinical setting. Results In total, 2773 patients underwent 3603 SSTs in a large secondary/tertiary centre between 2008 and 2013 and 17.9% (n=496) failed the SST. Of 404 patients taking oral, topical, intranasal or inhaled GC therapy for non-endocrine conditions, 33.2% (n=134) had a subnormal SST response. In patients taking inhaled GCs without additional GC therapy, 20.5% (34/166) failed an SST and suppression of adrenal function increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in patients currently taking inhaled GCs, a basal cortisol ≥348 nmol/l provided 100% specificity for passing the SST; a cortisol value <34 nmol/l had 100% sensitivity for SST failure. Using these cut-offs, 50% (n=83) of SSTs performed on patients prescribed inhaled GCs were unnecessary. Conclusion Adrenal suppression due to GC treatment, particularly inhaled GCs, is common. A basal serum cortisol concentration has utility in helping determine which patients should undergo dynamic assessment of adrenal function. PMID:26294794

  12. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... composed of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones. Glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary ... system since they contain endocrine tissue that secretes hormones. These include the pancreas, ovaries and testes. The ...

  13. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002351.htm Endocrine glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Endocrine glands release (secrete) hormones into the bloodstream. The ...

  14. Endocrine Diseases

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    Your endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout your body. These glands make hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers. They ... levels. In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They ...

  15. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it’s the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  16. Adrenal Pathology in the Adult: A Urological Pathologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Donna E; Reuter, Victor E

    2016-09-01

    Adrenal gland diagnostics can pose significant challenges. In most academic and community practice settings, adrenal gland resections are encountered less frequently than other endocrine or genitourinary specimens, leading to less familiarity with evolving classifications and criteria. The unique dichotomy between cortical and medullary lesions reflects the developmental evolution of these functionally independent components. Adrenal cortical lesions at resection include hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma, with some cases straddling the boundary between these distinct clinical classifications. The lack of immunohistochemical or molecular markers to definitively categorize these intermediate lesions enhances the diagnostic challenge. In addition, modified terminology for oncocytic and myxoid cortical lesions has been proposed. Medullary lesions are somewhat easier to categorize; however, the prediction of aggressive behavior in pheochromocytomas remains a challenge due to a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers. Recent work by the Cancer Genome Atlas Project and other research groups has identified a limited subset of molecular and signaling pathway alterations in these 2 major neoplastic categories. Ongoing research to better define prognostic and predictive biomarkers in cortical and medullary lesions has the potential to enhance both pathologic diagnosis and patient therapy. PMID:27438375

  17. Somatostatin receptor expression and biological functions in endocrine pancreatic cells: review based on a doctoral thesis.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsen, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is resulting from the selective destruction of insulin-producing betacells within the pancreatic islets. Somatostatin acts as an inhibitor of hormone secretion through specific receptors (sst1-5). All ssts were expressed in normal rat and mouse pancreatic islets, although the expression intensity and the co-expression pattern varied between ssts as well as between species. This may reflect a difference in response to somatostatin in islet cells of the two species. The Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mouse model is an experimental model of type 1 diabetes, with insulitis accompanied by spontaneous hyperglycaemia. Pancreatic specimens from NOD mice at different age and stage of disease were stained for ssts. The islet cells of diabetic NOD mice showed increased islet expression of sst2-5 compared to normoglycemic NOD mice. The increase in sst2-5 expression in the islets cells may suggest either a contributing factor in the process leading to diabetes, or a defense response against ongoing beta-cell destruction. Somatostatin analogues were tested on a human endocrine pancreatic tumour cell line and cultured pancreatic islets. Somatostatin analogues had an effect on cAMP accumulation, chromogranin A secretion and MAP kinase activity in the cell line. Treatment of rat pancreatic islets with somatostatin analogues with selective receptor affinity was not sufficient to induce an inhibition of insulin and glucagon secretion. However, a combination of selective analogues or non-selective analogues via costimulation of receptors can cause inhibition of hormone production. For insulin and glucagon, combinations of sst2 + sst5 and sst1 + sst2, respectively, showed a biological effect. In summary, knowledge of islet cell ssts expression and the effect of somatostatin analogues with high affinity to ssts may be valuable in the future attempts to influence beta-cell function in type 1 diabetes mellitus, since down-regulation of beta-cell function may promote survival of

  18. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on reproductive endocrine function in individuals with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Isojärvi, Jouko I T; Taubøll, Erik; Herzog, Andrew G

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and the reproductive system have complex interactions. Fertility is lower in both men and women with epilepsy than in the general population. Moreover, reproductive endocrine disorders are more common among patients with epilepsy than among the population in general. These disorders have been attributed both to epilepsy itself and to use of AEDs. The use of the liver enzyme-inducing AEDs phenobarbital, phenytoin and carbamazepine increases serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in both men and women with epilepsy. Over time, the increase in serum SHBG levels leads to diminished bioactivity of testosterone and estradiol, which may result in diminished potency in men and menstrual disorders in some women, and thus to reduced fertility. Liver enzyme-inducing AEDs also reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives. Valproic acid medication may have effects on serum androgen concentrations and it reduces serum follicle stimulating hormone levels in men with epilepsy. However, the clinical significance of valproic acid-related reproductive endocrine changes in men is unknown. On the other hand, in women, use of valproic acid appears to be associated with a frequent occurrence of reproductive endocrine disorders characterised by polycystic changes in the ovaries, high serum testosterone concentrations (hyperandrogenism) and menstrual disorders. These disorders are especially common among women who have gained weight during valproic acid treatment. There are some discrepancies regarding the reported occurrence of reproductive endocrine disorders in women taking valproic acid for epilepsy. However, most studies also including patients receiving valproic acid for other reasons than epilepsy, and studies in different non-epileptic animal models, have shown an association between valproic acid medication and hyperandrogenism and related reproductive endocrine disorders. From a practical point of view

  19. Effect of the growth hormone-secreting tumor StW5 on pituitary and adrenal gland function in rats.

    PubMed

    Coyne, M D; Alpert, L C; Harter, K C; Nunez, A

    1981-01-01

    A growth hormone-secreting tumor (StW5 was implanted into male rats and resulted in a tripling of adrenal weight concomitant with a 30% decrement in pituitary weight. Plasma concentrations of corticosterone in tumor-bearing (TB) rats were significantly elevated at rest or after ACTH injections or the stress of either anesthesia. The rise in plasma concentrations of corticosterone was due mainly to the large increment in adrenal size although a significant increase in adrenal responsiveness to ACTH was demonstrated in vitro. In addition, plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher in TB rats despite both a doubling of the blood volume and a 50% increase in liver capacity to metabolize corticosterone. Pituitary ACTH content was significantly lower in TB rats, but these pituitary glands could still release near-normal quantities of ACTH as shown both by in vitro incubations and adrenal corticosterone output following ether stress. PMID:6266940

  20. Legacy Effect of Foxo1 in Pancreatic Endocrine Progenitors on Adult β-Cell Mass and Function.

    PubMed

    Talchai, Shivatra Chutima; Accili, Domenico

    2015-08-01

    β-Cell dysfunction in diabetes results from abnormalities of insulin production, secretion, and cell number. These abnormalities may partly arise from altered developmental programming of β-cells. Foxo1 is important to maintain adult β-cells, but little is known about its role in pancreatic progenitor cells as determinants of future β-cell function. We addressed this question by generating an allelic series of somatic Foxo1 knockouts at different stages of pancreatic development in mice. Surprisingly, ablation of Foxo1 in pancreatic progenitors resulted in delayed appearance of Neurogenin3(+) progenitors and their persistence into adulthood as a self-replicating pool, causing a fourfold increase of β-cell mass. Similarly, Foxo1 ablation in endocrine progenitors increased their numbers, extended their survival, and expanded β-cell mass. In contrast, ablation of Foxo1 in terminally differentiated β-cells did not increase β-cell mass nor did it affect Neurogenin3 expression. Despite the increased β-cell mass, islets from mice lacking Foxo1 in pancreatic or endocrine progenitors responded poorly to glucose, resulting in glucose intolerance. We conclude that Foxo1 integrates cues that determine developmental timing, pool size, and functional features of endocrine progenitor cells, resulting in a legacy effect on adult β-cell mass and function. Our results illustrate how developmental programming predisposes to β-cell dysfunction in adults and raise questions on the desirability of increasing β-cell mass for therapeutic purposes in type 2 diabetes. PMID:25784544

  1. Antenatal glucocorticoid exposure enhances the inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis by leptin in a sex-specific fashion.

    PubMed

    Su, Yixin; Carey, Luke C; Rose, James C; Pulgar, Victor M

    2013-06-15

    Antenatal treatment with glucocorticoids (GC) poses long-lasting effects on endocrine and cardiovascular function. Given that leptin attenuates adrenal function and the reported sex differences in plasma leptin concentration, we hypothesized that antenatal GC will affect leptin levels and leptin modulation of adrenal function in a sex-specific manner. Pregnant sheep were randomly given betamethasone or vehicle at 80 days of gestational age, and offspring were allowed to deliver at term. Adrenocortical cells (ADC) were studied from male and female animals at 1.5 yr of age. Plasma leptin was increased 66% in male and 41% in female GC-treated animals (P < 0.05), but adrenal leptin mRNA was increased only in GC-treated males (P < 0.05). Whereas mRNA expression of adrenal leptin receptor isoforms showed sex (Ob-Ra and Ob-Rb) and treatment-dependent (Ob-Rb) differences, protein expression remained unchanged. GC-treated females showed greater plasma cortisol and greater ACTH-stimulated cortisol production (P < 0.05) in ADC. Leptin exerted a greater inhibitory effect on basal and stimulated cortisol by ADC from GC-treated males (P < 0.05), with no differences in females. Similarly, greater inhibitory effects on basal and ACTH-stimulated StAR and ACTH-R mRNA expression by leptin were observed in cells from GC males (P < 0.05), with no changes in females. Persistent effects of antenatal GC on leptin levels and leptin modulation of adrenal function are expressed in a sex-specific manner; males are more sensitive than females to the inhibitory influences of leptin on adrenal function, and this effect appears to be mediated by a greater inhibition of StAR and ACTH-R expression in adrenals of adult GC-treated males. PMID:23632631

  2. Antenatal glucocorticoid exposure enhances the inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis by leptin in a sex-specific fashion

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yixin; Carey, Luke C.; Rose, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Antenatal treatment with glucocorticoids (GC) poses long-lasting effects on endocrine and cardiovascular function. Given that leptin attenuates adrenal function and the reported sex differences in plasma leptin concentration, we hypothesized that antenatal GC will affect leptin levels and leptin modulation of adrenal function in a sex-specific manner. Pregnant sheep were randomly given betamethasone or vehicle at 80 days of gestational age, and offspring were allowed to deliver at term. Adrenocortical cells (ADC) were studied from male and female animals at 1.5 yr of age. Plasma leptin was increased 66% in male and 41% in female GC-treated animals (P < 0.05), but adrenal leptin mRNA was increased only in GC-treated males (P < 0.05). Whereas mRNA expression of adrenal leptin receptor isoforms showed sex (Ob-Ra and Ob-Rb) and treatment-dependent (Ob-Rb) differences, protein expression remained unchanged. GC-treated females showed greater plasma cortisol and greater ACTH-stimulated cortisol production (P < 0.05) in ADC. Leptin exerted a greater inhibitory effect on basal and stimulated cortisol by ADC from GC-treated males (P < 0.05), with no differences in females. Similarly, greater inhibitory effects on basal and ACTH-stimulated StAR and ACTH-R mRNA expression by leptin were observed in cells from GC males (P < 0.05), with no changes in females. Persistent effects of antenatal GC on leptin levels and leptin modulation of adrenal function are expressed in a sex-specific manner; males are more sensitive than females to the inhibitory influences of leptin on adrenal function, and this effect appears to be mediated by a greater inhibition of StAR and ACTH-R expression in adrenals of adult GC-treated males. PMID:23632631

  3. Laparoscopic adrenal surgery: ten-year experience in a single institution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Minimal invasive adrenalectomy has become the procedure of choice to treat adrenal tumors with a benign appearance, ≤ 6 cm in diameter and weighing < 100 g. Authors evaluated medium- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA), performed for ten years in a single endocrine surgery unit. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 88 consecutive patients undergone LA for lesions of adrenal glands from 2003 to 2013. The first 30 operations were considered part of the learning curve. Doxazosin was preoperatively administered in case of pheochromocytoma (PCC), while spironolactone and potassium were employed to treat Conn's disease. Perioperative cardiovascular status modifications and surgical and medium- and long-term results were analyzed. Results Forty nine (55.68%) functioning tumors, and one (1.13%) bilateral adrenal disease were identified. In 2 patients (2.27%) a supposed adrenal metastasis was postoperatively confirmed, while in no patients a diagnosis of incidental primitive malignancy was performed. There was no mortality or major post operative complication. The mean operative time was higher during the learning curve. Conversion and morbidity rates were respectively 1.13% and 5.7%. Intraoperative hypertensive crises (≥180/90 mmHg) were observed in 23.5% (4/17) of PCC patients and were treated pharmacologically with no aftermath. There was no influence of age, size and operative time on the occurrence of PCC intraoperative hypertensive episodes. Surgery determined a normalization of the endocrine profile. One single PCC persistence was observed, while in a Conn's patient, just undergone right LA, a left sparing adrenalectomy was performed for a contralateral metachronous aldosteronoma. Conclusions LA, a safe, effective and well tolerated procedure for the treatment of adrenal neoplasms ≤ 6 cm, is feasible for larger lesions, with a similar low morbidity rate. Operative time has improved along with the increase of the experience and of

  4. Developmental and Contextual Considerations for Adrenal and Gonadal Hormone Functioning During Adolescence: Implications for Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Ruttle, Paula L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone–behavior associations during key developmental transitions. PMID:24729154

  5. Spatial function in adolescents and young adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: clinical phenotype and implications for the androgen hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Rovet, Joanne F

    2015-04-01

    Females with the classic form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are said to perform better than unaffected female controls on tests of mental rotation or other visuospatial abilities, but findings are conflicting. We studied 31 adolescents and young adults with CAH and 19 unaffected sibling controls, who were given standardized spatial tests and tests of other sexually differentiated cognitive functions (verbal fluency, perceptual speed). The possible role of CAH subtype (salt-wasting or simple-virilizing) was evaluated. Only females with the more severe, salt-wasting form of CAH, but not females with the simple-virilizing form, performed significantly better than sex-matched sibling controls on measures of mental rotation. Subtype differences were not significant for verbal fluency or perceptual speed. Severity of prenatal genital virilization, but not postnatal age when medication was started, predicted accuracy on the Mental Rotations Test. Results are consistent with the possibility of an organizational effect of androgens in the central nervous system that impacts the development of spatial abilities. Implications for the timing of the hypothetical critical period are discussed. PMID:25686803

  6. Adrenal Gland Tumor

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    ... here Home > Types of Cancer > Adrenal Gland Tumor Adrenal Gland Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Adrenal Gland Tumor. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Adrenal Gland Tumor Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and ...

  7. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Merke, Deborah P; Poppas, Dix P

    2014-01-01

    The management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia involves suppression of adrenal androgen production, in addition to treatment of adrenal insufficiency. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia is especially challenging because changes in the hormonal milieu during puberty can lead to inadequate suppression of adrenal androgens, psychosocial issues often affect adherence to medical therapy, and sexual function plays a major part in adolescence and young adulthood. For these reasons, treatment regimen reassessment is indicated during adolescence. Patients with non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia require reassessment regarding the need for glucocorticoid drug treatment. No clinical trials have compared various regimens for classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia in adults, thus therapy is individualised and based on the prevention of adverse outcomes. Extensive patient education is key during transition from paediatric care to adult care and should include education of females with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia regarding their genital anatomy and surgical history. Common issues for these patients include urinary incontinence, vaginal stenosis, clitoral pain, and cosmetic concerns; for males with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia, common issues include testicular adrenal rest tumours. Transition from paediatric to adult care is most successful when phased over many years. Education of health-care providers on how to successfully transition patients is greatly needed. PMID:24622419

  8. Endocrine dysfunction in patients of leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rohit Kumar; Bhasin, Rohit; Bisht, Y. S.; Kumar, K. V. S. Hari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease and affects many internal organs in addition to the skin and peripheral nerves. Endocrine dysfunction is often silent and is often missed in patients of leprosy leading to significant morbidity. We studied the presence of occult endocrine disorders in leprosy patients and compared the same with disease parameters. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 40 patients of leprosy (aged 18–70 years, any duration) in this cross-sectional, observational study. All subjects were assessed for pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, gonadal function, and dynamic testing was done when deemed necessary. The participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (Leprosy, n = 40) and Group 2 (Controls, n = 20) and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results: The study participants (35 males, 5 females) had a mean age of 36.4 ± 11.3 years, and duration of the disease was 2.5 ± 5.5 years. Eleven out of 40 patients showed results consistent with an endocrine disorder, including subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 4), sick euthyroid syndrome (n = 3), growth hormone (GH) deficiency (n = 2), primary hypogonadism (n = 2) and secondary hypogonadism in one patient. One patient had partial hypopituitarism (GH deficiency and secondary hypogonadism) and none of the controls showed any hormonal dysfunction. Testosterone levels showed inverse correlation with the number of skin patches (P = 0.0006). Conclusion: Occult endocrine dysfunction is seen in a quarter of patients with leprosy. Thyroid and gonadal axes abnormalities are common, and the severity is more in lepromatous forms of the disease. Further large studies are required to confirm the findings observed in our study. PMID:25932392

  9. Functional and Morphological Changes in Endocrine Pancreas following Cola Drink Consumption in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aim We report the effects of long-term cola beverage drinking on glucose homeostasis, endocrine pancreas function and morphology in rats. Methods Wistar rats drank: water (group W), regular cola beverage (group C, sucrose sweetened) or “light” cola beverage (group L, artificially sweetened). After 6 months, 50% of the animals in each group were euthanized and the remaining animals consumed water for the next 6 months when euthanasia was performed. Biochemical assays, insulinemia determination, estimation of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), morphometry and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed in pancreas. Results Hyperglycemia (16%, p<0.05), CoQ10 (coenzyme-Q10) decrease (−52%,p<0.01), strong hypertriglyceridemia (2.8-fold, p<0.01), hyperinsulinemia (2.4 fold, p<0.005) and HOMA-IR increase (2.7 fold, p<0.01) were observed in C. Group C showed a decrease in number of α cells (−42%, p<0.01) and β cells (−58%, p<0.001) and a moderate increase in α cells’ size after wash-out (+14%, p<0.001). Group L showed reduction in β cells’ size (−9%, p<0.001) and only after wash-out (L12) a 19% increase in size (p<0.0001) with 35% decrease in number of α cells (p<0.01). Groups C and L showed increase in α/β-cell ratio which was irreversible only in C (α/β = +38% in C6,+30% in C12, p<0.001vs.W6). Regular cola induced a striking increase in the cytoplasmic expression of Trx1 (Thioredoxin-1) (2.25-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2.7-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001) and Prx2 (Peroxiredoxin-2) (3-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001). Light cola induced increase in Trx1 (3-fold) and Prx2 (2-fold) after wash-out (p<0.0001, L12 vs. W12). Conclusion Glucotoxicity may contribute to the loss of β cell function with depletion of insulin content. Oxidative stress, suggested by increased expression of thioredoxins and low circulating levels of CoQ10, may follow sustained hyperglycemia. A likely similar panorama may result from the effects of artificially

  10. Adrenal androgens and androgen precursors: definition, synthesis, regulation and physiologic actions

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina; Smith, Joshua M.; Auchus, Richard; Rainey, William E.

    2015-01-01

    The human adrenal produces more 19 carbon (C19) steroids, by mass, than either glucocorticoids or mineralocorticoids. However, the mechanisms regulating adrenal C19 steroid biosynthesis continue to represent one of the most intriguing mysteries of endocrine physiology. This review will discuss the C19 steroids produced in the human adrenal and the features within the adrenal that allow production of these steroids. Finally, we consider the effects of these steroids in normal physiology and disorders of adrenal C19 steroid excess. PMID:25428847

  11. Myth vs. Fact: Adrenal Fatigue

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  12. Visually induced nausea causes characteristic changes in cerebral, autonomic and endocrine function in humans

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Adam D; Ban, Vin F; Coen, Steven J; Sanger, Gareth J; Barker, Gareth J; Gresty, Michael A; Giampietro, Vincent P; Williams, Steven C; Webb, Dominic L; Hellström, Per M; Andrews, Paul L R; Aziz, Qasim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An integrated understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in the genesis of nausea remains lacking. We aimed to describe the psychophysiological changes accompanying visually induced motion sickness, using a motion video, hypothesizing that differences would be evident between subjects who developed nausea in comparison to those who did not. A motion, or a control, stimulus was presented to 98 healthy subjects in a randomized crossover design. Validated questionnaires and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were used for the assessment of anxiety and nausea. Autonomic and electrogastrographic activity were measured at baseline and continuously thereafter. Plasma vasopressin and ghrelin were measured in response to the motion video. Subjects were stratified into quartiles based on VAS nausea scores, with the upper and lower quartiles considered to be nausea sensitive and resistant, respectively. Twenty-eight subjects were exposed to the motion video during functional neuroimaging. During the motion video, nausea-sensitive subjects had lower normogastria/tachygastria ratio and cardiac vagal tone but higher cardiac sympathetic index in comparison to the control video. Furthermore, nausea-sensitive subjects had decreased plasma ghrelin and demonstrated increased activity of the left anterior cingulate cortex. Nausea VAS scores correlated positively with plasma vasopressin and left inferior frontal and middle occipital gyri activity and correlated negatively with plasma ghrelin and brain activity in the right cerebellar tonsil, declive, culmen, lingual gyrus and cuneus. This study demonstrates that the subjective sensation of nausea is associated with objective changes in autonomic, endocrine and brain networks, and thus identifies potential objective biomarkers and targets for therapeutic interventions. Key points Nausea is a highly individual and variable experience. The reasons for this variability are incompletely understood although

  13. Adrenal myelolipoma: Controversies in its management

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vasanth G.; Thota, Anuroop; Shankar, Ravi; Desai, Mallikarjun G.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipomas (AMLs) are rare, benign neoplasms of the adrenal gland with varied clinical presentations. The rarity of these tumors precludes any case-controlled or randomized study into their management. The available literature is limited to case reports and short series from referral centers. This review is an effort to put the available literature into perspective such that clinical decision making can be done with some clarity. The PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched with key words Adrenal Myelolipoma, Adrenal Incidentaloma (AI) and Adrenal Collision Tumor (ACT). From over 1300 search results, 547 relevant publications dating from 1954 to 2014 were reviewed. Details of about 1231 AMLs in the indexed literature were analyzed. Increasing usage of imaging studies has significantly increased the discovery of AMLs. Although AMLs are benign tumors, those measuring larger than 6 cm are prone to rupture and hemorrhage. Thorough endocrine work-up may benefit a selected group of patients, especially those who are hypertensive, diabetic/pre-diabetic, young patients (<50 years) and those with bilateral AML. Regular observation is needed for AML patients who are being treated non-operatively, as many of them may require surgery during follow-up. Although the AACE/AAES guidelines for AI (2009) exclude AML from mandatory metabolic work-up for a newly discovered AI, we feel that a significant number of patients with AML would benefit from metabolic work-up. In the literature, endocrine dysfunction in AML is 7% as compared with 11% in AI. Endocrine dysfunction in AML is probably underdiagnosed. PMID:25878407

  14. Isoflavones, soy-based infant formulas, and relevance to endocrine function.

    PubMed

    Klein, K O

    1998-07-01

    For more than 60 years, soy-based infant formulas have been fed to millions of infants worldwide and studied in controlled clinical research. These products provide essential nutrients required for normal growth and development. The safety of isoflavones in soy-based products, including infant formulas, has been questioned recently owing to reports of possible endocrine effects in animals and in cultured cells. The literature offers no evidence of endocrine effects in humans from infant consumption of modern soy-based formulas. Growth is normal and no changes in the timing of puberty or in fertility rates have been reported in humans who consumed soy formulas as infants. Consequently, soy-based infant formulas continue to be a safe, nutritionally complete feeding option for most infants. PMID:9697385

  15. Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated In Vitro From Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Devices In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ambruzs, Dana M.; Moorman, Mark A.; Bhoumik, Anindita; Cesario, Rosemary M.; Payne, Janice K.; Kelly, Jonathan R.; Haakmeester, Carl; Srijemac, Robert; Wilson, Alistair Z.; Kerr, Justin; Frazier, Mauro A.; Kroon, Evert J.; D’Amour, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    The PEC-01 cell population, differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), contains pancreatic progenitors (PPs) that, when loaded into macroencapsulation devices (to produce the VC-01 candidate product) and transplanted into mice, can mature into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells and other pancreatic endocrine cells involved in glucose metabolism. We modified the protocol for making PEC-01 cells such that 73%–80% of the cell population consisted of PDX1-positive (PDX1+) and NKX6.1+ PPs. The PPs were further differentiated to islet-like cells (ICs) that reproducibly contained 73%–89% endocrine cells, of which approximately 40%–50% expressed insulin. A large fraction of these insulin-positive cells were single hormone-positive and expressed the transcription factors PDX1 and NKX6.1. To preclude a significant contribution of progenitors to the in vivo function of ICs, we used a simple enrichment process to remove remaining PPs, yielding aggregates that contained 93%–98% endocrine cells and 1%–3% progenitors. Enriched ICs, when encapsulated and implanted into mice, functioned similarly to the VC-01 candidate product, demonstrating conclusively that in vitro-produced hESC-derived insulin-producing cells can mature and function in vivo in devices. A scaled version of our suspension culture was used, and the endocrine aggregates could be cryopreserved and retain functionality. Although ICs expressed multiple important β cell genes, the cells contained relatively low levels of several maturity-associated markers. Correlating with this, the time to function of ICs was similar to PEC-01 cells, indicating that ICs required cell-autonomous maturation after delivery in vivo, which would occur concurrently with graft integration into the host. Significance Type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects approximately 1.25 million people in the U.S. alone and is deadly if not managed with insulin injections. This paper describes the production of insulin

  16. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis function and the relationship with chronic widespread pain and its antecedents.

    PubMed

    McBeth, John; Chiu, Yee H; Silman, Alan J; Ray, David; Morriss, Richard; Dickens, Chris; Gupta, Anindya; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2005-01-01

    In clinic studies, altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function has been associated with fibromyalgia, a syndrome characterised by chronic widespread body pain. These results may be explained by the associated high rates of psychological distress and somatisation. We address the hypothesis that the latter, rather than the pain, might explain the HPA results. A population study ascertained pain and psychological status in subjects aged 25 to 65 years. Random samples were selected from the following three groups: satisfying criteria for chronic widespread pain; free of chronic widespread pain but with strong evidence of somatisation ('at risk'); and a reference group. HPA axis function was assessed from measuring early morning and evening salivary cortisol levels, and serum cortisol after physical (pain pressure threshold exam) and chemical (overnight 0.25 mg dexamethasone suppression test) stressors. The relationship between HPA function with pain and the various psychosocial scales assessed was modelled using appropriate regression analyses, adjusted for age and gender. In all 131 persons with chronic widespread pain (participation rate 74%), 267 'at risk' (58%) and 56 controls (70%) were studied. Those in the chronic widespread pain and 'at risk' groups were, respectively, 3.1 (95% CI (1.3, 7.3)) and 1.8 (0.8, 4.0) times more likely to have a saliva cortisol score in the lowest third. None of the psychosocial factors measured were, however, associated with saliva cortisol scores. Further, those in the chronic widespread pain (1.9 (0.8, 4.7)) and 'at risk' (1.6 (0.7, 3.6)) groups were also more likely to have the highest serum cortisol scores. High post-stress serum cortisol was related to high levels of psychological distress (p = 0.05, 95% CI (0.02, 0.08)). After adjusting for levels of psychological distress, the association between chronic widespread pain and post-stress cortisol scores remained, albeit slightly attenuated. This is the first

  17. Acupuncture Relieves the Excessive Excitation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex Axis Function and Correlates with the Regulatory Mechanism of GR, CRH, and ACTHR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Qie, Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    It had been indicated in the previous studies that acupuncture relieved the excessive excitation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis (HPAA) function induced by stress stimulation. But the changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) induced by acupuncture have not been detected clearly. The objective of the study was to observe the impacts of acupuncture on the protein expressions of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR), and GR under the physiological and stress states. The results showed that under the stress state, acupuncture upregulated the protein expression of GR in the hippocampus, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and pituitary gland, downregulated the protein expression of GR in the adrenal cortex, and obviously reduced the protein expressions of CRH and ACTHR. Under the physiological state, acupuncture promoted GR protein expression in the hippocampus and CRH protein expression in the hippocampus and PVN. The results explained that acupuncture regulated the stress reaction via promoting the combination of glucocorticoids (GC) with GR, and GR protein expression. The increase of GR protein expression induced feedback inhibition on the overexpression of CRH and ACTHR, likely decreased GC level, and caused the reduction of GR protein expression in the adrenal cortex. PMID:24761151

  18. Noncoding RNAs in Endocrine Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kentwell, Jessica; Gundara, Justin S.

    2014-01-01

    Only recently has it been uncovered that the mammalian transcriptome includes a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that play a variety of important regulatory roles in gene expression and other biological processes. Among numerous kinds of ncRNAs, short noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs, have been extensively investigated with regard to their biogenesis, function, and importance in carcinogenesis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have only recently been implicated in playing a key regulatory role in cancer biology. The deregulation of ncRNAs has been demonstrated to have important roles in the regulation and progression of cancer development. In this review, we describe the roles of both short noncoding RNAs (including microRNAs, small nuclear RNAs, and piwi-interacting RNAs) and lncRNAs in carcinogenesis and outline the possible underlying genetic mechanisms, with particular emphasis on clinical applications. The focus of our review includes studies from the literature on ncRNAs in traditional endocrine-related cancers, including thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine malignancies. The current and potential future applications of ncRNAs in clinical cancer research is also discussed, with emphasis on diagnosis and future treatment. PMID:24718512

  19. Aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical carcinoma. A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Adrienne Carruth; Kelz, Rachel; LiVolsi, Virginia A

    2014-09-01

    Adrenal cortical carcinomas (ACC) are rare, typically aggressive malignant neoplasms with a reported incidence of 1-2 cases per 1 million population and account for 0.05-0.2 % of all malignancies. The majority of these tumors are functional with approximately 60 % of patients experiencing endocrine symptomatology typically characterized by Cushing's syndrome (40 %) or a mixed hormonal picture of Cushing syndrome seen in association with virilization. Rarely, patients present with a pure hormonal syndrome of feminization or hyperaldosteronism, 6 and 2.5 %, respectively. We report a case of a 76-year-old woman presenting with recently diagnosed hypertension secondary to primary hyperaldosteronism. The patient underwent laparoscopic converted to an open adrenalectomy and a diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (aldosteronoma clinical) was rendered. This case and review of the literature highlight that while rare, aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical carcinomas may occur. In this case report, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathologic findings, and review the literature for adrenal cortical carcinomas and aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical carcinomas. PMID:24682757

  20. Magnocellular hypothalamic system and its interaction with the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    Sivukhina, Elena V; Jirikowski, Gustav F

    2016-07-01

    The hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis and in regulation of numerous adaptive reactions, e.g., endocrine stress response. Nonapeptides vasopressin and oxytocin are the major hormones of this system. They are synthesized by magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei. Magnocellular vasopressin is known to be one of the main physiological regulators of water-electrolyte balance. Its importance for control of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis has been widely described. Magnocellular oxytocin is secreted predominantly during lactation and parturition. The complex actions of oxytocin within the brain include control of reproductive behavior and its involvement in central stress response to different stimuli. It's neuroendocrine basis is activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: corticotropin-releasing hormone is synthesized in parvocellular neurons of the paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei. The transitory coexpression of vasopressin in these cells upon stress has been described. Glucocorticoids, the end products of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis have both central and peripheral actions. Their availability to target tissues is mainly dependent on systemic levels of corticosteroid-binding globulin. Intrinsic expression of this protein in different brain regions in neurons and glial cells has been recently demonstrated. Regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system is highly complex. The role of both systems in the pathogenesis of various chronic ailments in humans has extensively been studied. Their disturbed functioning seems to be linked to various psychiatric, autoimmune and cardiovascular pathologies. PMID:26827626

  1. How Is Adrenal Surgery Performed?

    MedlinePlus

    HOME ADRENAL GLANDS Background Where are the adrenal glands? What do the adrenal glands do? Is this adrenal tumor a genetic problem? Primary hyperaldosteronism (aldosterone-producing tumor) What is primary hyperaldosteronism? Signs ...

  2. Adrenal steroidogenesis and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Turcu, Adina F; Auchus, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids (primarily aldosterone), glucocorticoids (primarily cortisol), and adrenal androgens (primarily dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate) occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal-recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-Hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for more than 90% of CAH cases and, when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. PMID:26038201

  3. Adrenal Steroidogenesis and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for over 90% of CAH cases and when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. This review discusses in detail the epidemiology, genetics, diagnostic, clinical aspects and management of 21OHD. PMID:26038201

  4. Endocrine Dysfunction in Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA): A Report from the DBA Registry (DBAR)

    PubMed Central

    Lahoti, Amit; Harris, Yael T; Speiser, Phyllis W; Atsidaftos, Evangelia; Lipton, Jeffrey M; Vlachos, Adrianna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. The mainstays of treatment involve chronic red cell transfusions, long-term glucocorticoid therapy, and stem cell transplantation. Systematic data concerning endocrine function in DBA are limited. We studied patients in the DBA Registry (DBAR) of North America to assess the prevalence of various endocrinopathies. Study design In a pilot study, retrospective data were collected for 12 patients with DBA. Subsequently, patients with DBA aged 1–39 years were recruited prospectively. Combined, 57 patients were studied; 38 chronically transfused, 12 glucocorticoid-dependent and 7 in remission. Data were collected on anthropometric measurements, systematic screening tests of pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreatic and gonadal function and ferritin levels. Descriptive statistics were tabulated and group differences assessed. Results Fifty-three percent of patients had ≥ 1 endocrine disorder, including adrenal insufficiency (32%), hypogonadism (29%), hypothyroidism (14%), growth hormone dysfunction (7%), diabetes mellitus (2%), and/or diabetes insipidus (2%). Ten of 33 patients with available heights had height SD <−2. Low 25(OH)D levels were present in 50%. A small proportion also had osteopenia, osteoporosis or hypercalciuria. Most with adrenal insufficiency were glucocorticoid-dependent; other endocrinopathies were more common in chronically transfused patients. Conclusions Endocrine dysfunction is common in DBA, as early as the teenage years. While prevalence is highest in transfused patients, patients taking glucocorticoids or in remission also have endocrine dysfunction. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the etiology and true prevalence of these disorders. PMID:26496000

  5. Perturbations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and adrenal androgen (AA) functions in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Masi, A T; Da Silva, J A; Cutolo, M

    1996-05-01

    physiology. The effects of alterations in the individual levels of these sex hormones and deviations from their normal physiological balance are not well understood. Critical attention to their biological functions is needed in RA as well as in health and disease generally. Such focused clinical and experimental investigations of HPG-AA functions promise to clarify the complex physiopathology of RA and contribute to its improved long-term management. PMID:8911651

  6. Lithium attenuated the depressant and anxiogenic effect of juvenile social stress through mitigating the negative impact of interlukin-1β and nitric oxide on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.

    PubMed

    Haj-Mirzaian, A; Amiri, S; Kordjazy, N; Momeny, M; Razmi, A; Rahimi-Balaei, M; Amini-Khoei, H; Haj-Mirzaian, A; Marzban, H; Mehr, S E; Ghaffari, S H; Dehpour, A R

    2016-02-19

    The neuroimmune-endocrine dysfunction has been accepted as one of fundamental mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the involvement of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, interleukin-1β, and nitrergic system in mediating the negative behavioral impacts of juvenile social isolation stress (SIS) in male mice. We also investigated the possible protective effects of lithium on behavioral and neurochemical changes in socially isolated animals. Results showed that experiencing 4-weeks of juvenile SIS provoked depressive and anxiety-like behaviors that were associated with hyper responsiveness of HPA axis, upregulation of interleukin-1β, and nitric oxide (NO) overproduction in the pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus. Administration of lithium (10 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the depressant and anxiogenic effects of SIS in behavioral tests. Lithium also restored the negative effects of SIS on cortical and hippocampal interleukin-1β and NO as well as HPA axis deregulation. Unlike the neutralizing effects of l-arginine (NO precursor), administration of l-NAME (3 mg/kg) and aminoguanidine (20 mg/kg) potentiated the positive effects of lithium on the behavioral and neurochemical profile of isolated mice. In conclusion, our results revealed that juvenile SIS-induced behavioral deficits are associated with abnormalities in HPA-immune function. Also, we suggest that alleviating effects of lithium on behavioral profile of isolated mice may be partly mediated by mitigating the negative impact of NO on HPA-immune function. PMID:26708749

  7. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  8. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... adrenal tumors that appear malignant. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  9. Exocrine and endocrine functional reserve in the course of chronic pancreatitis as studied by maximal stimulation tests.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, G; Bovo, P; Zamboni, M; Bosello, O; Filippini, M; Riela, A; Brocco, G; Rossi, L; Pelle, C; Chiavenato, A

    1992-01-01

    Thirty patients suffering from chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (18 calcified) were entered into a study of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function based on two maximal stimulation tests, namely the secretin-cerulein test and the glucagon test with serum assays of C peptide. The glucagon test was also performed in 19 control subjects. In addition, 10 chronic pancreatitis patients and nine controls were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with serum insulin determinations. C peptide basal values were decreased only in patients with severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (P less than 0.001), while delta C peptide values were also reduced in patients with moderate exocrine insufficiency (P less than 0.001). Lipase output correlated very well with delta C peptide values (P less than 0.001). While serum insulin levels during OGTT and C peptide basal values showed no significant differences between the chronic pancreatitis and control groups, delta C peptide values were significantly reduced in chronic pancreatitis patients (P less than 0.02). Both endocrine and exocrine function are impaired in chronic pancreatitis, as demonstrated by maximal tests, even in early stages of the disease. PMID:1728534

  10. GABA Signaling and Neuroactive Steroids in Adrenal Medullary Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Keita; Matsuoka, Hidetada; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ueta, Yoichi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Inoue, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced not only in the brain, but also in endocrine cells by the two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 and GAD67. In rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells only GAD67 is expressed, and GABA is stored in large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), but not synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The α3β2/3γ2 complex represents the majority of GABAA receptors expressed in rat and guinea pig chromaffin cells, whereas PC12 cells, an immortalized rat chromaffin cell line, express the α1 subunit as well as the α3. The expression of α3, but not α1, in PC12 cells is enhanced by glucocorticoid activity, which may be mediated by both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GABA has two actions mediated by GABAA receptors in chromaffin cells: it induces catecholamine secretion by itself and produces an inhibition of synaptically evoked secretion by a shunt effect. Allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid which is secreted from the adrenal cortex, produces a marked facilitation of GABAA receptor channel activity. Since there are no GABAergic nerve fibers in the adrenal medulla, GABA may function as a para/autocrine factor in the chromaffin cells. This function of GABA may be facilitated by expression of the immature isoforms of GAD and GABAA receptors and the lack of expression of plasma membrane GABA transporters (GATs). In this review, we will consider how the para/autocrine function of GABA is achieved, focusing on the structural and molecular mechanisms for GABA signaling. PMID:27147972

  11. GABA Signaling and Neuroactive Steroids in Adrenal Medullary Chromaffin Cells.

    PubMed

    Harada, Keita; Matsuoka, Hidetada; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Ueta, Yoichi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Inoue, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced not only in the brain, but also in endocrine cells by the two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65 and GAD67. In rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells only GAD67 is expressed, and GABA is stored in large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), but not synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The α3β2/3γ2 complex represents the majority of GABAA receptors expressed in rat and guinea pig chromaffin cells, whereas PC12 cells, an immortalized rat chromaffin cell line, express the α1 subunit as well as the α3. The expression of α3, but not α1, in PC12 cells is enhanced by glucocorticoid activity, which may be mediated by both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GABA has two actions mediated by GABAA receptors in chromaffin cells: it induces catecholamine secretion by itself and produces an inhibition of synaptically evoked secretion by a shunt effect. Allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid which is secreted from the adrenal cortex, produces a marked facilitation of GABAA receptor channel activity. Since there are no GABAergic nerve fibers in the adrenal medulla, GABA may function as a para/autocrine factor in the chromaffin cells. This function of GABA may be facilitated by expression of the immature isoforms of GAD and GABAA receptors and the lack of expression of plasma membrane GABA transporters (GATs). In this review, we will consider how the para/autocrine function of GABA is achieved, focusing on the structural and molecular mechanisms for GABA signaling. PMID:27147972

  12. Adrenal imaging (Part 2): Medullary and secondary adrenal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dhamija, Ekta; Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J.; Gupta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal malignancies can be either primary adrenal tumors or secondary metastases, with metastases representing the most common malignant adrenal lesion. While imaging cannot always clearly differentiate between various adrenal malignancies, presence of certain imaging features, in conjunction with appropriate clinical background and hormonal profile, can suggest the appropriate diagnosis. The second part of the article on adrenal imaging describes adrenal medullary tumors, secondary adrenal lesions, bilateral adrenal lesions, adrenal incidentalomas and provides an algorithmic approach to adrenal lesions based on current imaging recommendations. PMID:25593821

  13. Intraventricular encapsulated calf adrenal chromaffin cells: viable for at least 500 days in vivo without detectable adverse effects on behavioral/cognitive function or host immune sensitization in rats.

