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  1. Bilateral adrenal gland haemorrhage: an unusual cause

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vasant; Malabu, Usman; Cameron, Donald; Sangla, Kunwarjit

    2014-01-01

    Summary Our patient had drainage of a large amoebic liver abscess. This got complicated by a severe degree of hypotension, which required aggressive fluid resuscitation and hydrocortisone support. Computerised tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal gland haemorrhage (BAH) resulting in primary adrenal gland failure, which was the cause for hypotension. Patient was on long-term warfarin for provoked deep vein thrombosis of lower limb, which was discontinued before the procedure. Thrombophilia profile indicated the presence of lupus anticoagulant factor with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Patient was discharged on lifelong warfarin. This case emphasises the need for strong clinical suspicion for diagnosing BAH, rare but life-threatening condition, and its association with amoebic liver abscess and anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS). Learning points Recognition of BAH as a rare complication of sepsis.APLS can rarely cause BAH. PMID:25276353

  2. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  3. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  4. Adrenal Gland Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home > Types of Cancer > Adrenal Gland Tumor Adrenal Gland Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Adrenal Gland Tumor. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Adrenal Gland Tumor Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and ...

  5. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  6. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... adrenal tumors that appear malignant. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  7. Morphofunctional state of the adrenal glands in albino rats under conditions of toxic stress caused by cadmium salt in winter and summer periods.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, S V; Kargina, M V; Kotelnikov, A V

    2011-06-01

    We studied the morphology and function of the adrenal glands in male and female albino rats in cadmium intoxication during winter and summer periods (January and July). In animals of the control group, sex-related differences in the total area of the adrenal glands and in the size of their zones were revealed. In females, zones of adrenal gland were larger than in males. In winter months, these differences were most pronounced. Analysis of seasonal differences in the area of the adrenal glands in males revealed no significant differences in winter and summer months. Irrespective of the season and gender, cadmium chloride treatment led to an increase in the size of the adrenal glands. Cadmium salts caused more pronounced functional strain in males in winter months and in females in summer. PMID:22238762

  8. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... of salt and water Controlling the "fight or flight" response to stress Maintaining pregnancy Initiating and controlling ... overview of the adrenal glands: Beyond fight or flight . Retrieved June 29, 2012 from http://www.endocrineweb. ...

  9. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  10. Adrenal gland denervation and diving in ducks.

    PubMed

    Mangalam, H J; Jones, D R; Lacombe, A M

    1987-06-01

    The extreme elevation in plasma levels of free norepinephrine (NE) and free epinephrine (EP), which occurs during forced diving of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), was studied before and after denervation of the adrenal glands. In intact animals both NE and EP concentration increased by up to two orders of magnitude in a 4-min dive but by a significantly lesser amount if the duck breathed O2 before the dive. Denervating the adrenal glands reduced the amounts of both catecholamines (CA) released during dives, plasma EP decreased to 10%, and NE to 50% of values obtained before denervation. Breathing O2 before a dive virtually eliminated CA release in denervates, indicating that hypoxia was the important non-neural releasing agent. Hypoxia was also the most important neural releasing agent compared with hypercapnia, acidosis, or hypoglycemia. Adrenal denervation did not cause significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure, arterial blood gas tensions, pH, or plasma glucose during dives, although denervation caused increased variation in some of these variables. In ducks CA release in dives is largely due to decreasing arterial O2 partial pressure, and full expression of the response is dependent on intact innervation of the adrenal gland. PMID:3591985

  11. Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

  12. What Are the Treatments for Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for adrenal gland disorders? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... a variety of surgical and medical treatments for adrenal gland disorders. These include 1 : Surgery to remove tumors ...

  13. [Adrenalitis].

    PubMed

    Saeger, W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation of the adrenal glands is caused by autoimmunopathies or infections and can induce adrenal insufficiency. Autoimmune lymphocytic adrenalitis is often combined with other autoimmune diseases and the most frequent cause of Addison's disease; however, it only becomes clinically apparent when more than 90 % of the adrenal cortex has been destroyed. Histological features are characterized by lymphoplasmacytic inflammation leading to an increased destruction of adrenocortical tissue but less severe courses can also occur. The second most frequent form of adrenalitis is adrenal tuberculosis, showing typical granulomatous findings that are nearly always caused by spreading from a tuberculous pulmonary focus. Other bacterial as well as viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and others, generally affect the adrenal glands only in patients with immunodeficiency disorders. In these infections, the adrenal cortex and medulla are frequently involved to roughly the same extent. Although surgical specimens from inflammatory adrenal lesions are extremely rare, the various forms of adrenalitis play an important role in the post-mortem examination of the adrenal glands for clarification of unclear causes of death (e.g. death during an Addisonian crisis). PMID:27099224

  14. The innervation of the mammalian adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, T L; Kesse, W K; Mohamed, A A; Afework, M

    1993-01-01

    Early conflicting reports and the lack of sensitive anatomical methods have led to an oversimplified view of adrenal gland innervation. It was not until the introduction of nerve fibre tracing techniques in the mid-1970s that the true complexity of adrenal innervation began to emerge. The first part of this article comprises a brief review of these and other relevant reports dealing with both medullary and cortical innervation. In the second part a detailed account is given of the work undertaken in Rex Coupland's Department relating to the innervation of the rodent and primate adrenal medulla using a retrograde fluorescent tracer technique. It was concluded that, in all 3 species studied, the adrenal medulla receives a sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent and an afferent innervation. The possible interrelationship between neural control of cortical and medullar secretions is discussed briefly. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:8300416

  15. Ewing's Sarcoma of the Adrenal Gland.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chandra, Vipin; Ranjan, Kumar Rajiv; Chakrabortty, Debasis; Banerjee, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) or primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor (PNET) typically occurs in long or flat bones, the chest wall, extra-skeletal soft tissue, and rarely in solid organs. Incidence of adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare. Here we report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the right adrenal gland in an 8-year-old girl who presented with an abdominal mass. The huge tumor was managed by preoperative neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. She died due to metastasis after five months of surgery. PMID:27398321

  16. Ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal glands in healthy and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Pey, Pascaline; Paepe, Dominique; Rosenberg, Dan; Daminet, Sylvie; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Duchateau, Luc; de Fornel-Thibaud, Pauline; Benchekroun, Ghita; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2013-06-01

    The first part of the study aimed to describe prospectively the ultrasonographic features of the adrenal glands in 94 healthy cats and 51 chronically sick cats. It confirmed the feasibility of ultrasonography of adrenal glands in healthy and chronically sick cats, which were not statistically different. The typical hypoechoic appearance of the gland surrounded by hyperechoic fat made it recognisable. A sagittal plane of the gland, not in line with the aorta, may be necessary to obtain the largest adrenal measurements. The reference intervals of adrenal measurements were inferred from the values obtained in the healthy and chronically sick cats (mean ± 0.96 SD): adrenal length was 8.9-12.5 mm; cranial height was 3.0-4.8 mm; caudal height was 3.0-4.5 mm. The second part of the study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal glands in cats with adrenal diseases (six had hyperaldosteronism and four had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism) and a descriptive comparison with the reference features obtained in the control groups from the prospective study. Cats with hyperaldosteronism presented with unilateral severely enlarged adrenal glands. However, a normal contralateral gland did not preclude a contralateral infiltration in benign or malignant adrenal neoplasms. The ultrasonographic appearance of the adrenal glands could not differentiate benign and malignant lesions. The ultrasonographic appearance of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was mainly a symmetrical adrenal enlargement; however, a substantial number of cases were within the reference intervals of adrenal size. PMID:23234721

  17. Current status of imaging for adrenal gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Song, Julie H; Mayo-Smith, William W

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal glands are common sites of disease involved in a wide spectrum of pathology. Several imaging studies allow accurate diagnosis of adrenal masses, separating inconsequential benign masses from the lesions that require treatment. This article discusses contemporary adrenal imaging techniques, imaging appearance, and the optimal imaging algorithm for the workup of common adrenal masses. PMID:25246052

  18. Histoplasmosis of the adrenal glands studied by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.A.; Muchmore, H.G.; Tisdal, R.G.; Fahmy, A.; Pitha, J.V.

    1984-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the adrenal glands was performed on seven patients who had histologically proved disseminated histoplasmosis. All seven patients showed some degree of adrenal gland abnormality. The range of CT findings included minimal enlargement with faint flecks of calcium, moderate enlargement with focal low attenuation nodules, and massive enlargement with large areas of necrosis or dense calcification. The changes in each patient were bilateral and symmetrical. Adrenal gland shape was usually preserved. Finding of percutaneous adrenal biopsy, which was performed under CT guidance, made the diagnosis in one patient. Five of seven patients had adrenal insufficiency. It is concluded that the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis should be considered in any patient who has bilateral adrenal gland enlargement and who resides in an endemic area, especially if there is evidence of adrenal insufficiency.

  19. Adrenal glands in patients with cogenital renal anomalies: CT appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, P.J.; Robbins, G.L.; Ellis, D.A.; Spirt, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    The CT appearance of the adrenal glands was investigated in 30 patients with congenital renal anomalies. The ipsilateral adrenal was clearly identified in 83% of these patients; in all of them, the adrenal was a paraspinal disk-shaped organ, which appeared linear on CT. Conversely, the adrenals retained their normal shape in a control group of 20 patients with acquired renal atrophy or prior simple nephrectomy.

  20. Sexual Differentiation of Circadian Clock Function in the Adrenal Gland.

    PubMed

    Kloehn, Ian; Pillai, Savin B; Officer, Laurel; Klement, Claire; Gasser, Paul J; Evans, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in glucocorticoid production are associated with increased responsiveness of the adrenal gland in females. However, the adrenal-intrinsic mechanisms that establish sexual dimorphic function remain ill defined. Glucocorticoid production is gated at the molecular level by the circadian clock, which may contribute to sexual dimorphic adrenal function. Here we examine sex differences in the adrenal gland using an optical reporter of circadian clock function. Adrenal glands were cultured from male and female Period2::Luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice to assess clock function in vitro in real time. We confirm that there is a pronounced sex difference in the intrinsic capacity to sustain PER2::LUC rhythms in vitro, with higher amplitude rhythms in adrenal glands collected from males than from females. Changes in adrenal PER2::LUC rhythms over the reproductive life span implicate T as an important factor in driving sex differences in adrenal clock function. By directly manipulating hormone levels in adult mice in vivo, we demonstrate that T increases the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in adrenal glands of both male and female mice. In contrast, we find little evidence that ovarian hormones modify adrenal clock function. Lastly, we find that T in vitro can increase the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in male adrenals but not female adrenals, which suggests the existence of sex differences in the mechanisms of T action in vivo. Collectively these results reveal that activational effects of T alter circadian timekeeping in the adrenal gland, which may have implications for sex differences in stress reactivity and stress-related disorders. PMID:27007073

  1. [A Case of Synchronous Malignant Pheochromocytomas in Bilateral Adrenal Glands].

    PubMed

    Usui, Kimitsugu; Hirasawa, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Masataka; Shioi, Kouichi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sakai, Naoki; Noguchi, Sumio; Tsuura, Yukio

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of synchronous malignant pheochromocytoma in bilateral adrenal glands. A 73- year-old man presented to our hospital with bilateral adrenal masses incidentally found during abdominal ultrasonography examination for an unrelated issue. The patient had a 30-year history of hypertension and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed heterogeneous tumors in bilateral adrenal glands and an enlarged para-aortic lymph node. Hormonal examinations revealed a high value of urinary catecholamines. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed increased uptake in bilateral adrenal glands and the lymph node. Both adrenal tumors and the node were surgically removed. Pathological examination revealed histologically distinct tissue between the two adrenal tumors. The patient received five cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The patient has been in remission for 32 months following surgical treatment. PMID:27452493

  2. Frequency of varicella zoster virus DNA in human adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Badani, Hussain; White, Teresa; Schulick, Nicole; Raeburn, Christopher D; Topkaya, Ibrahim; Gilden, Don; Nagel, Maria A

    2016-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) becomes latent in ganglionic neurons derived from neural crest cells. Because the adrenal gland also contains medullary chromaffin cells of neural crest origin, we examined human adrenal glands and medullary chromaffin cell tumors (pheochromocytomas) for VZV and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We found VZV, but not HSV-1, DNA in 4/63 (6 %) normal adrenal glands. No VZV transcripts or antigens were detected in the 4 VZV DNA-positive samples. No VZV or HSV-1 DNA was found in 21 pheochromocytomas. PMID:26843382

  3. Embryological and molecular development of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ian L; Louw, Graham J

    2015-03-01

    In this mini review, the embryological and functional development of the adrenal glands is presented from a molecular perspective. While acknowledging that this is a highly complex series of events, the processes are described in simple and broad strokes in a single text for the reader who is interested in this field but is not an active researcher. The origin of the adrenal glands is in the mesodermal ridge as early as the fourth week of gestation. Between the eighth and ninth weeks of gestation, the adrenal glands are encapsulated and this results in the presence of a distinct organ. There have been great strides in deciphering the very complicated molecular aspects of adrenal gland development in which multiple transcription factors have been identified, directing the adrenogonadal primordium into the adrenal cortex, kidney, or bipotential gonad. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone is critical for early development of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. Several mutations in transcription factors, responsible for normal adrenal gland development have been found to induce the familial syndrome of congenital adrenal hypoplasia or neoplasia. PMID:25255746

  4. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the normal canine adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Pey, Pascaline; Vignoli, Massimo; Haers, Hendrik; Duchateau, Luc; Rossi, Federica; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2011-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is useful in differentiating adrenal gland adenomas from nonadenomatous lesions in human patients. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and to describe contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the normal canine adrenal gland. Six healthy female Beagles were injected with an intravenous bolus of a lipid-shelled contrast agent (SonoVue(®) ). The aorta enhanced immediately followed by the renal artery and then the adrenal gland. Adrenal gland enhancement was uniform, centrifugal, and rapid from the medulla to the cortex. When maximum enhancement was reached, a gradual homogeneous decrease in echogenicity of the adrenal gland began and simultaneously enhancement of the phrenicoabdominal vessels was observed. While enhancement kept decreasing in the adrenal parenchyma, the renal vein, caudal vena cava, and phrenicoabdominal vein were characterized by persistent enhancement until the end of the study. A second contrast enhancement was observed, corresponding to the refilling time. Objective measurements were performed storing the images for off-line image analysis using Image J (ImageJ(©) ). The shape of the time-intensity curve reflecting adrenal perfusion was similar in all dogs. Ratios of the values of the cortex and the medulla to the values of the renal artery were characterized by significant differences from initial upslope to the peak allowing differentiation between the cortex and the medulla for both adrenal glands only in this time period. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the adrenal glands is feasible in dogs and the optimal time for adrenal imaging is between 5 and 90 s after injection. PMID:21521396

  5. Transrectal ultrasonography of the left adrenal gland in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Durie, Inge; Van Loon, Gunther; Vermeire, Simon; De Clercq, Dominique; Vanschandevijl, Katleen; Deprez, Piet

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available on medical imaging of the adrenal glands in horses. We investigated the feasibility of transrectal ultrasonography to characterize the normal equine adrenal gland. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed in 25 healthy horses using a 7.5 MHz linear array probe at a displayed depth of 8 cm. Transrectal ultrasonography of the right adrenal gland was not feasible. For the left adrenal gland, the left kidney, the abdominal aorta, the left renal artery, the left renal vein, and the cranial mesenteric artery were used as landmarks. The size of the left adrenal gland was variable, but it generally appeared as a long, flat structure with a hyperechoic medulla surrounded by a hypoechoic cortex. The most cranial part of the gland could not be delineated appropriately in 11 horses (44%). The mean (+/-SD) thickness of the gland and medulla was 0.66 +/- 0.15cm (n = 25) and 0.28 +/- 0.09 cm (n = 25) near the caudal pole, 0.87 +/- 0.25 cm (n = 14) and 0.40 +/- 0.18 cm (n = 12) near the cranial pole, and 0.89 +/- 0.18 cm (n = 25) and 0.36 +/- 0.13 cm (n = 25) in the middle of the gland, respectively. The mean (+/-SD) length of the entire adrenal gland and of the medulla was 6.22 +/- 0.77 cm (n = 14) and 5.45 +/- 0.71 cm (n = 6), respectively. Transrectal ultrasonography allowed adequate visualization of the left adrenal gland in horses. PMID:20973389

  6. Computed tomographic quantification of canine adrenal gland volume and attenuation.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Giovanna; Furlanello, Tommaso; De Lorenzi, Davide; Caldin, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study in presumed normal dogs to determine the adrenal gland attenuation and volume values. Multidetector computer tomography (MDCT 16) analysis of the gland was carried out in 48 adult dogs without evidence of adrenal gland disease that underwent CT examination for acute spinal injuries. The mean nonenhanced attenuation value +/- SD of the left adrenal gland was 36.0 +/- 5.3 HU (range: 22.0-42.0 HU). The mean nonenhanced attenuation value +/- SD of the right gland was 34.3 +/- 7.0 HU (range: 20.4-48.6HU). The mean enhanced attenuation value +/- SD were: left gland 101.5 +/- 10.6HU (range: 86.8-128.0 HU), and right gland 97.4 +/- 12.4 HU (range: 58.9-123.6 HU). The mean CT volume +/- SD were: left gland was 0.60 cm3 (range: 0.20-0.95; SD 0.17), and right gland (0.55cm3, range: 0.22-1.01; SD 0.19). Attenuation values and volume data were related to age, weight, and gender, using ANOVA. There was no statistically significant difference between the left and right side or in adrenal measurements, because of body weight class effects. The animal effect was the most important source of variation for all adrenal measurements. Based on our study, CT is an effective method for assessing adrenal characteristics in the dog. Normative CT data are provided to allow estimation of normal adrenal gland size and volume. PMID:17009504

  7. What Are Some Types of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome develops from prolonged or excess use of steroid medications. In other cases, the body itself produces ... adrenal glands can be suppressed when people take steroid medications (medicines that act like cortisol in the ...

  8. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose adrenal gland disorders? Skip sharing on ... and urine tests. 1 Cushing’s Syndrome If a health care provider suspects Cushing’s syndrome, he or she may ...

  9. [Cavernous hemangioma: rare incidentaloma of the adrenal gland].

    PubMed

    de la Villéon, B; Goudard, Y; Peroux, E; Jacquet, S F; Aubert, P; Duverger, V

    2011-12-01

    The hemangioma of the adrenal gland is an adrenal gland lesion rare, benign and usually asymptomatic. Discovered incidentally during an abdominal imaging study, it is part of incidentalomas. Imagery is the best to characterise these silent adrenal masses (computed tomography [CT], Magnetic Resonance Imaging [MRI]± Positron Emission Tomography [PET scan] with 18F-FDG). The main risks of the hemangioma are ignorance of malignancy, bleeding and abdominal mass syndrome. The analysis of the literature shows the importance of laparoscopy. A multidisciplinary discussion on this type of lesion appears indispensable both diagnostic and therapeutic. PMID:22118362

  10. Associations between sex, body weight, age, and ultrasonographically determined adrenal gland thickness in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness.

    PubMed

    Bento, Pedro L; Center, Sharon A; Randolph, John F; Yeager, Amy E; Bicalho, Rodrigo C

    2016-03-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether body weight, age, or sex was associated with ultrasonographically determined adrenal gland thickness (AT) in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness. DESIGN Retrospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 266 dogs (22 sexually intact and 119 castrated males and 19 sexually intact and 106 spayed females representing 12 breeds) with non-adrenal gland illness. PROCEDURES Thickness of the caudal pole of the left and right adrenal glands was measured on longitudinal ultrasonographic images. Dogs were stratified into age and body weight categories to investigate associations with AT. RESULTS AT was significantly lower in dogs that weighed ≤ 12 kg (26.4 lb) than in dogs that weighed > 12 kg and left AT increased with age. Both left and right AT were larger in male than in female dogs that weighed > 12 to ≤ 20 kg, and left AT was larger in male than in female dogs that weighed > 20 to ≤ 30 kg. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that body weight, age, and sex were significantly associated with AT, indicating that these variables should be considered when evaluating AT in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness and when developing reference intervals for AT in dogs. Further, findings indicated that dogs with non-adrenal gland illness that weigh ≤ 12 kg should have an AT no greater than 0.62 cm, whereas dogs that weigh > 12 kg should have an AT no greater than 0.72 cm. PMID:26953919

  11. Failure to visualize adrenal glands in a patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. [/sup 131/I

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.; Mayfield, R.K.; Levine, J.H.; Lopes-Virella, M.F.; Sagel, J.; Buse, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A patient with clinical and biochemical evidence of Cushing's disease and severe hyperlipidemia underwent an adrenal imaging procedure with NP-59 (6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol), without visualization of either gland. Correction of the hyperlipidemia followed by repeated adrenal imaging resulted in bilateral visualization. A pituitary tumor was removed at surgery, confirming the diagnosis of Cushing's disease.

  12. Diagnostic dilemmas in enlarged and diffusely hemorrhagic adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Diolombi, Mairo L; Khani, Francesca; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-07-01

    We have noted an increasing number of cases of enlarged adrenal glands where the underlying diagnosis was masked by a diffusely hemorrhagic process. We identified from our database 59 cases (32 consults, 27 routine) of adrenal glands with diffuse (>25%) hemorrhage received between 2000 and 2014. Fifty-three adrenalectomies and 6 biopsies were identified. The diagnoses after central review were 41 adrenocortical adenomas, 1 nodular adrenocortical hyperplasia with associated myelolipoma, 1 benign adrenocortical cyst, and 10 nonneoplastic adrenal glands with hemorrhage. A definitive diagnosis for the 6 biopsies was precluded by the sample size. The adrenocortical adenomas (size, 1-13 cm; 25%-95% hemorrhage) showed clear cell change in the neoplastic area (10%-80% of the tumor), 19 showed focal calcification (1 with ossification), 11 showed areas of papillary endothelial hyperplasia, 10 showed scattered lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, 6 showed benign cortical tissue extending beyond the adrenal capsule into soft tissue, 1 showed necrosis in the form of ghost cells, 2 showed lipomatous change, and 6 were associated with incidental benign lesions (1 cortical cyst, 1 schwannoma, and 4 myelolipomas). Twenty-four of the adrenocortical adenomas were consults where the referring pathologist had trouble classifying the lesion. Of the 10 nonneoplastic adrenals (4.5-22 cm; 40%-80% hemorrhage), 2 were consults. In summary, pathologists have difficulties recognizing adrenocortical adenomas in the setting of a massively enlarged and hemorrhagic adrenal gland. Although there is a correlation between adrenocortical malignancy and size, hemorrhage into nonmalignant adrenal glands can result in markedly enlarged adrenals. PMID:27001431

  13. Primary Bilateral Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma of the Adrenal Gland Presenting as Incidental Adrenal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Christopher; Camilleri, David James; Gatt, Andre'

    2015-01-01

    Although lymphoma may occasionally involve the adrenal glands as part of a generalized disease process, primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is a rare disease. We present a case of a 62-year-old woman with a history of mild/moderate hereditary spherocytosis with a well-compensated baseline haemoglobin, who presented with rapidly progressive symptomatic anaemia. During the diagnostic workup, imaging revealed bilateral large adrenal masses and she was later diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL), with the adrenal glands being the dominant site of the disease. The patient was started on systemic chemotherapy, but her disease progressed with neurological involvement which responded to second-line therapy. Her adrenal disease however was refractory to further therapy. PMID:26681947

  14. Biopsy of the right adrenal gland by the transhepatic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.B.; Bernardino, M.E.; Berkman, W.A.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Torres, W.E.

    1983-08-01

    A transhepatic computed-tomographic-guided biopsy of a right adrenal mass is described. This method is simpler to perform than the usual posterior biopsy carried out with the patient prone and is less likely to cause a complicating pneumothorax. In seven of eight patients with right adrenal masses, adrenal tissue was obtained and an accurate diagnosis was possible. No complications resulted.

  15. Images of pheochromocytoma in adrenal glands

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Colin J.; Blake, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are relatively rare tumors of the adrenal medulla. A wide spectrum of imaging findings has been described. The aim of this article is to describe the multimodality imaging features of pheochromocytomas including diagnostic pearls that can help differentiate them from other adrenal lesions and pitfalls to avoid. PMID:26310999

  16. Left adrenal gland metastasis of breast invasive ductal carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    HE, TAO; LIU, JIAJU; LI, YIFAN; JIN, LU; SUN, SHUOLEI; NI, LIANGCHAO; MAO, XIANGMING; YANG, SHANGQI; LAI, YONGQING

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the metastatic lesions of the adrenal gland normally originate from lung cancer, colon malignant tumor, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. However, adrenal gland metastasis that metastasize from breast invasive ductal carcinoma are extremely rare. The present study reported a rare case of left adrenal gland metastasis in a 35-year-old female who was diagnosed as breast carcinoma 5 years ago with a mass located on the left adrenal gland, which was detected during a routine examination. The patient was asymptomatic and adrenal gland computed tomography revealed a mass in the left adrenal gland. Definitive preoperative diagnosis failed to be established. Left adrenal gland laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed and the diagnosis of adrenal gland metastasis of breast invasive ductal carcinoma was confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical examination. The patient remained in good condition by the time of writing. PMID:27123296

  17. Standards of ultrasound imaging of the adrenal glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław S.; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna A.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal glands are paired endocrine glands located over the upper renal poles. Adrenal pathologies have various clinical presentations. They can coexist with the hyperfunction of individual cortical zones or the medulla, insufficiency of the adrenal cortex or retained normal hormonal function. The most common adrenal masses are tumors incidentally detected in imaging examinations (ultrasound, tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), referred to as incidentalomas. They include a range of histopathological entities but cortical adenomas without hormonal hyperfunction are the most common. Each abdominal ultrasound scan of a child or adult should include the assessment of the suprarenal areas. If a previously non-reported, incidental solid focal lesion exceeding 1 cm (incidentaloma) is detected in the suprarenal area, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be conducted to confirm its presence and for differentiation and the tumor functional status should be determined. Ultrasound imaging is also used to monitor adrenal incidentaloma that is not eligible for a surgery. The paper presents recommendations concerning the performance and assessment of ultrasound examinations of the adrenal glands and their pathological lesions. The article includes new ultrasound techniques, such as tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, three-dimensional ultrasound, elastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and parametric imaging. The guidelines presented above are consistent with the recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society. PMID:26807295

  18. Abdomen: Retroperitoneum, peritoneum, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book the author explores aspiration biopsy as it can be applied to lesions of the retroperitoneum, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, peritoneum, and adrenal gland. With experience from two different institutions - one an acute general care hospital, the other a cancer referral center - Dr. Suen has achieved in creating a text that reflects a wide range of experience. Throughout the work, Dr. Suen stresses pattern recognition of cytologic material. And a chapter on unusual and interesting lesions is included. Contents: Introduction and General Considerations; Abdomen Imaging Techniques; Clinical Relevance; Indentification of Normal ABC; retroperitoneum; Gastrointestinal Tract; Kidney; Adrenal Gland; Unusual Lesions; Immunocytochemistry and Electron Microscopy; Index.

  19. Dopamine receptor expression and function in human normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pivonello, Rosario; Ferone, Diego; de Herder, Wouter W; de Krijger, Ronald R; Waaijers, Marlijn; Mooij, Diana M; van Koetsveld, Peter M; Barreca, Antonina; De Caro, Maria Laura del Basso; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2004-09-01

    Dopamine is known to play a role in the modulation of aldosterone and catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland, where dopamine receptors (DR), in particular the DR type 2 (D(2)), have been found to be expressed. DR expression has also been demonstrated in some types of benign adrenal tumors. The aims of the current study were to evaluate DR expression and D(2) localization in the normal adrenal gland and in different types of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, as well as to evaluate the in vitro effects of the dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline on hormone secretion in nontumoral adrenal cells. Adrenal tissues from 25 patients, subjected to adrenal surgery for different diseases, were studied. These included three normal adrenals; five adrenal hyperplasias; four aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two clinically nonfunctioning adrenal adenomas; two aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two androgen-secreting adrenal carcinomas; and three pheochromocytomas. In all tissues, DR and D(2) isoform (D(2long) and D(2short)) expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. D(2) localization was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a specific polyclonal antibody, whereas D(2)-like receptor expression was evaluated by receptor-ligand binding study, using the radiolabeled D(2) analog (125)I-epidepride. The effects of bromocriptine and cabergoline on baseline and ACTH and/or angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone, cortisol, and androstenedione secretion were evaluated in cell cultures derived from five different adrenal hyperplasia. At RT-PCR, both D(1)-like and D(2)-like receptors were expressed in all normal and hyperplastic adrenals. D(2) and D(4) were expressed in aldosterone- and cortisol-secreting adenomas, cortisol-secreting carcinomas, and clinically nonfunctioning adenomas, whereas no DR was expressed in aldosterone- and androgen-secreting carcinomas. D(2), D(4), and D(5) were expressed in pheochromocytomas. In all D(2

  20. Nicotinic receptor Alpha7 expression during mouse adrenal gland development.

    PubMed

    Gahring, Lorise C; Myers, Elizabeth; Palumbos, Sierra; Rogers, Scott W

    2014-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 (α7) is a ligand-activated ion channel that contributes to a diversity of cellular processes involved in development, neurotransmission and inflammation. In this report the expression of α7 was examined in the mouse developing and adult adrenal gland that expresses a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter as a bi-cistronic extension of the endogenous α7 transcript (α7(G)). At embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) α7(G) expression was associated with the suprarenal ganglion and precursor cells of the adrenal gland. The α7(G) cells are catecholaminergic chromaffin cells as reflected by their progressive increase in the co-expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) that is complete by E18.5. In the adult, α7(G) expression is limited to a subset of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla that cluster near the border with the adrenal cortex. These chromaffin cells co-express α7(G), TH and DBH, but they lack phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) consistent with only norepinephrine (NE) synthesis. These cell groups appear to be preferentially innervated by pre-ganglionic afferents identified by the neurotrophin receptor p75. No afferents identified by beta-III tubulin, neurofilament proteins or p75 co-expressed α7(G). Occasional α7(G) cells in the pre-E14.5 embryos express neuronal markers consistent with intrinsic ganglion cells and in the adult some α7(G) cells co-express glutamic acid decarboxylase. The transient expression of α7 during adrenal gland development and its prominent co-expression by a subset of NE chromaffin cells in the adult suggests that the α7 receptor contributes to multiple aspects of adrenal gland development and function that persist into adulthood. PMID:25093893

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal glands: a comparison with computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.L.; Haaga, J.R.; Fletcher, B.D.; Alfidi, R.J.; Schultz, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    This investigation compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of normal and abnormal adrenal glands. Thirty normal volunteers were studied with MRI, and the results were compared with a retrospective review of 30 normal CT examinations. CT identified both adrenal glands in all 30 patients. MRI identified both glands in 29 of 30 volunteers. There were no statistically significant differences between the two imaging techniques using chi-square analysis. Twenty-one patients with abnormal adrenal gland(s) detected with CT were also studied with MRI. The abnormalities studied included bilateral hyperplasia (three patients), adenoma (two), myelolipoma (one), adrenal metastases (six), adrenal hemorrhage (two), and neuroblastoma (seven). MRI detected the abnormal adrenal gland(s) in 20 of 21 patients. The CT and MRI features of the adrenal lesions are discussed.

  2. Resistant hypertension with adrenal nodule: are we removing the right gland?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N; Tabasum, Arshiya; Rao Bondugulapati, L N; Parker, Danny; Baglioni, Piero; Okosieme, Onyebuchi E; Scott Coombes, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Resistant hypertension is often difficult to treat and may be associated with underlying primary aldosteronism (PA). We describe the case of an elderly gentleman who presented with severe and resistant hypertension and was found to have a left adrenal incidentaloma during evaluation but had aldosterone excess secondary to unilateral adrenal hyperplasia (UAH) of the contralateral gland, which needed surgical intervention. A 65-year-old gentleman was evaluated for uncontrolled high blood pressure (BP) in spite of taking four antihypertensive medications. The high BP was confirmed on a 24-h ambulatory reading, and further biochemical evaluation showed an elevated serum aldosterone renin ratio (ARR) (1577 pmol/l per ng per ml per h). Radiological evaluation showed an adrenal nodule (15 mm) in the left adrenal gland but an adrenal vein sampling demonstrated a lateralization towards the opposite site favouring the right adrenal to be the source of excess aldosterone. A laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed and the histology of the gland confirmed nodular hyperplasia. Following surgery, the patient's BP improved remarkably although he remained on antihypertensives and under regular endocrine follow-up. PA remains the most common form of secondary and difficult-to-treat hypertension. Investigations may reveal incidental adrenal lesions, which may not be the actual source of excess aldosterone, but UAH may be a contributor and may coexist and amenable to surgical treatment. An adrenal vein sampling should be undertaken for correct lateralization of the source, otherwise a correctable diagnosis may be missed and the incorrect adrenal gland may be removed. Learning points Severe and resistant hypertension can often be associated with underlying PA. ARR is an excellent screening tool in patients with suspected PA. Lateralization with adrenal venous sampling is essential to isolate the source and differentiate between unilateral and bilateral causes of

  3. Normal adrenal glands in small cell lung carcinoma: CT-guided biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Pagani, J.J.

    1983-05-01

    Twenty-four small cell lung carcinoma patients with morphologically normal adrenal glands by computed tomographic (CT) criteria underwent percutaneous thin-needle biopsy of their adrenal glands. Of 43 glands biopsied, 29 had adequate cellular material for interpretation. Five (17%) of the 29 glands were positive for metastases; the rest had negative biopsies. This series indicates an approximate 17% false-negative diagnosis rate by CT when staging the adrenal glands in patients with small cell lung carcinoma. It also demonstrates the utility of percutaneous needle biopsy as an investigational tool to further evaluate normal-sized adrenal glands in the oncologic patient.

  4. Zinc deficiency affects the composition of the rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, R.J.; Leure-DuPree, A.E.; Fosmire, G.J.

    1986-07-01

    The response of the adrenal gland to zinc deficiency was examined in male weanling rats. In comparison with decapsulated adrenals from ad libitum fed controls, glands from zinc deficient rats had greater relative weight (mg/g body wt), DNA concentration, and total lipid and cholesterol concentrations as well as a smaller protein/DNA ratio. Several of these differences (protein/DNA and cholesterol concentration) could be attributed to the inanition accompanying zinc deficient values were similar to those of pair fed controls. Values for total DNA and protein concentration were similar for all groups. Electron micrographs of the zona fasciculata showed a small number of lipid droplets in the adrenals from ad libitum fed controls, an increase in lipid droplets from pair fed controls, and an even more striking increase in lipid droplets from the zinc deficient adrenals. The increased adrenal lipid composition in the zinc deficient group may be secondary to enhanced steroidogenesis or a zinc deficiency-induced defect of lipid metabolism.

  5. [Mantle cell lymphoma markedly infiltrated into adrenal glands with adrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryo; Iwakiri, Rika; Tsutsumi, Hisashi; Ohta, Masatsugu; Mori, Mayumi

    2004-07-01

    A 66-year-old male was admitted to our hospital complaining of bilateral hypochondrial pain, back pain and loss of weight in May, 2002. Superficial lymph nodes were not palpable on admission. The leukocyte count was 3430/microl, hemoglobin concentration, 13.0g/dl, and platelet count, 174000/microl. LDH, soluble IL-2 receptor, ACTH and cortisol values were out of the normal range (LDH 1368IU/l, sIL-2R 2630U/ml, ACTH 132pg/ml, cortisol 7.4microg/dl). Abdominal CT scan showed bilateral adrenal masses, and abnormal uptake of Ga-scintigraphy was seen correspondent with the bilateral adrenal masses. The histological diagnosis of bilateral adrenal masses cannot be performed because of the bleeding tendency, but atypical cells were observed in the patient's bone marrow aspirate. Surface marker analysis of atypical cells showed CD5+, cyclin D1+, CD19+, CD20+ and HLA-DR+. From these results we diagnosed this case as a mantle cell lymphoma (stage IV B) markedly infiltrated into the adrenal glands with adrenal insufficiency. The bilateral adrenal masses dramatically reduced in size after CHOP chemotherapy with hydrocortisone supplementation. We report on the present case and summarize the reports of adrenal grand-infiltrating lymphomas. PMID:15359915

  6. Endocrine-specific NIR fluorophores for adrenal gland targeting.

    PubMed

    Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Levitz, Andrew; Park, Min Ho; Hyun, Hoon; Venugopal, Vivek; Park, GwangLi; El Fakhri, Georges; Henary, Maged; Gioux, Sylvain; Frangioni, John V; Choi, Hak Soo

    2016-08-11

    The adrenal glands (AGs) are relatively small yet require definitive identification during their resection, or more commonly their avoidance. To enable image-guided surgery involving the AGs, we have developed novel near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores that target the AGs after a single intravenous injection, which provided dual-NIR image-guided resection or avoidance of the AGs during both open and minimally-invasive surgery. PMID:27476533

  7. Adipose Tissue and Adrenal Glands: Novel Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kargi, Atil Y.; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or “adipokines” have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of “cross talk” between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals. PMID:25018768

  8. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal gland size compared to body weight in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Soulsby, Stacy N; Holland, Merrilee; Hudson, Judith A; Behrend, Ellen N

    2015-01-01

    The accepted cut-off value for adrenal gland maximum diameter of 0.74 cm to distinguish adrenal gland enlargement in dogs regardless of body weight may not be appropriate for small to medium breed dogs. The purpose of the current retrospective study was to examine adrenal gland dimensions as a function of body weight in healthy dogs in three weight categories (< 10 kg, 10-30 kg, and > 30 kg) representing small, medium, and large breeds, respectively, to establish greater confidence in determining if adrenal gland size is abnormal. The measurements of length (sagittal plane), cranial and caudal pole thickness (sagittal and transverse planes), and caudal pole width (transverse plane) of both adrenal glands were obtained ultrasonographically in clinically healthy dogs (n = 45) with 15 dogs in each weight group. Findings support our hypothesis that adrenal gland size correlates with body weight in normal dogs, and more precise reference intervals should be created for adrenal gland size by categorizing dogs as small, medium, or large breed. The caudal pole thickness of either adrenal gland in a sagittal plane was the best dimension for evaluating adrenal gland size based on low variability, ease, and reliability in measurement. PMID:25496665

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal gland: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Hricak, H.; Crooks, L.E.; Gooding, C.A.; Moss, A.A.; Engelstad, B.L.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging characteristics of the normal and abnormal adrenal gland were evaluated and compared with findings on computed tomography (CT). Forty-two patients were examined: 36 had normal adrenal glands and 6 had adrenal disease (3 metastatic lesions, 1 pheochromocytoma, and 2 cortical hyperplasia). NMR clearly showed all 42 left adrenals (100%) and 36 right adrenals (86%). In some patients, it appeared to differentiate the adrenal cortex from the medulla. The ability of NMR to detect adrenal disease was similar to that of CT in 6 cases examined. CT demonstrated superior spatial resolution in most cases, but NMR provided superior soft-tissue contrast. Since NMR does not involve ionizing radiation and provides excellent soft-tissue differentiation without contrast material, it has advantages over CT and appears to be a promising modality for imaging of the adrenal gland.

  10. Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Strittmatter, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril labeling of ACE. (/sup 3/H)Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. (/sup 3/H)Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, (/sup 3/H)captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor (/sup 3/H)GEMSA.

  11. Mouse genotypes drive the liver and adrenal gland clocks.

    PubMed

    Košir, Rok; Prosenc Zmrzljak, Uršula; Korenčič, Anja; Juvan, Peter; Ačimovič, Jure; Rozman, Damjana

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms regulate a plethora of physiological processes. Perturbations of the rhythm can result in pathologies which are frequently studied in inbred mouse strains. We show that the genotype of mouse lines defines the circadian gene expression patterns. Expression of majority of core clock and output metabolic genes are phase delayed in the C56BL/6J line compared to 129S2 in the adrenal glands and the liver. Circadian amplitudes are generally higher in the 129S2 line. Experiments in dark - dark (DD) and light - dark conditions (LD), exome sequencing and data mining proposed that mouse lines differ in single nucleotide variants in the binding regions of clock related transcription factors in open chromatin regions. A possible mechanisms of differential circadian expression could be the entrainment and transmission of the light signal to peripheral organs. This is supported by the genotype effect in adrenal glands that is largest under LD, and by the high number of single nucleotide variants in the Receptor, Kinase and G-protein coupled receptor Panther molecular function categories. Different phenotypes of the two mouse lines and changed amino acid sequence of the Period 2 protein possibly contribute further to the observed differences in circadian gene expression. PMID:27535584

  12. Mouse genotypes drive the liver and adrenal gland clocks

    PubMed Central

    Košir, Rok; Prosenc Zmrzljak, Uršula; Korenčič, Anja; Juvan, Peter; Ačimovič, Jure; Rozman, Damjana

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms regulate a plethora of physiological processes. Perturbations of the rhythm can result in pathologies which are frequently studied in inbred mouse strains. We show that the genotype of mouse lines defines the circadian gene expression patterns. Expression of majority of core clock and output metabolic genes are phase delayed in the C56BL/6J line compared to 129S2 in the adrenal glands and the liver. Circadian amplitudes are generally higher in the 129S2 line. Experiments in dark – dark (DD) and light – dark conditions (LD), exome sequencing and data mining proposed that mouse lines differ in single nucleotide variants in the binding regions of clock related transcription factors in open chromatin regions. A possible mechanisms of differential circadian expression could be the entrainment and transmission of the light signal to peripheral organs. This is supported by the genotype effect in adrenal glands that is largest under LD, and by the high number of single nucleotide variants in the Receptor, Kinase and G-protein coupled receptor Panther molecular function categories. Different phenotypes of the two mouse lines and changed amino acid sequence of the Period 2 protein possibly contribute further to the observed differences in circadian gene expression. PMID:27535584

  13. Calcifying fibrous pseudotumor of the adrenal gland: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Zhu, Pingyu; Duan, Xi; Yang, Xuesong; Lu, Dongliang

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying fibrous pseudotumor (CFP) is a rare benign soft tissue lesion. We herein present an extremely rare case of CFP of the adrenal gland. A 32-year-old male patient presented to our hospital with a tumor-like lesion in the area of the left adrenal gland detected by ultrasound during a routine check-up several days prior. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging examination revealed a solitary, well-circumscribed mass, in close proximity to the medial arterial branch of the left adrenal gland. Histological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of sheets of varying amount of inflammatory cell infiltration; interstitial fibrosis and psammomatous calcifications were also observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case of CFP occurring in the adrenal gland in the published literature. We herein report the findings of this case and review the two previously reported cases of CFP of the adrenal gland with valuable information.

  14. Adrenal glands of Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii, Wagler, 1831): morphological and morphometric aspects.

    PubMed

    Santos, A C; Viana, D C; Bertassoli, B M; Vasconcelos, B G; Oliveira, D M; Rici, R E G; Oliveira, M F; Miglino, M A; Assis-Neto, A C

    2016-05-01

    Considering the physiological importance and need of greater morphophysiological knowledge of adrenal glands, the aims of present study were compare the morphometric data between left and right adrenal of male and female; perform a histological, scanning and transmission electron microscopy study showing tissue constitution of glands; finally, in order to define the presence and correct site of the cytochrome P450c17 expression in adrenal glands, immunohistochemical study of this enzyme was performed in 18 adrenal glands (right n=9 and left n=9) of nine adult Galea spixii (four males and five females). Right adrenal was more cranially positioned than left adrenal; dimensions (weight, length and width) of right adrenal was larger than left adrenal; no differences between male and female body and adrenal measurements were found; the morphology of cells and different amounts of lipid droplets may be related to the different demands of steroid hormones production, related to each zone of the adrenal cortex; and, the cytochrome P450c17 immunolocalization in fasciculate and reticular zone may be related with synthesis of 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone, 17-hydroxy-progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone or androstenedione. PMID:27143060

  15. A Rare Cavernous Hemangioma of the Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Cheng; Wu, Pengjie; Zhu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal cavernous hemangiomas are rare nonfunctioning benign tumors. This case report presents a patient with a huge nonfunctioning adrenal cavernous hemangioma presenting as an adrenal incidentaloma suspicious for adrenal myelolipoma. Although adrenal cavernous hemangiomas are rare, they should be considered as a part of the differential diagnosis of adrenal neoplasms. The proper treatment is surgical excision due the risk of spontaneous tumor rupture and the difficulty of ruling out malignancy. PMID:26793524

  16. Adrenal Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is adrenal insufficiency? Did you know? The adrenal glands, located on top of the kidneys, make hormones ... body functions. The outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal glands makes three types of steroid hormones. In adrenal ...

  17. Effects of DDT on bobwhite quail adrenal gland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehman, J.W.; Peterle, T.J.; Mulls, C.M.

    1974-01-01

    A wide range of responses to sublethal levels of DDT exist, many of which are species specific and vary within each species depending upon age, sex, and physiological state. Sublethal levels of DDT do cause an increase in the adrenal cortical tissue of bobwhite quail, which may cause increased secretion of corticosteroids, and in turn affect reproduction. A delicate homeostatic balance exists within the avian endocrine system which may be disturbed by feeding sublethal levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. This adverse effect on the endocrine system may cause subtle reproductive failures which go unnoticed until the population is greatly reduced.

  18. Proliferative activity of adrenal glands with adrenocortical cytomegaly measured by MIB-1 labeling index.

    PubMed

    Fasano, M; Greco, M A

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the proliferative activity of cytomegalic cells in the fetal adrenal cortex, we studied adrenal glands with cytomegaly by immunohistochemistry using the nuclear proliferation maker MIB-1. The percentage of positively stained nuclei was quantified using the SAMBA 4000 image analysis system. Only one case showed occasional positively stained cytomegalic cell nuclei. The permanent cortices showed proliferative activity that decreased with increasing gestational age. No proliferative activity was seen in normal fetal cortices except in one case that received corticosteroid therapy and had a maternal history of diabetes. The near absence of proliferative activity of the cytomegalic cells supports the previously proposed theory of cellular exhaustion following hyperactivity. The high proliferative activity in the fetal cortex of the infant receiving corticosteroid therapy may provide insight into the stimulus causing the hypermetabolic state. PMID:9025875

  19. Preoperative CT evaluation of adrenal glands in non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, M.E. Jr.; Heaston, D.K.; Dunnick, N.R.; Korobkin, M.

    1982-08-01

    Preoperative chest computed tomographic (CT) scans in 84 patients with biopsy-proven non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma were reviewed. At least one adrenal gland was visualized in 70 of these. Evidence of a solid adrenal mass was present in 18 (14.5%) glands in 15 (21.4%) patients. Percutaneous needle aspiration under CT guidance confirmed metastatic malignancy in the four patients who were biopsied. Because the documented presence of adrenal metastases in non-small cell lung cancer makes surgical resection or local irradiation inappropriate, it is recommended that both adrenal glands in their entirety be specifically included whenever a staging chest CT examination is performed in patients with such tumors. Percutaneous needle biopsy for pathologic confirmation of the nature of solid adrenal masses discovered in this process is also useful.

  20. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome. It occurs when a tumor of the adrenal gland releases excess amounts of the hormone cortisol. Causes ... hormone cortisol. This hormone is made in the adrenal glands . Too much cortisol can be due to various ...

  1. Non-Functional Adrenal Gland Ganglioneuroma Masquerading as Chronic Calculus Cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rashmi D; Vanikar, Aruna V; Trivedi, H L

    2015-09-01

    Adrenal ganglioneuromas in young adults are rare and ill-understood. We report an incidentally detected adrenal gland tumor diagnosed as ganglioneuroma (mature type) in 33 years old man who presented with vomiting and epigastric pain for 2 months. Histopathology examination revealed a well-encapsulated benign tumor of mature ganglion cells and Schwann-like cells arranged in fascicles, staining strongly with NSE and s-100 proteins, with adjacent unremarkable adrenal cortex and medulla. PMID:27608876

  2. p-Hydroxybenzyl Alcohol, an Active Phenolic Ingredient of Gastrodia elata, Reverses the Cycloheximide-Induced Memory Deficit by Activating the Adrenal Gland in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lung-Yuan; Chen, Wang-Chuan; Tsai, Fan-Shiu; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Wu, Chi-Rei; Lin, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the ameliorating effects of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (HBA), an active phenolic ingredient of Gastrodia elata, on cycloheximide (CXM)-induced impairment of passive avoidance response and clarified the role of adrenal glands on the effect of HBA in rats. An adrenalectomy (ADX) caused the memory deficit from 1 to 3 days after surgery. Administration of corticosterone (CORT) plus glucose completely recovered the memory deficit caused by ADX, and this effect was better than that of glucose or CORT alone. HBA ameliorated the memory deficit induced by CXM in sham and ADX rats, but ADX partially blocked it. Furthermore, plasma glucose, epinephrine and adrenal steroid levels of ADX rats significantly decreased. Sham rats who received HBA had an increase in plasma glucose and adrenal steroid levels. Therefore, we suggest that the reversal of CXM-induced memory deficit by HBA was partially dependent on adrenal glands through the increase of the levels of plasma adrenal steroids. PMID:26621444

  3. Quantitative alterations in the liver and adrenal gland in pregnant rats induced by Pyralene 3000

    SciTech Connect

    Vreci, M.; Sek, S.; Lorger, J.; Bavdek, S.; Pogacnik, A.

    1995-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most widespread environmental pollutants known in the world. The half-life of PCBs is very long and, therefore, once released into the environment, they accumulate in food chains and tissues of various mammals, including man. Their presence can cause numerous toxic effects, e.g., hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, dermatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and disorders of the reproductive system, among others. These effects depend on the distribution route in the organism, the rate of metabolism and excretion. Their characteristics are closely associated with the number and position of the chlorine atoms in the molecule. Previous studies of trichlorobiphenyl distributions in various tissues demonstrated that low chlorinated trichlorobiphenyls do no accumulate in endocrine organs, whereas higher chlorinated biphenyls, such as hexa- and octachlorobiphenyl, are deposited and retained in the adrenal gland. A selective distribution of radioabelled tetrachlorobiphenyl to the zona fasciculata, accompanied by morphometric evidence of the hypertrophy of the zona fasciculata, was also noted. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the tissue structure of the pregnant rat liver and adrenal gland induced experimentally by Pyralene 3000 administration. We chose this commercial low chlorinated PCB because it was in use in Slovenia and, discharged from the electroindustrial plants, caused a serious incidence of environmental pollution in the region of Bela Krajina. Our further aim was to research the transplacental influences of Pyralene 3000 in rats. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Computed tomography evaluation of the adrenal gland in the preoperative assessment of bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.A.; Pearlberg, J.L.; Madrazo, B.L.; Gitschlag, K.F.; Gross, S.C.

    1982-12-01

    One hundred ten patients with proved bronchogenic carcinoma who were undergoing computed tomography (CT) of the thorax also underwent CT of the adrenals to determine the value of routine preoperative assessement of this gland. Sixteen adrenal masses were found in 11 patients. In five patients the adrenals were the only site of metastasis. CT of the adrenals should be performed routinely when the thorax is examined pre-operatively in patients with non-oat-cell bronchogenic carcinoma to improve patient selection for thoractomy.

  5. Ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland in association with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wassal, Eslam Y; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Vicens, Rafael; Rao, Priya; Elsayes, Khaled M

    2014-12-28

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome associated with increased risk to develop malignancies including adrenocortical carcinoma. Ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland is a rare tumor-like mesenchymal lesion in BWS patients that lacks detailed radiological description. We report a 17-year-old female patient with BWS, associated with bilateral Wilms tumor, hepatic hemangiomatosis, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and a phyllodes tumor of the right breast. Surveillance abdominal ultrasound identified a right adrenal mass that was further characterized by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Radiologically, this mass displayed features that overlap with adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma but after pathological examination this proved to be an ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland. Adrenal masses in BWS should raise the suspicion for adrenocortical carcinoma though other adrenal tumors including ovarian thecal metaplasia can be seen in these patients. PMID:25550997

  6. De novo dup (5p) in a patient with congenital hypoplasia of the adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Kusyk, C.J.; Tuck-Muller, C.M.

    1995-02-13

    We report on a black male child with congenital hypoplasia of the adrenal gland (CHA) with a de novo duplication of 5p (dir dup(5) (p13.3{r_arrow}p15.1)), confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition to a characteristic clinical course, the patient has hyperpigmentation (melanoderma) since birth, normal external genitalia, marked elevation of ACTH, and absent response to an IV ACTH challenge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of congenital hypoplasia of the adrenal gland associated with a chromosome abnormality. Reviews of dup (5p) and of our patient suggest that duplication of 5p13.3-pter has only minor phenotypic effect, while duplication of the relatively small critical segment p11-p13.2 apparently causes far more deleterious changes. The concurrence of CHA and dup(5p) in our patient may indicate the possible gene localization of an autosomal form of CHA to either at or near 5p13.3 or 5p15.1. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Giant adrenal hemangioma: Unusual cause of huge abdominal mass

    PubMed Central

    Tarchouli, Mohamed; Boudhas, Adil; Ratbi, Moulay Brahim; Essarghini, Mohamed; Njoumi, Noureddine; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal hemangioma is an extremely rare benign and non-functioning neoplasm of the adrenal gland. We report a case of a 71-year-old woman admitted for intermittent abdominal pain and abdominal distension associated with vomiting and chronic constipation for 5 years. Physical examination revealed a large abdominal mass. Both computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging suggested hemangioma in the right lobe of the liver. Laboratory examinations and tumour markers were within normal limits, except for hypochromic microcytic anemia. The mass was removed intact by conventional surgery and histopathology revealed a cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland with no signs of malignancy. Surgical resection was curative, with no recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26600897

  8. Binding sites of atrial natriuretic peptide in tree shrew adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, E.; Shigematsu, K.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Adrenal gland binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126) (ANP) were quantitated in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) by incubation of adrenal sections with (3-(/sup 125/I)-iodotyrosyl28) atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126), followed by autoradiography with computerized microdensitometry. In the adrenal glands, there are three types of ANP binding sites. One is located in the zona glomerulosa (BMax 84 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein; Kd 122 +/- 9 pM); the second in the zona fasciculata and reticularis (BMax 29 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein; Kd 153 +/- 6 pM) and the third in the adrenal medulla (BMax 179 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein; Kd 70 +/- 2 pM). Besides the influence of ANP on the regulation of adrenocortical mineralcorticoid and glucocorticoid secretion our findings raise the possibility for a local site of action of atrial natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adrenomedullary catecholamines in the tree shrew, primates and man.