    PubMed

    Lindner, M D; Plone, M A; Frydel, B; Kaplan, F A; Krueger, P M; Bell, W J; Blaney, T J; Winn, S R; Sherman, S S; Doherty, E J; Emerich, D F

    1997-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that adrenal chromaffin cell transplants, including encapsulated xenogeneic adrenal chromaffin cells, have analgesic effects. However, in addition to efficacy, the clinical utility of encapsulated xenogeneic adrenal chromaffin cells for treatment of chronic pain is dependent on the duration of cell viability in vivo, and their relative safety. The objectives of the present study in rats were to: (1) examine encapsulated calf adrenal chromaffin (CAC) cells for evidence of viable cells and continued release of analgesic agents after an extended period in vivo; (2) determine if intraventricular encapsulated CAC cells produce detectable adverse effects on behavioral/cognitive function; and (3) test for evidence of host immune sensitization after an extended period of exposure to encapsulated xenogeneic adrenal chromaffin cells. Results of the present study suggest that some encapsulated CAC cells remain viable for nearly 1.5 years in vivo and continue to produce catecholamines and met-enkephalin. Post-explant device norepinephrine output was equivalent to amounts previously shown to produce analgesic effects with intrathecal implants. Encapsulated adrenal chromaffin cells also appeared relatively safe, even when implanted in the cerebral ventricals, with a lower side-effect profile than systemic morphine (4 mg/kg). There was no evidence that encapsulated CAC-cells implanted in the ventricles affected body weight, spontaneous activity levels, or performance in the delayed matching to position operant task which is sensitive to deficits in learning, memory, attention, motivation, and motor function. Finally, encapsulated CAC cells produced no detectable evidence of host immune sensitization after 16.7 months in vivo, although unencapsulated CAC cells produced a robust immune response even in aged rats. The results of the present study suggest that adrenal chromaffin cells remain viable in vivo for long periods of time, and that long

  14. Non-coding RNAs: Functions and applications in endocrine-related cancer.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Suresh, Padmanaban S; Tsutsumi, Rie

    2015-11-15

    A significant fraction of the human genome is transcribed as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). This non-coding transcriptome has challenged the notion of the central dogma and its involvement in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is well established. Interestingly, several ncRNAs are dysregulated in cancer and current non-coding transcriptome research aims to use our increasing knowledge of these ncRNAs for the development of cancer biomarkers and anti-cancer drugs. In endocrine-related cancers, for which survival rates can be relatively low, there is a need for such advancements. In this review, we aimed to summarize the roles and clinical implications of recently discovered ncRNAs, including long ncRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs, tRNA- and Y RNA-derived ncRNAs, and small nucleolar RNAs, in endocrine-related cancers affecting both sexes. We focus on recent studies highlighting discoveries in ncRNA biology and expression in cancer, and conclude with a discussion on the challenges and future directions, including clinical application. ncRNAs show great promise as diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets, but further work is necessary to realize the potential of these unconventional transcripts. PMID:26360585

  15. Endocrine activation in tachycardias.

    PubMed

    Lukac, P; Lukacova, S; Vigas, M; Hatala, R

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the complex character of neuroendocrine response to paroxysmal tachycardia. While the endocrine influences in arrhythmogenesis are well perceived by the cardiologists, less attention has been paid to influence of tachycardia on neuroendocrine activation. However, this may significantly alter the clinical course of tachycardias and its responses to pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Main characteristics of hormones with direct relationship to cardiovascular system (ANP, AVP, catecholamines, angiotensin and others) are listed with description of regulation of their secretion and main biological effects, especially with regard to regulation of circulation. Changes in hemodynamics during tachycardia with accompanying changes in ANP, AVP renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympatho-neural and sympatho-adrenal activation are reviewed. Further research and understanding require more complex approach and concentration on interrelationship of different regulatory hormones in tachycardia. (Fig. 2, Ref. 96.) PMID:11763674

  16. Enhancing offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) regulation via systematic novelty exposure: the influence of maternal HPA function

    PubMed Central

    Dinces, Sarah M.; Romeo, Russell D.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Tang, Akaysha C.

    2014-01-01

    In the rat, repeated brief exposures to novelty early in life can induce long-lasting enhancements in adult cognitive, social, emotional, and neuroendocrine function. Family-to-family variations in these intervention effects on adult offspring are predicted by the mother’s ability to mount a rapid corticosterone (CORT) response to the onset of an acute stressor. Here, in Long-Evans rats, we investigated whether neonatal and adulthood novelty exposure, each individually and in combination, can enhance offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) regulation. Using a 2 × 2 within-litter design, one half of each litter were exposed to a relatively novel non-home environment for 3-min (Neo_Novel) daily during infancy (PND 1–21) and the other half of the litter remained in the home cage (Neo_Home); we further exposed half of these two groups to early adulthood (PND 54–63) novelty exposure in an open field and the remaining siblings stayed in their home cages. Two aspects of HPA regulation were assessed: the ability to maintain a low level of resting CORT (CORTB) and the ability to mount a large rapid CORT response (CORTE) to the onset of an acute stressor. Assessment of adult offspring’s ability to regulate HPA regulation began at 370 days of age. We further investigated whether the novelty exposure effects on offspring HPA regulation are sensitive to the context of maternal HPA regulation by assessing maternal HPA regulation similarly beginning 7 days after her pups were weaned. We found that at the population level, rats receiving neonatal, but not early adulthood exposure or both, showed a greater rapid CORTE than their home-staying siblings. At the individual family level, these novelty effects are positively associated with maternal CORTE. These results suggest that early experience of novelty can enhance the offspring’s ability to mount a rapid response to environmental challenge and the success of such early life intervention is critically dependent

  17. Functional-morphological parallels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system response reaction to long-term hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsvetov, Y. P.; Razin, S. I.; Rychko, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of 2 and 4 week hypokinesia regimens on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system (HPAS) was investigated in 110 inbred mice. Progressive exhaustion and pathological reorganization of the HPAS morphofunctional structures was revealed. On the basis of established facts of interlineary and interspecies differences in the HPAS response, it is suggested that the animal body response reaction to the long term effects of hypokinesia depends largely on its HPAS resistance and the values of this system's defensive adaptation potential.

  18. The Environmental Pollutant Tributyltin Chloride Disrupts the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis at Different Levels in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila L; Sena, Gabriela C; de Araújo, Julia F P; Lima, Leandro C F; Alves, Izabela S S; Gama-de-Souza, Letícia N; Pelição, Renan; Rodrigues, Lívia C M; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Pires, Rita G W; Martins-Silva, Cristina; Alarcon, Tamara A; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Graceli, Jones B

    2016-08-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an environmental contaminant that is used as a biocide in antifouling paints. TBT has been shown to induce endocrine-disrupting effects. However, studies evaluating the effects of TBT on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are especially rare. The current study demonstrates that exposure to TBT is critically responsible for the improper function of the mammalian HPA axis as well as the development of abnormal morphophysiology in the pituitary and adrenal glands. Female rats were treated with TBT, and their HPA axis morphophysiology was assessed. High CRH and low ACTH expression and high plasma corticosterone levels were detected in TBT rats. In addition, TBT leads to an increased in the inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in the hypothalamus of TBT rats. Morphophysiological abnormalities, including increases in inflammation, a disrupted cellular redox balance, apoptosis, and collagen deposition in the pituitary and adrenal glands, were observed in TBT rats. Increases in adiposity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ protein expression in the adrenal gland were observed in TBT rats. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that TBT leads to functional dissociation between CRH, ACTH, and costicosterone, which could be associated an inflammation and increased of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in hypothalamus. Thus, TBT exerts toxic effects at different levels on the HPA axis function. PMID:27267847

  19. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...

  20. Syndromes that Link the Endocrine System and Genitourinary Tract.

    PubMed

    Özlük, Yasemin; Kılıçaslan, Işın

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system and genitourinary tract unite in various syndromes. Genitourinary malignancies may cause paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes by secreting hormonal substances. These entities include Cushing`s syndrome, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, polycythemia, hypertension, and inappropriate ADH or HCG production. The most important syndromic scenarios that links these two systems are hereditary renal cancer syndromes with specific genotype/phenotype correlation. There are also some very rare entities in which endocrine and genitourinary systems are involved such as Carney complex, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We will review all the syndromes regarding manifestations present in endocrine and genitourinary organs. PMID:26177325

  1. Ovarian and placental morphology and endocrine functions in the pregnant giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Wilsher, S; Stansfield, F; Greenwood, R E S; Trethowan, P D; Anderson, R A; Wooding, F B W; Allen, W R

    2013-06-01

    Gross, histological and immunocytochemical examinations carried out on maternal and fetal reproductive tissues from two pregnant giraffes at an estimated 8 and 13.5 months of gestation (term=15 months) revealed a typically ruminant macrocotyledonary placenta with binucleate trophoblast cells scattered sparsely in the placentome where they stained intensely with a prolactin antiserum. Binucleate cells were present in greater numbers in the intercotyledonary allantochorion where they did not stain for prolactin whereas the uninucleate trophoblast still did. A single large corpus luteum of pregnancy and several small luteinised follicles were present in the maternal ovaries while the fetal ovaries at 13.5 months gestation showed an assortment of enlarging antral follicles and partially and completely lutenised follicles, the granulosa and luteal cells of which stained positively for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17,20 lyase, prolactin, progesterone receptor and androgen receptor, but negatively for aromatase. The uninucleate trophoblast of the placentome and intercotyledonary allantochorion, the epithelium of the maternal endometrial glands, the seminiferous epithelium in the fetal testis at 8 months of gestation and the zonae fasciculata and reticularis of the fetal adrenal at 13.5 months also stained positively for 3β-HSD and negatively for aromatase. Endocrinologically, it appears that the giraffe placenta is more similar to that of the sheep than the cow with a placental lactogen as the likely driver of the considerable degree of luteinisation seen in both the maternal and the fetal ovaries. PMID:23550169

  2. Endothelial cells from bovine adrenal medulla develop capillary-like growth patterns in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, D K; Ornberg, R L; Youdim, M B; Heldman, E; Pollard, H B

    1985-01-01

    The endocrine barrier between chromaffin cells and the blood stream in the adrenal medulla is made of capillary endothelial cells. We have now succeeded in isolating endothelial cells from adrenal medullary tissue, which are probably derived from this barrier. These cells grow on plastic surfaces in the absence of special growth factors or collagen overlays and differentiate into organized structures quite similar to true capillaries. The cells contain factor VIII:R, a marker for endothelial cells, and form intercellular junctions characteristic of capillary endothelial cells. They also synthesize and secrete basal lamina structures and engage in transcytosis, a characteristic ultrastructural and functional combination of exocytosis and endocytosis across the thin endothelial cell processes. These endothelial cells can take up and deaminate catecholamines by A-type monoamine oxidase, an enzyme functionally distinct from the B-type monoamine oxidase found in chromaffin cells. These data indicate that the chromaffin cell and its endothelial cell neighbor may constitute the functional unit of catecholamine metabolism in the adrenal medulla. Images PMID:3927288

  3. [Functional morphology of the adrenal cortex and incretory kidney structures in the salt-losing form of adrenogenital syndrome in children].

    PubMed

    Tsibel', B N; Padalko, N L

    1986-01-01

    The adrenals and kidney incretory structures (the juxtaglomerular apparatuses and renomedullary interstitial cells) were studied in 12 cases of a desalinization form of the adrenogenital syndrome in children who died at the age of 1-6 mos of acute water-electrolytic disturbances in order to assess function of the structures involved in the regulation of the water-salt equilibrium. The adrenals and kidneys from 7 children of the same age who died of mechanical asphyxia, were taken as controls. The depth of adrenocortical zones, volumes of nuclei and nucleoli in different cortical zones were determined; the juxtaglomerular index, cell count (including vacuolized cells), the area of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and mesangium were determined in the juxtaglomerular apparatus. The amount of cell lipid granules (the interstitial-cellular index), the mean granule volume and the total granule volume were counted in renomedullary interstitial cells. The results were statistically processed, and a paired correlation analysis of all the studied parameters was performed. In the desalinization form of the adrenogenital syndrome morphometric investigation of the glomerular and fascicular zones revealed compensatory processes, not of hyperplastic nature but mainly of hypertrophic nature; morphological and morphometric characteristics of the kidney incretory structures indicated tension of the renin-angiotensin system and probably a decrease in prostaglandin synthesis in salt and water loss. In the control group parameters of structures related to the regulation of the water-salt equilibrium, especially in the adrenal cortex, showed good correlation. In the desalinization form of the adrenogenital syndrome some other relationships between these structures developed. PMID:3809126

  4. Clinical and Biochemical Data of Adult Thalassemia Major patients (TM) with Multiple Endocrine Complications (MEC) versus TM Patients with Normal Endocrine Functions: A long-term Retrospective Study (40 years) in a Tertiary Care Center in Italy

    PubMed Central

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elsedfy, Heba; Soliman, Ashraf T.; Elhakim, Ihab Zaki; Kattamis, Christos; Soliman, Nada A.; Elalaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the older generation of adult TM patients has a higher incidence of morbidities and co-morbidities. At present, little information is available on adult TM patients with multiple endocrine complications (MEC). The main objectives of this longitudinal retrospective survey were: 1) to establish the incidence and progression of MEC (3 or more) in TM patients; 2) to compare the clinical, laboratory and imaging data to a sex and age-matched group of TM patients without MEC; 3) to assess the influence of iron overload represented by serum ferritin (peak and mean annual value at the last endocrine observation). Patients and methods The study was started in January 1974 and was completed by the same physician at the end of December 2015. The registry database of the regularly followed TM patients from diagnosis included 145 adults (> 18 years). All TM patients were of Italian ethnic origin. Eleven out of 145 patients (7.5 %) developed MEC. Twenty-four other patients (12 females and 12 males) had a normal endocrine function (16.5 %) and served as controls. Results In our survey, four important, relevant aspects emerged in the MEC group. These included the late age at the start of chelation therapy with desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO); the higher serum ferritin peak (8521.8 ± 5958.9 vs 3575.2 ± 1801.4 ng/ml); the upper proportion of splenectomized (81.8 % vs. 28.5%) patients and poor compliance registered mainly during the peripubertal and pubertal age (72.7 % vs.16.6 %) in TM patients developing MEC versus those without endocrine complications. Furthermore, a negative correlation was observed in all TM patients between LIC and final height (r: −0.424; p = 0.031). Conclusions Our study supports the view that simultaneous involvement of more than one endocrine gland is not uncommon (7.5 %). It mainly occurred in TM patients who started chelation therapy with DFO late in life and who had irregular/poor compliance to treatment. Therefore

  5. Neuroendocrine targets of endocrine disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Andrea C.

    2010-01-01

    The central neuroendocrine systems are responsible for the control of homeostatic processes in the body, including reproduction, growth, metabolism and energy balance, and stress responsiveness. These processes are initiated by signals in the central nervous system, specifically the hypothalamus, and are conveyed first by neural and then by endocrine effectors. The neuroendocrine systems, as the links between the brain and peripheral endocrine systems, play critical roles in the ability of an organism to respond to its environment under normal circumstances. When neuroendocrine homeostasis is disrupted by environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals, a variety of perturbations can ensue, particularly when endocrine disruption occurs during critical developmental time periods. This article will discuss the evidence for environmental endocrine disruption of neuroendocrine systems, and the sequelae on endocrine and reproductive functions. PMID:20363718

  6. A case of adrenal Cushing’s syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ya-Wun; Hwu, Chii-Min; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Chu, Chia-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Summary A functional lesion in corticotrophin (ACTH)-independent Cushing’s syndrome is difficult to distinguish from lesions of bilateral adrenal masses. Methods for distinguishing these lesions include adrenal venous sampling and 131I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (131I-NP-59) scintigraphy. We present a case of a 29-year-old Han Chinese female patient with a history of hypercholesterolaemia and polycystic ovary syndrome. She presented with a 6month history of an 8kg body weight gain and gradual rounding of the face. Serial examinations revealed loss of circadian rhythm of cortisol, elevated urinary free-cortisol level and undetectable ACTH level (<5pg/mL). No suppression was observed in both the low- and high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests. Adrenal computed tomography revealed bilateral adrenal masses. Adrenal venous sampling was performed, and the right-to-left lateralisation ratio was 14.29. The finding from adrenal scintigraphy with NP-59 was consistent with right adrenal adenoma. The patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, and the pathology report showed adrenocortical adenoma. Her postoperative cortisol level was 3.2μg/dL, and her Cushingoid appearance improved. In sum, both adrenal venous sampling and 131I-NP-59 scintigraphy are good diagnostic methods for Cushing’s syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses. Learning points The clinical presentation of Cushing’ syndrome includes symptoms and signs of fat redistribution and protein-wasting features. The diagnosis of patients with ACTH-independent Cushing’s syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses is challenging for localisation of the lesion. Both adrenal venous sampling and 131I-NP-59 scintigraphy are good methods to use in these patients with Cushing’s syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses. PMID:27252858

  7. Endocrine Dysfunction in X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Burtman, Elizabeth; Regelmann, Molly O

    2016-06-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene and leads to an elevation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). The accumulation of the VLCFA and the associated oxidative stress can present with a spectrum of significant neurologic disease, adrenal insufficiency, and testicular dysfunction in males with ABCD1 gene mutations. Much of the published literature for X-ALD has focused on the associated devastating progressive neurologic conditions. The purpose of this review is to summarize the concerns for endocrine dysfunction associated with X-ALD and provide guidance for monitoring and management of adrenal insufficiency. PMID:27241966

  8. Bilateral Adrenal Adenoma Presented As Multiple Metatarsal And Phalangeal Fractures

    PubMed Central

    LiYeung, L L; Lui, T H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic adrenal adenoma usually presents with systemic symptoms. Depending on the function of the adenoma, the patient can present with pheochromocytoma-like symptoms; primary hyperaldosteronism and Cushing syndrome (weight gain, weakness, depression, and bruising). Case report: A 41 year-old lady presented with multiple metatarsal and phalangeal fractures of the both feet without significant injury. DEXA scan showed evidence of osteoporosis. Investigations showed that the picture was compatible with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Computed tomogram showed bilateral adrenal adenoma. Adrenal cortex scintigraphy with NP-59 scan showed hyperfunctioning right adrenal adenoma. Laproscopic R adrenalectomy was performed and histological study confirmed adrenal cortical adenoma with adjacent cortical atrophy suggestive of a functioning adenoma. Post-operatively, she was put on hydrocortisone replacement and recovered well. Conclusion: Adrenal adenoma can present with insufficiency fractures of the feet. PMID:27299107

  9. Exocrine and endocrine testicular function during the treatment of experimental orchitis and nonspecific orchoepididymitis by low-energy laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznikov, Leonid L.; Pupkova, Ludmila S.; Bell, H.; Murzin, Alexander G.

    1995-05-01

    Investigations into the biological effects of low-energy laser radiation (LLR) are characterized by a score of challenges, which are due primarily to a cascade of laser-induced and sometimes antagonistic processes. To investigate these processes on various biologic levels, we analyzed local and general effects of LLR on the exocrine and endocrine functions of the accessory sex glands in experimentally induced orchitis and orchoepididymitis in rabbits, and in clinical studies on male patients. The results indicate that LLR may alter the inflammatory response, including the exudative reaction, macrophage migration, and fibroblast activity. Furthermore, LLR may result in changes in serum concentrations of LH, FSH, and ACTH, prolactin, testosterone, cortisol and aldosterone. Some of these changes may be at least partially responsible for the well-known anti-inflammatory effects of LLR.

  10. Long-term effects of cranial irradiation on endocrine function in children with brain tumors. A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Duffner, P.K.; Cohen, M.E.; Voorhess, M.L.; MacGillivray, M.H.; Brecher, M.L.; Panahon, A.; Gilani, B.B.

    1985-11-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the endocrine function of 11 children treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) for brain tumors. All tumors were remote from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Children were studied before treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the completion of CRT. T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, plasma cortisol, and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone values were normal before and after treatment in all patients. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency was identified in 0 of 7 patients before treatment, in 2 of 7 patients 3 months post-CRT, in 9 of 11 patients 6 months post-CRT, and in 7 of 8 patients 12 months post-CRT. Growth deceleration was identified in five of seven prepubertal patients. GH deficiency is an extremely common sequelae of CRT, beginning as early as 3 months after the completion of CRT. The deficit is progressive over time.

  11. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. PMID:27449391

  12. Effect of space flight on the development of endocrine functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Jezová, D; Jurcovicová, J; Kvetnanský, R; Vigas, M; Serová, L B

    1993-03-01

    The effects of the exposure to space flights on plasma hormone levels were studied in adult male rats, in pregnant females and in their progeny. An increase of plasma corticosterone (CS) and insulin (I) levels was found in male rats after space flights for a period of 7, 15, 18 and 20 days. Plasma levels of growth hormone (GH) were decreased and those of epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) were elevated in rats exposed to longer space flights (18 or 20 days). In pregnant female rats no significant changes of plasma concentrations of CS, GH, I, E and NE were noted after short term space flight (5 days). However, the plasma prolactin levels were elevated. In young animals exposed to space flight during fetal development no changes of plasma I and prolactin levels were noted during the period of postnatal growth. However, the plasma CS levels were elevated in these rats and no gradual increase of CS plasma concentration was observed during the postnatal period. The plasma GH levels were reduced in rats exposed to space flight and the levels of catecholamines in plasma and in adrenal glands were elevated in 30 and 100 day old rats exposed to microgravity during the fetal development. These results demonstrated: 1. that exposure of rats to space flight is followed by changes in I and CS plasma levels, but the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system is only slightly activated by longer space flights; 2. that a short term space flight is only a mild stressor for pregnant rats and slightly affects the activity of adrenocortical and sympathetic-adrenomedullary systems during the development of their offsprings. PMID:8003702

  13. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    PubMed

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish. PMID:25565366

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus): Changes in baseline activity, reactivity, and fecal excretion of glucocorticoids across the diurnal cycle

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Breanna N.; Saltzman, Wendy; de Jong, Trynke R.; Milnes, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The California mouse, Peromyscus californicus, is an increasingly popular animal model in behavioral, neural, and endocrine studies, but little is known about its baseline hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity or HPA responses to stressors. We characterized plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in P. californicus under baseline conditions across the diurnal cycle, in response to pharmacological manipulation of the HPA axis, and in response to a variety of stressors at different times of day. In addition, we explored the use of fecal samples to monitor adrenocortical activity non-invasively. California mice have very high baseline levels of circulating CORT that change markedly over 24 hours, but that do not differ between the sexes. This species may be somewhat glucocorticoid-resistant in comparison to other rodents as a relatively high dose of dexamethasone (5 mg/kg, s.c.) was required to suppress plasma CORT for 8 h post-injection. CORT responses to stressors and ACTH injection differed with time of day, as CORT concentrations were elevated more readily during the morning (inactive period) than in the evening (active period) when compared to time-matched control. Data from 3H-CORT injection studies show that the time course for excretion of fecal CORT, or glucocorticoid metabolites, differs with time of injection. Mice injected in the evening excreted the majority of fecal radioactivity 2–4 h post-injection whereas mice injected during the morning did so at 14–16 h post-injection. Unfortunately, the antibody we used does not adequately bind the most prevalent fecal glucocorticoid metabolites and therefore we could not validate its use for fecal assays. PMID:23026495

  15. Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Dum, Richard P; Levinthal, David J; Strick, Peter L

    2016-08-30

    Modern medicine has generally viewed the concept of "psychosomatic" disease with suspicion. This view arose partly because no neural networks were known for the mind, conceptually associated with the cerebral cortex, to influence autonomic and endocrine systems that control internal organs. Here, we used transneuronal transport of rabies virus to identify the areas of the primate cerebral cortex that communicate through multisynaptic connections with a major sympathetic effector, the adrenal medulla. We demonstrate that two broad networks in the cerebral cortex have access to the adrenal medulla. The larger network includes all of the cortical motor areas in the frontal lobe and portions of somatosensory cortex. A major component of this network originates from the supplementary motor area and the cingulate motor areas on the medial wall of the hemisphere. These cortical areas are involved in all aspects of skeletomotor control from response selection to motor preparation and movement execution. The second, smaller network originates in regions of medial prefrontal cortex, including a major contribution from pregenual and subgenual regions of anterior cingulate cortex. These cortical areas are involved in higher-order aspects of cognition and affect. These results indicate that specific multisynaptic circuits exist to link movement, cognition, and affect to the function of the adrenal medulla. This circuitry may mediate the effects of internal states like chronic stress and depression on organ function and, thus, provide a concrete neural substrate for some psychosomatic illness. PMID:27528671

  16. Threshold-Dependent Cooperativity of Pdx1 and Oc1 in Pancreatic Progenitors Establishes Competency for Endocrine Differentiation and β-Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Henley, Kathryn D; Stanescu, Diana E; Kropp, Peter A; Wright, Christopher V E; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Stoffers, Doris A; Gannon, Maureen

    2016-06-21

    Pdx1 and Oc1 are co-expressed in multipotent pancreatic progenitors and regulate the pro-endocrine gene Neurog3. Their expression diverges in later organogenesis, with Oc1 absent from hormone+ cells and Pdx1 maintained in mature β cells. In a classical genetic test for cooperative functional interactions, we derived mice with combined Pdx1 and Oc1 heterozygosity. Endocrine development in double-heterozygous pancreata was normal at embryonic day (E)13.5, but defects in specification and differentiation were apparent at E15.5, the height of the second wave of differentiation. Pancreata from double heterozygotes showed alterations in the expression of genes crucial for β-cell development and function, decreased numbers and altered allocation of Neurog3-expressing endocrine progenitors, and defective endocrine differentiation. Defects in islet gene expression and β-cell function persisted in double heterozygous neonates. These results suggest that Oc1 and Pdx1 cooperate prior to their divergence, in pancreatic progenitors, to allow for proper differentiation and functional maturation of β cells. PMID:27292642

  17. Threshold-dependent cooperativity of Pdx1 and Oc1 in pancreatic progenitors establishes competency for endocrine differentiation and β-cell function

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Christopher V.E.; Won, Kyoung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pdx1 and Oc1 are co-expressed in multipotent pancreatic progenitors and regulate the pro-endocrine gene Neurog3. Their expression diverges in later organogenesis, with Oc1 absent from hormone+ cells and Pdx1 maintained in mature β cells. In a classical genetic test for cooperative functional interactions, we derived mice with combined Pdx1 and Oc1 heterozygosity. Endocrine development in double-heterozygous pancreata was normal at embryonic day (e)13.5, but defects in specification and differentiation were apparent at e15.5, the height of the second wave of differentiation. Pancreata from double heterozygotes showed alterations in the expression of genes crucial for β-cell development and function, decreased numbers and altered allocation of Neurog3-expressing endocrine progenitors, and defective endocrine differentiation. Defects in islet gene expression and β-cell function persisted in double heterozygous neonates. These results suggest that Oc1 and Pdx1 cooperate prior to their divergence, in pancreatic progenitors, to allow for proper differentiation and functional maturation of β cells. PMID:27292642

  18. DIFFERENCES IN THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF FATHEAD MINNOW AND HUMAN ERA: IMPLICATIONS FOR IN VITRO TESTING OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammalian receptors and assay systems are generally used for in vitro analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) with the assumption that minor differences in amino acid sequences among species do not translate into significant differences in receptor function. We have fou...

  19. Trauma exposure and hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis functioning in mentally healthy Dutch peacekeeping veterans, 10-25 years after deployment.

    PubMed

    Klaassens, Ellen R; van Veen, Tineke; Giltay, Erik J; Rinne, Thomas; van Pelt, Johannes; Zitman, Frans G

    2010-02-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations have been found in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear whether trauma exposure during adulthood in the absence of psychopathology is also associated with HPA-axis dysregulation. Thirty-six trauma-exposed peacekeepers, 23 nonexposed peacekeepers, and 25 nonexposed civilians, all without lifetime psychopathology were studied. Basal HPA-axis functioning was assessed with salivary cortisol samples obtained over 2 days. HPA-axis reactivity was assessed with the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test. Lower afternoon salivary cortisol levels were found in both veteran groups versus controls after adjustment for confounders. The authors concluded that this study does not support the idea that HPA-axis functioning is durably altered by trauma exposure during adulthood in men. PMID:20146391

  20. Therapy of adrenal insufficiency: an update.

    PubMed

    Falorni, Alberto; Minarelli, Viviana; Morelli, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Adrenal insufficiency may be caused by the destruction or altered function of the adrenal gland with a primary deficit in cortisol secretion (primary adrenal insufficiency) or by hypothalamic-pituitary pathologies determining a deficit of ACTH (secondary adrenal insufficiency). The clinical picture is determined by the glucocorticoid deficit, which may in some conditions be accompanied by a deficit of mineralcorticoids and adrenal androgens. The substitutive treatment is aimed at reducing the signs and symptoms of the disease as well as at preventing the development of an addisonian crisis, a clinical emergency characterized by hypovolemic shock. The oral substitutive treatment should attempt at mimicking the normal circadian profile of cortisol secretion, by using the lower possible doses able to guarantee an adequate quality of life to patients. The currently available hydrocortisone or cortisone acetate preparations do not allow an accurate reproduction of the physiological secretion pattern of cortisol. A novel dual-release formulation of hydrocortisone, recently approved by EMEA, represents an advancement in the optimization of the clinical management of patients with adrenal insufficiency. Future clinical trials of immunomodulation or immunoprevention will test the possibility to delay (or prevent) the autoimmune destruction of the adrenal gland in autoimmune Addison's disease. PMID:23179775

  1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dessinioti, Cleo; Katsambas, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia consists of a heterogenous group of inherited disorders due to enzymatic defects in the biosynthetic pathway of cortisol and/or aldosterone. This results in glucocorticoid deficiency, mineralocorticoid deficiency, and androgen excess. 95% of CAH cases are due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical forms range from the severe, classical CAH associated with complete loss of enzyme function, to milder, non-classical forms (NCAH). Androgen excess affects the pilosebaceous unit, causing cutaneous manifestations such as acne, androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism. Clinical differential diagnosis between NCAH and polycystic ovary syndrome may be difficult. In this review, the evaluation of patients with suspected CAH, the clinical presentation of CAH forms, with emphasis on the cutaneous manifestations of the disease, and available treatment options, will be discussed. PMID:22523607

  2. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Response to Stress in Mice Lacking Functional Vasopressin V1b Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lolait, Stephen J.; Stewart, Lesley Q.; Jessop, David S.; Young, W. Scott; O'Carroll, Anne-Marie

    2007-01-01

    The role of arginine vasopressin (Avp) as an adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretagogue is mediated by the Avp 1b receptor (Avpr1b) found on anterior pituitary corticotropes. Avp also potentiates the actions of corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh) and appears to be an important mediator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to chronic stress. To investigate the role of Avp in the HPA axis response to stress, we measured plasma ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) levels in Avpr1b knockout (KO) mice and wild-type controls in response to two acute (restraint and insulin administration) and one form of chronic (daily restraint for 14 days) stress. No significant difference was found in the basal plasma levels of ACTH and CORT between the two genotypes. Acute restraint (30 min) increased plasma ACTH and CORT to a similar level in both the Avpr1b mutant and wild-type mice. In contrast, plasma ACTH and CORT levels induced by hypoglycemia were significantly decreased in the Avpr1b KO mice when compared to wild-type littermates. There was no difference in the ACTH response to acute and chronic restraint in wild-type mice. In the Avpr1b KO group subjected to 14 sessions of daily restraint, plasma ACTH was decreased when compared to wild-type mice. On the other hand, the CORT elevations induced by restraint did not adapt in the Avpr1b KO or wild-type mice. The data suggests that the Avpr1b is required for the normal pituitary and adrenal response to some acute stressful stimuli, and is necessary only for a normal ACTH response during chronic stress. PMID:17122081

  3. Structural and functional characterization of aromatase, estrogen receptor, and their genes in endocrine-responsive and -resistant breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hei Jason; Petrossian, Karineh; Chen, Shiuan

    2016-07-01

    Aromatase and estrogen receptor α (ER) are two key proteins for the proliferation of endocrine-responsive and -resistant breast cancers. Aromatase is an enzyme involved in the conversion of androgen (such as testosterone) to estrogen (such as 17β-estradiol). It is also a very effective therapeutic target for the treatment of endocrine-responsive breast cancer. Comparing endocrine-responsive and -resistant breast cancer, aromatase protein levels do not change significantly. Aromatase activity; however, can be increased via PI3K/Akt/IGFR signaling pathways in endocrine resistant cells. The activity of aromatase has been reported to be modulated by phosphorylation. The ER is an important steroid nuclear receptor in the proliferation of both endocrine-responsive and -resistant cells. Although the mutation or amplification of ER can cause endocrine resistance, it is not commonly found. Some point mutations and translocation events have been characterized and shown to promote estrogen-independent growth. Phosphorylation by cross-talk with growth factor pathways is one of the main mechanisms for ligand-independent activation of ER. Taken together, both ER and aromatase are important in ER-dependent breast cancer and the development of endocrine resistance. PMID:26277097

  4. Double NF1 Inactivation Affects Adrenocortical Function in NF1Prx1 Mice and a Human Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kobus, Karolina; Hartl, Daniela; Ott, Claus Eric; Osswald, Monika; Huebner, Angela; von der Hagen, Maja; Emmerich, Denise; Kühnisch, Jirko; Morreau, Hans; Hes, Frederik J.; Mautner, Victor F.; Harder, Anja; Tinschert, Sigrid; Mundlos, Stefan; Kolanczyk, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1, MIM#162200) is a relatively frequent genetic condition, which predisposes to tumor formation. Apart from tumors, individuals with NF1 often exhibit endocrine abnormalities such as precocious puberty (2,5–5% of NF1 patients) and some cases of hypertension (16% of NF1 patients). Several cases of adrenal cortex adenomas have been described in NF1 individuals supporting the notion that neurofibromin might play a role in adrenal cortex homeostasis. However, no experimental data were available to prove this hypothesis. Materials and Methods We analysed Nf1Prx1 mice and one case of adrenal cortical hyperplasia in a NF1patient. Results In Nf1Prx1 mice Nf1 is inactivated in the developing limbs, head mesenchyme as well as in the adrenal gland cortex, but not the adrenal medulla or brain. We show that adrenal gland size is increased in NF1Prx1 mice. Nf1Prx1 female mice showed corticosterone and aldosterone overproduction. Molecular analysis of Nf1 deficient adrenals revealed deregulation of multiple proteins, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), a vital mitochondrial factor promoting transfer of cholesterol into steroid making mitochondria. This was associated with a marked upregulation of MAPK pathway and a female specific increase of cAMP concentration in murine adrenal lysates. Complementarily, we characterized a patient with neurofibromatosis type I with macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with ACTH-independent cortisol overproduction. Comparison of normal control tissue- and adrenal hyperplasia- derived genomic DNA revealed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the wild type NF1 allele, showing that biallelic NF1 gene inactivation occurred in the hyperplastic adrenal gland. Conclusions Our data suggest that biallelic loss of Nf1 induces autonomous adrenal hyper-activity. We conclude that Nf1 is involved in the regulation of adrenal cortex function in mice and humans. PMID:25775093

  5. Isolation of neural crest derived chromaffin progenitors from adult adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kuei-Fang; Sicard, Flavie; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Hermann, Andreas; Storch, Alexander; Huttner, Wieland B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2009-10-01

    Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are neural crest-derived cells of the sympathoadrenal lineage. Unlike the closely-related sympathetic neurons, a subpopulation of proliferation-competent cells exists even in the adult. Here, we describe the isolation, expansion, and in vitro characterization of proliferation-competent progenitor cells from the bovine adrenal medulla. Similar to neurospheres, these cells, when prevented from adherence to the culture dish, grew in spheres, which we named chromospheres. These chromospheres were devoid of mRNA specific for smooth muscle cells (MYH11) or endothelial cells (PECAM1). During sphere formation, markers for differentiated chromaffin cells, such as phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase, were downregulated while neural progenitor markers nestin, vimentin, musashi 1, and nerve growth factor receptor, as well as markers of neural crest progenitor cells such as Sox1 and Sox9, were upregulated. Clonal analysis and bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-incorporation analysis demonstrated the self-renewing capacity of chromosphere cells. Differentiation protocols using NGF and BMP4 or dexamethasone induced neuronal or endocrine differentiation, respectively. Electrophysiological analyses of neural cells derived from chromospheres revealed functional properties of mature nerve cells, such as tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels and action potentials. Our study provides evidence that proliferation and differentiation competent chromaffin progenitor cells can be isolated from adult adrenal medulla and that these cells might harbor the potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:19609938

  6. Combined Loss of the GATA4 and GATA6 Transcription Factors in Male Mice Disrupts Testicular Development and Confers Adrenal-Like Function in the Testes

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Maria B.; Jiang, Tianyu; Morse, Deborah A.; Fox, Shawna C.; Hatch, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    The roles of the GATA4 and GATA6 transcription factors in testis development were examined by simultaneously ablating Gata4 and Gata6 with Sf1Cre (Nr5a1Cre). The deletion of both genes resulted in a striking testicular phenotype. Embryonic Sf1Cre; Gata4flox/flox Gata6flox/flox (conditional double mutant) testes were smaller than control organs and contained irregular testis cords and fewer gonocytes. Gene expression analysis revealed significant down-regulation of Dmrt1 and Mvh. Surprisingly, Amh expression was strongly up-regulated and remained high beyond postnatal day 7, when it is normally extinguished. Neither DMRT1 nor GATA1 was detected in the Sertoli cells of the mutant postnatal testes. Furthermore, the expression of the steroidogenic genes Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, and Hsd17b3 was low throughout embryogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a prominent reduction in cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1)- and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-positive (3βHSD) cells, with few 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase-positive (CYP17A1) cells present. In contrast, in postnatal Sf1Cre; Gata4flox/flox Gata6flox/flox testes, the expression of the steroidogenic markers Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b6 was increased, but a dramatic down-regulation of Hsd17b3, which is required for testosterone synthesis, was observed. The genes encoding adrenal enzymes Cyp21a1, Cyp11b1, Cyp11b2, and Mcr2 were strongly up-regulated, and clusters containing numerous CYP21A2-positive cells were localized in the interstitium. These data suggest a lack of testis functionality, with a loss of normal steroidogenic testis function, concomitant with an expansion of the adrenal-like cell population in postnatal conditional double mutant testes. Sf1Cre; Gata4flox/flox Gata6flox/flox animals of both sexes lack adrenal glands; however, despite this deficiency, males are viable in contrast to the females of the same genotype, which die shortly after birth. PMID:25668066

  7. Myopathies of endocrine disorders: A prospective clinical and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikas; Borah, Papori; Basumatary, Lakshya J.; Das, Marami; Goswami, Munindra; Kayal, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Major categories of endocrine myopathy include those associated with: Adrenal dysfunction (as in Cushing's disease or steroid myopathy); thyroid dysfunction (as in myxedema coma or thyrotoxic myopathy); vitamin D deficiency; parathyroid dysfunction; and pituitary dysfunction. Steroid myopathy is the most common endocrine myopathy. Objective: To study the etiology, varied presentations, and outcome after therapy of patients with endocrine myopathies. Materials and Methods: Myopathy was evaluated by the standard clinical procedures: Detailed clinical history, manual muscle strength testing, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Endocrine disorders were diagnosed as per clinical features and biochemical parameters. The treatment was given to patients as per underlying endocrine disease. Myopathy was assessed before and after treatment. Results: Out of the 37 patients who were diagnosed with endocrine myopathies, thyroid dysfunction was the most common cause (17 cases), followed by vitamin D deficiency in nine, adrenal dysfunction in six, parathyroid dysfunction in three, and pituitary dysfunction in two. Some patients had atypical presentation (repeated falls in one, tongue fasciculations in one, neck weakness in five, one with ptosis and facial weakness, asymmetrical onset in one, and calf hypertrophy in one. The serum creatine kinase (CK) concentration did not correlate with muscle weakness. Following the treatment regimen which was specific for a given myopathy, 26 patients recovered fully. Conclusion: We found varied clinical presentations of endocrine myopathies. All the patients with neuromuscular complaints should be investigated for endocrine causes because significant number of them recovers fully with specific treatment. PMID:25221399

  8. Assessing the presence of abnormal regulation of cortisol secretion by membrane hormone receptors: in vivo and in vitro studies in patients with functioning and non-functioning adrenal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, C; Ballarè, E; Mantovani, G; Ambrosi, B; Spada, A; Barbetta, L; Colombo, P; Travaglini, P; Loli, P; Beck-Peccoz, P

    2004-08-01

    Regulation of cortisol secretion by aberrant hormone receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. In this study, the topic was evaluated by combining in vivo and in vitro approaches. Cortisol responses to various stimuli (standard meal, GnRH + TRH, cisapride, vasopressin, glucagon) were assessed in 6 patients with clinical or subclinical adrenal Cushing's syndrome, and non-functioning adrenal adenoma in two cases. Abnormal responses were observed in three patients with Cushing's syndrome; one patient showed a gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)-dependent cortisol rise after meal, together with responses after GnRH and cisapride; the second patient showed an LH-dependent cortisol response to GnRH, and in the third cortisol rose after cisapride. The pattern of receptor expression performed by RT-PCR showed that while GIP-R was only expressed in tumor from the responsive patient, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 receptor and LH-R were also present in normal adrenal tissues and tissues from non-responsive patients. Interestingly, an activating mutation of Gsalpha gene was identified in one of these tumors. Therefore, cortisol responses to agents operating via Gs protein coupled receptors (in one case associated with Gsalpha mutation) were found in Cushing's patients, while these responses were absent in the others. The finding of receptor expression in normal and non-responsive tumors suggests that different mechanisms are probably involved in inducing in vivo cortisol responses. PMID:15326569

  9. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Repeated Massage on Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal and Immune Function in Healthy Individuals: A Study of Mechanisms of Action and Dosage

    PubMed Central

    Schettler, Pamela; Bresee, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study gathers preliminary data about the biologic effects of repeated Swedish massage therapy compared to a light-touch control condition. Design The study design was a 5-week comparison of repeated Swedish massage and light touch on oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), adrenal corticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol (CORT), circulating phenotypic lymphocyte markers, and mitogen-stimulated cytokine function. Setting The setting was an outpatient research unit in an academic medical center. Participants The study subjects were medically and psychiatrically healthy young adults. Intervention The study comprised 45 minutes of Swedish massage or light touch, using highly specified and identical protocols, either weekly or twice weekly for 5 weeks. Outcome measures The outcome measures were mean differences between massage and light touch on OT, AVP, ACTH, CORT, lymphocyte markers, and cytokine levels. Results Compared to the touch control condition, weekly Swedish massage stimulated a sustained pattern of increased circulating phenotypic lymphocyte markers and decreased mitogen-stimulated cytokine production, similar to what was previously reported for a single massage session, while having minimal effect on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function. Twice-weekly massage produced a different response pattern with increased OT levels, decreased AVP, and decreased CORT but little effect on circulating lymphocyte phenotypic markers and a slight increase in mitogen-stimulated interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1b and IL-2 levels, suggesting increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions There are sustained cumulative biologic actions for the massage and touch interventions that persist for several days or a week, and these differ profoundly depending on the dosage (frequency) of sessions. Confirmatory studies in larger samples are needed. PMID:22775448

  10. An unusual presentation of Carney complex with diffuse primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease on one adrenal gland and a nonpigmented adrenocortical adenoma and focal primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease on the other.

    PubMed

    Tung, Shih-Chen; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Yang, Joseph W; Chen, Wei-Jen; Lee, Chien-Te

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old female patient with cushingoid appearance was admitted in May 2000. The endocrine studies showed ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. A 2-day high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) revealed paradoxical increase of 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC). Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a left adrenal nodule (3 x 2 cm in diameter). An adrenal scintigram with ¹³¹I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol showed uptake of the isotope in the left adrenal gland and non-visualization in the right adrenal gland throughout the examination course. A retroperitoneoscopic left total adrenalectomy was performed in July 2000. The cut surface of the left adrenal was yellow-tan grossly. Microscopically, the left adrenal nodule contained a nonpigmented adrenocortical adenoma (NP) and another focal primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, FP) mixed lesion. The immunohistochemical studies of CYP17 demonstrate positive in NP and FP of the left adrenal gland. Very low baseline morning plasma cortisol (0.97 μg/dL) and subnormal ACTH (8.16 pg/mL) levels were measured 1.5 months after left adrenalectomy. Right adrenal gland recovered its function 6 months after left adrenalectomy. Plasma cortisol could be suppressed to 3.47 μg/dL by overnight low-dose dexamethasone suppression test 65 months after left adrenalectomy. Cushingoid features still did not appear 122 months after left adrenalectomy. In May 2011, this patient was readmitted due to cushingoid characteristics. Paradoxical rise of 24-h UFC to 2-day HDDST was demonstrated. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed bilateral thyroid cysts. Subtotal right adrenalectomy about 80% of right adrenal was performed. Diffuse PPNAD of the right adrenal was proved pathologically. Immunohischemical stain for CYP17 is positive in the right adrenal gland but weaker positive than that in the left adrenal gland. The genetic study of the peripheral blood, left adrenocortical nodule, and right PPNAD all showed p.R16X

  11. Primary Adrenal Insufficiency Misdiagnosed as Hypothyroidism in a Patient with Polyglandular Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Upala, Sikarin; Yong, Wai Chung; Sanguankeo, Anawin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is a rare condition that causes a variety of clinical symptoms due to autoimmune processes involving multiple endocrine organs. Its vague presentation can cause missed or delayed treatment for adrenal insufficiency, resulting in a life-threatening adrenal crisis. Case Report: A 21-yr-old man presented with lethargy, hypotension, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. He was binge drinking the day before presentation. No significant response to initial treatment with levothyroxine and dextrose occurred. Diagnostic workup later revealed primary adrenal insufficiency. All initial symptoms completely resolved following treatment with hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and levothyroxine. Conclusion: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome causes dysfunction of multiple endocrine organs such as the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and pancreas. Initial diagnosis of APS is crucial and difficult because of its vague, acute presentation, which often involves hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. Delayed treatment of adrenal insufficiency can result in a life-threatening adrenal crisis. A diagnostic workup for adrenal insufficiency should be performed in patients who do not respond to hypothyroidism treatment. PMID:27298818

  12. A significant proportion of thalassemia major patients have adrenal insufficiency detectable on provocative testing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Karen E; Mittelman, Steven D; Coates, Thomas D; Geffner, Mitchell E; Wood, John C

    2015-01-01

    Advances in chelation therapy and noninvasive monitoring of iron overload have resulted in substantial improvements in the survival of transfusion-dependent patients with thalassemia major. Myocardial decompensation and sepsis remain the major causes of death. Although endocrine abnormalities are a well-recognized problem in these iron-overloaded patients, adrenal insufficiency and its consequences are underappreciated by the hematology community. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in thalassemia major subjects, to identify risk factors for adrenal insufficiency, and to localize the origin of the adrenal insufficiency within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Eighteen subjects with thalassemia major (18.9±9.3 y old, 7 female) were tested for adrenal insufficiency using a glucagon stimulation test. Those found to have adrenal insufficiency (stimulated cortisol <18 µg/dL) subsequently underwent an ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (oCRH) stimulation test to define the physiological basis for the adrenal insufficiency. The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency was 61%, with an increased prevalence in males over females (92% vs. 29%, P=0.049). Ten of 11 subjects who failed the glucagon stimulation test subsequently demonstrated normal ACTH and cortisol responses to oCRH, indicating a possible hypothalamic origin to their adrenal insufficiency. PMID:24942024

  13. A significant proportion of thalassemia major patients have adrenal insufficiency detectable on provocative testing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Karen E.; Mittelman, Steven D.; Coates, Thomas D.; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Wood, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in chelation therapy and noninvasive monitoring of iron overload have resulted in substantial improvements in the survival of transfusion dependent patients with thalassemia major. Myocardial decompensation and sepsis remain the major causes of death. While endocrine abnormalities are a well-recognized problem in these iron-overloaded patients, adrenal insufficiency and its consequences are under-appreciated by the hematology community. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in thalassemia major subjects, to identify risk factors for adrenal insufficiency, and to localize the origin of the adrenal insufficiency within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Eighteen subjects with thalassemia major (18.9 ± 9.3 years old, 7 female) were tested for adrenal insufficiency using a glucagon stimulation test (GST). Those found to have adrenal insufficiency (stimulated cortisol < 18 μg/dL) subsequently underwent an ovine corticotrophin-releasing hormone (oCRH) stimulation test to define the physiological basis for the adrenal insufficiency. The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency was 61%, with an increased prevalence in males over females (92% vs. 29%, p=0.049). Ten of 11 subjects who failed the GST subsequently demonstrated normal ACTH and cortisol responses to oCRH, indicating a possible hypothalamic origin to their adrenal insufficiency. PMID:24942024

  14. Breast cancer: current and future endocrine therapies.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Carlo; Patten, Darren K; Januszewski, Adam; Zucchini, Giorgia; Howell, Sacha J

    2014-01-25

    Endocrine therapy forms a central modality in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. The routine use of 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen has improved survival rates for early breast cancer, and more recently has evolved in the postmenopausal setting to include aromatase inhibitors. The optimal duration of adjuvant endocrine therapy remains an active area of clinical study with recent data supporting 10 years rather than 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. However, endocrine therapy is limited by the development of resistance, this can occur by a number of possible mechanisms and numerous studies have been performed which combine endocrine therapy with agents that modulate these mechanisms with the aim of preventing or delaying the emergence of resistance. Recent trial data regarding the combination of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, everolimus with endocrine therapy have resulted in a redefinition of the clinical treatment pathway in the metastatic setting. This review details the current endocrine therapy utilized in both early and advanced disease, as well as exploring potential new targets which modulate pathways of resistance, as well as agents which aim to modulate adrenal derived steroidogenic hormones. PMID:23933149

  15. Precerebellin-related genes and precerebellin 1 peptide in endocrine glands of the rat - pattern of their expression.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-01-01

    The hexadecapeptide cerebellin (CER) is derived from a larger protein, cerebellin 1 precursor protein (Cbln1). At present four precerebellins (Cbln1-4) are known. They are highly expressed in the brain, in particular in the cerebellum. Since CER is involved in regulating endocrine functions, present studies aimed to investigate, by means of molecular biology techniques (RT-PCR, QPCR, Western blotting) the expression of Cbln related genes and Cbln1 protein in classic endocrine glands of the rat. RT-PCR revealed the presence of Cbln1 and Cbln3 mRNAs in all endocrine glands tested; hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, thyroid, adrenal cortex, testis, ovary and pancreatic islets. Expression of Cbln2 gene was demonstrated only in the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and adrenal cortex and in cerebral cortex, which was studied as a positive control organ. On the contrary, expression of Cbln4 gene was found only in the cerebral cortex. Using QPCR, the highest expression of Cbln1 gene was demonstrated in hypothalamus and pancreatic islets, a somewhat lower one in the anterior pituitary and thyroid, while the lowest was in adrenal cortex, testis and ovary. In general, the Cbln3 gene exhibited a similar pattern of expression, with the highest level in pancreatic islets and somewhat lower in the hypothalamus. Cbln2 gene expression was high in the hypothalamus, lower in the anterior pituitary and very low in adrenal cortex. In general, the pattern of Cbln1 protein expression was similar to that of Cbln1 mRNA. Further experiments aimed to check possible association of Cbln1 with cell membrane. Such association is suggested by differences in Cbln1 protein amount after extraction with RIPA and TRIS buffers. Bioinformatic methods predicting transmembrane topology (HMMTOP and SPLIT 4.0 servers) suggest transmembrane localisation of Cbln1, with transmembrane domain sequence responsible for the formation of an alpha-helix. These findings suggest possible physiological roles of Cbln

  16. Effects of DDT on bobwhite quail adrenal gland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehman, J.W.; Peterle, T.J.; Mulls, C.M.

    1974-01-01

    A wide range of responses to sublethal levels of DDT exist, many of which are species specific and vary within each species depending upon age, sex, and physiological state. Sublethal levels of DDT do cause an increase in the adrenal cortical tissue of bobwhite quail, which may cause increased secretion of corticosteroids, and in turn affect reproduction. A delicate homeostatic balance exists within the avian endocrine system which may be disturbed by feeding sublethal levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. This adverse effect on the endocrine system may cause subtle reproductive failures which go unnoticed until the population is greatly reduced.

  17. Ovarian follicular cells have innate immune capabilities that modulate their endocrine function

    PubMed Central

    Herath, Shan; Williams, Erin J; Lilly, Sonia T; Gilbert, Robert O; Dobson, Hilary; Bryant, Clare E; Sheldon, I Martin

    2007-01-01

    Oestrogens are pivotal in ovarian follicular growth, development and function, with fundamental roles in steroidogenesis, nurturing the oocyte and ovulation. Infections with bacteria such as Escherichia coli cause infertility in mammals at least in part by perturbing ovarian follicle function, characterised by suppression of oestradiol production. Ovarian follicle granulosa cells produce oestradiol by aromatisation of androstenedione from the theca cells, under the regulation of gonadotrophins such as FSH. Many of the effects of E. coli are mediated by its surface molecule lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding to the Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), CD14, MD-2 receptor complex on immune cells, but immune cells are not present inside ovarian follicles. The present study tested the hypothesis that granulosa cells express the TLR4 complex and LPS directly perturbs their secretion of oestradiol. Granulosa cells from recruited or dominant follicles are exposed to LPS in vivo and when they were cultured in the absence of immune cell contamination in vitro they produced less oestradiol when challenged with LPS, although theca cell androstenedione production was unchanged. The suppression of oestradiol production by LPS was associated with down-regulation of transcripts for aromatase in granulosa cells, and did not affect cell survival. Furthermore, these cells expressed TLR4, CD14 and MD-2 transcripts throughout the key stages of follicle growth and development. It appears that granulosa cells have an immune capability to detect bacterial infection, which perturbs follicle steroidogenesis, and this is a likely mechanism by which ovarian follicle growth and function is perturbed during bacterial infection. PMID:17965259

  18. Adrenal Androgen Production in Catarrhine Primates and the Evolution of Adrenarche

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Robin M.; Sterner, Kirstin N.; Wildman, Derek E.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenarche is a developmental event involving differentiation of the adrenal gland and production of adrenal androgens, and has been hypothesized to play a role in the extension of the preadolescent phase of human ontogeny. It remains unclear whether any nonhuman primate species shows a similar suite of endocrine, biochemical, and morphological changes as are encompassed by human adrenarche. Here, we report serum concentrations of the adrenal androgens dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) measured in 698 cross-sectional and mixed longitudinal serum samples from catarrhine primates ranging from 0.6 to 47 years of age. DHEAS in Pan is most similar to that of humans in both age-related pattern and absolute levels, and a transient early increase appears to be present in Gorilla. DHEA levels are highest in Cercocebus, Cercopithecus, and Macaca. We also tested for evidence of adaptive evolution in six genes that code for proteins involved in DHEA/S synthesis. Our genetic analyses demonstrate the protein-coding regions of these genes are highly conserved among sampled primates. We describe a tandem gene duplication event probably mediated by a retro-transposon that resulted in two 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta 5-Delta 4 genes (HSD3B1 and HSD3B2) with tissue specific functions in catarrhines. In humans, HSD3B2 is expressed primarily in the adrenals, ovary, and testis, while HSD3B1 is expressed in the placenta. Taken together, our findings suggest that while adrenarche has been suggested to be unique to hominoids, the evolutionary roots for this developmental stage are more ancient. PMID:22271526

  19. Endocrine Effects of Circadian Disruption.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Nelson, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythms, provoked by artificial lighting at night, inconsistent sleep-wake schedules, and transmeridian air travel, is increasingly prevalent in modern society. Desynchrony of biological rhythms from environmental light cycles has dramatic consequences for human health. In particular, disrupting homeostatic oscillations in endocrine tissues and the hormones that these tissues regulate can have cascading effects on physiology and behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic disruption of circadian organization of endocrine function may lead to metabolic, reproductive, sleep, and mood disorders. This review discusses circadian control of endocrine systems and the consequences of distorting rhythmicity of these systems. PMID:26208951

  20. Incomplete recovery of mechanical and endocrine left atrial functions one month after electrical cardioversion for persistent atrial fibrillation: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Restoration of the mechanical and endocrine functions of the left atrium remains controversial after electrical cardioversion treatment for persistent atrial fibrillation. The objective of the prospective study was to describe the recovery of the endocrine and mechanical functions of the left atrium. Methods Evaluation of left atrium recovery after electrical cardioversion by the new speckle-tracking echocardiography technique and proANP measurement. Results Twenty patients suffering from persistent atrial fibrillation with no alteration of left ventricular ejection fraction were prospectively evaluated at baseline and then one month later by echocardiography, measuring left atrial volume and left atrial deformation (MPALS), as well as the proANP and BNP concentrations. One month after cardioversion 10 patients remained in sinus rhythm and 10 showed recurrent atrial fibrillation. No significant differences between the two groups in terms of clinical, echocardiographic and endocrine parameters were observed at baseline evaluation. We observed a significant reduction of left atrial volume only in the sinus group, whereas restoration of the left atrial deformation was only partial (18%) in that group. By contrast, we registered no significant changes in ANP concentration at one month in either the sinus or the atrial fibrillation groups. Conclusion These results suggest that restoration of left atrium mechanical function is only partial one month after treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation by electrical cardioversion, whereas a significant reduction of left atrial volume was noted, explaining the remaining high level of ANP in the sinus group. PMID:24559296

  1. Adrenal Diagnostics: An Endocrinologist’s Perspective focused on Hyperaldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    The era of sophisticated high resolution imaging with the consequent identification of previously unrecognised adrenal masses (adrenal incidentalomas), has emphasised the need for an appropriate biochemical approach to define adrenal function. The focus of this testing is on catecholamines from the adrenal medulla (testing that has been rendered relatively straightforward by plasma metanephrine measurements) and the physiological corticosteroids, cortisol and aldosterone, synthesised by the adrenal cortex. The diagnosis of hypercortisolism remains a challenge and has been extensively reviewed. In the context of hypertension and an adrenal incidentaloma, the exclusion of hyperaldosteronism has an importance beyond simple blood pressure control. This review focuses on the recommended approaches to both the diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism and the characterisation of its aetiology. Monogenetic causes of mineralocorticoid hypertension are discussed as are recent developments with respect to both the molecular aetiology and the differential diagnosis of aldosterone-producing adenomas. PMID:24353356

  2. Acute adrenal crisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cortisol and adrenaline are released in response to stress . Cortisol production is regulated by the pituitary gland. This ... adrenal crisis include: Dehydration Infection and other physical ... medicines such as prednisone or hydrocortisone Surgery Trauma

  3. Endocrine radionuclide scintigraphy with fusion single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ka-Kit; Gandhi, Arpit; Viglianti, Benjamin L; Fig, Lorraine M; Rubello, Domenico; Gross, Milton D

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the benefits of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) hybrid imaging for diagnosis of various endocrine disorders. METHODS: We performed MEDLINE and PubMed searches using the terms: “SPECT/CT”; “functional anatomic mapping”; “transmission emission tomography”; “parathyroid adenoma”; “thyroid cancer”; “neuroendocrine tumor”; “adrenal”; “pheochromocytoma”; “paraganglioma”; in order to identify relevant articles published in English during the years 2003 to 2015. Reference lists from the articles were reviewed to identify additional pertinent articles. Retrieved manuscripts (case reports, reviews, meta-analyses and abstracts) concerning the application of SPECT/CT to endocrine imaging were analyzed to provide a descriptive synthesis of the utility of this technology. RESULTS: The emergence of hybrid SPECT/CT camera technology now allows simultaneous acquisition of combined multi-modality imaging, with seamless fusion of three-dimensional volume datasets. The usefulness of combining functional information to depict the bio-distribution of radiotracers that map cellular processes of the endocrine system and tumors of endocrine origin, with anatomy derived from CT, has improved the diagnostic capability of scintigraphy for a range of disorders of endocrine gland function. The literature describes benefits of SPECT/CT for 99mTc-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy and 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy, 123I- or 131I-radioiodine for staging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, 111In- and 99mTc- labeled somatostatin receptor analogues for detection of neuroendocrine tumors, 131I-norcholesterol (NP-59) scans for assessment of adrenal cortical hyperfunction, and 123I- or 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging for evaluation of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. CONCLUSION: SPECT/CT exploits the synergism between the functional information from radiopharmaceutical imaging and anatomy

  4. Endocrine Tumor: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... a roadmap to this full guide. About the endocrine system The endocrine system is made up of cells that produce hormones. ... of sugar in the blood. Part of the endocrine system is the neuroendocrine system, which is made up ...

  5. Artemisia scoparia Enhances Adipocyte Development and Endocrine Function In Vitro and Enhances Insulin Action In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Fuller, Scott; Fedorcenco, Veaceslav; Beyl, Robbie; Burris, Thomas P.; Mynatt, Randall; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPARγ activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Results Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPARγ LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPARγ target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor α on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. Conclusion SCO has metabolically beneficial

  6. μ and κ Opioid receptor distribution in the monogamous titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus): Implications for social behavior and endocrine functioning

    PubMed Central

    Ragen, Benjamin J.; Freeman, Sara M.; Laredo, Sarah A.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Bales, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    The opioid system is involved in infant-mother bonds and adult-adult bonds in many species. We have previously shown that μ opioid receptors (MOR) and κ opioid receptors (KOR) are involved in regulating the adult attachment of the monogamous titi monkey. The present study sought to determine the distribution of MOR and KOR in the titi monkey brain using receptor autoradiography. We used [3H]DAMGO to label MORs and [3H]U69,593 to label KORs. MOR binding was heterogeneous throughout the titi monkey brain. Specifically, MOR binding was observed in the cingulate gyrus, striatum, septal regions, diagonal band, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and thalamus. Binding was particularly dense in the septum, medial amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, mediodorsal thalamus with moderate binding in the nucleus accumbens. Consistent with other primate species, MOR were also observed in “neurochemically unique domains of the accumbens and putamen” (NUDAPs). In general KOR binding was more homogenous. KORs were primarily found in the cingulate gyrus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus. Dense KOR binding was observed in the claustrum. Relative MOR and KOR binding in the titi monkey striatum was similar to other humans and primates, but was much lower compared to rodents. Relative MOR binding in the titi monkey hypothalamus was much greater than that found in rodents. This study was the first to examine MOR and KOR binding in a monogamous primate. The location of these receptors gives insight into where ligands may be acting to regulate social behavior and endocrine function. PMID:25637809

  7. [Addison's disease : Primary adrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Pulzer, A; Burger-Stritt, S; Hahner, S

    2016-05-01

    Adrenal insufficiency, a rare disorder which is characterized by the inadequate production or absence of adrenal hormones, may be classified as primary adrenal insufficiency in case of direct affection of the adrenal glands or secondary adrenal insufficiency, which is mostly due to pituitary or hypothalamic disease. Primary adrenal insufficiency affects 11 of 100,000 individuals. Clinical symptoms are mainly nonspecific and include fatigue, weight loss, and hypotension. The diagnostic test of choice is dynamic testing with synthetic ACTH. Patients suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency require lifelong hormone supplementation. Education in dose adaption during physical and mental stress or emergency situations is essential to prevent life-threatening adrenal crises. Patients with adrenal insufficiency should carry an emergency card and emergency kit with them. PMID:27129928

  8. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors with radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Beierwaltes, W.H.; Sisson, J.C.; Shapiro, B.

    1984-01-01

    The development of radiolabeled cholesterols in 1969 as precursors of adrenocortical steroid production allowed the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal cortices. FDA-NDA approval in 1984 should allow routine use of these agents in most hospitals. NP-59 is most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of Cushing syndrome; the second most common use is in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. It is also helpful in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, and is the only noninvasive method of detecting unilateral adrenocortical hypofunction. The newest and most popular use is in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic masses in the region of the adrenal gland discovered incidentally with CT scan (incidentalomas). In this situation, the NP-59 scan can define whether the tumor is in the adrenal gland and if it is functional or nonfunctional. The authors believe that, in the future, radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors might offer better diagnostic imaging of the adrenal cortex, although these agents will probably not be available for routine use for some time. The development of a radioiodinated guanethidine analog, /sup 131/I-MIBG, has allowed differentiation of normal adrenal medullary function from bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia before the development of hypertension or tachycardia, diagnostic increases in plasma or urinary catecholamines, or abnormal CT scans. The search for a pheochromocytoma should begin with /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. While over 90% of primary pheochromocytomas occur in the abdomen, neither a survey of the abdomen nor the finding of a single tumor should conclude the search.

  9. Role of adrenal imaging in surgical management

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Haynie, T.P. )

    1990-03-01

    Adrenal imaging using radiopharmaceuticals is a functional test that can contribute significantly to surgical management and follow-up of patients with either benign or malignant conditions of the adrenal cortex and medulla. Imaging of the cortex is achieved by iodine-131-labeled iodomethyl nor-cholesterol (NP-59), while adrenal medulla imaging can be successfully accomplished by 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), which localizes in the adrenergic nerve terminal with norepinephrine. Both tests carry high sensitivity and specificity for functional tumors and hyperplasia, and often better than CT scanning. This article reviews the current status and clinical utility of nuclear imaging of the adrenal cortex in congenital hyperplasia, low renin hypertension and aldosteronism, and Cushing's syndrome. Adrenal medulla imaging is reviewed in light of our experience at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, and other neuroectodermal tumors. Investigation of {sup 131}I-MIBG therapy of metastatic tumors of neuroectodermal origin potentially offers a means of at least controlling symptoms of hormonal secretion in these patients. 40 references.

  10. Role of phospholipases in adrenal steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bollag, Wendy B

    2016-04-01

    Phospholipases are lipid-metabolizing enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids. In some cases, their activity results in remodeling of lipids and/or allows the synthesis of other lipids. In other cases, however, and of interest to the topic of adrenal steroidogenesis, phospholipases produce second messengers that modify the function of a cell. In this review, the enzymatic reactions, products, and effectors of three phospholipases, phospholipase C, phospholipase D, and phospholipase A2, are discussed. Although much data have been obtained concerning the role of phospholipases C and D in regulating adrenal steroid hormone production, there are still many gaps in our knowledge. Furthermore, little is known about the involvement of phospholipase A2, perhaps, in part, because this enzyme comprises a large family of related enzymes that are differentially regulated and with different functions. This review presents the evidence supporting the role of each of these phospholipases in steroidogenesis in the adrenal cortex. PMID:26878860

  11. What Is Adrenal Cortical Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... include pheochromocytomas (which are most often benign) and neuroblastomas . This document is about tumors and cancers of ... does not discuss tumors of the adrenal medulla. Neuroblastoma s are covered in a separate document . Adrenal cortex ...

  12. [Giant adrenal myelolipoma].

    PubMed

    El Mejjad, Amine; Fekak, Hamid; Dakir, Mohamed; Sarf, Ismail; Manni, Ahmed; Meziane, Fethi

    2004-02-01

    Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign, non-secreting tumour composed of adipose and haematopoietic tissue. The authors report a rare case of giant adrenal myelolipoma in a 53-year-old patient presenting with low back pain and a palpable flank mass on examination. CT scan suggested the diagnosis and surgical resection was indicated in view of the size and symptomatic nature of this mass. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis. The outcome was favourable without recurrence after a follow-up of one year. The diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma is based on radiology. Conservative management is generally sufficient for small asymptomatic tumours, but resection is required for large (> 5 cm) and/or symptomatic tumours. PMID:15098761

  13. Feeding rates affect growth, intestinal digestive and absorptive capabilities and endocrine functions of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Li, Xiang-Fei; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal feeding rate for juvenile blunt snout bream (average initial weight 23.74 ± 0.09 g) based on the results on growth performance, intestinal digestive and absorptive capabilities and endocrine functions. A total of 840 fish were randomly distributed into 24 cages and fed a commercial feed at six feeding rates ranging from 2.0 to 7.0 % body weight (BW)/day. The results indicated that weight gain rate increased significantly (P < 0.05) as feeding rates increased from 2.0 to 5.0 % BW/day, but decreased with the further increasing feeding rates (P > 0.05). Protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen and energy retention all showed a similar trend. However, feed conversion ratio increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing feeding rates. Feeding rates have little effects (P > 0.05) on whole-body moisture, ash and protein contents, but significantly (P < 0.05) affect both lipid and energy contents with the highest values both observed in fish fed 4.0 % BW/day. In addition, moderate ration sizes (2.0-4.0 % BW/day) resulted in the enhanced activities of intestinal enzymes, including lipase, protease, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, growth hormone receptor and neuropeptide all increased significantly (P < 0.05) as feeding rates increased from 2.0 to 5.0 % and 6.0 % BW/day, but decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with the further increase in feeding rates, whereas both leptin and cholecystokinin expressions showed an opposite trend. Based on the broken-line regression analysis of SGR against feeding rates, the optimal feeding rate for juvenile blunt snout bream was estimated to be 4.57 % BW/day. PMID:26597852

  14. Amitosis in human adrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, M C; Pignatelli, D; Magalhães, M M

    1991-04-01

    Adrenal pieces obtained from 3 female and 2 male patients showed morphological figures of amitosis in adrenal zona reticularis cells. Such aspects were observed in both normal and hyperactive adrenals. Nuclei appeared constricted, heavily stained, with coarse chromatin, sometimes scattered among cytoplasmic organelles, but never marginating in crescentic caps. Cleavage of the cells originated two halves with a nucleolus in each pole. Binucleated cells were also seen in zona reticularis. The meaning of amitosis in human adrenal is discussed. PMID:1802124

  15. Longitudinal Evaluation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testicular Function in 8 Boys with Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita (AHC) Due to NR0B1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Galeotti, Caroline; Lahlou, Zineb; Goullon, Domitille; Sarda-Thibault, Hélène; Cahen-Varsaux, Juliette; Bignon-Topalovic, Joëlle; Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Ken; Brauner, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Background Boys carrying mutations in the NR0B1 gene develop adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and impaired sexual development due to the combination of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and primary defects in spermatogenesis. Methods We analysed the evolution of hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular function of 8 boys with AHC due to NR0B1 mutations. Our objective was to characterize and monitor the progressive deterioration of this function. Results The first symptoms appeared in the neonatal period (n = 5) or between 6 months and 8.7 years (n = 3). Basal plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentrations increased in all boys, whilst cortisol levels decreased in one case. The natremia was equal or below 134 mmol/L and kaliemia was over 5 mmol/L. All had increased plasma renin. In 3 of 4 patients diagnosed in the neonatal period and evaluated during the first year, the basal plasma gonadotropins concentrations, and their response to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) test (n = 2), and those of testosterone were normal. The plasma inhibin B levels were normal in the first year of life. With the exception of two cases these concentrations decreased to below the normal for age. Anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations were normal for age in all except one case, which had low concentrations before the initiation of testosterone treatment. In 3 of the 8 cases the gene was deleted and the remaining 5 cases carried frameshift mutations that are predicted to introduce a downstream nonsense mutation resulting in a truncated protein. Conclusions The decreases in testosterone and inhibin B levels indicated a progressive loss of testicular function in boys carrying NR0B1 mutations. These non-invasive examinations can help to estimate the age of the testicular degradation and cryopreservation of semen may be considered in these cases as investigational procedure with the aim of restoring fertility. PMID:22761912

  16. Once and for all, LXRα and LXRβ are gatekeepers of the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Maqdasy, Salwan; Trousson, Amalia; Tauveron, Igor; Volle, David H; Baron, Silvère; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A

    2016-06-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) α and β are nuclear receptors whose transcriptional activity is regulated by oxysterols, the oxidized forms of cholesterol. Described in the late 1990s as lipid sensors, both LXRs regulate cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Over the years, deep phenotypic analyses of mouse models deficient for LXRα and/or LXRβ have pointed out various other physiological functions including glucose homeostasis, immunology, and neuroprotection. This review enlightens the "endocrine" functions of LXRs; they deeply impact plasma glucose directly and by modulating insulin signaling, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, thyroid and pituitary hormone levels, and bone homeostasis. Besides, LXR signaling is also involved in adrenal physiology, steroid synthesis, and male and female reproduction. Hence, LXRs are definitely involved in the endocrine system and could thus be considered as endocrine receptors, even though oxysterols do not fully correspond to the definition of hormones. Finally, because they are ligand-regulated transcription factors, LXRs are potential pharmacological targets with promising beneficial metabolic effects. PMID:27091047

  17. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH. PMID:20671993

  18. Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with adrenal Cushing syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Franco, Carlos Andrés; Román-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Velez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Echeverri-Isaza, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia or the independent adrenocorticotropic hormone bilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause hypercortisolism, its diagnosis is challenging and there is no clear way to decide the best therapeutic approach. Adrenal venous sampling is commonly used to distinguish the source of hormonal production in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. It could be a useful tool in this context because it might provide information to guide the treatment. We report the case of a patient with ACTH independent Cushing syndrome in whom the use of adrenal venous sampling with some modifications radically modified the treatment and allowed the diagnosis of a macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:26309345

  19. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Bonnie HY; Wan, Hin T; Law, Alice YS

    2011-01-01

    In the past 200 years, an enormous number of synthetic chemicals with diverse structural features have been produced for industrial, medical and domestic purposes. These chemicals, originally thought to have little or no biological toxicity, are widely used in our daily lives as well as are commonly present in foods. It was not until the first World Wildlife Federation Wingspread Conference held in 1994 were concerns about the endocrine disrupting (ED) effects of these chemicals articulated. The potential hazardous effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on human health and ecological well-being are one of the global concerns that affect the health and propagation of human beings. Considerable numbers of studies indicated that endocrine disruption is linked to “the developmental basis of adult disease,” highlighting the significant effects of EDC exposure on a developing organism, leading to the propensity of an individual to develop a disease or dysfunction in later life. In this review, we intend to provide environmental, epidemiological and experimental data to associate pollutant exposure with reproductive disorders, in particular on the development and function of the male reproductive system. Possible effects of pollutant exposure on the processes of embryonic development, like sex determination and masculinization are described. In addition, the effects of pollutant exposure on hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, testicular signaling, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis are also discussed. PMID:22319671

  20. Endocrine Labomas

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Deep; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory endocrinology forms an integral part of 21st century endocrinology. Perhaps, no other specialty of medicine is as closely associated with laboratory as endocrinology. This review intends to highlight the challenges faced by an endocrinologist before interpreting a hormone assay report. This review by no means is holistic but intends to highlight some of the pitfalls of laboratory endocrinology and arouse further interest in this important but neglected section of endocrinology. Lack of standardization, as well as rigorous implementation is some of the major challenges facing endocrine assays in our country. It is essential to be aware not only of the details of the method of analysis of a hormone, the pre-analytical requisites, but also disease-specific analytical issues to prevent unnecessary concern both for the patient, as well as the treating physician, as well as needless investigations. Problems with interpretation of serum prolactin, thyroglobulin, steroid hormone assays, rennin assay and vitamin-D assay have been highlighted. PMID:23565398

  1. Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Law and science combine in the estimation of risks from endocrine disruptors (EDs) and actions for their regulation. For both, dose–response models are the causal link between exposure and probability (or percentage change) of adverse response. The evidence that leads to either regulations or judicial decrees is affected by uncertainty and limited knowledge, raising difficult policy issues that we enumerate and discuss. In the United States, some courts have dealt with EDs, but causation based on animal studies has been a stumbling block for plaintiffs seeking compensation, principally because those courts opt for epidemiological evidence. The European Union (EU) has several regulatory tools and ongoing research on the risks associated with bisphenol A, under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation and other regulations or directives. The integration of a vast (in kind and in scope) number of research papers into a statement of causation for either policy or to satisfy legal requirements, in both the United States and the EU, relies on experts. We outline the discursive dilemma and issues that may affect consensus-based results and a Bayesian causal approach that accounts for the evolution of information, yielding both value of information and flexibility associated with public choices. PMID:26740809

  2. Unique effects on hepatic function, lipid metabolism, bone and growth endocrine parameters of estetrol in combined oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Mawet, Marie; Maillard, Catherine; Klipping, Christine; Zimmerman, Yvette; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver. In combination with drospirenone (DRSP) or levonorgestrel (LNG), E4 blocks ovulation and has less effect on haemostatic biomarkers in comparison with ethinylestradiol (EE) combined with DRSP. This study evaluates the impact of several doses of E4/DRSP and E4/LNG on safety parameters such as liver function, lipid metabolism, bone markers and growth endocrine parameters. Methods This was a dose-finding, single-centre, controlled study performed in healthy women aged 18 to 35 years with a documented pretreatment ovulatory cycle. Participants received 5 mg or 10 mg E4/3 mg DRSP; 5 mg, 10 mg or 20 mg E4/150 μg LNG; or 20 μg EE/3 mg DRSP as a comparator for three consecutive cycles in a 24/4-day regimen. Changes from baseline to end of treatment in liver parameters, lipid metabolism, bone markers and growth endocrinology were evaluated. Results A total of 109 women were included in the study. Carrier proteins were minimally affected in the E4/DRSP and E4/LNG groups, in comparison with the EE/DRSP group, where a significant increase in sex hormone-binding globulin was observed. Similarly, minor effects on lipoproteins were observed in the E4 groups, and the effects on triglycerides elicited by the E4 groups were significantly lower than those in the EE/DRSP group. No imbalances in bone markers were observed in any groups. No alterations in insulin-like growth factor were observed in the E4 groups. Conclusions E4-containing combinations have a limited effect on liver function, lipid metabolism, and bone and growth endocrine parameters. Chinese Abstract 摘要 目的 雌四醇(E4)是来源于人胎儿肝脏的天然雌激素。雌四醇与屈螺酮(DRSP)或左炔诺孕酮(LNG)配伍的复方口服避孕药制剂,能够抑制排卵,同时相较于炔雌醇(EE)与屈螺酮配伍制剂,它对凝血功能的各项指标影响较小。本研究的目的是为了评估不同

  3. Is androgen production in association with immune system activation potential evidence for existence of a functional adrenal/ovarian autoimmune system in women?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low functional ovarian reserve (FOR) is at all ages associated with low testosterone (T) levels. Causes are, however, unknown. We, therefore, investigate whether androgens with low FOR are associated with non-specific immune system activation. Methods 322 infertile women with low and normal FOR (controls) were assessed with a broadly based immune profile, which in previous studies has proven effective in differentiating infertile patients with and without immune system activation. Patients were either immune-positive (greater than or equal to one positive tested parameter) or immune negative (no positive test). 135 suffered from prematurely diminished FOR (POA/OPOI; < age 38), 155 from physiologic diminished FOR due to age (DOR; > age 40), and 32 were controls (< age 38 with normal age-specific FOR). Prevalence of immune-positive vs. negative was assessed in all 3 patient groups. Results Women with immune abnormalities, overall, demonstrated higher total T (TT, P = 0.004) and free T (FT, P < 0.001) levels than those without. The three clinical and two immunologic-defined patient groups demonstrated significant statistical interaction in mean TT (P = 0.008), with mean TT and FT in women with positive immune findings being significantly higher in control than in POA/OPOI and physiologic DOR patients (all 4 differences P < 0.001). No such differences between the three groups were seen in women without immune abnormalities. Conclusions In this study we used a definition of immune-positivity, which favors sensitivity over specificity, resulting in significant numbers of false-positives but likely only few false-negatives. The study allows suggesting the possibility of an immune system-derived androgen-production factor (APF), which maintains normal androgen levels but is deficient in women with low FOR and immune system inactivity. Existence of such an APF would suggest the presence of a still unknown functional adrenal autoimmune system

  4. Pathology of the adrenal cortex: a reappraisal of the past 25 years focusing on adrenal cortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Papotti, Mauro; Duregon, Eleonora; Volante, Marco; McNicol, Anne Marie

    2014-03-01

    A reappraisal of the major advances in the diagnostic pathology of adrenal cortical lesions and tumors in the last 25 years is presented, with special reference to the definition of malignancy in primary adrenal cancer and its variants. Slightly more than 25 years ago, Weiss proposed his diagnostic scoring system for adrenal cortical carcinoma. This represented a milestone for adrenal pathologists and the starting point for further modifications of the system, either through minor changes in the scoring procedure itself or concentrating on some particular Weiss criterion such as mitotic index, integrated into alternative scoring schemes or algorithms that are currently under validation. Improvements in diagnostic immunohistochemistry have led to the identification of markers of cortical origin, such as Melan-A, alpha-inhibin, and SF-1 and of prognostic factors in carcinoma, such as the Ki-67 proliferation index and SF-1 itself. With regard to hyperplastic conditions, genetic investigations have allowed the association of the majority of cases of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) in Carney complex to mutations in the gene encoding the regulatory subunit 1A of protein kinase A (PRKAR1A). Other hereditary conditions are also associated with adrenal cortical tumors, including the Li-Fraumeni, Beckwith-Wiedemann, Gardner, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and neurofibromatosis type 1 syndromes. Moreover, several advances have been made in the knowledge of the molecular background of sporadic tumors, and a number of molecules/genes are of particular interest as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:24382573

  5. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  6. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inappropriately). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. About 1 in 10,000 to 18,000 ... penis but normal testes Well-developed muscles Both boys and girls will be tall as children, but much shorter ...