  9. Ultrasonographic adrenal gland findings in healthy semi-captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Kirberger, Robert M; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-05-01

    Cheetahs in captivity are believed to suffer from stress predisposing them to poor health. To date fecal glucocorticoids have been used as a non-invasive indicator of chronic stress. This study examines, the feasibility of transabdominal adrenal gland ultrasonography in cheetahs and determined normal adrenal measurements that can potentially be used as a more reliable indicator of chronic stress and/or adrenal function. Thirty-three adult cheetahs, aged between 2 and 13 years, accommodated in large off-display camps were examined over 9 days under general anesthesia. The adrenals were readily identified, with the right adrenal being more difficult to find and measure than the left, and were smaller than those expected in similar sized dogs. The left adrenal was shorter and slightly more oval shaped than the right with a length and cranial pole width at a 95% prediction interval of 16.3-22.4 and 4.1-8.7 mm. The same measurements for the right adrenal were 16.8-26.2 and 3.4-10.8 mm, respectively. Corticomedullary ratios were larger for the left adrenal. When corrected for body size, females had significantly longer and greater left adrenal corticomedullary ratios than males. Adrenal measurements did not correlate with left renal length, body size measurements, or enclosure size. Measurements that increased with age included the cortical and total adrenal widths. Adrenal ultrasonography offers potential benefits in assessment of individual cheetah adrenal pathology or the evaluation of stress induced adrenomegally especially in combination with other evaluations such as non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid analyses. Zoo Biol. 35:260-268, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27093075

  10. Prostate gland development and adrenal tumor in a female with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a case report and review from radiology perspective.

    PubMed

    Fang, Benjamin; Cho, Francis; Lam, Wendy

    2013-12-01

    We describe a case of a female with simple virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) reared as a male diagnosed at the late age of 64. Computed Tomography (CT) demonstrated a large adrenal mass, bilateral diffuse adrenal enlargement, female pelvic organs as well as a clearly visualized prostate gland. This is to the best of our knowledge the first case of such a sizable prostate gland in a female CAH patient documented on CT. We review the literature regarding aspects where radiologists may encounter CAH and the finding of presence of a prostate gland in female CAH patients. PMID:24421935

  11. [Cystic lymphangioma of the adrenal gland. Three misleading cases].

    PubMed

    Berthet, B; Christophe, M; Siméoni, J; Jean, F; Le Treut, Y P; Bricot, R; Assadourian, R

    1993-01-23

    Three cases of adrenal cystic lymphangioma are reported. In 1 patient the lesion was complicated by intracystic haemorrhage. The remaining 2 patients had a hepatic lesion which was treated in the same surgical operation as the adrenal cyst. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography play a major role in the exploration of these cysts. Their unexpected discovery has become more frequent since these methods have multiplied, and this raises therapeutic problems. The nature of adrenal cysts is determined at histology. In asymptomatic cysts percutaneous needle aspiration can only have an indicative value. PMID:8493206

  12. Primary malignant lymphoma combined with clinically "silent" pheochromocytoma in the same adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Babinska, Anna; Peksa, Rafał; Sworczak, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    An increased number of adrenal tumors are now diagnosed due to the increased number of abdominal CT scans being performed. We present the first case of malignant lymphoma combined with clinically "silent" pheochromocytoma in the same adrenal gland. An abdominal CT scan demonstrates unilateral adrenal lesion which suggests pheochromocytoma or adrenal carcinoma. Laboratory examinations revealed a slight increase of 24-h urine vanillylmandelic acid and 24-h urinary methanephrine excretion. Histological examination revealed two intermingled tumor cell proliferations-diffuse B cell lymphoma and pheochromocytoma.Unexpected coexistence of catecholamine-producing tumor with the other adrenal lesion can lead to serious complications of diagnosis and treatment. The adequate preparation for surgery can protect patient from threatening catecholamine crisis. PMID:26419235

  13. DDT (2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl) 1,1,1-trichloroethane) induced structural changes in adrenal glands of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, A.R.; Gautam, A.K.; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H. )

    1990-08-01

    Oldest chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, DDT was used widely to control pest and vector borne diseases in developing countries. Malaria and vector borne diseases can be econometrically controlled by DDT. Chronic and acute exposures to DDT result in systemic disorders in human as well as this confirmed in animals. Experimental study revealed that DDT caused the structural and functional changes in thyroid and reproductive system. The effects of DDT on adrenal glands are not well documented. Therefore this experimental investigation was undertaken to evaluate the histomorphological changes of adrenal gland after the treatment with DDT in rats.

  14. On the release of catecholamines and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase evoked by ouabain in the perfused cat adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, A. G.; Hernandez, M.; Horga, J. F.; Sanchez-Garcia, P.

    1980-01-01

    1 Secretion of catecholamines (CA) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity from the retrogradely perfused cat adrenal gland was studied following ouabain infusion. Perfusion with ouabain (10(-4) M) for 10 min caused a gradual release of CA in the effluent which reached its peak 30 min after the ouabain pulse, and was maintained constant for at least 1 h. The effect of ouabain seemed to be irreversible. 2 Mecamylamine, while blocking the CA secretory effects of acetylcholine (ACh) perfusion, did not affect the secretion of CA evoked by ouabain. In denervated adrenal glands, ouabain-induced CA secretion was similar to that in the contralateral, innervated gland. However, physostigmine perfusion potentiated the CA secretory effects of ouabain. 3 The release of CA evoked by ouabain was accompanied by a proportional release of DBH activity. The time course of appearance of DBH activity followed the pattern of CA release. 4 The CA and DBH outputs in response to a pulse of ouabain were suppressed in the absence of calcium. Calcium reintroduction to a calcium-free perfused, ouabain-treated gland not only restored but greatly potentiated the release of CA and DBH. The amplitude of the secretory response to calcium reintroduction in ouabain-treated glands was proportional to the extracellular calcium concentration, and was antagonized by an external sodium-deficient medium. 5 These data demonstrate that ouabain releases CA from the perfused cat adrenal gland by a calcium-dependent exocytotic mechanism. The secretory effect of ouabain is not secondary to the release of ACh from cholinergic nerve terminals present in the adrenal gland, but due to a direct action on the chromaffin cell itself. In addition, the results suggest that this action is exerted through redistribution of monovalent cations secondary to the inhibition by the glycoside of the sodium pump. Such monovalent cation redistribution may cause a rise of intracellular ionized calcium levels through the

  15. High-fat diet prevents adaptive peripartum-associated adrenal gland plasticity and anxiolysis

    PubMed Central

    Perani, Clara V.; Neumann, Inga D.; Reber, Stefan O.; Slattery, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with lower basal plasma cortisol levels and increased risk of postpartum psychiatric disorders. Given that both obesity and the peripartum period are characterized by an imbalance between adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, we hypothesized that the adrenal glands undergo peripartum-associated plasticity and that such changes would be prevented by a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we demonstrate substantial peripartum adrenal gland plasticity in the pathways involved in cholesterol supply for steroidogenesis in female rats. In detail, the receptors involved in plasma lipid uptake, low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1), are elevated, intra-adrenal cholesterol stores are depleted, and a key enzyme in de novo cholesterol synthesis, hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), is downregulated; particularly at mid-lactation. HFD prevented the lactation-associated anxiolysis, basal hypercorticism, and exaggerated the corticosterone response to ACTH. Moreover, we show that HFD prevented the downregulation of adrenal cholesterol stores and HMGCR expression, and LDLR upregulation at mid-lactation. These findings show that the adrenal gland is an important regulator of peripartum-associated HPA axis plasticity and that HFD has maladaptive consequences for the mother, partly by preventing these neuroendocrine and also behavioural changes. PMID:26442440

  16. Carcinoma-like nonfunctional pheochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Shingo; Takeshita, Hideki; Araki, Saori; Tokairin, Takuo; Kagawa, Makoto; Chiba, Koji; Adachi, Akiko; Noro, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the malignant potential of a pheochromocytoma (PCC) remains controversial. PCC is regarded as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET), and the classification of NETs has gradually been defined over the last decade, particularly for gastroenteropancreatic NET. The present study describes a case of locally advanced, carcinoma-like, nonfunctional PCC, which may be regarded as neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) rather than a malignant PCC. A 72-year-old man was referred to Saitama Red Cross Hospital (Saitama, Japan), presenting with a 2-month history of right flank pain. Computed tomography revealed a right adrenal gland tumor, which measured 6.0 cm in diameter, invading the hilum of the right kidney, liver and inferior vena cava (IVC). Radical surgery was performed with en bloc resection of the right kidney, and adjacent parts of the liver and IVC. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that all of the resected tissues were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, cluster of differentiation 56 and Ki-67, and the specimen had a Ki-67 index of 80%. A diagnosis of carcinoma-like PCC or NEC of the adrenal gland was confirmed. Reports of NEC of the adrenal gland are extremely rare in the literature, and classification of PCC as a NET has not yet been fully discussed. The present case may therefore contribute to the classification of NETs in the adrenal gland. PMID:27446458

  17. Prevention of CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in adrenal gland by Digera muricata extract in rat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Younus, Tahira

    2011-10-01

    Digera muricata (L.) Mart. is a weed and commonly found in waste places, road sides and in maize fields during the summer season. It possesses antioxidant capacity and is locally used for various disorders such as inflammation, urination, as refrigerant, aperient and in sexual anomalies. In this study antioxidant potential of Digera muricata methanol extract (DMME) and n-hexane extract (DMHE) was evaluated against CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress in adrenal gland of Sprague-Dawley male rats. 42 rats were equally divided into 7 groups of 6 rats in each. Group I remained untreated, while Group II treated with vehicles. Group III received only CCl(4) (1 ml/kg b.w., 10% in olive oil) once a week for 16 weeks. Group IV and VI received DMME and DMHE at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. along with CCl(4). Animals of Group V and VII administered with DMME and DMHE alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. once a week for 16 weeks. Lipid peroxidation significantly increased while activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, GST, GSR and GSH-Px) were reduced in adrenal gland samples by the administration of CCl(4). Glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly decreased whereas DNA fragmentation% and AgNORs count was increased in adrenal gland by CCl(4) administration. Treatment of rat by both the extracts (DMME, DMHE) and CCl(4) increased the glutathione level and activities of antioxidant enzymes while reduced the lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation percent and AgNORs count in adrenal gland. These results indicate that Digera muricata extract is able to ameliorate oxidative stress in adrenal gland induced by CCl(4) in rat. PMID:21959806

  18. Incidence and Cause of Hypertension During Adrenal Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakado, Koichiro Takaki, Haruyuki; Yamada, Tomomi; Yamanaka, Takashi; Uraki, Junji; Kashima, Masataka; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takeda, Kan

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and cause of hypertension prospectively during adrenal radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods: For this study, approved by our institutional review board, written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients who received RFA for adrenal tumors (adrenal ablation) and other abdominal tumors (nonadrenal ablation) were included in this prospective study. Blood pressure was monitored during RFA. Serum adrenal hormone levels including epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and cortisol levels were measured before and during RFA. The respective incidences of procedural hypertension (systolic blood pressure >200 mmHg) of the two patient groups were compared. Factors correlating with procedural systolic blood pressure were evaluated by regression analysis.ResultsNine patients underwent adrenal RFA and another 9 patients liver (n = 5) and renal (n = 4) RFA. Asymptomatic procedural hypertension that returned to the baseline by injecting calcium blocker was found in 7 (38.9%) of 18 patients. The incidence of procedural hypertension was significantly higher in the adrenal ablation group (66.7%, 6/9) than in the nonadrenal ablation group (11.1%, 1/9, P < 0.0498). Procedural systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with serum epinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.68, P < 0.0001) and norepinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.72, P < 0.0001) levels during RFA. The other adrenal hormones did not show correlation with procedural systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Hypertension occurs frequently during adrenal RFA because of the release of catecholamine.

  19. MR imaging of the adrenal gland in Sipple disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, E.; Despres, E.; Delepine, N.; Taieb, A.

    1987-09-01

    We assessed imaging techniques (nuclear, CT, and magnetic resonance (MR)) in the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas in 10 patients with Sipple disease. Nine patients underwent surgery. Magnetic resonance detected all adrenal and ectopic lesions. Metaiodobenzylguanidine scans had two false-negative results. Computed tomography missed an ectopic lesion that was associated with bilateral medullar hypertrophy and had a false-positive result (a cortical nonhyperfunctioning adenoma). In our opinion MR may replace both CT and nuclear scans in the work up of Sipple disease.

  20. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Adrenal Gland Metastases: University of Florence Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Casamassima, Franco; Livi, Lorenzo; Masciullo, Stefano; Menichelli, Claudia; Masi, Laura; Meattini, Icro; Bonucci, Ivano; Agresti, Benedetta; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Doro, Raffaela

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a retrospective single-institution outcome after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases. Methods and Materials: Between February 2002 and December 2009, we treated 48 patients with SBRT for adrenal metastases. The median age of the patient population was 62.7 years (range, 43-77 years). In the majority of patients, the prescription dose was 36 Gy in 3 fractions (70% isodose, 17.14 Gy per fraction at the isocenter). Eight patients were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery and forty patients with multi-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy. Results: Overall, the series of patients was followed up for a median of 16.2 months (range, 3-63 months). At the time of analysis, 20 patients were alive and 28 patients were dead. The 1- and 2-year actuarial overall survival rates were 39.7% and 14.5%, respectively. We recorded 48 distant failures and 2 local failures, with a median interval to local failure of 4.9 months. The actuarial 1-year disease control rate was 9%; the actuarial 1- and 2-year local control rate was 90%. Conclusion: Our retrospective study indicated that SBRT for the treatment of adrenal metastases represents a safe and effective option with a control rate of 90% at 2 years.

  1. Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Faa, Armando; Faa, Gavino; Papalois, Apostolos; Obinu, Eleonora; Locci, Giorgia; Pais, Maria Elena; Lelovas, Pavlos; Barouxis, Dimitrios; Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Vasileiou, Panagiotis V; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO) and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland. PMID:27504455

  2. Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Faa, Gavino; Papalois, Apostolos; Obinu, Eleonora; Locci, Giorgia; Pais, Maria Elena; Lelovas, Pavlos; Barouxis, Dimitrios; Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Vasileiou, Panagiotis V.; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO) and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland. PMID:27504455

  3. Ultrasonographical examination of feline adrenal glands: intra- and inter-observer variability.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Stock, Emmelie; Van der Vekens, Elke; Duchateau, Luc; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2014-12-01

    Interpretation of ultrasonographical measurements requires an understanding of the source and the magnitude of variation. A substantial part of the variation can be attributed to the observer, the equipment or the animal. The aim of this study was to evaluate which adrenal gland measurement is the least variable within and between observers. Three experienced ultrasonographers examined six cats at three different times on the same day, more than 1 h apart, according to a strict scanning protocol. Seven ultrasonographical measurements were performed on each adrenal gland (maximal length on sagittal images, maximal height at the cranial and caudal poles on sagittal and transverse images, and maximal width of the cranial and caudal poles on transverse images). Height measurements in both planes showed the lowest variability within and between observers compared with length and width measurements. Descriptive ultrasonographical features, such as echogenicity of the gland, presence of hyperechoic spots or layering assessment, demonstrated satisfactory-to-good intra- and inter-observer agreement, whereas the shape assessment showed very poor inter-observer agreement. The results of this study describe a reliable scanning protocol that can be the basis for future adrenal ultrasonographical examinations for cats suspected of adrenal disease (eg, hyperaldosteronism, hyperadrenocorticism, sex hormone-producing tumours). PMID:24518254

  4. The effects of sustained delivery of diosgenin on the adrenal gland of female rats.

    PubMed

    Benghuzzi, Hamed; Tucci, Michelle; Eckie, Rebecca; Hughes, James

    2003-01-01

    Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin, which is extracted from the root of Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa). It has been reported to have tremendous medical applications. In addition, as an herbal extract it appears to be free of any major adverse effects. Recently, Wild Yam has been used to minimize post-menopausal symptoms and is sold unregulated over the counter at a variety of pharmacy and health food stores. The specific objectives of this study were to continuously deliver diosgenin to adult ovariectomized female rats for 45 days and follow changes in body weight, organ weight and histopathological changes in the adrenal gland. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups (n = 54, 250-300 gm BW). Rats in group I served as the control group, animals in group II were ovariectomized and animals in group II were ovariectomized, and supplemented with tricalcium phosphate (TCP) drug delivery system loaded with 500 mg diosgenin. The results indicated that ovariectomized animals had a significant increase in body weight and spleen weights. Slight increases in wet adrenal weights were observed in the ovariectomized group compared to the control animals. Histopathological evaluation of the adrenal gland revealed an increase in the cortical and medullary adrenal areas of the ovariectomized group and a significant decrease in these areas in the diosgenin treated animals (p < 0.001). The information is considered important because reduction in adrenal mass may poses a potential for major endocrine complications. PMID:12724916

  5. How Is Adrenal Surgery Performed?

    MedlinePlus

    HOME ADRENAL GLANDS Background Where are the adrenal glands? What do the adrenal glands do? Is this adrenal tumor a genetic problem? Primary hyperaldosteronism (aldosterone-producing tumor) What is primary hyperaldosteronism? Signs ...

  6. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to ... less urine Oxytocin – initiates labor, uterine contractions and milk ejection in mothers

  7. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Casadei, Gian Piero; Bertarelli, Claudia; Giorgini, Eleonora; Cremonini, Nadia; de Biase, Dario; Tallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features. PMID:24997195

  8. Life-Threatening Complication During Percutaneous Ablation of Adrenal Gland Metastasis: Takotsubo Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia Buy, Xavier; Zickler, Pierre; Zupan, Michel Douchet, Marie-Pierre; Gangi, Afshin

    2010-06-15

    A rare life-threatening complication during percutaneous cryoablation of an adrenal gland metastasis from a lung carcinoma is reported. The patient presented hypertensive crisis at the beginning of the thawing cycle, followed by electrocardiographic change which necessitated interruption of the procedure and his transfer to the intensive care unit with suspicion of heart infarct. There was a slight increase in cardiac enzyme levels, and ventricular angiography demonstrated transient hypokinesis-dyskinesis of the mid left ventricular segments without apical involvement, while the coronary arteries showed no significant stenosis on coronarography. These findings led to the diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy left ventricular dysfunction syndrome. This is the first case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy occurring as a complication during percutaneous ablation of an adrenal gland tumor.

  9. Generation of Murine Sympathoadrenergic Progenitor-Like Cells from Embryonic Stem Cells and Postnatal Adrenal Glands

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shobhit; Wahl, Joachim; Huber-Lang, Markus S.; Stadel, Dominic; Braubach, Peter; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Beltinger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Sympathoadrenergic progenitor cells (SAPs) of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are important for normal development of the sympathetic PNS and for the genesis of neuroblastoma, the most common and often lethal extracranial solid tumor in childhood. However, it remains difficult to isolate sufficient numbers of SAPs for investigations. We therefore set out to improve generation of SAPs by using two complementary approaches, differentiation from murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolation from postnatal murine adrenal glands. We provide evidence that selecting for GD2 expression enriches for ESC-derived SAP-like cells and that proliferating SAP-like cells can be isolated from postnatal adrenal glands of mice. These advances may facilitate investigations about the development and malignant transformation of the sympathetic PNS. PMID:23675538

  10. Changes in estrogen receptor ERalpha and ERbeta expression in chicken (Gallus domesticus) adrenal gland during short-fasting and refeeding.

    PubMed

    Błachuta, Małgorzata; Wrońska-Fortuna, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen receptors have been found in the adrenal gland of rodents, monkeys, mares and sheep, indicating a connection between sex steroids and the activity of the adrenal gland. In the present study, the expression of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) in the chicken adrenal gland during stress induced by 24 h fasting and after refeeding was determined using reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The presence of both ER mRNAs in the adrenal gland of all examined groups was found. The relative expression of ERalpha mRNA was higher than ERbeta mRNA. There were no significant differences in ERalpha mRNA expression among the examined groups. On the contrary, we observed changes in ERbeta expression during stress conditions. These findings indicate different pathways of estrogen action in the avian adrenal gland. Furthermore, changes in ERbeta level suggest that this form of estrogen receptor plays a predominant role for estrogen action in the chicken adrenal gland during stress. PMID:23342917

  11. Effect of glucocorticoid administration on adrenal gland size and sonographic appearance in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Pey, Pascaline; Daminet, Sylvie; Smets, Pascale M Y; Duchateau, Luc; Travetti, Olga; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of glucocorticoids on the adrenal gland using ultrasonography. Eleven healthy beagles were used in a prospective placebo-controlled study. All dogs received hydrocortisone at 10 mg/kg twice a day per os for 4 months or a gelatin capsule twice a day per os as a placebo. Clinical and endocrinologic examination of the dogs and ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal echogenicity, shape, and measurement of the length and height of the cranial and caudal pole were performed at baseline (TO), at 1 (T1) and 4 months (T4) after the beginning of treatment, and 2 months after the end of the treatment including 1 month of tapering and 1 month without treatment (T6). The dogs were assigned randomly to the glucocorticoid (n = 6) and placebo groups (n = 5). At T1, the difference between the two groups for the height of the cranial and caudal pole was not ultrasonographically remarkable despite a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0165 and P = 0.0206). Decreased height and length of entire gland were observed at T4 (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0015, and P = 0.0035, respectively). Percentages of atrophy were variable between dogs. Both adrenal glands regained normal size and shape 1 month after cessation of glucocorticoid administration. As not all dogs developed marked adrenal gland atrophy and the degree of atrophy varied widely between individuals, ultrasonography cannot be the technique of choice to detect iatrogenic hypercortisolism. Ultrasonographic changes are reversible within 1 month after the end of glucocorticoid administration. PMID:22092685

  12. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Overview What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia? Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or CAH, is a disorder that affects the adrenal glands. The adrenal ...

  13. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in tumors originating from the adrenal gland and extra-adrenal paraganglia.

    PubMed

    Papathomas, Thomas G; Oudijk, Lindsey; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; Post, Edward; Duijkers, Floor A; van Noesel, Max M; Hofland, Leo J; Pollard, Patrick J; Maher, Eamonn R; Restuccia, David F; Feelders, Richard A; Franssen, Gaston J H; Timmers, Henri J; Sleijfer, Stefan; de Herder, Wouter W; de Krijger, Ronald R; Dinjens, Winand N M; Korpershoek, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Hotspot mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene have been recently reported in human cancers and proposed as a novel mechanism of telomerase activation. To explore TERT promoter mutations in tumors originating from the adrenal gland and extra-adrenal paraganglia, a set of 253 tumors (38 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), 127 pheochromocytomas (PCCs), 18 extra-adrenal paragangliomas (ea PGLs), 37 head and neck PGLs (HN PGLs), and 33 peripheral neuroblastic tumors) was selected along with 16 human neuroblastoma (NBL) and two ACC cell lines to assess TERT promoter mutations by the Sanger sequencing method. All mutations detected were confirmed by a SNaPshot assay. Additionally, 36 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) were added to explore an association between TERT promoter mutations and SDH deficiency. TERT promoter mutations were found in seven out of 289 tumors and in three out of 18 human cell lines; four C228T mutations in 38 ACCs (10.5%), two C228T mutations in 18 ea PGLs (11.1%), one C250T mutation in 36 GISTs (2.8%), and three C228T mutations in 16 human NBL cell lines (18.75%). No mutation was detected in PCCs, HN PGLs, neuroblastic tumors as well as ACC cell lines. TERT promoter mutations preferentially occurred in a SDH-deficient setting (P=0.01) being present in three out of 47 (6.4%) SDH-deficient tumors vs zero out of 171 (0%) SDH-intact tumors. We conclude that TERT promoter mutations occur in ACCs and ea PGLs. In addition, preliminary evidence indicates a potential association with the acquisition of TERT promoter mutations in SDH-deficient tumors. PMID:24951106

  14. Rhythmic expression of functional MT1 melatonin receptors in the rat adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hans G; Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Garcia-Sesnich, Jocelyn; Abarzua-Catalan, Lorena; Henriquez, Mauricio G; Alvarez-Felmer, Mauro; Gaete, Fernando; Rehren, German E; Seron-Ferre, Maria

    2008-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that melatonin is involved in the regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid production in diurnal primates through activation of MT1 membrane-bound melatonin receptors. However, whether melatonin has a similar role in nocturnal rodents remains unclear. Using an integrative approach, here we show that the adult rat adrenal gland expresses a functional MT1 melatonin receptor in a rhythmic fashion. We found that: 1) expression of the cognate mRNA encoding for the MT1 membrane-bound melatonin receptor, displaying higher levels in the day/night transition (1800-2200 h); 2) expression of the predicted 37-kDa MT1 polypeptide in immunoblots from adrenals collected at 2200 h but not 1000 h; 3) no expression of the MT2 melatonin receptor mRNA and protein; 4) specific high-affinity 2-[(125)I]iodomelatonin binding in membrane fractions and frozen sections from adrenals collected at 2200 h but not 0800 h (dissociation constant = 14.22 +/- 1.23 pm; maximal binding capacity = 0.88 +/- 0.02 fmol/mg protein); and 5) in vitro clock time-dependent inhibition of ACTH-stimulated corticosterone production by 1-100 nm melatonin, which was reversed by 1 microm luzindole (a melatonin membrane receptor antagonist). Our findings indicate not only expression but also high amplitude diurnal variation of functional MT1 melatonin receptors in the rat adrenal gland. It is conceivable that plasma melatonin may play a role to fine-tune corticosterone production in nocturnal rodents, probably contributing to the down slope of the corticosterone rhythm. PMID:18039783

  15. Ontogeny and regulation of the AT1 and AT2 receptors in the ovine fetal adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Wintour, E M; Moritz, K; Butkus, A; Baird, R; Albiston, A; Tenis, N

    1999-11-25

    The expression and regulation of the receptors for angiotensin II (both AT1 and AT2) were examined in the ovine fetal adrenal gland by RNase protection assay (RPA), in situ hybridisation histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both mRNA and protein for the AT1 receptor were present in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata of the cortex, but not in the medulla, from as early as these zonas were distinguishable (60 days of gestation; term is 145-150 days), and even present in the steroidogenic cells of the unzoned gland at 40 days. The mRNA for the AT2 receptor was present in the same locations (but never in the medulla) from 40-130 days, and declined to extremely low levels after 140 days. The infusion of ang II, 1 microg/h, for 3 days, at mid-gestation (76 +/- 2 days) caused a significant decrease in mRNA for AT1 but no change in AT2 levels. Thus, the biologically active receptor (in terms of aldosterone stimulation) is present in the ovine fetal adrenal from very early in development, and can be down-regulated by mid-gestation. PMID:10619407

  16. [Uptake of 123I-MIBG in a hepatic hemangioma in the scintigraphic study of an adrenal gland lesion].

    PubMed

    Sampol Bas, C; Peña Viloria, C

    2005-01-01

    A 60 year old symptom free female in whom a lesion in left adrenal gland was found by chance in a CT scan is presented. She also had increased serum and urine catecholamines levels. 123I-MIBG scintigraphy showed a non-physiological uptake in right adrenal gland that is still seen in the delayed image, with normal left gland. MRI confirmed the presence of a mass in the left adrenal gland suggestive of an adenoma and found a lesion in the right hepatic area at the level of the previously seen MIBG image. This lesion was labelled as a hemangioma and would explain the findings of the isotopic study with MIBG. It must be considered as a false positive for phaechromocytoma. The increased catecholamine serum and urine levels were due to drug interactions. PMID:15847786

  17. Primary adrenal insufficiency caused by a novel mutation in DAX1 gene.

    PubMed

    Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Dokurel, İpek; Bucak, Feride; Özcabı, Bahar; Ercan, Özcabı; Ceylaner, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) is a rare disorder. The X-linked form is related to mutations in the DAX1 (NROB1) gene. Here, we report a newborn who had a novel hemizygous frameshift mutation in DAX1(c.543delA) and presented with primary adrenal failure that was initially misdiagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia. This report highlights the value of genetic testing for definite diagnosis in children with primary adrenal failure due to abnormal adrenal gland development, providing the possibility both for presymptomatic, and in cases with a sibling with this condition, for prenatal diagnosis. PMID:23367499

  18. Mechanisms Mediating Environmental Chemical-Induced Endocrine Disruption in the Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to hundreds of man-made chemicals that pollute the environment in addition to multiple therapeutic drug treatments administered throughout life. Some of these chemicals, known as endocrine disruptors (EDs), mimic endogenous signals, thereby altering gene expression, influencing development, and promoting disease. Although EDs are eventually removed from the market or replaced with safer alternatives, new evidence suggests that early-life exposure leaves a fingerprint on the epigenome, which may increase the risk of disease later in life. Epigenetic changes occurring in early life in response to environmental toxicants have been shown to affect behavior, increase cancer risk, and modify the physiology of the cardiovascular system. Thus, exposure to an ED or combination of EDs may represent a first hit to the epigenome. Only limited information is available regarding the effect of ED exposure on adrenal function. The adrenal gland controls the stress response, blood pressure, and electrolyte homeostasis. This endocrine organ therefore has an important role in physiology and is a sensitive target of EDs. We review herein the effect of ED exposure on the adrenal gland with particular focus on in utero exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylehyl) phthalate. We discuss the challenges associated with identifying the mechanism mediating the epigenetic origins of disease and availability of biomarkers that may identify individual or population risks. PMID:25788893

  19. Cell-To-Cell Communication in Bilateral Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia Causing Hypercortisolism

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Hervé; Duparc, Céline; Prévost, Gaëtan; Bertherat, Jérôme; Louiset, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that, in the human adrenal gland, cortisol secretion is not only controlled by circulating corticotropin but is also influenced by a wide variety of bioactive signals, including conventional neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, released within the cortex by various cell types such as chromaffin cells, neurons, cells of the immune system, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. These different types of cells are present in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH), a rare etiology of primary adrenal Cushing’s syndrome, where they appear intermingled with adrenocortical cells in the hyperplastic cortex. In addition, the genetic events, which cause the disease, favor abnormal adrenal differentiation that results in illicit expression of paracrine regulatory factors and their receptors in adrenocortical cells. All these defects constitute the molecular basis for aberrant autocrine/paracrine regulatory mechanisms, which are likely to play a role in the pathophysiology of BMAH-associated hypercortisolism. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this topic as well as the therapeutic perspectives offered by this new pathophysiological concept. PMID:25941513

  20. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands of male rats with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, I; Piotrowska, Ż; Knaś, M; Lewandowska, A

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal activity is stimulated and secretion of stress hormones is increased during advanced stages of renovascular hypertension. The literature suggests that the neuropeptide, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), might regulate adrenal secretory function and thus could influence its activity. We assessed potential quantitative and qualitative changes in the cells that contained CART in the adrenal glands of rats with renovascular hypertension. The renal arteries of ten rats were subjected to a clipping procedure, i.e., two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model of arterial hypertension, and after 6 weeks each rat developed stable hypertension. CART was localized using immunohistochemistry. CART was detected in a large population of cells in the medulla, sparse nerve fibers in the cortex and the capsule of the adrenal gland. The population of CART-positive cells in adrenal glands of two kidney-one clip (2K1C) treated rats was greater and their immunoreactivity was increased compared to controls. Similarly, the length, width, area and diameter of CART-immunoreactive cells were significantly greater in the hypertensive rats than in controls. We demonstrated that renovascular hypertension alters the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands. PMID:25151991

  1. Sex-specific prenatal stress effects on the rat reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Cheryl J; George, Susan O; Hogg, Charis O; Lai, Yu-Ting; Brunton, Paula J

    2016-06-01

    Social stress during pregnancy has profound effects on offspring physiology. This study examined whether an ethologically relevant social stress during late pregnancy in rats alters the reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure in post-pubertal male and female offspring. Prenatally stressed (PNS) pregnant rats (n=9) were exposed to an unfamiliar lactating rat for 10 min/day from day 16 to 20 of pregnancy inclusive, whereas control pregnant rats (n=9) remained in their home cages. Gonads, adrenal glands and blood samples were obtained from one female and one male from each litter at 11 to 12-weeks of age. Anogenital distance was measured. There was no treatment effect on body, adrenal or gonad weight at 11-12 weeks. PNS did not affect the number of primordial, secondary or tertiary ovarian follicles, numbers of corpora lutea or ovarian FSH receptor expression. There was an indication that PNS females had more primary follicles and greater ovarian aromatase expression compared with control females (both P=0.09). PNS males had longer anogenital distances (0.01±0.0 cm/g vs 0.008±0.00 cm/g; P=0.007) and higher plasma FSH concentrations (0.05 ng/mL vs 0.006 ng/mL; s.e.d.=0.023; P=0.043) compared with control males. There were no treatment effects on the number of Sertoli cells or seminiferous tubules, seminiferous tubule area, plasma testosterone concentration or testis expression of aromatase, FSH receptor or androgen receptor. PNS did not affect adrenal size. These data suggest that the developing male reproductive axis is more sensitive to maternal stress and that PNS may enhance aspects of male reproductive development. PMID:27026714

  2. Atrial natriuretic factor receptors in rat kidney, adrenal gland, and brain: Autoradiographic localization and fluid balance dependent changes

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, David R.; Braas, Karen M.; Snyder, Soloman H.

    1986-01-01

    Mammalian atria contain natriuretic peptides designated atrial natriuretic factors (ANF). Using in vitro autoradiography with 125I-labeled ANF, we have localized high-affinity (Kd = 150 pM) ANF binding sites to the glomeruli of the kidney, zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland, and choroid plexus of the brain. The numbers of sites in both kidney and adrenal are increased in rats deprived of water; increases are detectable within 72 hr of water deprivation in the kidney and within 24 hr in the adrenal gland. Receptor numbers decline in rats given 2.0% NaCl as drinking water and in diabetic rats. The discrete localizations and dynamic alterations of these receptors suggest that ANF regulates fluid balance through diverse but coordinated effects on receptors in numerous organs including the kidney, adrenal, and brain. Images PMID:3010291

  3. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Litz, Jenny; Kinsel, Michael; Terio, Karen; Saliki, Jeremiah; Fire, Spencer; Carmichael, Ruth; Chevis, Connie; Hatchett, Wendy; Pitchford, Jonathan; Tumlin, Mandy; Field, Cara; Smith, Suzanne; Ewing, Ruth; Fauquier, Deborah; Lovewell, Gretchen; Whitehead, Heidi; Rotstein, David; McFee, Wayne; Fougeres, Erin; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) cetacean unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay), Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003) and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003). In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths. PMID:25992681

  4. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Colegrove, Kathleen M.; Litz, Jenny; Kinsel, Michael; Terio, Karen; Saliki, Jeremiah; Fire, Spencer; Carmichael, Ruth; Chevis, Connie; Hatchett, Wendy; Pitchford, Jonathan; Tumlin, Mandy; Field, Cara; Smith, Suzanne; Ewing, Ruth; Fauquier, Deborah; Lovewell, Gretchen; Whitehead, Heidi; Rotstein, David; McFee, Wayne; Fougeres, Erin; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) cetacean unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay), Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003) and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003). In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths. PMID:25992681

  5. Aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations are common in normal adrenal glands

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Koshiro; Tomlins, Scott A.; Kuick, Rork; Cani, Andi K.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Hovelson, Daniel H.; Liu, Chia-Jen; Sanjanwala, Aalok R.; Edwards, Michael A.; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.; Nanba, Kazutaka; Rainey, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) represents the most common cause of secondary hypertension, but little is known regarding its adrenal cellular origins. Recently, aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) with high expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) were found in both normal and PA adrenal tissue. PA-causing aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) harbor mutations in genes encoding ion channels/pumps that alter intracellular calcium homeostasis and cause renin-independent aldosterone production through increased CYP11B2 expression. Herein, we hypothesized that APCCs have APA-related aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations. APCCs were studied in 42 normal adrenals from kidney donors. To clarify APCC molecular characteristics, we used microarrays to compare the APCC transcriptome with conventional adrenocortical zones [zona glomerulosa (ZG), zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis]. The APCC transcriptome was most similar to ZG but with an enhanced capacity to produce aldosterone. To determine if APCCs harbored APA-related mutations, we performed targeted next generation sequencing of DNA from 23 APCCs and adjacent normal adrenal tissue isolated from both formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and frozen tissues. Known aldosterone driver mutations were identified in 8 of 23 (35%) APCCs, including mutations in calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L-type, α1D-subunit (CACNA1D; 6 of 23 APCCs) and ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, α1-polypeptide (ATP1A1; 2 of 23 APCCs), which were not observed in the adjacent normal adrenal tissue. Overall, we show three major findings: (i) APCCs are common in normal adrenals, (ii) APCCs harbor somatic mutations known to cause excess aldosterone production, and (iii) the mutation spectrum of aldosterone-driving mutations is different in APCCs from that seen in APA. These results provide molecular support for APCC as a precursor of PA. PMID:26240369

  6. Aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations are common in normal adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Koshiro; Tomlins, Scott A; Kuick, Rork; Cani, Andi K; Giordano, Thomas J; Hovelson, Daniel H; Liu, Chia-Jen; Sanjanwala, Aalok R; Edwards, Michael A; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Nanba, Kazutaka; Rainey, William E

    2015-08-18

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) represents the most common cause of secondary hypertension, but little is known regarding its adrenal cellular origins. Recently, aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) with high expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) were found in both normal and PA adrenal tissue. PA-causing aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) harbor mutations in genes encoding ion channels/pumps that alter intracellular calcium homeostasis and cause renin-independent aldosterone production through increased CYP11B2 expression. Herein, we hypothesized that APCCs have APA-related aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations. APCCs were studied in 42 normal adrenals from kidney donors. To clarify APCC molecular characteristics, we used microarrays to compare the APCC transcriptome with conventional adrenocortical zones [zona glomerulosa (ZG), zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis]. The APCC transcriptome was most similar to ZG but with an enhanced capacity to produce aldosterone. To determine if APCCs harbored APA-related mutations, we performed targeted next generation sequencing of DNA from 23 APCCs and adjacent normal adrenal tissue isolated from both formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and frozen tissues. Known aldosterone driver mutations were identified in 8 of 23 (35%) APCCs, including mutations in calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L-type, α1D-subunit (CACNA1D; 6 of 23 APCCs) and ATPase, Na(+)/(K+) transporting, α1-polypeptide (ATP1A1; 2 of 23 APCCs), which were not observed in the adjacent normal adrenal tissue. Overall, we show three major findings: (i) APCCs are common in normal adrenals, (ii) APCCs harbor somatic mutations known to cause excess aldosterone production, and (iii) the mutation spectrum of aldosterone-driving mutations is different in APCCs from that seen in APA. These results provide molecular support for APCC as a precursor of PA. PMID:26240369

  7. Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency: An Overlooked Cause of Hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Jessani, Naureen; Jehangir, Waqas; Behman, Daisy; Yousif, Abdalla; Spiler, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to thrive in an elderly patient is often attributed to depression, especially when a patient does not have any chronic diseases or if there is no apparent medical reason to justify poor appetite, cachexia and generalized weakness. Hyponatremia often occurs in such patients and a thorough evaluation as to its etiology should be sought before committing to a premature diagnosis, which at the time may seem more plausible. We report a patient who presented with depression, weight loss and persistent hyponatremia, evaluation of which revealed the cause to be due to secondary adrenal insufficiency, which when treated, resulted in resolution of the symptom complex. Therefore, in our case report, we elucidate the importance of pursuing further evaluation to rule out adrenal insufficiency as a medical cause of depression, especially in the presence of hyponatremia, which is often overlooked and is generally attributed to dehydration in the setting of failure to thrive or SIADH in patients who are on psychotropic medications. PMID:25699130

  8. Secondary adrenal insufficiency: an overlooked cause of hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Jessani, Naureen; Jehangir, Waqas; Behman, Daisy; Yousif, Abdalla; Spiler, Ira J

    2015-04-01

    Failure to thrive in an elderly patient is often attributed to depression, especially when a patient does not have any chronic diseases or if there is no apparent medical reason to justify poor appetite, cachexia and generalized weakness. Hyponatremia often occurs in such patients and a thorough evaluation as to its etiology should be sought before committing to a premature diagnosis, which at the time may seem more plausible. We report a patient who presented with depression, weight loss and persistent hyponatremia, evaluation of which revealed the cause to be due to secondary adrenal insufficiency, which when treated, resulted in resolution of the symptom complex. Therefore, in our case report, we elucidate the importance of pursuing further evaluation to rule out adrenal insufficiency as a medical cause of depression, especially in the presence of hyponatremia, which is often overlooked and is generally attributed to dehydration in the setting of failure to thrive or SIADH in patients who are on psychotropic medications. PMID:25699130

  9. Long-term follow-up of the percutaneous treatment of hydatid cyst in the adrenal gland: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akhan, Okan; Canyigit, Murat; Kaya, Diana; Koksal, Ali; Akgoz, Ayca; Yucesoy, Cuneyt; Akinci, Devrim

    2011-02-01

    Although the most involved organs are liver and lung, hydatid cysts occur in adrenal glands, rarely, and constitute only 0.5% of hydatid cysts. Herein, we demonstrate and discuss, for the first time in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the radiological features of adrenal hydatid disease and evaluate the long-term results (57 months of follow-up) of the percutaneous treatment of hydatid cyst in the adrenal gland in a patient. PMID:19669833

  10. Long-Term Follow-Up of the Percutaneous Treatment of Hydatid Cyst in the Adrenal Gland: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Akhan, Okan; Canyigit, Murat; Kaya, Diana; Koksal, Ali; Akgoz, Ayca; Yucesoy, Cuneyt; Akinci, Devrim

    2011-02-15

    Although the most involved organs are liver and lung, hydatid cysts occur in adrenal glands, rarely, and constitute only 0.5% of hydatid cysts. Herein, we demonstrate and discuss, for the first time in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the radiological features of adrenal hydatid disease and evaluate the long-term results (57 months of follow-up) of the percutaneous treatment of hydatid cyst in the adrenal gland in a patient.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands on top of each kidney called the adrenal glands . These glands produce a variety of hormones that ... disorder is adrenal insufficiency, which occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones. Adrenal insufficiency typically ...

  12. Irradiation with X-rays phase-advances the molecular clockwork in liver, adrenal gland and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mareike Hildegard; Rödel, Franz; Rüb, Udo; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-02-01

    The circadian clock of man and mammals shows a hierarchic organization. The master clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), controls peripheral oscillators distributed throughout the body. Rhythm generation depends on molecular clockworks based on transcriptional/translational interaction of clock genes. Numerous studies have shown that the clockwork in peripheral oscillators is capable to maintain circadian rhythms for several cycles in vitro, i.e. in the absence of signals from the SCN. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effects of irradiation with X-rays on the clockwork of liver, adrenal and pancreas. To this end organotypic slice cultures of liver (OLSC) and organotypic explant cultures of adrenal glands (OAEC) and pancreas (OPEC) were prepared from transgenic mPer2(luc) mice which express luciferase under the control of the promoter of an important clock gene, Per2, and allow to study the dynamics of the molecular clockwork by bioluminometry. The preparations were cultured in a membrane-based liquid-air interface culturing system and irradiated with X-rays at doses of 10 Gy and 50 Gy or left untreated. Bioluminometric real-time recordings show a stable oscillation of all OLSC, OAEC and OPEC for up to 12 days in vitro. Oscillations persist after irradiation with X-rays. However, a dose of 50 Gy caused a phase advance in the rhythm of the OLSC by 5 h, in the OPEC by 7 h and in the OAEC by 6 h. Our study shows that X-rays affect the molecular clockwork in liver, pancreas and adrenal leading to phase advances. Our results confirm and extend previous studies showing a phase-advancing effect of X-rays at the level of the whole animal and single cells. PMID:25140390

  13. The Adrenal Gland Volume Measurements in Manifestation of the Metabolic Status in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Serifoglu, Ismail; Oz, Ibrahim Ilker; Bilici, Muammer

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of our study was to investigate the differences in adrenal gland volume between nondiabetic controls and Type-2 diabetic patients and to examine the influence of glycemic control in diabetes mellitus on adrenal gland volume. Methods. From March 2 to November 25, 2015, 62 consecutive patients with Type-2 DM along with 62 nondiabetics matched by age, gender, and BMI were enrolled in this prospective study. Our diabetes patients were categorized into two groups, well-controlled and poorly controlled diabetes groups. Adrenal volumetric measurements were performed by two radiologists, prospectively and independently, with semiautomatic software. Interobserver reliability was studied using the interobserver correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. The total adrenal volume (TAV) was significantly higher in Type-2 diabetic patients when compared with nondiabetic patients (p < 0.05). When we investigated diabetic patients according to glycemic controls, the TAVs in controlled diabetic patients were significantly higher than in those of the poorly controlled or uncontrolled diabetic patients (p < 0.05). Nondiabetic control patients have significantly smaller TAVs when compared to controlled and poorly or noncontrolled diabetic patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Our study suggests that adrenal gland volume measurement may be used as an indirect marker of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. PMID:27563309

  14. The Adrenal Gland Volume Measurements in Manifestation of the Metabolic Status in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of our study was to investigate the differences in adrenal gland volume between nondiabetic controls and Type-2 diabetic patients and to examine the influence of glycemic control in diabetes mellitus on adrenal gland volume. Methods. From March 2 to November 25, 2015, 62 consecutive patients with Type-2 DM along with 62 nondiabetics matched by age, gender, and BMI were enrolled in this prospective study. Our diabetes patients were categorized into two groups, well-controlled and poorly controlled diabetes groups. Adrenal volumetric measurements were performed by two radiologists, prospectively and independently, with semiautomatic software. Interobserver reliability was studied using the interobserver correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. The total adrenal volume (TAV) was significantly higher in Type-2 diabetic patients when compared with nondiabetic patients (p < 0.05). When we investigated diabetic patients according to glycemic controls, the TAVs in controlled diabetic patients were significantly higher than in those of the poorly controlled or uncontrolled diabetic patients (p < 0.05). Nondiabetic control patients have significantly smaller TAVs when compared to controlled and poorly or noncontrolled diabetic patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Our study suggests that adrenal gland volume measurement may be used as an indirect marker of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. PMID:27563309

  15. Imaging of adrenal and renal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Nancy A; Lostumbo, Antonella; Adam, Sharon Z; Remer, Erick M; Nikolaidis, Paul; Yaghmai, Vahid; Berggruen, Senta M; Miller, Frank H

    2015-10-01

    Hemorrhage of the kidneys and adrenal glands has many etiologies. In the adrenal glands, trauma, anticoagulation, stress, sepsis, surgery, and neoplasms are common causes of hemorrhage. In the kidneys, reasons for hemorrhage include trauma, bleeding diathesis, vascular diseases, infection, infarction, hemorrhagic cyst rupture, the Antopol-Goldman lesion, and neoplasms. Angiomyolipoma and renal cell carcinoma are the neoplasms most commonly associated with hemorrhage in the kidneys and adrenal cortical carcinoma, metastases, and pheochromocytoma are associated with hemorrhage in the adrenal glands. Understanding the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features, and causes of hemorrhage in the kidneys and adrenal glands is critical. It is also important to keep in mind that mimickers of hemorrhage exist, including lymphoma in both the kidneys and adrenal glands, and melanoma metastases in the adrenal glands. Appropriate imaging follow-up of renal and adrenal hemorrhage should occur to exclude an underlying malignancy as the cause. If there is suspicion for malignancy that cannot be definitively diagnosed on imaging, surgery or biopsy may be warranted. Angiography may be indicated when there is a suspected underlying vascular disease. Unnecessary intervention, such as nephrectomy, may be avoided in patients with benign causes or no underlying disease. Appropriate management is dependent on accurate diagnosis of the cause of renal or adrenal hemorrhage and it is incumbent upon the radiologist to determine the etiology. PMID:26036792

  16. Effect of the growth hormone-secreting tumor StW5 on pituitary and adrenal gland function in rats.

    PubMed

    Coyne, M D; Alpert, L C; Harter, K C; Nunez, A

    1981-01-01

    A growth hormone-secreting tumor (StW5 was implanted into male rats and resulted in a tripling of adrenal weight concomitant with a 30% decrement in pituitary weight. Plasma concentrations of corticosterone in tumor-bearing (TB) rats were significantly elevated at rest or after ACTH injections or the stress of either anesthesia. The rise in plasma concentrations of corticosterone was due mainly to the large increment in adrenal size although a significant increase in adrenal responsiveness to ACTH was demonstrated in vitro. In addition, plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher in TB rats despite both a doubling of the blood volume and a 50% increase in liver capacity to metabolize corticosterone. Pituitary ACTH content was significantly lower in TB rats, but these pituitary glands could still release near-normal quantities of ACTH as shown both by in vitro incubations and adrenal corticosterone output following ether stress. PMID:6266940

  17. Primary aldosteronism caused by unilateral adrenal hyperplasia: rethinking the accuracy of imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Yu; Shen, Sjen-Jung; Chou, Chien-Wen; Yang, Chwen-Yi; Cheng, Hon-Mei

    2006-03-01

    A rare type of aldosteronism, known as unilateral adrenal hyperplasia (UAH), is difficult to diagnose, not only because it fails to conform to the typical common subtypes, but also because imaging results are unreliable. We report 2 Taiwanese patients with UAH. Case 1 was a 44-year-old man with 2 episodes of hypokalemic paralysis. Hypertension and suppressed plasma renin activity (PRA) with elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were observed. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a right adrenal mass, but adrenal scintigraphy revealed no definite laterality. The patient underwent a laparoscopic right adrenalectomy. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia was discovered from results of the histologic analysis. Case 2 was a 33-year-old woman referred for hypokalemia, hypertension, and a left adrenal mass found on a CT scan. However, MRI revealed normal adrenal glands. The adrenal vein sampling for PAC showed overproduction of PAC from the left adrenal gland. A laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was done. Pathology results revealed micronodular cortical hyperplasia with central hemorrhage. Blood pressure, plasma potassium, aldosterone, and renin activity levels returned to normal after operation in both cases. Both patients have been well for 3 years and 16 months, respectively, after surgery. We review the literature and discuss the limitations of imaging studies. PMID:16599018

  18. The reflex release of adrenaline and noradrenaline from the adrenal glands of cats and dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, J A; Ellis, P; Ungar, A

    1980-01-01

    1. We have studied the release of noradrenaline and adrenaline from the adrenal glands of dogs and cats in response to the lowering of carotid sinus pressure (baroreceptor tests) and to the perfusion of the vascularly isolated carotid bifurcations with hypoxic blood (chemoreceptor tests). 2. In cats, the resting output of catecholamines had a ratio of noradrenaline to adrenaline of 1:1. The ratio in the incremental release during baroreceptor tests rose to 3:1, and during chemoreceptor tests it fell to 1:6. 3. In dogs, the ratio of noradrenaline to adrenaline at rest was 1:4. The ratio did not change over a wide range of outputs during baroreceptor tests, chemoreceptor tests and splanchnic nerve stimulation. 4. The release of catecholamines in response to baroreceptor tests in the cat was abolished by hexamethomium bromide at doses that did not diminish the response to chemoreceptor tests. PMID:7359443

  19. Histological structure of the adrenal gland of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Vuković, S; Lucić, H; Zivković, A; Duras Gomercić, M; Gomercić, T; Galov, A

    2010-02-01

    The structure of the adrenal gland was studied in 11 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and five striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). These species are legally protected in Croatia. All examined animals died of natural causes and were found stranded along eastern Adriatic coast. In both species the adrenal gland consists of a cortex and a medulla; the cortex is divided into three zones. Whereas in the bottlenose dolphin, there is a zona arcuata which contains columnar cells arranged in the form of arches; in the striped dolphin this zone is replaced by zona glomerulosa containing rounded clusters of polygonal cells. In both species, the zona fasciculata consists of radially oriented cords of polygonal cells, whereas in zona reticularis cells are arranged in branching and anastomosing cords. The adrenal medulla in both species contains dark, epinephrine-secreting cells and light norepinephrine-secreting cells. Epinephrine-secreting cells are localized in the outer part of the medulla, whereas norepinephrine-secreting cells are found in the inner part, arranged in clusters and surrounded by septa of thin connective tissue. The gland is surrounded by a thick connective-tissue capsule, from where thick trabeculae extend towards the interior. In the bottlenose dolphin, group of cells resembling both medullar and cortical cells can be seen within the capsule; whereas only groups of cells resembling cortical cells are found within the capsule of the striped dolphin. In the bottlenose dolphin invagination of the adrenal cortex into the medulla is obvious as well as medullary protrusions extending through cortex to the connective tissue capsule. PMID:19912161

  20. Selective accumulation of meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in steroid-synthesizing cells of the rat adrenal gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo-Benkmann, Mario; Muhm, Markus; Gahlen, Johannes; Vry, Magnus-Sebastian; Deubzer, Hedwig; Holloschi, Andreas; Haffner, Matthias; Heym, Christine; Senninger, Norbert

    1998-04-01

    Rat adrenal glands fluoresce intensely after systemic application of meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). We investigated which parts of the adrenal gland accumulate mTHPC. Furthermore we examined the time course of adrenal mTHPC-accumulation. Ten male Wistar rats each were given 0.5 or 0.7 mg mTHPC kg-1 iv. Each two animals were perfused with normal saline and Zamboni fixative 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after photosensitization. Untreated animals served as controls. Fluorescence was quantified on 20 micrometer frozen sections with CCD-camera and appropriate software. Immunohistochemistry identified specific cell types with antibodies to steroid-synthesizing enzymes. The cortex exhibited an intense fluorescence, with weaker fluorescence of corticocytes in the zona glomerulosa compared to the other zones. Besides intensely fluorescing singly lying scattered cells, the medulla showed a faint mTHPC-induced fluorescence. Immunohistochemistry revealed that intramedullary cells with intense fluorescence were corticocytes, showing a positive reaction to the 21-(beta) -hydroxylase antibody. Peak accumulation of mTHPC was always observed after 24 hours. Our results indicate for the first time that only steroid synthesizing cells of the adrenal gland exhibit an intense photosensitizer-induced fluorescence. Thus mTHPC-application is an uncomplicated method to identify steroid-synthesizing cells, possibly also in other organs.