  7. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. PMID:21776230

  8. Embryological and molecular development of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ian L; Louw, Graham J

    2015-03-01

    In this mini review, the embryological and functional development of the adrenal glands is presented from a molecular perspective. While acknowledging that this is a highly complex series of events, the processes are described in simple and broad strokes in a single text for the reader who is interested in this field but is not an active researcher. The origin of the adrenal glands is in the mesodermal ridge as early as the fourth week of gestation. Between the eighth and ninth weeks of gestation, the adrenal glands are encapsulated and this results in the presence of a distinct organ. There have been great strides in deciphering the very complicated molecular aspects of adrenal gland development in which multiple transcription factors have been identified, directing the adrenogonadal primordium into the adrenal cortex, kidney, or bipotential gonad. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone is critical for early development of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. Several mutations in transcription factors, responsible for normal adrenal gland development have been found to induce the familial syndrome of congenital adrenal hypoplasia or neoplasia. PMID:25255746

  9. The effects of stress on brain and adrenal stem cells.

    PubMed

    de Celis, M F R; Bornstein, S R; Androutsellis-Theotokis, A; Andoniadou, C L; Licinio, J; Wong, M-L; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M

    2016-05-01

    The brain and adrenal are critical control centers that maintain body homeostasis under basal and stress conditions, and orchestrate the body's response to stress. It is noteworthy that patients with stress-related disorders exhibit increased vulnerability to mental illness, even years after the stress experience, which is able to generate long-term changes in the brain's architecture and function. High levels of glucocorticoids produced by the adrenal cortex of the stressed subject reduce neurogenesis, which contributes to the development of depression. In support of the brain-adrenal connection in stress, many (but not all) depressed patients have alterations in the components of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis, with enlarged adrenal cortex and increased glucocorticoid levels. Other psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder and depression, are also associated with abnormalities in hippocampal volume and hippocampal function. In addition, hippocampal lesions impair the regulation of the LHPA axis in stress response. Our knowledge of the functional connection between stress, brain function and adrenal has been further expanded by two recent, independent papers that elucidate the effects of stress on brain and adrenal stem cells, showing similarities in the way that the progenitor populations of these organs behave under stress, and shedding more light into the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of tissues to stress. PMID:26809844

  10. Associations between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and peak bone mass at 20years of age in a birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kun; Henley, David; Pennell, Craig; Herbison, Carly E; Mountain, Jenny; Lye, Stephen; Walsh, John P

    2016-04-01

    In older adults, high-normal circulating cortisol levels are associated with lower bone mass, but relationships between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and peak bone mass in young adults have not been examined. We studied 411 male and 390 female participants in the Western Australia Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. At 18years of age, participants underwent a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) with measurement of plasma and salivary cortisol at baseline and at multiple time points after stress. Cortisol responses were classified as anticipatory responder (significant fall in cortisol during the test), reactive responder (significant increase) or non-responder. At 20years, total body bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were measured by DXA. In males, after adjustment for weight, height (for BMC and bone area only), alcohol and smoking, there was a significant inverse relationship between both plasma and salivary cortisol measured at baseline in the TSST and each of BMC and BMD, such that each additional 10% of salivary cortisol was associated with reductions of 6.9g (95% CI -11.7, -2.2) in BMC, and 1.8mg/cm(2) (95% CI -3.3, -0.4) in BMD. Males classified as anticipatory responders in the TSST had 3.2% lower BMC (adjusted mean±SE: 3131±28 vs. 3233±18g, P=0.006) and 2.5% lower BMD (1108±9 vs. 1136±6mg/cm(2), P=0.022) than reactive responders. In females, there were no significant relationships between baseline cortisol or TSST responses and BMC or BMD in covariate-adjusted analyses. We conclude that in young males (but not females), higher circulating cortisol at the baseline of the stress test and an anticipatory responder pattern on the TSST are associated with lower total body bone mass. PMID:26802258

  11. Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ribes, Diana; Fuentes, Silvia; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, M. Teresa; Domingo, Jose L.

    2010-02-15

    Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

  12. Association of pain intensity, pain-related disability, and depression with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function in female patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kyung B; Lee, Young J; Lee, Il G; Lee, Sang C; Park, Jai Y; Ahn, Ryun S

    2016-07-01

    Patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) commonly experience myofascial and joint pain, pain-related disability, and other pain conditions including depression. The present study was carried out to explore the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in relation to variables of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis II and comorbid depression in female patients with TMD. Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels were determined in saliva samples that had been collected at various periods after waking (0, 30, and 60min) and at nighttime (2100-2200h) from 52 female patients with chronic TMD pain and age- and gender-matched controls (n=54, 20-40 years old). There were no significant differences in the levels and diurnal patterns of cortisol and DHEA secretion between groups of patients with TMD and controls. In patients, the cortisol awakening response (CAR) or diurnal cortisol rhythm were not associated with any variables of the RDC/TMD Axis II or the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II total scores. However, the ratio of overall cortisol secretion within the first hour after waking (CARauc) to overall DHEA secretion during the post-waking period (Daucawk), defined as CARauc/Daucawk, was significantly associated with pain-related RDC/TMD variables (pain intensity and pain-related disability) and BDI-II total scores. Pain intensity and pain-related disability scores were also significantly associated with BDI-II total scores. These results indicated that an increase in molar cortisol/DHEA ratio due to the dissociation between cortisol and DHEA secretion was associated with pain intensity, pain-related disability, and depression in female patients with TMD. PMID:27082645

  13. [Effect of high-altitude climate therapy on the adrenal cortex function in patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Brimkulov, N N; Bakirova, A N; Chaltabaev, K S

    1990-06-01

    132 bronchial asthma patients living in Frunze (760 m above the sea level) and those on adaptation days 3-5 and 25-30 to the climate of North Tien Shan (3200 m above the sea level) underwent clinical and functional examination involving assessment of ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone levels. The patients showed clinical response and improvement of bronchial permeability associated with a pronounced growth of plasma cortisol levels starting on adaptation days 3-5. By adaptation days 25-30 cortisol levels were still on the increase while ACTH concentration tended to reduction. PMID:2145469

  14. CD44 expression in normal adrenal tissue and adrenal tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Barshack, I; Goldberg, I; Nass, D; Olchovsky, D; Kopolovic, J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein found on many normal cells, mainly lymphoid and epithelial. Normal cells usually express standard CD44 (CD44-S), whereas malignant tumours may express CD44 variant isoforms (CD44-V). CD44 expression has been described for neural crest derivatives. Characterisation of differences in CD44 expression may help in the diagnosis and differentiation of distinct adrenal tumours. AIMS: To examine CD44 expression in different layers of cortical cortex, in adrenal medulla, and in adrenal tumours. METHODS: CD44-S and CD44-V6 expression were studied in 12 cases of adrenal cortical adenoma, 3 of adrenal cortical carcinoma, 10 of pheochromocytoma, and 4 normal adrenal glands. RESULTS: CD44-V6 staining showed cytoplasmic expression in normal adrenal cortex and in cortical adenomas and carcinomas. Pheochromocytomas also showed CD44-V6 expression but in 5 of the 10 cases it was sparse, focal, and sometimes perinuclear. Strong membranous staining for CD44-S was observed in normal adrenal medulla. Analysis of CD44-S expression revealed differences between cortical adrenal tumours and pheochromocytomas. Ten of 12 cortical adenomas and 2 of 3 cortical carcinoma cells showed weak to moderate cytoplasmic staining, but all cases of pheochromocytoma had strong membranous staining. CONCLUSIONS: Membranous CD44-S staining may help to distinguish pheochromocytoma from adrenal cortical adenoma. Images PMID:9577373

  15. [The effect of lessons with a computer on the function of the sympathoadrenal and hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal systems in 6-year-old children].

    PubMed

    Gubareva, L I; Kupriĭ, G A; Mishina, N F; Mishina, E A

    1996-04-01

    Computer classes were shown to affect the sympathetic-adrenal and hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenocortical systems in 6-year-old children. The data obtained suggests the necessity of a medical-pedagogical control of the selection of children for computer groups. PMID:8963344

  16. The endocrine control of reproduction in Nereidae: a new multi-hormonal model with implications for their functional role in a changing environment

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, A. J.; Soame, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Nereidae are vital to the functioning of estuarine ecosystems and are major components in the diets of over-wintering birds and commercial fish. They use environmental cues to synchronize reproduction. Photoperiod is the proximate cue, initiating vitellogenesis in a temperature-compensated process. The prevailing paradigm in Nereidae is of a single ‘juvenile’ hormone controlling growth and reproduction. However, a new multi-hormone model is presented here that integrates the environmental and endocrine control of reproduction. This is supported by evidence from in vitro bioassays. The juvenile hormone is shown to be heat stable and cross reactive between species. In addition, a second neuro-hormone, identified here as a gonadotrophic hormone, is shown to be present in mature females and is found to promote oocyte growth. Furthermore, dopamine and melatonin appear to switch off the juvenile hormone while serotonin and oxytocin promote oocyte growth. Global warming is likely to uncouple the phase relationship between temperature and photoperiod, with significant consequences for Nereidae that use photoperiod to cue reproduction during the winter in northern latitudes. Genotypic adaptation of the photoperiodic response may be possible, but significant impacts on fecundity, spawning success and recruitment are likely in response to short-term extreme events. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals may also impact on putative steroid hormone pathways in Nereidae with similar consequences. These impacts may have significant implications for the functional role of Nereidae and highlight the importance of comparative endocrinology studies in these and other invertebrates. PMID:19833648

  17. [Endocrine disorders and osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuka

    2015-10-01

    Secondary osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by decreased bone mass that predisposes fractures due to underlying disorders or medication. Disorders of the endocrine system, such as primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency, Cushing's syndrome, and anorexia nervosa frequently cause secondary osteoporosis. In those diseases, hormone excess or deficiency affects functions of osteoblasts, osteocyte, and osteoclasts, leading to aberrant bone remodeling. Bisphosphonates are the first-choice pharmacological agents for fracture prevention in most patients with secondary osteoporosis along with treatment of the underlying disease. PMID:26529938

  18. Effects of hypophysectomy and administration of pituitary hormones on luteal function and uptake of high density lipoproteins by luteinized ovaries and adrenals of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.D.; Rajkumar, K.; McKibbin, P.E.; Macdonald, G.J.; Buhr, M.M.; Grinwich, D.L.

    1985-04-01

    The role of plasma lipoproteins and hypophyseal hormones in the maintenance of progesterone secretion by the rat corpus luteum was investigated. In the first experiment, rats were treated daily from days 1-6 of pregnancy with 5 mg/kg 4-aminopyrozolopyramidine (4APP), a blocker of hepatic lipoprotein secretion, or with 5 mg/kg 4APP and 1 or 2 mg ovine PRL or 0.1 ml 0.5% phosphoric acid (4APP vehicle). The administration of 4APP reduced serum cholesterol and progesterone levels on days 2-6 of pregnancy and ovarian progesterone on day 6. The reduced progesterone secretion had no effect on embryo implantation. PRL, in the doses used, was incapable of abrogating the effects of 4APP on circulating or ovarian progesterone levels. Ovaries and adrenals, but not kidneys, of pseudopregnant rats exhibited specific and saturable uptake of porcine high density lipoprotein (HDL). Time-course studies indicated that the uptake of HDL was rapid in ovaries compared to that in adrenals. Ovaries from rats not only exhibited uptake of porcine HDL, but also were capable of using it for progesterone synthesis. Treatment with 4APP increased the adrenal uptake of HDL, but ovarian uptake was not different from that in the control group. Hypophysectomy reduced both adrenal and ovarian uptake of HDL. In adrenals only ACTH at the dose employed ameliorated reduction of HDL uptake induced by hypophysectomy, while in the ovaries, both PRL and LH reversed the effect of hypophysectomy. The effect of PRL on uptake was specific to (/sup 125/I)HDL and did not alter (/sup 125/I)albumin uptake. It is concluded that: 1) hypophysectomy reduces HDL uptake in the luteinized rat ovary; and 2) PRL and LH replacement therapy maintain ovarian uptake of HDL, suggesting a direct effect of these luteotropins on lipoprotein uptake.

  19. Role of Protein Phosphorylation and Tyrosine Phosphatases in the Adrenal Regulation of Steroid Synthesis and Mitochondrial Function.

    PubMed

    Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gorostizaga, Alejandra; Castillo, Ana F; Mori Sequeiros García, M Mercedes; Maloberti, Paula M; Orlando, Ulises D; Mele, Pablo G; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J

    2016-01-01

    In adrenocortical cells, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) promotes the activation of several protein kinases. The action of these kinases is linked to steroid production, mainly through steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), whose expression and activity are dependent on protein phosphorylation events at genomic and non-genomic levels. Hormone-dependent mitochondrial dynamics and cell proliferation are functions also associated with protein kinases. On the other hand, protein tyrosine dephosphorylation is an additional component of the ACTH signaling pathway, which involves the "classical" protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), such as Src homology domain (SH) 2-containing PTP (SHP2c), and members of the MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) family, such as MKP-1. PTPs are rapidly activated by posttranslational mechanisms and participate in hormone-stimulated steroid production. In this process, the SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase plays a crucial role in a mechanism that includes an acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (Acsl4), arachidonic acid (AA) release and StAR induction. In contrast, MKPs in steroidogenic cells have a role in the turn-off of the hormonal signal in ERK-dependent processes such as steroid synthesis and, perhaps, cell proliferation. This review analyzes the participation of these tyrosine phosphates in the ACTH signaling pathway and the action of kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and steroid production. In addition, the participation of kinases and phosphatases in the signal cascade triggered by different stimuli in other steroidogenic tissues is also compared to adrenocortical cell/ACTH and discussed. PMID:27375556

  20. Antidepressant-like effects of shuyusan in rats exposed to chronic stress: effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liping; Chen, Mengli; Wang, Fawei; Sun, Zhigao; Quanzhi, Huang; Geng, Miao; Chen, Hongyan; Duan, Dongmei

    2012-01-01

    This study was to investigate antidepressant activities of Shuyusan (a Chinese herb), using a rats model of depression induced by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). The administration groups were treated with Shuyusan decoction for 3 weeks and compared with fluoxetine treatment. In order to understand the potential antidepressant-like activities of Shuyusan, tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) were used as behavioral despair study. The level of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor expression were examined. After modeling, there was a significant prolongation of immobility time in administration groups with the TST and FST. High-dose Shuyusan could reduce the immobility time measured with the TST and FST. The immobility time in high-dose herbs group and fluoxetine group was increased significantly compared with the model group. After 3 weeks herbs fed, the serum contents level of CRH, ACTH, and CORT in high-dose herb group was significantly decreased compared to the model group. The result indicated that Shuyusan had antidepressant activity effects on UCMS model rats. The potential antidepressant effect may be related to decreasing glucocorticoid levels activity, regulating the function of HPA axis, and inhibiting glucocorticoid receptor expression in hippocampus. PMID:23008744

  1. OPRM1 gene variation influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in response to a variety of stressors in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Schwandt, Melanie L.; Lindell, Stephen G.; Higley, James D.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Heilig, Markus; Barr, Christina S.

    2011-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system is involved in modulating a number of behavioral and physiological systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In humans, a functional variant in the OPRM1 gene (OPRM1 A118G) is associated with a number of outcomes, including attenuated HPA axis responses to stress. A nonsynonymous variant (OPRM1 C77G) in the rhesus macaque has been shown to have similar effects in vivo to the human variant. The current study investigated whether OPRM1 C77G influences HPA axis response to stress in rhesus macaques. We analyzed plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels measured in response to three different stressors: 1) maternal separation in infant subjects at 6 months of age, 2) acute ethanol administration in adolescent subjects at 4 years of age, and 3) postpartum HPA axis function in adult rhesus macaque females. For the maternal separation paradigm, ACTH and cortisol levels were determined at baseline as well as peak levels during each of 4 consecutive separation episodes. For the acute ethanol administration paradigm, hormone levels were determined at baseline and again at 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 60 minutes following the ethanol infusion. For postpartum sampling, hormone levels were determined at postpartum days 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150. Infants carrying the 77G allele exhibited lower levels of cortisol across all 4 separation episodes. Furthermore, adolescents carrying the 77G allele exhibited lower cortisol levels at 5 and 10 minutes following acute ethanol administration. Adult females with prior reproductive experience and who carry the 77G allele exhibited lower cortisol levels across the postpartum period. No significant genotype effects were found for ACTH, although there were some trends for lower ACTH levels in 77G allele carriers. These data are consistent with human studies that have demonstrated attenuated cortisol responses to stress among carriers of the OPRM1 118G allele

  2. Role of Protein Phosphorylation and Tyrosine Phosphatases in the Adrenal Regulation of Steroid Synthesis and Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gorostizaga, Alejandra; Castillo, Ana F.; Mori Sequeiros García, M. Mercedes; Maloberti, Paula M.; Orlando, Ulises D.; Mele, Pablo G.; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J.

    2016-01-01

    In adrenocortical cells, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) promotes the activation of several protein kinases. The action of these kinases is linked to steroid production, mainly through steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), whose expression and activity are dependent on protein phosphorylation events at genomic and non-genomic levels. Hormone-dependent mitochondrial dynamics and cell proliferation are functions also associated with protein kinases. On the other hand, protein tyrosine dephosphorylation is an additional component of the ACTH signaling pathway, which involves the “classical” protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), such as Src homology domain (SH) 2-containing PTP (SHP2c), and members of the MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) family, such as MKP-1. PTPs are rapidly activated by posttranslational mechanisms and participate in hormone-stimulated steroid production. In this process, the SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase plays a crucial role in a mechanism that includes an acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (Acsl4), arachidonic acid (AA) release and StAR induction. In contrast, MKPs in steroidogenic cells have a role in the turn-off of the hormonal signal in ERK-dependent processes such as steroid synthesis and, perhaps, cell proliferation. This review analyzes the participation of these tyrosine phosphates in the ACTH signaling pathway and the action of kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and steroid production. In addition, the participation of kinases and phosphatases in the signal cascade triggered by different stimuli in other steroidogenic tissues is also compared to adrenocortical cell/ACTH and discussed. PMID:27375556

  3. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancerous (malignant) tumors or grow excessively without forming tumors. Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are caused by ... This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names corticotropin H.P. ACTHAR GEL epinephrine ADRENALIN Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia ...

  4. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes: A Comprehensive Imaging Review.

    PubMed

    Grajo, Joseph R; Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Sahani, Dushyant V; Kambadakone, Avinash

    2016-05-01

    MEN1, MEN2, and MEN4 comprise a series of familial disorders involving the simultaneous occurrence of tumors in more than one endocrine organ, collectively known as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Patients with this family of disorders develop tumors of the parathyroid gland, pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, and thyroid gland, along with miscellaneous neuroendocrine tumors of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Although some patients undergo early prophylactic surgical management, particularly in the setting of familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, many develop tumors later in life. These tumors are often discovered at imaging for screening purposes. Recognition of the imaging features of the known tumors is important for appropriate patient management. PMID:27153782

  5. CT demonstration of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-08-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.

  6. Endocrine regulation of HOX genes.

    PubMed

    Daftary, Gaurang S; Taylor, Hugh S

    2006-06-01

    Hox genes have a well-characterized role in embryonic development, where they determine identity along the anteroposterior body axis. Hox genes are expressed not only during embryogenesis but also in the adult, where they are necessary for functional differentiation. Despite the known function of these genes as transcription factors, few regulatory mechanisms that drive Hox expression are known. Recently, several hormones and their cognate receptors have been shown to regulate Hox gene expression and thereby mediate development in the embryo as well as functional differentiation in the adult organism. Estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, retinoic acid, and vitamin D have been shown to regulate Hox gene expression. In the embryo, the endocrine system directs axial Hox gene expression; aberrant Hox gene expression due to exposure to endocrine disruptors contributes to the teratogenicity of these compounds. In the adult, endocrine regulation of Hox genes is necessary to enable such diverse functions as hematopoiesis and reproduction; endocrinopathies can result in dysregulated HOX gene expression affecting physiology. By regulating HOX genes, hormonal signals utilize a conserved mechanism that allows generation of structural and functional diversity in both developing and adult tissues. This review discusses endocrine Hox regulation and its impact on physiology and human pathology. PMID:16632680

  7. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

  8. Radioguided Adrenal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Deus, Javier; Millera, Alfonso; Andrés, Alejandro; Prats, Enrique; Gil, Ismael; Suarez, Manuel; Salcini, José L.; Lahoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered as the procedure of choice for the treatment of adrenal hyperplasia and tumor lesions. However, some special situations may limit the use of this method due to the difficulty to locate the gland and perform the lesion excision. We analyze 2 patients of a left adrenal tumor, explaining how they have overcome the difficulties in both situations. The first case was a patient with a history of intra-abdominal surgery and the other patient suffered from severe obesity. We performed with the use of the gamma probe, and the 2 cases, was of great help to access and glandular localization. The help of gamma probe test was achieved in the surgical bed, that removal was complete. The use of the portable gamma probe facilitated the access to the left adrenal gland as well as conducting the glandular excision without delay, despite the difficulties due to the intra abdominal surgery caused by the previous surgery, and in the case of severe obesity. PMID:26426608

  9. Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids mimic direct but not receptor-mediated inhibitory effects of estrogens and phytoestrogens on testicular endocrine function. Possible significance for Leydig cell insufficiency in alcohol addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Stammel, W.; Thomas, H. ); Staib, W.; Kuehn-Velten, W.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Possible effects of various tetrahydroisoquinolines (TIQs) on rat testicular endocrine function were tested in vitro in order to prove whether these compounds may be mediators of the development of Leydig cell insufficiency. TIQ effects on different levels of regulation of testis function were compared in vitro with estrogen effects, since both classes of compounds have structural similarities. Gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production by testicular Leydig cells was inhibited by tetrahydropapaveroline and isosalsoline, the IC{sub 50} values being comparable to those of estradiol, 2-hydroxyestradiol, and the phytoestrogens, coumestrol and genistein; salsolinol and salsoline were less effective, and salsolidine was ineffective. None of these TIQs interacted significantly with testicular estrogen receptor as analyzed by estradiol displacement. However, tetrahydropapaveroline, isosalsoline and salsolinol competitively inhibited substrate binding to cytochrome P45OXVII, with similar efficiency as the estrogens did; salsoline and salsolidine were again much less effective.

  10. Effects of Wastewater Discharges on Endocrine and Reproductive Function of Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) and Implications for the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Olivier, Heather M.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Alvarez, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Santa Ana River (SAR) in southern California is impacted by effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which are sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and urban runoff. The Santa Ana River is one of only three river basins supporting native populations of the federally listed Santa Ana sucker (Catostomus santaanae) at the time the fish was included on the list 2000. In 2004 and 2005, a U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service study was undertaken to determine if the threatened Santa Ana sucker was potentially exposed to OWCs and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the SAR by using the western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as a surrogate fish model. Four Santa Ana River sites were chosen along a gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents: (1) a point source of tertiary treated wastewater effluent (TTWE), (2) Rialto Drain (just below a WWTP), (3) Prado Dam (11 kilometers [km] below WWTPs), and (4) Sunnyslope Creek (no WWTP but having urban runoff influence). A reference site having no WWTPs or urban runoff, Thousand Palms, was also sampled. Chemical analyses of passive sampler extracts results showed that 15 OWCs and EDCs were detected in water from the Santa Ana River sites. Many of these compounds contributed to activity from an estrogenic in-vitro assay that showed a significant potential for impacting endocrine and reproductive systems compared to the 25 organochlorine compounds detected in aquatic biota. The site showing compounds having highest influence on sex steroid hormone activities was the point source for TTWE. Sex steroid hormone levels, secondary sex characteristics, organosomatic indices, and sperm quality parameters indicated impairment of endocrine and reproductive function of male western mosquitofish in the Santa Ana River. Exposure to EDCs and consequent impairment in mosquitofish followed the gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents, where the most significant effects were found at TTWE point source and

  11. Probing the binding of an endocrine disrupting compound-Bisphenol F to human serum albumin: Insights into the interactions of harmful chemicals with functional biomacromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Fang; Xu, Tianci; Yang, Lijun; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Lei

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol F (BPF) as an endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) pollutant in the environment poses a great threat to human health. To evaluate the toxicity of BPF at the protein level, the effects of BPF on human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated at three temperatures 283, 298, and 308 K by multiple spectroscopic techniques. The experimental results showed that BPF effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA via static quenching. The number of binding sites, the binding constant, the thermodynamic parameters and the binding subdomain were measured, and indicated that BPF could spontaneously bind with HSA on subdomain IIA through H-bond and van der Waals interactions. Furthermore, the conformation of HSA was demonstrably changed in the presence of BPF. The work provides accurate and full basic data for clarifying the binding mechanisms of BPF with HSA in vivo and is helpful for understanding its effect on protein function during its transportation and distribution in blood.

  12. The Effects of Nanomaterials as Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Leso, Veruscka; Bergamaschi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, nanoparticles have been increasingly used in several industrial, consumer and medical applications because of their unique physico-chemical properties. However, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that these properties are also closely associated with detrimental health effects. There is a serious lack of information on the potential nanoparticle hazard to human health, particularly on their possible toxic effects on the endocrine system. This topic is of primary importance since the disruption of endocrine functions is associated with severe adverse effects on human health. Consequently, in order to gather information on the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on endocrine organs, we reviewed the data available in the literature regarding the endocrine effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure to different types of nanoparticles. Our aim was to understand the potential endocrine disrupting risks posed by nanoparticles, to assess their underlying mechanisms of action and identify areas in which further investigation is needed in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the role of nanoparticles as endocrine disruptors. Current data support the notion that different types of nanoparticles are capable of altering the normal and physiological activity of the endocrine system. However, a critical evaluation of these findings suggests the need to interpret these results with caution since information on potential endocrine interactions and the toxicity of nanoparticles is quite limited. PMID:23949635

  13. The effects of nanomaterials as endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Leso, Veruscka; Bergamaschi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, nanoparticles have been increasingly used in several industrial, consumer and medical applications because of their unique physico-chemical properties. However, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that these properties are also closely associated with detrimental health effects. There is a serious lack of information on the potential nanoparticle hazard to human health, particularly on their possible toxic effects on the endocrine system. This topic is of primary importance since the disruption of endocrine functions is associated with severe adverse effects on human health. Consequently, in order to gather information on the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on endocrine organs, we reviewed the data available in the literature regarding the endocrine effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure to different types of nanoparticles. Our aim was to understand the potential endocrine disrupting risks posed by nanoparticles, to assess their underlying mechanisms of action and identify areas in which further investigation is needed in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the role of nanoparticles as endocrine disruptors. Current data support the notion that different types of nanoparticles are capable of altering the normal and physiological activity of the endocrine system. However, a critical evaluation of these findings suggests the need to interpret these results with caution since information on potential endocrine interactions and the toxicity of nanoparticles is quite limited. PMID:23949635

  14. Endocrine FGFs: Evolution, Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Hiroya; Konishi, Morichika

    2015-01-01

    The human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family comprises 22 structurally related polypeptides that play crucial roles in neuronal functions, development, and metabolism. FGFs are classified as intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine FGFs based on their action mechanisms. Paracrine and endocrine FGFs are secreted signaling molecules by acting via cell-surface FGF receptors (FGFRs). Paracrine FGFs require heparan sulfate as a cofactor for FGFRs. In contrast, endocrine FGFs, comprising FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, require α-Klotho or β-Klotho as a cofactor for FGFRs. Endocrine FGFs, which are specific to vertebrates, lost heparan sulfate-binding affinity and acquired a systemic signaling system with α-Klotho or β-Klotho during early vertebrate evolution. The phenotypes of endocrine FGF knockout mice indicate that they play roles in metabolism including bile acid, energy, and phosphate/active vitamin D metabolism. Accumulated evidence for the involvement of endocrine FGFs in human genetic and metabolic diseases also indicates their pathophysiological roles in metabolic diseases, potential risk factors for metabolic diseases, and useful biomarkers for metabolic diseases. The therapeutic utility of endocrine FGFs is currently being developed. These findings provide new insights into the physiological and pathophysiological roles of endocrine FGFs and potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for metabolic diseases. PMID:26483756

  15. The Spatiotemporal Pattern of Glis3 Expression Indicates a Regulatory Function in Bipotent and Endocrine Progenitors during Early Pancreatic Development and in Beta, PP and Ductal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hong Soon; Takeda, Yukimasa; Jeon, Kilsoo

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Glis-similar 3 (Glis3) has been implicated in the development of neonatal, type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of Glis3 protein during embryonic and neonatal pancreas development as well as its function in PP cells. To obtain greater insights into the functions of Glis3 in pancreas development, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of Glis3 protein in a knockin mouse strain expressing a Glis3-EGFP fusion protein. Immunohistochemistry showed that Glis3-EGFP was not detectable during early pancreatic development (E11.5 and E12.5) and at E13.5 and 15.5 was not expressed in Ptf1a+ cells in the tip domains indicating that Glis3 is not expressed in multipotent pancreatic progenitors. Glis3 was first detectable at E13.5 in the nucleus of bipotent progenitors in the trunk domains, where it co-localized with Sox9, Hnf6, and Pdx1. It remained expressed in preductal and Ngn3+ endocrine progenitors and at later stages becomes restricted to the nucleus of pancreatic beta and PP cells as well as ductal cells. Glis3-deficiency greatly reduced, whereas exogenous Glis3, induced Ppy expression, as reported for insulin. Collectively, our study demonstrates that Glis3 protein exhibits a temporal and cell type-specific pattern of expression during embryonic and neonatal pancreas development that is consistent with a regulatory role for Glis3 in promoting endocrine progenitor generation, regulating insulin and Ppy expression in beta and PP cells, respectively, and duct morphogenesis. PMID:27270601

  16. The Spatiotemporal Pattern of Glis3 Expression Indicates a Regulatory Function in Bipotent and Endocrine Progenitors during Early Pancreatic Development and in Beta, PP and Ductal Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hong Soon; Takeda, Yukimasa; Jeon, Kilsoo; Jetten, Anton M

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Glis-similar 3 (Glis3) has been implicated in the development of neonatal, type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of Glis3 protein during embryonic and neonatal pancreas development as well as its function in PP cells. To obtain greater insights into the functions of Glis3 in pancreas development, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of Glis3 protein in a knockin mouse strain expressing a Glis3-EGFP fusion protein. Immunohistochemistry showed that Glis3-EGFP was not detectable during early pancreatic development (E11.5 and E12.5) and at E13.5 and 15.5 was not expressed in Ptf1a+ cells in the tip domains indicating that Glis3 is not expressed in multipotent pancreatic progenitors. Glis3 was first detectable at E13.5 in the nucleus of bipotent progenitors in the trunk domains, where it co-localized with Sox9, Hnf6, and Pdx1. It remained expressed in preductal and Ngn3+ endocrine progenitors and at later stages becomes restricted to the nucleus of pancreatic beta and PP cells as well as ductal cells. Glis3-deficiency greatly reduced, whereas exogenous Glis3, induced Ppy expression, as reported for insulin. Collectively, our study demonstrates that Glis3 protein exhibits a temporal and cell type-specific pattern of expression during embryonic and neonatal pancreas development that is consistent with a regulatory role for Glis3 in promoting endocrine progenitor generation, regulating insulin and Ppy expression in beta and PP cells, respectively, and duct morphogenesis. PMID:27270601

  17. A case series of two cases of juxta-adrenal schwannoma presenting as adrenal mass lesion and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Damodaran, Shivashankar; Mahimairaj, Griffin; Velaichamy, Kamaraj

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are rare tumors in the retroperitoneal location. They can pose a diagnostic dilemma when presenting as an adrenal mass lesion due to their imaging characteristics. We report two cases of juxta-adrenal schwannomas presenting as symptomatic adrenal mass lesions. In both the cases, the clinical examination and functional evaluation was unremarkable and the radiological examination revealed a mixed intense adrenal mass lesion in one case with predominantly hyperintense areas and a very hyperintense lesion in another, in T2-weighted images, mimicking a adrenocortical malignancy and a pheochromocytoma respectively. Both cases were treated by surgical excision. Histopathological examination established the correct diagnosis of schwannoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Juxta-adrenal schwannoma is rare tumors of the retroperitoneum, which should also be borne in mind whenever encountering large nonsecreting adrenal tumors. We report a unique imaging characteristic, which helps in preoperative identification these rare lesions. PMID:25837378

  18. A case series of two cases of juxta-adrenal schwannoma presenting as adrenal mass lesion and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Shivashankar; Mahimairaj, Griffin; Velaichamy, Kamaraj

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are rare tumors in the retroperitoneal location. They can pose a diagnostic dilemma when presenting as an adrenal mass lesion due to their imaging characteristics. We report two cases of juxta-adrenal schwannomas presenting as symptomatic adrenal mass lesions. In both the cases, the clinical examination and functional evaluation was unremarkable and the radiological examination revealed a mixed intense adrenal mass lesion in one case with predominantly hyperintense areas and a very hyperintense lesion in another, in T2-weighted images, mimicking a adrenocortical malignancy and a pheochromocytoma respectively. Both cases were treated by surgical excision. Histopathological examination established the correct diagnosis of schwannoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Juxta-adrenal schwannoma is rare tumors of the retroperitoneum, which should also be borne in mind whenever encountering large nonsecreting adrenal tumors. We report a unique imaging characteristic, which helps in preoperative identification these rare lesions. PMID:25837378

  19. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee (SRPC) Points to Consider*: Histopathology Evaluation of the Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function Assay (OPPTS 890.1450, OPPTS 890.1500) in Rats to Screen for Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Kevin A.; Parker, George A.; Regan, Karen S.; Picut, Catherine; Dixon, Darlene; Creasy, Dianne; Giri, Dipak; Hukkanen, Renee R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is a multitiered approach to determine the potential for environmental chemicals to alter the endocrine system. The Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Intact Juvenile/Peripubertal Female and Male Rats (OPPTS 890.1450, 890.1500) are 2 of the 9 EDSP tier 1 test Guidelines, which assess upstream mechanistic pathways along with downstream morphological end points including histological evaluation of the kidneys, thyroid, and select male/female reproductive tissues (ovaries, uterus, testes, and epididymides). These assays are part of a battery of in vivo and in vitro screens used for initial detection of test article endocrine activity. In this Points to Consider article, we describe tissue processing, evaluation, and nomenclature to aid in standardization of assay results across laboratories. Pubertal assay end points addressed include organ weights, estrous cyclicity, clinical pathology, hormonal assays, and histological evaluation. Potential treatment-related findings that may indicate endocrine disruption are reviewed. Additional tissues that may be useful in assessment of endocrine disruption (vagina, mammary glands, and liver) are discussed. This Points to Consider article is intended to provide information for evaluating peripubertal tissues within the context of individual assay end points, the overall pubertal assay, and tier I assays of the EDSP program. PMID:25948506

  20. Clinical application of SPECT in adrenal imaging with iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimura, J.; Kawanaka, M.; Fukuchi, M.

    1989-04-01

    Forty-one patients with or without adrenocortical disorders were studied to evaluate the clinical usefulness of SPECT in adrenal imaging with I-131 Adosterol. In the SPECT images from this study, all glands with either normally functioning or hyperfunctioning adrenal cortices could be detected, while those glands with hypofunctioning adrenal cortices could not be detected. Particularly in transaxial and sagittal slices, the adrenal gland was identified posteriorly and was clearly distinguished from the gallbladder. In preliminary results using SPECT by a standard method, uptake in 68 detectable glands ranged from 1.7% to 4.9% in four glands with Cushing's syndrome, from 1.1% to 1.3% in seven glands with primary aldosteronism, and were distributed below 1.0% in the remaining glands with normally functioning adrenal cortices. These data show that it is possible to evaluate the adrenocortical functioning status simply by analyzing the SPECT images of the adrenal.

  1. Adrenal hemangioma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Auh, Y H; Anand, J; Zirinsky, K; Kazam, E

    1986-01-01

    Adrenal hemangioma is a very rare tumor. Presented is the 18th case proved by autopsy or surgery reported in world literature. The tumor was incidentally discovered at autopsy. Unless this tumor has characteristic calcifications, phlebolith or phlebolithlike, its computed tomography appearance is nonspecific. Therefore, by computed tomography this tumor cannot be differentiated from other primary or secondary adrenal tumors. PMID:3943357

  2. The Current Role of Venous Sampling in the Localization of Endocrine Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Jeshen H. G. Drake, William; Matson, Matthew

    2007-07-15

    Endocrine venous sampling plays a specific role in the diagnosis of endocrine disorders. In this article, we cover inferior petrosal sinus sampling, selective parathyroid venous sampling, hepatic venous sampling with arterial stimulation, adrenal venous sampling, and ovarian venous sampling. We review their indications and the scientific evidence justifying these indications in the diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic endocrine tumors, Conn's syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytomas, and androgen-secreting ovarian tumors. For each sampling technique, we compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of other imaging techniques and, where possible, look at how it impacts patient management. Finally, we incorporate venous sampling into diagnostic algorithms used at our institution.

  3. Update on drugs used to treat endocrine diseases in small animals.

    PubMed

    Behrend, Ellen N

    2006-09-01

    Drug therapy for the endocrine system is implemented to replace a hormone deficiency or to prevent or reduce the formation or effects of excess hormone. Treatment of endocrine disorders covers diseases of the pituitary, adrenal, parathyroid, and thyroid glands as well as the endocrine pancreas. This article focuses on new therapies currently available for specific diseases. Administration of trilostane for treatment of hyperadrenocorticism and use of insulin glargine, protamine zinc insulin (PZI), and porcine Lente insulin for diabetes mellitus are discussed. In addition, transdermal methimazole therapy for treatment of feline hyperthyroidism and administration of progestins for pituitary dwarfism are considered. PMID:16984828

  4. Computational Steroidogenesis Model To Predict Biochemical Responses to Endocrine Active Chemicals: Model Development and Cross Validation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroids, which have an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, are synthesized primarily in the gonads and adrenal glands through a series of enzyme-mediated reactions. The activity of steroidogenic enzymes can be altered by a variety of endocrine active chem...

  5. Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, E.; Leder, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease.

  6. [Endocrine and other medical causes of abnormal fatigability].

    PubMed

    Bürgi, U

    1991-11-01

    Many endocrine diseases can cause fatigue. Tiredness is a frequent symptom of primary and secondary hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, excessive glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid production, primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, primary and secondary hypogonadism and hyperprolactinemia in the male, acromegaly, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. A great number of medical diseases other than those mentioned in the articles on cardiological and pneumological fatigue can also cause abnormal tiredness (infectious diseases, hematological, renal, hepatic, gastrointestinal and rheumatological disturbances, vasculitis and malignant tumors). The pathogenesis of tiredness caused by endocrine or medical illnesses, i.e. how the sensation of fatigue is produced, is not clear. The fatigue of the various endocrine or other medical diseases is not disease-specific, i.e. its characteristics do not differentiate it from the fatigue of other illnesses. PMID:1754971

  7. Expression of Secretogranin III in Chicken Endocrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Satomi; Shinmura, Naoki; Moki, Hiroaki; Yasui, Tadashi; Tsukise, Azuma; Torii, Seiji; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Yoshinori; Hosaka, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The expression of secretogranin III (SgIII) in chicken endocrine cells has not been investigated. There is limited data available for the immunohistochemical localization of SgIII in the brain, pituitary, and pancreatic islets of humans and rodents. In the present study, we used immunoblotting to reveal the similarities between the expression patterns of SgIII in the common endocrine glands of chickens and rats. The protein–protein interactions between SgIII and chromogranin A (CgA) mediate the sorting of CgA/prohormone core aggregates to the secretory granule membrane. We examined these interactions using co-immunoprecipitation in chicken endocrine tissues. Using immunohistochemistry, we also examined the expression of SgIII in a wide range of chicken endocrine glands and gastrointestinal endocrine cells (GECs). SgIII was expressed in the pituitary, pineal, adrenal (medullary parts), parathyroid, and ultimobranchial glands, but not in the thyroid gland. It was also expressed in GECs of the stomach (proventriculus and gizzard), small and large intestines, and pancreatic islet cells. These SgIII-expressing cells co-expressed serotonin, somatostatin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon, or insulin. These results suggest that SgIII is expressed in the endocrine cells that secrete peptide hormones, which mature via the intragranular enzymatic processing of prohormones and physiologically active amines in chickens. PMID:25673289

  8. [Clinical characteristics of multiple endocrine neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Conte-Devolx, Bernard; Niccoli, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and type 2 (MEN2) are autosomal dominant inherited multiglandular diseases with familial and individual age-related penetrance and variable expression. The most frequent endocrine features of MEN1 are parathyroid involvement (> 95%), duodeno-pancreatic endocrine tissue involvement (80%), pituitary adenoma (30%), and adrenal cortex tumors (25%), with no clear syndromic variants. Identification of the germline MEN1 mutation confirms the diagnosis, but there is no phenotype-genotype correlation. All patients with MEN2 have medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The most distinctive MEN2 variants are MEN2A (MTC+pheochromocytoma+hyperparathyroidism), MEN2B (MTC+pheo), and isolated familial MTC (FMTC). The prognosis of MEN2 is linked to the progression of MTC, which depends mainly on the stage at diagnosis and the quality of initial surgical treatment. This emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and management. The specific RET codon mutation correlates with the MEN2 syndromic variant and with the age of onset and aggressiveness of MTC. Consequently, RET mutational status should guide major management decisions, such as whether and when to perform thyroidectomy. PMID:20669560

  9. [Environmental contaminants and endocrine disruptors].