  1. The influence of trilostane on steroid hormone metabolism in canine adrenal glands and corpora lutea-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ouschan, C; Lepschy, M; Zeugswetter, F; Möstl, E

    2012-03-01

    Trilostane is widely used to treat hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. Trilostane competitively inhibits the enzyme 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), which converts pregnenolone (P5) to progesterone (P4) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstendione (A4). Although trilostane is frequently used in dogs, the molecular mechanism underlying its effect on canine steroid hormone biosynthesis is still an enigma. Multiple enzymes of 3β-HSD have been found in humans, rats and mice and their presence might explain the contradictory results of studies on the effectiveness of trilostane. We therefore investigated the influence of trilostane on steroid hormone metabolism in dogs by means of an in vitro model. Canine adrenal glands from freshly euthanized dogs and corpora lutea (CL) were incubated with increasing doses of trilostane. Tritiated P5 or DHEA were used as substrates. The resulting radioactive metabolites were extracted, separated by thin layer chromatography and visualized by autoradiography. A wide variety of radioactive metabolites were formed in the adrenal glands and in the CL, indicating high metabolic activity in both tissues. In the adrenal cortex, trilostane influences the P5 metabolism in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while DHEA metabolism and metabolism of both hormones in the CL were unaffected. The results indicate for the first time that there might be more than one enzyme of 3β-HSD present in dogs and that trilostane selectively inhibits P5 conversion to P4 only in the adrenal gland. PMID:22113849

  2. Secretion of Catecholamines from Adrenal Gland by a Single Electrical Shock: Electrotonic Depolarization of Medullary Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakade, Arun R.; Wakade, Taruna D.

    1982-05-01

    Transmural stimulation of the isolated adrenal gland of the rat and guinea pig results in secretion of catecholamines. The secretion is due to activation of cholinergic receptors of the adrenal medulla by acetylcholine released from splanchnic nerve terminals after transmural stimulation. Our aim was to see whether the same experimental technique could be used to directly excite the adrenal medullary cell membrane by electrical stimulation and whether such stimulation would result in secretion of catecholamines. We demonstrate here that a single electrical shock to the perfused adrenal gland of the rat results in massive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. The secretion is directly related to the strength and duration of the applied stimulus over a wide range. Catecholamine secretion is unaffected by tetrodotoxin or hexamethonium/atropine but is abolished by Ca2+ lack or 3 mM Mn2+. We suggest that the adrenal medullary membrane undergoes nonpropagated electrotonic depolarization on electrical stimulation and thereby voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are opened to initiate secretion.

  3. Dietary copper can regulate the level of mRNA for dopamine B-hydroxylase in rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Sabban, E.L.; Failla, M.L.; McMahon, A.; Seidel, K.E. Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Recent studies have shown that Cu deficiency markedly alters the levels of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in several peripheral tissues of rodents. Conversion of DA to NE is mediated by dopamine B-hydroxylase (DBM). Here the authors examined the effect of dietary Cu deficiency on the levels of DA, NE and DBM mRNA in rat adrenal gland. Severe Cu deficiency was induced by feeding low Cu diet to dams beginning at 17d gestation and weaning pups to the same diet. At 7 wks of age rats fed {minus}Cu diet were characterized by depressed growth, low tissue Cu, enlarged hearts and moderate anemia. Concentrations of DA were higher in adrenals and hearts of {minus}Cu rats compared to +Cu controls. While cardiac level of NE in {minus}Cu rats were reduced to 17% that of controls, adrenal NE was unchanged by Cu deficiency. To investigate possible mechanisms responsible for the response of adrenal gland to Cu deficiency, RNA was isolated and the levels of DBH mRNA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA were analyzed by Northern blots. Steady state levels of adrenal DBH mRNA was increased 2-3 fold in {minus}Cu rats, whereas TH mRNA were unchanged by dietary Cu status. Upon feeding the {minus}Cu rats the Cu adequate diet overnight, there was a further increase in DBH mRNA and a slight elevation of TH mRNA levels. The results indicate that dietary copper can markedly affect the level of DBH mRNA in rat adrenal gland.

  4. Potentiation of K+-evoked catecholamine release in the cat adrenal gland treated with ouabain.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, A. G.; Garcia-Lopez, E.; Horga, J. F.; Kirpekar, S. M.; Montiel, C.; Sanchez-Garcia, P.

    1981-01-01

    1 A vigorous catecholamine secretory response was evoked by small increments (2-10 mM) of the extracellular concentration of K+ ([K+])o) in cat adrenal glands treated with ouabain (10(-4) M), and perfused with Krebs-bicarbonate solution at room temperature. 2 The secretory response depends on [K+]o; increments of [K+]o as small as 2 mM for 2 min evoked a clear secretory response; at 10-17.7 mM K+, the maximal secretory response was observed. In normal glands, not treated with ouabain, no increase of the rate of catecholamine output was observed by raising [K+]o up to 17.7 mM for 2 min. 3 The K+ secretory response was time-dependent, requiring at least 1 min to be initiated; on continued exposure to 10 mM [K+]o, the enhanced response remained for at least 1 h. 4 In low [Na+]o, the K+-secretory response was unchanged. However, in 0-Ca2+, high-Mg2+ solutions, or in the presence of D600, an organic Ca2+ antagonist, it was abolished. 5 The K+-induced secretory response was not altered in the presence of tetrodoxin or tetraethylammonium. 6 It is concluded that ouabain potentiated the catecholamine secretory response to raised [K+]o by increasing the amount of Ca2+ available to the secretory machinery through (a) mobilization of an enhanced pool of membrane-bound Ca2+, (b) activation of membrane Ca2+ inward current; or (c) decrease of intracellular Ca2+ buffering systems. The activation by ouabain of a membrane Na+-Ca2+ exchange system is not involved in this K+-secretory response. It is suggested that the plasma membrane ATPase enzyme system, by changing the affinity of its Ca2+ binding sites, might control the availability of this cation to the secretory machinery and, therefore, modulate catecholamine secretion in the adrenal gland. PMID:7296168

  5. Clinical study on the influence of motion and other factors on stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of adrenal gland tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingsheng; Li, Fengtong; Dong, Yang; Song, Yongchun; Yuan, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the adrenal tumor motion law and influence factors in the treatment of adrenal gland tumor and provide a reference value basis for determining the planning target volume margins for therapy. Materials and methods The subjects considered in this study were 38 adrenal tumor patients treated with CyberKnife with the placement of 45 gold fiducials. Fiducials were implanted into each adrenal tumor using β-ultrasonic guidance. Motion amplitudes of gold fiducials were measured with a Philips SLS simulator and motion data in the left–right, anterior–posterior, and cranio–caudal directions were obtained. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze influencing factors. t-Test was used for motion amplitude comparison of different tumor locations along the z-axis. Results The motion distances were 0.1–0.4 cm (0.27±0.07 cm), 0.1–0.5 cm (0.31±0.11 cm), and 0.5–1.2 cm (0.87±0.21 cm) along the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. Motion amplitude along the z-axis may be affected by tumor location, but movement along the other axes was not affected by age, height, body mass, location, and size. Conclusion The maximum motion distance was along the z-axis. Therefore, this should be the main consideration when defining the planning target volume safety margin. Due to the proximity of the liver, adrenal gland tumor motion amplitude was smaller on the right than the left. This study analyzed adrenal tumor motion amplitude data to evaluate how motion and other factors influence the treatment of adrenal tumor with a goal of providing a reference for stereotactic radiotherapy boundary determination. PMID:27486331

  6. A morphological and histological examination of the pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) and the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Clark, L S; Cowan, D F; Pfeiffer, D C

    2008-04-01

    The morphology and histology of the cetacean adrenal gland are poorly understood. Therefore, this study examined 32 pairs of adrenal glands from 18 pan-tropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) and 14 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris). In both species, the cortex was pseudolobulated and contained a typical mammalian zonation. Medullary protrusions (0-3 per section) and a medullary band were identified in both species. For S. attenuata, no statistical differences were found in the cortex to medulla (CM) ratio or the percent cross-sectional area (PCA) of the adrenal glands compared with sex or sexual maturity. The mean CM ratio for S. attenuata was 2.34 and the PCA was 64.4% cortex, 29.4% medulla and 6.2%'other'. 'Other' indicates blood vessels, connective tissue and the gland capsule itself. For S. longirostris, there was no statistical difference in the CM ratio compared with sexual maturity. However, a statistical difference was found between the CM ratio and sex, suggesting sexual dimorphism (female CM ratio = 2.46 and males = 3.21). No statistical differences were found in the PCA of S. longirostris adrenal glands by sexual maturity. However, a statistical difference was found between the PCA by sex. Female S. longirostris adrenal glands consisted of 65.0% cortex, 27.3% medulla and 7.7% 'other', whereas male adrenal glands consisted of 71.7% cortex, 22.7% medulla and 5.6% 'other'. PMID:18070242

  7. Visinin-like peptide 1 in adrenal gland of the rat. Gene expression and its hormonal control.

    PubMed

    Trejter, Marcin; Hochol, Anna; Tyczewska, Marianna; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Jopek, Karol; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K; Rucinski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    VSNL1 encodes the calcium-sensor protein visinin-like 1 and was identified previously as an upregulated gene in a sample set of aldosterone-producing adenomas. Recently, by means of microarray studies we demonstrated high expression of Vsnl1 gene in rat adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG). Only scanty data are available on the role of this gene in adrenal function as well as on regulation of its expression by factors affecting adrenal cortex structure and function. Therefore we performed relevant studies aimed at clarifying some of the above issues. By Affymetrix(®) Rat Gene 1.1 ST Array Strip, QPCR and immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that expression levels of Vsnl1 in the rat adrenal ZG are notably higher than in the fasciculata/reticularis zone. In QPCR assay this difference was approximately 10 times higher. Expression of this gene in the rat adrenal gland or adrenocortical cells was acutely down regulated by ACTH, while chronic administration of corticotrophin or dexamethasone did not change Vsnl1 mRNA levels. In enucleation-induced adrenocortical regeneration expression levels of both Vsnl1 and Cyp11b2 were notably lowered and positively correlated. Despite these findings, the physiological significance of adrenal Vsnl1 remains unclear, and requires further investigation. PMID:25451331

  8. Alpha-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (. cap alpha. -hANP) specific binding sites in bovine adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, K.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.I.; Ibayashi, H.; Matsuo, H.

    1986-06-13

    The effects of synthetic ..cap alpha..-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (..cap alpha..-hANP) on steroidogenesis in bovine adrenocortical cells in primary monolayer culture were investigated. ..cap alpha..-hANP did not inhibit basal aldosterone secretion. ..cap alpha..-hANP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of basal levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion and also of aCTH (10/sup -8/M)-stimulated increases in aldosterone, cortisol and DHEA secretion. Visualization of (/sup 125/I) ..cap alpha..-hANP binding sites in bovine adrenal gland by an in vitro autoradiographic technique demonstrated that these sites were highly localized in the adrenal cortex, especially the zona glomerulosa. These results suggest that the adrenal cortex may be a target organ for direct receptor-mediated actions of ..cap alpha..-hANP.

  9. Detection of novel CYP11A1-derived secosteroids in the human epidermis and serum and pig adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Kim, Tae-Kang; Li, Wei; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Tieu, Elaine W.; Tang, Edith K. Y.; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether novel pathways of vitamin D3 (D3) and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and previously characterized in vitro, occur in vivo, we analyzed samples of human serum and epidermis, and pig adrenals for the presence of intermediates and products of these pathways. We extracted human epidermis from 13 individuals and sera from 13 individuals and analyzed them by LC/qTOF-MS alongside the corresponding standards. Pig adrenal glands were also analyzed for these steroids and secosteroids. Epidermal, serum and adrenal samples showed the presence of D3 hydroxy-derivatives corresponding to 20(OH)D3, 22(OH)D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, 20,22(OH)2D3, 20,23(OH)2D3, 20,24(OH)2D3, 20,25(OH)2D3, 20,26(OH)2D3, 1,20,23(OH)3D3 and 17,20,23(OH)3D3, plus 1,20(OH)2D3 which was detectable only in the epidermis. Serum concentrations of 20(OH)D3 and 22(OH)D3 were only 30- and 15-fold lower than 25(OH)D3, respectively, and at levels above those required for biological activity as measured in vitro. We also detected 1,20,24(OH)3D3, 1,20,25(OH)3D3 and 1,20,26(OH)3D3 in the adrenals. Products of CYP11A1 action on 7DHC, namely 22(OH)7DHC, 20,22(OH)27DHC and 7-dehydropregnenolone were also detected in serum, epidermis and the adrenal. Thus, we have detected novel CYP11A1-derived secosteroids in the skin, serum and adrenal gland and based on their concentrations and biological activity suggest that they act as hormones in vivo. PMID:26445902

  10. Comprehensive characterization of expression patterns of protein 4.1 family members in mouse adrenal gland: implications for functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Congrong; Debnath, Gargi; Baines, Anthony J; Conboy, John G; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2010-10-01

    The members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1R, 4.1G, 4.1N, and 4.1B, are encoded by four genes, all of which undergo complex alternative splicing. It is well established that 4.1R, the prototypical member of the family, serves as an adapter that links the spectrin-actin based cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane in red cells. It is required for mechanical resilience of the membrane, and it ensures the cell surface accumulation of selected membrane proteins. However, the function of 4.1 proteins outside erythrocytes remains under-explored, especially in endocrine tissues. Transcripts of all 4.1 homologs have previously been documented to be abundantly expressed in adrenal gland. In order to begin to decipher the function of 4.1 proteins in adrenal gland, we performed a detailed characterization of the expression pattern of various 4.1 proteins and their cellular localization. We show that 4.1R (~80 and ~135 kDa) splice forms are expressed on the membrane of all cells, while a ~160 kDa 4.1G splice form is distributed in the cytoplasm and the membrane of zona glomerulosa and of medullary cells. Two 4.1N splice forms, ~135 and ~95 kDa, are present in the peri-nuclear region of both zona glomerulosa and medullary cells, while a single ~130 kDa 4.1B splice form, is detected in all layers of adrenal gland in both the cytoplasm and the membrane. The characterization of distinct splice forms of various 4.1 proteins with diverse cellular and sub-cellular localization indicates multiple functions for this family of proteins in endocrine functions of adrenal gland. PMID:20890708

  11. Sex-specific chronic stress response at the level of adrenal gland modifies sexual hormone and leptin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Balog, Marta; Miljanović, Milan; Blažetić, Senka; Labak, Irena; Ivić, Vedrana; Viljetić, Barbara; Borbely, Attila; Papp, Zoltán; Blažeković, Robert; Vari, Sandor G.; Fagyas, Miklós; Heffer, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare cardiometabolic risk-related biochemical markers and sexual hormone and leptin receptors in the adrenal gland of rat males, non-ovariectomized females (NON-OVX), and ovariectomized females (OVX) under chronic stress. Methods Forty six 16-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into male, NON-OVX, and OVX group and exposed to chronic stress or kept as controls. Weight, glucose tolerance test (GTT), serum concentration of glucose, and cholesterol were measured. Adrenal glands were collected at the age of 28 weeks and immunohistochemical staining against estrogen beta (ERβ), progesterone (PR), testosterone (AR), and leptin (Ob-R) receptors was performed. Results Body weight, GTT, serum cholesterol, and glucose changed in response to stress as expected and validated the applied stress protocol. Stressed males had significantly higher number of ERβ receptors in comparison to control group (P = 0.028). Stressed NON-OVX group had significantly decreased AR in comparison to control group (P = 0.007). The levels of PR did not change in any consistent pattern. The levels of Ob-R increased upon stress in all groups, but the significant difference was reached only in the case of stressed OVX group compared to control (P = 0.033). Conclusion Chronic stress response was sex specific. OVX females had similar biochemical parameters as males. Changes upon chronic stress in adrenal gland were related to a decrease in testosterone receptor in females and increase in estrogen receptor in males. PMID:25891869

  12. Early life stress and post-weaning high fat diet alter tyrosine hydroxylase regulation and AT1 receptor expression in the adrenal gland in a sex dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Maniam, Jayanthi; Ong, Lin Kooi; Dunkley, Peter R; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life stress induced by maternal separation or non-handling can lead to behavioural deficits in rats and that these deficits can be alleviated by providing palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). In these studies we investigated the effects of maternal separation or non-handling and HFD on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 (pSer40TH) and the expression of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein in the adrenal gland as markers of sympatho-adrenomedullary activation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to short maternal separation, S15 (15 min), prolonged maternal separation, S180 (180 min) daily from postnatal days 2-14 or were non-handled (NH) until weaning. Siblings were exposed to HFD or chow from day 21 until 19 weeks when adrenals were harvested. Maternal separation and non-handling had no effects on adrenal TH protein in both sexes. We found an effect of HFD only in the females; HFD significantly increased TH levels in NH rats and pSer40TH in S180 rats (relative to corresponding chow-fed groups), but had no effect on AT1R expression in any group. In contrast, in male rats HFD had no effect on TH protein levels, but significantly increased pSer40TH across all treatment groups. There was no effect of HFD on AT1R expression in male rats; however, maternal separation (for 15 or 180 min) caused significant increases in AT1R expression (relative to NH group regardless of diet). This is the first study to report that early life stress and diet modulate TH protein, pSer40TH and AT1R protein levels in the adrenal gland in a sex dependent manner. These results are interpreted in respect to the potential adverse effects that these changes in the adrenal gland may have in males and females in adult life. PMID:23389660

  13. Right adrenal gland neuroblastoma infiltrating the liver and mimicking mesenchymal hamartoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Abo-Elenain, Ahmed; Naiem, Yousif; Hamedhosam-eldin@hotmail.com, Hosam; Emam, Mohamed; Elkashef, Wagdi; AbdelRafee, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid pediatric malignancy. The most common site is abdomen with predominance of suprarenal medulla. Infiltration of the tumour to the liver is rare. No cases were reported in the literature about the misdiagnosis of neuroblastoma as mesenchymal hamartoma in the liver. Presentation of case We represent a rare case of neuroblastoma misdiagnosed as mesenchymal hamartoma in liver in a six-month-old female infant presented with fever and abdominal mass. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed large cystic lesion occupying most of the right liver enchroaching upon right suprarenal region and displacing the right kidney inferior suggestive for mesenchymal hamartoma. Right adrenalectomy with en-bloc resection of the adjacent liver segments was done. Postoperative pathology revealed neuroblastoma with positive specific immunohistochemistry (IHC). Discussion Although neuroblastoma is the second most common pediatric abdominal malignancy with specific diagnostic modalities, a misdiagnosis of a case with neuroblastoma as mesenchymal hamartoma is rare. Histopathological diagnosis of neuroblastoma with positive IHC is essential as shown in our case. Conclusion We represent a rare case of neuroblastoma which arose from the right adrenal gland and infiltrated the adjacent liver substance mimicking mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver. Neuroblastoma is rarely presented with pyrexia of unknown origin. Neuroblastoma should be considered in differential diagnosis of abdominal mass in all infants and children. PMID:26036461

  14. The content of catecholamines in the adrenal glands and sections of the brain under hypokinesia and injection of some neurotropic agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melnik, B. E.; Paladiy, E. S.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of catecholamine content were studied in the adrenal glands and in various region of the brain of white rats under hypokinesia and injections of neurotropic agents. Profound changes in body catecholamine balance occured as a result of prolonged acute restriction of motor activity. Adrenalin retention increased and noradrenanalin retention decreased in the adrenal glands, hypothalamus, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. Observed alterations in catecholamine retention varied depending upon the type of neurotropic substance utilized. Mellipramine increased catecholamine retention in the tissues under observation while spasmolytin brought about an increase in adrenalin concentration in the adrenals and a decrease in the brain.

  15. Adrenal pseudomasses due to varices: angiographic-CT-MRI-pathologic correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, T.M.; Gross, B.H.; Glazer, G.M. Williams, D.M.

    1985-08-01

    Periadrenal and adrenal portosystemic collaterals are a recently reported cause of adrenal pseudotumor on computed tomography (CT). Nine patients with this left adrenal pseudotumor illustrate its typical position and appearance on CT, angiography, CT-angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The anatomic basis for variceal adrenal pseudotumors is the left inferior phrenic vein, which passes immediately anterior to the left adrenal gland and which serves as a collateral pathway from splenic to left renal vein in portal hypertension. Thus, unlike previously described adrenal pseudotumors, these venous collaterals are not anatomically distinguishable from the adrenal gland on CT. Bolus dynamic CT is usually diagnostic, but in equivocal cases, MRI may prove useful.

  16. Use of 3-Dimensional Volumetric Modeling of Adrenal Gland Size in Patients with Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, P P; Lodish, M B; Turkbey, E B; Papadakis, G Z; Stratakis, C A

    2016-04-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a rare type of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia leading to hypercortisolemia. Adrenal nodularity is often appreciable with computed tomography (CT); however, accurate radiologic characterization of adrenal size in PPNAD has not been studied well. We used 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric analysis to characterize and compare adrenal size in PPNAD patients, with and without Cushing's syndrome (CS). Patients diagnosed with PPNAD and their family members with known mutations in PRKAR1A were screened. CT scans were used to create 3D models of each adrenal. Criteria for biochemical diagnosis of CS included loss of diurnal variation and/or elevated midnight cortisol levels, and paradoxical increase in urinary free cortisol and/or urinary 17-hydroxysteroids after dexamethasone administration. Forty-five patients with PPNAD (24 females, 27.8±17.6 years) and 8 controls (19±3 years) were evaluated. 3D volumetric modeling of adrenal glands was performed in all. Thirty-eight patients out of 45 (84.4%) had CS. Their mean adrenal volume was 8.1 cc±4.1, 7.2 cc±4.5 (p=0.643) for non-CS, and 8.0cc±1.6 for controls. Mean values were corrected for body surface area; 4.7 cc/kg/m(2)±2.2 for CS, and 3.9 cc/kg/m(2)±1.3 for non-CS (p=0.189). Adrenal volume and midnight cortisol in both groups was positively correlated, r=0.35, p=0.03. We conclude that adrenal volume measured by 3D CT in patients with PPNAD and CS was similar to those without CS, confirming empirical CT imaging-based observations. However, the association between adrenal volume and midnight cortisol levels may be used as a marker of who among patients with PPNAD may develop CS, something that routine CT cannot do. PMID:27065461

  17. Precerebellin-related genes and precerebellin 1 peptide in the adrenal gland of the rat: expression pattern, localization, developmental regulation and effects on corticosteroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-03-01

    Precerebellin (Cbln)-related peptides are known to modulate the secretory activity and growth of the adrenal gland. However, precise expression of the Cbln-related genes and Cbln1 peptide in the adrenal remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated, using RT-PCR, QPCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and hormonal assays, their expression in the adrenals of adult rats and in the course of postnatal ontogenesis. Of the 4 known Cblns, Cbln(1-3) mRNAs were found in the adrenal gland of the adult male rats. Expression patterns of Cbln1 and 3 were similar to each other and different from that of Cbln2. Highest expression of the Cbln1 and 3 genes was observed in the zona glomerulosa (ZG), lower expression was noted in the fasciculata/reticularis and lowest expression was observed in the adrenal medulla. Expression of these genes was also present in freshly isolated rat adrenocortical cells. On the contrary, by means of classic RT-PCR, we demonstrated the presence of mRNAs of CBLN(1-4) in the human adrenal gland. In the rat, highest expression of the Cbln1 and 3 genes was found at postnatal day 2 and was somewhat lower at day 90. On the contrary, expression of the Cbln2 gene was low in adrenals of 2-day-old rats and notably higher at the remaining time points studied (up to day 360). Cerebellin (CER)-like immunoreactivity was observed in the membranes of the adrenal ZG cells, while in the medulla, immunoreactive substances were localized primarily in the cytoplasm of chromaffin cells. Cbln1-like immunoreactivity was present mainly in the cortex of the gland, and reaction products were noted both in the membranes and cytoplasm of adrenocortical cells. Semiquantitative evaluation of Cbln1 protein expression in compartments of the adrenal gland of the adult rat revealed a higher concentration of Cbln1 protein in the cortex than in the medulla of studied rats. We also found that both CER and desCER stimulated basal aldosterone secretion by freshly isolated ZG cells. Thus

  18. Intraoperative identification of adrenal-renal fusion.

    PubMed

    Boll, Griffin; Rattan, Rishi; Yilmaz, Osman; Tarnoff, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal - renal fusion is a rare entity defined as incomplete encapsulation of the adrenal gland and kidney with histologically adjacent functional tissue. This report describes the first published intraoperative identification of this anomaly during laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The patient was a 59-year-old man with chronic hypertension refractory to multiple antihypertensives found to be caused by a right-sided aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in the setting of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. During laparoscopic adrenalectomy, the normal avascular plane between the kidney and adrenal gland was absent. Pathologic evaluation confirmed adrenal - renal fusion without adrenal heterotopia. Identified intraoperatively, this may be misdiagnosed as invasive malignancy, and thus awareness of this anomaly may help prevent unnecessarily morbid resection. PMID:26195881

  19. Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternate Language URL Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH ... individuals treated with hGH looked at causes of death among recipients and found some disturbing news. Many ...

  20. The innervation of the adrenal gland. IV. Innervation of the rat adrenal medulla from birth to old age. A descriptive and quantitative morphometric and biochemical study of the innervation of chromaffin cells and adrenal medullary neurons in Wistar rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, A; Coupland, R E

    1990-01-01

    The innervation of the adrenal medulla has been investigated in normal Wistar rats from birth to old age and ultrastructural findings compared with biochemical markers of the cholinergic innervation of the adrenal gland and catecholamine storage. Morphological evidence of the immaturity of the innervation during the first postnatal week is provided and using quantitative morphometry the innervation of chromaffin cells is shown to reach a mean total of 5.4 synapses per chromaffin cell during the period 26 days to 12 weeks of age. The variation in contents of synaptic profiles is discussed in the light of recent work that demonstrates a major sensory as well as visceral efferent innervation of the gland. Adrenal medullary neurons usually occur in closely packed groups, intimately associated with Schwann cells. Axodendritic and axosomatic synapses on these neurons are described and the likely origin of axonal processes innervating the neurons discussed. In old age the density of innervation remains the same as in young adult animals even though the medulla shows evidence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of individual chromaffin cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:2384334

  1. Consumption of sucrose from infancy increases the visceral fat accumulation, concentration of triglycerides, insulin and leptin, and generates abnormalities in the adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Aguila, Yadira; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela; Zambrano, Elena; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Muñoz, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2016-03-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages promotes the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. One factor related to the appearance of MetS components is the dysfunction of the adrenal gland. In fact, the experimental generation of hyperglycemia has been associated with morphological and microvascular changes in the adrenal glands of rats. We hypothesized that high sucrose consumption from infancy promotes histological disruption of the adrenal glands associated with the appearance of metabolic syndrome indicators. Male Wistar rats were separated at weaning (21 days old) into two groups: free access to tap water (control group, C) or 30 % sucrose diluted in water (sugar-fed group). After 12 weeks, high sucrose consumption promoted an increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipose cell number, and insulin resistance. Also, a rise in the concentration of triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein, insulin and leptin was observed. In control rats, a histomorphometric asymmetry between the right and left adrenal glands was found. In the sugar-fed group, sucrose consumption produced a major change in adrenal gland asymmetry. No changes in corticosterone serum level were observed in either group. Our results suggest that a high sucrose liquid-diet from early life alters the morphology of adrenocortical zones, leading to MetS indicators. PMID:25834995

  2. Expression of the spexin gene in the rat adrenal gland and evidences suggesting that spexin inhibits adrenocortical cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Porzionato, Andrea; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2010-04-01

    Spexin (SPX, also called NPQ) is a recently identified, highly conserved peptide which is processed and secreted. We analysed the SPX gene and its protein product in the rat adrenal gland to ascertain whether SPX is involved in the regulation of corticosteroid secretion of and growth of adrenocortical cells. In adult rat adrenal glands the highest levels of SPX mRNA were present in the glomerulosa (ZG) and fasciculate/reticularis (ZF/R) zones. High SPX gene expression levels were found in freshly isolated adult rat ZG and ZF/R cells. In cultured adrenocortical cells the levels of SPX mRNA were lower than in freshly isolated cells. SPX mRNA expression levels were found to be 2-3 times higher during days 90-540 of postnatal development than found during days 2-45. Prolonged ACTH administration lowered and dexamethasone increased adrenal SPX mRNA levels in vivo. Adrenal enucleation produced a significant linear increase in SPX mRNA levels, with the highest value occurring at day 8 after surgery, with control values taken on day 30 after enucleation. Immunohistochemistry revealed SPX-like immunoreactivity in the entire cortex of the adult male rat and in enucleation-induced regenerating cortex. A concentration of 10-6M SPX peptide stimulated basal aldosterone secretion by freshly isolated ZG. In prolonged exposure of adrenocortical cell primary cultures to SPX (10-6M) resulted in a small increase in corticosterone secretion and a notable decrease in BrdU incorporation. The results suggest the direct involvement of SPX in the regulation of adrenocortical cell proliferation; however, the mechanism of action remains unknown. PMID:20045034

  3. Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with /sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Inano, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ishii-Ohba, H.; Imada, Y.; Kumagai, R.; Kurihara, S.; Sato, A.

    1989-02-01

    Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth.

  4. “Looks Can Be Deceiving”: Adrenal Teratoma Causing Diagnostic Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Mehwash; Ather, Muhammad Hammad; Sulaiman, M. Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Teratomas are unusual tumours that derived from totipotent cells with their origin from more than one or usually all three germ cells. Here authors are presenting a case of primary retroperitoneal tumour that is a rare clinical entity. A 19-year-old male presented with right lumbar pain and was found to have complex cyst with large calcification in right adrenal gland on imaging. Intraoperatively, he was found to have a solid mass with areas of soft consistency, which was excised en bloc. On gross examination, the cyst contained pieces of bone, few teeth, and hairs entangled in mucinous material. On histological evaluation, it was confirmed to be mature teratoma arising from the right adrenal gland. He made uneventful recovery and was kept well on annual follow-up. PMID:26788398

  5. Single-Session CT-Guided Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Bilateral Adrenal Gland Hyperplasia Due to Ectopic ACTH Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, Asha Shyn, Paul B.; Vivian, Mark A.; Ng, Ju-Mei; Tuncali, Kemal; Lorch, Jorchen H.; Zaheer, Sarah N.; Gordon, Michael S.; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2015-10-15

    Bilateral adrenalectomy is currently the only available treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing’s syndrome (ectopic ACTH syndrome) that is refractory to pharmacologic therapy. We describe two patients with refractory ectopic ACTH syndrome who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of both hyperplastic adrenal glands in a single session: One was not a surgical candidate, and the other had undergone unsuccessful surgery. Following the procedure, both patients achieved substantial decreases in serum cortisol, symptomatic improvement, and decreased anti-hypertensive medication requirements.

  6. Synchronous renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the contralateral adrenal gland and pancreas: A case report with 7-year follow-up subsequent to surgical therapy

    PubMed Central

    WU, CUNZAO; ZHOU, ZHENXU; YE, XUETING; HU, WEILIE

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) disseminates to a number of organ sites and few patients demonstrate long-term survival following surgery. However, synchronous metastasis of RCC to the contralateral adrenal gland and pancreas is rare. In the present report, a case of synchronous RCC metastasis to the contralateral adrenal gland and pancreas in a 55-year-old patient, with an 116×92×61 mm right renal tumor and a 96×79×57 mm left adrenal lesion, is described. In April 2007, right nephrectomy was performed to treat the RCC, left adrenalectomy was performed to treat the adrenal tumor and the pancreatic metastases were resected. The patient remained alive at the 7-year follow-up appointment. PMID:27313756

  7. Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who ... a medical ID card and wear a Medic-Alert bracelet to tell emergency workers that you lack ...

  8. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of the Adrenal Glands: Analysis of 21 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Rajesh; Choudhary, Narendra S.; Kotecha, Hardik; Misra, Smruti Ranjan; Bhagat, Suraj; Paliwal, Manish; Madan, Kaushal; Saraf, Neeraj; Sarin, Haimanti; Guleria, Mridula; Sud, Randhir

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology of adrenal masses helps in etiological diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA of adrenal masses in cases where other imaging methods failed and/or were not feasible. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients with adrenal masses, in whom adrenal FNA was performed because conventional imaging modalities failed and/or were not feasible, were prospectively evaluated over a period of 3 years. Results Of the 21 patients (mean age, 56±12.2 years; male:female ratio, 2:1), 12 had pyrexia of unknown origin and the other nine underwent evaluation for metastasis. The median lesion size was 2.4×1.6 cm. Ten patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis (shown by the presence of caseating granulomas [n=10] and acid-fast bacilli [n=4]). Two patients had EUS-FNA results suggestive of histoplasmosis. The other patients had metastatic lung carcinoma (n=6), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=1), and adrenal lipoma (n=1) and adrenal myelolipoma (n=1). EUS results were not suggestive of any particular etiology. No procedure-related adverse events occurred. Conclusions EUS-FNA is a safe and effective method for evaluating adrenal masses, and it yields diagnosis in cases where tissue diagnosis is impossible or has failed using conventional imaging modalities. PMID:25844346

  9. Atrial natriuretic factor mRNA and binding sites in the adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, D J; Davenport, A P; Brown, M J

    1990-01-01

    The factor inhibiting aldosterone secretion produced by the adrenal medulla may be atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), since the latter abolishes aldosterone release in response to a number of secretagogues, including angiotensin II and K+. In this study we have shown that cells in the adrenal medulla contain ANF mRNA and therefore have the potential to synthesize this peptide. The presence of binding sites for ANF predominantly in the adrenal zona glomerulosa suggests that, if ANF is synthesized in the medulla and transferred to the cortex, it may affect mineralocorticoid status. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2146954

  10. (/sup 131/I) iodocholesterol scintiscan and a rare functional black adenoma of the adrenal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.M.; Lieberman, L.M.; Gould, H.R.; Hafez, G.R.

    1983-06-01

    A rare functional black adenoma (FBA) of the adrenal cortex was found to be the cause of hypertension and cushingoid features in a 34-yr-old white female., Preoperative studies included (/sup 131/I)iodocholesterol scanning (ICS) of the adrenal glands, which demonstrated the increased release of cortisol from the affected adrenal gland, with the failure of the opposite adrenal gland to record. This is evidence that cortisol was suppressing adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) output by the pituitary gland. This case documents the clinical utility of functional imaging techniques in this clinical setting.

  11. Methodology for Using 3-Dimensional Sonography to Measure Fetal Adrenal Gland Volumes in Pregnant Women With and Without Early Life Stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deborah; Epperson, C Neill; Ewing, Grace; Appleby, Dina; Sammel, Mary D; Wang, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    Fetal adrenal gland volumes on 3-dimensional sonography have been studied as potential predictors of preterm birth. However, no consistent methodology has been published. This article describes the methodology used in a study that is evaluating the effects of maternal early life stress on fetal adrenal growth to allow other researchers to compare methodologies across studies. Fetal volumetric data were obtained in 36 women at 20 to 22 and 28 to 30 weeks' gestation. Two independent examiners measured multiple images of a single fetal adrenal gland from each sonogram. Intra- and inter-rater consistency was examined. In addition, fetal adrenal volumes between male and female fetuses were reported. The intra- and inter-rater reliability was satisfactory when the mean of 3 measurements from each rater was used. At 20 weeks' gestation, male fetuses had larger average adjusted adrenal volumes than female fetuses (mean, 0.897 versus 0.638; P = .004). At 28 weeks' gestation, the fetal weight was more influential in determining values for adjusted fetal adrenal volume (0.672 for male fetuses versus 0.526 for female fetuses; P = .034). This article presents a methodology for assessing fetal adrenal volume using 3-dimensional sonography that can be used by other researchers to provide more consistency across studies. PMID:27562975

  12. Comparative Effect of ACTH and Related Peptides on Proliferation and Growth of Rat Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Claudimara Ferini Pacicco; de Mendonca, Pedro O. R.

    2016-01-01

    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a polypeptide precursor known to yield biologically active peptides related to a range of functions. These active peptides include the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is essential for maintenance of adrenal growth and steroidogenesis, and the alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone, which plays a key role in energy homeostasis. However, the role of the highly conserved N-terminal region of POMC peptide fragments has begun to be unraveled only recently. Here, we review the cascade of events involved in regulation of proliferation and growth of murine adrenal cortex triggered by ACTH and other POMC-derived peptides. Key findings regarding signaling pathways and modulation of genes and proteins required for the regulation of adrenal growth are summarized. We have outlined the known mechanisms as well as future challenges for research on the regulation of adrenal proliferation and growth triggered by these peptides. PMID:27242663

  13. Gene array analysis of adrenal glands in broiler chickens following ACTH treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bureau, Clara; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Couty, Michel; Guémené, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Background Difference in adaptability responses to stress has been observed amongst bird species, strains, and individuals. Components of the HPA axis, one of the internal systems involved in homeostasis re-establishment following stress, could play a role in this variability of responses. The aim of the present study was 1) to identify genes involved in the regulation of adrenal activity following ACTH stimulation and 2) to examine adrenal genes differentially expressed in individuals with high and low plasma corticosterone response following ACTH treatment. Results Analysis with 21 K poultry oligo microarrays indicated that ACTH treatment affected the expression of 134 genes. Several transcripts assigned to genes involved in the adrenal ACTH signaling pathway and steroidogenic enzymes were identified as differentially expressed by ACTH treatment. Real-time PCR on 18 selected genes confirmed changes in transcript levels of 11 genes, including MC2R, CREM, Cry, Bmal1, Sqle, Prax1, and StAR. Only 4 genes revealed to be differentially expressed between higher and lower adrenal responders to ACTH treatment. Conclusion The results from the present study reveal putative candidate genes; their role in regulation of adrenal functions and adaptability to stress should be further investigated. PMID:19751509

  14. Autoradiographic localization of (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II binding sites in the rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, D.P.; Maciejewski, A.R.; Printz, M.P.

    1985-03-01

    To gain greater insight into sites of action of circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) within the adrenal, we have localized the (/sup 125/I)-Ang II binding site using in vitro autoradiography. Autoradiograms were generated either by apposition of isotope-sensitive film or with emulsion-coated coverslips to slide-mounted adrenal sections labeled in vitro with 1.0 nM (/sup 125/I)-Ang II. Analysis of the autoradiograms showed that Ang II binding sites were concentrated in a thin band in the outer cortex (over the cells of the zona glomerulosa) and in the adrenal medulla, which at higher power was seen as dense patches. Few sites were evident in the inner cortex. The existence of Ang II binding sites in the adrenal medulla was confirmed by conventional homogenate binding techniques which revealed a single class of high affinity Ang II binding site (K/sub d/ . 0.7nM, B/sub max/ . 168.7 fmol/mg). These results suggest that the adrenal medulla may be a target for direct receptor-mediated actions of Ang II.

  15. Spontaneous idiopathic bilateral adrenal haemorrhage: a rare cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Salik; Sivarajah, Surendra; Fiscus, Valena; York, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 62-year-old woman with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease who presented to the emergency department with left lower quadrant abdominal pain, flank pain with nausea and no history of preceding trauma. The patient had finished a course of azithromycin and oral methylprednisolone 1 day prior to presentation. Abdominal and pelvic CT scan identified changes suggestive of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. The patient did not show signs of acute adrenal insufficiency but was started on steroid replacement therapy because of concerns about possible disease progression. All recognised causes of adrenal haemorrhage were excluded suggesting this was a case of spontaneous idiopathic bilateral adrenal haemorrhage, a rarely reported phenomenon in the literature. The patient was discharged after clinical improvement following 6 days in hospital, taking oral steroid replacement. PMID:27166002

  16. [Curative en-bloc resection (lung, diaphragm, liver, adrenal gland and thoracic wall) for echinococcus multilocularis. Report of an unusual disease course].

    PubMed

    Lampl, L; Hamperl, W D

    1992-01-01

    Report concerning an en-bloc-resection of right lower lobe of the lung, diaphragm, right lobe of the liver, right adrenal gland, parts of the chestwall and a fistula for alveolar echinococcus. Combined postoperative treatment with mebendazol. More than 4 years postoperatively no evidence of a recurrency. PMID:1583984

  17. 12. Patterns of Adrenal Gland Involvement from Lung Cancer Shown by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Compared to Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zubeldia; Abou-Zied; Nabi

    2000-07-01

    Purpose: The frequency of adrenal metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies between 4 to 25%. Adrenal metastases are frequently missed (78%) by Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study was to characterize the patterns of adrenal gland involvement from lung cancer by 18-F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG-PET).Methods: Retrospective review of patients evaluated for known or suspected lung carcinoma. Results of 18FDG-PET, CT, MRI, and scans were compared.Results: From February 1996 to May 2000, 91 patients with known (85 patients) or suspected (6 patients) lung cancer were evaluated with 18FDG-PET scan. Twenty-two patients (mean age 63, range 38-88 years) had abnormal adrenal glands by either 18FDG-PET (16 patients), CT (12 patients) or MRI (1 patient). In 13 cases 18FDG-PET scan was ordered to clarify CT or MRI findings. Only 7 patients showed adrenal gland involvement: 5 patients (5.5%) with unilateral disease and 2 patients (2.2%) with bilateral disease. PET depicted unsuspected findings in 9 patients: 8 patients (8.8%) with unilateral disease and 1 patient (1.1%) with bilateral disease.(18)FDG-PET upstaged 9 patients from limited (N1M0) to widespread disease (M1), thus obviating surgical intervention.Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of 18FDG-PET scanning in revealing unsuspected adrenal metastases in patients with early stages of NSCLC as well as characterizing CT or MRI equivocal adrenal masses. PMID:11150769

  18. Expression of the beacon gene in the rat adrenal gland: direct inhibitory effect of beacon[47-73] on aldosterone secretion from dispersed adrenal zona glomerulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Neri, Giuliano; Di Liddo, Rosa; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2004-02-01

    Beacon gene was recently identified in the rat hypothalamus, and there is evidence that beacon may be involved in the functional regulation of neuroendocrine axes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry showed the expression of beacon mRNA and protein in the rat adrenal gland, especially in the cortex. Beacon[47-73], at a concentration over 10(-7) M decreased basal aldosterone secretion from dispersed rat zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells, without affecting the ACTH-stimulated one. Basal and agonist-stimulated corticosterone secretion from dispersed zona fasciculata-reticularis cells and catecholamine release from adrenomedullary slices were unaffected by beacon[47-73]. The suppressive effect of beacon[47-73] on aldosterone secretion from ZG cells was abolished by either H-89 or calphostin-C, which are inhibitors of protein kinase A and C signaling cascades. Taken together, these findings allow us to suggest that beacon can be included in the group of regulatory peptides involved in the fine tuning of ZG secretory activity. PMID:14719126

  19. Enriched cages for groups of laboratory male rats and their effects on behaviour, weight gain and adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Lidfors, L; Wichman, A; Ewaldsson, B; Lindh, A-S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated if there were any negative effects on the behaviour and physiology of rats housed in groups of five in two types of enriched cages and compared them with paired-housed rats housed in traditional cages. Eighty-four male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were housed in an enriched rat cage (ERC), a rebuilt rabbit cage (RRC) or a Makrolon III cage (MC) system from 5-16 weeks of age with access to different enrichments. Recordings of behaviour and cage use (3 × 24 h video recording), weekly weighing, measuring food consumption four days/week and water consumption two days/week, were carried out. The rats' muscle strength was assessed using the 'inclined plane' at the end of the study, and after euthanasia the adrenal glands were removed and weighed. Being in the shelter was the most common behaviour in the ERC and RRC groups. In the MC group, which lacked a shelter, rats performed the highest percentage of lying, grooming, rearing, play fighting and manipulating paper shreds. Rats in the RRC had the highest percentage of standing and manipulating gnawing sticks. Water consumption was higher in MC than in ERC and RRC rats. Rats from the RRC managed to remain at a steeper angle on the 'inclined plane' than rats from the MC. There were no significant effects of cage type on weight gain, food consumption or relative weights of adrenal glands. In conclusion, male rats kept in groups of five in larger enriched cages benefited from the enrichments, and no negative effects were found in the larger groups. PMID:24080597

  20. Co-release of enkephalins and precursors with catecholamines from the perfused cat adrenal gland in situ.

    PubMed

    Chaminade, M; Foutz, A S; Rossier, J

    1984-08-01

    We have compared the nature of the enkephalin-like material derived from proenkephalin present in the intact cat adrenal gland with the material co-released with catecholamines from the perfused adrenal in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation and to perfusions with solutions containing acetylcholine (ACh) or high potassium chloride (KCl). In cat adrenals most of the enkephalin-like material was in the form of large enkephalin-containing peptides. Free (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity represented only 25% of the total (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity as determined by enzymatic digestion of large enkephalin-containing fragments. Electrical stimulation (15 Hz) of the splanchnic nerve or perfusion of the gland with ACh (0.1 mM) or KCl (50 mM), applied for 10 min, induced an immediate release of free (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity, (met)enkephalyl-arg-phe immunoreactivity, and of large (met)enkephalin-containing peptides. The release by all three modes of stimulation followed a pattern that paralleled the output of catecholamines. A rapid fatigue of all secretory processes developed during the stimulation periods, similar to that observed for catecholamines. During splanchnic nerve stimulation, each nanomole of catecholamine output was accompanied by the output of 0.4 pmol free (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity, of 1.1 pmol total (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity and of 0.1 pmol (met)enkephalyl-arg-phe immunoreactivity. Analysis of the perfusate by high-pressure liquid chromatography revealed that (met)enkephalin, (met)enkephalyl-arg-phe and (met)enkephalyl-arg-gly-leu were released in molar ratios of 4 to 1 to 1 which is similar to the ratio found in the precursor, proenkephalin. The ratio of total (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity to free (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity in the perfusate was the same (approximately 2.7) during two successive periods of splanchnic nerve stimulation separated by 10 min. When release was evoked by increasing the K+ concentration to 50

  1. Increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal glands contributes to high circulating catecholamines in pigs with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tomaszek, A; Kiczak, L; Bania, J; Paslawska, U; Zacharski, M; Janiszewski, A; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Dziegiel, P; Kuropka, P; Ponikowski, P; Jankowska, E A

    2015-04-01

    High levels of circulating catecholamines have been established as fundamental pathophysiological elements of heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear whether the increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesis enzymes in the adrenal glands contributes to these hormone abnormalities in large animal HF models. We analyzed the mRNA levels of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes: tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in adrenal glands of 18 pigs with chronic systolic non-ischaemic HF (tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy due to right ventricle pacing) and 6 sham-operated controls. Pigs with severe HF demonstrated an increased expression of TH and DBH (but neither AAAD nor PNMT) as compared to animals with milder HF and controls (P<0.05 in all cases). The increased adrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH was accompanied by a reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) (P<0.001) and an elevated plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (P<0.01), the other indices reflecting HF severity. There was a positive relationship between the increased adrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH, and the high levels of circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline (all P<0.05). The association with noradrenaline remained significant also when adjusted for LVEF and plasma BNP, suggesting a significant contribution of adrenals to the circulating pool of catecholamines in subjects with systolic HF. PMID:25903953

  2. In vivo evidence for the crucial role of SF1 in steroid-producing cells of the testis, ovary and adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Buaas, F. William; Gardiner, Jennifer R.; Clayton, Sally; Val, Pierre; Swain, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adrenal and gonadal steroids are essential for life and reproduction. The orphan nuclear receptor SF1 (NR5A1) has been shown to regulate the expression of enzymes involved in steroid production in vitro. However, the in vivo role of this transcription factor in steroidogenesis has not been elucidated. In this study, we have generated steroidogenic-specific Cre-expressing mice to lineage mark and delete Sf1 in differentiated steroid-producing cells of the testis, the ovary and the adrenal gland. Our data show that SF1 is a regulator of the expression of steroidogenic genes in all three organs. In addition, Sf1 deletion leads to a radical change in cell morphology and loss of identity. Surprisingly, sexual development and reproduction in mutant animals were not compromised owing, in part, to the presence of a small proportion of SF1-positive cells. In contrast to the testis and ovary, the mutant adult adrenal gland showed a lack of Sf1-deleted cells and our studies suggest that steroidogenic adrenal cells during foetal stages require Sf1 to give rise to the adult adrenal population. This study is the first to show the in vivo requirements of SF1 in steroidogenesis and provides novel data on the cellular consequences of the loss of this protein specifically within steroid-producing cells. PMID:23136395

  3. Atrial natriuretic factor: radioimmunoassay and effects on adrenal and pituitary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Gutkowska, J.; Horky, K.; Schiffrin, E.L.; Thibault, G.; Garcia, R.; De Lean, A.; Hamet, P.; Tremblay, J.; Anand-Srivastava, M.B.; Januszewicz, P.

    1986-06-01

    A simple and sensitive radioimmunoassay was developed for measurement of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor (IR-ANF) in rat and human plasma and in rat atria. The two atria contain about 20 ..mu..g ANF per rat. The right atrium contained 2.5 times more ANF than did the left. Ether anesthesia and morphine markedly increased IR-ANF in rat plasma. The concentration of IR-ANF in plasma of clinically normal human subjects was 65.3 +/- 2.5 pg/ml. Paroxysmal tachycardia and rapid atrial pacing significantly increased IR-ANF in human plasma. Two- to seven-fold higher concentrations were found in coronary sinus blood than in the peripheral circulation. In the plasma of rats and humans, circulating ANF is probably a small-molecular-weight peptide. ANF acts on the adrenal and the pituitary. ANF inhibits aldosterone secretion from rat zona glomerulosa and steroid secretion by bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa and fasciculata. ANF stimulated the basal secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in vitro and inhibited KCl-stimulated release of AVP.

  4. [Morphological studies of rat adrenal glands after space flight on "Kosmos-1667"].

    PubMed

    Prodan, N G; Bara'nska, V

    1989-01-01

    Histological and histomorphometric examinations of rat adrenals after a 7-day flight revealed the following changes: blood congestion in the cortex and medulla, progressive delipoidization of the cortex, slight enlargement of the nuclear volume of glomerular and fascicular zones, vacuolization of the cytoplasm of medulla cells, reduction of the area of noradrenocyte islets and cell nuclei of the medulla; the adrenal weight remained however unchanged. It is concluded that an early period of adaptation to microgravity was accompanied by a weak stress-reaction. Upon return to Earth the rats developed an acute gravitational stress. From the morphological point of view the stress manifested as: increased volume of nuclei in fascicular cells, decreased content of lipids in them, and greater vacuolization of the cytoplasm of medulla cells. The lack of medulla hypertrophy, reduction of the area of noradrenocyte islets and nuclei of medulla cells suggest that 7-day exposure to microgravity did not exert of stimulating effect on the sympathetic system of rats. PMID:2625973

  5. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage leading to adrenal crisis

    PubMed Central

    McGowan-Smyth, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A 77-year-old man presented with an acute worsening of chronic back pain. CT showed dense bilateral adrenal glands suggestive of adrenal haemorrhage which was confirmed by MRI. Despite appropriate glucocorticoid replacement for adrenal insufficiency, 7 days after admission this patient suffered an adrenal crisis. Owing to the timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment was given and the patient survived. Large bilateral adrenal haemorrhage however, can lead to cardiovascular collapse and death if not appropriately diagnosed and managed promptly. Despite its rarity, bilateral adrenal haemorrhage should always be considered as a differential for back pain in the setting of an acute illness due to its potentially fatal consequences. PMID:24969071

  6. Apophysomyces elegans causing acute otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis involving salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Amit; Tyagi, Isha; Syal, Rajan; Marak, R S K; Singh, Jagdeep

    2007-08-01

    Zygomycosis is an invasive, life threatening fungal infection that usually affects immunocompromised hosts. In the head and neck region, rhino-orbito-cerebral zygomycosis is more common than the cervicofacial variety. We report the first case of otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis caused by Apophysomyces elegans involving the salivary glands, an uncommon site of infection. The case began after a trivial trauma in a diabetic patient and despite surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin B therapy, the patient died due to extensive involvement and metabolic/hemodynamic complications. PMID:17654273

  7. Somatostatin analog (SMS 201-995) inhibits the basal and angiotensin II-stimulated sup 3 H-thymidine uptake by rat adrenal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlikowski, M.; Lewinski, A.; Sewerynek, E.; Szkudlinski, M.; Kunert-Radek, J.; Wajs, E. )

    1990-02-14

    The effects of a long-acting somatostatin analog SMS 201-995 injections on the basal and angiotensin II-stimulated ({sup 3}H)-thymidine uptake by the rat adrenal glands incubated in vitro were examined. It was shown that SMS 201-995 significantly inhibited the ({sup 3}H)-thymidine uptake and, additionally, suppressed the stimulatory effect of a single angiotensin II injection.