    PubMed

    Fontenele, Eveline Gadelha Pereira; Martins, Manoel Ricardo Alves; Quidute, Ana Rosa Pinto; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães

    2010-02-01

    The toxicity of various pollutants has been routinely investigated according to their teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. In the last few decades, however, many of such pollutants have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of human beings and other species. Currently, more than eleven million chemical substances are known in the world, and approximately 3,000 are produced on a large scale. Numerous chemical composites of domestic, industrial and agricultural use have been shown to influence hormonal activity. Examples of such chemical products with estrogenic activity are substances used in cosmetics, anabolizing substances for animal feeding, phytoestrogens and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These agents are seen in residential, industrial and urban sewerage system effluents and represent an important source of environmental contamination. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) defines as endocrine disruptors substances or mixtures seen in the environment capable of interfering with endocrine system functions resulting in adverse effects in an intact organism or its offspring. In this article the authors present a current literature review about the role of these pollutants in endocrine and metabolic diseases, probable mechanisms of action, and suggest paths of investigation and possible strategies for prevention and reduction of its possible damages. PMID:20414542

  10. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endocrine system produces hormones which are powerful natural chemicals that regulate important life processes. Endocrine disruptors are human-made chemicals distributed globally which have the potential to interfere with the endocrine system and produce serious biological e...

  11. Adrenal involvement in non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Paling, M.R.; Williamson, B.R.J.

    1983-08-01

    Adrenal masses are described in seven cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a series of 173 patients. In all seven patients the lymphoma was diffuse rather than nodular. Three patients had adrenal masses at the time of presentation, whereas in four cases the adrenal gland was a site of tumor recurrence after therapy. Three patients had simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement by tumor. No characteristic features were recognized that might have distinguished these tumors from other adrenal masses. Appropriate therapy successfully resolved the adrenal masses in all but one case. The latter patient was the only one with evidence of adrenal insufficiency.

  12. Mitochondrial structure in the rat adrenal cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Merry, B J

    1975-01-01

    Two distinct classes of mitochondria are described in the normal adrenal cortex of the Sprague Dawley CFY rat. Polyaminar mitochondria were frequently observed in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis, particularly after ACTH stimulation of the cortex resulting from cold-stress exposure. It is uncertain whether such organelles are degenerating forms, or whether they have a specific functional role related to steroidogenesis in the normal cortical cell. In both normal and stressed adrenal cortices, protrusions of the outer membrane of mitochondria were evident, and were often seen penetrating lipid droplets. It is suggested that these protrusions may have some significance in the transport of cholesterol from the lipid droplet to the inner mitochondrial memrane 'desmolase complex', thus facilitating side-chain cleavage of cholesterol to pregnenolone. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:166969

  13. Diagnosis and Treatment of Endocrine Co-Morbidities in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Siwamogsatham, Oranan; Alvarez, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this review is to provide an update on various relevant endocrine aspects of care in adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recent findings As life expectancy in CF has continuously improved, endocrine complications have become more apparent. The common endocrine complications include cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD), cystic fibrosis related bone disease, vitamin D deficiency and poor growth and pubertal development. Thyroid and adrenal disorders have also been reported, although the prevalence appears to be less common. Summary Endocrine diseases are an increasingly recognized complication that has a significant impact on the overall health of individuals with CF. This review summarizes the updated screening and management of endocrine diseases in the CF population. PMID:25105995

  14. Ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, T H; Brown, R; Brugger, K E; Campbell, P M; Holt, M; Länge, R; McCahon, P; Tattersfield, L J; van Egmond, R

    2000-11-01

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals proposes a tiered approach for the ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors, integrating exposure and hazard (effects) characterization. Exposure assessment for endocrine disruptors should direct specific tests for wildlife species, placing hazard data into a risk assessment context. Supplementing the suite of mammalian screens now under Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) validation, high priority should be given to developing a fish screening assay for detecting endocrine activity in oviparous species. Taking into account both exposure characterization and alerts from endocrine screening, higher tier tests are also a priority for defining adverse effects. We propose that in vivo mammalian and fish assays provide a comprehensive screening battery for diverse hormonal functions (including androgen, estrogen, and thyroid hormone), whereas Amphibia should be considered at higher tiers if there are exposure concerns. Higher tier endocrine-disruptor testing should include fish development and fish reproduction tests, whereas a full life-cycle test could be subsequently used to refine aquatic risk assessments when necessary. For avian risk assessment, the new OECD Japanese quail reproduction test guideline provides a valuable basis for developing a test to detecting endocrine-mediated reproductive effects; this species could be used, where necessary, for an avian life-cycle test. For aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, data from existing developmental and reproductive tests remain of high value for ecological risk assessment. High priority should be given to research into comparative endocrine physiology of invertebrates to support data extrapolation to this diverse fauna. PMID:11102288

  15. Ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, T H; Brown, R; Brugger, K E; Campbell, P M; Holt, M; Länge, R; McCahon, P; Tattersfield, L J; van Egmond, R

    2000-01-01

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals proposes a tiered approach for the ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors, integrating exposure and hazard (effects) characterization. Exposure assessment for endocrine disruptors should direct specific tests for wildlife species, placing hazard data into a risk assessment context. Supplementing the suite of mammalian screens now under Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) validation, high priority should be given to developing a fish screening assay for detecting endocrine activity in oviparous species. Taking into account both exposure characterization and alerts from endocrine screening, higher tier tests are also a priority for defining adverse effects. We propose that in vivo mammalian and fish assays provide a comprehensive screening battery for diverse hormonal functions (including androgen, estrogen, and thyroid hormone), whereas Amphibia should be considered at higher tiers if there are exposure concerns. Higher tier endocrine-disruptor testing should include fish development and fish reproduction tests, whereas a full life-cycle test could be subsequently used to refine aquatic risk assessments when necessary. For avian risk assessment, the new OECD Japanese quail reproduction test guideline provides a valuable basis for developing a test to detecting endocrine-mediated reproductive effects; this species could be used, where necessary, for an avian life-cycle test. For aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, data from existing developmental and reproductive tests remain of high value for ecological risk assessment. High priority should be given to research into comparative endocrine physiology of invertebrates to support data extrapolation to this diverse fauna. PMID:11102288

  16. Ultrasonographic adrenal gland findings in healthy semi-captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Kirberger, Robert M; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-05-01

    Cheetahs in captivity are believed to suffer from stress predisposing them to poor health. To date fecal glucocorticoids have been used as a non-invasive indicator of chronic stress. This study examines, the feasibility of transabdominal adrenal gland ultrasonography in cheetahs and determined normal adrenal measurements that can potentially be used as a more reliable indicator of chronic stress and/or adrenal function. Thirty-three adult cheetahs, aged between 2 and 13 years, accommodated in large off-display camps were examined over 9 days under general anesthesia. The adrenals were readily identified, with the right adrenal being more difficult to find and measure than the left, and were smaller than those expected in similar sized dogs. The left adrenal was shorter and slightly more oval shaped than the right with a length and cranial pole width at a 95% prediction interval of 16.3-22.4 and 4.1-8.7 mm. The same measurements for the right adrenal were 16.8-26.2 and 3.4-10.8 mm, respectively. Corticomedullary ratios were larger for the left adrenal. When corrected for body size, females had significantly longer and greater left adrenal corticomedullary ratios than males. Adrenal measurements did not correlate with left renal length, body size measurements, or enclosure size. Measurements that increased with age included the cortical and total adrenal widths. Adrenal ultrasonography offers potential benefits in assessment of individual cheetah adrenal pathology or the evaluation of stress induced adrenomegally especially in combination with other evaluations such as non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid analyses. Zoo Biol. 35:260-268, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27093075

  17. The endocrine quiz

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P.; Nagesh, V. Sri

    2014-01-01

    With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject. PMID:24944922

  18. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  19. Endocrine and metabolic emergencies: thyroid storm

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Richard; Matfin, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a common endocrine condition that may be secondary to a number of underlying processes. Thyroid storm (also known as thyroid or thyrotoxic crisis) represents the severe end of the spectrum of thyrotoxicosis and is characterized by compromised organ function. Whilst rare in the modern era, the mortality rate remains high, and prompt consideration of this endocrine emergency, with specific treatments, can improve outcomes. PMID:23148158

  20. Temperament and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function are related and combine to affect growth, efficiency, carcass, and meat quality traits in Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Cafe, L M; Robinson, D L; Ferguson, D M; Geesink, G H; Greenwood, P L

    2011-05-01

    Associations between temperament, stress physiology, and productivity were studied in yearling Brahman steers (n = 81). Steers differed in calpain system gene marker status; 41 were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant at feedlot entry. Temperament was assessed with repeated measurements of flight speed (FS) and crush score (CS) during 6 mo of backgrounding at pasture and 117 d of grain finishing. Adrenal responsiveness was assessed with ACTH challenge, with plasma samples collected immediately before and 60 min after challenge. Steers with higher FS and CS had higher prechallenge plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. The ACTH-induced cortisol response was unrelated to FS or CS, but glucose remained higher after challenge in flightier steers. The hormonal growth promotant reduced adrenal responsiveness; tenderness genotype had no effect. When temperament assessments and cortisol concentrations before and after challenge were combined in a principal components analysis, four vectors accounting for 38%, 25%, 18%, and 9% of the variation were identified. The first vector had significant loadings on temperament and prechallenge cortisol; increasing scores were associated with increased plasma glucose, lactate, and nonesterified fatty acid and with reductions in BW and feedlot growth rates, carcass fatness, and muscle pH. The second vector loaded only on ACTH-induced cortisol response; increased scores related to increased residual feed intake, number of daily feed sessions, and meat marbling score. The third and fourth vectors had different loadings on FS and CS and appeared to identify different aspects of temperament measured by FS or CS. Fewer associations were found between the third or fourth vectors and productivity traits, possibly because of lower variance accounted for by these vectors. In conclusion, temperament was related to prechallenge cortisol but not to ACTH-induced cortisol response. Principal components

  1. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... of salt and water Controlling the "fight or flight" response to stress Maintaining pregnancy Initiating and controlling ... overview of the adrenal glands: Beyond fight or flight . Retrieved June 29, 2012 from http://www.endocrineweb. ...

  2. Radionuclide therapy of adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Chen, Clara C

    2012-10-01

    Adrenal tumors arising from chromaffin cells will often accumulate radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and thus are amenable to therapy with I-131 MIBG. More recently, therapy studies have targeted the somatostatin receptors using Lu-177 or Y-90 radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. Because pheochromocytoma (PHEO)/paraganglioma (PGL) and neuroblastoma (NB), which often arise from the adrenals, express these receptors, clinical trials have been performed with these reagents. We will review the experience using radionuclide therapy for targeting PHEO/PGL and NBs. PMID:22718415

  3. Aldo-Keto Reductases 1B in Adrenal Cortex Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Pastel, Emilie; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Martinez, Antoine; Lefrançois-Martinez, A. Marie

    2016-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AKR1B) proteins are monomeric enzymes, belonging to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. They perform oxidoreduction of carbonyl groups from a wide variety of substrates, such as aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes or ketones. Due to the involvement of human aldose reductases in pathologies, such as diabetic complications and cancer, AKR1B subgroup enzymatic properties have been extensively characterized. However, the issue of AKR1B function in non-pathologic conditions remains poorly resolved. Adrenal activities generated large amount of harmful aldehydes from lipid peroxidation and steroidogenesis, including 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and isocaproaldehyde (4-methylpentanal), which can both be reduced by AKR1B proteins. More recently, some AKR1B isoforms have been shown to be endowed with prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) activity, suggesting that, in addition to possible scavenger function, they could instigate paracrine signals. Interestingly, the adrenal gland is one of the major sites for human and murine AKR1B expression, suggesting that their detoxifying/signaling activity could be specifically required for the correct handling of adrenal function. Moreover, chronic effects of ACTH result in a coordinated regulation of genes encoding the steroidogenic enzymes and some AKR1B isoforms. This review presents the molecular mechanisms accounting for the adrenal-specific expression of some AKR1B genes. Using data from recent mouse genetic models, we will try to connect their enzymatic properties and regulation with adrenal functions. PMID:27499746

  4. Endocrine vasculatures are preferable targets of an antitumor ineffective low dose of anti-VEGF therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Yang, Yunlong; Hosaka, Kayoko; Huang, Guichun; Zang, Jingwu; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Yun; Samani, Nilesh J; Cao, Yihai

    2016-04-12

    Anti-VEGF-based antiangiogenic drugs are designed to block tumor angiogenesis for treatment of cancer patients. However, anti-VEGF drugs produce off-tumor target effects on multiple tissues and organs and cause broad adverse effects. Here, we show that vasculatures in endocrine organs were more sensitive to anti-VEGF treatment than tumor vasculatures. In thyroid, adrenal glands, and pancreatic islets, systemic treatment with low doses of an anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody caused marked vascular regression, whereas tumor vessels remained unaffected. Additionally, a low dose of VEGF blockade significantly inhibited the formation of thyroid vascular fenestrae, leaving tumor vascular structures unchanged. Along with vascular structural changes, the low dose of VEGF blockade inhibited vascular perfusion and permeability in thyroid, but not in tumors. Prolonged treatment with the low-dose VEGF blockade caused hypertension and significantly decreased circulating levels of thyroid hormone free-T3 and -T4, leading to functional impairment of thyroid. These findings show that the fenestrated microvasculatures in endocrine organs are more sensitive than tumor vasculatures in response to systemic anti-VEGF drugs. Thus, our data support the notion that clinically nonbeneficial treatments with anti-VEGF drugs could potentially cause adverse effects. PMID:27035988

  5. Obesity and Endocrine Dysfunction Programmed by Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; de Oliveira, Elaine; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic, and maternal smoking has been shown to be associated with the development of childhood obesity. Overall, approximately 40% of children worldwide are exposed to tobacco smoke at home. It is well known that environmental changes within a critical window of development, such as gestation or lactation, can initiate permanent alterations in metabolism that lead to diseases in adulthood, a phenomenon called programming. It is known that programming is based on epigenetic alterations (changes in DNA methylation, histone acetylation, or small interfering RNA expression) that change the expression pattern of several genes. However, little is known concerning the mechanisms by which smoke exposure in neonatal life programs the adipose tissue and endocrine function. Here, we review several epidemiological and experimental studies that confirm the association between maternal nicotine or tobacco exposure during gestation or lactation and the development of obesity and endocrine dysfunction. For example, a positive correlation was demonstrated in rodents between increased serum leptin in the neonatal period and exposure of the mothers to nicotine during lactation, and the further development of leptin and insulin resistance, and thyroid and adrenal dysfunction, in adulthood in the same offspring. Thus, a smoke-free environment during the lactation period is essential to improving health outcomes in adulthood and reducing the risk for future diseases. An understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of smoking on programming can provide new insights into therapeutic strategies for obesity. PMID:23181022

  6. Laparoscopic Resection of Adrenal Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Vitagliano, Gonzalo; Villeta, Matias; Arellano, Leonardo; Santis, Oscar

    2006-01-01

    Background: Teratoma is a germ-cell tumor that commonly affects the gonads. Its components originate in the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. Extragonadal occurrence is rare. Teratomas confined to the adrenal gland are exceptional; only 3 cases have been reported in the English-language literature. We report 2 cases of mature teratomas of the adrenal gland that were laparoscopically excised. Methods: Two patients (ages 8 and 61 years) were diagnosed with adrenal teratoma at our institution. Radiological examination showed a solid 8-cm adrenal lesion in both cases. Hormonal assessment was normal. Both patients underwent laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy. Results: Surgical time was 120 minutes and 50 minutes, respectively. One patient was discharged on postoperative day 2, and the other remained hospitalized until day 10. The latter patient required percutaneous drainage of a retroperitoneal collection. Both tumors were identified as mature cystic teratomas. No evidence was present of recurring disease in either patient. Conclusions: Adrenal teratoma is rare. Laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy is a feasible, effective technique that enables excellent oncologic results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pure adrenal teratoma. PMID:17575773

  7. Adrenal ganglioneuroma in a patient with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD): a rare association.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Vishwajeet; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Babu, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal ganglioneuromas are rare, benign incidentalomas of a neural crest origin. A majority of these tumours are clinically silent and discovered on imaging for unrelated reasons. Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is an endocrine disorder characterised by bilateral polycystic ovaries, anovulation leading to infertility, irregular menstrual cycles and features of androgen hormone excess. Herein we report a rare case of adrenal ganglioneuroma in a 14-year-old girl with PCOD. She was referred to us by the gynaecologist after incidental detection of adrenal mass on ultrasonography. Except for raised 24 h urinary metanephrines, rest of the hormones measured were in normal range. Transperitoneal adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology was suggestive of ganglioneuroma. Postoperative recovery was excellent and she is doing well. To our knowledge it is the first such type of case to be reported. PMID:24145507

  8. One-pot synthesized functionalized mesoporous silica as a reversed-phase sorbent for solid-phase extraction of endocrine disrupting compounds in milks.

    PubMed

    Gañán, Judith; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Marina, María Luisa; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    A new procedure for the determination of 12 naturally occurring hormones and some related synthetic chemicals in milk, commonly used as growth promoters in cattle, is reported. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a new one-pot synthesized ordered mesoporous silica (of the SBA-15 type) functionalized with octadecyl groups (denoted as SBA-15-C18-CO) as reversed-phase sorbent. The analytes were eluted with methanol and then submitted to HPLC with diode array detection. Under optimal conditions, the method quantification limit for the analytes ranged from 0.023 to 1.36μg/mL. The sorbent affored the extraction of estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, progesterone, hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, ethinylestradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, nandrolone, prednisolone and testosterone with mean recoveries ranging from 72% to 105% (except for diethylstilbestrol) with RSD<11%. These results were comparable and, in some cases, even better than those obtained with other extraction methods, therefore SBA-15-C18-CO mesoporous silica possess a high potential as a reversed-phase sorbent for SPE of the 12 mentioned endocrine disrupting compounds in milk samples. PMID:26362809

  9. Antidiuretic action of angiotensin II in the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis: evidence for endocrine control of kidney function in cyclostomes.

    PubMed

    Cobb, C S; Brown, J A; Rankin, J C

    2010-10-01

    Intravenous infusion of angiotensin II ([Asn¹ Val⁵]-Ang II) at 10⁻⁹ mol min⁻¹ kg⁻¹ body mass produced a significant antidiuresis in river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis, captured during upstream migration and maintained in fresh water. Although the renin-angiotensin hormonal system (RAS) is now recognized in jawless fishes, until this study, the role of homologous Ang II in L. fluviatilis kidney function had not been examined. This study provides the first evidence for an antidiuretic action of Ang II in cyclostomes and, in evolutionary terms, suggests a renal function for the RAS in early vertebrates. PMID:21039513

  10. Polyaniline-coated chitosan-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles: Preparation for the extraction and analysis of endocrine-disrupting phenols in environmental water and juice samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xilan; Cheng, Jing; Zhou, Hongbin; Li, Feng; Wu, Wenlin; Ding, Kerong

    2015-08-15

    In the present study, chitosan (CHI) functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic microspheres coated with polyaniline (PANI) were synthesized for the first time. The chitosan-functionalized magnetic microspheres (Fe3O4@CHI) were synthesized by a co-precipitation method, and then aniline was polymerized on the magnetic core. The obtained Fe3O4@CHI@PANI microspheres were spherical core-shell structure with uniform size at about 100nm with 20-30nm diameter core. The microspheres had a high saturation magnetization of 32emu g(-)(1), which was sufficient for magnetic separation. The obtained Fe3O4@CHI@PANI magnetic microspheres were applied as magnetic adsorbents for the extraction of aromatic compounds via π-π interaction between polyaniline shell and aromatic compounds. Three endocrine-disrupting phenols, including bisphenol A (BPA), 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP), and triclosan (TCS) were selected as the model analytes to verify the extraction ability of Fe3O4@CHI@PANI. The hydrophilic chitosan-functionalized Fe3O4 core (Fe3O4@CHI) improved the dispersibility of Fe3O4@CHI@PANI microspheres, and then improve its extraction efficiency. The dominant parameters affecting enrichment efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under optimal condition, the proposed method was evaluated, and applied to the analysis of phenols in real water and juice samples. The results demonstrated the method based on Fe3O4@CHI@PANI magnetic microspheres had good linearity (R(2)>0.996), and limits of detection (0.10-0.13ng mL(-1)), high repeatability (RSD<6.6%) and good recovery (85.0-106.7%). PMID:25966409

  11. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: long-term evaluation of feminizing genitoplasty and psychosocial aspects.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D K; Shilpa, Sharma; Amini, A C; Gupta, M; Aggarwal, Gautam; Deepika, Gupta; Kamlesh, Khatri

    2006-11-01

    Analyzing the long-term outcome in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is crucial to evaluate effectiveness of treatment strategies. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term results in patients with CAH after feminizing surgery from the pediatric intersex clinic. Of 163 patients of CAH being followed (1980-2005), 50 responded for review. The patients had undergone feminizing genitoplasty and hormonal therapy. Evaluation included filling a detailed questionnaire along with physical examination and a structured interview in privacy. Assessment was performed for cosmetic results (50), psychosocial adjustment (42) above 5-year age, and functional outcome in 19 cases above 14-year age. Mean age at clitoroplasty was 3.6 years (1-16 years) and at time of the study was 14.6 years (4-23 years), with a mean post-op follow up of 6 years after the final surgery (6 months-17 years). The cosmetic outcome of clitoroplasty was excellent in 37, satisfactory in 10, and poor in 3. Gender identity was female, male, and mixed in 45, 4, and 1, respectively. The attitude to self and life was positive in 36 and negative in 6. The functional outcome of vaginoplasty was satisfactory, unsatisfactory, and undetermined in 11, 4, and 4, respectively. Endocrine control was satisfactory in 36/50. A novel assessment system has been adopted for analyzing the results of clitoroplasty and vaginoplasty. Endocrine control and surgical treatment are complimentary to each other to achieve satisfactory results in majority of CAH patients. PMID:16947028

  12. Improved adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with endocrine responsive disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldhirsch, Aron; Colleoni, Marco; Regan, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Results from two randomised global trials (SOFT & TEXT) designed to newly define the most effective components of adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with endocrine responsive disease, showed that for some, those with high risk of relapse, the use of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane together with ovarian function suppression with GnRH analogue (triptorelin) yielded the most favourable treatment outcome compared with tamoxifen. For women with low risk of relapse, treatment with tamoxifen was similar to ovarian function suppression together with either exemestane or tamoxifen. For women with intermediate risk of relapse, ovarian function suppression added to tamoxifen was not inferior to exemestane, while it resulted in superior outcomes compared to tamoxifen alone. Now, these trials provide critical information for the adjuvant treatment of premenopausal women with endocrine responsive breast cancer and are important for the development of future trials for further improvement of adjuvant endocrine therapies for the younger population. PMID:26082801

  13. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands on top of each kidney called the adrenal glands . These glands produce a variety of hormones that ... disorder is adrenal insufficiency, which occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones. Adrenal insufficiency typically ...

  14. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal gland size compared to body weight in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Soulsby, Stacy N; Holland, Merrilee; Hudson, Judith A; Behrend, Ellen N

    2015-01-01

    The accepted cut-off value for adrenal gland maximum diameter of 0.74 cm to distinguish adrenal gland enlargement in dogs regardless of body weight may not be appropriate for small to medium breed dogs. The purpose of the current retrospective study was to examine adrenal gland dimensions as a function of body weight in healthy dogs in three weight categories (< 10 kg, 10-30 kg, and > 30 kg) representing small, medium, and large breeds, respectively, to establish greater confidence in determining if adrenal gland size is abnormal. The measurements of length (sagittal plane), cranial and caudal pole thickness (sagittal and transverse planes), and caudal pole width (transverse plane) of both adrenal glands were obtained ultrasonographically in clinically healthy dogs (n = 45) with 15 dogs in each weight group. Findings support our hypothesis that adrenal gland size correlates with body weight in normal dogs, and more precise reference intervals should be created for adrenal gland size by categorizing dogs as small, medium, or large breed. The caudal pole thickness of either adrenal gland in a sagittal plane was the best dimension for evaluating adrenal gland size based on low variability, ease, and reliability in measurement. PMID:25496665

  15. [Endocrine effects of antiepileptic drugs].

    PubMed

    Leśkiewicz, Monika; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Lasoń, Władysław

    2008-01-01

    Both seizures and antiepileptic drugs may induce disturbances in hormonal system. Regarding endocrine effects of anticonvulsants, an interaction of these drugs with gonadal, thyroid, and adrenal axis deserves attention. Since majority of antiepileptic drugs block voltage dependent sodium and calcium channels, enhance GABAergic transmission and/or antagonize glutamate receptors, one may expect that similar neurochemical mechanisms are engaged in the interaction of these drugs with synthesis of hypothalamic neurohormones such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). Moreover some antiepileptic drugs may affect hormone metabolism via inhibiting or stimulating cytochrome P-450 iso-enzymes. An influence of antiepileptic drugs on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis appears to be sex-dependent. In males, valproate decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) but elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations. Carbamazepine decreased testosterone/sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) ratio, whereas its active metabolite--oxcarbazepine--had no effect on androgens. In females, valproate decreased FSH-stimulated estradiol release and enhanced testosterone level. On the other hand, carbamazepine decreased testosterone level but enhanced SHBG concentration. It has been reported that carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine or joined administration of carbamazepine and valproate decrease thyroxine (T4) level in patients with no effect on thyrotropin (TSH). While valproate itself has no effect on T4, phenytoin, phenobarbital and primidone, as metabolic enzyme inducers, can decrease the level of free and bound thyroxine. On the other hand, new antiepileptics such as levetiracetam, tiagabine, vigabatrine or lamotrigine had no effect on thyroid hormones. With respect to hormonal regulation of metabolic processes, valproate was

  16. A Possible New Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Mutation in a Patient with a Prototypic Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Buzzola, Rino; Kurukulasuriya, Lilamani Romayne; Touza, Mariana; Litofsky, Norman S.; Brietzke, Stephen; Sowers, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 syndrome is an uncommon inherited disorder characterized by the occurrence of tumors involving two or more endocrine glands. These tumors include pheochromocytoma, adrenal cortical and neuroendocrine tumors including (bronchopulmonary, thymic, gastric), lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas, and meningiomas. MEN-4 is very rare and has been characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid and anterior pituitary tumors in association with tumors of the adrenals, kidneys, and reproductive organs. Summary We report the case of a 40-year-old male without significant family history of endocrine disease who was found to have primary hyperparathyroidism, a pituitary tumor causing acromegaly, thyroid cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and pancreatic cysts. We posit that this represents a new version of MEN-4. While renal tumors (angiomyolipoma) have been reported as part of the MEN-4 phenotype, to our knowledge, this is the first case reported of the association of MEN-1 and/or MEN-4 phenotype with this unique constellation of tumors, including renal cell carcinoma. Interestingly, this patient tested negative (DNA sequencing/deletion) for MEN-1 (menin), MEN-4 (CDKN1B) and VHL genes. Key Message Thus, while this case has clinical characteristics consistent with either MEN-1 or MEN-4, it may represent a unique genetic variant. PMID:26989398

  17. Compensatory adrenal growth - A neurally mediated reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallman, M. F.; Engeland, W. C.; Shinsako, J.

    1976-01-01

    The responses of young rats to left adrenalectomy or left adrenal manipulation were compared to surgical sham adrenalectomy in which adrenals were observed but not touched. At 12 h right adrenal wet weight, dry weight, DNA, RNA, and protein content were increased (P less than 0.05) after the first two operations. Left adrenal manipulation resulted in increased right adrenal weight at 12 h but no change in left adrenal weight. Sequential manipulation of the left adrenal at time 0 and the right adrenal at 12 h resulted in an enlarged right adrenal at 12 h (P less than 0.01), and an enlarged left adrenal at 24 h (P less than 0.05), showing that the manipulated gland was capable of response. Bilateral adrenal manipulation of the adrenal glands resulted in bilateral enlargement of 12 h (P less than 0.01). Taken together with previous results, these findings strongly suggest that compensatory adrenal growth is a neurally mediated reflex.

  18. Contraception with subdermal ST-1435 capsules: side-effects, endocrine profiles and liver function related to different lengths of capsules.

    PubMed

    Kurunmäki, H; Toivonen, J; Lähteenmäki, P; Luukkainen, T

    1985-03-01

    One Silastic capsule of 15 mm, 20 mm or 30 mm length was inserted subcutaneously into the ventral aspect of the left forearm or upper arm of 28 healthy women during menstrual bleeding or not later than on the seventh day of the menstrual cycle. A new capsule of the same length was inserted after six months and both capsules were removed twelve months after the first insertion. Side-effects, including changes in body weight, blood pressure, menstrual bleeding and liver function test results, were registered. Blood samples were taken from selected subjects twice a week during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th and 12th month of use. Plasma concentrations of ST-1435 were measured by radioimmunoassay and the effects of treatment on pituitary and ovarian function were determined by assaying plasma concentrations of LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone. There were no differences in hormonal side-effects between subjects who had a 30 mm capsule or subjects who had 20 mm or 15 mm capsules, but subjects who had 20 or 15 mm capsules had significantly longer bleeding or spotting periods in comparison with subjects who had a 30 mm capsule. There were no changes in blood pressure, body weight or liver function test results in comparison with pre-insertion values. The plasma level of ST-1435 was not significantly higher during the use of 30 mm capsules than during the use of 20 or 15 mm capsules. During the use of the shorter ST-1435 capsules, plasma estradiol elevation and slightly suppressed FSH were seen, while the use of longer capsules resulted in a slight suppression of LH. Progesterone concentrations during monitored cycles indicated anovulation. No pregnancies occurred during the study period of one year. The continuation rate at one year was 71% in the 30 mm capsule group and 57% in the 20 and 15 mm capsule groups taken together. PMID:3922676

  19. Late endocrine effects of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Rose, Susan R; Horne, Vincent E; Howell, Jonathan; Lawson, Sarah A; Rutter, Meilan M; Trotman, Gylynthia E; Corathers, Sarah D

    2016-06-01

    The cure rate for paediatric malignancies is increasing, and most patients who have cancer during childhood survive and enter adulthood. Surveillance for late endocrine effects after childhood cancer is required to ensure early diagnosis and treatment and to optimize physical, cognitive and psychosocial health. The degree of risk of endocrine deficiency is related to the child's sex and their age at the time the tumour is diagnosed, as well as to tumour location and characteristics and the therapies used (surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy). Potential endocrine problems can include growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism (primary or central), adrenocorticotropin deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, precocious puberty, hypogonadism (primary or central), altered fertility and/or sexual function, low BMD, the metabolic syndrome and hypothalamic obesity. Optimal endocrine care for survivors of childhood cancer should be delivered in a multidisciplinary setting, providing continuity from acute cancer treatment to long-term follow-up of late endocrine effects throughout the lifespan. Endocrine therapies are important to improve long-term quality of life for survivors of childhood cancer. PMID:27032982

  20. Adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Kita, Masafumi; Tamaki, Gaku; Okuyama, Mitsuhiko; Saga, Yuji; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2007-11-01

    The indications for adrenalectomy in cases of metastatic adrenal tumor remain controversial. To clarify indications and outcomes of adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis, we performed a retrospective review of all 8 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis between 1990 and 2006 in Asahikawa Medical College Hospital. The Primary tumor was renal cell carcinoma in 2 cases, and eccrine poro carcinoma, rectal cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer and cancer of unknown origin in 1 case each. Open adrenalectomy was performed in all cases, including 1 case that was converted from laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Of the 4 patients with solitary adrenal metastasis, 3 were considered tumor-free after adrenalectomy, while the remaining patient was not due to unresectable primary tumor. Of the 3 patients with complete resection, one remained alive as of 88 months after adrenalectomy but was then lost to follow-up, and the other 2 patients remain alive 12 and 7 months after adrenalectomy. Of the 2 patients with other resectable metastasis who were tumor-free after removal of all metastases, one was alive 31 months postoperatively and the other died 23 months after operation. The remaining 2 cases with other unresectable metastasis died within 6 months after adrenalectomy. At least in cases of solitary adrenal metastasis, adrenalectomy can be effective if other valid methods are unavailable. PMID:18051798

  1. Functional Connections of the Vestibulo-spino-adrenal Axis in the Control of Blood Pressure Via the Vestibulosympathetic Reflex in Conscious Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huan-Jun; Li, Mei-Han; Li, Mei-Zhi; Park, Sang Eon; Kim, Min Sun

    2015-01-01

    Significant evidence supports the role of the vestibular system in the regulation of blood pressure during postural movements. In the present study, the role of the vestibulo-spino-adrenal (VSA) axis in the modulation of blood pressure via the vestibulosympathetic reflex was clarified by immunohistochemical and enzyme immunoassay methods in conscious rats with sinoaortic denervation. Expression of c-Fos protein in the intermediolateral cell column of the middle thoracic spinal regions and blood epinephrine levels were investigated, following microinjection of glutamate receptor agonists or antagonists into the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and/or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced hypotension. Both microinjection of glutamate receptor agonists (NMDA and AMPA) into the MVN or rostral ventrolateral medullary nucleus (RVLM) and SNP-induced hypotension led to increased number of c-Fos positive neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of the middle thoracic spinal regions and increased blood epinephrine levels. Pretreatment with microinjection of glutamate receptor antagonists (MK-801 and CNQX) into the MVN or RVLM prevented the increased number of c-Fos positive neurons resulting from SNP-induced hypotension, and reversed the increased blood epinephrine levels. These results indicate that the VSA axis may be a key component of the pathway used by the vestibulosympathetic reflex to maintain blood pressure during postural movements. PMID:26330755

  2. Influence of early life stress on later hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning and its covariation with mental health symptoms: A study of the allostatic process from childhood into adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Burk, Linnea R.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Kalin, Ned H.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a primary mechanism in the allostatic process through which early life stress (ELS) contributes to disease. Studies of the influence of ELS on children’s HPA axis functioning have yielded inconsistent findings. To address this issue, the present study considers multiple types of ELS (maternal depression, paternal depression, and family expressed anger), mental health symptoms, and two components of HPA functioning (trait-like and epoch-specific activity) in a long-term prospective community study of 357 children. ELS was assessed during the infancy and preschool periods; mental health symptoms and cortisol were assessed at child ages 9, 11, 13, and 15 years. A 3-level hierarchical linear model addressed questions regarding the influences of ELS on HPA functioning and its co-variation with mental health symptoms. ELS influenced trait-like cortisol level and slope, with both hyper- and hypo-arousal evident depending on type of ELS. Further, type(s) of ELS influenced co-variation of epoch-specific HPA functioning and mental health symptoms, with a tighter coupling of HPA alterations with symptom severity among children exposed previously to ELS. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple types of ELS and dynamic HPA functioning in order to capture the allostatic process unfolding across the transition into adolescence. PMID:22018080

  3. Endocrine dysfunction in hereditary hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Pelusi, C; Gasparini, D I; Bianchi, N; Pasquali, R

    2016-08-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a genetic disorder of iron overload and subsequent organ damage. Five types of HH are known, classified by age of onset, genetic cause, clinical manifestations and mode of inheritance. Except for the rare form of juvenile haemochromatosis, symptoms do not usually appear until after decades of progressive iron loading and may be triggered by environmental and lifestyle factors. Despite the last decades discovery of genetic and phenotype diversity of HH, early studies showed a frequent involvement of the endocrine glands where diabetes and hypogonadism are the most common encountered endocrinopathies. The pathogenesis of diabetes is still relatively unclear, but the main mechanisms include the loss of insulin secretory capacity and insulin resistance secondary to liver damage. The presence of obesity and/or genetic predisposition may represent addictive risk factor for the development of this metabolic disease. Although old cases of primary gonad involvement are described, hypogonadism is mainly secondary to selective deposition of iron on the gonadotropin-producing cells of the pituitary gland, leading to hormonal impaired secretion. Cases of hypopituitarism or selected tropin defects, and abnormalities of adrenal, thyroid and parathyroid glands, even if rare, are reported. The prevalence of individual gland dysfunction varies enormously within studies for several bias due to small numbers of and selected cases analyzed, mixed genotypes and missing data on medical history. Moreover, in the last few years early screening and awareness of the disease among physicians have allowed hemochromatosis to be diagnosed in most cases at early stages when patients have no symptoms. Therefore, the clinical presentation of this disease has changed significantly and the recognized common complications are encountered less frequently. This review summarizes the current knowledge on HH-associated endocrinopathies. PMID:26951056

  4. Resistant hypertension with adrenal nodule: are we removing the right gland?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N; Tabasum, Arshiya; Rao Bondugulapati, L N; Parker, Danny; Baglioni, Piero; Okosieme, Onyebuchi E; Scott Coombes, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Resistant hypertension is often difficult to treat and may be associated with underlying primary aldosteronism (PA). We describe the case of an elderly gentleman who presented with severe and resistant hypertension and was found to have a left adrenal incidentaloma during evaluation but had aldosterone excess secondary to unilateral adrenal hyperplasia (UAH) of the contralateral gland, which needed surgical intervention. A 65-year-old gentleman was evaluated for uncontrolled high blood pressure (BP) in spite of taking four antihypertensive medications. The high BP was confirmed on a 24-h ambulatory reading, and further biochemical evaluation showed an elevated serum aldosterone renin ratio (ARR) (1577 pmol/l per ng per ml per h). Radiological evaluation showed an adrenal nodule (15 mm) in the left adrenal gland but an adrenal vein sampling demonstrated a lateralization towards the opposite site favouring the right adrenal to be the source of excess aldosterone. A laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed and the histology of the gland confirmed nodular hyperplasia. Following surgery, the patient's BP improved remarkably although he remained on antihypertensives and under regular endocrine follow-up. PA remains the most common form of secondary and difficult-to-treat hypertension. Investigations may reveal incidental adrenal lesions, which may not be the actual source of excess aldosterone, but UAH may be a contributor and may coexist and amenable to surgical treatment. An adrenal vein sampling should be undertaken for correct lateralization of the source, otherwise a correctable diagnosis may be missed and the incorrect adrenal gland may be removed. Learning points Severe and resistant hypertension can often be associated with underlying PA. ARR is an excellent screening tool in patients with suspected PA. Lateralization with adrenal venous sampling is essential to isolate the source and differentiate between unilateral and bilateral causes of

  5. Adrenal oncoctyoma of uncertain malignant potential: a rare etiology of adrenal incidentaloma.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Rohit R; Muinov, Lucy; Lele, Subodh M; Shivaswamy, Vijay

    2016-03-01

    A rare cause for rapid adrenal enlargement is adrenal oncocytoma of uncertain malignant potential. A full biochemical evaluation is warranted to screen secreting adrenal adenomas as well as to evaluate adrenal cortical carcinoma. Careful pathologic evaluation is required as the diagnosis of AOC cannot be made by imaging. PMID:27014458

  6. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome. It occurs when a tumor of the adrenal gland releases excess amounts of the hormone cortisol. Causes ... hormone cortisol. This hormone is made in the adrenal glands . Too much cortisol can be due to various ...

  7. Giant adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney

    PubMed Central

    Chodisetti, Subbarao; Boddepalli, Yogesh; Kota, Malakondareddy

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cysts. We present a case of a huge adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney anteriorly toward the left side in a young female. PMID:26941503

  8. COMPARISON OF FATHEAD MINNOW AND HUMAN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BINDING TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental estrogens have the potential to disrupt endocrine function in a myriad of species. However, in vitro assays designed to detect and characterize endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) typically utilize mammalian estrogen receptors. Our overall objective is to charac...

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTION AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS IN LARGE-MOUTH BASS FROM FLORIDA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous efforts from this laboratory, have documented altered endocrine function and sexual differentiation for alligators and turtles from Lake Apopka in Central Florida. This lake has been exposed to a variety of contaminants which are potentially endocrine-disrupting. Therefo...

  10. Adrenal cortex dysfunction: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Huebener, K.H.; Treugut, H.

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of the adrenal gland was studied in 302 patients with possible endocrinologic disease and 107 patients undergoing CT for nonendocrinologic reasons. Measurements of adrenal size were also made in 100 adults with no known adrenal pathology. CT proved to be a sensitive diagnostic tool in combination with clinical studies. When blood hormone levels are increased, CT can differentiate among homogeneous organic hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, benign adenoma, and malignant cortical adenoma. When blood hormone levels are decreased, CT can demonstrate hypoplasia or metastatic tumorous destruction. Calcifications can be demonstrated earlier than on plain radiographs. When hormone elimination is increased, the morphologic substrate can be identified; tumorous changes can be localized and infiltration of surrounding organs recognized.