  8. Voluminous Incidental Oncocytic Neoplasm of the Adrenal Gland With Uncertain Malignant Potential.

    PubMed

    Chakroun, Marouene; Kerkeni, Waild; Zidi, Yosra; Ayed, Haroun; Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Ben Slama, Mohamed Riadh; Rammeh, Sihem; Derouiche, Amine; Chebil, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with right flank pain and a palpable mass in the left flank. Blood pressure was normal. Contrastenhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a 17 × 16 × 12 cm retroperitoneal mass over the left kidney, solid and heterogeneous. There were also 3 retro aortic lymph nodes and bilateral renal lithiasis. Twenty four-hour urinary metanephrines and normetanephrines were normal. The patient underwent a resection of the mass with left adrenalectomy by a lumbar incision. Histological findings revealed an adrenal oncocytic neoplasm (AON) with uncertain malignant potential. Six months after surgery, CT control showed neither local nor distant recurrence. PMID:27413692

  9. Genome-wide expression analysis reveals 100 adrenal gland-dependent circadian genes in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Amagai, Noriko; Shirai, Hidenori; Kadota, Koji; Ohkura, Naoki; Ishida, Norio

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in genome-wide expression analysis has identified hundreds of circadian genes not only in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (the mammalian master clock) but also in peripheral tissues, such as heart, liver and kidney of mammals. Glucocorticoid is thought to be a circadian time cue for mammalian peripheral clocks. To identify the genes of which the circadian expression is regulated by endogenous glucocorticoids, we performed DNA microarray analysis using hepatic RNA from adrenalectomized (ADX) and sham-operated mice. We identified 169 genes that fluctuated between day and night in the livers of the sham-operated mice. Among these, 100 lost circadian rhythmicity in ADX mice. These included the genes for key enzymes of liver metabolic functions, such as glucokinase, HMG-CoA reductase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The circadian expression of Lpin1, FKBP51 and S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase was also abolished in the ADX mice. On the other hand, although the circadian expression of clock or clock-related genes, such as mPer2, DBP, E4BP4, mDec1, Usp2 and Wee1 remained almost totally intact in the liver of ADX mice, it was extremely damped in homozygous Clock mutant mice. The present findings suggested that one type of hepatic circadian genes in mice is transcriptionally regulated by core components of the circadian clock, such as CLOCK and BMAL1, and that the other depends on the adrenal gland. PMID:16303750

  10. First case report of rare congenital adrenal insufficiency caused by mutations in the CYP11A1 gene in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Pomahačová, Renata; Sýkora, Josef; Zamboryová, Jana; Paterová, Petra; Varvařovská, Jana; Šubrt, Ivan; Dort, Jiří; Dortová, Eva

    2016-06-01

    We characterized a case of congenital adrenal insufficiency caused by cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) deficiency. The patient presented after birth with cardiopulmonary instability, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. We confirmed primary adrenal insufficiency. There were no signs of the external genitalia virilism. The replacement therapy with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids led to normal laboratory results. At the age of 12 years, we confirmed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, which revealed disorder of steroidogenesis in the adrenal glands and in the gonads. The enzymatic block was found at the beginning of steroidogenesis. The mutation was confirmed in the CYP11A1 gene. The patient is compound heterozygote for the novel CYP11A1 missense mutation c.412G>A (p.Gly138Arg) in exon 2 and frameshift mutation c.508_509delCT (p.Leu170Valfs*30) in exon 3. The CYP11A1: c.412G>A (p.Gly138Arg) was predicted as pathogenic by in silico analysis. So far, only 19 patients with CYP11A1 mutations causing P450scc deficiency have been reported worldwide. There are no related reports in the Czech Republic. PMID:27008691

  11. Adrenal steroidogenesis disruption caused by HDL/cholesterol suppression in diethylstilbestrol-treated adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Haeno, Satoko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Kousuke; Sato, Michiko; Uto, Aika; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol is used to prevent miscarriages and as a therapeutic treatment for prostate cancer, but it has been reported to have adverse effects on endocrine homeostasis. However, the toxicity mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, we reported that diethylstilbestrol impairs adrenal steroidogenesis via cholesterol insufficiency in adult male rats. In the present study, we found that the adrenal cholesterol level was significantly reduced without of the decrease in other precursors in the adrenal steroidogenesis 24 h after a single dose of diethylstilbestrol (0.33 μg/g body mass). The serum HDL/cholesterol level was also reduced only 12 h after the diethylstilbestrol exposure. The level of Apo E, which is indispensable for HDL/cholesterol maturation, was decreased in both the HDL and VLDL/LDL fractions, whereas the level of Apo A1, which is an essential constituent of HDL, was not altered in the HDL fraction. Because the liver is a major source of Apo E and Apo A1, the secretion rates of these proteins were examined using a liver perfusion experiment. The secretion rate of Apo A1 from the liver was consistent between DES-treated and control rats, but that of Apo E was comparatively suppressed in the DES-treated rats. The disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis by diethylstilbestrol was caused by a decrease in serum HDL/cholesterol, which is the main source of adrenal steroidogenesis, due to the inhibition of Apo E secretion from the liver. PMID:26349937

  12. CT manifestations of adrenal trauma: experience with 73 cases.

    PubMed

    Sinelnikov, Alex O; Abujudeh, Hani H; Chan, David; Novelline, Robert A

    2007-03-01

    Adrenal injuries, although an uncommon consequence of abdominal trauma, are important to recognize. If bilateral, adrenal trauma could result in life-threatening adrenal insufficiency. Furthermore, in the setting of trauma, adrenal injury can point to other concomitant injuries and has been associated with overall increased morbidity and mortality. In the past, before the advent of computed tomography (CT), detection was difficult, and the diagnosis was often made only at surgery or postmortem. Today, the diagnosis of adrenal injuries can be quickly and accurately made with CT. This retrospective review was carried out to identify, describe, and analyze different CT appearances of adrenal injuries and correlated with associated injuries and observed clinical context and outcomes. A patient cohort of CT-detected adrenal injuries was identified through a radiology software research tool by searching for keywords in radiology reports. The identified CT scans were reviewed and correlated with the patients' available clinical chart data and follow-up. Between April 1995 and October 2004, 73 cases of CT-detected adrenal injuries were identified, including 48 men and 25 women, with an age range 6 to 90 years and a mean age of 42.7 years. Of the cases, 77% were right-sided, 15% were left-sided, and 8% were bilateral. The causes of injuries were motor vehicle collisions (75%), falls (14%), sports related (4%), and miscellaneous causes (7%). Associated trauma included injuries of the liver (43%), spleen (23%), lung (19%), and kidney (18%), as well as pneumothoraces/hemothoraces (22%). Skeletal injuries included fractures of the ribs, clavicles, and/or scapulae (39%), pelvis and hips (30%), and the spine (23%). Isolated adrenal trauma was seen in only 4% of the cases. The CT findings of adrenal trauma were focal hematoma (30%), indistinct (27%) or enlarged (18%) adrenal gland, gross (15%) or focal (7%) adrenal hemorrhage, and adrenal mass (11%). Associated CT findings

  13. Conditional Mutagenesis of Gata6 in SF1-Positive Cells Causes Gonadal-Like Differentiation in the Adrenal Cortex of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pihlajoki, Marjut; Gretzinger, Elisabeth; Cochran, Rebecca; Kyrönlahti, Antti; Schrade, Anja; Hiller, Theresa; Sullivan, Laura; Shoykhet, Michael; Schoeller, Erica L.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA6 is expressed in the fetal and adult adrenal cortex and has been implicated in steroidogenesis. To characterize the role of transcription factor GATA6 in adrenocortical development and function, we generated mice in which Gata6 was conditionally deleted using Cre-LoxP recombination with Sf1-cre. The adrenal glands of adult Gata6 conditional knockout (cKO) mice were small and had a thin cortex. Cytomegalic changes were evident in fetal and adult cKO adrenal glands, and chromaffin cells were ectopically located at the periphery of the glands. Corticosterone secretion in response to exogenous ACTH was blunted in cKO mice. Spindle-shaped cells expressing Gata4, a marker of gonadal stroma, accumulated in the adrenal subcapsule of Gata6 cKO mice. RNA analysis demonstrated the concomitant upregulation of other gonadal-like markers, including Amhr2, in the cKO adrenal glands, suggesting that GATA6 inhibits the spontaneous differentiation of adrenocortical stem/progenitor cells into gonadal-like cells. Lhcgr and Cyp17 were overexpressed in the adrenal glands of gonadectomized cKO vs control mice, implying that GATA6 also limits sex steroidogenic cell differentiation in response to the hormonal changes that accompany gonadectomy. Nulliparous female and orchiectomized male Gata6 cKO mice lacked an adrenal X-zone. Microarray hybridization identified Pik3c2g as a novel X-zone marker that is downregulated in the adrenal glands of these mice. Our findings offer genetic proof that GATA6 regulates the differentiation of steroidogenic progenitors into adrenocortical cells. PMID:23471215

  14. [Congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency. A case report].

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Jadwiga; Bohdanowicz-Pawlak, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a case of an adult woman with congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency. The patient presented not only typical features of this disease such as virilization and hypokaliemic hypertension but also rare pathologies, such as ectopic adrenal tissues, salt loss during infancy, and functional adrenomedullary hyperactivity. In spite of the severe disease and delays in its diagnosis and adequate treatment, significant improvement in appearance and normalization of blood pressure as well as the birth of a healthy child were achieved. The paper also discusses current opinions concerning the pathogenesis and treatment in CAH with 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency as well as difficulties in diagnostic and therapeutic management. PMID:19347818

  15. Photosensitizer-induced fluorescence of the rat adrenal gland and rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) by meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo-Benkmann, Mario; Muhm, Markus; Gahlen, Johannes; Heym, Christine; Senninger, Norbert

    1997-12-01

    Rat adrenal glands exhibit an intense mTHPC-induced fluorescence. The objective of our study was the identification of adrenal cells exhibiting mTHPC-induced fluorescence under normal conditions and under stimulation of adrenal proliferation by reserpine. Furthermore mTHPC-uptake of rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells was investigated. Four male Wistar rats received 0.5 mg mTHPC/kg iv 48 hours before perfusion. Furthermore four rats received reserpine (2 mg/kg im od), bromo-deoxy-uridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg ip od) each for one week and mTHPC (0.5 mg/kg) 48 hours before perfusion. BrdU was detected immunohistochemically. PC 12-cells were incubated with 0.5 mg mTHPC/l culture medium for 24 or 48 hours. Cells and tissues were examined by fluorescence microscopy. The adrenal cortex exhibited an intense mTHPC-induced fluorescence. The adrenal medulla fluoresced faintly. Reserpine increased fluorescence of intramedullary cells, not coinciding with adrenal proliferation. Cortical fluorescence remained unchanged. PC 12-cells lying singly or in small groups and differentiating cells showed a more intense mTHPC- induced fluorescence than confluent cells. Differences of cortical and medullary uptake of mTHPC are independent of proliferation and may be explained by lipophilia of mTHPC, since adrenocytes have an uptake mechanism for cholesterol. The difference of mTHPC-uptake between PC 12-cells and chromaffin cells implicate the possibility of photodynamic applications for medullary neoplasia.

  16. Detection of disease-associated prion protein in the optic nerve and the adrenal gland of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy by using highly sensitive immunolabeling procedures.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou

    2012-04-01

    A sensitive immunohistochemical procedure, the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) system, was applied to detect the localization of immunolabeled disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in cattle affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). In this procedure, immunolabeling could be visualized in the optic nerve and the adrenal medulla. In the optic nerve, the dual immunofluorescent technique showed that the granular PrP(Sc) was occasionally detected in the astrocytes, microglia, and myelin sheath adjacent to the axon. Clustered PrP(Sc) was also scattered in association with microglial cells and astrocytes of the optic nerve. In the adrenal gland, PrP(Sc) immunolabeling was confined within the sympathetic nerve fibers and endings. The results suggest that (1) PrP(Sc) might centrifugally spread within and between glial cells and/or the non-axonal (also known as ad-axonal) region of nerve fibers, rather than the axonal and/or extracellular space pathway in the optic nerve, and (2) the sympathetic innervations might be important for the trafficking of BSE agent in the adrenal glands of cattle. This study also suggests that tyramide-based immunochemical analysis should be performed to detect immunolabeled PrP(Sc) in the extracerebral tissues of BSE-affected cattle. PMID:22260993

  17. Rare Causes of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: Genetic and Clinical Characterization of a Large Nationwide Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, Federica; Saka, Nurcin; Ozbek, Mehmet Nuri; Aycan, Zehra; Bereket, Abdullah; Bas, Firdevs; Darcan, Sukran; Bideci, Aysun; Guven, Ayla; Demir, Korcan; Akinci, Aysehan; Buyukinan, Muammer; Aydin, Banu Kucukemre; Turan, Serap; Agladioglu, Sebahat Yilmaz; Atay, Zeynep; Abali, Zehra Yavas; Tarim, Omer; Catli, Gonul; Yuksel, Bilgin; Akcay, Teoman; Yildiz, Metin; Ozen, Samim; Doger, Esra; Demirbilek, Huseyin; Ucar, Ahmet; Isik, Emregul; Ozhan, Bayram; Bolu, Semih; Ozgen, Ilker Tolga; Suntharalingham, Jenifer P.; Achermann, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a life-threatening condition that is often due to monogenic causes in children. Although congenital adrenal hyperplasia occurs commonly, several other important molecular causes have been reported, often with overlapping clinical and biochemical features. The relative prevalence of these conditions is not known, but making a specific diagnosis can have important implications for management. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the clinical and molecular genetic characteristics of a nationwide cohort of children with PAI of unknown etiology. Design: A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate clinical, biochemical, and imaging data. Genetic analysis was performed using Haloplex capture and next-generation sequencing. Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, adrenoleukodystrophy, autoimmune adrenal insufficiency, or obvious syndromic PAI were excluded. Setting: The study was conducted in 19 tertiary pediatric endocrinology clinics. Patients: Ninety-five children (48 females, aged 0–18 y, eight familial) with PAI of unknown etiology participated in the study. Results: A genetic diagnosis was obtained in 77 patients (81%). The range of etiologies was as follows: MC2R (n = 25), NR0B1 (n = 12), STAR (n = 11), CYP11A1 (n = 9), MRAP (n = 9), NNT (n = 7), ABCD1 (n = 2), NR5A1 (n = 1), and AAAS (n = 1). Recurrent mutations occurred in several genes, such as c.560delT in MC2R, p.R451W in CYP11A1, and c.IVS3ds+1delG in MRAP. Several important clinical and molecular insights emerged. Conclusion: This is the largest nationwide study of the molecular genetics of childhood PAI undertaken. Achieving a molecular diagnosis in more than 80% of children has important translational impact for counseling families, presymptomatic diagnosis, personalized treatment (eg, mineralocorticoid replacement), predicting comorbidities (eg, neurological, puberty/fertility), and targeting clinical genetic testing in the

  18. An unusual presentation of Carney complex with diffuse primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease on one adrenal gland and a nonpigmented adrenocortical adenoma and focal primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease on the other.

    PubMed

    Tung, Shih-Chen; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Yang, Joseph W; Chen, Wei-Jen; Lee, Chien-Te

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old female patient with cushingoid appearance was admitted in May 2000. The endocrine studies showed ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. A 2-day high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) revealed paradoxical increase of 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC). Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a left adrenal nodule (3 x 2 cm in diameter). An adrenal scintigram with ¹³¹I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol showed uptake of the isotope in the left adrenal gland and non-visualization in the right adrenal gland throughout the examination course. A retroperitoneoscopic left total adrenalectomy was performed in July 2000. The cut surface of the left adrenal was yellow-tan grossly. Microscopically, the left adrenal nodule contained a nonpigmented adrenocortical adenoma (NP) and another focal primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, FP) mixed lesion. The immunohistochemical studies of CYP17 demonstrate positive in NP and FP of the left adrenal gland. Very low baseline morning plasma cortisol (0.97 μg/dL) and subnormal ACTH (8.16 pg/mL) levels were measured 1.5 months after left adrenalectomy. Right adrenal gland recovered its function 6 months after left adrenalectomy. Plasma cortisol could be suppressed to 3.47 μg/dL by overnight low-dose dexamethasone suppression test 65 months after left adrenalectomy. Cushingoid features still did not appear 122 months after left adrenalectomy. In May 2011, this patient was readmitted due to cushingoid characteristics. Paradoxical rise of 24-h UFC to 2-day HDDST was demonstrated. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed bilateral thyroid cysts. Subtotal right adrenalectomy about 80% of right adrenal was performed. Diffuse PPNAD of the right adrenal was proved pathologically. Immunohischemical stain for CYP17 is positive in the right adrenal gland but weaker positive than that in the left adrenal gland. The genetic study of the peripheral blood, left adrenocortical nodule, and right PPNAD all showed p.R16X

  19. Rapid and fine adjustment of corticosteroidogenesis operating in the adrenal gland of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) superfused in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Fenske, M

    1987-09-01

    Corticosteroid release from adrenals of male adult Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) has been studied during continuous and discontinuous in-vitro superfusion. Corticosteroid output from glands of untreated animals with plasma corticosteroid levels below 300 ng/ml was 3.3 +/- 0.3 ng/adrenal pair/min and decreased only slightly with the length of superfusion (60 min: 3.1 +2- 0.3 ng/adrenal pair/min). In-vitro secretion was significantly higher from adrenals of animals which had corticosteroid plasma levels of over 300 ng/ml, underwent clonic-tonic seizures, or were injected with 6 IU/animal (1-24) ACTH. On the other hand, injection of 2 X 50 micrograms dexamethasone markedly decreased corticosteroid plasma levels but had no significant effect on in-vitro secretion of corticosteroids. In contrast to the slow and small, but long-lasting stimulation of corticosteroid secretion elicited by (1-24) ACTH, secretion could be changed within much shorter time periods, either by the addition of plasma proteins to superfusion medium or by stops of superfusion flow. While a significant stimulation of corticosteroid output occurred after the addition of 1% or 10% BSA or rat plasma, stops of superfusion flow for 1.5 or 10 min resulted in a strong inhibition of steroidogenesis, as is evident from corticosteroid amounts found in the first 1-min samples after re-start of superfusion. Within 4-5 min after re-start of superfusion, secretion returned to basal values. Corticosteroid amounts secreted from adrenals superfused in-vitro were significantly higher than those secreted from adrenals incubated in-vitro. In addition, prolonged incubation suppressed corticosteroidogenesis (30 min: 100%, 60 min: 64%, 90 min: 56%, 120 min: 59%). The results demonstrate that superfusion of sliced adrenal tissue gives insights into aspects of adrenal function, including the rapid changes in synthesis and secretion after flow stops which cannot be investigated by incubation of either tissue

  20. CT demonstration of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-08-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.

  1. Therapy of adrenal insufficiency: an update.

    PubMed

    Falorni, Alberto; Minarelli, Viviana; Morelli, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Adrenal insufficiency may be caused by the destruction or altered function of the adrenal gland with a primary deficit in cortisol secretion (primary adrenal insufficiency) or by hypothalamic-pituitary pathologies determining a deficit of ACTH (secondary adrenal insufficiency). The clinical picture is determined by the glucocorticoid deficit, which may in some conditions be accompanied by a deficit of mineralcorticoids and adrenal androgens. The substitutive treatment is aimed at reducing the signs and symptoms of the disease as well as at preventing the development of an addisonian crisis, a clinical emergency characterized by hypovolemic shock. The oral substitutive treatment should attempt at mimicking the normal circadian profile of cortisol secretion, by using the lower possible doses able to guarantee an adequate quality of life to patients. The currently available hydrocortisone or cortisone acetate preparations do not allow an accurate reproduction of the physiological secretion pattern of cortisol. A novel dual-release formulation of hydrocortisone, recently approved by EMEA, represents an advancement in the optimization of the clinical management of patients with adrenal insufficiency. Future clinical trials of immunomodulation or immunoprevention will test the possibility to delay (or prevent) the autoimmune destruction of the adrenal gland in autoimmune Addison's disease. PMID:23179775

  2. Voltage-dependent currents and modulation of calcium channel expression in zona fasciculata cells from rat adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Barbara, J G; Takeda, K

    1995-01-01

    1. Whole-cell voltage-activated currents from single zona fasciculata (ZF) cells from rat adrenal glands were studied. T- and L-type Ca2+ currents and a slowly inactivating A-type K+ current were the three major currents observed. 2. In freshly isolated cells, the A-type K+ current and the T-type Ca2+ current were predominant. The A-type current was activated at -50 mV and inhibited by 4-amino-pyridine with a half-maximal block (IC50) at 130 microM while the T-type current was activated at -70 mV and blocked by Cd2+, Ni2+ and amiloride with IC50 values of 24.1, 132.4 and 518.9 microM, respectively. 3. Under current clamp, depolarizing current pulses produced a single Ca2+ action potential with Cs+ in the pipette internal solution. Upon replacement of Cs+ by K+, the half-amplitude width of the action potential was shortened and membrane potential oscillations were seen after the spike. 4. In freshly isolated cells and during the first 24 h after plating, the T-type current was observed in all cells, with L-type current being observed in < 2% of cells, even in the presence of (+)SDZ 202,791, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel agonist. With time in culture, the T-type current disappeared, and a high-voltage-activated L-type current became increasingly apparent. In cells tested after > 2 days in culture, (+)SDZ 202,791 potentiated L-type current by 407 +/- 12% and the antagonist (-)SDZ 202,791 blocked this increase. The L-type current was activated between -30 and -20 mV and was sensitive to nitrendipine and omega-conotoxin GVIA. 5. Pre-incubation of cultured ZF cells with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) for 3 days resulted in a high, sustained level of expression of T-type current, with a mean amplitude of 34.2 +/- 5.5 pA pF-1 for ACTH-treated cells compared with 3.4 +/- 1.8 pA pF-1 for untreated cells. Cycloheximide strongly inhibited this effect. Neither treatment affected L-type current expression. 6. The expression of both Ca

  3. Radioguided Adrenal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Deus, Javier; Millera, Alfonso; Andrés, Alejandro; Prats, Enrique; Gil, Ismael; Suarez, Manuel; Salcini, José L.; Lahoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered as the procedure of choice for the treatment of adrenal hyperplasia and tumor lesions. However, some special situations may limit the use of this method due to the difficulty to locate the gland and perform the lesion excision. We analyze 2 patients of a left adrenal tumor, explaining how they have overcome the difficulties in both situations. The first case was a patient with a history of intra-abdominal surgery and the other patient suffered from severe obesity. We performed with the use of the gamma probe, and the 2 cases, was of great help to access and glandular localization. The help of gamma probe test was achieved in the surgical bed, that removal was complete. The use of the portable gamma probe facilitated the access to the left adrenal gland as well as conducting the glandular excision without delay, despite the difficulties due to the intra abdominal surgery caused by the previous surgery, and in the case of severe obesity. PMID:26426608

  4. Enucleation-induced rat adrenal gland regeneration: expression profile of selected genes involved in control of adrenocortical cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tyczewska, Marianna; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Trejter, Marcin; Hochol-Molenda, Anna; Nowak, Krzysztof W; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2014-01-01

    Enucleation-induced adrenal regeneration is a highly controlled process; however, only some elements involved in this process have been recognized. Therefore, we performed studies on regenerating rat adrenals. Microarray RNA analysis and QPCR revealed that enucleation resulted in a rapid elevation of expression of genes involved in response to wounding, defense response, and in immunological processes. Factors encoded by these genes obscure possible priming effects of various cytokines on initiation of regeneration. In regenerating adrenals we identified over 100 up- or downregulated genes involved in adrenocortical cell proliferation. The changes were most significant at days 2-3 after enucleation and their number decreased during regeneration. For example, expression analysis revealed a notable upregulation of the growth arrest gene, Gadd45, only 24 hours after surgery while expression of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 genes was notably elevated between days 1-8 of regeneration. These changes were accompanied by changes in expression levels of numerous growth factors and immediate-early transcription factors genes. Despite notable differences in mechanisms of adrenal and liver regeneration, in regenerating adrenals we identified genes, the expression of which is well recognized in regenerating liver. Thus, it seems legitimate to suggest that, in the rat, the general model of liver and adrenal regeneration demonstrate some degree of similarity. PMID:25431590

  5. Enucleation-Induced Rat Adrenal Gland Regeneration: Expression Profile of Selected Genes Involved in Control of Adrenocortical Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tyczewska, Marianna; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Trejter, Marcin; Hochol-Molenda, Anna; Nowak, Krzysztof W.; Malendowicz, Ludwik K.

    2014-01-01

    Enucleation-induced adrenal regeneration is a highly controlled process; however, only some elements involved in this process have been recognized. Therefore, we performed studies on regenerating rat adrenals. Microarray RNA analysis and QPCR revealed that enucleation resulted in a rapid elevation of expression of genes involved in response to wounding, defense response, and in immunological processes. Factors encoded by these genes obscure possible priming effects of various cytokines on initiation of regeneration. In regenerating adrenals we identified over 100 up- or downregulated genes involved in adrenocortical cell proliferation. The changes were most significant at days 2-3 after enucleation and their number decreased during regeneration. For example, expression analysis revealed a notable upregulation of the growth arrest gene, Gadd45, only 24 hours after surgery while expression of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 genes was notably elevated between days 1–8 of regeneration. These changes were accompanied by changes in expression levels of numerous growth factors and immediate-early transcription factors genes. Despite notable differences in mechanisms of adrenal and liver regeneration, in regenerating adrenals we identified genes, the expression of which is well recognized in regenerating liver. Thus, it seems legitimate to suggest that, in the rat, the general model of liver and adrenal regeneration demonstrate some degree of similarity. PMID:25431590

  6. Acute adrenal crisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cortisol and adrenaline are released in response to stress . Cortisol production is regulated by the pituitary gland. This ... adrenal crisis include: Dehydration Infection and other physical ... medicines such as prednisone or hydrocortisone Surgery Trauma

  7. Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor system in the rat adrenal gland: ontogenetic and physiologic regulation, and its involvement in regulating adrenocortical growth and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Lukasz; Zemleduch, Tomasz; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2010-09-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is a regulatory peptide secreted mostly by adipose tissue and acting via two receptors: AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Our aim was to investigate expression of adiponectin system genes in the rat adrenal gland as well as its ontogenetic and physiological control. Furthermore, we examined the effects of acute and prolonged activation of HPA axis on ADN system in adipose tissue. By means of QPCR, ADN and AdipoR1 expression was demonstrated in rat adrenal cortex both at mRNA and protein levels, while AdipoR2 could only be detected at mRNA levels. ADN expression level was significantly upregulated in a developing and regenerating adrenal cortex. Globular domain of adiponectin at 10(-9) M stimulated corticosterone output and BrdU incorporation by cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Moreover, both acute (ACTH and ether stress) and prolonged (ACTH) adrenal stimulation resulted in lowered ADN levels, while expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was upregulated by the acute treatment. Depending on its site of origin, visceral (VAT) or subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue responded differently to alterations in HPA axis. VAT expression of ADN and its receptors remained almost unchanged by experimental manipulations. In SAT, on the other hand, expression of ADN and AdipoR2 was markedly increased by ACTH treatment and stress, while dexamethasone suppressed ADN and AdipoR1 mRNA levels. The results of this study provide new evidence for direct and indirect interactions between adipokines and HPA axis. PMID:20600433

  8. Adrenal Insufficiency Associated with Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Shingo; Torii, Ryo; Shimabukuro, Ikuko; Yamasaki, Kei; Kido, Takashi; Yoshii, Chiharu; Mukae, Hiroshi; Yatera, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    A 78-year-old Japanese man with fatigue, appetite loss, skin hyperpigmentation, hypotension and hypoglycemia, visited our hospital to evaluate an abnormal chest X-ray and adrenal gland swelling in echography in February 2015. Chest computed tomography showed a mass lesion in the right lower lobe and bilateral adrenal swellings, and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with bilateral adrenal metastasis was diagnosed after bronchoscopy. According to low levels of serum cortisol, elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and rapid ACTH test, the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency associated with SCLC was made. Treatment with hydrocortisone (20 mg/day) was started in addition to systemic chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide. The patient's symptoms were slightly improved, however, systemic chemotherapy was discontinued according to the patient's request after 1 course of chemotherapy. Thereafter, he received only supportive care, and his general condition gradually worsened and he ultimately died in August 2015. Adrenal insufficiency associated with SCLC, which is caused by tissue destruction more than 90% of the adrenal glands, is rare although adrenal metastasis is not rare in patients with lung cancer. The findings such as general fatigue, appetite loss, hypotension, and hyponatremia are often got follow up as findings of advanced cancer, but appropriate therapy for adrenal insufficiency, supplement of the adrenal corticosteroid hormone, may lead to a significant improvement in the symptoms and quality of life in clinical practice of lung cancer. Therefore, physicians must consider potential adrenal insufficiency in lung cancer patients with bilateral adrenal metastasis. PMID:27302729

  9. Percutaneous Ablation of Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Locklin, Julia; Dupuy, Damian E.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2010-01-01

    Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms, and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma and adrenal metastases. Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation, microwave ablation and chemical ablation. Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland’s unique anatomic and physiologic features. The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article. Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed. PMID:20540918

  10. [THE TECHNIQUE OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR SIMULTANEOUS DIAGNOSTIC OF INHERENT HYPERPLASIA OF ADRENAL GLANDS TYPE I AND II].

    PubMed

    Dutov, A A; Nikitin, D A; Lukyanova, Yu L; Shemiakina, N A

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography making it possible simultaneously detect cortisol, cortisone and secondary steroids in serum for consequent analysis of common reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet under 240 nm. The liquid-liquid extraction from alkaline medium in diethyl ether The separation using column of 150x4.6 size ODS 3.5 mkm in isocratic mode. The eluent acetonitrile--0.02 M phosphate buffer pH 8.0--isopropanol (40:60:1). The application of proposed technique managed to separate cortisol, cortisone, dexamethasone, corticosterone, 11-desoxicortisol, testosterone, desoxicorticosterone, 17α-gidroxiprogesterone and androstendion in 20 minutes. The simplicity, reproducibility and sufficient selectivity and sensitivity of technique permit implement it in clinical practice for simultaneous diagnostic of inherent hyperplasia of adrenal glands type I and II. PMID:27183726

  11. Microelectrode Arrays of Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Channels for Real-Time Detection of Exocytotic Events from Cultured Chromaffin Cells and Slices of Adrenal Glands.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Bernardi, Ettore; Marcantoni, Andrea; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2016-08-01

    A microstructured graphitic 4 × 4 multielectrode array was embedded in a single-crystal diamond substrate (4 × 4 μG-SCD MEA) for real-time monitoring of exocytotic events from cultured chromaffin cells and adrenal slices. The current approach relies on the development of a parallel ion beam lithographic technique, which assures the time-effective fabrication of extended arrays with reproducible electrode dimensions. The reported device is suitable for performing amperometric and voltammetric recordings with high sensitivity and temporal resolution, by simultaneously acquiring data from 16 rectangularly shaped microelectrodes (20 × 3.5 μm(2)) separated by 200 μm gaps. Taking advantage of the array geometry we addressed the following specific issues: (i) detect both the spontaneous and KCl-evoked secretion simultaneously from several chromaffin cells directly cultured on the device surface, (ii) resolve the waveform of different subsets of exocytotic events, and (iii) monitoring quantal secretory events from thin slices of the adrenal gland. The frequency of spontaneous release was low (0.12 and 0.3 Hz, respectively, for adrenal slices and cultured cells) and increased up to 0.9 Hz after stimulation with 30 mM KCl in cultured cells. The spike amplitude as well as rise and decay time were comparable with those measured by carbon fiber microelectrodes and allowed to identify three different subsets of secretory events associated with "full fusion" events, "kiss-and-run" and "kiss-and-stay" exocytosis, confirming that the device has adequate sensitivity and time resolution for real-time recordings. The device offers the significant advantage of shortening the time to collect data by allowing simultaneous recordings from cell populations either in primary cell cultures or in intact tissues. PMID:27376596

  12. Genetics Home Reference: intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most severe feature of IMAGe syndrome . The adrenal glands are a pair of small glands on top ... how these genetic changes underlie the bone abnormalities, adrenal gland underdevelopment, and other signs and symptoms of this ...

  13. Untreated Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with 17-α Hydroxylase/17,20-Lyase Deficiency Presenting as Massive Adrenocortical Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Jin; Song, Je Eun; Hwang, Sena; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Park, Hye-Sun; Han, Seunghee

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is usually characterized by hypertension and primary amenorrhea, sexual infantilism in women, and pseudohermaphroditism in men. hypertension, and sexual infantilism in women and pseudohermaphroditism in men. In rare cases, a huge adrenal gland tumor can present as a clinical manifestation in untreated CAH. Adrenal cortical adenoma is an even more rare phenotype in CAH with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. A 36-year-old female presented with hypertension and abdominal pain caused by a huge adrenal mass. Due to mass size and symptoms, left adrenalectomy was performed. After adrenalectomy, blood pressure remained high. Based on hormonal and genetic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as CAH with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. The possibility of a tumorous change in the adrenal gland due to untreated CAH should be considered. It is important that untreated CAH not be misdiagnosed as primary adrenal tumor as these conditions require different treatments. Adequate suppression of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in CAH is also important to treat and to prevent the tumorous changes in the adrenal gland. Herein, we report a case of untreated CAH with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency presenting with large adrenal cortical adenoma and discuss the progression of adrenal gland hyperplasia due to inappropriate suppression of ACTH secretion. PMID:26248854

  14. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Caused by Biallelic TNXB Variants in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wuyan; Perritt, Ashley F; Morissette, Rachel; Dreiling, Jennifer L; Bohn, Markus-Frederik; Mallappa, Ashwini; Xu, Zhi; Quezado, Martha; Merke, Deborah P

    2016-09-01

    Some variants that cause autosomal-recessive congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) also cause hypermobility type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) due to the monoallelic presence of a chimera disrupting two flanking genes: CYP21A2, encoding 21-hydroxylase, necessary for cortisol and aldosterone biosynthesis, and TNXB, encoding tenascin-X, an extracellular matrix protein. Two types of CAH tenascin-X (CAH-X) chimeras have been described with a total deletion of CYP21A2 and characteristic TNXB variants. CAH-X CH-1 has a TNXB exon 35 120-bp deletion resulting in haploinsufficiency, and CAH-X CH-2 has a TNXB exon 40 c.12174C>G (p.Cys4058Trp) variant resulting in a dominant-negative effect. We present here three patients with biallelic CAH-X and identify a novel dominant-negative chimera termed CAH-X CH-3. Compared with monoallelic CAH-X, biallelic CAH-X results in a more severe phenotype with skin features characteristic of classical EDS. We present evidence for disrupted tenascin-X function and computational data linking the type of TNXB variant to disease severity. PMID:27297501

  15. [Addison's disease : Primary adrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Pulzer, A; Burger-Stritt, S; Hahner, S

    2016-05-01

    Adrenal insufficiency, a rare disorder which is characterized by the inadequate production or absence of adrenal hormones, may be classified as primary adrenal insufficiency in case of direct affection of the adrenal glands or secondary adrenal insufficiency, which is mostly due to pituitary or hypothalamic disease. Primary adrenal insufficiency affects 11 of 100,000 individuals. Clinical symptoms are mainly nonspecific and include fatigue, weight loss, and hypotension. The diagnostic test of choice is dynamic testing with synthetic ACTH. Patients suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency require lifelong hormone supplementation. Education in dose adaption during physical and mental stress or emergency situations is essential to prevent life-threatening adrenal crises. Patients with adrenal insufficiency should carry an emergency card and emergency kit with them. PMID:27129928

  16. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging demonstrates the specific localization of deca-bromo-diphenyl-ether residues in the ovaries and adrenal glands of exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Seyer, Alexandre; Riu, Anne; Debrauwer, Laurent; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Brunelle, Alain; Laprévote, Olivier; Zalko, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Deca-bromo-diphenyl ether (DBDE) is one of the most efficient brominated flame retardant (BFR) available on the market. We recently demonstrated that when administered to female rat by oral route, DBDE is efficiently absorbed, with the highest residual concentrations found in two endocrine glands, namely the adrenal glands and the ovaries. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging, a technique usually used for the study of endogenous compounds, was applied for the first time to a persistent organic pollutant, allowing to detect and to precisely localize DBDE residues in these two target tissues. The detection of the bromide ion ((81)Br isotope) by TOF-SIMS mass spectrometry imaging allowed us to demonstrate a marked cortical tropism of DBDE residues for the adrenal glands in female rats dosed per os 2 mg·kg(-1) DBDE, daily, over 96 h. In ovaries, DBDE residues were found to be concentrated in spots corresponding to part of the corpora lutea. Hepatic residues of DBDE were found to be homogeneously distributed. Due to the intrinsic toxicity of DBDE, its accumulation in the adrenal glands and the ovaries may be connected to the mechanisms of actions by which DBDE could trigger endocrine disruption in mammals. PMID:20675151

  17. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  18. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate (99mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  19. Adrenal involvement in non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Paling, M.R.; Williamson, B.R.J.

    1983-08-01

    Adrenal masses are described in seven cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a series of 173 patients. In all seven patients the lymphoma was diffuse rather than nodular. Three patients had adrenal masses at the time of presentation, whereas in four cases the adrenal gland was a site of tumor recurrence after therapy. Three patients had simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement by tumor. No characteristic features were recognized that might have distinguished these tumors from other adrenal masses. Appropriate therapy successfully resolved the adrenal masses in all but one case. The latter patient was the only one with evidence of adrenal insufficiency.

  20. MCM4 mutation causes adrenal failure, short stature, and natural killer cell deficiency in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Claire R.; Guasti, Leonardo; Meimaridou, Eirini; Chuang, Chen-Hua; Schimenti, John C.; King, Peter J.; Costigan, Colm; Clark, Adrian J.L.; Metherell, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    An interesting variant of familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD), an autosomal recessive form of adrenal failure, exists in a genetically isolated Irish population. In addition to hypocortisolemia, affected children show signs of growth failure, increased chromosomal breakage, and NK cell deficiency. Targeted exome sequencing in 8 patients identified a variant (c.71-1insG) in minichromosome maintenance–deficient 4 (MCM4) that was predicted to result in a severely truncated protein (p.Pro24ArgfsX4). Western blotting of patient samples revealed that the major 96-kDa isoform present in unaffected human controls was absent, while the presence of the minor 85-kDa isoform was preserved. Interestingly, histological studies with Mcm4-depleted mice showed grossly abnormal adrenal morphology that was characterized by non-steroidogenic GATA4- and Gli1-positive cells within the steroidogenic cortex, which reduced the number of steroidogenic cells in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. Since MCM4 is one part of a MCM2-7 complex recently confirmed as the replicative helicase essential for normal DNA replication and genome stability in all eukaryotes, it is possible that our patients may have an increased risk of neoplastic change. In summary, we have identified what we believe to be the first human mutation in MCM4 and have shown that it is associated with adrenal insufficiency, short stature, and NK cell deficiency. PMID:22354170

  1. Primary Adrenal Insufficiency Misdiagnosed as Hypothyroidism in a Patient with Polyglandular Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Upala, Sikarin; Yong, Wai Chung; Sanguankeo, Anawin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is a rare condition that causes a variety of clinical symptoms due to autoimmune processes involving multiple endocrine organs. Its vague presentation can cause missed or delayed treatment for adrenal insufficiency, resulting in a life-threatening adrenal crisis. Case Report: A 21-yr-old man presented with lethargy, hypotension, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. He was binge drinking the day before presentation. No significant response to initial treatment with levothyroxine and dextrose occurred. Diagnostic workup later revealed primary adrenal insufficiency. All initial symptoms completely resolved following treatment with hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and levothyroxine. Conclusion: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome causes dysfunction of multiple endocrine organs such as the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and pancreas. Initial diagnosis of APS is crucial and difficult because of its vague, acute presentation, which often involves hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. Delayed treatment of adrenal insufficiency can result in a life-threatening adrenal crisis. A diagnostic workup for adrenal insufficiency should be performed in patients who do not respond to hypothyroidism treatment. PMID:27298818

  2. Positive iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) adrenal images can precede return of adrenocortical function after o,p' DDD treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sparagana, M.; Ackerman, L.

    1988-05-01

    A patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, due to the ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) syndrome, received a 3-month course of treatment with 1,1 dichloro-2(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p' DDD), which caused adrenal hypofunction requiring steroid therapy. Eleven months later, Cushing's syndrome recurred. His CT scan showed a left adrenal gland that was enlarged and a normal-sized right adrenal gland. However, the NP-59 image showed increased uptake by both glands. Venous effluent was sampled from each adrenal vein. The plasma cortisol level from the left gland was 1392 ng/ml, and that from the right gland was 667 ng/ml. The latter value was not significantly different from the values obtained at peripheral sites (517-744 ng/ml). In the course of recovery from o,p' DDD damage, the ability of the adrenal gland to take up NP-59 may be restored before the return of its biosynthetic and secretory functions. Serial NP-59 adrenal images can anticipate the recurrence of Cushing's syndrome after adrenolytic therapy, thereby permitting early retreatment.

  3. Autoradiographic localization and characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites in the rat central nervous system and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.R.; Wildey, G.M.; Manaker, S.; Glembotski, C.C.

    1986-07-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) have recently been identified in both heart and CNS. These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities, and are all apparently derived from a single prohormone. Specific ANP binding sites have been characterized in the adrenal zona glomerulosa and kidney cortex, and one study reported ANP binding sites in the CNS. However, a detailed examination of the localization of ANP binding sites throughout the brain has not been reported. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was employed to examine the distribution of ANP receptors in the rat CNS. The binding of (3-/sup 125/I-iodotyrosyl28) rat ANP-28 to binding sites in the rat CNS was saturable, specific for ANP-related peptides, and displayed high affinity (Kd = 600 pM). When the relative concentrations of ANP binding sites were determined throughout the rat brain, the highest levels of ANP binding were localized to the circumventricular organs, including the area postrema and subfornical organ, and the olfactory apparatus. Moderate levels of ANP binding sites were present throughout the midbrain and brain stem, while low levels were found in the forebrain, diencephalon, basal ganglia, cortex, and cerebellum. The presence of ANP binding sites in the subfornical organ and the area postrema, regions considered to be outside the blood-brain barrier, suggests that peripheral ANP levels may regulate some aspects of CNS control of salt and water balance. The possible functions of ANP binding sites in other regions of the rat brain are not known, but, like many other peptides, ANP may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator at these loci.

  4. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M. Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-04-15

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture.

  5. What Causes Cushing's Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adenomas in places other than the pituitary or adrenal glands, mostly in the lungs, pancreas, thyroid, or thymus ... Cancer in places other than the pituitary or adrenal glands, mostly in the lungs, pancreas (pronounced PAN-kree- ...

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Vatroslav; Kruljac, Ivan; Radosevic, Jelena Marinkovic; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Stipic, Darko; Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency (AI) after pituitary surgery. The ITT is unpleasant for patients, requires close medical supervision and is contraindicated in several comorbidities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether tumor size, remission rate, preoperative, and early postoperative baseline hormone concentrations could serve as predictors of AI in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of morning serum cortisol. This prospective study enrolled 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pituitary adenomas. Thirty-seven patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA), 28 had prolactinomas and 5 had somatotropinomas. Thyroxin (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) were measured preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day. Serum morning cortisol was measured on the third postoperative day (CORT3) as well as the sixth postoperative day (CORT6). Tumor mass was measured preoperatively and remission was assessed 3 months after surgery. An ITT was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively. Remission was achieved in 48% of patients and AI occurred in 51%. Remission rates and tumor type were not associated with AI. CORT3 had the best predictive value for AI (area under the curve (AUC) 0.868, sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 83.3%). Tumor size, preoperative T4, postoperative T4, and TSH were also associated with AI in a multivariate regression model. A combination of all preoperative and postoperative variables (excluding serum cortisol) had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 77.8%. The predictive power of CORT3 substantially improved by adding those variables into the model (AUC 0.921, sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 78.3%, PPV 81.9%, NPV of 92.7%). In a subgroup analysis that included only female patients with NPA, LH had exactly the same predictive value as CORT3. The

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cerina, Vatroslav; Kruljac, Ivan; Radosevic, Jelena Marinkovic; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Stipic, Darko; Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-03-01

    The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency (AI) after pituitary surgery. The ITT is unpleasant for patients, requires close medical supervision and is contraindicated in several comorbidities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether tumor size, remission rate, preoperative, and early postoperative baseline hormone concentrations could serve as predictors of AI in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of morning serum cortisol. This prospective study enrolled 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pituitary adenomas. Thirty-seven patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA), 28 had prolactinomas and 5 had somatotropinomas. Thyroxin (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) were measured preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day. Serum morning cortisol was measured on the third postoperative day (CORT3) as well as the sixth postoperative day (CORT6). Tumor mass was measured preoperatively and remission was assessed 3 months after surgery. An ITT was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively. Remission was achieved in 48% of patients and AI occurred in 51%. Remission rates and tumor type were not associated with AI. CORT3 had the best predictive value for AI (area under the curve (AUC) 0.868, sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 83.3%). Tumor size, preoperative T4, postoperative T4, and TSH were also associated with AI in a multivariate regression model. A combination of all preoperative and postoperative variables (excluding serum cortisol) had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 77.8%. The predictive power of CORT3 substantially improved by adding those variables into the model (AUC 0.921, sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 78.3%, PPV 81.9%, NPV of 92.7%). In a subgroup analysis that included only female patients with NPA, LH had exactly the same predictive value as CORT3. The addition

  8. Agents that cause enlargement of sebaceous glands in hairless mice. II. Ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Lesnik, R H; Kligman, L H; Kligman, A M

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a murine model to measure the effects on sebaceous glands of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Hairless mice were irradiated with Westinghouse FS-40 tubes filtered to attenuate the radiation below 290 nm. Emission was mainly in the UVB range (peak, 313nm). Single and multiple exposures were given with fractions or multiples of one minimal erythemal dose (MED). Biopsies, fixed for light microscopy, were stained with H & E. Under high power, sebocytes of 30 glands per specimen were counted and the means determined. A single exposure of 1 MED caused a significant increase in sebocyte count, as did thrice-weekly exposures to 0.5 MED for 3 weeks. One 3-MED exposure produced sebocyte necrosis, yet 30 exposures at 4 MED failed to ablate the glands. In both cases there was rebound enlargement which had not returned to control levels by the end of the studies (24-30 weeks). Prolonged irradiation produced maximum enlargement in a few weeks. Thus, in a manner similar to other skin components, the response of sebaceous glands to UV radiation is one of hyperplasia. PMID:1610209

  9. Brunner's gland hamartoma: a cause of the double-duct sign.

    PubMed

    Kostalas, M; Jackson, P; Karanjia, N

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Brunner's glands are submucosal glands found in the duodenum. Proliferation of these glands can lead to the formation of Brunner's gland hamartomas (BGHs), which are uncommon, asymptomatic and usually found incidentally. They are predominantly benign lesions, but instances of malignant transformation have been reported. Case History We describe a rare case in which a periampullary lesion was causing biliary obstruction on a background of weight loss, and was associated with dilatation of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Further investigation with endoscopic ultrasound and biopsy did not provide a definitive diagnosis. Given the symptoms and findings upon investigations, we proceeded to pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Conclusions This was a rare case in which BGH gave rise to biliary obstruction against a background of weight loss. Due to a high index of suspicion (weight loss and evidence of dilatation of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct), this procedure was justified because the consequences of a missed periampullary cancer far outweighed surgical risks. PMID:27055413

  10. Primary emphysematous adrenal hydatid: Unusual site for presentation with rare pathology

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Gaurav; Goel, Apul; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the adrenal gland is uncommon. We present images and description a case of emphysematous hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland that had an unfavourable intraoperative outcome. PMID:27555689

  11. Hyperthyroidism caused by a toxic intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, R.; Lakshmipathi, N.; Jena, A.; Behari, V.; Chopra, M.K.

    1986-09-01

    The rare presentation of hyperthyroidism caused by an intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland is described. The toxic intrathoracic goiter demonstrated avid uptake of (/sup 131/I) and (99mTc)pertechnetate, with comparatively faint isotopic accumulation seen in the cervical thyroid. A chest roentgenogram and radioisotope scan should be mandatory in cases of hyperthyroidism having no cervical thyroid enlargement to explore the possibility of a toxic intrathoracic goiter.

  12. Disabled-2 is expressed in adrenal zona glomerulosa and is involved in aldosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Romero, Damian G; Yanes, Licy L; de Rodriguez, Angela F; Plonczynski, Maria W; Welsh, Bronwyn L; Reckelhoff, Jane F; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E

    2007-06-01

    The differentiation of the adrenal cortex into functionally specific zones is probably due to differential temporal gene expression during fetal growth, development, and adulthood. In our search for adrenal zona glomerulosa-specific genes, we found that Disabled-2 (Dab2) is expressed in the zona glomerulosa of the rat adrenal gland using a combination of laser capture microdissection, mRNA amplification, cDNA microarray hybridization, and real-time RT-PCR. Dab2 is an alternative spliced mitogen-regulated phosphoprotein with features of an adaptor protein and functions in signal transduction, endocytosis, and tissue morphogenesis during embryonic development. We performed further studies to analyze adrenal Dab2 localization, regulation, and role in aldosterone secretion. We found that Dab2 is expressed in the zona glomerulosa and zona intermedia of the rat adrenal cortex. Low-salt diet treatment increased Dab2-long isoform expression at the mRNA and protein level in the rat adrenal gland, whereas high-salt diet treatment did not cause any significant modification. Angiotensin II infusion caused a transient increase in both Dab2 isoform mRNAs in the rat adrenal gland. Dab2 overexpression in H295R human adrenocortical cells caused an increase in aldosterone synthase expression and up-regulated aldosterone secretion under angiotensin II-stimulated conditions. In conclusion, Dab2 is an adrenal gland zona glomerulosa- and intermedia-expressed gene that is regulated by aldosterone secretagogues such as low-salt diet or angiotensin II and is involved in aldosterone synthase expression and aldosterone secretion. Dab2 may therefore be a modulator of aldosterone secretion and be involved in mineralocorticoid secretion abnormalities. PMID:17303656

  13. In vivo production of novel vitamin D2 hydroxy-derivatives by human placentas, epidermal keratinocytes, Caco-2 colon cells and the adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Kim, Tae-Kang; Shehabi, Haleem Z.; Tang, Edith; Benson, Heather A. E.; Semak, Igor; Lin, Zongtao; Yates, Charles R.; Wang, Jin; Li, Wei; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the metabolism of vitamin D2 to hydroxyvitamin D2 metabolites ((OH)D2) by human placentas ex-utero, adrenal glands ex-vivo and cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and colonic Caco-2 cells, and identified 20(OH)D2, 17,20(OH)2D2, 1,20(OH)2D2, 25(OH)D2 and 1,25(OH)2D2 as products. Inhibition of product formation by 22R-hydroxycholesterol indicated involvement of CYP11A1 in 20- and 17-hydroxylation of vitamin D2, while use of ketoconazole indicated involvement of CYP27B1 in 1α-hydroxylation of products. Studies with purified human CYP11A1 confirmed the ability of this enzyme to convert vitamin D2 to 20(OH)D2 and 17,20(OH)2D2. In placentas and Caco-2 cells, production of 20(OH)D2 was higher than 25(OH)D2 while in human keratinocytes the production of 20(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D2 were comparable. HaCaT keratinocytes showed high accumulation of 1,20(OH)2D2 relative to 20(OH)D2 indicating substantial CYP27B1 activity. This is the first in vivo evidence for a novel pathway of vitamin D2 metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and modified by CYP27B1, with the product profile showing tissue- and cell-type specificity. PMID:24382416

  14. In vivo production of novel vitamin D2 hydroxy-derivatives by human placentas, epidermal keratinocytes, Caco-2 colon cells and the adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Kim, Tae-Kang; Shehabi, Haleem Z; Tang, Edith K Y; Benson, Heather A E; Semak, Igor; Lin, Zongtao; Yates, Charles R; Wang, Jin; Li, Wei; Tuckey, Robert C

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the metabolism of vitamin D2 to hydroxyvitamin D2 metabolites ((OH)D2) by human placentas ex-utero, adrenal glands ex-vivo and cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and colonic Caco-2 cells, and identified 20(OH)D2, 17,20(OH)₂D2, 1,20(OH)₂D2, 25(OH)D2 and 1,25(OH)₂D2 as products. Inhibition of product formation by 22R-hydroxycholesterol indicated involvement of CYP11A1 in 20- and 17-hydroxylation of vitamin D2, while use of ketoconazole indicated involvement of CYP27B1 in 1α-hydroxylation of products. Studies with purified human CYP11A1 confirmed the ability of this enzyme to convert vitamin D2 to 20(OH)D2 and 17,20(OH)₂D2. In placentas and Caco-2 cells, production of 20(OH)D2 was higher than 25(OH)D2 while in human keratinocytes the production of 20(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D2 were comparable. HaCaT keratinocytes showed high accumulation of 1,20(OH)₂D2 relative to 20(OH)D2 indicating substantial CYP27B1 activity. This is the first in vivo evidence for a novel pathway of vitamin D2 metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and modified by CYP27B1, with the product profile showing tissue- and cell-type specificity. PMID:24382416

  15. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. PMID:25776460

  16. How Do I Find an Experienced Adrenal Surgeon?

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Adrenal Gland Disorders: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page ... do I find an experienced adrenal surgeon? Make sure that the surgeon you choose ...

  17. Identification, cloning and regulation of cDNA encoding aldo-keto reductase 1B7 in the adrenal gland of two Saharan rodents Meriones libycus (Libyan jird) and Gerbillus gerbillus (gerbil).

    PubMed

    Mataoui-Mazari, Houria; Amirat, Zaïna; Khammar, Farida; Martinez, Antoine

    2011-12-01

    Aldo-Keto Reductase 1B7 (AKR1B7) is a mouse aldose reductase-like protein with two major sites of expression, the vas deferens and the adrenal cortex. In the adrenal cortex, Akr1b7 is an adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-responsive-gene whose product scavenges harmful byproducts of steroidogenesis and limits stress response through the biosynthesis of prostaglandin F2α. The purpose of the present study was to explore the possible expression of AKR1B7 in the adrenal glands of two saharan rodents, Libyan jird and Lesser Egyptian gerbil. Western blot analyses demonstrated that a protein related to murine/rat AKR1B7 was highly expressed in adrenals and absent from vas deferens of both saharan species. Based on conserved sequences between mouse and rat, full length cDNA were cloned and sequenced in both species while hormonal regulation and tissue localization were explored in Libyan jird. Both cDNA encoded the expected 316 amino acids protein typical of AKR1B subfamily and contained the highly conserved catalytic tetrad consisting in Asp-44, Tyr-49, Lys-78 and His-111 residues. The deduced proteins shared higher identities with aldose reductase-like, i.e. AKR1B7 (86-94%), AKR1B8 and AKR1B10 (83-86%) than with aldose reductase group, i.e. AKR1B1 and AKR1B3 (70%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Libyan jird and gerbil enzymes were more closely related to murine and rat AKR1B7 than to the other AKR1B members. Northern blot analyses of total RNA from Libyan jird adrenals showed a single mRNA transcript of 1.4 kb whose expression was dependent on circulating ACTH levels. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that adrenal glands of Libyan jird and gerbil express both an ortholog of the murine/rat Akr1b7 gene and that ACTH-responsiveness is at least conserved in Libyan jird. PMID:21963864

  18. Giant adrenal myelolipoma: when trauma and oncology collide.

    PubMed

    Zorgdrager, Marcel; Pol, Robert; van Hemel, Bettien; van Ginkel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Three patients presented some decades after severe traumatic injury with atypical bowel symptoms which were caused by a giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland. The aetiology of this rare, benign and generally asymptomatic tumour is virtually unknown at present and several hypotheses have been devised. This report describes a possible association between high-energy trauma and the development of giant myelolipomas, further contributing to the hypothesis that severe systemic stress could be an aetiological factor in the development of an adrenal myelolipoma. PMID:24872487

  19. Effect of dietary copper and sucrose on catecholamine concentrations in the adrenal medulla

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, S.I.; Peterson, D.F.; Mason, P.A. KCOM, Kirksville, MO Air Force/SAM/RZP, Brooks AFB, TX )

    1991-03-11

    The severity of copper (Cu) deficiency in the rat is enhanced by dietary sucrose. Possible interactive effects of Cu status and sucrose on catecholamine concentrations in the adrenal medulla were investigated in Cu deficient rats fed a diet were investigated in Cu deficient rats fed a diet containing either glucose or sucrose, as compared with respective Cu-adequate controls. Catecholamines were analyzed by an HPLC method using 3,4-dihydroxybenxylamine as the internal standard. Cu deficiency caused pronounced decreases in norepinephrine and epinephrine, with no significant effect on dopamine, as expressed in nmoles/mg tissue. Dietary sucrose showed no appreciable effect on catecholamines in the adrenal medulla. The adrenal glands were markedly enlarged in Cu-deficient rats, whether fed glucose or sucrose. Adrenal weights were not affected by dietary sucrose. Data indicate that the increased severity of copper deficiency due to sucrose feeding is not associated with changes in adrenal catecholamine output.

  20. Sonographic Diagnosis of Fetal Adrenal Hemorrhage Complicating a Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Kütük, Mehmet Serdar; Doğanay, Selim; Özdemir, Ahmet; Görkem, Süreyya Burcu; Öztürk, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a rare intracranial vascular malformation which causes end-organ ischemia or venous congestion due to heart failure. Adrenal hemorrhage associated with VGAM has not been reported in the literature. We present the imaging findings of a fetal VGAM with adrenal hemorrhage. Case Report: A 26 year-old primigravida woman whose fetus with VGAM and mild cardiomegaly was scanned in the 34th week. On fetal ultrasound, a hyperechoic, well-circumscribed mass in the left suprarenal region was shown. Fetal and postnatal magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage. The baby died after delivery. Conclusion: Adrenal hemorrhage can complicate VGAM in fetuses with severe heart failure. Evaluation of the adrenal gland in affected cases may contribute to the prenatal counseling, and postnatal management. PMID:26966627

  1. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  2. Compensatory adrenal growth - A neurally mediated reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallman, M. F.; Engeland, W. C.; Shinsako, J.

    1976-01-01

    The responses of young rats to left adrenalectomy or left adrenal manipulation were compared to surgical sham adrenalectomy in which adrenals were observed but not touched. At 12 h right adrenal wet weight, dry weight, DNA, RNA, and protein content were increased (P less than 0.05) after the first two operations. Left adrenal manipulation resulted in increased right adrenal weight at 12 h but no change in left adrenal weight. Sequential manipulation of the left adrenal at time 0 and the right adrenal at 12 h resulted in an enlarged right adrenal at 12 h (P less than 0.01), and an enlarged left adrenal at 24 h (P less than 0.05), showing that the manipulated gland was capable of response. Bilateral adrenal manipulation of the adrenal glands resulted in bilateral enlargement of 12 h (P less than 0.01). Taken together with previous results, these findings strongly suggest that compensatory adrenal growth is a neurally mediated reflex.

  3. Relationship of serum lipids to adrenal-gland uptake of 6. beta. -(/sup 131/I) iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol in Cushing's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Valk, T.W.; Gross, M.D.; Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.P.; Schteingart, D.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1980-11-01

    An alteration in serum cholesterol levels has been suggested as a possible modifier of adrenal uptake of the cholesterol analog, 6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59). To assess the effect of hypercholesterolemia upon NP-59 adrenal uptake, patients with Cushing's syndrome (eight with pituitary-dependent, four with ACTH-independent, and two with ectopic-ACTH syndrome) were selected for retrospective analysis based on the availability of serum cholesterol (n = 14) and triglyceride (n = 10) concentrations obtained at the time of adrenal scintigraphy. A negative correlation (r = -0.78, p < 0.01) was found between NP-59 uptake and serum cholesterol levels in patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease. Compared with pituitary-dependent disease, the ectopic-ACTH syndrome and ACTH-independent states demonstrated equal or greater adrenal uptake of NP-59 at similar serum cholesterol concentrations. Serum triglyceride concentrations did not correlate with total adrenal uptake of NP-59 in any of the patient groups studied. Increased serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with diminished adrenal uptake of NP-59, and in some cases may limit the diagnoic efficacy of adrenal scintigraphy in Cushing's syndrome.

  4. CD44 expression in normal adrenal tissue and adrenal tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Barshack, I; Goldberg, I; Nass, D; Olchovsky, D; Kopolovic, J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein found on many normal cells, mainly lymphoid and epithelial. Normal cells usually express standard CD44 (CD44-S), whereas malignant tumours may express CD44 variant isoforms (CD44-V). CD44 expression has been described for neural crest derivatives. Characterisation of differences in CD44 expression may help in the diagnosis and differentiation of distinct adrenal tumours. AIMS: To examine CD44 expression in different layers of cortical cortex, in adrenal medulla, and in adrenal tumours. METHODS: CD44-S and CD44-V6 expression were studied in 12 cases of adrenal cortical adenoma, 3 of adrenal cortical carcinoma, 10 of pheochromocytoma, and 4 normal adrenal glands. RESULTS: CD44-V6 staining showed cytoplasmic expression in normal adrenal cortex and in cortical adenomas and carcinomas. Pheochromocytomas also showed CD44-V6 expression but in 5 of the 10 cases it was sparse, focal, and sometimes perinuclear. Strong membranous staining for CD44-S was observed in normal adrenal medulla. Analysis of CD44-S expression revealed differences between cortical adrenal tumours and pheochromocytomas. Ten of 12 cortical adenomas and 2 of 3 cortical carcinoma cells showed weak to moderate cytoplasmic staining, but all cases of pheochromocytoma had strong membranous staining. CONCLUSIONS: Membranous CD44-S staining may help to distinguish pheochromocytoma from adrenal cortical adenoma. Images PMID:9577373

  5. Resveratrol alleviates endotoxemia-associated adrenal insufficiency by suppressing oxidative/nitrative stress.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guo-Li; Wang, Chang-Nan; Liu, Yu-Jian; Yu, Qing; Tang, Xiao-Lu; Ni, Xin; Zhu, Xiao-Yan

    2016-06-30

    We have recently demonstrated that endotoxin causes oxidative stress and overproduction of nitric oxide in adrenal glands, thereby leading to adrenocortical insufficiency. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of resveratrol, a natural plant polyphenol with anti-oxidant and anti-nitrative properties, on endotoxemia-associated adrenocortical insufficiency. Resveratrol was administered immediately before injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Twenty four hours later, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests was been performed to measure the plasma corticosterone level and the adrenal gland tissues were collected for histopathologic examination, and determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite production. Treatment with resveratrol significantly inhibited endotoxemia-induced iNOS expression, NO production, and peroxynitrite formation and also attenuated LPS-induced oxidative stress in the adrenal gland, as evidenced by the decrease of pro-oxidant biomarker (MDA), and the increases of anti-oxidant biomarkers (T-AOC, CAT and SOD activity). H&E staining demonstrated that administration of LPS resulted in increased into the adrenal gland. H&E-stained sections of adrenal glands demonstrated signs of leukocyte infiltration and hemorrhage during endotoxemia, which were significantly improved by resveratrol treatment. In addition, resveratrol reversed the LPS-induced downregulation of ACTH receptor and silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in adrenal gland, as well as adrenocortical hyporesponsiveness to ACTH. Resveratrol exerts protective effects against endotoxemia-associated adrenocortical insufficiency by suppressing oxidative/nitrative stress. These findings support the potential for resveratrol as a possible pharmacological agent to improve adrenocortical

  6. Kuttner tumour: an unusual cause of enlargement of a minor salivary gland in the lip.

    PubMed

    Paul, R; Shekar, K; Singh, M

    2010-03-01

    Kuttner tumour is benign, chronic, sclerosing sialadenitis that usually occurs in the submandibular gland and is regarded as a salivary gland neoplasm because of its clinical features. We describe a tumour arising from a minor salivary gland of the upper lip. To our knowledge, there are only two previously reported cases. PMID:19926183

  7. Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with adrenal Cushing syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Franco, Carlos Andrés; Román-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Velez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Echeverri-Isaza, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia or the independent adrenocorticotropic hormone bilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause hypercortisolism, its diagnosis is challenging and there is no clear way to decide the best therapeutic approach. Adrenal venous sampling is commonly used to distinguish the source of hormonal production in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. It could be a useful tool in this context because it might provide information to guide the treatment. We report the case of a patient with ACTH independent Cushing syndrome in whom the use of adrenal venous sampling with some modifications radically modified the treatment and allowed the diagnosis of a macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:26309345

  8. Imaging of an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Graham, M.M.; Nelp, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Though the typical scintigraphic appearance in adrenal cortical carcinoma is bilateral nonvisualization of the adrenal glands, a case with simultaneous visualization of both an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis using 6-..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol is reported.

  9. Imaging of an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Graham, M.M.; Nelp, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Though the typical scintigraphic appearance in adrenal cortical carcinoma is bilateral nonvisualization of the adrenal glands, we report a case with simultaneous visualization of both an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis using 6-beta-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol.

  10. Loss of Igfbp7 Causes Precocious Involution in Lactating Mouse Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sumanta; Bacopulos, Stephanie; Yang, Wenyi; Amemiya, Yutaka; Spyropoulos, Demetri

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are secreted peptides that play major roles in regulating the normal development and maturation of mammary gland. While Igfbp7 has been shown to decrease breast tumor growth, its role in regulating the normal mammary gland development has not been studied. To this end, we generated Igfbp7-null mice and examined the development and maturation of mammary glands in the virgin, pregnant and lactating animals. Results We report here that loss of Igfbp7 significantly retards mammary gland development in the virgin animals. More significantly, the pregnant Igfpb7-null glands contained fewer alveolar structures and that during lactation these glands exhibit the morphological changes that are associated with involution. The transcriptome profile of the Igfbp7-null glands on the lactation day 3 revealed a distinct involution-related gene signature compared to the lactating WT glands. Interestingly, we found that the lactating Igfbp7-null glands exhibit increased expression of Stat3 and enhanced activation of (phosphorylated) Stat3, combined with decreased expression of Stat5 suggesting that the absence of Igfbp7 accelerates the onset of involution. We also found that in absence of Igfpb7, the lactating glands contain increased Igfbp5 protein along with decreased expression of IGF-1 Receptor and Akt activation. Finally, we show that during the normal course of involution, Igfbp7 expression is significantly decreased in the mammary gland. Conclusion Our data suggest that loss of Igfbp7 induces precocious involution possibly through diminished cell survival signals. Our findings identify Igfbp7 as major regulator of involution in the mammary gland. PMID:24505323

  11. Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for pyloric stenosis caused by heterotopic glands in a young female: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Tanioka, Toshiro; Matsumoto, Satoru; Takahashi, Shusaku; Ueki, Shinya; Takahashi, Masahiro; Ichihara, Shin

    2015-06-01

    A 17-year-old female was referred to our hospital with worsening dietary intake and abdominal bloating. She had epigastric fullness, but no abdominal pain. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed food residue and pyloric stenosis. A contrast-enhanced radiograph also showed pyloric stenosis, and gastrografin was not passed well through her pylorus. Computed tomography revealed similar findings. The biopsy results indicated hyperplasia of the gastric glands. The patient was diagnosed with a benign lesion, and underwent endoscopic balloon dilation several times. However, her stenosis worsened and we decided to perform surgery. In consideration of the cosmetic outcome, we performed laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. The postoperative course was good, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 10. The final diagnosis was pyloric stenosis caused by heterotopic glands. No malignant lesions were found. Since gastric stenosis caused by heterotopic glands has not been reported previously, we consider this to be a very rare case. PMID:24986451

  12. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  13. Clinical application of SPECT in adrenal imaging with iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimura, J.; Kawanaka, M.; Fukuchi, M.

    1989-04-01

    Forty-one patients with or without adrenocortical disorders were studied to evaluate the clinical usefulness of SPECT in adrenal imaging with I-131 Adosterol. In the SPECT images from this study, all glands with either normally functioning or hyperfunctioning adrenal cortices could be detected, while those glands with hypofunctioning adrenal cortices could not be detected. Particularly in transaxial and sagittal slices, the adrenal gland was identified posteriorly and was clearly distinguished from the gallbladder. In preliminary results using SPECT by a standard method, uptake in 68 detectable glands ranged from 1.7% to 4.9% in four glands with Cushing's syndrome, from 1.1% to 1.3% in seven glands with primary aldosteronism, and were distributed below 1.0% in the remaining glands with normally functioning adrenal cortices. These data show that it is possible to evaluate the adrenocortical functioning status simply by analyzing the SPECT images of the adrenal.

  14. Salivary glands - "an unisex organ'?

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Y T; Stegaev, V; Mackiewicz, Z; Porola, P; Hänninen, A; Szodoray, P

    2010-10-01

    Usually no distinction is made between female and male salivary glands although cyclic changes of and ⁄ or differences in serum and salivary sex steroid concentrations characterize women and men. Moreover, sexual dimorphism is well recognized in salivary glands of rodents.Salivary glands contain estrogen and androgen receptors and are, according to modern high throughput technologies,subjected to gender differences not explainable by gene dose effects by the X chromosome alone. Because sex steroids are lipophilic, it is often thought that approximately 10% of them passively diffuse from plasma to saliva. Indeed, saliva can find use as sample material in sports medicine, pediatrics, veterinary medicine and behavioral sciences. Last but not least, humans and other primates are unique in that they have a reticular zone in their adrenal cortex, which produces dehydroepiandrosterone and androstendione pro-hormones. These are processed in peripheral tissues, not only in female breast and uterus and male prostate, but also in salivary glands by an intracrine enzymatic machinery to active 17b-estradiol,dihydrotestosterone and others, to satisfy and buffer against a constantly changing needs caused by circadian,menstrual, pregnancy and chronobiological hormonal changes in the systemic circulation. Female dominance of Sjögren's syndrome and certain forms of salivary gland cancer probably reflect these gender-based differences. PMID:20412448

  15. Adrenal oncoctyoma of uncertain malignant potential: a rare etiology of adrenal incidentaloma.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Rohit R; Muinov, Lucy; Lele, Subodh M; Shivaswamy, Vijay

    2016-03-01

    A rare cause for rapid adrenal enlargement is adrenal oncocytoma of uncertain malignant potential. A full biochemical evaluation is warranted to screen secreting adrenal adenomas as well as to evaluate adrenal cortical carcinoma. Careful pathologic evaluation is required as the diagnosis of AOC cannot be made by imaging. PMID:27014458

  16. Laparoscopic Resection of Adrenal Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Vitagliano, Gonzalo; Villeta, Matias; Arellano, Leonardo; Santis, Oscar

    2006-01-01

    Background: Teratoma is a germ-cell tumor that commonly affects the gonads. Its components originate in the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. Extragonadal occurrence is rare. Teratomas confined to the adrenal gland are exceptional; only 3 cases have been reported in the English-language literature. We report 2 cases of mature teratomas of the adrenal gland that were laparoscopically excised. Methods: Two patients (ages 8 and 61 years) were diagnosed with adrenal teratoma at our institution. Radiological examination showed a solid 8-cm adrenal lesion in both cases. Hormonal assessment was normal. Both patients underwent laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy. Results: Surgical time was 120 minutes and 50 minutes, respectively. One patient was discharged on postoperative day 2, and the other remained hospitalized until day 10. The latter patient required percutaneous drainage of a retroperitoneal collection. Both tumors were identified as mature cystic teratomas. No evidence was present of recurring disease in either patient. Conclusions: Adrenal teratoma is rare. Laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy is a feasible, effective technique that enables excellent oncologic results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pure adrenal teratoma. PMID:17575773

  17. Adrenal response to ACTH stimulation in Rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    PubMed

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T

    1984-01-01

    Resting cortisol values in immobilized mature Rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) and the response to synthetic ACTH were investigated. The mean level of cortisol in mature Rusa stags was found to be 3.80 ng/ml (SD = 0.87, N = 18). Over the range 0.37-6.0 i.u. the adrenal response to ACTH challenge was linearly related to the log dose ACTH administered (r = 0.998). More than 6 i.u. of ACTH caused maximal stimulation of the adrenal gland. Rusa deer appear to be much more sensitive to ACTH administration than other species. PMID:6150796

  18. Role of DAX-1 (NR0B1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (NR5A1) in human adrenal function.

    PubMed

    El-Khairi, Ranna; Martinez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lin, Lin; Achermann, John C

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear receptor transcription factors DAX-1 (NR0B1) and SF-1 (NR5A1) regulate many aspects of adrenal and reproductive development and function. Disruption of the genes encoding these factors can be associated with pediatric adrenal disease. DAX-1 mutations are classically associated with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and impaired spermatogenesis. However, other phenotypes are also being reported, such as isolated mineralocorticoid insufficiency, premature sexual development, primary adrenal insufficiency in a 46, XX patient and late-onset X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. SF-1 mutations have also been associated with primary adrenal insufficiency, together with 46, XY disorders of sex development. However it is emerging that SF-1 changes are a relatively rare cause of primary adrenal failure in humans, and most individuals with SF-1 mutations have a spectrum of 46, XY disorders of sex development phenotypes. These conditions range from 46, XY females with streak gonads and müllerian structures, through children with ambiguous genitalia and inguinal testes, to severe penoscrotal hypospadias with undescended testes. Therefore, the human gonad appears to be more sensitive than the adrenal gland to loss of SF-1 function. This review will focus on the expanding range of phenotypes associated with DAX-1 and SF-1 mutations. PMID:21164257

  19. Adrenal Incidentaloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  20. Idiopathic Bilateral Adrenal Hemorrhage in a 63-Year-Old Male: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bodukam, Vijay Kumar; Thakur, Kshitij; Singh, Amandeep; Jenkins, Donald; Bahl, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage is a largely uncommon condition typically caused by a number of factors including infection, MI, CHF, anticoagulants, trauma, surgery, and antiphospholipid syndrome. Yet, idiopathic bilateral hemorrhage is rare. The authors present a case of a 63-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain that was eventually diagnosed as bilateral adrenal hemorrhages due to an unknown origin. Abdominal CT revealed normal adrenal glands without enlargement, but an MRI displayed enlargement due to hemorrhage in both adrenals. There was no known cause; the patient had not suffered from an acute infection and was not on anticoagulants, and the patient's history did not reveal any of the other known causative factors. The case underscores the importance of keeping bilateral adrenal hemorrhages on the list of differentials even when a cause is not immediately clear. It also raises the question of whether CT is the most sensitive test in the diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage and whether the diagnostic approach should place greater weight on MRI. The case highlights the need for prompt therapy with steroids once bilateral hemorrhage is suspected to avert the development or progression of adrenal insufficiency. PMID:25973281

  1. Secondary radiation damage as the main cause for unexpected volume effects: A histopathologic study of the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.umcg.nl; Faber, Hette; Cotteleer, Femmy; Vissink, Arjan; Coppes, Rob P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate with a histopathological study the mechanism of region-dependent volume effects in the partly irradiated parotid gland of the rat. Methods and Materials: Wistar rats were locally X-irradiated with collimators with conformal radiation portals for 100% volume and 50% cranial/caudal partial volumes. Single doses up to 40 Gy were applied. Parotid saliva samples were collected, and the three lobes of the parotid gland were examined individually on the macro- and micromorphologic level up to 1 year after irradiation. Results: Dose-dependent loss of gland weight was observed 1 year after total or partial X-irradiation. Weight loss of the glands correlated very well with loss of secretory function. Irradiating the cranial 50% volume (implicating a shielded lateral lobe) resulted in substantially more damage in terms of weight loss and loss of secretory function than 50% caudal irradiation (shielding the ventral and dorsal lobe). Histologic examinations of the glands 1 year after irradiation revealed that the shielded lateral lobe was severely affected, in contrast to the shielded ventral and dorsal lobes. Time studies showed that irradiation of the cranial 50% volume caused late development of secondary damage in the shielded lateral lobe, becoming manifest between 240 and 360 days after irradiation. The possible clinical significance of this finding is discussed. Conclusion: It is concluded that the observed region-dependent volume effect for late function loss in the rat parotid gland after partial irradiation is mainly caused by secondary events in the shielded lateral lobe. The most probable first step (primary radiation event) in the development of this secondary damage is radiation exposure to the hilus region (located between the ventral and dorsal lobe). By injuring major excretory ducts and supply routes for blood and nerves in this area, the facility system necessary for proper functioning of the nonexposed lateral lobe is seriously affected

  2. An effect of mammary gland infection caused by Streptococcus uberis on composition and physicochemical changes of cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Pecka-Kiełb, E; Vasil, M; Zachwieja, A; Zawadzki, W; Elečko, J; Zigo, F; Illek, J; Farkašová, Z

    2016-01-01

    An effect of mammary gland infection caused by Streptococcus uberis on the changes in cows' milk composition and its physicochemical properties was examined. The study was conducted in the herd of Slovak Pied breed cattle (with a share of HF blood), in 2nd and 3rd lactation, after 4th month of milking. Milk samples were collected from a quarter milking. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis, basic milk composition, total bacteria count, somatic cell count and physicochemical properties were examined. Also analyses of protein fractions share and fatty acids profile were conducted. An effect of bacterial infection of the mammary gland bring an increase (P<0.01) in somatic cell count was observed in this study. Milk samples contaminated with S. uberis were characterized by higher (P<0.05) total bacteria count and total protein compared to milk samples collected from non-infected mammary gland. The level of κ-casein was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in cows with subclinical mastitis caused by S. uberis. Significant (P<0.05) reduction in the share of C13:0 acid, and an increased level of C18:0, C18:1n7t and CLA were observed in milk contaminated with S. uberis compared to healthy cows' milk. It should be concluded that S. uberis causes the increase in total bacteria count, SCC and the decrease in κ-casein level, which significantly affects deterioration of technological quality of cows' milk. PMID:27096787

  3. Localization of functional adrenal tumors by computed tomography and venous sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Doppman, J.L.; Gill, J.R. Jr.; Strott, C.A.; Keiser, H.R.; Brennan, M.F.

    1982-02-01

    Fifty-eight patients with functional lesions of the adrenal glands underwent radiographic evaluation. Twenty-eight patients had primary aldosteronism (Conn syndrome), 20 had Cushing syndrome, and 10 had pheochromocytoma. Computed tomography (CT) correctly identified adrenal tumors in 11 (61%) of 18 patients with aldosteronomas, 6 of 6 patients with benign cortisol-producing adrenal tumors, and 5 (83%) of 6 patients with pheochromocytomas. No false-positive diagnoses were encountered among patients with adrenal adenomas. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia appeared on CT scans as normal or prominent adrenal glands with a normal configuration; however, CT was not able to exclude the presence of small adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling was correct in each case, and reliably distinguished adrenal tumors from hyperplasia. Recurrent pheochromocytomas were the most difficult to loclize on CT due to the surgical changes in the region of the adrenals and the frequent extra-adrenal locations.

  4. Adrenal myelolipoma.

    PubMed

    Cyran, K M; Kenney, P J; Memel, D S; Yacoub, I

    1996-02-01

    In 1905, Gierke [1] first described the occurrence of a tumor in the adrenal composed of mature fat and mixed myeloid and erythroid cells, subsequently termed "formations myelolipomatoses" by Oberling [2] in 1929. PMID:8553954

  5. The effect of changes in adrenal blood flow on adrenal cortical responses to adrenocorticotrophin in conscious calves.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C T; Edwards, A V; Bloom, S R

    1990-01-01

    1. The effect of varying adrenal blood flow on the rate at which it was estimated that adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) was presented to the adrenal gland was related to right adrenal cortisol output in conscious calves fitted with 'adrenal clamps'. 2. Intra-aortic infusions of endothelin at either 15.0 or 7.5 pmol min-1 kg-1 produced a substantial fall in right adrenal blood flow which was dose-related over this range. There was an associated fall in right adrenal cortisol output and cortisol output was linearly related to estimated ACTH presentation to the gland over the whole range investigated. The changes in adrenal cortisol output were reflected by changes in the concentration of cortisol in the peripheral plasma, which could be attributed entirely to the fluctuations in adrenal cortisol output. 3. It is concluded that delivery of ACTH to the adrenal gland is flow dependent over the physiological range in these animals and that changes in adrenal cortical blood flow can therefore be expected to result in changes in adrenal output due to variations in the presentation rate of ACTH. PMID:2177504

  6. Estrogenic Plant Extracts Reverse Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation without Causing Mammary Gland or Uterine Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Saunier, Elise F.; Vivar, Omar I.; Rubenstein, Andrea; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Olshansky, Moshe; Baggett, Scott; Staub, Richard E.; Tagliaferri, Mary; Cohen, Isaac; Speed, Terence P.; Baxter, John D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG) and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP) bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. PMID:22163294

  7. [Meibomian glands : part III. Dysfunction - argument for a discrete disease entity and as an important cause of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Knop, E; Knop, N; Brewitt, H; Pleyer, U; Rieck, P; Seitz, B; Schirra, F

    2009-11-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), mainly synonymous with posterior blepharitis but typically without prominent inflammatory alterations of the lid margin, is a discrete disease entity and a frequent cause of wetting deficiencies of the ocular surface leading to dry eye disease that deserves increased recognition by clinicians. The history, classification, pathology, influencing factors, diagnostics and therapy are explained and discussed. MGD is mainly based on an obstructive mechanism caused by hyperkeratinization of the excretory duct and/or increased viscosity of the secretion (meibum) with subsequent deficiency of the tear film lipid layer. MGD is influenced by the hormonal status and by chemical and mechanical noxes as well as genetic defects and it occurs more frequently in women and generally increases with age. It results in stasis of meibum inside the glands, dilatation of the ductal system and eventually in atrophy and loss of glandular tissue (gland dropout). Careful investigation of the eyelids and lid margins with eversion, if necessary, should therefore be performed in every case of a wetting defect, notably before fitting contact lenses. Particularly important is the inspection of the meibomian orifices and diagnostic expression by mild mechanical compression of the lid. PMID:19941140

  8. Radioguided Adrenal Surgery: Access in Complex Situations: Technical Notes.

    PubMed

    Deus, Javier; Millera, Alfonso; Andrés, Alejandro; Prats, Enrique; Gil, Ismael; Suarez, Manuel; Salcini, José L; Lahoz, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    The laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered as the procedure of choice for the treatment of adrenal hyperplasia and tumor lesions. However, some special situations may limit the use of this method due to the difficulty to locate the gland and perform the lesion excision. We analyze 2 patients of a left adrenal tumor, explaining how they have overcome the difficulties in both situations. The first case was a patient with a history of intra-abdominal surgery and the other patient suffered from severe obesity. We performed with the use of the gamma probe, and the 2 cases, was of great help to access and glandular localization. The help of gamma probe test was achieved in the surgical bed, that removal was complete. The use of the portable gamma probe facilitated the access to the left adrenal gland as well as conducting the glandular excision without delay, despite the difficulties due to the intra abdominal surgery caused by the previous surgery, and in the case of severe obesity. PMID:26426608

  9. A Novel Population of Inner Cortical Cells in the Adrenal Gland That Displays Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptor-β1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen-Che Jeff; Kraft, Cary; Moy, Nicole; Ng, Lily

    2015-01-01

    The development of the adrenal cortex involves the formation and then subsequent regression of immature or fetal inner cell layers as the mature steroidogenic outer layers expand. However, controls over this remodeling, especially in the immature inner layer, are incompletely understood. Here we identify an inner cortical cell population that expresses thyroid hormone receptor-β1 (TRβ1), one of two receptor isoforms encoded by the Thrb gene. Using mice with a Thrbb1 reporter allele that expresses lacZ instead of TRβ1, β-galactosidase was detected in the inner cortex from early stages. Expression peaked at juvenile ages in an inner zone that included cells expressing 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, a marker of the transient, so-called X-zone in mice. The β-galactosidase-positive zone displayed sexually dimorphic regression in males after approximately 4 weeks of age but persisted in females into adulthood in either nulliparous or parous states. T3 treatment promoted hypertrophy of inner cortical cells, induced some markers of mature cortical cells, and, in males, delayed the regression of the TRβ1-positive zone, suggesting that TRβ1 could partly divert the differentiation fate and counteract male-specific regression of inner zone cells. TRβ1-deficient mice were resistant to these actions of T3, supporting a functional role for TRβ1 in the inner cortex. PMID:25774556

  10. Adrenal Lymphangioma Masquerading as a Catecholamine Producing Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Hodish, Israel; Schmidt, Lindsay; Moraitis, Andreas G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To report the unusual case of an adrenal lymphangioma presenting in a patient with an adrenal cystic lesion and biochemical testing concerning for pheochromocytoma. The pertinent diagnostic and imaging features of adrenal lymphangiomas are reviewed. Methods. We describe a 59-year-old patient who presented with hyperhidrosis and a 2.2 by 2.2 cm left adrenal nodule. Biochemical evaluation revealed elevated plasma-free normetanephrine, urine normetanephrine, urine vanillylmandelic acid, and urine norepinephrine levels. Elevated plasma norepinephrine levels were not suppressed appropriately with clonidine administration. Results. Given persistent concern for pheochromocytoma, the patient underwent adrenalectomy. The final pathology was consistent with adrenal lymphangioma. Conclusions. Lymphangiomas are benign vascular lesions that can very rarely occur in the adrenal gland. Imaging findings are generally consistent with a cyst but are nonspecific. Excluding malignancy in patients presenting with adrenal cysts can be difficult. Despite its benign nature, the diagnosis of adrenal lymphangioma may ultimately require pathology. PMID:26618011

  11. What might cause pain in the thyroid gland? Report of a patient with subacute thyroiditis of atypical presentation.

    PubMed

    Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Zybek, Ariadna; Biczysko, Maciej; Majewski, Przemysław; Ruchała, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (SAT), also known as de Quervain's thyroiditis or painful subacute thyroiditis, is the commonest thyroid condition responsible for neck tenderness. Other causes of pain in the thyroid gland should be taken into consideration during differential diagnosis, especially when a patient presents with misleading or equivocal signs and symptoms. We report the case of a 39 year-old woman diagnosed as having SAT whose clinical, biochemical and radiological presentation varied significantly from the common SAT manifestation. A tentative diagnosis of SAT was made based on the presented symptoms, ultrasonography and fine-needle biopsy results. However, biochemical analysis suggested neither inflammatory process nor the presence of thyrotoxicosis. Moreover, technetium scan of the thyroid revealed normal uptake of the isotope and there was neither clinical nor ultasonographic response for corticosteroids. The patient's symptoms, despite being prescribed typical treatment, gradually deteriorated and the pain became increasingly debilitating. Eventually, the patient underwent total thyroidectomy. As a result, she has become free of symptoms, but the macroscopic picture of thyroid gland, noted during the operation, gave a suspicion of neoplastic process. Nevertheless, histological study of flow samples confirmed the tentative diagnosis of de Quervain's thyroiditis, despite all previous findings that were not suggestive of it. This report confirms the likelihood that SAT can present atypically. Additionally, it indicates that surgical treatment may be considered in patients with severe, debilitating, persistent thyroid gland pain connected with SAT clinical course. PMID:22538753

  12. Adrenal cortex dysfunction: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Huebener, K.H.; Treugut, H.

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of the adrenal gland was studied in 302 patients with possible endocrinologic disease and 107 patients undergoing CT for nonendocrinologic reasons. Measurements of adrenal size were also made in 100 adults with no known adrenal pathology. CT proved to be a sensitive diagnostic tool in combination with clinical studies. When blood hormone levels are increased, CT can differentiate among homogeneous organic hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, benign adenoma, and malignant cortical adenoma. When blood hormone levels are decreased, CT can demonstrate hypoplasia or metastatic tumorous destruction. Calcifications can be demonstrated earlier than on plain radiographs. When hormone elimination is increased, the morphologic substrate can be identified; tumorous changes can be localized and infiltration of surrounding organs recognized.

  13. [The ovarian origin of hiperandrogenism in the postmenopausal woman the adrenal adenoma--a case report].

    PubMed

    Mrozińska, Sandra; Kiałka, Marta; Doroszewska, Katarzyna; Milewicz, Tomasz; Jach, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is a clinical condition characterized by excessive secretion of male sex hormones. An excess amount of androgens in women is manifested by symptoms of defeminization and masculinization. Hormonally active adrenal and ovarian tumors and non-tumor causes must be considered in the differential diagnosis. The authors describe the case of a 77-year-old patient who had hirsutism and reduction of the timbre of the voice. At the beginning she was suspected to have adrenal hyperandrogenism because of the tumor in the adrenal gland. Then adrenalectomy was conducted but it did not lead to alleviate symptoms. A MRI of the pelvis revealed a change of appendages projection and the patient underwent the total hysterectomy. The normalization of testosterone levels as well as reduction of the symptoms was observed after the operation. Finally, the ovary etiology of hyperandrogenism was confirmed. This case report is an example of difficulties in recognition the etiology of hyperandrogenism. PMID:26817354

  14. Adrenal response of male rats exposed to prenatal stress and early postnatal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Liaudat, A C; Rodríguez, N; Chen, S; Romanini, M C; Vivas, A; Rolando, A; Gauna, H; Mayer, N

    2015-01-01

    Stress in pregnant rats caused by chronic immobilization alters the pattern of secretion of corticosterone and modifies the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) of the fetus. Early postnatal handling, however, may reverse the effects of increased secretion of corticosterone. We investigated the effects of prenatal stress and postnatal handling on the activity of the HPA axis of male offspring of stressed female rats. Male 90-day-old rats from four groups were investigated: prenatally stressed animals without postnatal handling, prenatally stressed animals with postnatal handling, unstressed control animals with postnatal handling, and unstressed control animals without postnatal handling. After sacrifice, the adrenal glands were weighed to determine the adrenal-somatic index. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay and active caspase-3 expression. We found that the adrenal gland cortex:medulla ratio increased in animals with prenatal stress and that eventually the stress caused apoptosis. Handling newborns to simulate maternal activity ameliorated some of the negative effects of prenatal stress. PMID:25867787

  15. Muscarine binding sites in bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Barron, B A; Murrin, L C; Hexum, T D

    1986-03-18

    The presence of muscarinic binding sites in the bovine adrenal medulla was investigated using [3H]QNB and the bovine adrenal medulla. Scatchard analysis combined with computer analysis yielded data consistent with a two binding site configuration. KDs of 0.15 and 14 nM and Bmax s of 29 and 210 fmol/mg protein, respectively, were observed. Displacement of [3H]QNB by various cholinergic agents is, in order of decreasing potency: QNB, dexetimide, atropine, scopolamine, imipramine, desipramine, oxotremorine, pilocarpine, acetylcholine, methacholine and carbachol. These results demonstrate the presence of more than one muscarine binding site in the bovine adrenal gland. PMID:3709656

  16. Indium-111 leukocyte accumulation in submandibular gland saliva as a cause for false-positive gut uptake in children

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, S.L.; Williamson, M.R.; Seibert, J.J.; Boyd, C.M.; Latture, T.

    1987-11-01

    Unexplained false-positive accumulation of In-111 leukocyte in the gastrointestinal tract has been reported previously. In a pediatric population, uptake in the submandibular gland was noted in 19 of 42 children. This is believed to be a normal finding in children that is not seen in adults. In some of these 19 children, unexplained gastrointestinal activity was also noted. Saliva from a patient with false-positive gastrointestinal uptake and positive submandibular activity was positive for In-111. One suggested cause of unexplained gut activity may be secondary to swallowed activity in the saliva from the normal submandibular activity in children.

  17. Null mutation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-interacting protein in mammary glands causes defective mammopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chao; Kashireddy, Papreddy; Zhu, Yiwei Tony; Rao, Sambasiva M; Zhu, Yi-Jun

    2004-08-01

    To investigate the role of nuclear receptor coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-interacting protein (PRIP) in mammary gland development, we generated a conditional null mutation of PRIP in mammary glands. In PRIP-deficient mammary glands, the elongation of ducts during puberty was not affected, but the numbers of ductal branches were decreased, a condition that persisted long after puberty, indicating that the potential of ductal branching was impaired. During pregnancy, PRIP-deficient mammary glands exhibited decreased alveolar density. The lactating PRIP-deficient glands contained scant lobuloalveoli with many adipocytes, whereas the wild type glands were composed of virtually no adipocytes but mostly lobuloalveoli. As a result, PRIP mammary-deficient glands could not produce enough milk to nurse all the pups during lactation. The ductal branching of mammary glands in response to estrogen treatment was attenuated in PRIP mutant glands. Whereas the proliferation index was similar between wild type and PRIP-deficient glands, increased apoptosis was observed in PRIP-deficient glands. PRIP-deficient glands expressed increased amphiregulin, transforming growth factor-alpha, and betacellulin mRNA as compared with wild type glands. The differentiated function of PRIP-deficient mammary epithelial cells was largely intact, as evidenced by the expression of abundant beta-casein, whey acidic protein (WAP), and WDNM1 mRNA. We conclude that PRIP is important for normal mammary gland development. PMID:15161927

  18. Delayed Diagnosis of Graves' Thyrotoxicoisis Presenting as Recurrent Adrenal Crisis in Primary Adrenal Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Naik, Dukhabandhu; Jebasingh, K Felix; Thomas, Nihal

    2016-04-01

    Adrenal crisis is a potential life threatening complication. The common causes of adrenal crisis are infections, surgical stress and abrupt cessation of steroid medications. Endocrine causes like Graves' disease with thyrotoxicosis is one of the less common causes of an adrenal crisis. We report a 42-year-old female who presented with recurrent episodes of adrenal crisis due to delayed diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. She was initially treated with Carbimazole followed by Radio-iodine ablation and currently she is euthyroid. Her adrenal insufficiency was initially treated with hydrocortisone during the time of adrenal crisis followed by Prednisolone 5 mg once daily in the morning along with fludrocortisone 50 mcg once daily. This case highlights the need for high index of suspicion and less common causes like thyrotoxicosis should be ruled out in patients with adrenal crisis. PMID:27190873

  19. Delayed Diagnosis of Graves’ Thyrotoxicoisis Presenting as Recurrent Adrenal Crisis in Primary Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Dukhabandhu; Jebasingh, K Felix

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal crisis is a potential life threatening complication. The common causes of adrenal crisis are infections, surgical stress and abrupt cessation of steroid medications. Endocrine causes like Graves’ disease with thyrotoxicosis is one of the less common causes of an adrenal crisis. We report a 42-year-old female who presented with recurrent episodes of adrenal crisis due to delayed diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. She was initially treated with Carbimazole followed by Radio-iodine ablation and currently she is euthyroid. Her adrenal insufficiency was initially treated with hydrocortisone during the time of adrenal crisis followed by Prednisolone 5 mg once daily in the morning along with fludrocortisone 50 mcg once daily. This case highlights the need for high index of suspicion and less common causes like thyrotoxicosis should be ruled out in patients with adrenal crisis. PMID:27190873

  20. Persistence of histoplasma in adrenals 7 years after antifungal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Deepak; Chopra, Shweta; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Ajmani, Ajay K.; Kulshreshtha, Bindu

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal histoplasmosis is an uncommon cause for adrenal insufficiency. The duration of treatment for adrenal histoplasmosis is not clear. Existing treatment regimens advocate antifungals given for periods ranging from 6 months to 2 years. We report here a rare case who showed persistence of histoplasma in adrenal biopsy 7 years after being initially treated with itraconazole for 9 months. This calls for a prolonged therapy with regular review of adrenal morphology and histology in these patients. PMID:23869317

  1. Rare carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal minor salivary gland causing a therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kini, Yogesh; Desai, Chirag; Mahindra, Uma; Kalburge, Jitendra

    2012-04-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA), as a group, constitutes 12% of malignant salivary gland tumors. We present a case of CXPA of the buccal mucosa in a 17-year-old patient. The buccal mass was of a size of 3.0 cm located in the right cheek. Pleomorphic adenoma was the provisional diagnosis. The tumor was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological evaluation revealed a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. However, on magnification, certain areas showed islands of dysplastic epithelial cells' invading the fibrous capsule and CXPA was diagnosed. The patient was recalled and secondary surgery of the site performed. No tumor tissue could be detected in the secondary resection specimen. There is no sign of recurrence since 2 years. PMID:22919226

  2. AB073. Mutations in the type II 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene caused primary adrenal insufficiency & 46,XY disorders of sex development

    PubMed Central

    Dung, Vu Chi; Thao, Bui Phuong; Khanh, Nguyen Ngoc; Ngoc, Can Thi Bich; Morel, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders. It includes a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by the deficiency of one of the enzymes involved in one of the various steps of adrenal steroid synthesis. 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) deficiency is a rare cause of CAH caused by inactivating mutations in the HSD3B2 gene. Most mutations are located within domains regarded crucial for enzyme function. Our aim is to describe phenotype and to identify mutations of HSD3B2 in two classic β-HSD deficient patients belonging to two apparently unrelated pedigrees. This is a case series study. Family history and clinical manifestations were described. Genomic DNA from these patients was extracted using standard procedures from the peripheral blood leukocytes. Mutation analysis of HSD3B2 was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA direct sequencing. Vietnamese 46,XY newborn referred at 2.5th month of life with salt loss associated with hyponatremia (123 nmol/L) and hyperpigmentation. The testes were palpable in the scrotum but associated with a severe hypospadias (micropenis 0.5 cm; posterior). At 4 months of age, a second adrenal crisis has occurred with hyponatremia 127 nmol/L and increased 17OH-Progesterone (26.8 ng/mL) in this 46,XY DSD. This clinical and biological data associated with a sibling with female phenotype deceased at 18 months old after adrenal crisis (1st occurred at 7 days of life) suggest the diagnosis of 3β-HSD deficiency. The sequencing of HSD3B2 confirms the diagnosis because he is homozygous for a missense mutation, pAla161Pro. This mutation affects an amino acid conserved in all species and is located in one two alpha-helix involved in the dimerization of the two sub-units of the enzyme. The changing from Alanine to proline could break the alpha-helix. The same mutation has been found in the other Vietnamese family. The 46,XY newborn referred at 3th month of life with

  3. Clinical and molecular genetic analysis of a Chinese family with congenital X-linked adrenal hypoplasia caused by novel mutation 1268delA in the DAX-1 gene*

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Zhe; FENG, Ye; YE, Dan; LI, Cheng-jiang; DONG, Feng-qin; TONG, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Congenital X-linked adrenal hypoplasia (AHC) is a rare disease characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency before adolescence and by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HHG) during adolescence. In this paper, we present a Chinese family with AHC. Two brothers, misdiagnosed with adrenal insufficiency of unknown etiology at the age of 9, were correctly diagnosed with AHC when delayed puberty, HHG, and testicular defects were observed. We investigated the clinical features and identified the dosage-sensitive sex reversal AHC critical region of the X chromosome gene 1 (DAX-1) mutation in this kindred. Direct sequencing of the DAX-1 gene revealed that the two siblings have a novel mutation (1268delA) of which their mother is a heterozygous carrier. This mutation causes a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 436, encoding a truncated protein. It is important to increase knowledge of the mutational spectrum in genes related to this disease, linking phenotype to genotype. PMID:26537215

  4. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

  5. Primary Adrenal Leiomyosarcoma in an Arab Male: A Rare Case Report with Immunohistochemistry Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Veena; Mustafa, Mohammed; Amin, Essa; Ali, Waleed; Naji Sarsam, Shamil

    2015-01-01

    Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma is a rare form of adrenal mesenchymal tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) together with histology takes a major role in determining the tumor type and predicting their biological behavior and differentiating them from adrenal cortical carcinoma. Appropriate radiological investigation is necessary to rule out metastatic disease from primary tumors elsewhere in the body. In this case, we report a primary leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland in a 61-year-old Bahraini male clinically presumed to be a renal neoplasm. PMID:25685588

  6. Uptake and release of adrenal ascorbic acid in the guinea pig after injection of ACTH

    SciTech Connect

    Kipp, D.E.; Rivers, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    The effect of a single injection of ACTH (3 IU/100 g body weight) on the distribution of ascorbic acid (AA) and radiolabeled AA in 20 tissues was studied in adult male guinea pigs consuming 500 mg AA/kg diet. Saline- or ACTH-injected animals were simultaneously injected with (1-/sup 14/C)AA, and killed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after injection. There was no significant difference between treatments in the weight of any tissue over the 6-h experimental period. As anticipated, the concentration of AA in the adrenals of animals injected with ACTH was 33% of that of animals injected with saline at 4 h. Unexpectedly, the concentration of radiolabeled AA in the adrenals at 0.5 h after ACTH injection was 172% of that after saline injection. The concentration of radiolabeled AA in the adrenal of the saline-injected animals increased slowly over time to reach a level similar to that of ACTH-injected animals by 6 h. There was no effect of ACTH on the level of AA or uptake in any of the other tissues examined. These results demonstrate that a single dose of ACTH markedly influences the retention of AA in the adrenal gland without similarly altering retention of AA in other tissues. Furthermore, ACTH treatment causes both accelerated uptake and release of AA into the adrenals.

  7. Naloxone inhibits and morphine potentiates. The adrenal steroidogenic response to ACTH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heybach, J. P.; Vernikos, J.

    1980-01-01

    The adrenal actions were stereospecific since neither the positve stereoisomer of morphine, nor that of naloxone, had any effect on the adrenal response to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). The administration of human beta endorphin to phyophysectomized rats had no effect on the adrenal corticosterone concentration nor did it alter the response of the adrenal gland to ACTH. These results indicate that morphine can potentiate the action of ACTH on the adrenal by a direct, stereospecific, dose dependent mechanism that is prevented by naloxone pretreatment and which may involve competition for ACTH receptors on the corticosterone secreting cells of the adrenal cortex.

  8. Isolated adrenal masses in nonsmall-cell bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, T.W. Jr.; Bernardino, M.E.; Miller, J.I.; Mansour, K.; Greene, D.; Davis, W.A.

    1984-10-01

    Computed tomography has become an important diagnostic modality in the preoperative staging of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. The adrenal glands represent one of the most frequent sites of metastasis. Therefore, an isolated adrenal mass discovered on preoperative thoracoabdominal CT poses a diagnostic problem. Three hundred thirty patients with histologically proved nonsmall-cell bronchogenic carcinoma were evaluated. Thirty-two had adrenal masses without further evidence of disease in the abdomen, Eight of these 32 masses were metastases, 17 were proved adenomas, and 7 did not undergo biopsy. Thus an isolated adrenal mass is more likely benign than metastatic, and biopsy is advocated prior to withholding potentially curative surgery.

  9. Morphological and functional manifestations of rat adrenal-cortex response to sodium bromide administration under hypodynamic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirichek, L. T.; Zholudeva, V. I.

    1979-01-01

    Functional and morphological manifestations of adrenal cortex response to hypodynamia (2-hr immobilization on an operating table) under the influence of bromine preparations were studied. The sodium bromide was administered intraperitoneally in 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg doses once and repeatedly during ten days. The adrenal gland was evaluated functionally by ascorbic acid and cholesterol content and morphologically by coloring it with hematoxylin-eosin and Sudans for lipid revealing at freezing. Results are displayed in two tables and microphotographs. They are summarized as follows: the bromine weakens the functional state of the adrenal cortex in intact rats, causing changes similar to those under stress. During immobilization combined with preliminary bromine administration, a less pronounced stress reaction is noticeable.

  10. Clinicopathological correlates of adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kai; Hernandez, Karen Gomez; Mete, Ozgur

    2015-06-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisol-producing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decision-making and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease. PMID:26045561

  11. Clinicopathological correlates of adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kai; Gomez Hernandez, Karen; Mete, Ozgur

    2015-03-01

    Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisol-producing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decision-making and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease. PMID:25425660

  12. Glucocorticoid receptor haploinsufficiency causes hypertension and attenuates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and blood pressure adaptions to high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Michailidou, Z; Carter, R N; Marshall, E; Sutherland, H G; Brownstein, D G; Owen, E; Cockett, K; Kelly, V; Ramage, L; Al-Dujaili, E A S; Ross, M; Maraki, I; Newton, K; Holmes, M C; Seckl, J R; Morton, N M; Kenyon, C J; Chapman, K E

    2008-11-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones are critical to respond and adapt to stress. Genetic variations in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and associate with hypertension and susceptibility to metabolic disease. Here we test the hypothesis that reduced GR density alters blood pressure and glucose and lipid homeostasis and limits adaption to obesogenic diet. Heterozygous GR(betageo/+) mice were generated from embryonic stem (ES) cells with a gene trap integration of a beta-galactosidase-neomycin phosphotransferase (betageo) cassette into the GR gene creating a transcriptionally inactive GR fusion protein. Although GR(betageo/+) mice have 50% less functional GR, they have normal lipid and glucose homeostasis due to compensatory HPA axis activation but are hypertensive due to activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). When challenged with a high-fat diet, weight gain, adiposity, and glucose intolerance were similarly increased in control and GR(betageo/+) mice, suggesting preserved control of intermediary metabolism and energy balance. However, whereas a high-fat diet caused HPA activation and increased blood pressure in control mice, these adaptions were attenuated or abolished in GR(betageo/+) mice. Thus, reduced GR density balanced by HPA activation leaves glucocorticoid functions unaffected but mineralocorticoid functions increased, causing hypertension. Importantly, reduced GR limits HPA and blood pressure adaptions to obesogenic diet. PMID:18697839

  13. Adrenal metastases in lung cancer: clinical implications of a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Newton, Paul; Mason, Jeremy; Bethel, Kelly; Nieva, Jorge; Kuhn, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Adrenal gland metastases are common in lung cancer. It is well recognized that aggressive treatment of solitary adrenal metastases leads to improved outcomes but the exact nature of adrenal deposits is not well understood. Controversy exists as to the routing of cancer cells to the adrenal gland with some believing that this transmission is lymphatic, in contrast to the more generally accepted theory of hematogenous spread. Recently published mathematical modeling of cancer progression strongly supports the lymphatic theory. With that in mind, we performed a literature review to look for biological plausibility of simulation results and believe that evidence supports the contention that metastases to the adrenal gland can be routed by means of lymphatic channels. This could explain improved survival for patients in whom solitary adrenal metastases are managed aggressively with surgical or radiation modalities. We are calling for clinical trials prospectively testing this hypothesis. PMID:24736064

  14. Effects of Carbenoxolone on the Canine Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

    PubMed Central

    Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Okusa, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yumi; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Cushing’s disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to suppressive negative feedback by glucocorticoids. The abnormal expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD), which is a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is found in human and murine corticotroph adenomas. Our recent studies demonstrated that canine corticotroph adenomas also have abnormal expression of 11HSD. 11HSD has two isoforms in dogs, 11HSD type1 (HSD11B1), which converts cortisone into active cortisol, and 11HSD type2 (HSD11B2), which converts cortisol into inactive cortisone. It has been suggested that glucocorticoid resistance in corticotroph tumors is related to the overexpression of HSD11B2. Therefore it was our aim to investigate the effects of carbenoxolone (CBX), an 11HSD inhibitor, on the healthy dog’s pituitary-adrenal axis. Dogs were administered 50 mg/kg of CBX twice each day for 15 days. During CBX administration, no adverse effects were observed in any dogs. The plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and serum cortisol and cortisone concentrations were significantly lower at day 7 and 15 following corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation. After completion of CBX administration, the HSD11B1 mRNA expression was higher, and HSD11B2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the pituitaries. Moreover, proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression was lower, and the ratio of ACTH-positive cells in the anterior pituitary was also significantly lower after CBX treatment. In adrenal glands treated with CBX, HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 mRNA expression were both lower compared to normal canine adrenal glands. The results of this study suggested that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from pituitary due to altered 11HSD expressions, and is potentially useful for the treatment of canine Cushing’s disease. PMID:26262685

  15. Control of aldosterone secretion during sodium restriction: Adrenal receptor regulation and increased adrenal sensitivity to angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, G.; Hauger, R. L.; Catt, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of increased adrenal sensitivity to angiotensin II during the aldosterone response to sodium restriction was investigated in the rat. Sodium restriction for 36 hr markedly increased the aldosterone-stimulating effect of low-dose (1 ng/min) infusion of angiotensin II and caused enhanced binding of 125I-labeled angiotensin II to the zona glomerulosa in vivo. Conversely, in vivo binding of 125I-labeled angiotensin II was significantly decreased after 36 hr of high-sodium intake. In isolated glomerulosa cells, the increased binding of angiotensin II after sodium restriction was shown to result from a significant increase in receptor affinity (+80%) and a smaller increase in receptor concentration (+25%). The corresponding aldosterone responses in dispersed cells showed an increase in sensitivity to angiotensin II, commensurate with the increased receptor affinity. More prolonged sodium restriction (4 days) caused a further increase in angiotensin receptor concentration (+70%) and maximal aldosterone response (+50%), whereas the binding affinity of adrenal receptors and the sensitivity of the in vitro aldosterone response had returned to normal. During sodium loading for 36 hr and 4 days, the converse effects on adrenal angiotensin II receptors and aldosterone production were observed. Also, in contrast to the consistent increase in angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal glands of sodium-restricted animals, the angiotensin II binding capacity of uterine smooth muscle was decreased by 40% after 7 days of sodium restriction. The rapid regulation of receptor affinity and concentration during changes in sodium intake provides a basis for the dynamic modulation of aldosterone responses by dietary sodium content. During sodium restriction, the sequential changes in receptor affinity and concentration account for the enhanced binding and steroidogenic actions of angiotensin II in vivo and in vitro. These receptor changes, and the converse effects of sodium

  16. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors with radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Beierwaltes, W.H.; Sisson, J.C.; Shapiro, B.

    1984-01-01

    The development of radiolabeled cholesterols in 1969 as precursors of adrenocortical steroid production allowed the first noninvasive imaging of the adrenal cortices. FDA-NDA approval in 1984 should allow routine use of these agents in most hospitals. NP-59 is most commonly used in the diagnosis and management of Cushing syndrome; the second most common use is in the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. It is also helpful in the differential diagnosis of adrenal and ovarian hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, and is the only noninvasive method of detecting unilateral adrenocortical hypofunction. The newest and most popular use is in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic masses in the region of the adrenal gland discovered incidentally with CT scan (incidentalomas). In this situation, the NP-59 scan can define whether the tumor is in the adrenal gland and if it is functional or nonfunctional. The authors believe that, in the future, radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors might offer better diagnostic imaging of the adrenal cortex, although these agents will probably not be available for routine use for some time. The development of a radioiodinated guanethidine analog, /sup 131/I-MIBG, has allowed differentiation of normal adrenal medullary function from bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia before the development of hypertension or tachycardia, diagnostic increases in plasma or urinary catecholamines, or abnormal CT scans. The search for a pheochromocytoma should begin with /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. While over 90% of primary pheochromocytomas occur in the abdomen, neither a survey of the abdomen nor the finding of a single tumor should conclude the search.