  11. Regulation of synaptic functions in central nervous system by endocrine hormones and the maintenance of energy homoeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Zhiping P.; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Energy homoeostasis, a co-ordinated balance of food intake and energy expenditure, is regulated by the CNS (central nervous system). The past decade has witnessed significant advances in our understanding of metabolic processes and brain circuitry which responds to a broad range of neural, nutrient and hormonal signals. Accumulating evidence demonstrates altered synaptic plasticity in the CNS in response to hormone signals. Moreover, emerging observations suggest that synaptic plasticity underlies all brain functions, including the physiological regulation of energy homoeostasis, and that impaired synaptic constellation and plasticity may lead to pathological development and conditions. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of postsynaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid), NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) receptors, and the presynaptic components by hormone signals. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms by which hormones regulate energy homoeostasis may lead to novel strategies in treating metabolic disorders. PMID:22582733

  12. Control of adrenal androgen production.

    PubMed

    Odell, W D; Parker, L N

    The major adrenal androgens are dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (delta 4). Studies by Cutler et al in 1978 demonstrated that these androgens are detectable in blood of all domestic and laboratory animals studied, but that only 4 species show increase in one or more with sexual maturation: rabbit, dog, chimpanzee and man. Studies by Grover and Odell in 1975 show these androgens do not bind to the androgen receptor obtained from rat prostate and thus probably are androgens only by conversion to an active androgen in vivo. Thomas and Oake in 1974 showed human skin converted DHEA to testosterone. The control of adrenal androgen secretion is in part modulated by ACTH. However, other factors or hormones must exist also, for a variety of clinical observations show dissociation in adrenal androgen versus cortisol secretion. Other substances that have been said to be controllers of adrenal androgen secretion include estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, gonadotropins and lipotropin. None of these appear to be the usual physiological modulator, although under some circumstances each may increase androgen production. Studies from our laboratory using in vivo experiments in the castrate dog and published in 1979 indicated that crude extracts of bovine pituitary contained a substance that either modified ACTH stimulation of adrenal androgen secretion, or stimulated secretion itself - Cortisol Androgen Stimulating Hormone. Parker et al in 1983 showed a 60,000 MW glycoprotein was extractable from human pituitaries, which stimulated DHA secretion by dispersed canine adrenal cells in vitro, but did not stimulate cortisol secretion. This material contained no ACTH by radioimmunoassay. In 1982 Brubaker et al reported a substance was also present in human fetal pituitaries, which stimulated DHA secretion, but did not effect cortisol. PMID:6100259

  13. Model of pediatric pituitary hormone deficiency separates the endocrine and neural functions of the LHX3 transcription factor in vivo.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Stephanie C; Malik, Raleigh E; Showalter, Aaron D; Sloop, Kyle W; Rhodes, Simon J

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of most pediatric hormone deficiency diseases is poorly understood. Children with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) have insufficient levels of multiple anterior pituitary hormones causing short stature, metabolic disease, pubertal failure, and often have associated nervous system symptoms. Mutations in developmental regulatory genes required for the specification of the hormone-secreting cell types of the pituitary gland underlie severe forms of CPHD. To better understand these diseases, we have created a unique mouse model of CPHD with a targeted knockin mutation (Lhx3 W227ter), which is a model for the human LHX3 W224ter disease. The LHX3 gene encodes a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, which has essential roles in pituitary and nervous system development in mammals. The introduced premature termination codon results in deletion of the carboxyl terminal region of the LHX3 protein, which is critical for pituitary gene activation. Mice that lack all LHX3 function do not survive beyond birth. By contrast, the homozygous Lhx3 W227ter mice survive, but display marked dwarfism, thyroid disease, and female infertility. Importantly, the Lhx3 W227ter mice have no apparent nervous system deficits. The Lhx3 W227ter mouse model provides a unique array of hormone deficits and facilitates experimental approaches that are not feasible with human patients. These experiments demonstrate that the carboxyl terminus of the LHX3 transcription factor is not required for viability. More broadly, this study reveals that the in vivo actions of a transcription factor in different tissues are molecularly separable. PMID:21149718

  14. Testosterone-Mediated Endocrine Function and TH1/TH2 Cytokine Balance after Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate: By Sex Status.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shou-Qiang; Chen, Zan-Xiong; Kong, Min-Li; Xie, Yan-Qi; Zhou, Yang; Qin, Xiao-Di; Paul, Gunther; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Little information exists about the evaluation of potential developmental immunotoxicity induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a synthetic persistent and increasingly ubiquitous environmental contaminant. To assess potential sex-specific impacts of PFOS on immunological health in the offspring, using male and female C57BL/6 mice, pups were evaluated for developmental immunotoxic effects after maternal oral exposure to PFOS (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg PFOS/kg/day) during Gestational Days 1-17. Spontaneous TH1/TH2-type cytokines, serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were evaluated in F1 pups at four and eight weeks of age. The study showed that male pups were more sensitive to the effects of PFOS than female pups. At eight weeks of age, an imbalance in TH1/TH2-type cytokines with excess TH2 cytokines (IL-4) was found only in male pups. As for hormone levels, PFOS treatment in utero significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels only in male pups, and a significant interaction between sex and PFOS was observed for serum testosterone at both four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0049) and eight weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0227) and for estradiol alternation at four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0351). In conclusion, testosterone-mediated endocrine function may be partially involved in the TH1/TH2 imbalance induced by PFOS, and these deficits are detectable among both young and adult mice and may affect males more than females. PMID:27626407

  15. Vitellogenin-like gene expression in freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum (Koch, 1835): functional characterization in females and potential for use as an endocrine disruption biomarker in males.

    PubMed

    Xuereb, Benoît; Bezin, Laurent; Chaumot, Arnaud; Budzinski, Hélène; Augagneur, Sylvie; Tutundjian, Renaud; Garric, Jeanne; Geffard, Olivier

    2011-08-01

    The induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) synthesis is widely accepted as a biomarker of estrogenic exposure in male and juvenile fish. Vtg synthesis has emerged as an interesting endpoint to assess endocrine disruptor (ED) effects in crustaceans. However, studies reporting induction of Vtg in male crustaceans are lacking. This study investigated the expression of the Vtg gene in a freshwater amphipod, Gammarus fossarum, using calibrated real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT PCR). First, we described the basal pattern of expression in healthy male and female organisms at different reproductive moult stages, in order to validate the function of this gene. Females expressed from 200 to 700 times more Vtg transcripts than males, depending on the female reproductive stage. Females displayed significant elevation of Vtg mRNA levels at the end of the inter-moult phase and at the beginning of the pre-moult phase. Second, male gammarids were exposed to the estrogenic compound nonylphenol (NP) (0.05, 0.5, 5 and 50 μg L(-1)) and to the anti-androgen cyproterone (1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg L(-1)) for 2, 4, 8 and 16 days. Both chemicals altered the pattern of interindividual variability of Vtg gene expression in males with strong induction in some individuals. Finally, the impact of urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) on male Vtg gene expression was assessed in organisms transplanted in the field during in situ bioassay campaigns in three different watersheds. Induction of the Vtg mRNA level was observed in males transplanted downstream from WWTP effluent discharge in two of the three study sites. PMID:21701845

  16. Aberrant expression of hormone receptors in adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Stavroula; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Lacroix, André

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of adrenal Cushing's syndrome has emerged. The ectopic or aberrant expression of G-protein-coupled hormone receptors in the adrenal cortex was found to play a central role in the regulation of cortisol secretion in ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) and in some unilateral adrenal adenomas. Various aberrant receptors, functionally coupled to steroidogenesis, have been reported: GIP, vasopressin, beta-adrenergic, LH/hCG, and serotonin receptors have been best characterized, but angiotensin, leptin, glucagon, IL-1 and TSH receptors have also been described. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the aberrant expression of these receptors are currently unknown. One or many of these aberrant receptors are present in most cases of AIMAH and in some cases of adrenal adenomas with overt or sub-clinical secretion of cortisol. Clinical protocols to screen for such aberrant receptors have been developed and should be performed in all patients with AIMAH. The identification of such aberrant regulation of steroidogenesis in AIMAH provides the novel opportunity to treat some of these patients with pharmacological agents that either suppress the endogenous ligand or block the aberrant receptor, thus avoiding bilateral adrenalectomy. PMID:16010457

  17. Budesonide-related adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Arntzenius, Alexander; van Galen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency is a potential harmful side effect of treatment with corticosteroids. It manifests itself when an insufficient cortisol response to biological stress leads to an Addisonian crisis: a life-threatening situation. We describe a case of a patient who developed an Addisonian crisis after inappropriate discontinuation of budesonide (a topical steroid used in Crohn's disease) treatment. Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency due to budesonide use has been rarely reported. Prescribers should be aware of the resulting risk for an Addisonian crisis. PMID:26430235

  18. The effects of sustained delivery of diosgenin on the adrenal gland of female rats.

    PubMed

    Benghuzzi, Hamed; Tucci, Michelle; Eckie, Rebecca; Hughes, James

    2003-01-01

    Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin, which is extracted from the root of Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa). It has been reported to have tremendous medical applications. In addition, as an herbal extract it appears to be free of any major adverse effects. Recently, Wild Yam has been used to minimize post-menopausal symptoms and is sold unregulated over the counter at a variety of pharmacy and health food stores. The specific objectives of this study were to continuously deliver diosgenin to adult ovariectomized female rats for 45 days and follow changes in body weight, organ weight and histopathological changes in the adrenal gland. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups (n = 54, 250-300 gm BW). Rats in group I served as the control group, animals in group II were ovariectomized and animals in group II were ovariectomized, and supplemented with tricalcium phosphate (TCP) drug delivery system loaded with 500 mg diosgenin. The results indicated that ovariectomized animals had a significant increase in body weight and spleen weights. Slight increases in wet adrenal weights were observed in the ovariectomized group compared to the control animals. Histopathological evaluation of the adrenal gland revealed an increase in the cortical and medullary adrenal areas of the ovariectomized group and a significant decrease in these areas in the diosgenin treated animals (p < 0.001). The information is considered important because reduction in adrenal mass may poses a potential for major endocrine complications. PMID:12724916

  19. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M. Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-04-15

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture.

  20. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment. PMID:27275469

  1. Pesticides as endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are designed to be bioactive against certain targets but can cause toxicity to nontarget species by a variety of other modes of action including disturbance of endocrine function. As such, pesticides have been found to bind and alter the function of hormone receptors, ...

  2. Childhood maltreatment and adult psychopathology: pathways to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Marcelo F.; Faria, Alvaro A.; Mello, Andrea F.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Price, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper was to examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult psychopathology, as reflected in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction. Method A selective review of the relevant literature was undertaken in order to identify key and illustrative research findings. Results There is now a substantial body of preclinical and clinical evidence derived from a variety of experimental paradigms showing how early-life stress is related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and psychological state in adulthood, and how that relationship can be modulated by other factors. Discussion The risk for adult psychopathology and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction is related to a complex interaction among multiple experiential factors, as well as to susceptibility genes that interact with those factors. Although acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress are generally adaptive, excessive responses can lead to deleterious effects. Early-life stress alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and behavior, but the pattern of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal dysfunction and psychological outcome in adulthood reflect both the characteristics of the stressor and other modifying factors. Conclusion Research to date has identified multiple determinants of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction seen in adults with a history of childhood maltreatment or other early-life stress. Further work is needed to establish whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis abnormalities in this context can be used to develop risk endophenotypes for psychiatric and physical illnesses. PMID:19967199

  3. Chronic effects of mercuric chloride ingestion on rat adrenocortical function

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Chansouria, J.P.N. )

    1989-09-01

    Mercurial contamination of environment has increased. Mercury accumulates in various organs and adversely affects their functions. Some of the most prominent toxic effects of inorganic mercury compounds include neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Besides this, mercury has also been reported to affect various endocrine glands like pituitary, thyroid, gonadal and adrenal glands. There have been no reports on the toxic effects of chronic oral administration of varying doses of mercuric chloride on adrenocortical function in albino rats. The present work was undertaken to study the adrenocortical response to chronic oral administration of mercuric chloride of varying dose and duration in albino rats.

  4. Giant adrenal hemangioma: Unusual cause of huge abdominal mass

    PubMed Central

    Tarchouli, Mohamed; Boudhas, Adil; Ratbi, Moulay Brahim; Essarghini, Mohamed; Njoumi, Noureddine; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal hemangioma is an extremely rare benign and non-functioning neoplasm of the adrenal gland. We report a case of a 71-year-old woman admitted for intermittent abdominal pain and abdominal distension associated with vomiting and chronic constipation for 5 years. Physical examination revealed a large abdominal mass. Both computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging suggested hemangioma in the right lobe of the liver. Laboratory examinations and tumour markers were within normal limits, except for hypochromic microcytic anemia. The mass was removed intact by conventional surgery and histopathology revealed a cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland with no signs of malignancy. Surgical resection was curative, with no recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26600897

  5. Modulating the pituitary-adrenal response to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1975-01-01

    Serotonin is believed to be a transmitter or regulator of neuronal function. A possible relationship between the pituitary-adrenal secretion of steroids and brain serotonin in the rat was investigated by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-hydroxy tryptamine (HT) levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. The approach was either to inhibit brain 5-HT synthesis with para-chlorophenyl alanine or to raise its level with precursors such as tryptophan or 5-hydroxy tryptophan.

  6. Adrenal myelolipoma in a young male - a rare case scenerio.

    PubMed

    Anis-Ul-Islam, Muhammad; Qureshi, Abdul Hafeez; Zaidi, Syed Zafar

    2016-03-01

    Adrenal myelolipomas are rare non functional benign tumours which are incidentally diagnosed in asymptomatic patients. Despite the fact that several theories have been discussed, the origin of myelolipoma remains unclear. Our patient, 19 years old male presented with history of abdominal pain for past 7 years. Computed tomography scan of abdomen with oral and intravenous contrast revealed well defined round heterogenous enhancing mass seen in right supra renal area involving the adrenal gland. Patient underwent surgery by open access through thoracoabdominal approach. Histopathology of resected mass showed myelolipoma along with trilineage haematopoesis with mature adipose tissues. PMID:26968291

  7. EFFECT OF THE ANTI-ANDROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR VINCLOZOLIN ON EMBRYONIC TESTIS CORD FORMATION AND POSTNATAL TESTIS DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION. (R827405)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vinclozolin is a systemic dicarboximide fungicide that is used on fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, and turf grass. Vinclozolin and its metabolites are known to be endocrine disruptors and act as androgen receptor antagonists. The hypothesis tested in the current study is...

  8. Effects of a Short-term Exposure to the Fungicide Prochloraz on Endocrine Function and Gene Expression in Female Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prochloraz is a fungicide known to cause endocrine disruption through effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To determine the short-term impacts of prochloraz on gene expression and steroid production, adult female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exp...

  9. REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS USING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A growing body of scientific information has shown that man-made industrial chemicals and pesticides may interfere with the normal functioning of human and wildlife endocrine systems. These agents are referred to collectively as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and they are ...

  10. Update on the Mammalian Tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Protocols

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endocrine system provides a number of target sites that may be susceptible to disruption by environmental agents. In response to emerging concerns that environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on human health by altering the function of the endocrine system (http://w...

  11. Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... through hormonal blood and urine tests. A health care provider uses these tests first to determine whether cortisol levels are too ... if the diagnosis remains unclear. [ Top ] What other tests might a health care provider perform after diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency? After ...

  12. Endocrinopathies. Thyroid and adrenal disorders.

    PubMed

    Merchant, S R; Taboada, J

    1997-11-01

    This article focuses on common adrenal and thyroid diseases in the geriatric patient consisting of hypothyroidism in the dog, hyperthyroidism in the cat, and hyperadrenocorticism in the dog to include clinical signs, diagnosis, and management. A brief section on hyperadrenocorticism in the cat, thyroid tumors in the dog, and pheochromocytoma in the dog and cat are also included. PMID:9348631

  13. Endocrine Problems After Childhood Cancer: Precocious Puberty

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Precocious Puberty Version 3.0 - 10/08 Endocrine Problems after Childhood Cancer: Precocious Puberty Children treated ... the complex system of glands known as the endocrine system. What is the endocrine system? The endocrine ...

  14. [Participation of the adrenals in the pathogenesis of metabolic acid-base disorders].

    PubMed

    Iluchev, D; Shtereva, S

    1976-01-01

    The authors examined in dynamics the changes in the functional state of the adrenals on 240 rabbits, which served as models for acute metabolic deviations in the acid-base balance. The obtained results showed that the acute metabolic acidosis increased moderately the values of ACTH and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in blood without changing their concentration on the adrenal tissue. It lowered strongly the content of catecholamines (adrenaline and noradranaline) in the adrenal medular part. The metabolic alkalosis raised the concentration of ACTH in blood plasma and increased the amount of corticosteroids in blood and adrenals. There was no well formed parallelism in normalizing acid-base and hormonal indices. As a consequence of this a stage of postaciodotic catecholamine adrenal deficit was formed as well as metabasic hypercorticism in the experimental animals. PMID:14819

  15. Immune checkpoint inhibitor-related hypophysitis and endocrine dysfunction: clinical review.

    PubMed

    Joshi, M N; Whitelaw, B C; Palomar, M T P; Wu, Y; Carroll, P V

    2016-09-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a new and effective class of cancer therapy, with ipilimumab being the most established drug in this category. The drugs' mechanism of action includes promoting the effector T cell response to tumours and therefore increased autoimmunity is a predictable side effect. The endocrine effects of these drugs include hypophysitis and thyroid dysfunction, with rare reports of adrenalitis. The overall incidence of hypophysitis with these medications is up to 9%. Primary thyroid dysfunction occurs in up to 15% of patients, with adrenalitis reported in approximately 1%. The mean onset of endocrine side effects is 9 weeks after initiation (range 5-36 weeks). Investigation and/or screening for hypophysitis requires biochemical and radiological assessment. Hypopituitarism is treated with replacement doses of deficient hormones. Since the endocrine effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors are classed as toxic adverse events, most authors recommend both discontinuation of the immune checkpoint inhibiting medication and 'high-dose' glucocorticoid treatment. However, this has been challenged by some authors, particularly if the endocrine effects can be managed (e.g. pituitary hormone deficiency), and the therapy is proving effective as an anticancer agent. This review describes the mechanism of action of immune checkpoint inhibitors and details the key clinical endocrine-related consequences of this novel class of immunotherapies. PMID:26998595

  16. Pediatric endocrine hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bhavani, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine causes of hypertension are rare in children and screening for endocrine hypertension in children should be carried out only after ruling out renal and renovascular causes. Excess levels and/or action of mineralocorticoids associated with low renin levels lead to childhood hypertension and this can be caused by various conditions which are discussed in detail in the article. Childhood pheochromocytomas are being increasingly diagnosed because of the improved application of genetic testing for familial syndromes associated with pheochromocytomas. Adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) can also have hypertension associated with their obese phenotype. PMID:22145140

  17. Scintigraphic portrayal of the syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Yobbagy, J.J.; Levatter, R.; Sisson, J.C.; Shulkin, B.L.; Polley, T.

    1988-06-01

    The scintigraphic appearance of the neoplasms in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN-2B) and the interpretations of the image patterns are described. An 18-year-old male patient with the MEN-2B syndrome underwent TI-201 imaging that showed concentrations of TI-201 in the primary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) tumor and in cervical lymph node metastases. After total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection, the TI-201 image was normal. Catecholamine levels in the blood and urine were only borderline elevated. Yet, greater than normal concentrations of I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) were present in both adrenal glands. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed normal adrenal glands. These results were consistent with the diagnosis of adrenal medullary hyperplasia, a precursor of pheochromocytoma. No operation was indicated to remove the adrenal glands. Imaging with TI-201 appears to be useful in identifying sites of MTC in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome. I-131 MIBG imaging, in conjunction with computed tomography of the adrenal glands and appropriate catecholamine measurements, should be performed in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome to determine the status of the adrenal medullae, which then may be classified as normal, hyperplastic, or tumorous with pheochromocytoma.

  18. What Is Women's Endocrine Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy lifestyle and harness the power to prevent endocrine disorders, the Power of Prevention. Childhood Childhood is a ... frequent at this time. Learning how to prevent endocrine disorders during this age is pivotal. Young Women At ...

  19. The eye as a window to rare endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Rupali; Chander, Ashish; Jacob, Jubbin J

    2012-05-01

    The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves' disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman's syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove's syndrome, Cushing's disease, and Addison's disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner's, Rothmund's, and Klinefelter's syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner's, Cockayne's, Wolfram's, Kearns Sayre's, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases. PMID:22629495

  20. Nicotinic receptor Alpha7 expression during mouse adrenal gland development.

    PubMed

    Gahring, Lorise C; Myers, Elizabeth; Palumbos, Sierra; Rogers, Scott W

    2014-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 (α7) is a ligand-activated ion channel that contributes to a diversity of cellular processes involved in development, neurotransmission and inflammation. In this report the expression of α7 was examined in the mouse developing and adult adrenal gland that expresses a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter as a bi-cistronic extension of the endogenous α7 transcript (α7(G)). At embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) α7(G) expression was associated with the suprarenal ganglion and precursor cells of the adrenal gland. The α7(G) cells are catecholaminergic chromaffin cells as reflected by their progressive increase in the co-expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) that is complete by E18.5. In the adult, α7(G) expression is limited to a subset of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla that cluster near the border with the adrenal cortex. These chromaffin cells co-express α7(G), TH and DBH, but they lack phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) consistent with only norepinephrine (NE) synthesis. These cell groups appear to be preferentially innervated by pre-ganglionic afferents identified by the neurotrophin receptor p75. No afferents identified by beta-III tubulin, neurofilament proteins or p75 co-expressed α7(G). Occasional α7(G) cells in the pre-E14.5 embryos express neuronal markers consistent with intrinsic ganglion cells and in the adult some α7(G) cells co-express glutamic acid decarboxylase. The transient expression of α7 during adrenal gland development and its prominent co-expression by a subset of NE chromaffin cells in the adult suggests that the α7 receptor contributes to multiple aspects of adrenal gland development and function that persist into adulthood. PMID:25093893

  1. Your Endocrine System (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Endocrine System Print A A A Text Size en español ... a pea, is the "master gland" of the endocrine system. It makes and releases a bunch of hormones ...

  2. Effects of Alcohol on the Endocrine System

    PubMed Central

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The endocrine system ensures a proper communication between various organs of the body to maintain a constant internal environment. The endocrine system also plays an essential role in enabling the body to respond and appropriately cope with changes in the internal or external environments, such as respond to stress and injury. These functions of the endocrine system to maintain body homeostasis are aided by its communication with the nervous system, immune system and body’s circadian mechanism. Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiological and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. PMID:24011889

  3. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    For more than ten years, major international efforts have been aimed at understanding the mechanism and extent of endocrine disruption in experimental models, wildlife, and people; its occurrence in the real world; and in developing tools for screening and prediction of risk. Mu...

  4. The Endocrine Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillman, David

    1987-01-01

    Promotes a reductionist approach to teaching about the endocrine system in high school biology and anatomy courses. Encourages the study of how hormones travel to the cells and affect them. Provides suggestions for activities and discussion questions, along with sample diagrams and flow charts. (TW)

  5. Clock gene expression in adult primate suprachiasmatic nuclei and adrenal: is the adrenal a peripheral clock responsive to melatonin?

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, F J; Torres-Farfan, C; Richter, H G; Mendez, N; Campino, C; Torrealba, F; Valenzuela, G J; Serón-Ferré, M

    2008-04-01

    The circadian production of glucocorticoids involves the concerted action of several factors that eventually allow an adequate adaptation to the environment. Circadian rhythms are controlled by the circadian timing system that comprises peripheral oscillators and a central rhythm generator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, driven by the self-regulatory interaction of a set of proteins encoded by genes named clock genes. Here we describe the phase relationship between the SCN and adrenal gland for the expression of selected core clock transcripts (Per-2, Bmal-1) in the adult capuchin monkey, a New World, diurnal nonhuman primate. In the SCN we found a higher expression of Bmal-1 during the h of darkness (2000-0200 h) and Per-2 during daytime h (1400 h). The adrenal gland expressed clock genes in oscillatory fashion, with higher values for Bmal-1 during the day (1400-2000 h), whereas Per-2 was higher at nighttime (about 0200 h), resulting in a 9- to 12-h antiphase pattern. In the adrenal gland, the oscillation of clock genes was accompanied by rhythmic expression of a functional output, the steroidogenic enzyme 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we show that adrenal explants maintained oscillatory expression of Per-2 and Bmal-1 for at least 36 h in culture. The acrophase of both transcripts, but not its overall expression along the incubation, was blunted by 100 nm melatonin. Altogether, these results demonstrate oscillation of clock genes in the SCN and adrenal gland of a diurnal primate and support an oscillation of clock genes in the adrenal gland that may be modulated by the neurohormone melatonin. PMID:18187542

  6. Traumatic panhypopituitarism resulting in acute adrenal crisis.

    PubMed

    Ham, Phillip Benson; Cunningham, Aaron Joseph; Mentzer, Caleb James; Ahmad, Anbar; Young, Lester S; Abuzeid, Adel M

    2015-09-01

    Pituitary function plays an integral role in the physiologic response to traumatic injury. A significant proportion of trauma patients develop partial pituitary insufficiency. While isolated deficiencies of individual pituitary hormones are common, there are few reports in the literature of traumatic pan-pituitary failure with deficiency of all major pituitary hormones. We present a case of a patient involved in a motorcycle accident who sustained a sella turcica fracture, epidural hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, optic nerve palsy, and bilateral abducens nerve palsies. Three days after the accident, the patient became hypotensive and progressed to cardiopulmonary arrest. He was resuscitated and had spontaneous return of circulation. Despite adequate fluid resuscitation and vasopressor support, he remained profoundly hypotensive. Following administration of hydrocortisone, his blood pressures dramatically improved. He was found to have laboratory abnormalities, suggesting deficiencies of corticotropins, somatotropins, thyrotropins, gonadotropins, prolactin, and antidiuretic hormone. This is the first reported case of a patient with traumatic total panhypopituitarism complicated by acute adrenal crises during initial postinjury hospitalization. A review of the literature with comparison with other studies of trauma patients with deficiencies in five or more axes is presented. A high level of suspicion for central adrenal insufficiency and prompt administration of corticosteroids in the setting of symptomatic pituitary trauma can result in favorable outcomes. Screening for and treating posttraumatic hypopituitarism can result in improved rehabilitation and increased quality of life for trauma patients. PMID:26307884

  7. Intrinsic GABAergic system of adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Y; Gutman, Y; Guidotti, A; Panula, P; Wroblewski, J; Cosenza-Murphy, D; Wu, J Y; Costa, E

    1984-01-01

    Histochemical and biochemical studies demonstrate that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15), and GABA aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.19) are present in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Moreover, [3H]GABA can be taken up and stored by primary cultures of adrenal chromaffin cells. Nicotinic receptor stimulation or KCl depolarization releases the [3H]GABA taken up by these cell cultures. GABA and benzodiazepine recognition sites located in chromaffin cells interact with each other with modalities similar to those described for GABA and benzodiazepine recognition sites located in synaptic membranes prepared from brain tissue. Bicuculline facilitates the release of catecholamine from chromaffin cells induced by nicotinic receptor stimulation but it fails to influence the release of catecholamine evoked by K+ depolarization. Since the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor system appears to modulate nicotinic receptor function, it is suggested that GABA transmission might participate in modulating responsiveness of chromaffin cells to incoming cholinergic stimuli. Images PMID:6328506

  8. Environmental endocrine disruption: an effects assessment and analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, T M; Clegg, E D; Cooper, R L; Wood, W P; Anderson, D G; Baetcke, K P; Hoffmann, J L; Morrow, M S; Rodier, D J; Schaeffer, J E; Touart, L W; Zeeman, M G; Patel, Y M

    1998-01-01

    This report is an overview of the current state of the science relative to environmental endocrine disruption in humans, laboratory testing, and wildlife species. Background information is presented on the field of endocrinology, the nature of hormones, and potential sites for endocrine disruption, with specific examples of chemicals affecting these sites. An attempt is made to present objectively the issue of endocrine disruption, consider working hypotheses, offer opposing viewpoints, analyze the available information, and provide a reasonable assessment of the problem. Emphasis is placed on disruption of central nervous system--pituitary integration of hormonal and sexual behavioral activity, female and male reproductive system development and function, and thyroid function. In addition, the potential role of environmental endocrine disruption in the induction of breast, testicular, and prostate cancers, as well as endometriosis, is evaluated. The interrelationship of the endocrine and immune system is documented. With respect to endocrine-related ecological effects, specific case examples from the peer-reviewed literature of marine invertebrates and representatives of the five classes of vertebrates are presented and discussed. The report identifies some data gaps in our understanding of the environmental endocrine disruption issue and recommends a few research needs. Finally, the report states the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Policy Council's interim position on endocrine disruption and lists some of the ongoing activities to deal with this matter. PMID:9539004

  9. Approach to the Patient: The Adult With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). When the nonclassical (mild) form is included, 21OHD is the most common genetic disease in human beings. With the advent of pharmaceutical preparation of glucocorticoids starting in the 1960s and newborn screening starting in the 1990s, the majority of children with 21OHD are reaching adulthood, which has yielded a cohort of patients with, in essence, a new disease. Only recently have some data emerged from cohorts of adults with 21OHD, and in some centers, experience with the management of these patients is growing. These patients suffer from poor health, infertility, characteristic tumors in the adrenal glands and gonads, and consequences of chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Their care is fragmented and inconsistent, and many stop taking their medications out of frustration. Internal medicine residents and endocrinology fellows receive little training in their care, which further discourages their seeking medical attention. Adults with 21OHD have a different physiology from patients with Addison's disease or other androgen excess states, and their needs are different than those of young children with 21OHD. Consequently, their care requires unorthodox treatment and monitoring strategies foreign to most endocrine practitioners. Our goal for this article is to review their physiology, complications, and needs in order to develop rational and effective treatment and monitoring strategies. PMID:23837188

  10. Effects of Carbenoxolone on the Canine Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

    PubMed Central

    Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Okusa, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yumi; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Cushing’s disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to suppressive negative feedback by glucocorticoids. The abnormal expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD), which is a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is found in human and murine corticotroph adenomas. Our recent studies demonstrated that canine corticotroph adenomas also have abnormal expression of 11HSD. 11HSD has two isoforms in dogs, 11HSD type1 (HSD11B1), which converts cortisone into active cortisol, and 11HSD type2 (HSD11B2), which converts cortisol into inactive cortisone. It has been suggested that glucocorticoid resistance in corticotroph tumors is related to the overexpression of HSD11B2. Therefore it was our aim to investigate the effects of carbenoxolone (CBX), an 11HSD inhibitor, on the healthy dog’s pituitary-adrenal axis. Dogs were administered 50 mg/kg of CBX twice each day for 15 days. During CBX administration, no adverse effects were observed in any dogs. The plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and serum cortisol and cortisone concentrations were significantly lower at day 7 and 15 following corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation. After completion of CBX administration, the HSD11B1 mRNA expression was higher, and HSD11B2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the pituitaries. Moreover, proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression was lower, and the ratio of ACTH-positive cells in the anterior pituitary was also significantly lower after CBX treatment. In adrenal glands treated with CBX, HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 mRNA expression were both lower compared to normal canine adrenal glands. The results of this study suggested that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from pituitary due to altered 11HSD expressions, and is potentially useful for the treatment of canine Cushing’s disease. PMID:26262685

  11. A Rare Presentation of Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Concurrent Aldosterone-Producing Adrenal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Ayala, Mario; Ramírez-Rentería, Claudia; Manguilar-León, Analleli; Paúl-Gaytán, Pedro; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinomas are an extremely rare cause of hyperaldosteronism (<1%). Coexistence of different endocrine tumors warrants additional screening for multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes, especially in young patients with large or malignant masses. We present the case of a 40-year-old man with a history of hypertension that presented with an incidental left adrenal tumor during an ultrasound performed for nephrolithiasis. Biochemical assessment showed a mildly elevated calcium (11.1 mg/dL), high parathyroid hormone, and a plasma aldosterone concentration/plasma renin activity ratio of 124.5 (normal < 30), compatible with primary hyperparathyroidism with a concomitant primary hyperaldosteronism. A Tc99m-MIBI scintigraphy showed an abnormally increased tracer uptake in the right superior parathyroid and abdominal computed tomography confirmed a left adrenal tumor of 20 cm. The patient underwent parathyroidectomy and adrenalectomy with final pathology reports of parathyroid hyperplasia and adrenal carcinoma with biochemical remission of both endocrinopathies. He was started on chemotherapy, but the patient developed a frontal cortex and an arm metastasis and finally died less than one year later. PMID:26161274

  12. Cushing's syndrome and fetal features resurgence in adrenal cortex-specific Prkar1a knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; de Joussineau, Cyrille; Val, Pierre; Lambert-Langlais, Sarah; Damon, Christelle; Lefrançois-Martinez, Anne-Marie; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Marceau, Geoffroy; Sapin, Vincent; Tissier, Frédérique; Ragazzon, Bruno; Bertherat, Jérôme; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Stratakis, Constantine A; Martinez, Antoine

    2010-06-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is an inherited neoplasia syndrome with endocrine overactivity. Its most frequent endocrine manifestation is primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), a bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia causing pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome. Inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A, a gene encoding the type 1 alpha-regulatory subunit (R1alpha) of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) have been found in 80% of CNC patients with Cushing's syndrome. To demonstrate the implication of R1alpha loss in the initiation and development of PPNAD, we generated mice lacking Prkar1a specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO). AdKO mice develop pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome with increased PKA activity. This leads to autonomous steroidogenic genes expression and deregulated adreno-cortical cells differentiation, increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Unexpectedly, R1alpha loss results in improper maintenance and centrifugal expansion of cortisol-producing fetal adrenocortical cells with concomitant regression of adult cortex. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence that loss of R1alpha is sufficient to induce autonomous adrenal hyper-activity and bilateral hyperplasia, both observed in human PPNAD. Furthermore, this model demonstrates that deregulated PKA activity favors the emergence of a new cell population potentially arising from the fetal adrenal, giving new insight into the mechanisms leading to PPNAD. PMID:20548949

  13. Delayed behavioral and endocrine effects of sarin and stress exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Mach, Mojmir; Grubbs, Robert D; Price, William A; Nagaoka, Maya; Dubovický, Michal; Lucot, James B

    2008-03-01

    The organophosphorus agent sarin is a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. Experiments tested the influence of exposure to low doses of sarin along with psychological stress on delayed behavioral and endocrine changes in mice. Motor activity, acoustic startle response (ASR), pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of ASR, activity of cholinesterase in blood and catecholamine levels in adrenals were evaluated after low dose sarin exposure (3 x 0.4 LD50 subcutaneously) combined with chronic intermittent stress in C57BL/6J mice. While sarin alone produced depression of motor activity, no interaction of the stress with sarin exposure was observed. Cholinesterase activity was significantly reduced 24 h after exposure to sarin; however, the basal activity was re-established 3 weeks later. The combination of low dose sarin exposure and stress produced delayed behavioral change manifested as excessive grooming together with endocrine alterations in adrenals 7 weeks after exposure. The size of the adrenals in the combined exposure group was increased and the concentration of catecholamines was significantly decreased. In conclusion, these findings indicate that sarin in low doses is more dangerous when combined with shaker stress inducing delayed behavioral and endocrine changes. PMID:17503400

  14. The diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Park, Julie; Didi, Mohammed; Blair, Joanne

    2016-09-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency in childhood and adolescence poses a number of challenges. Clinical features of chronic adrenal insufficiency are vague and non-specific, and mimic many other causes of chronic ill health. A range of diagnostic tests are available for the assessment of adrenal function, all of which have advantages and disadvantages. Cortisol responses to these tests may vary with age and between genders. Knowledge of normal cortisol levels during health and ill health in childhood is also limited, and the cortisol replacement therapies available in clinical practice enable only crude mimicry of physiological patterns of cortisol secretion. An awareness of the limitations of diagnostic tests and treatments is important, and critical clinical assessment, integrating clinical and biochemical data, is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of children with suspected adrenal insufficiency. The aim of this review is to draw on data from clinical studies to inform a pragmatic approach to the child presenting with symptoms of chronic adrenal insufficiency. Clinical features of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, and syndromes associated with these diagnoses are described. Factors to consider when selecting a diagnostic test of adrenal function and interpretation of test results are considered. Finally, the limitations of cortisol replacement therapy are also discussed. PMID:27083756

  15. Protein kinase A alterations in endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Yu, B; Ragazzon, B; Rizk-Rabin, M; Bertherat, J

    2012-09-01

    Various molecular and cellular alterations of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway have been observed in endocrine tumors. Since protein kinase A (PKA) is a central key component of the cAMP pathway, studies of the alterations of PKA subunits in endocrine tumors reveal new aspects of the mechanisms of cAMP pathway alterations in human diseases. So far, most alterations have been observed for the regulatory subunits, mainly PRKAR1A and to a lower extent, PRKAR2B. One of the best examples of such alteration today is the multiple neoplasia syndrome Carney complex (CNC). The most common endocrine gland manifestations of CNC are pituitary GH-secreting adenomas, thyroid tumors, testicular tumors, and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit RIα gene (PRKAR1A) are observed in about two-third of CNC patients, and also in patients with isolated PPNAD. PRKAR1A is considered as a tumor suppressor gene. Interestingly, these mutations can also be observed as somatic alterations in sporadic endocrine tumors. More than 120 different PRKAR1A mutations have been found today. Most of them lead to an unstable mutant mRNA, which will be degraded by nonsense mediated mRNA decay. In vitro and in vivo functional studies are in progress to understand the mechanisms of endocrine tumor development due to PKA regulatory subunits inactivation. PRKAR1A mutations stimulate in most models PKA activity, mimicking in some way cAMP pathway constitutive activation. Cross-talks with other signaling pathways summarized in this review have been described and might participate in endocrine tumorigenesis. PMID:22752956

  16. Childhood virilization and adrenal suppression after ingestion of methandienone and cyproheptadine.

    PubMed

    Poomthavorn, Preamrudee; Mahachoklertwattana, Pat; Khlairit, Patcharin

    2009-05-01

    We report a combination of precocious pseudopuberty and adrenal insufficiency in a 4 year-old boy who had received an off-label 'appetite stimulant' syrup and excessive virilization in a 2 year-old girl who had received the same medication. Both patients presented with excessive virilization for a period of approximately 1-2 years. The syrup contains cyproheptadine and methandienone, a derivative of testosterone. Both cyproheptadine and methandienone were responsible for severe adrenal suppression in the boy. Methandienone undoubtedly caused precocious virilization in both children. Cessation of the syrup led to partial regression of virilization in both children and normalization of adrenal reserve function in the boy. PMID:19618666

  17. Endocrine disruptors and obesity.

    PubMed

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Newbold, Retha; Schug, Thaddeus T

    2015-11-01

    The increasing incidence of obesity is a serious global public health challenge. Although the obesity epidemic is largely fueled by poor nutrition and lack of exercise, certain chemicals have been shown to potentially have a role in its aetiology. A substantial body of evidence suggests that a subclass of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which interfere with endocrine signalling, can disrupt hormonally regulated metabolic processes, especially if exposure occurs during early development. These chemicals, so-called 'obesogens' might predispose some individuals to gain weight despite their efforts to limit caloric intake and increase levels of physical activity. This Review discusses the role of EDCs in the obesity epidemic, the latest research on the obesogen concept, epidemiological and experimental findings on obesogens, and their modes of action. The research reviewed here provides knowledge that health scientists can use to inform their research and decision-making processes. PMID:26391979

  18. Adrenal scan in 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency: false indication of adrenal adenoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, R.M.; Lieberman, L.M.; Newman, T.J.; Friedman, A.; Bargman, G.J.

    1981-07-01

    A patient who was thought to have testicular feminization syndrome and primary aldosteronism had an adrenal scan that suggested an adrenal adenoma. After later diagnosis of 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, she was treated with glucocorticoids rather than surgery. Her clinical course and a repeat adrenal scan confirmed she did not have a tumor.

  19. Imaging of adrenal and renal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Nancy A; Lostumbo, Antonella; Adam, Sharon Z; Remer, Erick M; Nikolaidis, Paul; Yaghmai, Vahid; Berggruen, Senta M; Miller, Frank H

    2015-10-01

    Hemorrhage of the kidneys and adrenal glands has many etiologies. In the adrenal glands, trauma, anticoagulation, stress, sepsis, surgery, and neoplasms are common causes of hemorrhage. In the kidneys, reasons for hemorrhage include trauma, bleeding diathesis, vascular diseases, infection, infarction, hemorrhagic cyst rupture, the Antopol-Goldman lesion, and neoplasms. Angiomyolipoma and renal cell carcinoma are the neoplasms most commonly associated with hemorrhage in the kidneys and adrenal cortical carcinoma, metastases, and pheochromocytoma are associated with hemorrhage in the adrenal glands. Understanding the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features, and causes of hemorrhage in the kidneys and adrenal glands is critical. It is also important to keep in mind that mimickers of hemorrhage exist, including lymphoma in both the kidneys and adrenal glands, and melanoma metastases in the adrenal glands. Appropriate imaging follow-up of renal and adrenal hemorrhage should occur to exclude an underlying malignancy as the cause. If there is suspicion for malignancy that cannot be definitively diagnosed on imaging, surgery or biopsy may be warranted. Angiography may be indicated when there is a suspected underlying vascular disease. Unnecessary intervention, such as nephrectomy, may be avoided in patients with benign causes or no underlying disease. Appropriate management is dependent on accurate diagnosis of the cause of renal or adrenal hemorrhage and it is incumbent upon the radiologist to determine the etiology. PMID:26036792

  20. GPCRs of adrenal chromaffin cells & catecholamines: The plot thickens.

    PubMed

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Brill, Ava; McCrink, Katie A

    2016-08-01

    The circulating catecholamines (CAs) epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) derive from two major sources in the whole organism: the sympathetic nerve endings, which release NE on effector organs, and the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, which are cells that synthesize, store and release Epi (mainly) and NE. All of the Epi in the body and a significant amount of circulating NE derive from the adrenal medulla. The secretion of CAs from adrenal chromaffin cells is regulated in a complex way by a variety of membrane receptors, the vast majority of which are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including adrenergic receptors (ARs), which act as "presynaptic autoreceptors" in this regard. There is a plethora of CA-secretagogue signals acting on these receptors but some of them, most notably the α2ARs, inhibit CA secretion. Over the past few years, however, a few new proteins present in chromaffin cells have been uncovered to participate in CA secretion regulation. Most prominent among these are GRK2 and β-arrestin1, which are known to interact with GPCRs regulating receptor signaling and function. The present review will discuss the molecular and signaling mechanisms by which adrenal chromaffin cell-residing GPCRs and their regulatory proteins modulate CA synthesis and secretion. Particular emphasis will be given to the newly discovered roles of GRK2 and β-arrestins in these processes and particular points of focus for future research will be highlighted, as well. PMID:26851510

  1. Association of the GTP-binding protein Rab3A with bovine adrenal chromaffin granules

    SciTech Connect

    Darchen, F.; Hammel, F.; Monteils, M.P.; Scherman, D. ); Zahraoui, A.; Tavitian, A. )

    1990-08-01

    The Rab3A protein belongs to a large family of small GTP-binding proteins that are present in eukaryotic cells and that share amino acid identities with the Ras proteins (products of the ras protooncogenes). Rab3A, which is specifically located in nervous and endocrine tissues, is suspected to play a key role in secretion. Its localization was investigated in bovine adrenal gland by using a polyclonal antibody. Rab3A was detected in adrenal medulla but not in adrenal cortex. In cultured adrenal medulla cells, Rab3A was specifically expressed in the catecholamine-secreting chromaffin cells. Subcellular fractionation suggested that Rab3A is about 30% cytosolic and that particulate Rab3A is associated with the membrane of chromaffin granules (the catecholamine storage organelles) and with a second compartment likely to be the plasma membrane. The Rab3A localization on chromaffin granule membranes was confirmed by immunoadsorption with an antibody against dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase. Rab3A was not extracted from this membrane by NaCl or KBr but was partially extracted by urea and totally solubilized by Triton X-100, suggesting either an interaction with an intrinsic protein or a membrane association through fatty acid acylation. This study suggests that Rab3A, which may also be located on other secretory vesicles containing noncharacterized small GTP-binding proteins, is involved in their biogenesis or in the regulated secretion process.

  2. Adrenal responses to calcitonin gene-related peptide in conscious hypophysectomized calves.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, S R; Edwards, A V; Jones, C T

    1989-01-01

    1. Right adrenal and various cardiovascular responses to an intra-aortic infusion of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP; 4 micrograms min-1) have been investigated in the presence and absence of exogenous adrenocorticotrophin ACTH1-24 (2 or 5 ng min-1 kg-1, I.V.). The adrenal clamp technique was employed in conscious calves in which the pituitary stalk had been cauterized 3-7 days previously. 2. At the higher dose (5 ng min-1 kg-1) the I.V. infusion of ACTH raised mean plasma ACTH concentration by about 1000 pg ml-1 and mean right adrenal cortisol output by about 750 ng min-1 kg-1. Under these conditions the intra-aortic infusion of CGRP had no apparent effect on adrenal cortisol output by about 750 ng min-1 kg-1. Under these conditions the intra-aortic infusion of CGRP had no apparent effect on adrenal function, other than to produce moderate adrenal vasodilatation. In contrast, in the absence of exogenous ACTH, the same dose of CGRP produced a substantial rise in cortisol output, which rose steadily to a peak mean value of 409 +/- 31 pg min-1 kg-1 at 10 min. It also significantly inhibited the release of free, but not of total, met5-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity from the gland (P less than 0.001) together with a significantly greater fall in adrenal vascular resistance (P less than 0.001). 3. At the lower dose of ACTH (2 ng min-1 kg-1, I.V.) CGRP raised mean plasma cortisol output from 314 +/- 31 to 486 +/- 44 ng min-1 kg-1 (P less than 0.01) and this effect was not attributable to an increase in the adrenal presentation rate of ACTH. 4. It is concluded that this peptide exerts a steroidogenic action on the adrenal cortex which is manifest in the absence of exogenous ACTH in the functionally hypophysectomized calf. PMID:2555477

  3. [Endocrine problems during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Mann, Klaus; Hintze, Gerhard

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine disorders may have an important influence on fertility, the course of a pregnancy and fetal development. For example, fertility is decreased and the risk of miscarriage is increased in women with autoimmune disorders, such as Addison's disease or autoimmune thyroiditis. Treatment of endocrine diseases in many cases has to be adapted during the course of a pregnancy. In patients with Addison's disease the dosage of hydrocortisone necessarily has to be increased. This is also valid for the time of delivery. Disorders of the thyroid gland are of great importance during pregnancy. If hypothyroidism is diagnosed in early pregnancy, immediate treatment with levothyroxine should be initiated. Iodine supplementation is strongly recommended in all pregnant and breast-feeding women. Treatment of Graves's disease will be performed during the first trimenon with propylthiouracile, afterwards with methimazole (thiamazole). In contrast, thyrotoxicosis due to hCG should not be treated with methimazole. In this paper, we present an overview on the most important endocrine disorders during pregnancy. PMID:27598917

  4. Endocrine Taste Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kokrashvili, Zaza; Yee, Karen K.; Ilegems, Erwin; Iwatsuki, Ken; Li, Yan; Mosinger, Bedrich; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    In taste cells, taste receptors, their coupled G proteins, and downstream signaling elements mediate detection and transduction of sweet, bitter and umami compounds. In some intestinal endocrine cells, taste receptors and gustducin contribute to the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and other gut hormones in response to glucose and non-caloric sweeteners. Conversely, taste cells have been found to express multiple hormones typically found in intestinal endocrine cells, e.g. GLP-1, glucagon, somatostatin and ghrelin. By immunohistochemistry multiple subsets of taste cells were found to express GLP-1. The release of GLP-1 from “endocrine taste cells” into the bloodstream was examined. In wild-type mice, even after esophagealectomy and vagotomy, application of glucose to the tongue induced an elevation of GLP-1 in the bloodstream within 10 minutes of stimulation of the taste buds with glucose. Glucose stimulation of taste cell explants from wild-type mice led to release of GLP-1 into the medium. Knocking out the T1R3 gene did not eliminate glucose-stimulated GLP-1 release from taste cells in vivo. Our results indicate that a portion of the cephalic phase rise in circulating GLP-1 is mediated by direct release of GLP-1 from taste cells into the bloodstream. PMID:24382120

  5. AKT Antagonist AZD5363 Influences Estrogen Receptor Function in Endocrine-Resistant Breast Cancer and Synergizes with Fulvestrant (ICI182780) In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Ricardo; Pancholi, Sunil; Guest, Stephanie K; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Gao, Qiong; Thuleau, Aurélie; Simigdala, Nikiana; Polanska, Urszula M; Campbell, Hayley; Rani, Aradhana; Liccardi, Gianmaria; Johnston, Stephen; Davies, Barry R; Dowsett, Mitch; Martin, Lesley-Ann

    2015-09-01

    PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling plays an important role in breast cancer. Its interaction with estrogen receptor (ER) signaling becomes more complex and interdependent with acquired endocrine resistance. Targeting mTOR combined with endocrine therapy has shown clinical utility; however, a negative feedback loop exists downstream of PI3K/AKT/mTOR. Direct blockade of AKT together with endocrine therapy may improve breast cancer treatment. AZD5363, a novel pan-AKT kinase catalytic inhibitor, was examined in a panel of ER(+) breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, HCC1428, T47D, ZR75.1) adapted to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) or tamoxifen (TamR). AZD5363 caused a dose-dependent decrease in proliferation in all cell lines tested (GI50 < 500 nmol/L) except HCC1428 and HCC1428-LTED. T47D-LTED and ZR75-LTED were the most sensitive of the lines (GI50 ∼ 100 nmol/L). AZD5363 resensitized TamR cells to tamoxifen and acted synergistically with fulvestrant. AZD5363 decreased p-AKT/mTOR targets leading to a reduction in ERα-mediated transcription in a context-specific manner and concomitant decrease in recruitment of ER and CREB-binding protein (CBP) to estrogen response elements located on the TFF1, PGR, and GREB1 promoters. Furthermore, AZD5363 reduced expression of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Global gene expression highlighted ERBB2-ERBB3, ERK5, and IGFI signaling pathways driven by MYC as potential feedback-loops. Combined treatment with AZD5363 and fulvestrant showed synergy in an ER(+) patient-derived xenograft and delayed tumor progression after cessation of therapy. These data support the combination of AZD5363 with fulvestrant as a potential therapy for breast cancer that is sensitive or resistant to E-deprivation or tamoxifen and that activated AKT is a determinant of response, supporting the need for clinical evaluation. PMID:26116361

  6. The Effects of Electromagnetic Field on the Endocrine System in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sangün, Özlem; Dündar, Bumin; Çömlekçi, Selçuk; Büyükgebiz, Attila

    2015-12-01

    Children are exposed to various kind of non-ionizan radiation in their daily life involuntarily. The potential sensitivity of developing organism to the effects of radiofrequency (RF) signals, the higher estimated specific absorption rate (SAR) values of children and greater lifetime cumulative risk raised the scientific interest for children's vulnerability to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). In modern societies, children are being exposed to EMFs in very early ages. There are many researches in scientific literature investigating the alterations of biological parameters in living organisms after EMFs. Although the international guidelines did not report definite, convincing data about the causality, there are unignorable amount of studies indicating the increased risk of cancer, hematologic effects and cognitive impairment. Although they are less in amount; growing number of studies reveal the impacts on metabolism and endocrine function. Reproductive system and growth look like the most challenging fields. However there are also some concerns on detrimental effects of EMFs on thyroid functions, adrenal hormones, glucose homeostasis and melatonin levels. It is not easy to conduct a study investigating the effects of EMFs on a fetus or child due to ethical issues. Hence, the studies are usually performed on virtual models or animals. Although the results are conflicting and cannot be totally matched with humans; there is growing evidence to distress us about the threats of EMF on children. PMID:26841641

  7. A Rare Cavernous Hemangioma of the Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Cheng; Wu, Pengjie; Zhu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal cavernous hemangiomas are rare nonfunctioning benign tumors. This case report presents a patient with a huge nonfunctioning adrenal cavernous hemangioma presenting as an adrenal incidentaloma suspicious for adrenal myelolipoma. Although adrenal cavernous hemangiomas are rare, they should be considered as a part of the differential diagnosis of adrenal neoplasms. The proper treatment is surgical excision due the risk of spontaneous tumor rupture and the difficulty of ruling out malignancy. PMID:26793524

  8. SCREENING CALIFORNIA SURFACE WATERS FOR ESTROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EEDC) WITH A JUVENILE RAINBOW TROUT LIVER VITELLOGENIN MRNA PROCEDURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern regarding the occurrence of chemicals that disrupt endocrine system functions in aquatic species has heightened over the last 15 years. However, little attention has been given to monitoring for estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) in California's freshwater ...

  9. Impact of menstrual cycle phase on endocrine effects of partial sleep restriction in healthy women.

    PubMed

    LeRoux, Amanda; Wright, Lisa; Perrot, Tara; Rusak, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    There is extensive evidence that sleep restriction alters endocrine function in healthy young men, increasing afternoon cortisol levels and modifying levels of other hormones that regulate metabolism. Recent studies have confirmed these effects in young women, but have not investigated whether menstrual cycle phase influences these responses. The effects on cortisol levels of limiting sleep to 3h for one night were assessed in two groups of women at different points in their menstrual cycles: mid-follicular and mid-luteal. Eighteen healthy, young women, not taking oral contraceptives (age: 21.8±0.53; BMI: 22.5±0.58 [mean±SEM]), were studied. Baseline sleep durations, eating habits and menstrual cycles were monitored. Salivary samples were collected at six times of day (08:00, 08:30, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00) during two consecutive days: first after a 10h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline) and then after a night with a 3h sleep opportunity (Post-sleep restriction). All were awakened at the same time of day. Women in the follicular phase showed a significant decrease (p=0.004) in their cortisol awakening responses (CAR) after sleep restriction and a sustained elevation in afternoon/evening cortisol levels (p=0.008), as has been reported for men. Women in the luteal phase showed neither a depressed CAR, nor an increase in afternoon/evening cortisol levels. Secondary analyses examined the impact of sleep restriction on self-reported hunger and mood. Menstrual cycle phase dramatically altered the cortisol responses of healthy, young women to a single night of sleep restriction, implicating effects of spontaneous changes in endocrine status on adrenal responses to sleep loss. PMID:25051527

  10. Adverse neuro-immune-endocrine interactions in patients with active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bottasso, Oscar; Bay, María Luisa; Besedovsky, Hugo; Del Rey, Adriana

    2013-03-01

    The nervous, endocrine and immune systems play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis and interact with each other for a successful defensive strategy against injurious agents. However, the situation is different in long-term diseases with marked inflammation, in which defensive mechanisms become altered. In the case of tuberculosis (TB), this is highlighted by several facts: an imbalance of plasma immune and endocrine mediators, that results in an adverse environment for mounting an adequate response against mycobacteria and controlling inflammation; the demonstration that dehidroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion by a human adrenal cell line can be inhibited by culture supernatants from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells - PBMC - of TB patients, with this effect being partly reverted when neutralizing transforming growth factor-β in such supernantants; the in vitro effects of adrenal steroids on the specific immune response of PBMC from TB patients, that is a cortisol inhibition of mycobacterial antigen-driven lymphoproliferation and interferon-γ production as well as a suppression of TGF-β production in DHEA-treated PBMC; and lastly the demonstration that immune and endocrine compounds participating in the regulation of energy sources and immune activity correlated with the consumption state of TB patients. Collectively, immune-endocrine disturbances of TB patients are involved in critical components of disease pathology with implications in the impaired clinical status and unfavorable disease outcome. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration and neurodysfunction'. PMID:23147110

  11. Differentiation of malignant from benign adrenal masses: predictive indices on computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain. S.; Belldegrun, A.; Seltzer, S.E.; Richie, J.P.; Gittes, R.F.; Abrams, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    CT findings in 43 adrenal masses were analyzed to see which features correlated most significantly with malignancy. Size, contrast enhancement, and consistency emerged as important discriminators of maligant from benign adrenal masses. These three factors were further analyzed by logistic regression technique to examine the joint influence of computed tomographic (CT) features in prediction of malignancy. As a result of logistic regression analysis, a table of estimated probability of malignancy as a function of tumor size alone and another table of estimated probability as a joint function of size and contrast enhancement were developed. Given a similar patient sample and by using the data given, it would be possible to predict chances of malignancy in an adrenal mass if its CT features are known; for example, a 5-cm adrenal mass without enhancement has a 0.31 probability of malignancy; with enhancement, a 0.68 probability.

  12. Acute coronary syndrome: a rare case of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maloberti, Alessadro; Meani, Paolo; Pirola, Roberto; Varrenti, Marisa; Boniardi, Marco; De Biase, Anna Maria; Vallerio, Paola; Bonacina, Edgardo; Mancia, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Giannattasio, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor arising from neuroectodermal chromaffin tissues in the adrenal gland or extra-adrenal paraganglia (paragangliomas). The prevalence of the tumor is 0.1%-0.6% in the hypertensive population, of which 10%-20% are malignant. Pheochromocytoma produces, stores, and secretes catecholamines, as well as leads to hypertensive crisis, arrhythmia, angina, and acute myocardial infarction without coronary artery diseases. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a final diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). PMID:26487970

  13. Acute coronary syndrome: a rare case of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maloberti, Alessadro; Meani, Paolo; Pirola, Roberto; Varrenti, Marisa; Boniardi, Marco; De Biase, Anna Maria; Vallerio, Paola; Bonacina, Edgardo; Mancia, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Giannattasio, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor arising from neuroectodermal chromaffin tissues in the adrenal gland or extra-adrenal paraganglia (paragangliomas). The prevalence of the tumor is 0.1%-0.6% in the hypertensive population, of which 10%-20% are malignant. Pheochromocytoma produces, stores, and secretes catecholamines, as well as leads to hypertensive crisis, arrhythmia, angina, and acute myocardial infarction without coronary artery diseases. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a final diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). PMID:26487970

  14. The Role of Oxysterols in a Computational Steroidogenesis Model of Human H295R Cells to Improve Predictability of Biochemical Responses to Endocrine Disruptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroids, which have an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, are synthesized primarily in the gonads and adrenal glands through a series of enzyme mediated reactions. The activity of steroidogenic enzymes can be altered by a variety of endocrine disruptors (...

  15. With a Little Help from My Friends: Psychological, Endocrine and Health Corollaries of Social Support in Parental Caregivers of Children with Autism or ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Brian; Moss, Mark; Wetherell, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated psychological distress and concomitant dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated as one pathway that links the stress of caregiving with adverse health outcomes. This study assessed whether perceived social support might mitigate the psychological, endocrine and health consequences of caregiver…

  16. Estrogen receptor alpha somatic mutations Y537S and D538G confer breast cancer endocrine resistance by stabilizing the activating function-2 binding conformation

    PubMed Central

    Fanning, Sean W; Mayne, Christopher G; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Carlson, Kathryn E; Martin, Teresa A; Novick, Scott J; Toy, Weiyi; Green, Bradley; Panchamukhi, Srinivas; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Griffin, Patrick R; Shen, Yang; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Greene, Geoffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene (ESR1), especially Y537S and D538G, have been linked to acquired resistance to endocrine therapies. Cell-based studies demonstrated that these mutants confer ERα constitutive activity and antiestrogen resistance and suggest that ligand-binding domain dysfunction leads to endocrine therapy resistance. Here, we integrate biophysical and structural biology data to reveal how these mutations lead to a constitutively active and antiestrogen-resistant ERα. We show that these mutant ERs recruit coactivator in the absence of hormone while their affinities for estrogen agonist (estradiol) and antagonist (4-hydroxytamoxifen) are reduced. Further, they confer antiestrogen resistance by altering the conformational dynamics of the loop connecting Helix 11 and Helix 12 in the ligand-binding domain of ERα, which leads to a stabilized agonist state and an altered antagonist state that resists inhibition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12792.001 PMID:26836308

  17. Cognitive effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in animals.

    PubMed Central

    Schantz, S L; Widholm, J J

    2001-01-01

    A large number of chemical pollutants including phthalates, alkylphenolic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, organochlorine pesticides, bisphenol A, and metals including lead, mercury, and cadmium have the ability to disrupt endocrine function in animals. Some of these same chemicals have been shown to alter cognitive function in animals and humans. Because hormonally mediated events play a central role in central nervous system development and function, a number of researchers have speculated that the changes in cognitive function are mediated by the endocrine-like actions of these chemicals. In this paper we review the evidence that cognitive effects of chemicals classified as environmental endocrine disruptors are mediated by changes in hormonal function. We begin by briefly reviewing the role of gonadal steroids, thyroid hormones, and glucocorticoids in brain development and brain function. We then review the endocrine changes and cognitive effects that have been reported for selected endocrine-disrupting chemicals, discuss the evidence for causal relationships between endocrine disruption and cognitive effects, and suggest directions for future research. PMID:11748026

  18. Radiographic Characteristics of Adrenal Masses in Oncologic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun Ky; Hong, A Ram; Roh, Eun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jung Hee; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess the usefulness of pre-contrast Hounsfield unit (HU) and mass size on computed tomography to differentiate adrenal mass found incidentally in oncologic patients. Methods From 2000 to 2012, 131 oncologic patients with adrenal incidentaloma were reviewed retrospectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to determine the optimal cut-off value of the mean HU and size for detecting adrenal metastasis. Results The median age was 18 years, and 80 patients were male. The initial mass size was 18 mm, and 71 (54.2%) of these were on the left side. A bilateral adrenal mass was found in 11 patients (8.4%). Biochemically functional masses were observed in 9.2% of patients. Thirty-six out of 119 patients with nonfunctional masses underwent adrenalectomy, which revealed metastasis in 13. The primary cancers were lung cancer (n=4), renal cell carcinoma (n=2), lymphoma (n=2), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=2), breast cancer (n=1), and others (n=2). The area under the curve for the size and HU for clinically suspicious metastasis were 0.839 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.761 to 0.900; P<0.001) and 0.959 (95% CI, 0.898 to 0.988; P<0.001), respectively. The cut-off value to distinguish between metastasis and benign masses were 22 mm for size and 20 for HU. Conclusion ROC curve results suggest that pre-contrast HU >20 can be used as a diagnostic reference to suggest metastasis in oncologic patients with adrenal masses. PMID:26676336

  19. Do endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias?

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Sisir; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endocrine disruptors or environmental agents, disrupt the endocrine system, leading to various adverse effects in humans and animals. Although the phenomenon has been noted historically in the cases of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the term “endocrine disruptor” is relatively new. Endocrine disruptors can have a variety of hormonal activities such as estrogenicity or anti-androgenicity. The focus of this review concerns on the induction of hypospadias by exogenous estrogenic endocrine disruptors. This has been a particular clinical concern secondary to reported increased incidence of hypospadias. Herein, the recent literature is reviewed as to whether endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias. Methods A literature search was performed for studies involving both humans and animals. Studies within the past 5 years were reviewed and categorized into basic science, clinical science, epidemiologic, or review studies. Results Forty-three scientific articles were identified. Relevant sentinel articles were also reviewed. Additional pertinent studies were extracted from the reference of the articles that obtained from initial search results. Each article was reviewed and results presented. Overall, there were no studies which definitely stated that endocrine disruptors caused hypospadias. However, there were multiple studies which implicated endocrine disruptors as one component of a multifactorial model for hypospadias. Conclusions Endocrine disruption may be one of the many critical steps in aberrant development that manifests as hypospadias. PMID:26816789

  20. Endocrine dysfunction in sepsis: a beneficial or deleterious host response?

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghiţă, Valeriu; Barbu, Alina Elena; Gheorghiu, Monica Livia; Căruntu, Florin Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic, deleterious inflammatory host response triggered by an infective agent leading to severe sepsis, septic shock and multi-organ failure. The host response to infection involves a complex, organized and coherent interaction between immune, autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral systems. Recent data have confirmed that disturbances of the autonomic nervous and neuroendocrine systems could contribute to sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. Through this review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the endocrine dysfunction as response to sepsis, specifically addressed to vasopressin, copeptin, cortisol, insulin and leptin. We searched the following readily accessible, clinically relevant databases: PubMed, UpToDate, BioMed Central. The immune system could be regarded as a “diffuse sensory organ” that signals the presence of pathogens to the brain through different pathways, such as the vagus nerve, endothelial activation/dysfunction, cytokines and neurotoxic mediators and the circumventricular organs, especially the neurohypophysis. The hormonal profile changes substantially as a consequence of inflammatory mediators and microorganism products leading to inappropriately low levels of vasopressin, sick euthyroid syndrome, reduced adrenal responsiveness to ACTH, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia as well as hyperleptinemia. In conclusion, clinical diagnosis of this “pan-endocrine illness” is frequently challenging due to the many limiting factors. The most important benefits of endocrine markers in the management of sepsis may be reflected by their potential to be used as biomarkers in different scoring systems to estimate the severity of the disease and the risk of death. PMID:25763364

  1. Endocrine dysfunction in sepsis: a beneficial or deleterious host response?

    PubMed

    Gheorghiţă, Valeriu; Barbu, Alina Elena; Gheorghiu, Monica Livia; Căruntu, Florin Alexandru

    2015-03-01

    Sepsis is a systemic, deleterious inflammatory host response triggered by an infective agent leading to severe sepsis, septic shock and multi-organ failure. The host response to infection involves a complex, organized and coherent interaction between immune, autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral systems. Recent data have confirmed that disturbances of the autonomic nervous and neuroendocrine systems could contribute to sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. Through this review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the endocrine dysfunction as response to sepsis, specifically addressed to vasopressin, copeptin, cortisol, insulin and leptin. We searched the following readily accessible, clinically relevant databases: PubMed, UpToDate, BioMed Central. The immune system could be regarded as a "diffuse sensory organ" that signals the presence of pathogens to the brain through different pathways, such as the vagus nerve, endothelial activation/dysfunction, cytokines and neurotoxic mediators and the circumventricular organs, especially the neurohypophysis. The hormonal profile changes substantially as a consequence of inflammatory mediators and microorganism products leading to inappropriately low levels of vasopressin, sick euthyroid syndrome, reduced adrenal responsiveness to ACTH, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia as well as hyperleptinemia. In conclusion, clinical diagnosis of this "pan-endocrine illness" is frequently challenging due to the many limiting factors. The most important benefits of endocrine markers in the management of sepsis may be reflected by their potential to be used as biomarkers in different scoring systems to estimate the severity of the disease and the risk of death. PMID:25763364

  2. Images of pheochromocytoma in adrenal glands

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Colin J.; Blake, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are relatively rare tumors of the adrenal medulla. A wide spectrum of imaging findings has been described. The aim of this article is to describe the multimodality imaging features of pheochromocytomas including diagnostic pearls that can help differentiate them from other adrenal lesions and pitfalls to avoid. PMID:26310999

  3. Computed tomographic findings in bilateral adrenal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, G.E.; Baert, A.L.; Kint, E.J.; Pringot, J.H.; Goddeeris, P.G.

    1983-03-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) features of bilateral adrenal tuberculosis are reported in two cases that demonstrate two typical different clinical and morphological manifestations of the disease. The incidence and CT appearance of adrenal tuberculosis are discussed, with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

  4. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  5. ACTH Regulation of Adrenal SR-B1

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Azhar, Salman; Kraemer, Fredric B.

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal gland is one of the prominent sites for steroid hormone synthesis. Lipoprotein-derived cholesterol esters (CEs) delivered via SR-B1 constitute the dominant source of cholesterol for steroidogenesis, particularly in rodents. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates steroidogenesis through downstream actions on multiple components involved in steroidogenesis. Both acute and chronic ACTH treatments can modulate SR-B1 function, including its transcription, posttranscriptional stability, phosphorylation and dimerization status, as well as the interaction with other protein partners, all of which result in changes in the ability of SR-B1 to mediate HDL-CE uptake and the supply of cholesterol for conversion to steroids. Here, we provide a review of the recent findings on the regulation of adrenal SR-B1 function by ACTH. PMID:27242666

  6. Altered hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenomedullary activities in rats bred for high anxiety: central and peripheral correlates.

    PubMed

    Salomé, Nicolas; Viltart, Odile; Lesage, Jean; Landgraf, Rainer; Vieau, Didier; Laborie, Christine

    2006-07-01

    Wistar rats have been selectively bred for high (HABs) or low (LABs) anxiety-related behavior based on results obtained in the elevated-plus maze. They also display robust behavioral differences in a variety of additional anxiety tests. The present study was undertaken to further characterize physiological substrates that contribute to the expression of this anxious trait. We report changes in brain and peripheral structures involved in the regulation of both the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympatho-adrenal systems. Following exposure to a mild stressor, HABs displayed a hyper-reactivity of the HPA axis associated with a hypo-reactivity of the sympatho-adrenal system and a lower serotonin turnover in the lateral septum and amygdala. At rest, HABs showed a higher adrenal weight and lower tyrosine hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase mRNAs expression in their adrenals than LABs. In the anterior pituitary, HABs also exhibited increased proopiomelanocortin and decreased vasopressin V1b receptor mRNAs expression, whereas glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels remained unchanged. These results indicate that the behavioral phenotype of HABs is associated with peripheral and central alterations of endocrine mechanisms involved in stress response regulation. Data are discussed in relation to coping strategies adopted to manage stressful situations. In conclusion, HABs can be considered as an useful model to study the etiology and pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and their neuroendocrine substrates. PMID:16632209

  7. Bariatric Surgery and the Endocrine System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Endocrine System Fact Sheet Bariatric Surgery and the Endocrine System February, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors John ... could have both benefits and risks for your endocrine system—the network of glands that produce, store, and ...

  8. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Unresolved Issues.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; Poppas, Dix; Ghizzoni, Lucia; New, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a family of disorders that comes from enzymatic deficiencies in cortisol production, with 21-hydroxylase deficiency causing ∼90% of cases. Distinction is made between the severe classical form and milder nonclassical form of CAH. Molecular genetic analysis is used to confirm the hormonal diagnosis. A high rate of genotype-phenotype disconcordance has been found in 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The goal of treatment is to replace with synthetic glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and suppress adrenal androgen production. The treatment of patients affected with nonclassical CAH, particularly males, remains controversial. Variable synthetic glucocorticoids are used and new modes of glucocorticoid delivery are under investigation. To improve height, growth hormone and other adjuvant therapies are employed. Long-term outcomes of genital surgery using modern techniques in females affected with classical CAH continue to be investigated. Prenatal treatment with dexamethasone is available to avoid ambiguous genitalia in these females. Although studies have shown its safety to mother and fetus, prenatal treatment is still regarded as experimental. Currently, prenatal diagnosis of CAH can only be obtained through invasive methods. Recently, the detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has made it possible to make this diagnosis earlier and noninvasively. PMID:27211889

  9. Circadian Clocks and the Interaction between Stress Axis and Adipose Function

    PubMed Central

    Kolbe, Isa; Dumbell, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Many physiological processes and most endocrine functions show fluctuations over the course of the day. These so-called circadian rhythms are governed by an endogenous network of cellular clocks and serve as an adaptation to daily and, thus, predictable changes in the organism's environment. Circadian clocks have been described in several tissues of the stress axis and in adipose cells where they regulate the rhythmic and stimulated release of stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids, and various adipokine factors. Recent work suggests that both adipose and stress axis clock systems reciprocally influence each other and adrenal-adipose rhythms may be key players in the development and therapy of metabolic disorders. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of adrenal and adipose tissue rhythms and clocks and how they might interact to regulate energy homoeostasis and stress responses under physiological conditions. Potential chronotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic and stress disorders are discussed. PMID:26000016

  10. Comparative Effect of ACTH and Related Peptides on Proliferation and Growth of Rat Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Claudimara Ferini Pacicco; de Mendonca, Pedro O. R.

    2016-01-01

    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a polypeptide precursor known to yield biologically active peptides related to a range of functions. These active peptides include the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is essential for maintenance of adrenal growth and steroidogenesis, and the alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone, which plays a key role in energy homeostasis. However, the role of the highly conserved N-terminal region of POMC peptide fragments has begun to be unraveled only recently. Here, we review the cascade of events involved in regulation of proliferation and growth of murine adrenal cortex triggered by ACTH and other POMC-derived peptides. Key findings regarding signaling pathways and modulation of genes and proteins required for the regulation of adrenal growth are summarized. We have outlined the known mechanisms as well as future challenges for research on the regulation of adrenal proliferation and growth triggered by these peptides. PMID:27242663

  11. The unique endocrine milieu of the fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, D A

    1986-01-01

    Table II summarizes in tabular form the major features of the fetal endocrine milieu discussed in the foregoing pages. The mammalian fetus develops in an environment where respiration, alimentation, and excretory functions are provided by the placenta. Fetal tissue metabolism is oriented largely to anabolism; body temperature is modulated by maternal metabolism, and fetal tissue thermogenesis is maintained at a basal level. Tissue and organ growth appear to be regulated by growth factors which probably function by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms during most of gestation (72, 146-148). In this milieu conventional endocrine control systems are largely redundant, and other transient systems more appropriate to the intrauterine environment have evolved. We have developed some insights into these systems, but much more information is necessary before we can truly understand this fascinating environment. PMID:3018041

  12. Adrenal steroidogenesis disruption caused by HDL/cholesterol suppression in diethylstilbestrol-treated adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Haeno, Satoko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Kousuke; Sato, Michiko; Uto, Aika; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol is used to prevent miscarriages and as a therapeutic treatment for prostate cancer, but it has been reported to have adverse effects on endocrine homeostasis. However, the toxicity mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, we reported that diethylstilbestrol impairs adrenal steroidogenesis via cholesterol insufficiency in adult male rats. In the present study, we found that the adrenal cholesterol level was significantly reduced without of the decrease in other precursors in the adrenal steroidogenesis 24 h after a single dose of diethylstilbestrol (0.33 μg/g body mass). The serum HDL/cholesterol level was also reduced only 12 h after the diethylstilbestrol exposure. The level of Apo E, which is indispensable for HDL/cholesterol maturation, was decreased in both the HDL and VLDL/LDL fractions, whereas the level of Apo A1, which is an essential constituent of HDL, was not altered in the HDL fraction. Because the liver is a major source of Apo E and Apo A1, the secretion rates of these proteins were examined using a liver perfusion experiment. The secretion rate of Apo A1 from the liver was consistent between DES-treated and control rats, but that of Apo E was comparatively suppressed in the DES-treated rats. The disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis by diethylstilbestrol was caused by a decrease in serum HDL/cholesterol, which is the main source of adrenal steroidogenesis, due to the inhibition of Apo E secretion from the liver. PMID:26349937

  13. Disabled-2 is expressed in adrenal zona glomerulosa and is involved in aldosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Romero, Damian G; Yanes, Licy L; de Rodriguez, Angela F; Plonczynski, Maria W; Welsh, Bronwyn L; Reckelhoff, Jane F; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E

    2007-06-01

    The differentiation of the adrenal cortex into functionally specific zones is probably due to differential temporal gene expression during fetal growth, development, and adulthood. In our search for adrenal zona glomerulosa-specific genes, we found that Disabled-2 (Dab2) is expressed in the zona glomerulosa of the rat adrenal gland using a combination of laser capture microdissection, mRNA amplification, cDNA microarray hybridization, and real-time RT-PCR. Dab2 is an alternative spliced mitogen-regulated phosphoprotein with features of an adaptor protein and functions in signal transduction, endocytosis, and tissue morphogenesis during embryonic development. We performed further studies to analyze adrenal Dab2 localization, regulation, and role in aldosterone secretion. We found that Dab2 is expressed in the zona glomerulosa and zona intermedia of the rat adrenal cortex. Low-salt diet treatment increased Dab2-long isoform expression at the mRNA and protein level in the rat adrenal gland, whereas high-salt diet treatment did not cause any significant modification. Angiotensin II infusion caused a transient increase in both Dab2 isoform mRNAs in the rat adrenal gland. Dab2 overexpression in H295R human adrenocortical cells caused an increase in aldosterone synthase expression and up-regulated aldosterone secretion under angiotensin II-stimulated conditions. In conclusion, Dab2 is an adrenal gland zona glomerulosa- and intermedia-expressed gene that is regulated by aldosterone secretagogues such as low-salt diet or angiotensin II and is involved in aldosterone synthase expression and aldosterone secretion. Dab2 may therefore be a modulator of aldosterone secretion and be involved in mineralocorticoid secretion abnormalities. PMID:17303656

  14. Current status of imaging for adrenal gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Song, Julie H; Mayo-Smith, William W

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal glands are common sites of disease involved in a wide spectrum of pathology. Several imaging studies allow accurate diagnosis of adrenal masses, separating inconsequential benign masses from the lesions that require treatment. This article discusses contemporary adrenal imaging techniques, imaging appearance, and the optimal imaging algorithm for the workup of common adrenal masses. PMID:25246052

  15. Decreased adrenal medullary tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene)-induced mammary carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bunce, O.R.; Badary, O.A.; Abou El-Ela, S.; Hartle, D.K. )

    1991-03-15

    Adrenal cortical hormones suppress initiation and promotion of DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis. The authors found a positive correlation between presence of DMBA-induced adrenal cortical necrosis and mammary tumor incidence. Because they find adrenal medullary as well as cortical lesions in tumor bearing (TB) DMBA-treated rats, they evaluated medullary function by quantitating hybridized cDNA- TH-S{sup 35} with in situ TH-mRNA u sing computer assisted quantitative autoradiographic technique. Virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a 10 mg i.g. dose of DMBA. Three wks later, rats were placed on 20% polyunsaturated (PUFA) fat diets containing omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. All were killed 15 wks post-DMBA. TH-mRNA levels in adrenal medullae of TB animals were decreased compared to non-TB rats. Histopathology indicated a high incidence of medullary necrosis in TB rats, whereas, adrenal necrosis did not occur in non-TB animals. Adrenal necrosis correlated positively with tumor burden, but no correlation was found between incidence of adrenal lesions and type of PUFA in the diet. The authors suggest that DMBA adrenal necrosis may reduce TH-mRNA in the medulla, compromise its catecholamine synthetic capability, and thereby contribute to the overall metabolic stress condition of TB rats.

  16. The heart as an endocrine organ

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Tsuneo; de Bold, Adolfo J

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the heart as an endocrine organ arises from the observation that the atrial cardiomyocytes in the mammalian heart display a phenotype that is partly that of endocrine cells. Investigations carried out between 1971 and 1983 characterised, by virtue of its natriuretic properties, a polypeptide referred to atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Another polypeptide isolated from brain in 1988, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), was subsequently characterised as a second hormone produced by the mammalian heart atria. These peptides were associated with the maintenance of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. Later work demonstrated a plethora of other properties for ANF and BNP, now designated cardiac natriuretic peptides (cNPs). In addition to the cNPs, other polypeptide hormones are expressed in the heart that likely act upon the myocardium in a paracrine or autocrine fashion. These include the C-type natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal peptide and endothelin-1. Expression and secretion of ANF and BNP are increased in various cardiovascular pathologies and their levels in blood are used in the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular disease. In addition, therapeutic uses for these peptides or related substances have been found. In all, the discovery of the endocrine heart provided a shift from the classical functional paradigm of the heart that regarded this organ solely as a blood pump to one that regards this organ as self-regulating its workload humorally and that also influences the function of several other organs that control cardiovascular function. PMID:24562677

  17. Megace Mystery: A Case of Central Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Kunal; Weiss, Irene; Goldberg, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Megestrol acetate (MA) is a synthetic progestin with both antineoplastic and orexigenic properties. In addition to its effects on the progesterone receptor, MA also binds the glucocorticoid receptor. Some patients receiving MA therapy have been reported to develop clinical features of glucocorticoid excess, while others have experienced the clinical syndrome of cortisol deficiency—either following withdrawal of MA therapy or during active treatment. We describe a patient who presented with clinical and biochemical features of central adrenal insufficiency. Pituitary function was otherwise essentially normal, and the etiology of the isolated ACTH suppression was initially unclear. The use of an exogenous glucocorticoid was suspected but was initially denied by the patient; ultimately, the culprit medication was uncovered when a synthetic steroid screen revealed the presence of MA. The patient's symptoms improved after she was switched to hydrocortisone. Clinicians should be aware of the potential effects of MA on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. PMID:26770843

  18. Megace Mystery: A Case of Central Adrenal Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Kunal; Weiss, Irene; Goldberg, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Megestrol acetate (MA) is a synthetic progestin with both antineoplastic and orexigenic properties. In addition to its effects on the progesterone receptor, MA also binds the glucocorticoid receptor. Some patients receiving MA therapy have been reported to develop clinical features of glucocorticoid excess, while others have experienced the clinical syndrome of cortisol deficiency-either following withdrawal of MA therapy or during active treatment. We describe a patient who presented with clinical and biochemical features of central adrenal insufficiency. Pituitary function was otherwise essentially normal, and the etiology of the isolated ACTH suppression was initially unclear. The use of an exogenous glucocorticoid was suspected but was initially denied by the patient; ultimately, the culprit medication was uncovered when a synthetic steroid screen revealed the presence of MA. The patient's symptoms improved after she was switched to hydrocortisone. Clinicians should be aware of the potential effects of MA on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. PMID:26770843

  19. Muscarine binding sites in bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Barron, B A; Murrin, L C; Hexum, T D

    1986-03-18

    The presence of muscarinic binding sites in the bovine adrenal medulla was investigated using [3H]QNB and the bovine adrenal medulla. Scatchard analysis combined with computer analysis yielded data consistent with a two binding site configuration. KDs of 0.15 and 14 nM and Bmax s of 29 and 210 fmol/mg protein, respectively, were observed. Displacement of [3H]QNB by various cholinergic agents is, in order of decreasing potency: QNB, dexetimide, atropine, scopolamine, imipramine, desipramine, oxotremorine, pilocarpine, acetylcholine, methacholine and carbachol. These results demonstrate the presence of more than one muscarine binding site in the bovine adrenal gland. PMID:3709656

  20. [Acne vulgaris: endocrine aspects].