  17. Adenovirus-mediated hAQP1 expression in irradiated mouse salivary glands causes recovery of saliva secretion by enhancing acinar cell volume decrease.

    PubMed

    Teos, L Y; Zheng, C-Y; Liu, X; Swaim, W D; Goldsmith, C M; Cotrim, A P; Baum, B J; Ambudkar, I S

    2016-07-01

    Head and neck irradiation (IR) during cancer treatment causes by-stander effects on the salivary glands leading to irreversible loss of saliva secretion. The mechanism underlying loss of fluid secretion is not understood and no adequate therapy is currently available. Delivery of an adenoviral vector encoding human aquaporin-1 (hAQP1) into the salivary glands of human subjects and animal models with radiation-induced salivary hypofunction leads to significant recovery of saliva secretion and symptomatic relief in subjects. To elucidate the mechanism underlying loss of salivary secretion and the basis for AdhAQP1-dependent recovery of salivary gland function we assessed submandibular gland function in control mice and mice 2 and 8 months after treatment with a single 15-Gy dose of IR (delivered to the salivary gland region). Salivary secretion and neurotransmitter-stimulated changes in acinar cell volume, an in vitro read-out for fluid secretion, were monitored. Consistent with the sustained 60% loss of fluid secretion following IR, a carbachol (CCh)-induced decrease in acinar cell volume from the glands of mice post IR was transient and attenuated as compared with that in cells from non-IR age-matched mice. The hAQP1 expression in non-IR mice induced no significant effect on salivary fluid secretion or CCh-stimulated cell volume changes, except in acinar cells from 8-month group where the initial rate of cell shrinkage was increased. Importantly, the expression of hAQP1 in the glands of mice post IR induced recovery of salivary fluid secretion and a volume decrease in acinar cells to levels similar to those in cells from non-IR mice. The initial rates of CCh-stimulated cell volume reduction in acinar cells from hAQP1-expressing glands post IR were similar to those from control cells. Altogether, the data suggest that expression of hAQP1 increases the water permeability of acinar cells, which underlies the recovery of fluid secretion in the salivary glands

  18. [Meibomian gland morphology study progression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqian; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping

    2014-04-01

    The meibomian gland (MG) in the eyelids, which is the largest sebaceous gland throughout the body, synthesize and secrete lipids to form the superficial tear film layer. It plays a key role in maintaining the ocular surface health. Abnormalities in meibomian gland morphology lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is the main cause of evaporative dry eye. Study on meibomian gland morphology will contribute significantly to the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. This review is just focusing on the current studies about techniques to visualize the morphology of the MG and changes of meibomian gland morphology related to diseases. PMID:24931156

  19. Exposure to estrogen and ionizing radiation causes epigenetic dysregulation, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, and genome instability in the mammary gland of ACI rats

    PubMed Central

    Kutanzi, Kristy; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The impact of environmental mutagens and carcinogens on the mammary gland has recently received a lot of attention. Among the most generally accepted carcinogenic agents identified as factors that may increase breast cancer incidence are ionizing radiation and elevated estrogen levels. However, the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland aberrations associated with radiation and estrogen exposure still need to be further elucidated, especially the interplay between elevated hormone levels and radiation. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated molecular changes induced in rat mammary gland tissue by estrogen, ionizing radiation, and the combined action of these two carcinogens using a well-established ACI rat model. We found that continuous exposure of intact female ACI rats to elevated levels of estrogen or to both estrogen and radiation resulted in significant hyperproliferative changes in rat mammary glands. In contrast, radiation exposure alone did not induce hyperplasia. Interestingly, despite the obvious disparity in mammary gland morphology, we did not detect significant differences in the levels of genomic methylation among animals exposed to estrogen, radiation, or both agents together. Specifically, we observed a significant global genomic hypomethylation at 6 weeks of exposure. However, by 12 and 18 weeks, the levels of global DNA methylation returned to those of age-matched controls. We also found that combined exposure to radiation and estrogen significantly altered the levels of histone H3 and H4 methylation and acetylation. Most importantly, we for the first time demonstrated that estrogen and radiation exposure caused a significant induction of p42/44 MAPK and p38 pathways that was paralleled by elevated levels of H3S10 phosphorylation, a well-established biomarker of genome and chromosome instability. The precise role of MAPK pathways and their inter-relationship with H3S10 phosphorylation and genome instability in mammary gland tissues needs

  20. Stimulation of adrenal DNA synthesis in cadmium-treated male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, S.; Nakamura, K.

    1984-07-01

    Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1 mg/kg body wt was injected into male rats of the Wistar strain, weighing 250 g on the average, twice a day (12-hr intervals) for 7 consecutive days. DNA and RNA contents and (/sup 3/H)-thymidine and (/sup 3/H)-uridine incorporation into the acid-insoluble fraction significantly increased in the adrenals of rats treated with Cd for 2 and 7 consecutive days. Adrenal protein content and weight also significantly increased. These results indicate that continued treatment with Cd stimulates DNA and RNA synthesis in the adrenal cortex, which in turn results in the increase of the total protein contents of the adrenal gland and subsequently in the enlargement of the gland. Serum adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and insulin levels in Cd-treated rats were not higher than control levels, suggesting that the stimulation of DNA synthesis in the adrenals of Cd-treated rats is due to factor(s) other than serum ACTH and insulin. Treatment with Cd inhibited DNA synthesis in cultured adrenocortical cells at concentrations of 10(-4) to 10(-8) M, suggesting that Cd does not directly stimulate DNA synthesis in the adrenal gland in vivo. Although the adrenal gland became enlarged, the total adrenal corticosterone content decreased significantly. The decrease of total adrenal corticosterone content may be due to the fall in serum ACTH level of Cd-treated rats.

  1. Adrenal steroidogenesis and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Turcu, Adina F; Auchus, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids (primarily aldosterone), glucocorticoids (primarily cortisol), and adrenal androgens (primarily dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate) occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal-recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-Hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for more than 90% of CAH cases and, when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. PMID:26038201

  2. Adrenal Steroidogenesis and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for over 90% of CAH cases and when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. This review discusses in detail the epidemiology, genetics, diagnostic, clinical aspects and management of 21OHD. PMID:26038201

  3. Adrenal cortical responses to vasoactive intestinal peptide in conscious hypophysectomized calves.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, S R; Edwards, A V; Jones, C T

    1987-01-01

    1. Right adrenal and various cardiovascular responses to an intra-aortic infusion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP; 4 micrograms min-1 kg-1) have been investigated in the presence and absence of exogenous adrenocorticotrophin, (ACTH1-24; 5 ng min-1 kg-1, i.v.). The adrenal clamp technique was employed in conscious calves in which the pituitary stalk had been cauterized 3-4 days previously. 2. The i.v. infusion of ACTH1-24 increased mean plasma ACTH concentration by between 1000 and 1100 pg ml-1 and mean right cortisol output by about 700 ng min-1 kg-1. Under these conditions the intra-aortic infusion of VIP produced a further rise in mean adrenal cortisol output, together with a consequential rise in mean arterial plasma cortisol concentration, without affecting the concentration of ACTH in the arterial plasma significantly. In the absence of ACTH the same infusion of VIP had no detectable effect on adrenal cortisol output. 3. In each of the above respects this intra-aortic infusion of VIP closely mimicked the effect of stimulation of the peripheral end of the right splanchnic nerve in these animals, as it also did by causing a substantial fall in adrenal vascular resistance in the absence, but not in the presence, of ACTH. 4. It is concluded that release of this peptide from splanchnic nerve terminals in the adrenal gland most probably accounts, at least in part, for the powerful adrenocortical steroidogenic response to splanchnic nerve stimulation, that occurs in the presence of submaximal doses of ACTH. PMID:2832592

  4. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  5. Limited significance of asymmetric adrenal visualization on dexamethasone-suppression scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.; Freitas, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    To access whether a single measurement of the adrenal uptake of 6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)-iodomethylnorocholesterol (NP-59) on constant dexamethasone suppression would allow discrimination of adenoma from normal and bilateral hyperplasia, the adrenal uptake of 6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)-iodomethylnorocholesterol (NP-59) was determined in 50 patients with primary aldosteronism (30 adenoma, 20 hyperplasia) and in 13 with hyperandrogenism (six adenoma, seven hyperplasia). Bilateral adrenal NP-59 activity at 5 days was seen in 14 of 36 patients with adenoma whereas marked asymmetric uptake of NP-59 was seen in six of 27 patients with hyperplasia. Thus the level of adrenal NP-59 uptake does not alone serve to distinguish either adenoma from the normal, contralateral adrenal or the adrenal glands in bilateral hyperplasia in all cases. It appears that the pattern of adrenal imaging best serves to separate adrenal adenoma from bilateral hyperplasia.

  6. A Novel Mutation in the CYP11B1 Gene Causes Steroid 11β-Hydroxylase Deficient Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with Reversible Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Mohammad A; Shati, Ayed A; Zou, Minjing; Alsuheel, Ali M; Alhayani, Abdullah A; Al-Qahtani, Saleh M; Gilban, Hessa M; Meyer, Brain F; Shi, Yufei

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of CAH, resulting from a mutation in the CYP11B1 gene. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency results in excessive mineralcorticoids and androgen production leading to hypertension, precocious puberty with acne, enlarged penis, and hyperpigmentation of scrotum of genetically male infants. In the present study, we reported 3 male cases from a Saudi family who presented with penile enlargement, progressive darkness of skin, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy. The elder patient died due to heart failure and his younger brothers were treated with hydrocortisone and antihypertensive medications. Six months following treatment, cardiomyopathy disappeared with normal blood pressure and improvement in the skin pigmentation. The underlying molecular defect was investigated by PCR-sequencing analysis of all coding exons and intron-exon boundary of the CYP11B1 gene. A novel biallelic mutation c.780 G>A in exon 4 of the CYP11B1 gene was found in the patients. The mutation created a premature stop codon at amino acid 260 (p.W260 (∗) ), resulting in a truncated protein devoid of 11β-hydroxylase activity. Interestingly, a somatic mutation at the same codon (c.779 G>A, p.W260 (∗) ) was reported in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer (COSMIC database). In conclusion, we have identified a novel nonsense mutation in the CYP11B1 gene that causes classic steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficient CAH. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure can be reversed by early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26265915

  7. Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern.

    PubMed

    De Padua, Michelle; Rajagopal, V

    2008-05-01

    Adrenal cortical tumors with myxoid change are rare tumors. To our knowledge, only 22 cases have been described so far in literature, which include 13 carcinomas and 9 adenomas. A pseudoglandular pattern has been described in 9 of these tumors. We report a case of a myxoid adenoma of the left adrenal gland in a 67-year-old woman, with a focal pseudoglandular pattern involving about 20% of the studied tumor. Rest of the tumor was composed of anastomosing cords of tumor cells. Abundant myxoid stroma was present, which stained positively with alcian blue and was weakly focally positive with periodic acid Schiff. Immunophenotype was consistent with an adrenal tumor, i.e., positive for vimentin, inhibin, and melan A. Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and chromogranin were negative. MIB-1 index was < 0.1%. PMID:18579979

  8. Adrenal Schwannomas: Rare Tumor of the Retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Emanuele; Simone, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Schwannoma is a benign neurogenic tumor originating from Schwann cells. These produce the myelin sheath that covers peripheral nerves that are often affected. This latter localization is extremely rare, and only a few case reports can be found in the medical literature. Studies have shown that approximately 0.5% to 5% of schwannomas are retroperitoneal, constituting 0.2% of adrenal incidental tumors. These usually present as incidental findings, nonsecreting adrenal masses in asymptomatic patients. Diagnosis of a schwannoma is based on detection of spindle cells with Antoni A and Antoni B regions in histological sections and positive staining for S-100 protein by immunohistochemical analysis. We report a case of an incidentally identified during an abdominal ultrasound examination with schwannoma localized in the left adrenal gland. PMID:26101687

  9. Image-Guided Adrenal and Renal Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Karun V.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Swerdlow, Daniel; DaSilva, Daniel; Beck, Avi; Jain, Nidhi; Wood, Bradford J.

    2010-01-01

    Image-guided biopsy is a safe and well-established technique that is familiar to most interventional radiologists (IRs). Improvements in image-guidance, biopsy tools and biopsy techniques now routinely allow for safe biopsy of renal and adrenal lesions which traditionally were considered difficult to reach or technically challenging. Image-guided biopsy is used to establish the definitive tissue diagnosis in adrenal mass lesions that can not be fully characterized with imaging or laboratory tests alone. It is also used to establish definitive diagnosis in some cases of renal parenchymal disease and has an expanding role in diagnosis and characterization of renal masses prior to treatment. Although basic principles and techniques for image-guided needle biopsy are similar regardless of organ, this paper will highlight some technical considerations, indications and complications which are unique to the adrenal gland and kidney because of their anatomic location and physiologic features. PMID:20540919

  10. Thymic involution in the suspended rat - Adrenal hypertrophy and glucocorticoid receptor content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between thymic involution and adrenal hypertrophy is studied. The thymus, adrenal glands, and tissue water content are evaluated in male Sprague rats suspended in antiorthostatic (AO) or orthostatic (O) positions. A 50 percent decrease in the wet weight of the thymus and hypertrophy of the adrenal glands are observed during the seven days of AO suspension. After seven days of recovery the thymus weight is increased to control level; however, the hypertrophy of the adrenal glands remains unchanged. Thymic and renal responses in O postioned rats are similar to AO reactions. Thymic glucocorticoid (GC) receptor concentrations in the rats are analyzed; a 20 percent decrease in GC receptor site concentration, which is related to thymic involution, is detected in both AO and O rats. It is concluded that there is a temporal correlation between thymic involution and adrenal hypertrophy, which is not affected by AO positioning, and thymic involution is not associated with an increased sensitivity to GC.

  11. Adrenal imaging (Part 2): Medullary and secondary adrenal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dhamija, Ekta; Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J.; Gupta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal malignancies can be either primary adrenal tumors or secondary metastases, with metastases representing the most common malignant adrenal lesion. While imaging cannot always clearly differentiate between various adrenal malignancies, presence of certain imaging features, in conjunction with appropriate clinical background and hormonal profile, can suggest the appropriate diagnosis. The second part of the article on adrenal imaging describes adrenal medullary tumors, secondary adrenal lesions, bilateral adrenal lesions, adrenal incidentalomas and provides an algorithmic approach to adrenal lesions based on current imaging recommendations. PMID:25593821

  12. Adrenal function in patients with active tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D J; Naraqi, S; Temu, P; Turtle, J R

    1989-01-01

    Although tuberculosis is a recognised cause of adrenal insufficiency, little is known about adrenal function in patients with active tuberculosis. Ninety Melanesian adults with active tuberculosis (30 pulmonary, 30 miliary, 30 extrapulmonary) had adrenal function assessed prospectively before and three to four weeks after starting antituberculous chemotherapy. Basal serum cortisol concentrations were normal in 55 (61%) and raised in 35 (39%) of the subjects. No patient had a low basal cortisol concentration. After Synacthen stimulation, cortisol responses were normal in 81 (92%) of the patients and subnormal in seven (8%). After antituberculous chemotherapy the response to Synacthen stimulation was normal in all but one patient. It is concluded that adrenal dysfunction is an uncommon problem in patients with active tuberculosis, and that, contrary to recent reports, antituberculous chemotherapy regimens that include rifampicin do not have an adverse effect on adrenal function. PMID:2763243

  13. Angiomyolipoma and Malignant PEComa: Discussion of Two Rare Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kwazneski II, Douglas; Merrill, Megan; Young, Jessica; Sell, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Angiomyolipoma and PEComa are rare tumors descending from perivascular epithelial cells (PECs), with distinctive IHC, morphological, and ultrastructural features. The kidney is the most frequent site of origin, but not the only one; however, adrenal gland angiomyolipomas are extremely rare. We describe two cases being found in the adrenal glands. Given the paucity of literature on the subject, more information on this disease is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Here, we describe two complete case reports, from presentation to treatment and follow-up, along with imaging and microscopic pathology samples, and provide a comprehensive review as to the history and current literature available regarding these extremely rare tumors. PMID:26998374

  14. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels Dexamethasone suppression test Blood cortisol levels Blood DHEA level Saliva cortisol level Tests to determine cause ... not possible, such as in cases of adrenal cancer, medicines can be used to stop the release ...

  15. Rapid intra-adrenal feedback regulation of glucocorticoid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Walker, J J; Spiga, F; Gupta, R; Zhao, Z; Lightman, S L; Terry, J R

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a vital neuroendocrine system that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones from the adrenal glands. This system is characterized by a dynamic ultradian hormonal oscillation, and in addition is highly responsive to stressful stimuli. We have recently shown that a primary mechanism generating this ultradian rhythm is a systems-level interaction where adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) released from the pituitary stimulates the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids, which in turn feedback at the level of the pituitary to rapidly inhibit ACTH secretion. In this study, we combine experimental physiology and mathematical modelling to investigate intra-adrenal mechanisms regulating glucocorticoid synthesis. Our modelling results suggest that glucocorticoids can inhibit their own synthesis through a very rapid (within minutes), presumably non-genomic, intra-adrenal pathway. We present further evidence for the existence of a short time delay in this intra-adrenal inhibition, and also that at the initiation of each ACTH stimulus, this local feedback mechanism is rapidly antagonized, presumably via activation of the specific ACTH receptor (MC2R) signalling pathway. This mechanism of intra-adrenal inhibition enables the gland to rapidly release glucocorticoids while at the same time preventing uncontrolled release of glucocorticoids in response to large surges in ACTH associated with stress. PMID:25392395

  16. A Rare Case of Isolated Cystic Hydatid of Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Eken, Huseyin; Isik, Arda; Balci, Gulhan; Firat, Deniz; Cimen, Orhan; Soyturk, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hydatid cysts are most frequently localized within the liver and lungs, although they can also be found in highly vascularized tissues such as the brain, muscle, heart, pancreas, adrenal, and thyroid glands. A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with complaints of a progressively growing mass that was compressing the surrounding tissues and causing respiratory distress. The pathological result was obtained as cytic hydatid. In patients with diagnosed hydatid cysts in the liver, systemic evaluation is necessary to rule out involvement of other organs. Among patients presenting with growths located in the neck, primary hydatid cyst of the thyroid gland must be considered in endemic regions. PMID:26962790

  17. A Rare Case of Isolated Cystic Hydatid of Thyroid Gland.

    PubMed

    Eken, Huseyin; Isik, Arda; Balci, Gulhan; Firat, Deniz; Cimen, Orhan; Soyturk, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Hydatid cysts are most frequently localized within the liver and lungs, although they can also be found in highly vascularized tissues such as the brain, muscle, heart, pancreas, adrenal, and thyroid glands.A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with complaints of a progressively growing mass that was compressing the surrounding tissues and causing respiratory distress. The pathological result was obtained as cytic hydatid.In patients with diagnosed hydatid cysts in the liver, systemic evaluation is necessary to rule out involvement of other organs. Among patients presenting with growths located in the neck, primary hydatid cyst of the thyroid gland must be considered in endemic regions. PMID:26962790

  18. [Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage revealed by jaundice: a case report].

    PubMed

    Oulmaati, A; Hays, S; Mory-Thomas, N; Bretones, P; Bensaid, M; Jordan, I; Bonfils, M; Godbert, I; Picaud, J-C

    2012-04-01

    The clinical presentation of adrenal hemorrhage varies, depending on the extent of hemorrhage as well as the amount of adrenal cortex involved by the hemorrhage. We report here a case of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage revealed by late onset of neonatal jaundice. This adrenal hemorrhage most probably resulted from shoulder dystocia. The aim of this work was to focus on the fact that jaundice can be caused by adrenal hemorrhage and to emphasize the crucial importance of abdominal ultrasound in cases of persistent jaundice. PMID:22424898

  19. Adrenal Hematoma and Right Hemothorax after Echis Carinatus Bite: An Unusual Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Singh, Jagdish; Gandhi, Ronak; Bhansali, Shashank

    2014-01-01

    Common bleeding manifestations after viperine bite include bleeding from site of bite, bleeding gums, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematuria, hematemesis, and intracranial bleed. Bleeding in the adrenal gland is a rare manifestation. We report here a patient of viperine bite who developed right adrenal hematoma and right hemothorax after 3 days of bite. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of adrenal hematoma and right hemothorax after Echis carinatus bite. PMID:25948976

  20. Role of adrenals in the mobilization of carbohydrate and fat resources after overstimulation of rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khechninashvili, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    The role of the cortical and cerebral layers of the adrenal glands in mobilizing carbohydrate and fatty resources in response to the effect of an extreme stimulant was investigated. It is shown that following adrenodemedullation and adrenalectomy, the leading role is played by the secretion of the adrenal medullary layer, whereas the role of suprarenals in the mobilization of fats is only slightly pronounced.

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  2. Phenotypic, metabolic, and molecular genetic characterization of six patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by novel mutations in the CYP11B1 gene.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy-Hoang; Eiden-Plach, Antje; Hannemann, Frank; Malunowicz, Ewa M; Hartmann, Michaela F; Wudy, Stefan A; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of steroidogenesis. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) due to mutations in the CYP11B1 gene is the second most common form of CAH. In this study, 6 patients suffering from CAH were diagnosed with 11β-OHD using urinary GC-MS steroid metabolomics analysis. The molecular basis of the disorder was investigated by molecular genetic analysis of the CYP11B1 gene, functional characterization of splicing and missense mutations, and analysis of the missense mutations in a computer model of CYP11B1. All patients presented with abnormal clinical signs of hyperandrogenism. Their urinary steroid metabolomes were characterized by excessive excretion rates of metabolites of 11-deoxycortisol as well as metabolites of 11-deoxycorticosterone, and allowed definite diagnosis. Patient 1 carries compound heterozygous mutations consisting of a novel nonsense mutation p.Q102X (c.304C>T) in exon 2 and the known missense mutation p.T318R (c.953C>G) in exon 5. Two siblings (patient 2 and 3) were compound heterozygous carriers of a known splicing mutation c.1200+1G>A in intron 7 and a known missense mutation p.R448H (c.1343G>A) in exon 8. Minigene experiments demonstrated that the c.1200+1G>A mutation caused abnormal pre-mRNA splicing (intron retention). Two further siblings (patient 4 and 5) were compound heterozygous carriers of a novel missense mutation p.R332G (c.994C>G) in exon 6 and the known missense mutation p.R448H (c.1343G>A) in exon 8. A CYP11B1 activity study in COS-1 cells showed that only 11% of the enzyme activity remained in the variant p.R332G. Patient 6 carried a so far not described homozygous deletion g.2470_5320del of 2850 bp corresponding to a loss of the CYP11B1 exons 3-8. The breakpoints of the deletion are embedded into two typical 6 base pair repeats (GCTTCT) upstream and downstream of the gene. Experiments analyzing the influence of mutations on splicing and on enzyme

  3. Adrenal function testing.

    PubMed

    Dluhy, R G

    1978-12-01

    Glucocorticoid stimulation and suppression tests are essential to the definitive diagnosis of diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, because they document abnormal physiologic control of hormonal secretion. Similarly, diseases of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis are diagnosed by mineralocorticoid stimulation and suppression testing. [Ed. Note: See Moore TJ, Williams GH: Adrenal causes of hypertension, in this issue.] Unlike tests of glucocorticoid function, testing of the renin-angiotension-aldosterone system is more complicated, because knowledge of posture and dietary sodium are necessary to interpret the results. However, measurement of the tropic hormone renin and plasma levels of aldosterone can be accurately made, allowing precise definition of this system. Errors are most commonly encountered when dynamic tests of cortisol output are performed in patients taking medications that may interfere with the assays or with the metabolism of the administered compounds, such as dexamethasone or metyrapone. Abnormal, spurious values may also be obtained in some individuals who do not have adrenocortical hyperfunction if they are very obese or if testing is performed in a setting of clinical stress. Careful attention to these pitfalls will avoid errors and allow the clinician to arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:216524

  4. A Case of Bilateral Testicular Tumors Subsequently Diagnosed as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Yan-Kun; Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Liu, Wei-Wu; Song, Yue-Qiang; Lin, Jin; He, Xue-Mei; Qiu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Ling; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) caused congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive genetic disorders resulting from mutations in genes involved with cortisol (CO) synthesis in the adrenal glands. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are rarely the presenting symptoms of CAH. Here, we describe a case of simple virilizing CAH with TARTs, in a 15-year-old boy. The patient showed physical signs of precocious puberty. The levels of blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), urinary 17-ketone steroids (17-KS), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and serum progesterone (PRGE) were elevated, whereas those of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and CO were reduced. Computed tomography (CT) of the adrenal glands and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the testes showed a soft tissue density (more pronounced on the right side) and an irregularly swollen mass (more pronounced on the left side), respectively. Pathological examination of a specimen of the mass indicated polygonal/circular eosinophilic cytoplasm, cord-like arrangement of interstitial cells, and lipid pigment in the cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry results precluded a diagnosis of Leydig cell tumors. DNA sequencing revealed a hackneyed homozygous mutation, I2g, on intron 2 of the CYP21A2 gene. The patient’s symptoms improved after a three-month of dexamethasone therapy. Recent radiographic data showed reduced hyperplastic adrenal nodules and testicular tumors. A diagnosis of TART should be considered and prioritized in CAH patients with testicular tumors. Replacement therapy using a sufficient amount of dexamethasone in this case helps combat TART. PMID:26985347

  5. Steroid disorders in children: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and apparent mineralocorticoid excess

    PubMed Central

    New, Maria I.; Wilson, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    Our research team and laboratories have concentrated on two inherited endocrine disorders, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and apparent mineralocorticoid excess, in thier investigations of the pathophysiology of adrenal steroid hormone disorders in children. CAH refers to a family of inherited disorders in which defects occur in one of the enzymatic steps required to synthesize cortisol from cholesterol in the adrenal gland. Because of the impaired cortisol secretion, adrenocorticotropic hormone levels rise due to impairment of a negative feedback system, which results in hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex. The majority of cases is due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). Owing to the blocked enzymatic step, cortisol precursors accumulate in excess and are converted to potent androgens, which are secreted and cause in utero virilization of the affected female fetus genitalia in the classical form of CAH. A mild form of the 21-OHD, termed nonclassical 21-OHD, is the most common autosomal recessive disorder in humans, and occurs in 1/27 Ashkenazic Jews. Mutations in the CYP21 gene have been identified that cause both classical and nonclassical CAH. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess is a potentially fatal genetic disorder causing severe juvenile hypertension, pre- and postnatal growth failure, and low to undetectable levels of potassium, renin, and aldosterone. It is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the HSD11B2 gene, which result in a deficiency of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. In 1998, we reported a mild form of this disease, which may represent an important cause of low-renin hypertension. PMID:10536001

  6. Effect of long-term administration of melatonin on adrenal histomorphology of the Indian desert gerbil Meriones hurrianae Jerdon.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B N; Sujathakumari, M

    1995-11-01

    Melatonin treatment for 8 weeks resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.01) in weights of the adrenal glands, in both male and female, M. hurrianae. The weight increase was not related to the time of administration of melatonin. Histology of adrenal glands in melatonin treated gerbils revealed a stimulatory response. In treated gerbils, adrenal cortex exhibited significant hypertrophy with enlarged nuclei and degranulated cytoplasm. Signs of hypertrophy were also evident in the adrenal medulla. The physiological significance of this response is not yet clear. It remains to be clarified if the hypertrophy indicates enhanced synthesis of corticosteroids. PMID:8786156

  7. Unusually large submandibular gland stone.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussona, Aws Adel

    2015-01-01

    Submandibular gland calculi is the most common disease of the gland. In this article, we report a case with unusually large stone located at the hilum of the gland causing necrosis of the overlying duct and the oral mucosa (floor of mouth). PMID:25934409

  8. Clock gene expression in adult primate suprachiasmatic nuclei and adrenal: is the adrenal a peripheral clock responsive to melatonin?

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, F J; Torres-Farfan, C; Richter, H G; Mendez, N; Campino, C; Torrealba, F; Valenzuela, G J; Serón-Ferré, M

    2008-04-01

    The circadian production of glucocorticoids involves the concerted action of several factors that eventually allow an adequate adaptation to the environment. Circadian rhythms are controlled by the circadian timing system that comprises peripheral oscillators and a central rhythm generator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, driven by the self-regulatory interaction of a set of proteins encoded by genes named clock genes. Here we describe the phase relationship between the SCN and adrenal gland for the expression of selected core clock transcripts (Per-2, Bmal-1) in the adult capuchin monkey, a New World, diurnal nonhuman primate. In the SCN we found a higher expression of Bmal-1 during the h of darkness (2000-0200 h) and Per-2 during daytime h (1400 h). The adrenal gland expressed clock genes in oscillatory fashion, with higher values for Bmal-1 during the day (1400-2000 h), whereas Per-2 was higher at nighttime (about 0200 h), resulting in a 9- to 12-h antiphase pattern. In the adrenal gland, the oscillation of clock genes was accompanied by rhythmic expression of a functional output, the steroidogenic enzyme 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we show that adrenal explants maintained oscillatory expression of Per-2 and Bmal-1 for at least 36 h in culture. The acrophase of both transcripts, but not its overall expression along the incubation, was blunted by 100 nm melatonin. Altogether, these results demonstrate oscillation of clock genes in the SCN and adrenal gland of a diurnal primate and support an oscillation of clock genes in the adrenal gland that may be modulated by the neurohormone melatonin. PMID:18187542

  9. Overexpression of miR-30b in the Developing Mouse Mammary Gland Causes a Lactation Defect and Delays Involution

    PubMed Central

    Laubier, Johann; Passet, Bruno; Vilotte, Marthe; Castille, Johan; Laloë, Denis; Polyte, Jacqueline; Bouet, Stéphan; Jaffrézic, Florence; Cribiu, Edmond-Paul; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Le Provost, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNA (miRNA) are negative regulators of gene expression, capable of exerting pronounced influences upon the translation and stability of mRNA. They are potential regulators of normal mammary gland development and of the maintenance of mammary epithelial progenitor cells. This study was undertaken to determine the role of miR-30b on the establishment of a functional mouse mammary gland. miR-30b is a member of the miR-30 family, composed of 6 miRNA that are highly conserved in vertebrates. It has been suggested to play a role in the differentiation of several cell types. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of miR-30b was found to be regulated during mammary gland development. Transgenic mice overexpressing miR-30b in mammary epithelial cells were used to investigate its role. During lactation, mammary histological analysis of the transgenic mice showed a reduction in the size of alveolar lumen, a defect of the lipid droplets and a growth defect of pups fed by transgenic females. Moreover some mammary epithelial differentiated structures persisted during involution, suggesting a delay in the process. The genes whose expression was affected by the overexpression of miR-30b were characterized by microarray analysis. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggests that miR-30b is important for the biology of the mammary gland and demonstrates that the deregulation of only one miRNA could affect lactation and involution. PMID:23029204

  10. Pitfalls of adrenal imaging with chemical shift MRI.

    PubMed

    Schieda, N; Al Dandan, O; Kielar, A Z; Flood, T A; McInnes, M D F; Siegelman, E S

    2014-11-01

    Chemical shift (CS) MRI of the adrenal glands exploits the different precessional frequencies of fat and water protons to differentiate the intracytoplasmic lipid-containing adrenal adenoma from other adrenal lesions. The purpose of this review is to illustrate both technical and interpretive pitfalls of adrenal imaging with CS MRI and emphasize the importance of adherence to strict technical specifications and errors that may occur when other imaging features and clinical factors are not incorporated into the diagnosis. When performed properly, the specificity of CS MRI for the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma is over 90%. Sampling the in-phase and opposed-phase echoes in the correct order and during the same breath-hold are essential requirements, and using the first echo pair is preferred, if possible. CS MRI characterizes more adrenal adenomas then unenhanced CT but may be non-diagnostic in a proportion of lipid-poor adenomas; CT washout studies may be able to diagnose these lipid-poor adenomas. Other primary and secondary adrenal tumours and supra-renal disease entities may contain lipid or gross fat and mimic adenoma or myelolipoma. Heterogeneity within an adrenal lesion that contains intracytoplasmic lipid could be due to myelolipoma, lipomatous metaplasia of adenoma, or collision tumour. Correlation with previous imaging, other imaging features, clinical history, and laboratory investigations can minimize interpretive errors. PMID:25062926

  11. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  13. Adrenal incidentalomas: A guide to assessment, treatment and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Paschou, Stavroula A; Vryonidou, Andromachi; Goulis, Dimitrios G

    2016-10-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas are clinically unsuspected lesions that are detected in adrenal glands during imaging procedures for other causes. With widespread use of imaging - both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - adrenal incidentalomas are now a common clinical problem. The two main clinical issues to be determined in this setting are the risk of malignancy and the hormonal activity of these lesions. The answers to these two questions, along with the clinical characteristics of each individual patient and co-morbidities, will guide the treatment strategy, which can vary from simple follow-up to surgical resection. The objective of this article is to present updated information on the definition, prevalence, imaging and functional features of adrenal incidentalomas and to provide a guide to their optimal assessment, treatment and follow-up. This review collected, analyzed and qualitatively re-synthesized information regarding: (1) the various clinical entities known as "adrenal incidentalomas", (2) the initial assessment of risk of malignancy, (3) the initial assessment of whether the lesion is hormonally active or non-functioning, (4) the absolute and relative indications for surgical treatment, (5) the follow-up of patients who are not deemed to need surgical treatment after initial assessment, and (6) the post-operative follow-up of patients who undergo surgical treatment. The evidence calls for clinicians to bear in mind the Hippocratian advice "ωϕελέειν ή μη βλάπτειν" ("first do no harm"). PMID:27621243

  14. Adrenal and Ovarian Phenotype of a Tissue-Specific Urocortin 2-Overexpressing Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Spyroglou, Ariadni; Riester, Anna; Mueller-Peltzer, Katharina; Lu, Ailing; Rohde, Juliane; Hantel, Constanze; Kuehne, Claudia; Kulle, Alexandra; Riepe, Felix; Deussing, Jan M; Beuschlein, Felix

    2015-07-01

    Urocortin 2 (UCN2) is a neuropeptide of the CRH family, involved in homeostatic mechanisms, the stress response, and control of anxiety. To elucidate the effects of UCN2 on steroidogenesis, we developed a mouse model that allows a Cre recombinase-determined conditional overexpression of UCN2 (UCN2-COE). In these mice SF1-Cre-driven overexpression of UCN2 was restricted to the adrenal glands, gonads, and parts of the hypothalamus. UCN2-COE animals of both sexes revealed significantly higher plasma UCN2 levels and significantly higher UCN2 expression levels in the adrenals and ovaries. In contrast, the baseline expression of UCN2 was already high in the testes of control mice with no further increase achievable in UCN2-COE animals. Adrenal steroidogenesis of UCN2-COE animals was investigated under baseline conditions, upon an ACTH stimulation test, and following a restraint stress test. A tendency toward lower expression of steroidogenic enzymes was detectable in UCN2-COE animals of both sexes with slight differences between males and females. A similar reduction in the expression levels of the final steps of ovarian steroidogenesis, accompanied by reduced plasma estradiol levels, was observed in female UCN2-COE animals. Thus, adrenal UCN2 overexpression resulted in down-regulation of adrenal steroidogenesis, suggesting a reduction in the stress response in the mouse (stress coping behavior). Similarly, UCN2 overexpression in the ovaries caused a decrease in steroidogenesis and reduction of follicles that had undergone ovulation. Nevertheless, this finding was not associated with reduced fertility. PMID:25942073

  15. Nonreutilizaton of adrenal chromaffin granule membranes following secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Nobiletti, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The intracellular postexocytotic fate of the adrenal chromaffin granule membrane (reutilization vs. nonreutilization) was addressed through two experimental approaches. First, (/sup 3/H) leucine pulse-chase labeling experiments were conducted in two systems - the isolated retrograde perfused cat adrenal gland and cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to compare chromaffin granule soluble dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) turnover (marker for granule soluble content turnover) to that of membrane-bound DBH (marker for granule membrane turnover). Experiments in cat adrenal glands showed that at all chase periods the granule distribution of radiolabeled DBH was in agreement with the DBH activity distribution (73% membrane-bound/27% soluble) - a result consistent with parallel turnover of soluble and membrane-bound DBH. Experiments in cultured bovine cells showed that labeled soluble and membrane-bound DBH had parallel turnover patterns and at all chase period, the distribution of radiolabeled DBH between the soluble contents and membranes was similar to the DBH activity distribution (50% soluble/50% membrane-bound). The above experiments showed that the soluble contents and membranes turnover in parallel and are consistent with nonreutilization of chromaffin granule membranes following exocytosis. Isolated retrograde perfused bovine adrenal glands were subjected to repetitive acetylcholine stimulation to induce exocytosis and then the dense and less-dense chromaffin granule fractions were isolated. Since both approaches gave results consistent with membrane nonreutilization, the authors conclude that once a chromaffin granule is involved in exocytosis, its membrane is not reutilized for the further synthesis, storage, and secretion of catecholamines.

  16. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dessinioti, Cleo; Katsambas, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia consists of a heterogenous group of inherited disorders due to enzymatic defects in the biosynthetic pathway of cortisol and/or aldosterone. This results in glucocorticoid deficiency, mineralocorticoid deficiency, and androgen excess. 95% of CAH cases are due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical forms range from the severe, classical CAH associated with complete loss of enzyme function, to milder, non-classical forms (NCAH). Androgen excess affects the pilosebaceous unit, causing cutaneous manifestations such as acne, androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism. Clinical differential diagnosis between NCAH and polycystic ovary syndrome may be difficult. In this review, the evaluation of patients with suspected CAH, the clinical presentation of CAH forms, with emphasis on the cutaneous manifestations of the disease, and available treatment options, will be discussed. PMID:22523607

  17. The effect of bedrest on adrenal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Hulley, S. B.; Rambaut, P. C.; Dietlein, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    Eight male subjects were subjected to continuous bedrest for 24-80 weeks for the purpose of studying metabolic responses. Three of the subjects did supine exercises daily during part of the study. Adrenal function was examined in relation to adrenal cortical and medullary excretions. The results reveal an increase in hydrocortisone throughout the test period, a decrease in norepinephrine and no change in epinephrine. These data suggest that exercise could decrease the severity of deconditioning caused by bedrest.

  18. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gland is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus decides which hormones the pituitary should release by sending it either ... the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the following hormones: GH (growth hormone) – increases size of muscle and ...

  19. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... composed of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones. Glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary ... system since they contain endocrine tissue that secretes hormones. These include the pancreas, ovaries and testes. The ...

  20. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002351.htm Endocrine glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Endocrine glands release (secrete) hormones into the bloodstream. The ...

  1. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  2. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  3. Pesticide chlorpyrifos acts as an endocrine disruptor in adult rats causing changes in mammary gland and hormonal balance.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Clara; Nieto, María Rosa Ramos; Bourguignon, Nadia; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Rodriguez, Horacio; Cao, Gabriel; Randi, Andrea; Cocca, Claudia; Núñez, Mariel

    2016-02-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds that interfere with hormone regulation and influence mammary carcinogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) acts as an ED in vitro, since it induces human breast cancer cells proliferation through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) pathway. In this work, we studied the effects of CPF at environmental doses (0.01 and 1mg/kg/day) on mammary gland, steroid hormone receptors expression and serum steroid hormone levels. It was carried out using female Sprague-Dawley 40-days-old rats exposed to the pesticide during 100 days. We observed a proliferating ductal network with a higher number of ducts and alveolar structures. We also found an increased number of benign breast diseases, such as hyperplasia and adenosis. CPF enhanced progesterone receptor (PgR) along with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in epithelial ductal cells. On the other hand, the pesticide reduced the expression of co-repressors of estrogen receptor activity REA and SMRT and it decreased serum estradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Finally, we found a persistent decrease in LH levels among ovariectomized rats exposed to CPF. Therefore, CPF alters the endocrine balance acting as an ED in vivo. These findings warn about the harmful effects that CPF exerts on mammary gland, suggesting that this compound may act as a risk factor for breast cancer. PMID:26518068

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography in detecting adrenal metastasis from primary lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, P.

    1988-01-01

    The main study objective was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) for detection of adrenal metastases from primary lung cancer. A secondary study objective was to measure intra-reader and inter-reader agreement in interpretation of adrenal CT. Results were compared of CT film review and the autopsy findings of the adrenal glands. A five-level CT reading scale was used to assess the effect of various positivity criteria. The diagnostic accuracy of CT for detection of adrenal metastases was characterized by a tradeoff between specificity and sensitivity. At various positivity criteria, high specificity is traded against low sensitivity. The CT inability to detect many metastatic adrenals was related to frequent metastatic spread without morphologic changes of the gland.

  5. Renal and adrenal tumors: Pathology, radiology, ultrasonography, therapy, immunology

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, E.; Leder, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects as diverse as radiology, pathology, urology, pediatrics and immunology have been brought together in one book. The most up-do-date methods of tumor diagnosis by CT, NMR, and ultrasound are covered, as are methods of catheter embolization and radiation techniques in case of primarily inoperable tumors. Contents: Pathology of Renal and Adrenal Neoplasms; Ultrasound Diagnosis of Renal and Pararenal Tumors; Computed-Body-Tomography of Renal Carcinoma and Perirenal Masses; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Renal Mass Lesions; I-125 Embolotherapy of Renal Tumors; Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children; Computed Tomography of the Adrenal Glands; Scintigraphic Studies of Renal and Adrenal Function; Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Operative Therapy of Nephroblastoma; Nonoperative Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma; Prenatal Wilms' Tumor; Congenital Neuroblastoma; Nonsurgical Management of Wilms' Tumor; Immunologic Aspects of Malignant Renal Disease.

  6. Expression of prepro-ghrelin and related receptor genes in the rat adrenal gland and evidences that ghrelin exerts a potent stimulating effect on corticosterone secretion by cultured rat adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Tyczewska, Marianna; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-08-01

    The orexigenic peptide ghrelin (GHREL) and obestatin (OBS) originate from the same peptide precursor, preproghrelin (ppGHREL). Apart from orexigenic effect, GHREL also regulates neuroendocrine function. We investigated GHREL and OBS effects on corticosterone secretion by freshly isolated and cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Classic RT-PCR revealed the presence of ppGHREL, GHS-R1a, GPR39v1 and GPR39v2 and GOAT4 (ghrelin O-acyl transferase) mRNAs in rat adrenals and cultured for 4 days rat adrenocortical cells. Expression of ppGHREL, GHS-R1a, and GOAT genes was notably higher in the cortex than in medulla. High expression level of GOAT gene was found in the zona glomerulosa, while expression level of both GPR39v1 and GPR39v2 genes was similar in adrenal cortical zones and in medulla. In freshly isolated cells neither GHREL nor OBS had an effect on corticosteroid output. Prolonged exposure of cultured cells to GHREL resulted in a potent, comparable to ACTH, stimulating effect of GHREL on corticosterone secretion. Prolonged exposure to OBS was ineffective. Neither GHREL nor OBS had any effect on proliferation of studied cells, while ACTH notably lowered it. GHREL down regulated GHS-R1a gene expression while both ACTH and GHREL stimulated expression level of GPR39v1 gene. Expression of CYP11A1 gene was notably stimulated and that of StAR gene remained unaffected by ACTH or GHREL. Thus, our study is the first to demonstrate direct stimulating effect of GHREL on corticosterone output by cultured rat adrenocortical cells. This stimulating action differs from that evoked by ACTH and is not dependent on the presence of functional ACTH receptor. PMID:19416745

  7. Incidence of different causes of benign obstruction of the salivary glands: retrospective analysis of 493 cases using fluoroscopy and digital subtraction sialography.

    PubMed

    Lee, L I T; Pawar, R R; Whitley, S; Makdissi, J

    2015-01-01

    To identify the incidence of different causes of benign obstruction of the salivary glands, we retrospectively analysed 788 anonymised sialography reports of 719 patients referred to the department of dental and maxillofacial radiology between 2006 and 2012. Reports that showed evidence of benign obstruction were included (n=493). Salivary stones were identified in 151 (31%), ductal strictures in 115 (23%), and mucus plugs in 295 (60%). In 67 cases (14%) there was evidence of 2 or 3 causes of obstruction. As previously reported, mucous plugs were the most common finding, possibly because of the use of fluoroscopy or digital subtraction sialography, or both. These methods enable images to be captured during the initial filling of the main duct and are likely to prevent mucus plugs from being obscured by the contrast medium, which is the case in conventional sialography when a single image is produced after the contrast has been injected. PMID:25445390

  8. Adrenal Diagnostics: An Endocrinologist’s Perspective focused on Hyperaldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    The era of sophisticated high resolution imaging with the consequent identification of previously unrecognised adrenal masses (adrenal incidentalomas), has emphasised the need for an appropriate biochemical approach to define adrenal function. The focus of this testing is on catecholamines from the adrenal medulla (testing that has been rendered relatively straightforward by plasma metanephrine measurements) and the physiological corticosteroids, cortisol and aldosterone, synthesised by the adrenal cortex. The diagnosis of hypercortisolism remains a challenge and has been extensively reviewed. In the context of hypertension and an adrenal incidentaloma, the exclusion of hyperaldosteronism has an importance beyond simple blood pressure control. This review focuses on the recommended approaches to both the diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism and the characterisation of its aetiology. Monogenetic causes of mineralocorticoid hypertension are discussed as are recent developments with respect to both the molecular aetiology and the differential diagnosis of aldosterone-producing adenomas. PMID:24353356

  9. [Primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma. A case report rarer than B-cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Sfaxi, M; Bouzouita, A; Bouasker, I; Kourda, N; Ben Slama, M R; Ben Jilani Baltaji, S; Chebil, M

    2008-06-01

    Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare condition. Only 70 cases were described in the literature. Adrenal lymphoma is often bilateral and in most of the cases of B-cell type. T-cell lymphoma is exceptional. The prognosis is bad and patient can die early because of acute adrenal insufficiency. We report a case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted for acute adrenal insufficiency due to primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma. He had corticotherapy and surgical exploration for intra-abdominal sepsis. He died because of multivisceral deficiency. Clinical features and imaging are not specific. (18)F-FDG PET Scan is an excellent mean to detect malignant tumor of adrenal gland. Percutaneous needle biopsy is useful to determine histology. The standard treatment is chemotherapy. PMID:18455145

  10. Spontaneous Massive Adrenal Hemorrhage: A Management Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anshuman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a rare but life-threatening condition. Small focal hemorrhage may present subclinically, but massive hemorrhage may lead to rapid cardiovascular collapse and ultimately death if not diagnosed appropriately and treated quickly. Most cases reported in the literature have been treated conservatively. In an event of increasing hemorrhage during conservative management, it may be tricky to intervene surgically because of the hematoma around the gland. Here we describe a case where we managed a large spontaneous AH by a combination of angioembolization and laparoscopic adrenalectomy. PMID:27579389

  11. [Acute adrenal insufficiency in the newborn].

    PubMed

    Limal, J-M; Bouhours-Nouet, N; Rouleau, S; Gatelais, F; Coutant, R

    2006-10-01

    Neonatal acute adrenal insufficiency is a rare condition. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia with 21-hydroxylase defect appears to be the most frequent cause, but the neonatal screening has improved its potential severe outcome. The other causes and the various clinical presentations have been exposed, with a special reference to the salt-wasting syndrome. Among them, the severity of X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) deserves special attention. Two other causes of adrenal hypoplasia have been recently discovered, i.e. a mutation of the SF-1 gene and the syndrome IMAGe. Adrenal insufficiency secondary to ACTH deficiency is often unrecognised despite the risk of severe seizures and hypoglycaemia with brain damage. Finally, the hormonal diagnostic testing and the main therapeutic approach by corticosteroids have been indicated. The aim of this work is to focus the attention of paediatricians who examine a newborn because the risk of delayed diagnosis and fatal outcome may be limited if the clinical symptoms are soon recognized. PMID:16962294

  12. Analysis of the pituitary-thyroid axis in bilaterally adrenalectomized or adrenal transplanted rats.

    PubMed

    Sarria, R; Losada, J; Doñate Oliver, F

    1994-09-01

    The percentage, distribution, shape, intensity of staining and morphometrical parameters of the pituitary TSH immunoreactive cells and the histological features of the thyroid glands, were compared between adult rats with intact adrenals, without adrenals and biadrenalectomized animals with neonatal adrenal grafts. After the removal of the adrenal glands, TSH immunoreactive cells increased in percentage and exhibited a higher complexity of the cellular outline, than that of the intact animals. The nuclear, cytoplasmic and cell areas were significantly increased. However the bigger enhancement of the cytoplasmic area relative to the nuclear area, produced a decrease in the nuclear/cell area ratio. The thyroid glands showed some histological evidences of activation. After the transplantation of neonatal adrenal glands to adult rats, several adrenocortical nodules were present in the lumen of the small bowel segment. These adrenal masses induced a great decrease in the TSH cell area, which coupled with a smaller but significant variation of the nuclear area, led to an increase in the nuclear/cell area ratio relative to that observed in adrenalectomized animals. In addition, the distribution, shape and intensity of the immunoreactive material was similar to that observed in intact animals. In this experimental group, thyroid histology was observed to be similar to that of the intact animals. PMID:7864399

  13. Adrenal myelolipoma: Controversies in its management

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vasanth G.; Thota, Anuroop; Shankar, Ravi; Desai, Mallikarjun G.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipomas (AMLs) are rare, benign neoplasms of the adrenal gland with varied clinical presentations. The rarity of these tumors precludes any case-controlled or randomized study into their management. The available literature is limited to case reports and short series from referral centers. This review is an effort to put the available literature into perspective such that clinical decision making can be done with some clarity. The PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched with key words Adrenal Myelolipoma, Adrenal Incidentaloma (AI) and Adrenal Collision Tumor (ACT). From over 1300 search results, 547 relevant publications dating from 1954 to 2014 were reviewed. Details of about 1231 AMLs in the indexed literature were analyzed. Increasing usage of imaging studies has significantly increased the discovery of AMLs. Although AMLs are benign tumors, those measuring larger than 6 cm are prone to rupture and hemorrhage. Thorough endocrine work-up may benefit a selected group of patients, especially those who are hypertensive, diabetic/pre-diabetic, young patients (<50 years) and those with bilateral AML. Regular observation is needed for AML patients who are being treated non-operatively, as many of them may require surgery during follow-up. Although the AACE/AAES guidelines for AI (2009) exclude AML from mandatory metabolic work-up for a newly discovered AI, we feel that a significant number of patients with AML would benefit from metabolic work-up. In the literature, endocrine dysfunction in AML is 7% as compared with 11% in AI. Endocrine dysfunction in AML is probably underdiagnosed. PMID:25878407

  14. Effects of cannabinoids on adrenaline release from adrenal medullary cells

    PubMed Central

    Niederhoffer, Nathalie; Hansen, Henrik H; Fernandez-Ruiz, Javier J; Szabo, Bela

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the peripheral effects of cannabinoids on adrenaline release from adrenal chromaffin cells. In pithed rabbits with electrically stimulated sympathetic outflow, intravenous injection of the cannabinoid receptor agonists WIN55212-2 and CP55940 (5, 50 and 500 μg kg−1) markedly lowered the plasma adrenaline concentration. The effect of WIN55212-2 was attenuated by the selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A (500 μg kg−1). WIN55212-3 (same doses as WIN55212-2), the enantiomer of WIN55212-2 lacking affinity for cannabinoid receptors, had no effect on the plasma adrenaline concentration. In rabbit isolated adrenal glands, the release of adrenaline elicited by electrical stimulation was measured by fast cyclic voltammetry. Electrically-evoked adrenaline release was inhibited by WIN55212-2 (0.3, 1, 3 and 10 μM) and this effect was antagonized by SR141716A (1 μM). The non-cholinergic component of adrenaline release observed after blockade of nicotinic (by hexamethonium 100 μM) and muscarinic (by atropine 0.5 μM) acetylcholine receptors was not depressed by WIN55212-2. WIN55212-3 (10 μM) had no effect on adrenaline release. No detectable specific CB1 receptor binding and mRNA expression were found in rabbit adrenal glands with autoradiography and in situ hybridization. The results show that cannabinoids inhibit adrenaline secretion in rabbit isolated adrenal glands; the likely mechanism is a presynaptic CB1 receptor-mediated inhibition of acetylcholine release from preganglionic sympathetic neurons. The inhibition of adrenaline secretion in adrenal glands most probably accounts for the decrease in the plasma adrenaline concentration observed after cannabinoid administration in pithed rabbits. PMID:11704653

  15. Use of plasma metanephrine to aid adrenal venous sampling in combined aldosterone and cortisol over-secretion

    PubMed Central

    Goupil, Rémi; Wolley, Martin; Ungerer, Jacobus; McWhinney, Brett; Mukai, Kuniaki; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Gordon, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Summary In patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) undergoing adrenal venous sampling (AVS), cortisol levels are measured to assess lateralization of aldosterone overproduction. Concomitant adrenal autonomous cortisol and aldosterone secretion therefore have the potential to confound AVS results. We describe a case where metanephrine was measured during AVS to successfully circumvent this problem. A 55-year-old hypertensive male had raised plasma aldosterone/renin ratios and PA confirmed by fludrocortisone suppression testing. Failure of plasma cortisol to suppress overnight following dexamethasone and persistently suppressed corticotrophin were consistent with adrenal hypercortisolism. On AVS, comparison of adrenal and peripheral A/F ratios (left 5.7 vs peripheral 1.0; right 1.7 vs peripheral 1.1) suggested bilateral aldosterone production, with the left gland dominant but without contralateral suppression. However, using aldosterone/metanephrine ratios (left 9.7 vs peripheral 2.4; right 1.3 vs peripheral 2.5), aldosterone production lateralized to the left with good contralateral suppression. The patient underwent left laparoscopic adrenalectomy with peri-operative glucocorticoid supplementation to prevent adrenal insufficiency. Pathological examination revealed adrenal cortical adenomas producing both cortisol and aldosterone within a background of aldosterone-producing cell clusters. Hypertension improved and cured of PA and hypercortisolism were confirmed by negative post-operative fludrocortisone suppression and overnight 1 mg dexamethasone suppression testing. Routine dexamethasone suppression testing in patients with PA permits detection of concurrent hypercortisolism which can confound AVS results and cause unilateral PA to be misdiagnosed as bilateral with patients thereby denied potentially curative surgical treatment. In such patients, measurement of plasma metanephrine during AVS may overcome this issue. Learning points Simultaneous autonomous

  16. Adrenal myelolipoma in a young male - a rare case scenerio.

    PubMed

    Anis-Ul-Islam, Muhammad; Qureshi, Abdul Hafeez; Zaidi, Syed Zafar

    2016-03-01

    Adrenal myelolipomas are rare non functional benign tumours which are incidentally diagnosed in asymptomatic patients. Despite the fact that several theories have been discussed, the origin of myelolipoma remains unclear. Our patient, 19 years old male presented with history of abdominal pain for past 7 years. Computed tomography scan of abdomen with oral and intravenous contrast revealed well defined round heterogenous enhancing mass seen in right supra renal area involving the adrenal gland. Patient underwent surgery by open access through thoracoabdominal approach. Histopathology of resected mass showed myelolipoma along with trilineage haematopoesis with mature adipose tissues. PMID:26968291

  17. p.R182C mutation in Korean twin with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Won; Kwak, Byung Ok; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook; Chung, Sochung

    2013-03-01

    Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is the most severe form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia which is caused by mutations in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). The mutations in StAR gene resulted in failure of the transport cholesterol into mitochondria for steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. Twin sisters (A, B) with normal 46, XX were born at 36+2 gestational week, premature to nonrelated parents. They had symptoms as hyperpigmentation, slightly elevated potassium level and low level of sodium. Laboratory finding revealed normal 17-hydroxyprogesterone level, elevated adrenocorticotropin hormone (A, 4,379.2 pg/mL; B, 11,616.1 pg/mL), and high plasma renin activity (A, 49.02 ng/mL/hr; B, 52.7 ng mL/hr). However, the level of plasma cortisol before treatment was low (1.5 µg/dL) in patient B but normal (8.71 µg/dL) in patient A. Among them, only patient A was presented with adrenal insufficiency symptoms which was suggestive of CLAH and prompted us to order a gene analysis in both twin. The results of gene analysis of StAR in twin revealed same heterozygous conditions for c.544C>T (Arg182Cys) in exon 5 and c.722C>T (Gln258(*)) in exon 7. We report the first case on the mutation of p.R182C in exon 5 of the StAR gene in Korea. PMID:24904850

  18. Growth hormone deficiency due to traumatic brain injury in a patient with X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Engiz, Ozlem; Ozön, Alev; Riepe, Felix; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Gönç, Nazli; Kandemir, Nurgün

    2010-01-01

    X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) is characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency and is frequently associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). The production of other pituitary hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], growth hormone [GH], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], and prolactin [PRL]) is usually normal. Mutations of the DAX-1 gene have been reported in patients with AHC and HH. We present a 13-year-old male patient with AHC caused by a nonsense mutation in the DAX-1 gene who developed GH deficiency following head trauma. He showed signs of adrenal insufficiency at the age of 23 months, and glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid treatment was started. His parents reported head trauma due to a traffic accident at the age of 21 months. Adrenal computed tomography revealed hypoplasia of the left and agenesis of the right adrenal gland. Decreased growth rate was noted at the age of 12.5 years while receiving hydrocortisone 15 mg/m2/day. His height was 139.9 cm (-1.46 SD), body weight was 54.9 kg, pubic hair was Tanner stage 1, and testis size was 3 ml. His bone age was 7 years. His gonadotropin (follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], luteinizing hormone [LH]) and testosterone levels were prepubertal. The evaluation of GH/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion at the age of 13 years revealed GH deficiency. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a hypoplastic hypophysis (< 2.5 mm) and a normal infundibulum. GH treatment (0.73 IU/kg/week) was started. This paper reports a patient with genetically confirmed AHC demonstrating GH deficiency possibly due to a previous head trauma. Complete pituitary evaluation should be performed in any child who has survived severe traumatic brain injury. PMID:20718192

  19. Laparoscopy or retroperitoneoscopy for pediatric patients with adrenal masses?

    PubMed

    Esposito, C; Giurin, I; Iaquinto, M; Escolino, M; Salerno, M C; De Filippo, G; Savanelli, A; Settimi, A; Cigliano, B

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive approach to the adrenal gland was first reported in 1992. Since then, the experience with the laparoscopic technique for adrenal disease in children has been limited. We report our experience with minimally invasive adrenal surgery in children. Two young girls (2 and 4 years old) with a left adrenal mass were operated using minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in our Unit. Ultrasonography and MRI showed in the oldest a 2 x 3 cm adrenal mass, while in the youngest a 5.5 x 5 cm adrenal tumor was found. According to the pre-existing literature, we approached the smallest lesion via retroperitoneoscopy, and the largest one laparoscopically. The operating time was 110 minutes for retroperitoneoscopy and 75 minutes for laparoscopy. No major intra or postoperative complications occurred. There were no conversions to open surgery. Postoperative hospital stay was 5 days for both patients. In both cases, the anatomo-pathological result was an adenoma. Minimally invasive adrenalectomy is a safe and feasible procedure in children with good results. For lesions smaller than 3-4 cm retroperitonescopy is feasible, while for tumors larger than 5 cm, due to malignancy risk, the laparoscopic approach is indicated. To keep oncologic criteria it is important to avoid tumor rupture and to extract the specimen in an endobag. PMID:26530494

  20. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of primary adrenal hemangioma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Chun; Jung, Dong-In; Moon, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Na-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    An 8-year-old 7.9 kg castrated male Shih-tzu dog was presented to surgery with polyuria-polydipsia, intermittent abdominal pain and dermatological problems. The unilateral enlargement of the right adrenal gland was observed through ultrasound examination and based on this examination a hyperadrenocorticism was suspected. Upon physical examination, regional erythema was observed in the skin. An abdominal CT scan showed a well-defined retroperitoneal mass. Adrenalectomy via a midline abdominal approach was performed as well as optional treatments upon the approval of the owners. The histopathological diagnosis was that of an adrenal hemangioma without evidence of malignancy. Adrenal hemangioma was incidentally found in this dog during histological examination and this finding was an extremely rare case of the primary hemangioma in the adrenal gland. PMID:23706763

  1. Chimeric phage lysins act synergistically with lysostaphin to kill mastitis causing staphylococcus aureus in murine mammary glands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococci cause bovine mastitis with Staphylococcus aureus being responsible for the majority of the mastitis-based losses to the dairy industry (up to $2 billion/annum). Treatment is primarily with antibiotics that are often ineffective and potentially contribute to resistance development. Bac...