    PubMed

    Dekkers, O M; Thio, B H; Romijn, J A; Smit, J W A

    2006-06-10

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development of acne. The skin contains enzymes that convert precursor hormones to the more potent androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Androgen synthesis can therefore be regulated locally. The effects of androgens on the skin are the result of circulating androgens and enzyme activity in local tissues and androgen receptors. Acne is a clinical manifestation of some endocrine diseases. The polycystic ovary syndrome has the highest prevalence. In women with acne that persists after puberty, in 10-200% of cases polycystic ovary syndrome is later diagnosed. The mechanism of hormonal anti-acne therapy may work by blocking the androgen-production (oestrogens) or by blocking the androgen receptor (cyproterone, spironolactone). PMID:16821451

  1. Radiology of the adrenals with sonography and CT

    SciTech Connect

    Mitty, H.A.; Yeh, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    The basic science and application of clinical adrenal imaging is presented. The initial chapters deal with anatomic review and methods of adrenal imaging. The bulk of the book consists of individual chapters describing pathologic entities and syndromes of adrenal disease. The final chapter deals with differentiation of adrenal lesions from masses arising in adjacent organs. There is no other single source available which so concisely presents adrenal imaging. (KRM)

  2. Persistence of histoplasma in adrenals 7 years after antifungal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Deepak; Chopra, Shweta; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Ajmani, Ajay K.; Kulshreshtha, Bindu

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal histoplasmosis is an uncommon cause for adrenal insufficiency. The duration of treatment for adrenal histoplasmosis is not clear. Existing treatment regimens advocate antifungals given for periods ranging from 6 months to 2 years. We report here a rare case who showed persistence of histoplasma in adrenal biopsy 7 years after being initially treated with itraconazole for 9 months. This calls for a prolonged therapy with regular review of adrenal morphology and histology in these patients. PMID:23869317

  3. The eye and the skin in endocrine metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Urrets-Zavalía, Julio A; Espósito, Evangelina; Garay, Iliana; Monti, Rodolfo; Ruiz-Lascano, Alejandro; Correa, Leandro; Serra, Horacio M; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The eye and skin may offer critical clues to the diagnosis of a varied spectrum of metabolic diseases from endocrine origin and their different stages of severity, such as diabetes mellitus and Graves disease. On the other hand, such entities may compromise the eye and visual function severely, and awareness of these possible associations is an important step in their diagnosis and management. A large number of less common endocrine diseases may also have significant ocular/visual or skin involvement. Often the etiologic relationship between the endocrine metabolic disease and the ocular compromise is unknown, but diverse pathogenetic mechanisms may act through a common pathologic pathway producing ocular damage, as occur in diabetic retinopathy. This review emphasizes the ocular and skin manifestations of different metabolic diseases of endocrine origin. PMID:26903183

  4. ARMC5 mutation analysis in patients with primary aldosteronism and bilateral adrenal lesions.

    PubMed

    Mulatero, P; Schiavi, F; Williams, T A; Monticone, S; Barbon, G; Opocher, G; Fallo, F

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) due to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia is the most common subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). The pathogenesis of IHA is still unknown, but the bilateral disease suggests a potential predisposing genetic alteration. Heterozygous germline mutations of armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5) have been shown to be associated with hypercortisolism due to sporadic primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and are also observed in African-American PA patients. We investigated the presence of germline ARMC5 mutations in a group of PA patients who had bilateral computed tomography-detectable adrenal alterations. We sequenced the entire coding region of ARMC5 and all intron/exon boundaries in 39 patients (37 Caucasians and 2 black Africans) with confirmed PA (8 unilateral, 27 bilateral and 4 undetermined subtype) and bilateral adrenal lesions. We identified 11 common variants, 5 rare variants with a minor allele frequency <1% and 2 new variants not previously reported in public databases. We did not detect by in silico analysis any ARMC5 sequence variations that were predicted to alter protein function. In conclusion, ARMC5 mutations are not present in a fairly large series of Caucasian patients with PA associated to bilateral adrenal disease. Further studies are required to definitively clarify the role of ARMC5 in the pathogenesis of adrenal nodules and aldosterone excess in patients with PA. PMID:26446392

  5. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) as a male infertility factor. Case report.

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Marek; Joanna, Talarczyk; Piotr, JedrzejczaK

    2012-09-01

    Since testes and adrenal cortex derive from the same urogenital ridge, adrenal tissue with descending gonads may migrate in early embryonic period. Although most often ectopic tissue undergoes atrophy in some cases, when adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) overstimulation occurs, the adrenal remnants in the testes may become hypertrophic and form testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). The growth of TARTs in the testes leads to obstruction of the seminiferous tubules which can mechanically impair the function of the gonads and cause irreversible azoospermia. We describe a patient suffering since neonatal period from congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), disorder with defected pathway of cortisol production, which leads to increased ACTH production and to overstimulation of adrenal cortex. He had very poor disease control and therefore in late puberty he was diagnosed with TARTs. At the age of 19.5 he was diagnosed with azoospermia, most likely caused by TARTs. It is the first evidence of TARTs in Polish literature. Although not many cases have been published so far the incidence of TARTs seems to be highly underdiagnosed, so it seems reasonable to consider the disease in differential diagnosis of male infertility. PMID:23342900

  6. KLF17 attenuates estrogen receptor α-mediated signaling by impeding ERα function on chromatin and determines response to endocrine therapy.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amjad; Ielciu, Irina; Alkreathy, Huda Mohammad; Khan, Abid Ali

    2016-07-01

    Luminal-like breast cancer expressing estrogen receptor α (ERα) is among the aggressive breast tumor subtypes and shows poor prognosis. KLF17 plays a key role in breast cancer inhibition. However, the underlying mechanisms by which KLF17 control breast cancer progression remains unknown. Here, we show that KLF17 antagonizes ERα-dependent signaling to suppress breast cancer progression. KLF17 alters ERα-binding pattern throughout the genome and co-localizes with ERα on chromatin. Mechanistically, KLF17 forms a complex with ERα that interferes with ERα binding on chromatin and thereby attenuates ERα-dependent pathway. KLF17 increases the methylation status of ERE target promoters by recruiting transcriptional corepressor N-CoR/HDAC1 complex and prevents RNA polymerase II binding to suppress ERα-dependent transcriptional activation. Importantly, KLF17 preoccupies a subset of ERE target gene promoters and inhibits interaction of ERα with chromatin. Conversely, estrogen signaling suppresses KLF17 transcription via ERα/HDAC1-dependent mechanism. KLF17 expression negatively correlates with ERα target genes in multiple breast cancer samples. Enhanced KLF17 expression sensitizes ERα-positive breast cancer cells to endocrine therapy. KLF17 expression is downregulated in luminal breast cancer subtypes and is associated with poor survival rates in breast cancer patients. Taken together, these results indicate that KLF17-ERα interaction plays a potential role in inhibition of ERα-dependent breast cancer progression and suggests an improved strategy for treatment of ERα-positive breast cancer patients. PMID:27107895

  7. Voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and their role in the endocrine function of the pituitary gland in newborn and adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Sedej, Simon; Tsujimoto, Tetsuhiro; Zorec, Robert; Rupnik, Marjan

    2004-01-01

    We have prepared fresh pituitary gland slices from adult and, for the first time, from newborn mice to assess modulation of secretory activity via voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (VACCs). Currents through VACCs and membrane capacitance have been measured with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Melanotrophs in newborns were significantly larger than in adults. In both newborn and adult melanotrophs activation of VACCs triggered exocytosis. All pharmacologically isolated VACC types contributed equally to the secretory activity. However, the relative proportion of VACCs differed between newborns and adults. In newborn cells L-type channels dominated and, in addition, an exclusive expression of a toxin-resistant R-type-like current was found. The expression of L-type VACCs was up-regulated by the increased oestrogen levels observed in females, and was even more emphasized in the cells of pregnant females and oestrogen-treated adult male mice. We suggest a general mechanism modulating endocrine secretion in the presence of oestrogen and particularly higher sensitivity to treatments with L-type channel blockers during high oestrogen physiological states. PMID:14724188

  8. Development of a functionalized polymeric ionic liquid monolith for solid-phase microextraction of polar endocrine disrupting chemicals in aqueous samples coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Bu, Yanan; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-09-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been efficiently used as a "designer sorbent" in sample preparation. A novel 1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-(4-vinylbenzyl)imidazolium 4-styrenesulfonate IL monomer was synthesized and copolymerized with 1,6-di(3-vinylimidazolium) hexane bishexafluorophosphate IL as cross-linking agent to prepare a cross-linked polymeric ionic liquids (PILs) monolith. Coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the PILs monolith was used as a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sorbent to extract some polar endocrine disrupting chemical (EDCs) such as estrogens, bisphenol A, and phthalate esters in aqueous samples. Preparation and extraction conditions were investigated and optimized to obtain satisfactory extraction efficiency. Limits of detection (LODs) of the proposed method for three steroid estrogens and bisphenol A were 0.25 and 0.2 μg L(-1), respectively, which were lower than or comparable to some other sample preparation methods. Intra- and inter-day repeatability for all the analytes was 2.2-12%. The monolith-to-monolith repeatability was 7.4-15%. The extraction performance of the method for analysis of target estrogens in treated domestic wastewater was investigated and compared with a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method. The proposed SPME method provided better sensitivity and higher resistance to matrix interferences. PMID:26220716

  9. Parallel in vivo and in vitro detection of functional somatostatin receptors in human endocrine pancreatic tumors: Consequences with regard to diagnosis, localization, and therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberts, S.W.; Hofland, L.J.; van Koetsveld, P.M.; Reubi, J.C.; Bruining, H.A.; Bakker, W.H.; Krenning, E.P. )

    1990-09-01

    The effects of octreotide in vivo and in vitro on hormone release, in vivo ({sup 123}I)Tyr3-octreotide scanning, and in vitro ({sup 125}I)Tyr3-octreotide autoradiography were compared in five patients with endocrine pancreatic tumors. ({sup 123}I)Tyr3-octreotide scanning localized the primary tumor and/or previously unknown metastases in four of the five patients. The patient with a negative scan had an insulinoma that did not respond to octreotide in vivo. No Tyr3-octreotide-binding sites were subsequently found at autoradiography of the tumor, whereas somatostatin-14 receptors were present at a high density. In parallel, culture studies with the cells prepared from this adenoma showed that insulin release was not affected by octreotide, while both somatostatin-14 and -28 significantly suppressed hormone release. Culture studies of the tumor cells from two gastrinomas showed a dose-dependent inhibition of gastrin release by octreotide. Octreotide exerted direct antiproliferative effects in one of these gastrinomas, which had been shown to be rapidly growing in vivo. Both gastrinomas had specific somatostatin receptors, as measured by in vitro receptor autoradiography. Somatostatin release by the cultured somatostatinoma cells from one of these patients was suppressed by octreotide.

  10. Adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone rhythms in male golden hamsters on long and short days

    SciTech Connect

    Ottenweller, J.E.; Tapp, W.N.; Pitman, D.L.; Natelson, B.H. New Jersey Medical School, Newark )

    1987-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormones were measured at 4-h intervals around the clock in male hamsters on long (14:10-h light-dark cycle) and short (10:14-h light-dark cycle) days. Plasma corticosterone, cortisol, thyroxine (T{sub 4}), triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and testosterone rhythms were present on long days. The only one of these hormones to have a significant rhythm on short days was cortisol, but even its amplitude was suppressed compared with the cortisol rhythm on long days. Short days also lowered mean plasma levels of cortisol, T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, and testosterone. Finally, short days raised the ratio of corticosterone to cortisol and lowered the ratio of T{sub 4} to T{sub 3}. Both ratios had significant rhythms on long days but not on short days. Because of the many interactions among adrenal, thyroid, and testicular hormone axes, it is unclear whether the primary effect of short days is on one of these endocrine systems or on another factor that has separate effects on each of the hormone rhythms that was measured. Nonetheless, it is clear that a major effect of short day lengths in hamsters is to suppress hormone rhythms. Explanations of photoperiodic effects that depend on endocrine mediation should take this into account.

  11. Endocrine causes of calcium disorders.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2012-11-01

    Endocrine diseases that may cause hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia include hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, thyroid disorders, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, and less commonly pheochromocytoma and multiple endocrine neoplasias. The differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia may include malignancy (lymphoma, anal sac carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D intoxication, chronic renal disease, hypoadrenocorticism, granulomatous disorders, osteolysis, or spurious causes. Hypocalcemia may be caused by puerperal tetany, pancreatitis, intestinal malabsorption, ethlyene glycol intoxication, acute renal failure, hypopararthyroidism, hypovitaminosis D, hypomagnesemia, and low albumin. This article focuses on the endocrine causes of calcium imbalance and provides diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for identifying the cause of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia in veterinary patients. PMID:23415381

  12. Endocrine Proxies Can Simplify Endocrine Complexity to Enable Evolutionary Prediction.

    PubMed

    Davidowitz, Goggy

    2016-08-01

    It is well understood that much of evolutionary change is mediated through the endocrine system with growing interest to identify how this occurs. This however, causes a conflict of sorts. To understand endocrine mechanism, a focus on detail is required. In contrast, to understand evolutionary change, reduction to a few key traits is essential. Endocrine proxies, measurable traits that accurately reflect specific hormonal titers or the timing of specific hormonal events, can reduce endocrine complexity to a few traits that enable predictions of how the endocrine system regulates evolutionary change. In the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta, Sphingidae), three endocrine proxies, measured on 5470 individuals, were used to test explicit predictions of how the endocrine system regulates the response to 10 generations of simultaneous selection on body size and development time. The critical weight (CW) reflects the variation in the cessation of juvenile hormone (JH) secretion in the last larval instar, the interval to cessation of growth (ICG) reflects the variation in prothoracicotropic hormone and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Growth rate (GR) reflects the nutrient signaling pathways, primarily the insulin and TOR This is a standard identity similar to DNA signaling pathways. These three endocrine proxies explained 99% and 93% of the variation in body size and development time, respectively, following the 10 generations of simultaneous selection. When the two focal traits, body size and development time, were selected in the same direction, both to either increase or both to decrease, the response to selection was determined primarily by the CW and the ICG, proxies for the developmental hormones JH and 20E, and constrained by GR. In contrast, when the two focal traits were selected in opposite directions, one to increase and the other to decrease, the response to selection was determined primarily by the insulin and TOR signaling pathways as measured by their proxy, GR, and

  13. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels Dexamethasone suppression test Blood cortisol levels Blood DHEA level Saliva cortisol level Tests to determine cause ... not possible, such as in cases of adrenal cancer, medicines can be used to stop the release ...

  14. Hyperkalemic paralysis in primary adrenal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ajay; Pandya, Himanshu V.; Dave, Nikhil; Sapre, Chinmaye M.; Chaudhary, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkalemic paralysis due to Addison's disease is rare, and potentially life-threatening entity presenting with flaccid motor weakness. This case under discussion highlights Hyperkalemic paralysis as initial symptomatic manifestation of primary adrenal insufficiency. PMID:25136192

  15. The innervation of the mammalian adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, T L; Kesse, W K; Mohamed, A A; Afework, M

    1993-01-01

    Early conflicting reports and the lack of sensitive anatomical methods have led to an oversimplified view of adrenal gland innervation. It was not until the introduction of nerve fibre tracing techniques in the mid-1970s that the true complexity of adrenal innervation began to emerge. The first part of this article comprises a brief review of these and other relevant reports dealing with both medullary and cortical innervation. In the second part a detailed account is given of the work undertaken in Rex Coupland's Department relating to the innervation of the rodent and primate adrenal medulla using a retrograde fluorescent tracer technique. It was concluded that, in all 3 species studied, the adrenal medulla receives a sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent and an afferent innervation. The possible interrelationship between neural control of cortical and medullar secretions is discussed briefly. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:8300416

  16. Endocrine disrupters: a human risk?

    PubMed

    Waring, R H; Harris, R M

    2005-12-01

    Endocrine disrupters (EDs) alter normal hormonal regulation and may be naturally occurring or environmental contaminants. Classically, EDs act genomically, with agonistic or antagonistic effects on steroid receptors and may alter reproductive function and/or cause feminisation by binding to oestrogen or androgen receptors; their binding to the thyroid receptor may dysregulate the neuroendocrine system. Recently, it has been shown that EDs can also act by non-genomic mechanisms, altering steroid synthesis (inhibition of cytochrome P450 isoforms) or steroid metabolism. The alkylphenol and phthalate plasticisers inhibit the inactivation of oestrogens by sulphation (via SULT 1A1 and 1E1 isoforms) and so cause a rise in levels of the free active endogenous oestrogens. A range of ED effects have been shown in mammals, fish, birds, reptiles, amphibia and aquatic invertebrates but it is not yet clear whether these processes also occur in human beings. It is evident that EDs, as well as altering reproduction, can cause changes in neurosteroid levels and so have the potential to affect immune function, behaviour and memory. This may be of long-term concern since traces of EDs such as plasticisers, brominated fire retardants, sunscreen agents and cosmetic ingredients are widely distributed in the environment and in human biofluids. PMID:16271281

  17. Endocrine emergencies in critically ill patients: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Jindal, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine emergencies pose unique challenges for the attending intensivist while managing critically ill patients. Besides taking care of primary disease state, one has to divert an equal attention to the possible associated endocrinopathies also. One of the common reasons for inability to timely diagnose an endocrinal failure in critically ill patients being the dominance of other severe systemic diseases and their clinical presentation. The timely diagnosis and administration of therapeutic interventions for these endocrine disorders can improve the outcome in critically ill patients. The timely diagnosis and administration of timely therapeutics in common endocrine disorders like severe thyroid disease, acute adrenal insufficiency and diabetic ketoacidosis significantly influence the outcome and prognosis. Careful evaluation of clinical history and a high degree of suspicion are the corner stone to diagnose such problems. Aggressive management of the patient is equally important as the complications are devastating and can prove highly fatal. The present article is an attempt to review some of the common endocrine emergencies in intensive care unit and the challenges associated with their diagnosis and management. PMID:23087855

  18. Morphofunctional correlations in the experimental study of myocardiopathies under the stress of forced restraint. Note 2: The influence of adrenal imbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinu, M.; Dolinescu, S.; Sneer, A.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were performed with 70 rats to determine the effects of restraint on the functions and structure of the myocardium under varying conditions of adrenal imbalance. Results showed that in rats with adrenal imbalance, fasting and restraint produced the same biochemical alterations as in the controls. The morphologic alteractions, as well as their electric expression, were more varied and evident in the animals with adrenal imbalance. Persistence of the microscopic and electrocardiographic alterations after 72 hours restraint in the animals subjected to unilateral adrenalectomy suggests chronic evolution of the myocardial lesions. This proves the necessity of intact adrenals for a good adaptability to stress.

  19. Adrenal hemangioma: computed tomogram and angiogram appearances.

    PubMed

    Wang, J H; Chiang, J H; Chang, T

    1992-08-01

    Adrenal hemangiomas are rare. To our knowledge, about 22 cases have been reported in the literature, of which 13 cases were surgically removed. We report probably the first case of CT and angiographically diagnosed and surgically confirmed adrenal hemangioma in Taiwan. We concluded that characteristic appearances on computed tomogram and angiogram associated with phlebolith-like calcification in the tumor may allow the radiologists to make correct preoperative diagnosis. PMID:1327475

  20. [Role of the endocrine system in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Reismann, Péter; Rácz, Károly; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2009-11-29

    The most frequent liver disorder in metabolic syndrome is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Its pathogenesis is a complex, multifactorial process, characterized by insulin resistance and involvement of the endocrine system. Hypothyroidism may lead to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis via hyperlipidemia and obesity. Adult patients with growth hormone deficiency have a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype with obesity and many characteristic metabolic alterations. The chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis results in metabolic syndrome as well. Cushing's syndrome has also features of metabolic syndrome. Mild elevation of transaminase activities is commonly seen in patients with adrenal failure. Non-alcoholic steatosis is twice as common in postmenopusal as in premenopausal women and hormonal replacement therapy decreases the risk of steatosis. Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleeping apnoe syndrome, cardiovascular disorders and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are more frequent in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hypoandrogenism in males and hyperandrogenism in females may lead to fatty liver via obesity and insulin resistance. Adipokines (leptin, acylation stimulating protein, adiponectin) have a potential role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver. The alterations of endocrine system must be considered in the background of cryptogenic liver diseases. The endocrine perspective may help the therapeutic approaches in the future. PMID:19923096

  1. Adrenal hyperandrogenism is induced by fetal androgen excess in a rhesus monkey model of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Ian M.; Dumesic, Daniel A.; Abbott, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Adrenal androgen excess is found in ∼25-60%% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the mechanisms underlying PCOS-related adrenal androgen excess are unclear. Objective: To determine whether adrenal androgen excess is manifest in a nonhuman primate model for PCOS, Participants: Six prenatally androgenized (PA) and 6 control female rhesus monkeys of similar age, body weight and BMI were studied during days 2-6 of two menstrual cycles or anovulatory 30-day periods. Interventions: Pre-dexamethasone adrenal steroid levels were assessed in the first cycle (cycle 1). In a subsequent cycle (cycle 2), occurring 1-3 cycles following cycle 1, adrenal steroids were determined 14.5-16.0h after an i.m. injection of 0.5mg/kg dexamethasone [post-dexamethasone levels] and following an i.v. injection of 50μg ACTH1-39. Results: Both before and after dexamethasone, serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in PA females exceeded those in controls. Following ACTH injection, PA females exhibited higher circulating levels of DHEA, androstenedione and corticosterone, but comparable levels of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, DHEAS, and testosterone, compared to controls. Conclusion: Enhanced basal and ACTH-stimulated adrenal androgen levels in PA female monkeys may reflect up-regulation of 17,20 lyase activity in the adrenal zona reticularis, causing adrenal androgen excess comparable to that found in PCOS women with adrenal androgen excess. These findings open the possibility that PCOS adrenal hyperandrogenism may have its origins in fetal androgen excess re-programming of adrenocortical function. PMID:16174719

  2. Outcomes and Timing for Intervention of Partial Adrenalectomy in Patients with a Solitary Adrenal Remnant and History of Bilateral Pheochromocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Thomas H.; Storey, B. Barckley; Linehan, W. Marston; Rogers, Craig A.; Pinto, Peter A.; Bratslavsky, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective To evaluate the outcomes and timing of intervention for adrenal sparing surgery in patients left with a solitary adrenal remnant after bilateral adrenal surgeries. Subjects/Patients and Methods Patients were included in the study if they had undergone bilateral adrenal surgery as a treatment for pheochromocytoma and were left with a solitary adrenal remnant. Perioperative, functional, and oncologic outcomes were evaluated on 21 patients that met the inclusion criteria. Results There was minimal perioperative morbidity and no perioperative mortality. After a median follow up of 21 months (range 3–143) there were two cases of persistent disease. Ten patients (48%) required steroid supplementation upon discharge with 4 subsequently discontinuing steroid supplementation. Patients were more likely to require steroid supplementation postoperatively if they underwent simultaneous adrenalectomy and contralateral partial adrenalectomy, rather than staged procedures (86% versus 40%, p=0.02). Additionally, patients who underwent surgery for tumors greater than 4 cm were more likely to require long-term steroids than patients who underwent surgery for lesions less than 4 cm (75% versus 18%, p=0.05). Conclusions Patients left with a solitary adrenal remnant after bilateral adrenal surgery have low surgical morbidity, reasonable functional outcomes and low rates of recurrence at an intermediate follow-up period. A staged approach may decrease the immediate postoperative need for steroids, and intervention before the largest tumor reaches 4 cm may decrease the rate of long-term steroid dependence. PMID:20726977

  3. Wilson's disease: An endocrine revelation

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Nitin; Shetty, Sahana; Thomas, Nihal; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

    2014-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism. The affected patients, who otherwise have a near normal life span, may often suffer from some potentially treatable and under recognized endocrine disorders that may hinder their quality of life. We explored previously published literature on the various endocrine aspects of this disease with their probable underlying mechanisms, highlighting the universal need of research in this area. PMID:25364683

  4. Prediction of the endocrine disruption profile of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Devillers, J; Bro, E; Millot, F

    2015-01-01

    Numerous manmade chemicals released into the environment can interfere with normal, hormonally regulated biological processes to adversely affect the development and reproductive functions of living species. Various in vivo and in vitro tests have been designed for detecting endocrine disruptors, but the number of chemicals to test is so high that to save time and money, (quantitative) structure-activity relationship ((Q)SAR) models are increasingly used as a surrogate for these laboratory assays. However, most of them focus only on a specific target (e.g. estrogenic or androgenic receptor) while, to be more efficient, endocrine disruption modelling should preferentially consider profiles of activities to better gauge this complex phenomenon. In this context, an attempt was made to evaluate the endocrine disruption profile of 220 structurally diverse pesticides using the Endocrine Disruptome simulation (EDS) tool, which simultaneously predicts the probability of binding of chemicals on 12 nuclear receptors. In a first step, the EDS web-based system was successfully applied to 16 pharmaceutical compounds known to target at least one of the studied receptors. About 13% of the studied pesticides were estimated to be potential disruptors of the endocrine system due to their high predicted affinity for at least one receptor. In contrast, about 55% of them were unlikely to be endocrine disruptors. The simulation results are discussed and some comments on the use of the EDS tool are made. PMID:26548639

  5. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    De Coster, Sam; van Larebeke, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand. PMID:22991565

  6. Highlighting Indication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in endocrine emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Anne; Wang, Chih-Hsien; You, Hao-Chun; Chou, Nai-Kwoun; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, I-Hui; Tseng, Li-Jung; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Yih-Sharng

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been repeatedly used to rescue patients with cardiopulmonary arrest. However, its clinical utility in endocrine emergencies remains unclear. Herein, we describe a case series of 12 patients presenting with refractory shock secondary to endocrine emergencies who were rescued by ECMO support. Patients were identified between 2005 and 2012 from our ECMO registry. The diagnostic distribution was as follows: pheochromocytoma crisis (n = 4), thyroid storm (n = 5), and diabetic ketoacidosis (n = 3). The initial presentation of pheochromocytoma crisis was indistinguishable from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and frequently accompanied by paroxysmal hypertension and limb ischemia. Thyroid storm was characterized by hyperbilirubinemia and severe gastrointestinal bleeding, whereas neurological symptoms were common in diabetic ketoacidosis. The clinical outcomes of patients with endocrine emergencies were compared with those of 80 cases with AMI who received ECMO because of cardiogenic shock. The cardiac function and the general conditions showed a significantly faster recovery in patients with endocrine emergencies than in those with AMI. We conclude that ECMO support can be clinically useful in endocrine emergencies. The screening of endocrine diseases should be considered during the resuscitation of patients with refractory circulatory shock. PMID:26299943

  7. Methamphetamine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    PubMed Central

    Zuloaga, Damian G.; Jacobskind, Jason S.; Raber, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA) induce significant alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These changes in HPA axis function are associated with altered stress-related behaviors and might contribute to addictive processes such as relapse. In this mini-review we discuss acute and chronic effects of MA (adult and developmental exposure) on the HPA axis, including effects on HPA axis associated genes/proteins, brain regions, and behaviors such as anxiety and depression. A better understanding of the mechanisms through which MA affects the HPA axis may lead to more effective treatment strategies for MA addiction. PMID:26074755

  8. Lineage determinants in early endocrine development

    PubMed Central

    Rieck, Sebastian; Bankaitis, Eric D.; Wright, Christopher V.E.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine cells are produced from a dynamic epithelium in a process that, as in any developing organ, is driven by interacting programs of spatiotemporally regulated intercellular signals and autonomous gene regulatory networks. These algorithms work to push progenitors and their transitional intermediates through a series of railroad-station-like switching decisions to regulate flux along specific differentiation tracks. Extensive research on pancreas organogenesis over the last 20 years, greatly spurred by the potential to restore functional β-cell mass in diabetic patients by transplantation therapy, is advancing our knowledge of how endocrine lineage bias is established and allocation is promoted. The field is working towards the goal of generating a detailed blueprint of how heterogeneous cell populations interact and respond to each other, and other influences such as the extracellular matrix, to move into progressively refined and mature cell states. Here, we highlight how signaling codes and transcriptional networks might determine endocrine lineage within a complex and dynamic architecture, based largely on studies in the mouse. The process begins with the designation of multipotent progenitor cells (MPC) to pancreatic buds that subsequently move through a newly proposed period involving epithelial plexus formation-remodeling, and ends with formation of clustered endocrine islets connected to the vascular and peripheral nervous systems. Developing this knowledge base, and increasing the emphasis on direct comparisons between mouse and human, will yield a more complete and focused picture of pancreas development, and thereby inform β-cell-directed differentiation from human embryonic stem or induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC, iPSC). Additionally, a deeper understanding may provide surprising therapeutic angles by defining conditions that allow the controllable reprogramming of endodermal or pancreatic cell populations. PMID:22728667

  9. Failure to visualize adrenal glands in a patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. [/sup 131/I

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.; Mayfield, R.K.; Levine, J.H.; Lopes-Virella, M.F.; Sagel, J.; Buse, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A patient with clinical and biochemical evidence of Cushing's disease and severe hyperlipidemia underwent an adrenal imaging procedure with NP-59 (6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol), without visualization of either gland. Correction of the hyperlipidemia followed by repeated adrenal imaging resulted in bilateral visualization. A pituitary tumor was removed at surgery, confirming the diagnosis of Cushing's disease.

  10. Molecular and structural analysis of two novel StAR mutations in patients with lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Achermann, J C; Meeks, J J; Jeffs, B; Das, U; Clayton, P E; Brook, C G; Jameson, J L

    2001-08-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) cause lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We report a novel homozygous splice site mutation (IVS1 + 2T --> G) in STAR in two sisters (46XY, 46XX) who presented with primary adrenal insufficiency at birth and a novel homozygous R182H missense mutation in the putative lipid transfer domain of StAR in a phenotypic female (46XY) with adrenal failure and a parotid tumor. These cases highlight the importance of StAR-dependent steroidogenesis during fetal development and early infancy and of the critical functional role of R182 in cholesterol transport. PMID:11509019

  11. [Adrenal insufficiency in cirrhotic patients].

    PubMed

    Orozco, Federico; Anders, María; Mella, José; Antinucci, Florencia; Pagano, Patricia; Esteban, Paula; Cartier, Mariano; Romero, Gustavo; Francini, Bettina; Mastai, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) is a common finding in cirrhotic patients with severe sepsis, and increased mortality. Its significance is unknown in stable conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of RAI in stable cirrhotic patients at different stages of the disease. Also, the impact of RAI on the survival was evaluated and basal cortisol levels between plasma and saliva was correlated in control subjects and cirrhotic patients. Forty seven ambulatory patients and 16 control subjects were studied. RAI was defined as a serum cortisol increase of less than 9 υg/dl from baseline after the stimulation with 250 mg of synthetic ACTH. Twenty two had Child-Pugh = 8 and 25 = 9. The prevalence of RAI in patients with stable cirrhosis was 22%. A higher incidence of RAI was observed in patients with a Child-Pugh = 9 (8/32) than in those with = 8 (3/13, p < 0.05). A correlation between salivary cortisol and basal plasma cortisol (r = 0.6, p < 0.0004) was observed. Finally, survival at 1 year (97%) and 3 years (91%) was significantly higher without RAI than those who developed this complication (79% and 51%, p < 0.05, respectively). In summary, the prevalence of RAI is frequent in patients with stable cirrhosis and that it is related to the severity of liver diseaseand increased mortality. PMID:27576278

  12. Carney complex and other conditions associated with micronodular adrenal hyperplasias.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Madson Q; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-12-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is a multiple neoplasia syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and is characterized by skin tumors and pigmented lesions, myxomas, schwannomas, and various endocrine tumors. Inactivating mutations of the PRKAR1A gene coding for the regulatory type I-α (RIα) subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) are responsible for the disease in most CNC patients. The overall penetrance of CNC among PRKAR1A mutation carriers is near 98%. Most PRKAR1A mutations result in premature stop codon generation and lead to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. CNC is genetically and clinically heterogeneous, with specific mutations providing some genotype-phenotype correlation. Phosphodiesterase-11A (the PDE11A gene) and -8B (the PDE8B gene) mutations were found in patients with isolated adrenal hyperplasia and Cushing syndrome, as well in patients with PPNAD. Recent evidences demonstrated that dysregulation of cAMP/PKA pathway can modulate other signaling pathways and contributes to adrenocortical tumorigenesis. PMID:21115159

  13. Primary Bilateral Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma of the Adrenal Gland Presenting as Incidental Adrenal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Christopher; Camilleri, David James; Gatt, Andre'

    2015-01-01

    Although lymphoma may occasionally involve the adrenal glands as part of a generalized disease process, primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is a rare disease. We present a case of a 62-year-old woman with a history of mild/moderate hereditary spherocytosis with a well-compensated baseline haemoglobin, who presented with rapidly progressive symptomatic anaemia. During the diagnostic workup, imaging revealed bilateral large adrenal masses and she was later diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL), with the adrenal glands being the dominant site of the disease. The patient was started on systemic chemotherapy, but her disease progressed with neurological involvement which responded to second-line therapy. Her adrenal disease however was refractory to further therapy. PMID:26681947

  14. Benign adrenal hemangiomas may mimic metastases on PET.

    PubMed

    Calata, Jed F; Sukerkar, Arun N; August, Carey Z; Maker, Ajay V

    2013-11-01

    CT or MRI are utilized in the initial evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas; however, overlap exists between benign and malignant lesions on these examinations. The American College of Radiology recommends PET scans to complement CT and MRI for patients with adrenal masses and a moderate-to-high likelihood of neoplastic disease. We present images of a PET-avid adrenal lesion in a patient with pulmonary and pancreatic neoplasms that mimicked metastasis, but was found to be a benign adrenal hemangioma on surgical resection. The use of PET for adrenal tumors, specifically adrenal hemangiomas, will be reviewed. PMID:24089061

  15. Effects of tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) on endocrine axes during development of early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Tang, Song; Su, Guanyong; Miao, Yueqiu; Liu, Hongling; Xie, Yuwei; Giesy, John P; Saunders, David M V; Hecker, Markus; Yu, Hongxia

    2016-02-01

    Due to phasing out of additive flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is widely used as a substitute. TBOEP is ubiquitous in the environment and has been measured at concentrations of micrograms per liter (μg L(-1)) in surface waters and wastewater. Information on potential adverse effects on development of aquatic organisms caused by exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of TBOEP is limited, especially for effects that may be caused through impairment of endocrine-modulated homeostasis. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine effects of TBOEP on ontogeny and transcription profiles of genes along the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroidal (HPT), hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in embryos/larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Exposure to TBOEP (2-5,000 μg L(-1)) from 3 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf induced developmental malformations in zebrafish with a LC50 of 288.54 μg L(-1) at both 96 hpf and 120 hpf. The predicted no observed effect concentration (PNOEC) was 2.40 μg L(-1). Exposure to 2, 20, or 200 μg TBOEP L(-1) altered expression of genes involved in three major molecular pathways in a concentration-dependent manner after 120 hpf. TBOEP caused lesser expression of some genes involved in synthesis of hormones, such as (pomc and fshβ) as well as upregulating expression of some genes coding for receptors (thr, tshr, gr, mr, er and ar) in zebrafish larvae. These changes at the molecular level could result in alterations of endocrine function, which could result in edema or deformity and ultimately death. PMID:26547027

  16. Endocrine disorders in pediatric - onset Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Amato, M C M; Elias, L L K; Elias, J; Santos, A C D; Bellucci, A D; Moreira, A C; De Castro, M

    2006-11-01

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder with a great variety of clinical manifestations. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the pattern and the long-term course of clinical, laboratorial and radiological findings in pediatric-onset LCH. We reviewed 46 children with histological diagnosis of LCH. Ten children (22%) showed endocrine disorders. Central diabetes insipidus (DI) was observed in all ten patients; GH deficiency was confirmed in four and hypogonadism in two children. There were no adrenal, prolactin or thyroid axis abnormalities. Obesity was observed in three patients. Eight patients showed soft tissue infiltration and five bone involvement. The MRI showed a lack of posterior pituitary bright spot in all DI patients; infundibular infiltration (II) associated or not with sellar or supra-sellar mass was observed in 4 patients. We conclude that the investigation of LCH, a multi-systemic disease, should include central nervous system images. The presence of II and/or DI should raise the diagnosis of LCH. Complete endocrine evaluation, allowing an early hormone therapy, is required to obtain a better quality of life in children with LCH. PMID:17111302

  17. Early diagnosis of and surgical strategy for adrenal medullary disease in MEN II gene carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, S.; Tisell, L.E.; Fjaelling, M.L.; Lindberg, S.; Jacobsson, L.; Zachrisson, B.F.

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen multiple endocrine neoplasia type II (MEN II) gene carriers--12 who had undergone thyroidectomy because of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and 4 whose thyroid glands had been removed because of C cell hyperplasia--were examined for the presence of pheochromocytomas. No patient had sought medical advice for pheochromocytoma symptoms. Fourteen patients had MEN IIa syndromes, one patient had a MEN IIb and another patient had a mixed syndrome of von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis and MEN II. Eight patients had undergone unilateral adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma 11 +/- 4 years before. The patients underwent clinical examination, determination of the urinary excretion of catecholamines and metabolites, and /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (/sup 131/I-MIBG) and CAT scans. /sup 131/I-MIBG scanning was performed with images 1, 4, and 7 days after the radionuclide injection. In seven of eight patients who had undergone unilateral adrenalectomies, the /sup 131/I-MIBG scans showed accumulation of the radionuclide in the remaining adrenal gland. Bilateral adrenal accumulation of the radionuclide was demonstrated in seven of eight MEN IIa gene carriers who had not undergone adrenalectomy. Five patients, two of whom had undergone adrenalectomy, were found to have unilateral pheochromocytomas less than 2 cm in diameter. Only one of these five patients had an elevated excretion of urinary catecholamines. Between day 4 and day 7 after /sup 131/I-MIBG injection, adrenal glands with pheochromocytomas increased their relative accumulation of the radionuclide significantly more (p less than 0.02) than did adrenal glands without any demonstrable pheochromocytomas. All the pheochromocytomas were viewed by means of CAT scans.

  18. Steroid disorders in children: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and apparent mineralocorticoid excess

    PubMed Central

    New, Maria I.; Wilson, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    Our research team and laboratories have concentrated on two inherited endocrine disorders, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and apparent mineralocorticoid excess, in thier investigations of the pathophysiology of adrenal steroid hormone disorders in children. CAH refers to a family of inherited disorders in which defects occur in one of the enzymatic steps required to synthesize cortisol from cholesterol in the adrenal gland. Because of the impaired cortisol secretion, adrenocorticotropic hormone levels rise due to impairment of a negative feedback system, which results in hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex. The majority of cases is due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). Owing to the blocked enzymatic step, cortisol precursors accumulate in excess and are converted to potent androgens, which are secreted and cause in utero virilization of the affected female fetus genitalia in the classical form of CAH. A mild form of the 21-OHD, termed nonclassical 21-OHD, is the most common autosomal recessive disorder in humans, and occurs in 1/27 Ashkenazic Jews. Mutations in the CYP21 gene have been identified that cause both classical and nonclassical CAH. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess is a potentially fatal genetic disorder causing severe juvenile hypertension, pre- and postnatal growth failure, and low to undetectable levels of potassium, renin, and aldosterone. It is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the HSD11B2 gene, which result in a deficiency of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. In 1998, we reported a mild form of this disease, which may represent an important cause of low-renin hypertension. PMID:10536001

  19. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disorders that affect pediatric patients. It is valuable to think about 'endocrine disorder' as a cause of the neurologic manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of hormonal imbalance can rapidly relieve the neurologic symptoms. Better understanding of the interaction between the endocrine system and the nervous system, combined with the knowledge about the pathophysiology of the neurologic manifestations presented in the endocrine disorders might allow earlier diagnosis and better treatment of the endocrine disorders. PMID:25654063

  20. Sustained Endocrine Gland-Derived Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels Beyond the First Trimester of Pregnancy Display Phenotypic and Functional Changes Associated With the Pathogenesis of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sergent, Frédéric; Hoffmann, Pascale; Brouillet, Sophie; Garnier, Vanessa; Salomon, Aude; Murthi, Padma; Benharouga, Mohamed; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertension diseases are classified as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, or eclampsia. The mechanisms of their development and prediction are still to be discovered. Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is an angiogenic factor secreted by the placenta during the first trimester of human pregnancy that was shown to control trophoblast invasion, to be upregulated by hypoxia, and to be abnormally elevated in pathological pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. These findings suggested that sustaining EG-VEGF levels beyond the first trimester of pregnancy may contribute to pregnancy-induced hypertension. To test this hypothesis, osmotic minipumps delivering EG-VEGF were implanted subcutaneously into gravid OF1 (Oncins France 1) mice on day 11.5 post coitus, which is equivalent to the end of the first trimester of human pregnancy. Mice were euthanized at 15.5 and 18.5 days post coitus to assess (1) litter size, placental, and fetal weights; (2) placental histology and function; (3) maternal blood pressure; (4) renal histology and function; and (5) circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin. Increased EG-VEGF levels caused significant defects in placental organization and function. Both increased hypoxia and decreased trophoblast invasion were observed. Treated mice had elevated circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin and developed gestational hypertension with dysregulated maternal kidney function. EG-VEGF effect on the kidney function was secondary to its effects on the placenta as similarly treated male mice had normal kidney functions. Altogether, these data provide a strong evidence to confirm that sustained EG-VEGF beyond the first trimester of pregnancy contributes to the development of pregnancy-induced hypertension. PMID:27141059