  2. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it’s the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  3. Adrenal Pheochromocytoma Incidentally Discovered in a Patient With Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Petramala, Luigi; Concistrè, Antonio; Marinelli, Cristiano; Zinnamosca, Laura; Iannucci, Gino; Lucia, Piernatale; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Letizia, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the diagnostic route of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) in a patient under dopaminergic treatment. A 70-year-old man with Parkinsonism and under treatment with levodopa and carbidopa came to our observation for evaluation of arterial hypertension and right adrenal mass discovered incidentally. To evaluate adrenal hormone levels we performed a dexamethasone suppression test, plasma aldosterone levels and 24-hr urinary metanephrine, which revealed elevated levels of catecholamines metabolities. 123-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine SPECT scintiscan revealed raised activity within the right adrenal gland concordant with the mass. The diagnosis of PHEO was posed and an elective laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed; histopathological examination confirmed the PHEO diagnosis. Recently the coexistence of PHEO and Parkinsonism is a very rare association of diseases, with only 3 cases reported in literature. In this article, another case is reported and diagnostic procedures are discussed. PMID:26496334

  4. Non Functional Unilateral Adrenal Myelolipoma, A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Athanikar, Vidisha S.; Dinesh, U S; Nanjappa, Bhuvnesh; Patil, Preetam B.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipoma is characterized by presence within the adrenal gland of mature adipose tissue and active bone marrow elements. Owing to their non functional nature most cases are incidental, either at autopsy or through computer tomography scan. Occasionally the lesions attain a large size to become clinically apparent. We present a case of a 58-year-old female with mass per abdomen. Preoperative computer tomography scan of abdomen, hormonal and urine analysis showed features of non functional adrenal myelolipoma. Gross specimen consists of unilateral ovoid mass, external surface having capsule with adherent fat and areas of congestion. Microscopic examination showed well encapsulated tumour tissue composed of mature adipose tissue with major blood forming elements like myeloid, erythroid and megakaryocytic series. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination of right sided adrenalectomy specimen. PMID:26266130

  5. Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex Function During Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, K. F. A.

    1978-01-01

    A proposal to study the function of the adrenal gland in the rat during stress is presented. In the proposed project, three different phases of experimentation will be undertaken. The first phase includes establishment of the circadian rhythm of both brain amines and glucocoticoids, under normal conditions and under chronic and acute stressful conditions. The second phase includes the study of the pharmacokinetics of glucocorticoid binding under normal and stress conditions. The third phase includes brain uptake and binding under different experimental conditions. In the outlined experiments brain biogenic amines will be evaluated, adrenal functions will be measured and stress effect on those parameters will be studied. It is hoped that this investigation can explain some of the complex relationships between the brain neurotransmitter and adrenal function.

  6. What Is Adrenal Cortical Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... include pheochromocytomas (which are most often benign) and neuroblastomas . This document is about tumors and cancers of ... does not discuss tumors of the adrenal medulla. Neuroblastoma s are covered in a separate document . Adrenal cortex ...

  7. [Giant adrenal myelolipoma].

    PubMed

    El Mejjad, Amine; Fekak, Hamid; Dakir, Mohamed; Sarf, Ismail; Manni, Ahmed; Meziane, Fethi

    2004-02-01

    Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign, non-secreting tumour composed of adipose and haematopoietic tissue. The authors report a rare case of giant adrenal myelolipoma in a 53-year-old patient presenting with low back pain and a palpable flank mass on examination. CT scan suggested the diagnosis and surgical resection was indicated in view of the size and symptomatic nature of this mass. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis. The outcome was favourable without recurrence after a follow-up of one year. The diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma is based on radiology. Conservative management is generally sufficient for small asymptomatic tumours, but resection is required for large (> 5 cm) and/or symptomatic tumours. PMID:15098761

  8. Amitosis in human adrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, M C; Pignatelli, D; Magalhães, M M

    1991-04-01

    Adrenal pieces obtained from 3 female and 2 male patients showed morphological figures of amitosis in adrenal zona reticularis cells. Such aspects were observed in both normal and hyperactive adrenals. Nuclei appeared constricted, heavily stained, with coarse chromatin, sometimes scattered among cytoplasmic organelles, but never marginating in crescentic caps. Cleavage of the cells originated two halves with a nucleolus in each pole. Binucleated cells were also seen in zona reticularis. The meaning of amitosis in human adrenal is discussed. PMID:1802124

  9. Naloxone inhibits and morphine potentiates the adrenal steroidogenic response to ACTH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heybach, J. P.; Vernikos, J.

    1981-01-01

    The administration of morphine to hypophysectomized rats potentiated the steroidogenic response of the adrenal cortex to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in a dose-dependent fashion. Conversely, the opiate antagonist naloxone inhibited the adrenal response to ACTH. Naloxone pretreatment also antagonized the potentiating effect of morphine on ACTH-induced steroidogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Neither morphine nor naloxone, administered to hypophysectomized rats, had any direct effect on adrenal steroidogenesis. These adrenal actions were stereospecific since neither the (+)-stereoisomer of morphine, nor that or naloxone, had any effect on the adrenal response to ACTH. The administration of human beta-endorphin to hypophysectomized rats had no effect on the adrenal corticosterone concentration nor did it alter the response of the adrenal gland to ACTH. These results indicate that morphine can potentiate the action of ACTH on the adrenal by a direct, stereospecific, dose-dependent mechanism that is prevented by naloxone pretreatment and which may involve competition for ACTH receptors on the corticosterone-secreting cells of the adrenal cortex.

  10. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH. PMID:20671993

  11. Mammary gland tumors in irradiated and untreated guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Liebelt, A.G.; Congdon, C.C.; Stewart, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of mammary gland tumors from 62 guinea pigs. The tumors arose in the terminal ductal-lobular units as either lobular acinar carcinoma or cystadenocarcinoma or as papillary carcinomas within large ducts near the mammilla. About half the number of the males had terminal ductal-lobular carcinomas and all but 2 of the papillary duct carcinomas also arose in males. Large tumors frequently exhibited squamous, chondromatous, osseous, fatty and myoepitheliomatous types of tissues. In 2 irradiated males and 1 female the tumors metastasized. Whole-body irradiation did not produce significant changes in the number or sex distribution or in the morphology of mammary gland tumors in inbred or outbred guinea pigs. All females had cystic ovaries without increase in granulosa cells, 24 (66.6%) had uterine tumors and 13 (34.2%) had adrenal gland tumors; all males had atrophic testes, 5 (16.5%) had testicular and 6 (22.2%) had adrenal gland tumors.

  12. Adrenal insufficiency presenting as bilateral rigid auricles: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stiff ears appear to be a warning sign for adrenal insufficiency. This remarkable and rare sign has not been described to present in adrenal insufficiency in the setting of critical care. Case presentation We present the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian male who underwent a thymoma resection and suffered from preoperative weight loss and lack of strength. The perioperative phase was characterised by hypotension and sputum stasis due to muscle weakness, which caused two readmissions to the intensive care unit. His physical examination showed two fully rigid auricles. In retrospect, our patient suffered from secondary adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadism. Conclusions The bilateral rigid auricles appeared to be a warning sign for adrenal insufficiency. This remarkable sign is easily checked, and should prompt a higher index of suspicion towards adrenal insufficiency and other hormonal deficiencies. PMID:25209544

  13. Incidentally Solitary, Synchronous, Metastatic Left Adrenal Mass From Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alvandipour, Mina; Khalvati, Mehdi; Khodabakhsh, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 63-year-old man who underwent an open adrenalectomy for a synchronous, malignant, metastatic left adrenal tumor and a total colectomy for T3N0M1 (stage 4) primary, malignant colon cancer. Two polypoid lesions, one measuring 40 mm × 30 mm × 30 mm and the other measuring 20 mm × 10 mm × 10 mm, were found in the ascending colon and rectosigmoid (RS) junction, respectively, and a synchronous, malignant, left adrenal gland lesion measuring 70 mm × 50 mm × 30 mm was incidentally found on abdominal computed tomography scan. Histological examination revealed a metastatic, necrotic adenocarcinoma of the left adrenal mass, an adenocarcinoma of the cecal mass, and an adenomatous polyp (tubulovillous type) of the smallest polypoid lesion in RS junction that had invaded deeply into the submucosal layer. The patient recovered uneventfully, and his condition is now stable, with no evidence of local recurrence or metastatic disease, 2 years after the surgery. To the best of our knowledge, only 25 cases of an adrenalectomy for treating metastatic adrenal gland tumors have been reported to date; physicians should be aware of the possibility of this event. PMID:27218099

  14. Adrenal Venous Sampling: Where Is the Aldosterone Disappearing to?

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, Miroslav; Ceral, Jiri; Krajina, Antonin; Ballon, Marek; Malirova, Eva; Brodak, Milos; Cap, Jan

    2010-08-15

    Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is generally considered to be the gold standard in distinguishing unilateral and bilateral aldosterone hypersecretion in primary hyperaldosteronism. However, during AVS, we noticed a considerable variability in aldosterone concentrations among samples thought to have come from the right adrenal glands. Some aldosterone concentrations in these samples were even lower than in samples from the inferior vena cava. We hypothesized that the samples with low aldosterone levels were unintentionally taken not from the right adrenal gland, but from hepatic veins. Therefore, we sought to analyze the impact of unintentional cannulation of hepatic veins on AVS. Thirty consecutive patients referred for AVS were enrolled. Hepatic vein sampling was implemented in our standardized AVS protocol. The data were collected and analyzed prospectively. AVS was successful in 27 patients (90%), and hepatic vein cannulation was successful in all procedures performed. Cortisol concentrations were not significantly different between the hepatic vein and inferior vena cava samples, but aldosterone concentrations from hepatic venous blood (median, 17 pmol/l; range, 40-860 pmol/l) were markedly lower than in samples from the inferior vena cava (median, 860 pmol/l; range, 460-4510 pmol/l). The observed difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Aldosterone concentrations in the hepatic veins are significantly lower than in venous blood taken from the inferior vena cava. This finding is important for AVS because hepatic veins can easily be mistaken for adrenal veins as a result of their close anatomic proximity.

  15. New Directions for the Treatment of Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Babot, Gerard; Hadjidemetriou, Irene; King, Peter James; Guasti, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal disease, whether primary, caused by defects in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, or secondary, caused by defects outside the HPA axis, usually results in adrenal insufficiency, which requires lifelong daily replacement of corticosteroids. However, this kind of therapy is far from ideal as physiological demand for steroids varies considerably throughout the day and increases during periods of stress. The development of alternative curative strategies is therefore needed. In this review, we describe the latest technologies aimed at either isolating or generating de novo cells that could be used for novel, regenerative medicine application in the adrenocortical field. PMID:25999916

  16. Case of metachronous bilateral isolated adrenal metastasis from colorectal adenocarcinoma and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Yi; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Zhai, Er-Tao; Yang, Jie; Xu, Jian-Bo; Cai, Shi-Rong; Song, Wu

    2016-04-14

    Rarely has a solitary, metachronous bilateral adrenal metastasis of colorectal cancer been reported. We depict a 41-year-old man who underwent sigmoid colon cancer radical surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for a locally ulcerative sigmoid adenocarcinoma with metachronous bilateral adrenal metastasis revealed by a computed tomography scan. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen had indicative significance for the presence of adrenal metastasis in the reported series. We performed a literature analysis related to this pathological characteristic and attach importance to consistent, vigilant radiological surveillance of the adrenal glands in the patients' follow up for colorectal cancer with or without subsequent adrenal metastasis. PMID:27076775

  17. Xanthogranulomatous Adrenalitis: A Case Report of a Diabetic, 55-Year-Old Male.

    PubMed

    Reed, Caitlyn Trotter; Adams, Kristen; Shenoy, Veena

    2015-09-01

    We report a rare case of xanthogranulomatous adrenalitis in a 55-year-old man. The patient presented to the hospital with fever, nausea, and right flank pain. His medical history was significant for diabetes and an adrenal mass that was detected 6 years prior to presentation during a computed tomography (CT) scan for trauma secondary to a motor vehicle collision. The mass was thought to be a myelolipoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 12-cm right adrenal mass that was considered suspicious for carcinoma, which was surgically excised and cultured intraoperatively. The cultures subsequently grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Grossly, the adrenal mass was an encapsulated, necrotic lesion with surrounding areas of fat necrosis. On histologic examination, the tissue showed sheets of histiocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells diffusely involving the adrenal gland along with bright yellow lipofuscin crystals in a background of necrosis and fibrosis. PMID:26044256

  18. Adrenal abscess in a 3-week-old neonate – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Witkowska-Sędek, Ewelina; Warchoł, Stanisław; Dudek-Warchoł, Teresa; Brzewski, Michał; Pyrżak, Beata

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a case of a 6-year-old boy operated on in the 4th week of life because of adrenal abscess. The diagnosis of an adrenal abscess in the neonatal period is challenging due to its rare occurrence and non-specific signs. Adrenal abscesses can develop via two mechanisms: as a result of a hematogenic infection and a spread of bacteria to “normal” adrenal glands or, which is much more common, a complication of an adrenal hematoma. Early and accurate diagnosis is crucial for appropriate therapeutic management. Imaging, including ultrasound, can be problematic. The final diagnosis is frequently established on the basis of a histological examination of a surgical specimen. PMID:26807300

  19. Case of metachronous bilateral isolated adrenal metastasis from colorectal adenocarcinoma and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Yi; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Zhai, Er-Tao; Yang, Jie; Xu, Jian-Bo; Cai, Shi-Rong; Song, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Rarely has a solitary, metachronous bilateral adrenal metastasis of colorectal cancer been reported. We depict a 41-year-old man who underwent sigmoid colon cancer radical surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for a locally ulcerative sigmoid adenocarcinoma with metachronous bilateral adrenal metastasis revealed by a computed tomography scan. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen had indicative significance for the presence of adrenal metastasis in the reported series. We performed a literature analysis related to this pathological characteristic and attach importance to consistent, vigilant radiological surveillance of the adrenal glands in the patients’ follow up for colorectal cancer with or without subsequent adrenal metastasis. PMID:27076775

  20. Multimodality imaging of fat-containing adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Umar; Poder, Liina; Carlson, David; Courtier, Jesse; Joe, Bonnie N; Coakley, Fergus V

    2012-06-01

    A biopsy-proven fat-containing metastasis to the adrenal gland in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma demonstrated low density on nonenhanced CT, heterogeneity on contrast-enhanced CT, and marked signal loss on opposed-phase gradient-echo MRI, mimicking an adrenal adenoma. However, the mass was not present on older studies and showed increased FDG uptake on PET. The possibility of a fat-containing metastasis should be considered for an apparent adrenal adenoma in a patient with a primary hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:22614216

  1. Recent advances in biochemical and molecular analysis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The term congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) covers a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by defects in one of the steroidogenic enzymes involved in the synthesis of cortisol or aldosterone from cholesterol in the adrenal glands. Approximately 95% of all CAH cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency encoded by the CYP21A2 gene. The disorder is categorized into classical forms, including the salt-wasting and the simple virilizing types, and nonclassical forms based on the severity of the disease. The severity of the clinical features varies according to the level of residual 21-hydroxylase activity. Newborn screening for CAH is performed in many countries to prevent salt-wasting crises in the neonatal period, to prevent male sex assignment in affected females, and to reduce long-term morbidities, such as short stature, gender confusion, and psychosexual disturbances. 17α-hydroxyprogesterone is a marker for 21-hydroxylase deficiency and is measured using a radioimmunoassay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or a fluoroimmunoassay. Recently, liquid chromatography linked with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for rapid, highly specific, and sensitive analysis of multiple analytes. Urinary steroid analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry also provides qualitative and quantitative data on the excretion of steroid hormone metabolites. Molecular analysis of CYP21A2 is useful for genetic counseling, confirming diagnosis, and predicting prognoses. In conclusion, early detection using neonatal screening tests and treatment can prevent the worst outcomes of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. PMID:27104172

  2. Recent advances in biochemical and molecular analysis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2016-03-01

    The term congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) covers a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by defects in one of the steroidogenic enzymes involved in the synthesis of cortisol or aldosterone from cholesterol in the adrenal glands. Approximately 95% of all CAH cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency encoded by the CYP21A2 gene. The disorder is categorized into classical forms, including the salt-wasting and the simple virilizing types, and nonclassical forms based on the severity of the disease. The severity of the clinical features varies according to the level of residual 21-hydroxylase activity. Newborn screening for CAH is performed in many countries to prevent salt-wasting crises in the neonatal period, to prevent male sex assignment in affected females, and to reduce long-term morbidities, such as short stature, gender confusion, and psychosexual disturbances. 17α-hydroxyprogesterone is a marker for 21-hydroxylase deficiency and is measured using a radioimmunoassay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or a fluoroimmunoassay. Recently, liquid chromatography linked with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for rapid, highly specific, and sensitive analysis of multiple analytes. Urinary steroid analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry also provides qualitative and quantitative data on the excretion of steroid hormone metabolites. Molecular analysis of CYP21A2 is useful for genetic counseling, confirming diagnosis, and predicting prognoses. In conclusion, early detection using neonatal screening tests and treatment can prevent the worst outcomes of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. PMID:27104172

  3. Chronic ethanol consumption depresses hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in aged rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, C.J.; Bestervelt, L.L.; Mousigian, C.A.; Maimansomsuk, P.; Yong Cai; Piper, W.N. )

    1991-01-01

    In separate experiments, nine (n=20) and fifteen (n=12) month old rats were treated with either 6% ethanol or 12% sucrose in the drinking water to examine the effect of chronic ethanol consumption on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of aged rats. Blood was collected and plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. Adrenal glands were cleaned, quartered and used to test in vitro responsiveness to ACTH. Anterior pituitary glands from all 15 month old rats and one half of the nine month old rats were collected, frozen and extracted for measurement of tissue ACTH concentration. The remaining anterior pituitary glands from the nine month old rats were challenged with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) to test in vitro responsiveness. In nine month old rats, chronic ethanol consumption decreased plasma ACTH and corticosterone. Pituitary ACTH concentrations were unchanged in treated nine month old rats, but the amount of pituitary ACTH released in response to CRH was decreased in rats consuming ethanol. In vitro responsiveness of the adrenal gland to ACTH in nine month old rats consuming ethanol was unchanged. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations were also decreased in 15 month old rats chronically consuming ethanol. No differences were noted in responsiveness of the adrenal gland or in the amount of pituitary ACTH due to ethanol consumptions in 15 month old rats.

  4. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inappropriately). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. About 1 in 10,000 to 18,000 ... penis but normal testes Well-developed muscles Both boys and girls will be tall as children, but much shorter ...

  5. Opioid-induced secondary adrenal insufficiency presenting as hypercalcaemia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Angela S

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adrenal insufficiency is a rare cause of hypercalcaemia and should be considered when more common causes such as primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are excluded. Opioid therapy as a cause of adrenal insufficiency is a possibly under-recognised endocrinopathy with potentially life-threatening adverse effects. We report on a case of opioid-induced secondary adrenal insufficiency presenting as hypercalcaemia. The patient was a 25-year-old man who developed hypercalcaemia during the recovery stage after a period of critical illness. Systematic investigation of his hypercalcaemia found it to be due to secondary adrenal insufficiency, developing as a consequence of methadone opioid analgesia. Treatment with i.v. saline and subsequent glucocorticoid replacement led to resolution of the hypercalcaemia. The hypoadrenalism resolved when opioids were subsequently weaned and ceased. These two interacting endocrinopathies of opioid-induced adrenal insufficiency and consequent hypercalcaemia highlight the importance of maintaining awareness of the potentially serious adverse clinical outcomes which can occur as a result of opioids, particularly considering that symptoms of hypoadrenalism can overlap with those of concomitant illness. Treatment with hydration and glucocorticoid replacement is effective in promptly resolving the hypercalcaemia due to hypoadrenalism. Hypoadrenalism due to prescribed and recreational opioids may be more common than is currently recognised. Learning points Opioid therapy can cause clinically significant secondary adrenal insufficiency, and this may be more common than is currently recognised.Adrenal insufficiency is reversible after discontinuation of the opioid therapy.Hypercalcaemia can occur as a consequence of adrenal insufficiency, and may be the presenting feature.Treatment of hypercalcaemia due to adrenal insufficiency involves i.v. saline and glucocorticoid replacement. PMID:26161260

  6. Sequence analysis of a non-classified, non-occluded DNA virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy of Musca domestica, MdSGHV

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Maruniak, Alejandra; Maruniak, James E.; Farmerie, William; Boucias, Drion G.

    2008-01-01

    The genome of the virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy in Musca domestica (MdSGHV) was sequenced. This non-classified, enveloped, double stranded, circular DNA virus had a 124,279 bp genome. The G+C content was 43.5% with 108 putative methionine-initiated open reading frames (ORFs). Thirty ORFs had homology to database proteins: eleven to proteins coded by both baculoviruses and nudiviruses (p74, pif-1, pif-2, pif-3, odv-e66, rr1, rr2, iap, dUTPase, MMP, and Ac81-like), seven to nudiviruses (mcp, dhfr, ts, tk and three unknown proteins), one to baculovirus (Ac150-like), one to herpesvirus (dna pol), and ten to cellular proteins. Mass spectrum analysis of the viral particles’ protein components identified 29 structural ORFs, with only p74 and odv-e66 previously characterized as baculovirus structural proteins. Although most of the homology observed was to nudiviruses, phylogenetic analysis showed that MdSGHV was not closely related to them or to the baculoviruses. PMID:18495197

  7. Aldo-Keto Reductases 1B in Adrenal Cortex Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Pastel, Emilie; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Martinez, Antoine; Lefrançois-Martinez, A. Marie

    2016-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AKR1B) proteins are monomeric enzymes, belonging to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. They perform oxidoreduction of carbonyl groups from a wide variety of substrates, such as aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes or ketones. Due to the involvement of human aldose reductases in pathologies, such as diabetic complications and cancer, AKR1B subgroup enzymatic properties have been extensively characterized. However, the issue of AKR1B function in non-pathologic conditions remains poorly resolved. Adrenal activities generated large amount of harmful aldehydes from lipid peroxidation and steroidogenesis, including 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and isocaproaldehyde (4-methylpentanal), which can both be reduced by AKR1B proteins. More recently, some AKR1B isoforms have been shown to be endowed with prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS) activity, suggesting that, in addition to possible scavenger function, they could instigate paracrine signals. Interestingly, the adrenal gland is one of the major sites for human and murine AKR1B expression, suggesting that their detoxifying/signaling activity could be specifically required for the correct handling of adrenal function. Moreover, chronic effects of ACTH result in a coordinated regulation of genes encoding the steroidogenic enzymes and some AKR1B isoforms. This review presents the molecular mechanisms accounting for the adrenal-specific expression of some AKR1B genes. Using data from recent mouse genetic models, we will try to connect their enzymatic properties and regulation with adrenal functions. PMID:27499746

  8. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Unresolved Issues.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; Poppas, Dix; Ghizzoni, Lucia; New, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a family of disorders that comes from enzymatic deficiencies in cortisol production, with 21-hydroxylase deficiency causing ∼90% of cases. Distinction is made between the severe classical form and milder nonclassical form of CAH. Molecular genetic analysis is used to confirm the hormonal diagnosis. A high rate of genotype-phenotype disconcordance has been found in 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The goal of treatment is to replace with synthetic glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and suppress adrenal androgen production. The treatment of patients affected with nonclassical CAH, particularly males, remains controversial. Variable synthetic glucocorticoids are used and new modes of glucocorticoid delivery are under investigation. To improve height, growth hormone and other adjuvant therapies are employed. Long-term outcomes of genital surgery using modern techniques in females affected with classical CAH continue to be investigated. Prenatal treatment with dexamethasone is available to avoid ambiguous genitalia in these females. Although studies have shown its safety to mother and fetus, prenatal treatment is still regarded as experimental. Currently, prenatal diagnosis of CAH can only be obtained through invasive methods. Recently, the detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has made it possible to make this diagnosis earlier and noninvasively. PMID:27211889

  9. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Treatment of Adrenal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, Sheema; Chen, Yuhchyau; Katz, Alan W.; Muhs, Ann G.; Philip, Abraham; Okunieff, Paul; Milano, Michael T.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetry and outcomes of patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for metastases to the adrenal glands. Methods and Materials: At University of Rochester, patients have been undergoing SBRT for limited metastases since 2001. We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients who had undergone SBRT for adrenal metastases from various primary sites, including lung (n = 20), liver (n = 3), breast (n = 3), melanoma (n = 1), pancreas (n = 1), head and neck (n = 1), and unknown primary (n = 1). Results: Of the 30 patients, 14 with five or fewer metastatic lesions (including adrenal) underwent SBRT, with the intent of controlling all known sites of metastatic disease, and 16 underwent SBRT for palliation or prophylactic palliation of bulky adrenal metastases. The prescribed dose ranged from 16 Gy in 4 fractions to 50 Gy in 10 fractions. The median dose was 40 Gy. Of the 30 patients, 24 had >3 months of follow-up with serial computed tomography. Of these 24 patients, 1 achieved a complete response, 15 achieved a partial response, 4 had stable disease, and 4 developed progressive disease. No patient developed symptomatic progression of their adrenal metastases. The 1-year survival, local control, and distant control rate was 44%, 55%, and 13%, respectively. No patient developed Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2 or greater toxicity. Conclusion: SBRT for adrenal metastases is well tolerated. Most patients developed widespread metastases shortly after treatment. Local control was poor, although this was a patient population selected for adverse risk factors, such as bulky disease. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of SBRT for oligometastatic adrenal metastases, given the propensity of these patients to develop further disease progression.

  10. Adrenal insufficiency presenting as hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seung Won; Kim, Tong Yoon; Lee, Sangmin; Jeong, Jeong Yeon; Shim, Hojoon; Han, Yu min; Choi, Kyu Eun; Shin, Seok Joon; Yoon, Hye Eun

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is an uncommon cause of hypercalcemia and not easily considered as an etiology of adrenal insufficiency in clinical practice, as not all cases of adrenal insufficiency manifest as hypercalcemia. We report a case of secondary adrenal insufficiency presenting as hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury in a 66-year-old female. The patient was admitted to the emergency department with general weakness and poor oral intake. Hypercalcemia (11.5 mg/dL) and moderate renal dysfunction (serum creatinine 4.9 mg/dL) were shown in her initial laboratory findings. Studies for malignancy and hyperparathyroidism showed negative results. Basal cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels and adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. With the administration of oral hydrocortisone, hypercalcemia was dramatically resolved within 3 days. This case shows that adrenal insufficiency may manifest as hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury, which implicates that adrenal insufficiency should be considered a cause of hypercalcemia in clinical practice. PMID:27536162

  11. The Postprandial Rise in Plasma Cortisol in Men Is Mediated by Macronutrient-Specific Stimulation of Adrenal and Extra-Adrenal Cortisol Production

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Jennifer L.; Andrew, Ruth; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Walker, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Context Circadian variation is a fundamental characteristic of plasma glucocorticoids, with a postprandial rise in cortisol an important feature. The diurnal rhythm is presumed to reflect alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity; however, cortisol is produced not only by the adrenal glands but also by regeneration from cortisone by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, mainly in liver and adipose tissue. Objective We tested the contribution of peripheral cortisol regeneration to macronutrient-induced circadian variation of plasma cortisol in humans. Design This was a randomized, single-blinded, crossover study. Setting The study was conducted at a hospital research facility. Participants Eight normal-weight healthy men participated in the study. Interventions Subjects were given isocaloric energy isodense flavor-matched liquid meals composed of carbohydrate, protein, fat, or low-calorie placebo during infusion of the stable isotope tracer 9,11,12,12-[2H]4-cortisol. Outcome Measures and Results Plasma cortisol increased similarly after all macronutrient meals (by ~90 nmol/L) compared with placebo. Carbohydrate stimulated adrenal secretion and extra-adrenal regeneration of cortisol to a similar degree. Protein and fat meals stimulated adrenal cortisol secretion to a greater degree than extra-adrenal cortisol regeneration. The increase in cortisol production by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 was in proportion to the increase in insulin. The postprandial cortisol rise was not accounted for by decreased cortisol clearance. Conclusions Food-induced circadian variation in plasma cortisol is mediated by adrenal secretion and extra-adrenal regeneration of cortisol. Given that the latter has the more potent effect on tissue cortisol concentrations and that effects on adrenal and extra-adrenal cortisol production are macronutrient specific, this novel mechanism may contribute to the physiological interplay between insulin and

  12. Primary Adrenal Failure due to Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Murat; Oguz, Ayten; Tuzun, Dilek; Boysan, Serife Nur; Mese, Bülent; Sahin, Hatice; Gul, Kamile

    2015-01-01

    Background. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) characterized by thrombosis and abortus may rarely cause primary adrenal failure. Case Presentations. A 34-year-old male presented with hypotension, hypoglycemia, hyperpigmentation on his skin and oral mucosa, scars on both legs, and loss of consciousness. In laboratory examinations, hyponatremia (135 mmol/L), hyperpotassemia (6 mmol/L), and thrombocytopenia (83 K/µL) were determined. Cortisol (1.91 µg/dL) and adrenocorticotropic (550 pg/mL) hormone levels were also evaluated. The patient was hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute adrenal crisis due to primary adrenal insufficiency. A Doppler ultrasound revealed venous thrombosis. The patient was diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome after the detection of venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, elevated aPTT, and anticardiolipin antibody levels. Anticoagulation treatment was started for antiphospholipid syndrome. The patient is now following up with hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and warfarin sodium. Conclusion. Antiphospholipid syndrome is a rare reason for adrenal failure. Antiphospholipid syndrome should be suspected if patients have morbidity secondary to venous-arterial thrombosis. PMID:26583075

  13. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  14. Regulation of IL-17 Family Members by Adrenal Hormones During Experimental Sepsis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bosmann, Markus; Meta, Fabien; Ruemmler, Robert; Haggadone, Mikel D.; Sarma, J. Vidya; Zetoune, Firas S.; Ward, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Severe sepsis is a life-threatening disease that causes major morbidity and mortality. Catecholamines and glucocorticoids often have been used for the treatment of sepsis. Several recent studies have suggested a potential role of IL-17 during the development and progression of sepsis in small animal models. In this study, the cross-talk of catecholamines and glucocorticoids with members of the IL-17 family was investigated during sepsis in C57BL/6 mice. The concentrations in plasma of IL-17A, IL-17F, and the IL-17AF heterodimer all were increased greatly in mice after endotoxemia or cecal ligation and puncture as compared with sham mice. Surprisingly, when compared with IL-17A (487 pg/mL), the concentrations of IL-17F (2361 pg/mL) and the heterodimer, IL-17AF (5116 pg/mL), were much higher 12 hours after endotoxemia. After surgical removal of the adrenal glands, mice had much higher mortality after endotoxemia or cecal ligation and puncture. The absence of endogenous adrenal gland hormones (cortical and medullary) was associated with 3- to 10-fold higher concentrations of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17AF, and IL-23. The addition of adrenaline, noradrenaline, hydrocortisone, or dexamethasone to lipopolysaccharide-activated peritoneal macrophages dose-dependently suppressed the expression and release of IL-17s. The production of IL-17s required activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, which was antagonized by both catecholamines and glucocorticoids. These data provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of immune modulation by catecholamines and glucocorticoids during acute inflammation. PMID:23499051

  15. Transient acute adrenal insufficiency associated with adenovirus serotype 40 infection

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Birendra; Ali, Muhammad; Kumar, Varun; Krebit, Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    We present an instance of a 6-year-old boy who was admitted with adenovirus infection and developed transient acute adrenal insufficiency, which required supplementation with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids for 8 weeks. Adenovirus has got adrenotropic potential and can cause adrenal insufficiency. We could not find any similar reported case in medical literature. We hope our case would add to the existing knowledge of adenoviral complications in paediatric patients. PMID:24928932

  16. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  17. Exploration of steroidogenesis-related genes in testes, ovaries, adrenals, liver and adipose tissue in pigs.

    PubMed

    Robic, Annie; Feve, Katia; Louveau, Isabelle; Riquet, Juliette; Prunier, Armelle

    2016-08-01

    To explore the metabolism of steroids in the pig species, a qualitative PCR analysis was performed for the main transcript of 27 genes involved in steroid metabolism. We compared samples of testes, adipose tissue and liver from immature and peripubertal males, adrenal cortex from peripubertal males, ovaries from cyclic females and adipose tissue from peripubertal females. Some genes were shown to have a tissue-specific expression. Two of them were expressed only in testes, ovaries and adrenals: CYP11A1 and CYP11B. The CYP21 and HSD17B3 genes, were expressed respectively only in adrenals and only in testes. Very few differences were observed between transcriptional patterns of peripubertal testes and adrenal glands as well as between male and female fat tissues. However, the expression of genes involved in the sulfonation of steroids was higher in testes than in adrenals from males. Main differences between ovaries and testes were observed for HSD17B1/2/3, AKR1C-pig6 and sulfotransferase genes (SULT2A1/SULT2B1). The present study shows that the SRD5A2 and CYP21 genes were not involved in the testicular biosynthesis of androstenone. It also shows that porcine adrenal glands produce essentially corticosteroids and that fat tissue is unable to produce de novo steroids. PMID:27436769

  18. Decreased catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medullae of chronically diabetic BB-Wistar rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilke, R. A.; Riley, D. A.; Lelkes, P. I.; Hillard, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Many humans with IDDM eventually lose the capacity to secrete epinephrine from their adrenal medullae. The mechanism for this pathological change is unknown. We hypothesized that this abnormality is attributable to neuropathic changes in the greater splanchnic nerves or in the chromaffin cells that they innervate. To study this hypothesis, we isolated rat adrenal glands, perfused them ex vivo, and measured the epinephrine content of the perfusate under various conditions of stimulation. We used transmural electrical stimulation (20-80 V, at 10 Hz) to induce epinephrine secretion indirectly by selectively activating residual splanchnic nerve terminals within the isolated glands. Under these conditions, epinephrine secretion was severely attenuated in glands from female BB-Wistar rats with diabetes of 4 mo duration compared with their age-matched, nondiabetic controls. These perfused diabetic adrenal medullae also demonstrated decreased catecholamine release in response to direct chromaffin cell depolarization with 20 mM K+, evidence that a functional alteration exists within the chromaffin cells themselves. Nonetheless, total catecholamine content of adrenal medullae from these diabetic rats was not significantly different from controls, indicating that the secretory defect was not simply attributable to a difference in the amount of catecholamines stored and available for release. Herein, we also provide histological evidence of degenerative changes within the cholinergic nerve terminals that innervate these glands.

  19. Computational Model of Adrenal Steroidogenesis to Predict Biochemical Response to Endocrine Disruptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroids, which have an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, are synthesized primarily in the gonads and adrenal glands through a series of enzyme mediated reactions. The activity of steroidogenic enzymes can be altered by various endocrine disrupters (ED), ...

  20. Laparoscopic and robotic adrenal surgery: transperitoneal approach

    PubMed Central

    Okoh, Alexis K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in technology and the need to decrease surgical morbidity have led a rapid progress in laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) over the past decade. Robotics is attractive to the surgeon owing to the 3-dimensional image quality, articulating instruments, and stable surgical platform. The safety and efficacy of robotic adrenalectomy (RA) have been demonstrated by several reports. In addition, RA has been shown to provide similar outcomes compared to LA. Development of adrenal surgery has involved the description of several surgical approaches including the anterior transperitoneal, lateral transperitoneal (LT) and posterior retroperitoneal (PR). Among these, the most frequently preferred technique is LT adrenalectomy, primarily due to the surgeon’s familiarity of the operative field, wider working space and visibility. The LT technique is suitable for the resection of larger, unilateral tumors and in scenarios where conversion to an open transperitoneal approach is warranted, it offers a lesser burden. Also, the larger view of the entire abdominal cavity and excellent exposure of both adrenal glands and surrounding structures provided by the LT technique render it safe and feasible in pediatric and pregnant individuals. PMID:26425457

  1. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of adrenal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rashmee; Ona, Mel A.; Papafragkakis, Charilaos; Duddempudi, Sushil; Anand, Sury; Jamil, Laith H.

    2016-01-01

    The use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) appears to be a safe and feasible means of confirming or excluding malignancy in the adrenal glands. EUS-FNA with biopsy of suspicious masses in either adrenal gland allows for assessment of these lesions while keeping complications relatively rare. The main advantages of EUS-FNA are that it can be done as an outpatient procedure, with good results, minimal morbidity, and a short hospital stay. Nevertheless, EUS-FNA of adrenal masses should be indicated only in selected cases, in which there is potential to either decrease unnecessary treatment or guide therapy in cancer patients by aiding in either staging of malignancy or treatment of recurrence.v PMID:27366030

  2. An acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung cancer in an elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Mohamed, Saoussen Cheikh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Metastases of solid tumors to the pituitary gland are often asymptomatic or appereas as with diabetes insipid us. Pituitary metastases more commonly affect the posterior lobe and the infundibulum than the anterior lobe. The presentation with an acute adrenal insufficiency is a rare event. A 69-year-old men presented with vomiting, low blood pressure and hypoglycemia. Hormonal exploration confirmed a hypopituitarism. Appropriate therapy was initiated urgently. The hypothalamic-pituitary MRI showed a pituitary hypertrophy, a nodular thickening of the pituitary stalk. The chest X Rays revealed pulmonary opacity. Computed tomography scan of the chest showed a multiples tumors with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Bronchoscopy and biopsy demonstrated a pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Hence we concluded to a lung cancer with multiple pituitary and adrenal gland metastases. This case emphasizes the need for an etiological investigation of acute adrenal insufficiency after treatment of acute phase. PMID:27200139

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of adrenal lesions.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rashmee; Ona, Mel A; Papafragkakis, Charilaos; Duddempudi, Sushil; Anand, Sury; Jamil, Laith H

    2016-01-01

    The use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) appears to be a safe and feasible means of confirming or excluding malignancy in the adrenal glands. EUS-FNA with biopsy of suspicious masses in either adrenal gland allows for assessment of these lesions while keeping complications relatively rare. The main advantages of EUS-FNA are that it can be done as an outpatient procedure, with good results, minimal morbidity, and a short hospital stay. Nevertheless, EUS-FNA of adrenal masses should be indicated only in selected cases, in which there is potential to either decrease unnecessary treatment or guide therapy in cancer patients by aiding in either staging of malignancy or treatment of recurrence.v. PMID:27366030

  4. An acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung cancer in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Mohamed, Saoussen Cheikh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Metastases of solid tumors to the pituitary gland are often asymptomatic or appereas as with diabetes insipid us. Pituitary metastases more commonly affect the posterior lobe and the infundibulum than the anterior lobe. The presentation with an acute adrenal insufficiency is a rare event. A 69-year-old men presented with vomiting, low blood pressure and hypoglycemia. Hormonal exploration confirmed a hypopituitarism. Appropriate therapy was initiated urgently. The hypothalamic-pituitary MRI showed a pituitary hypertrophy, a nodular thickening of the pituitary stalk. The chest X Rays revealed pulmonary opacity. Computed tomography scan of the chest showed a multiples tumors with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Bronchoscopy and biopsy demonstrated a pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Hence we concluded to a lung cancer with multiple pituitary and adrenal gland metastases. This case emphasizes the need for an etiological investigation of acute adrenal insufficiency after treatment of acute phase. PMID:27200139

  5. Adrenal Pathology in the Adult: A Urological Pathologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Donna E; Reuter, Victor E

    2016-09-01

    Adrenal gland diagnostics can pose significant challenges. In most academic and community practice settings, adrenal gland resections are encountered less frequently than other endocrine or genitourinary specimens, leading to less familiarity with evolving classifications and criteria. The unique dichotomy between cortical and medullary lesions reflects the developmental evolution of these functionally independent components. Adrenal cortical lesions at resection include hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma, with some cases straddling the boundary between these distinct clinical classifications. The lack of immunohistochemical or molecular markers to definitively categorize these intermediate lesions enhances the diagnostic challenge. In addition, modified terminology for oncocytic and myxoid cortical lesions has been proposed. Medullary lesions are somewhat easier to categorize; however, the prediction of aggressive behavior in pheochromocytomas remains a challenge due to a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers. Recent work by the Cancer Genome Atlas Project and other research groups has identified a limited subset of molecular and signaling pathway alterations in these 2 major neoplastic categories. Ongoing research to better define prognostic and predictive biomarkers in cortical and medullary lesions has the potential to enhance both pathologic diagnosis and patient therapy. PMID:27438375

  6. Neuromedin-U inhibits unilateral adrenalectomy-induced compensatory adrenal growth in the rat.

    PubMed

    Malendowicz, Ludwik K; Guidolin, Diego; Trejter, Marcin; Rucinski, Marcin; Porzionato, Andrea; de Caro, Raffaele; Nowak, Magdalena

    2009-05-01

    Neuromedin-U (NMU) is a brain-gut peptide, which has been previously found to stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rat and to control the growth of the rat adrenal cortex. The present study aimed to investigate the possible involvement of NMU in the regulation of unilateral adrenalectomy-induced compensatory adrenal growth, a phenomenon known to be neurally mediated. The right adrenal gland of mature female rats was removed, the contralateral gland was then analyzed at 24 and 72h following surgery. Groups of rats were given 3 subcutaneous injections (24, 16 and 8h before decapitation) of NMU8 (1.5 or 3.0 nmol/100g/per injection). Three hours before sacrifice all rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.1mg/100g body weight of vincristin. By means of RT-PCR the presence of NMUR1 mRNA was detected in adrenal cortex of both intact and hemiadrenalectomized rats. As expected, unilateral adrenalectomy-induced an increase in adrenal weight, associated with increased plasma ACTH, aldosterone and corticosterone levels. The administration of NMU to hemiadrenalectomized rats did not significantly affect these parameters. NMU administration, however, notably inhibited the unilateral adrenalectomy-induced adrenocortical cell proliferation in both zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata, as assessed by the metaphase index and the number of parenchymal cell nuclei per unit area of the tissue. When compared to hemiadrenalectomized animals receiving saline, a significant decrease of blood corticosterone levels was observed after 24h in rats treated with the highest dose of NMU. Since these effects were independent on changes in blood ACTH, they could reflect an interaction of NMU with the neural system innervating the adrenal gland. PMID:19428772

  7. Isolation and identification of a compound from avocado (Persea americana) leaves which causes necrosis of the acinar epithelium of the lactating mammary gland and the myocardium.

    PubMed

    Oelrichs, P B; Ng, J C; Seawright, A A; Ward, A; Schäffeler, L; MacLeod, J K

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that when lactating livestock eat avocado (Persea americana) leaves they may develop non-infectious mastitis and agalactia. This is associated with extensive coagulation necrosis of the secretory acinar epithelium and interstitial oedema, congestion, and haemorrhage. Similar lesions have been produced in mammary glands of lactating mice fed a diet containing a small percentage of freeze-dried avocado leaf. Tests using these animals have been used to isolate the active principle, termed "persin," from avocado leaves. The purified persin was examined using IR, NMR, and UV spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and identified as (Z,Z)-1-(acetyloxy)-2-hydroxy-12,15-heneicosadien-4-one. Persin has previously been isolated from avocado leaves and shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms. Our tests have shown that persin at the dose rate of 60-100 mg/kg has the same effect on mammary glands in lactating mice as leaves from avocado. Enantioselective syntheses of the R and the S isomers of persin and related derivatives were carried out. These compounds were tested for activity required to induce widespread lactating mammary gland necrosis in mice, and only the R isomer was found active. At doses of persin above 100 mg/kg necrosis of myocardial fibres may occur and hydrothorax may be present in severely affected animals. The mechanism of action of persin on both the mammary gland and the myocardium remain to be resolved. PMID:8581318

  8. Endothelial metabolism of angiotensin II to angiotensin III, not angiotensin (1-7), augments the vasorelaxation response in adrenal cortical arteries.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Phillip G; Campbell, William B

    2013-12-01

    Hyperaldosteronism is linked to the development and progression of several different cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin (Ang) II increases aldosterone secretion and adrenal blood flow. Ang II peptide fragments are produced by various peptidases, and these Angs have diverse and vital physiologic roles. Due to the uncharacteristic vasorelaxation of adrenal arteries by Ang II, we tested the hypothesis that Ang II metabolism contributes to its relaxant activity in adrenal arteries. Metabolism of Angs by bovine adrenal cortical arteries and isolated bovine adrenal vascular cells was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The primary Ang metabolites of adrenal arteries are Ang III and Ang (1-7), with Ang IV produced to a lesser extent. Bovine microvascular endothelial cells produced a similar metabolic profile to adrenal arteries, whereas bovine adrenal artery smooth muscle cells exhibited less metabolism. In preconstricted adrenal arteries, Ang II caused relaxation in picomolar concentrations and constrictions at 10nM. Ang-converting enzyme 2 inhibition augmented this relaxation response, whereas aminopeptidase inhibition did not. Ang III was equipotent to Ang II in relaxing adrenal arteries. Ang IV did not cause relaxation. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition enhanced Ang II-induced constriction of adrenal arteries. Aminopeptidase inhibition increased the concentration range for Ang II-induced constriction of adrenal arteries. Ang III and Ang IV did not change the basal tone but caused constriction of adrenal arteries with nitric oxide synthase inhibition. These data indicate that Ang II metabolism modulates the vascular effects of Ang II in the adrenal vasculature. PMID:24092640

  9. Multiple organ damage caused by tumor necrosis factor and prevented by prior neutrophil depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, A.A.; Ishizaka, A.; Stephens, K.E.; Hatherill, J.R.; Tazelaar, H.D.; Raffin, T.A. )

    1989-05-01

    The effect of TNF on nonpulmonary multiple organ damage (MOD) was studied. Since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are thought to play an important role in septic or TNF-induced MOD, we investigated both neutrophil sufficient (PMN+) and neutropenic (PMN-) guinea pigs. Sepsis was induced by Escherichia coli administration (2 x 10(9)/kg) or recombinant human TNF (1.4 x 10(6) U/kg) was infused into PMN+ and PMN- guinea pigs. During necropsy, the PMN+/TNF and PMN+/E coli animals exhibited marked damage in the adrenal glands, kidneys and liver as evidenced by hemorrhage, congestion, and PMN sequestration on histopathologic examination. There was also increased tissue albumin accumulation in the adrenal glands, kidneys, spleen, heart, and liver as demonstrated by {sup 125}I-labeled albumin determinations. In contrast, the PMN-/TNF group did not reveal histopathologic damage in any organ system and there was no abnormal organ accumulation of {sup 125}I-albumin. However, in PMN-/E coli animals, marked histopathologic damage in the adrenal glands and liver was evident. Furthermore, there were marked accumulations of {sup 125}I-albumin in the adrenals, heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen. Moreover, the PMN-/E coli guinea pigs had a much greater accumulation (p less than 0.01) of {sup 125}I-albumin in the kidneys than any other group including the PMN+/E coli group. Thus, nonpulmonary MOD in guinea pigs is caused by TNF administration and can be prevented by PMN depletion. However, while E coli administration also caused marked nonpulmonary MOD in neutrophil sufficient guinea pigs, equivalent or greater damage was produced in neutropenic animals. This suggests that while TNF-induced MOD may be primarily mediated by PMN, E coli-induced MOD seems to be mediated by more than PMN.

  10. What Are the Symptoms of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart rate Headache Sweating Episodes of high or low blood pressure Anxiety or panic attack Shaking (tremors) of the hands Pale skin Blurred vision Weight loss Constipation Abdominal pain High blood sugar Psychiatric disturbances Addison’s Disease Symptoms can vary, depending ...

  11. Comparison of potential protective effects of melatonin, indole-3-propionic acid, and propylthiouracil against lipid peroxidation caused by potassium bromate in the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Karbownik, Malgorzata; Stasiak, Magdalena; Zasada, Krzysztof; Zygmunt, Arkadiusz; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2005-05-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a prooxidant and carcinogen, inducing thyroid tumors. Melatonin and indole-3-propionic acid (IPA) are effective antioxidants. Some antioxidative effects of propylthiouracil (PTU)--a thyrostatic drug--have been found. The aim of the study was to compare protective effects of melatonin, IPA, and PTU against lipid peroxidation in the thyroids, collected from rats treated with KBrO3, and in homogenates of porcine thyroids, incubated in the presence of KBrO3. Wistar rats were administered KBrO3 (110 mg/kg b.w., i.p., on the 10th day of the experiment) and/or melatonin, or IPA (0.0645 mmol/kg b.w., i.p., twice daily, for 10 days), or PTU (0.025% solution in drinking water, for 10 days). Homogenates of porcine thyroids were incubated for 30 min in the presence of KBrO3 (5 mM) plus one of the antioxidants: melatonin (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 7.5 mM), or IPA (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 mM), or PTU (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 mM). The level of lipid peroxidation products (MDA + 4-HDA) was measured spectrophotometrically in thyroid homogenates. In vivo pretreatment with either melatonin or with IPA or with PTU decreased lipid peroxidation caused by KBrO3--injections in rat thyroid gland. Under in vitro conditions, PTU (5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 mM), but neither melatonin nor IPA, reduced KBrO3-related lipid peroxidation in the homogenates of porcine thyroids. In conclusion, melatonin and IPA may be of great value as protective agents under conditions of exposure to KBrO3. PMID:15723291

  12. Benign adrenal cyst presenting in a pregnant patient.

    PubMed

    Tait, D L; Williams, J; Sandstad, J; Lucci, J A

    1997-09-01

    Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland are uncommon, most often diagnosed incidentally during diagnostic imaging or autopsy. An adrenal cyst presenting as a pelvic mass in pregnancy offers the clinician a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. A 28-year-old black female presented for routine obstetric care at 26 weeks' gestation and was found on examination to have a 40-cm pelvic-abdominal mass. Ultrasound confirmation revealed the mass to be cystic and arising from the right pelvis. Laboratory tests including hematocrit, white blood cell count, electrolytes, rapid plasma reagin (RPR), and CA-125 were within normal limits. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and a 40 x 20 cm right adrenal cyst was identified and resected. Postoperatively, the patient developed preterm labor and delivered a 955-g infant; the infant was discharged home 3 months later with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and delayed developmental milestones. The woman was discharged home without complication on postoperative Day 8. Accurate preoperative determination of the origin of a pelvic mass occurring in pregnancy is helpful in timing therapeutic intervention. Use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities can provide detailed anatomical information without risk to mother or fetus. Conservative management of adrenal cyst in pregnancy may lower the morbidity and mortality of the mother and fetus. PMID:9376006

  13. Adrenal hemangioma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Auh, Y H; Anand, J; Zirinsky, K; Kazam, E

    1986-01-01

    Adrenal hemangioma is a very rare tumor. Presented is the 18th case proved by autopsy or surgery reported in world literature. The tumor was incidentally discovered at autopsy. Unless this tumor has characteristic calcifications, phlebolith or phlebolithlike, its computed tomography appearance is nonspecific. Therefore, by computed tomography this tumor cannot be differentiated from other primary or secondary adrenal tumors. PMID:3943357

  14. Adrenal Development in Mice Requires GATA4 and GATA6 Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Elizabeth; Hatch, Heather M.; Jiang, Tianyu; Morse, Deborah A.; Fox, Shawna C.

    2015-01-01

    The adrenal glands consist of an outer cortex and an inner medulla, and their primary purposes include hormone synthesis and secretion. The adrenal cortex produces a complex array of steroid hormones, whereas the medulla is part of the sympathetic nervous system and produces the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. In the mouse, GATA binding protein (GATA) 4 and GATA6 transcription factors are coexpressed in several embryonic tissues, including the adrenal cortex. To explore the roles of GATA4 and GATA6 in mouse adrenal development, we conditionally deleted these genes in adrenocortical cells using the Sf1Cre strain of animals. We report here that mice with Sf1Cre-mediated double deletion of Gata4 and Gata6 genes lack identifiable adrenal glands, steroidogenic factor 1-positive cortical cells and steroidogenic gene expression in the adrenal location. The inactivation of the Gata6 gene alone (Sf1Cre;Gata6flox/flox) drastically reduced the adrenal size and corticosterone production in the adult animals. Adrenocortical aplasia is expected to result in the demise of the animal within 2 weeks after birth unless glucocorticoids are provided. In accordance, Sf1Cre;Gata4flox/floxGata6flox/flox females depend on steroid supplementation to survive after weaning. Surprisingly, Sf1Cre;Gata4flox/floxGata6flox/flox males appear to live normal lifespans as vital steroidogenic synthesis shifts to their testes. Our results reveal a requirement for GATA factors in adrenal development and provide a novel tool to characterize the transcriptional network controlling adrenocortical cell fates. PMID:25933105

  15. Endoscopic Ultrasound in Endocrinology: Imaging of the Adrenals and the Endocrine Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kann, Peter Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) imaging of adrenal glands and its application to diagnostic procedures of adrenal diseases has been reported since 1998. It can be considered a relevant advantage in the field of adrenal diseases. Indeed, EUS allows the detection of adrenal lesions (even very small ones) and their characterization, the assessment of malignancy criteria, the early detection of neoplastic recurrences, the preoperative identification of morphologically healthy parts of the glands, the differentiation of extra-adrenal from adrenal tumors, and of the pathological entities associated with adrenal insufficiency, and the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) of suspicious lesions. At the same time, its clinical relevance depends on the experience of the endosonographer. Moreover, EUS is also by far the best and most sensitive imaging technique to detect and assess the follow-up of pancreatic manifestation of MEN1 disease. It furthermore enables the preoperatively localization of insulinomas and critical structures in their neighborhood, and may be relevant in planning surgical strategy. A positive EUS in a case of insulinoma furthermore confirms the endocrine diagnosis, especially considering the differential diagnosis of hypoglycemia factitia by oral antidiabetics. It can be supplemented by EUS-FNA. Again, it has to be considered that EUS may reveal false positive and false negative results, and the quality of the findings largely depends on the endosonographer's skills and experience. The most important technical details together with the advantages and limitations of EUS, and the pathognomonic characteristic of benign and malignant disorders of the adrenals and pancreas are presented here. PMID:27003412

  16. An unusual 131I-avid adrenal metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma identified by 131I-SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yan-Li; Song, Hong-Jun; Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2012-09-01

    The adrenal gland is an uncommon site of metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and I-avid adrenal metastatic lesions are even rarer. Here, we describe a 54-year-old woman with I-avid adrenal metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma identified using I whole-body scan (I-WBS) and I-SPECT/CT. I-SPECT/CT allowed superior localization of the equivocal I uptake in the I-WBS. It provides metabolic and anatomic information about a lesion, resulting in accurate localization and improved definition of I-WBS findings. PMID:22889799

  17. Brain regional and adrenal monoamine concentrations and behavioral responses to stress in alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Korpi, E R; Sinclair, J D; Kaheinen, P; Viitamaa, T; Hellevuo, K; Kiianmaa, K

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of monoamines, precursors and metabolites in various brain regions and the levels of catecholamines in the adrenal glands were determined from naive rats of the AA and ANA lines, and from ones immediately after an escapable shock test. The brain determinations were made with a new step-gradient ion-pair elution method on a reversed phase column and coulometric detection. Several significant differences were observed in the amine concentrations, largely confirming and extending the findings made before the genetic revitalization of the lines: in particular, the AAs, unlike other alcohol-preferring rodents, had higher 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations. The AA rats tended to have smaller changes than the ANAs in brain aminergic systems and had significantly less change in adrenal epinephrine and dopamine levels after the shock test. The AAs were consistently found to be less active than ANAs in this shock test and in a warm-water swim test, but whether this was a cause or an effect of their brain and adrenal changes could not be determined. Our behavioral results might suggest a reduced reaction of the alcohol-preferring rats to aversive stimulation. PMID:3219191

  18. Acupuncture Relieves the Excessive Excitation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex Axis Function and Correlates with the Regulatory Mechanism of GR, CRH, and ACTHR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Qie, Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    It had been indicated in the previous studies that acupuncture relieved the excessive excitation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis (HPAA) function induced by stress stimulation. But the changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) induced by acupuncture have not been detected clearly. The objective of the study was to observe the impacts of acupuncture on the protein expressions of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR), and GR under the physiological and stress states. The results showed that under the stress state, acupuncture upregulated the protein expression of GR in the hippocampus, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and pituitary gland, downregulated the protein expression of GR in the adrenal cortex, and obviously reduced the protein expressions of CRH and ACTHR. Under the physiological state, acupuncture promoted GR protein expression in the hippocampus and CRH protein expression in the hippocampus and PVN. The results explained that acupuncture regulated the stress reaction via promoting the combination of glucocorticoids (GC) with GR, and GR protein expression. The increase of GR protein expression induced feedback inhibition on the overexpression of CRH and ACTHR, likely decreased GC level, and caused the reduction of GR protein expression in the adrenal cortex. PMID:24761151

  19. Adrenal lymphangioma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of a rare lesion.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Carla L; Banerjee, Priya; Carney, Erin; Sharma, Rajni; Netto, George J

    2011-07-01

    Adrenal lymphangiomas, also known as cystic adrenal lymphangiomas, are rare, benign vascular lesions that usually remain asymptomatic throughout life. Although previously adrenal lymphangioma lesions were primarily found at autopsy, they are currently detected during imaging work-up for unrelated causes and are likely to imitate other adrenocortical or adrenal medullary neoplasms. We aimed to retrospectively review all adrenal lymphangioma cases at our hospital and further document their lymphatic origin by immunohistochemical staining. A search of surgical pathology records (1984-2008) was conducted. All hematoxylin and eosin sections were retrieved from archives and reviewed by 2 pathologists in the study. Clinical information was gathered from electronic medical records. Representative paraffin-embedded sections from each case were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies D2-40 and AE1/AE3. A total of 9 adrenal lymphangioma cases were identified (6 women and 3 men). All 9 patients were adults at time of diagnosis with a mean age of 42 years (range, 28-56 years). There were 7 white patients, 1 African American patient, and 1 Asian patient. The average size of an adrenal lymphangioma lesion was 4.9 cm (range, 2.0-13.5 cm). Adrenal lymphangioma was twice more frequently located on the right side (6 right-sided and 3 left-sided). Clinically, 4 (44%) of the 9 lesions presented with abdominal, flank, or back pain. One lymphangioma was found during work-up for labile hypertension. The remaining 4 lesions (44%) were asymptomatic and incidentally found during imaging studies for unrelated causes. Surgical removal was achieved by total adrenalectomy in 8 of the 9 lesions and by partial adrenalectomy in the remaining case. No evidence of recurrence or development of a contralateral lesion was encountered in any of the patients. Histologically, our adrenal lymphangiomas showed a typical multicystic architecture with dilated spaces lined by

  20. Steroid 21 hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nimkarn, Saroj; Lin-Su, Karen; New, Maria I

    2011-10-01

    Steroid 21 hydroxylase deficiency is the most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The severity of this disorder depends on the extent of impaired enzymatic activity, which is caused by various mutations of the 21 hydroxylase gene. This article reviews adrenal steroidogenesis and the pathophysiology of 21 hydroxylase deficiency. The three forms of CAH are then discussed in terms of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment, and genetic basis. Prenatal diagnosis and treatment are also reviewed. The goal of therapy is to correct the deficiency in cortisol secretion and suppress androgen overproduction. Glucocorticoid replacement has been the mainstay of treatment for CAH, but new treatment strategies continue to be developed and studied. PMID:21981961

  1. Adrenal extramedullary hematopoiesis associated with β-thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Keikhaei, Bijan; Shirazi, Ahmad Soltani; Pour, Mahboob Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The presence of apparently normal hematopoietic tissue outside of bone marrow cavity is defined as extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH). EMH is a rare complication in thalassemia major (TM) and adrenal gland as well. This report describes a case of adrenal EMH in a 26-year-old man with β-TM. He has been transfused with regular blood transfusion since 9 months. During the routine physical examination he was incidentally found to have a hypoechoic mass at his abdominal ultrasonography. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a right well-defined suprarenal mass 7.7×7.3×5.8 cm in size. The diagnosis of EMH was confirmed with ultrasonographic-guided fine needle biopsy. Treatment options which include intensified regular blood transfusion and hydroxyurea have been started. PMID:22826797

  2. ACTH Regulation of Adrenal SR-B1

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Azhar, Salman; Kraemer, Fredric B.

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal gland is one of the prominent sites for steroid hormone synthesis. Lipoprotein-derived cholesterol esters (CEs) delivered via SR-B1 constitute the dominant source of cholesterol for steroidogenesis, particularly in rodents. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates steroidogenesis through downstream actions on multiple components involved in steroidogenesis. Both acute and chronic ACTH treatments can modulate SR-B1 function, including its transcription, posttranscriptional stability, phosphorylation and dimerization status, as well as the interaction with other protein partners, all of which result in changes in the ability of SR-B1 to mediate HDL-CE uptake and the supply of cholesterol for conversion to steroids. Here, we provide a review of the recent findings on the regulation of adrenal SR-B1 function by ACTH. PMID:27242666

  3. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  4. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  5. A significant proportion of thalassemia major patients have adrenal insufficiency detectable on provocative testing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Karen E; Mittelman, Steven D; Coates, Thomas D; Geffner, Mitchell E; Wood, John C

    2015-01-01

    Advances in chelation therapy and noninvasive monitoring of iron overload have resulted in substantial improvements in the survival of transfusion-dependent patients with thalassemia major. Myocardial decompensation and sepsis remain the major causes of death. Although endocrine abnormalities are a well-recognized problem in these iron-overloaded patients, adrenal insufficiency and its consequences are underappreciated by the hematology community. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in thalassemia major subjects, to identify risk factors for adrenal insufficiency, and to localize the origin of the adrenal insufficiency within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Eighteen subjects with thalassemia major (18.9±9.3 y old, 7 female) were tested for adrenal insufficiency using a glucagon stimulation test. Those found to have adrenal insufficiency (stimulated cortisol <18 µg/dL) subsequently underwent an ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (oCRH) stimulation test to define the physiological basis for the adrenal insufficiency. The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency was 61%, with an increased prevalence in males over females (92% vs. 29%, P=0.049). Ten of 11 subjects who failed the glucagon stimulation test subsequently demonstrated normal ACTH and cortisol responses to oCRH, indicating a possible hypothalamic origin to their adrenal insufficiency. PMID:24942024

  6. A significant proportion of thalassemia major patients have adrenal insufficiency detectable on provocative testing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Karen E.; Mittelman, Steven D.; Coates, Thomas D.; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Wood, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in chelation therapy and noninvasive monitoring of iron overload have resulted in substantial improvements in the survival of transfusion dependent patients with thalassemia major. Myocardial decompensation and sepsis remain the major causes of death. While endocrine abnormalities are a well-recognized problem in these iron-overloaded patients, adrenal insufficiency and its consequences are under-appreciated by the hematology community. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in thalassemia major subjects, to identify risk factors for adrenal insufficiency, and to localize the origin of the adrenal insufficiency within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Eighteen subjects with thalassemia major (18.9 ± 9.3 years old, 7 female) were tested for adrenal insufficiency using a glucagon stimulation test (GST). Those found to have adrenal insufficiency (stimulated cortisol < 18 μg/dL) subsequently underwent an ovine corticotrophin-releasing hormone (oCRH) stimulation test to define the physiological basis for the adrenal insufficiency. The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency was 61%, with an increased prevalence in males over females (92% vs. 29%, p=0.049). Ten of 11 subjects who failed the GST subsequently demonstrated normal ACTH and cortisol responses to oCRH, indicating a possible hypothalamic origin to their adrenal insufficiency. PMID:24942024

  7. Myth vs. Fact: Adrenal Fatigue

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  8. Meibomian gland dysfunction: hyperkeratinization or atrophy?

    PubMed

    Jester, James V; Parfitt, Geraint J; Brown, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the major cause of evaporative dry eye disease (EDED) and dysfunction is widely thought to mechanistically involve ductal hyperkeratinization, plugging and obstruction. This review re-evaluates the role of hyperkeratinization in MGD based on more recent findings from mouse models. In these studies, eyelids from normal young and old mice or mice exposed to desiccating stress were evaluated by immunofluorescent tomography and 3-dimensional reconstruction to evaluate gland volume, expression of hyperkeratinization markers and cell proliferation or stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to assess lipid quality. Results indicate that aging mice show dropout of meibomian glands with loss of gland volume and a forward migration of the mucocutaneous junction anterior to the gland orifice; similar age-related changes that are detected in human subjects. Atrophic glands also showed evidence of epithelial plugging of the orifice without the presence of hyperkeratinization. Mice exposed to desiccating stress showed hyperproliferation of the meibomian gland and ductal dilation suggesting a marked increase in lipid synthesis. Lipid quality was also affected in EDED mice with an increase in the protein content of lipid within the duct of the gland. Overall, age-related changes in the mouse show similar structural and functional correlates with that observed in clinical MGD without evidence of hyperkeratinization suggesting that gland atrophy may be a major cause of EDED. The response of the meibomian gland to desiccating stress also suggest that environmental conditions may accelerate or potentiate age-related changes. PMID:26817690

  9. Concentrations of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following subcutaneous administration of one or two doses of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin and its efficacy against intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Jesus; Martínez-Cortés, Ismael; López-Ordaz, Reyes; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Sumano, Hector

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following administration of an experimental preparation once or twice during the dry period (45-day period immediately prior to calving during which cows are not milked) and to evaluate its efficacy for the treatment of cows with intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by Staphylococcus aureus at dry off (cessation of milking; first day of dry period), compared with that of an intramammary infusion of ceftiofur. ANIMALS 172 cows. PROCEDURES Milk samples were collected for microbiological culture 5 days before dry off and at calving and 15 and 30 days after calving. Cows with Staphylococcus IMIs were randomly assigned to receive an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once at dry off (n = 58) or at dry off and again 20 days later (56) or receive a long-acting intramammary preparation of ceftiofur (500 mg/mammary gland; 56) at dry off. Mammary gland secretions were collected from 5 cows in the tilmicosin-treated groups every 5 days after dry off until calving for determination of tilmicosin concentration. RESULTS Mean maximum concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions ranged from 14.4 to 20.9 μg/mL after the first dose and was 17.1 μg/mL after the second dose. The bacteriologic cure rate was 100% for all 3 treatments. Tilmicosin was detectable for 0 and 18 days after calving in the milk of cows treated with 1 and 2 doses of tilmicosin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once to dairy cows at dry off might be useful for the treatment of S aureus IMIs. PMID:27580103

  10. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for salivary gland cancer What’s new in salivary gland cancer research and treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  11. Genetics of primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Villares; Alencar, Guilherme Asmar; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Almeida, Madson Queiroz; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Lacroix, André

    2015-01-01

    ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome (CS), accounting for <2% of all endogenous CS cases; however it is more frequently identified incidentally with sub-clinical cortisol secretion. Recently, cortisol secretion has been shown to be regulated by ectopic corticotropin, which is in turn produced by clusters of steroidogenic cells of the hyperplastic adrenal nodules. Hence, the term 'ACTH-independent' is not entirely appropriate for this disorder. Accordingly, the disease is designated primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH) in this review article. The means by which cortisol production is regulated in PMAH despite the suppressed levels of ACTH of pituitary origin is exceedingly complex. Several molecular events have been proposed to explain the enhanced cortisol secretion, increased cell proliferation, and nodule formation in PMAH. Nonetheless, the precise sequence of events and the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition remain unclear. The purpose of this review is therefore to present new insights on the molecular and genetic profile of PMAH pathophysiology, and to discuss the implications for disease progression. PMID:25472909

  12. Inhaled Corticosteroids and Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sannarangappa, Vishnu; Jalleh, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have been used as first line treatment of asthma for many decades. ICS are a form of exogenous glucocorticosteroids that can suppress the endogenous production of glucocorticosteroids, a condition known as adrenal suppression (AS). As a result, cessation, decreasing the dose or changing the type of ICS may trigger features of adrenal insufficiency (AI). AI may cause a spectrum of presentations varying from vague symptoms of fatigue to potentially life threatening acute adrenal crises. This article reviews the current literature on ICS and AI particularly in adults (although majority of data available is from the paediatric population). It aims to increase awareness of the potential risk of AI associated with ICS use, delineate the pathogenesis of AI and to provide recommendations on screening and management. From our literature review, we have found numerous case reports that have shown an association between ICS and AI particularly in children and patients using high doses. However, there have also been reports of AI in adults as well as in patients using low to moderate doses of ICS. To conclude, we recommend screening for AI in select patient groups with an initial early morning serum cortisol. If results are abnormal, more definitive testing such as the low dose corticotropin stimulation test may be done to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:25674179

  13. Adrenal responses to calcitonin gene-related peptide in conscious hypophysectomized calves.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, S R; Edwards, A V; Jones, C T

    1989-01-01

    1. Right adrenal and various cardiovascular responses to an intra-aortic infusion of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP; 4 micrograms min-1) have been investigated in the presence and absence of exogenous adrenocorticotrophin ACTH1-24 (2 or 5 ng min-1 kg-1, I.V.). The adrenal clamp technique was employed in conscious calves in which the pituitary stalk had been cauterized 3-7 days previously. 2. At the higher dose (5 ng min-1 kg-1) the I.V. infusion of ACTH raised mean plasma ACTH concentration by about 1000 pg ml-1 and mean right adrenal cortisol output by about 750 ng min-1 kg-1. Under these conditions the intra-aortic infusion of CGRP had no apparent effect on adrenal cortisol output by about 750 ng min-1 kg-1. Under these conditions the intra-aortic infusion of CGRP had no apparent effect on adrenal function, other than to produce moderate adrenal vasodilatation. In contrast, in the absence of exogenous ACTH, the same dose of CGRP produced a substantial rise in cortisol output, which rose steadily to a peak mean value of 409 +/- 31 pg min-1 kg-1 at 10 min. It also significantly inhibited the release of free, but not of total, met5-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity from the gland (P less than 0.001) together with a significantly greater fall in adrenal vascular resistance (P less than 0.001). 3. At the lower dose of ACTH (2 ng min-1 kg-1, I.V.) CGRP raised mean plasma cortisol output from 314 +/- 31 to 486 +/- 44 ng min-1 kg-1 (P less than 0.01) and this effect was not attributable to an increase in the adrenal presentation rate of ACTH. 4. It is concluded that this peptide exerts a steroidogenic action on the adrenal cortex which is manifest in the absence of exogenous ACTH in the functionally hypophysectomized calf. PMID:2555477

  14. CENTRAL AND SYMPATHO-ADRENAL RESPONSES TO INSULIN IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RATS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the mature rat, subcutaneous administration of insulin (0.02 IU/g body wt.) produced hypoglycemia and a profound activation of the sympatho-adrenal pathway, as indicated by a marked depletion of adrenal catecholamines. Cellular glucopenia caused by administration of 2-deoxyglu...

  15. [Radiation damage of the thyroid gland as a probable cause of increased incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other hematologic diseases].

    PubMed

    Vinogradova, Iu E; Shinkarkina, A P; Poverennyĭ, A M

    1999-01-01

    Th distribution of autoimmune thyroiditis in the patients with diseases of blood system was investigate. The attribute of autoimmune thyroiditis was revealed by the detection of antimicrosomal antibodies. It was established that the autoimmune thyroiditis are more often in patients with various hematological diseases than in control group. It is supposed that the increase in frequency of some hematological diseases in residents suffered from the Chernobyl accident can be defined not only by the influence of the radiation on blood system, but also can be connected with damage to thyroid glands. PMID:10542872

  16. EFFECT OF INFLAMMATION ON LACRIMAL GLAND FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Zoukhri, Driss

    2005-01-01

    The lacrimal gland is the main contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film. It secretes proteins, electrolytes and water, which helps to nourish and protect the ocular surface. Lacrimal gland secretion is primarily under neural control, which is achieved through a neural reflex arc. Stimuli to the ocular surface activate afferent sensory nerves in the cornea and conjunctiva. This in turn activates efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves in the lacrimal gland to stimulate secretion. Sex steroid hormones are also important regulators of lacrimal gland functions. A decrease or lack of lacrimal gland secretion is the leading cause of aqueous tear deficient dry eye syndrome (DES). It has been suggested that DES is an inflammatory disorder that affects the ocular surface and the lacrimal gland. In several pathological instances, the lacrimal gland can become a target of the immune system and show signs of inflammation. This can result from autoimmune diseases (Sjögren's syndrome), organ transplantation (graft versus host disease), or simply as a result of aging. The hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation are the presence of focal lymphocytic infiltrates and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. The mechanisms leading to lacrimal gland dysfunction are still poorly understood. Apoptosis, production of autoantibodies, hormonal imbalance, alterations in signaling molecules, neural dysfunction, and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been proposed as possible mediators of lacrimal gland insufficiency in disease states. PMID:16309672

  17. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis induces cellular oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Spiers, Jereme G.; Chen, Hsiao-Jou Cortina; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal gland in response to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis induce activity in the cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) system. The redox system is a ubiquitous chemical mechanism allowing the transfer of electrons between donor/acceptors and target molecules during oxidative phosphorylation while simultaneously maintaining the overall cellular environment in a reduced state. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the current literature discussing the link between HPA axis-derived glucocorticoids and increased oxidative stress, particularly focussing on the redox changes observed in the hippocampus following glucocorticoid exposure. PMID:25646076

  18. Unsuspected pheochromocytoma: Risk of blood-pressure alterations during percutaneous adrenal biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Casola, G.; Nicolet, V.; van Sonnenberg, E.; Withers, C.; Bretagnolle, M.; Saba, R.M.; Bret, P.M.

    1986-06-01

    Four unsuspected pheochromocytomas were discovered during percutaneous fine-needle biopsy of the adrenal gland under ultrasound (n = 1) and computed tomographic (n = 3) guidance. One patient suffered an acute episode of alternating hypertension and hypotension during the procedure. A second patient had no alterations in vital signs during the procedure but had a severe hypertensive crisis during induction of anesthesia at surgery. Neither biopsy nor surgery affected the vital signs in the other two patients. During biopsy study of adrenal lesions, the possibility of unsuspected pheo-chromocytoma should be considered, and the interventional radiologist must be familiar with the emergency treatment of hypotensive or hypertensive crises that may occur.

  19. Transthoracic Adrenal Biopsy Procedure Using Artificial Carbon Dioxide Pneumothorax as Outpatient Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Favelier, Sylvain; Guiu, Severine; Cherblanc, Violaine; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Krause, Denis; Guiu, Boris

    2013-08-01

    Many routes have been described for percutaneous adrenal gland biopsy. They require either a complex non-axial path or a long hydrodissection or even pass through an organ thereby increasing complications. We describe here an approach using an artificially-induced carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) pneumothorax, performed as an outpatient procedure in a 57-year-old woman. Under local anaesthesia, 200 ml of CO{sub 2} was injected in the pleural space through a Veress needle under computed tomography fluoroscopy, to clear the lung parenchyma from the biopsy route. Using this technique, transthoracic adrenal biopsy can be performed under simple local anaesthesia as an safely outpatient procedure.

  20. A Rare Case of Renal Cell Carcinoma With Leiomyomatous Stroma and Concomitant Ruptured Adrenal Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chuanyong; Nicastri, Anthony; Shao, Charles

    2016-09-01

    Here we report a rare case of coexisting renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with leiomyomatous stroma and a ruptured adrenal aneurysm. The patient was a 75-year-old woman with acute abdominal pain. Imaging studies showed a left peri-renal hematoma and a mass in the left kidney. Left nephrectomy and adrenalectomy were performed. Pathological examination showed a ruptured aneurysm in the left adrenal gland. The renal mass was composed of tubules and acini of epithelial cells and a prominent leiomyomatous stroma. The tumor cells were positive for carbonic anhydrase IX, cytokeratin 7, and negative for AMACR, consistent with clear cell (tubulo) papillary RCC. PMID:27516974

  1. Myelolipoma in the spleen: a rare discovery of extra-adrenal hematopoietic tissue.

    PubMed

    Wood, William G; Restivo, Terry E; Axelsson, Karen L; Svahn, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    Myelolipomas are benign tumors usually found within the adrenal gland. Approximately 50 cases of extra-adrenal myelolipomas have been reported in the literature and all are associated with additional lesions. Myelolipomas contain hematopoetic cells and adipose tissue. Most commonly, they are asymptomatic and are found incidentally on radiologic imaging. Here we report a case of an isolated intrasplenic myelolipoma as an incidental finding during the work up for myasthenia gravis in an otherwise asymptomatic man. The spleen and associated mass were excised during laparotomy and the patient had an uneventful recovery. PMID:24964419

  2. The adrenal contribution to the neuroendocrine responses to splanchnic nerve stimulation in conscious calves.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, S R; Edwards, A V; Jones, C T

    1988-01-01

    1. The extent to which the adrenal gland contributes to neuroendocrine responses to electrical stimulation of the peripheral end of the splanchnic nerve has been investigated in conscious calves in which the right nerve was stimulated either at 4 Hz continuously for 10 min or at 40 Hz in 1 s bursts at 10 s intervals for the same period. 2. It was confirmed that the release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is potentiated by stimulation in bursts at a relatively high frequency and shown that the adrenal gland made a negligible contribution to these responses. 3. There was no detectable change in the concentration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the arterial plasma but the existence of a very small but highly significant rise in the output of VIP from the adrenal provided evidence that it was released within the gland in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation. 4. The concentration of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the arterial and adrenal venous effluent plasma was consistently below the level of detection of the assay. 5. Splanchnic nerve stimulation resulted in an abrupt rise in the output of both free and total met5-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity from the adrenal gland which was substantially potentiated by stimulating in bursts. This pattern of stimulation also increased the proportion released in a high-molecular-weight form. 6. Stimulation in bursts significantly enhanced the output of both adrenaline and noradrenaline from the adrenal and resulted in the release of proportionately more noradrenaline. Small amounts of dopamine and DOPAC were also released during splanchnic nerve stimulation and the output of dopamine was significantly increased by stimulating in bursts. 7. Both patterns of stimulation elicited an abrupt rise in mean plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentration, which was associated with an increase in mean adrenal cortisol output and the former effect was significantly enhanced

  3. Dopamine-secreting giant adrenal ganglioneuroma: clinical and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Polat, A V; Polat, A Kamali; Aslan, K; Atmaca, H; Karagoz, F

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a dopamine-secreting giant primary adrenal ganglioneuroma (GN) in a 29-year-old male patient. Although the patient was clinically silent, the 24-hour urine levels of dopamine, normetanephrine, homovanillic acid and vanillyl mandelic acid were elevated. Abdominal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large solid tumor with calcifications and a slightly lobular edge on the left adrenal gland. A tumor, 13 x 23 x 25 cm in size, was completely resected without morbidity. A 2-year follow-up with computed tomography showed that the postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. PMID:25073244

  4. Effect of Animal Facility Construction on Basal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal and Renin-Aldosterone Activity in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bruder, Eric D.; Cullinan, William E.; Ziegler, Dana R.; Cohen, Eric P.

    2011-01-01

    Although loud noise and intense vibration are known to alter the behavior and phenotype of laboratory animals, little is known about the effects of nearby construction. We studied the effect of a nearby construction project on the classic stress hormones ACTH, corticosterone, renin, and aldosterone in rats residing in a barrier animal facility before, for the first 3 months of a construction project, and at 1 month after all construction was completed. During some of the construction, noise and vibrations were not obvious to investigators inside the animal rooms. Body weight matched for age was not altered by nearby construction. During nearby construction, plasma ACTH, corticosterone, and aldosterone were approximately doubled compared with those of pre- and postconstruction levels. Expression of CRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, CRH receptor and POMC mRNA in the anterior pituitary, and most mRNAs for steroidogenic genes in the adrenal gland were not significantly changed during construction. We conclude that nearby construction can cause a stress response without long-term effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis gene expression and body weight. PMID:21248141

  5. Radionuclide therapy of adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Chen, Clara C

    2012-10-01

    Adrenal tumors arising from chromaffin cells will often accumulate radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and thus are amenable to therapy with I-131 MIBG. More recently, therapy studies have targeted the somatostatin receptors using Lu-177 or Y-90 radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. Because pheochromocytoma (PHEO)/paraganglioma (PGL) and neuroblastoma (NB), which often arise from the adrenals, express these receptors, clinical trials have been performed with these reagents. We will review the experience using radionuclide therapy for targeting PHEO/PGL and NBs. PMID:22718415

  6. Studies of the secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor and arginine vasopressin into the hypophysial-portal circulation of the conscious sheep. II. The central noradrenergic and neuropeptide Y pathways cause immediate and prolonged hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation. Potential involvement in the pseudo-Cushing's syndrome of endogenous depression and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J P; Clarke, I J; Funder, J W; Engler, D

    1994-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effects of intracerebroventricular norepinephrine (NE) or neuropeptide Y (NPY) on the ovine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. NE (50 micrograms) increased mean hypophysial-portal corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels (1 h, 1.3- and 2.9-fold; 4 h, 2.2- and 5.7-fold) and caused acute and sustained increases in mean plasma ACTH and cortisol. NPY (50 microgram) also increased mean CRF and AVP levels (1 h, 1.4- and 4.2-fold; 4 h, 1.1- and 1.9-fold), increased pituitary-adrenal activity at 1 h, and caused ACTH hypersecretion at 4 h. When added to cultured ovine anterior pituitary cells, NPY neither increased basal ACTH release nor augmented CRF- or AVP-induced ACTH release. We conclude that: (a) activation of either the central noradrenergic or NPY pathways causes an acute and sustained stimulation of the ovine HPA axis; (b) such activation increases the AVP/CRF ratio, suggesting a dominant role for AVP in the ovine stress response; and (c) the central noradrenergic or NPY systems may cause sustained HPA activation by attenuating or disrupting the glucocorticoid negative feedback on those brain areas concerned with regulation of the HPA axis. The possible roles of the central noradrenergic and NPY systems in the etiology of the hypercortisolemia of endogenous depression and anorexia nervosa are discussed. PMID:8163648

  7. A renal hemangiosarcoma causing hematuria in a dog.

    PubMed

    Wang, F I; Su, H L

    2001-07-01

    A 14.5-year-old male dog was presented with stranguria and hematuria of 1-month duration. Hematology and blood chemistry revealed a neutrophilia, mild azotemia and a mild decrease in the packed cell volume. Urinalysis showed high specific gravity (> 1.040 g/mL), hematuria, proteinuria and mild bilirubinuria. On physical examination, a firm oval mass located caudal to the distended urinary bladder, was palpated. Differential diagnoses included prostatitis, prostatic neoplasm, prostatic hyperplasia, and abscess. The enlarged prostate was suspected to be the cause of hematuria, and a total prostatectomy was performed. Histologically, the prostate was affected by a prostatitis with cystic papillary hyperplasia of the epithelium. The dog's condition continued to deteriorate, and death occurred 1 week later. Necropsy showed a tumor mass, approximately 5 x 4 x 3 cm in size, between the abdominal aorta and the left kidney, where the adrenal glands were embedded. Lesions were found in the kidneys, adrenal gland, lungs, heart, liver, intestine, and serosa of viscera, while the spleen was spared. This hemangiosarcoma most likely arose from the renal arteries, resulting in diffuse lesions in the kidneys thought to be the cause of hematuria. PMID:11480775

  8. Acute Abdominal Pain after Intercourse: Adrenal Hemorrhage as the First Sign of Metastatic Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Clifford D.

    2014-01-01

    Although the adrenal glands are a common site of cancer metastases, they are often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on CT scan or autopsy. Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage associated with metastatic lung cancer is an exceedingly rare phenomenon, and diagnosis can be difficult due to its nonspecific symptoms and ability to mimic other intra-abdominal pathologies. We report a case of a 65-year-old man with a history of right upper lobectomy seven months earlier for stage IB non-small cell lung cancer who presented with acute abdominal pain after intercourse. CT scan revealed a new right adrenal mass with surrounding hemorrhage, and subsequent FDG-PET scan confirmed new metabolic adrenal metastases. The patient's presentation of abdominal pain and adrenal hemorrhage immediately after sexual intercourse suggests that exertion, straining, or increased intra-abdominal pressure might be risk factors for precipitation of hemorrhage in patients with adrenal metastases. Management includes pain control and supportive treatment in mild cases, with arterial embolization or adrenalectomy being reserved for cases of severe hemorrhage. PMID:25126096

  9. [Participation of pineal gland in antistressor activity of adaptogenic drugs].

    PubMed

    Arushanian, É B; Beĭer, É V

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress produces some morphological changes in rats, including thymus weight reduction, adrenal hypertrophy, and peptic ulcers in stomach. Repeated administration of phytoadaptogenic drugs (ginseng and bilobil) decreased these stress-induced disorders. The antistressor activity of drugs was attenuated upon by removal of the pineal gland. Histochemical and morphometric investigation of pineal tissues in stressed animals showed that that the pharmacological effect was accompanied by increasing functional activity of the pineal gland. It is suggested that pineal mobilization may participate in antistressor activity of phytoadaptogenic drugs. PMID:25826867

  10. Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Causes Long-Term Increase in Serum Estradiol and Activation of PI3K-Akt Signaling Pathway in Mouse Mammary Gland

    SciTech Connect

    Suman, Shubhankar; Johnson, Michael D.; Fornace, Albert J.; Datta, Kamal

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Exposure to ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Radiation exposure during infancy, childhood, and adolescence confers the highest risk. Although radiation is a proven mammary carcinogen, it remains unclear where it acts in the complex multistage process of breast cancer development. In this study, we investigated the long-term pathophysiologic effects of ionizing radiation at a dose (2 Gy) relevant to fractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Adolescent (6-8 weeks old; n = 10) female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2 Gy total body {gamma}-radiation, the mammary glands were surgically removed, and serum and urine samples were collected 2 and 12 months after exposure. Molecular pathways involving estrogen receptor-{alpha} (ER{alpha}) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling were investigated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results: Serum estrogen and urinary levels of the oncogenic estrogen metabolite (16{alpha}OHE1) were significantly increased in irradiated animals. Immunostaining for the cellular proliferative marker Ki-67 and cyclin-D1 showed increased nuclear accumulation in sections of mammary glands from irradiated vs. control mice. Marked increase in p85{alpha}, a regulatory sub-unit of the PI3K was associated with increase in Akt, phospho-Akt, phospho-BAD, phospho-mTOR, and c-Myc in irradiated samples. Persistent increase in nuclear ER{alpha} in mammary tissues 2 and 12 months after radiation exposure was also observed. Conclusions: Taken together, our data not only support epidemiologic observations associating radiation and breast cancer but also, specify molecular events that could be involved in radiation-induced breast cancer.

  11. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    SciTech Connect

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  12. Adrenal adenocarcinoma with Kartagener's syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    HU, WANLI; CHENG, LONG; CHENG, BEI; ZHANG, PENG; XIAO, HE; WU, WENBO; WANG, XINGHUAN

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a 44-year-old woman with an adrenal tumor, complicated by Kartagener's syndrome (KS). The patient was admitted to Zhongnan Hospital (Wuhan, China), and presented with an 8-week history of vertigo and extended history of a recurrent cough, accompanied by sputum and a congested nose. Computed tomography indicated a mass on the right adrenal gland and situs inversus. A right adrenal tumor combined with KS was diagnosed, and resection of the tumor was performed following relief of respiratory symptoms and control of blood pressure. During six months of follow up the patient recovered well from surgery and blood pressure remained stable. This case revealed that patients exhibiting KS may suffer from serious respiratory infections as a result of impaired defense mechanisms against microbes in the airway. Therefore, comprehensive management of infection, safe anesthesia and appropriate surgical procedures for the avoidance of inflammation and trauma are the most significant factors required for the success of the treatment. PMID:26788182

  13. Extra-adrenal myelolipoma presenting as efferent limb obstruction.

    PubMed

    Conley, Alexandria; Klein, Elizabeth; Edhayan, E; Berri, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Myelolipomas are rare benign lesions composed of mature adipose tissue and immature hematopoetic cells. The adrenal gland is the most common location for these lesions, but cases of extra-adrenal myelolipomas have been described. The predominant location for extra-adrenal myelolipomas is the retroperitoneum, and very few reported cases describe these lesions in the peritoneal cavity. Typically these lesions are incidental findings and asymptomatic, but occasionally can present with symptoms secondary to mass effect. We present the case of a 72 year old man presenting with a gastric outlet obstruction secondary to an epigastric mass. The mass was resected and pathology was consistent with myelolipoma. This case illustrates an atypical location and presentation of a myelolipoma. These are rare tumors with only 5 intra-abdominal myelolipomas reported in the literature. This article is a review of the surgical literature and a discussion on myelolipomas. Knowledge of these rare entities can help ensure proper management of these patients, which may include early surgical intervention. PMID:22888458

  14. Adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Kita, Masafumi; Tamaki, Gaku; Okuyama, Mitsuhiko; Saga, Yuji; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2007-11-01

    The indications for adrenalectomy in cases of metastatic adrenal tumor remain controversial. To clarify indications and outcomes of adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis, we performed a retrospective review of all 8 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis between 1990 and 2006 in Asahikawa Medical College Hospital. The Primary tumor was renal cell carcinoma in 2 cases, and eccrine poro carcinoma, rectal cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer and cancer of unknown origin in 1 case each. Open adrenalectomy was performed in all cases, including 1 case that was converted from laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Of the 4 patients with solitary adrenal metastasis, 3 were considered tumor-free after adrenalectomy, while the remaining patient was not due to unresectable primary tumor. Of the 3 patients with complete resection, one remained alive as of 88 months after adrenalectomy but was then lost to follow-up, and the other 2 patients remain alive 12 and 7 months after adrenalectomy. Of the 2 patients with other resectable metastasis who were tumor-free after removal of all metastases, one was alive 31 months postoperatively and the other died 23 months after operation. The remaining 2 cases with other unresectable metastasis died within 6 months after adrenalectomy. At least in cases of solitary adrenal metastasis, adrenalectomy can be effective if other valid methods are unavailable. PMID:18051798

  15. In vitro adrenal bioactivation and effects on steroid metabolism of DDT, PCBs and their metabolites in the gray seal (Halichoerus grypus)

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, B.O. . Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology)

    1994-06-01

    The irreversible binding of the DDT metabolites o,p[prime]-DDD [2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] and MeSO[sub 2]-DDE [3-methylsulfonyl-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene], as well as their potential to inhibit mitochondrial steroid 11[beta]-hydroxylation in the gray seal adrenal gland, was studied. The adrenal bioactivated both o,p[prime]-DDD and MeSO[sub 2[minus

  16. The adrenal capsule is a signaling center controlling cell renewal and zonation through Rspo3.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Valerie; Sacco, Sonia; Rocha, Ana Sofia; da Silva, Fabio; Panzolini, Clara; Dumontet, Typhanie; Doan, Thi Mai Phuong; Shan, Jingdong; Rak-Raszewska, Aleksandra; Bird, Tom; Vainio, Seppo; Martinez, Antoine; Schedl, Andreas

    2016-06-15

    Adrenal glands are zonated endocrine organs that are essential in controlling body homeostasis. How zonation is induced and maintained and how renewal of the adrenal cortex is ensured remain a mystery. Here we show that capsular RSPO3 signals to the underlying steroidogenic compartment to induce β-catenin signaling and imprint glomerulosa cell fate. Deletion of RSPO3 leads to loss of SHH signaling and impaired organ growth. Importantly, Rspo3 function remains essential in adult life to ensure replenishment of lost cells and maintain the properties of the zona glomerulosa. Thus, the adrenal capsule acts as a central signaling center that ensures replacement of damaged cells and is required to maintain zonation throughout life. PMID:27313319

  17. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia secondary to 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency in a domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Knighton, Elizabeth L

    2004-07-15

    A calico-colored domestic shorthair cat was examined because of possible cryptorchidism. The cat had a fully formed penis, prepuce, and scrotum, but no descended testes, and exploratory laparotomy revealed a grossly normal female internal genital tract (ie, 2 ovaries, 2 uterine horns, and uterine body). Chromosomal analysis revealed a normal female (38,XX) karyotype. Four months later, the cat was examined because of polyuria, polydipsia, and inappropriate urination. Serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations were low, and results of an ACTH stimulation test were suggestive of decreased adrenal gland function. Serum ACTH, testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and deoxycorticosterone concentrations were high, and a diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia secondary to 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency was made. Treatment with prednisone diminished clinical signs but had a variable effect on corticosteroids hormone concentrations. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a cat. PMID:15323380

  18. Giant adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney

    PubMed Central

    Chodisetti, Subbarao; Boddepalli, Yogesh; Kota, Malakondareddy

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cysts. We present a case of a huge adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney anteriorly toward the left side in a young female. PMID:26941503

  19. Selective Cryolysis of Sebaceous Glands.

    PubMed

    Jalian, H Ray; Tam, Joshua; Vuong, Linh N; Fisher, Jeremy; Garibyan, Lilit; Mihm, Martin C; Zurakowski, David; Evans, Conor L; Anderson, R Rox

    2015-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is a nearly universal cutaneous inflammatory disease. Excess sebum production is an integral part of disease pathogenesis. Medical therapies that reduce sebum excretion result in clinical improvement of acne. Given the preferential susceptibility of lipid-containing cells to cold, we investigated the hypothesis that controlled local skin cooling causes preferential injury to sebaceous glands, in murine and swine models using a range of temperatures as low as -10 °C, and then on the backs of human subjects. In mouse ears, peak histologic damage occurred 72 hours after treatment; eosinophilic necrotic plugs formed within sebaceous glands, and the number of glands was significantly reduced up to 1 week post treatment. Cooling disrupted sebocyte cell membranes, alkaline phosphatase activity, and significantly reduced sebocyte lipid content. In human volunteers, cooling damaged sebaceous glands and reduced sebum output for 2 weeks, with minimal injury to surrounding tissues. Selective cryolysis of sebaceous glands is achievable through brief, non-invasive skin cooling, suggesting that controlled cooling could be developed as an effective treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:25860384

  20. The Mammary Glands of Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Cline, J. Mark; Wood, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the normal biology and physiology of the mammary gland in macaques, including the typical histologic appearance across the life span (development, reproductive maturity, lactation, and senescence). The molecular events regulating breast morphogenesis are described, as well as systemic and local hormonal regulators of mammary gland proliferation, differentiation, and function. Similarities and differences to the human breast are described. Regulatory events are illuminated by discussion of genetically modified mouse models. Tissue response markers, including immunohistochemical markers of proliferation and other hormonally induced changes and studies to date, regarding the effects of exogenous hormones, are briefly summarized. In general, estrogens stimulate progesterone receptor expression and proliferation in the mammary gland, and combinations of estrogens and progestogens cause greater proliferation than estrogens alone. Evaluation of novel chemical agents in macaques requires careful evaluation of age and hormonal context to avoid the confounding effects of mammary gland development, past reproductive history, and other influences on mammary gland morphology. The expression of proliferation markers and progesterone receptors may be used as biomarkers to measure chemically induced hormonal effects. PMID:21475638

  1. Adrenal insufficiency in a woman secondary to standard-dose inhaled fluticasone propionate therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Casey M; Spratt, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    Summary A 55-year-old woman with asthma presented with adrenal insufficiency of unknown origin. She was referred to our Division of Reproductive Endocrinology to further evaluate an undetectable morning cortisol level discovered during the evaluation of a low serum DHEA-S level. She was asymptomatic other than having mild fatigue and weight gain. Her medication list included 220 μg of inhaled fluticasone propionate twice daily for asthma, which she was taking as prescribed. On presentation, the undetectable morning cortisol level was confirmed. A urinary measurement of fluticasone propionate 17β-carboxylic acid was markedly elevated. Fluticasone therapy was discontinued and salmeterol therapy initiated with supplemental hydrocortisone. Hydrocortisone therapy was discontinued after 2 months. A repeat urinary fluticasone measurement 4 months after the discontinuation of fluticasone therapy was undetectably low and morning cortisol level was normal at 18.0 μg/dl. Inhaled fluticasone is generally considered to be minimally systemically absorbed. This patient's only clinical evidence suggesting adrenal insufficiency was fatigue accompanying a low serum DHEA-S level. This case demonstrates that adrenal insufficiency can be caused by a routine dose of inhaled fluticasone. Missing this diagnosis could potentially result in adrenal crisis upon discontinuation of fluticasone therapy. Learning points Standard-dose inhaled fluticasone can cause adrenal insufficiency.Adrenal insufficiency should be considered in patients taking, or who have recently discontinued, inhaled fluticasone therapy and present with new onset of nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, depression, myalgia, arthralgia, unexplained weight loss, and nausea that are suggestive of adrenal insufficiency.Adrenal insufficiency should be considered in postoperative patients who exhibit signs of hypoadrenalism after fluticasone therapy has been withheld in the perioperative setting.Routine screening

  2. Adrenal-derived 11-Oxygenated 19-Carbon Steroids are the Dominant Androgens in Classic 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Nanba, Aya T.; Chomic, Robert; Upadhyay, Sunil K.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Shields, James J.; Merke, Deborah P.; Rainey, William E.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To comprehensively characterize androgens and androgen precursors in classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) and to gain insight to the mechanisms of their formation. Design Serum samples were obtained from 38 patients (19 men) with classic 21OHD, age 3-59, and 38 sex- and age-matched controls; 3 patients with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency; 4 patients with adrenal insufficiency; and 16 patients (8 men) undergoing adrenal vein sampling. Paraffin-embedded normal (n=5) and 21OHD adrenal tissue (n=3) was used for immunohistochemical studies. Methods We measured 11 steroids in all sera using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Immunofluroescence localized 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) within the normal and 21OHD adrenals. Results Four 11-oxygenated 19-carbon (11oxC19) steroids were significantly higher in male and female 21OHD patients than in controls: 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione, 11-ketoandrostenedione 11β-hydroxytestosterone, and 11-ketotestosterone (3-4-fold, p< 0.0001). For 21OHD patients, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were positively correlated in females, but inversely correlated in males. All 11oxC19 steroids were higher in adrenal vein than in inferior vena cava samples from men and women and rose with cosyntropin stimulation. Only trace amounts of 11oxC19 steroids were found in sera from patients with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency and adrenal insufficiency, confirming their adrenal origin. HSD3B2 and CYB5A immunoreactivities were sharply segregated in the normal adrenal glands, whereas areas of overlapping expression were identified in the 21OHD adrenals. Conclusions All four 11oxC19 steroids are elevated in both men and women with classic 21OHD. Our data suggest that 11oxC19 steroids are specific biomarkers of adrenal-derived androgen excess. PMID:26865584

  3. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of human adrenal vein corticosteroids before and after ACTH stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Rege, Juilee; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Morimoto, Ryo; Kennedy, Michael R; Ahlem, Clarence N; Honma, Seijiro; Sasano, Hironobu; Rainey, William E

    2014-01-01

    Context Although steroid hormones produced by the adrenal gland play critical roles in human physiology, a detailed quantitative analysis of the steroid products has not been reported. The current study uses a single methodology (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, LC-MS/MS) to quantify ten corticosteroids in adrenal vein (AV) samples pre and post adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. Design/methods Three men and six women with a diagnosis of an adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) were included in the study. Serum was collected from the iliac vein (IV) and the adrenal vein (AV) contralateral to the diseased adrenal. Samples were collected, before and after administration of ACTH. LC-MS/MS was then used to quantify serum concentrations of unconjugated corticosteroids and their precursors. Results Prior to ACTH stimulation the four most abundant steroids in AV were cortisol (90%), cortisone (4%), corticosterone (3%) and 11-deoxycortisol (0.8%). Post ACTH administration, cortisol remained the major adrenal product (79%), however, corticosterone became the second most abundantly produced adrenal steroid (11%) followed by pregnenolone (2.5%) and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone (2%). ACTH significantly increased the absolute adrenal output of all ten corticosteroids measured (P<0.05). The four largest post ACTH increases were pregnenolone (300-fold), progesterone (199-fold), 17α-hydroxypregnenolone (187-fold) and deoxycorticosterone (82-fold). Conclusion Using LC-MS/MS we successfully measured 10 corticosteroids in peripheral and adrenal vein serum samples under pre and post ACTH stimulation. This study demonstrates the primary adrenal steroid products and their response to ACTH. PMID:22150161

  4. [Revisiting meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C

    2014-12-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunctions (MGD) are frequent affections, sometimes asymptomatic, more often responsible for disabling, potentially severe, manifestations. MGD is indeed the most frequent cause of dry eye, through the induction of tear film instability. However, eyelid inflammation, microbial proliferation that modifies melting temperature of meibum, frequent association with skin diseases, as well as potentially severe corneal complications make them complex multifactorial disorders. Complementary mechanisms combine to actually result in a vicious circle, or more accurately a double vicious cycle. The first one is self-stimulated by the microbiological changes, which create their own conditions for MGD development. The second one is related to tear film instability that results from MGD and is also self-stimulated through hyperosmolarity and inflammatory phenomena, which are both consequence and cause of dry eye. We herein propose a new pathophysiological schema on MGD, in order to better identify mechanisms and more efficiently target therapeutics. PMID:25455142

  5. Control of adrenal androgen production.

    PubMed

    Odell, W D; Parker, L N

    The major adrenal androgens are dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (delta 4). Studies by Cutler et al in 1978 demonstrated that these androgens are detectable in blood of all domestic and laboratory animals studied, but that only 4 species show increase in one or more with sexual maturation: rabbit, dog, chimpanzee and man. Studies by Grover and Odell in 1975 show these androgens do not bind to the androgen receptor obtained from rat prostate and thus probably are androgens only by conversion to an active androgen in vivo. Thomas and Oake in 1974 showed human skin converted DHEA to testosterone. The control of adrenal androgen secretion is in part modulated by ACTH. However, other factors or hormones must exist also, for a variety of clinical observations show dissociation in adrenal androgen versus cortisol secretion. Other substances that have been said to be controllers of adrenal androgen secretion include estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, gonadotropins and lipotropin. None of these appear to be the usual physiological modulator, although under some circumstances each may increase androgen production. Studies from our laboratory using in vivo experiments in the castrate dog and published in 1979 indicated that crude extracts of bovine pituitary contained a substance that either modified ACTH stimulation of adrenal androgen secretion, or stimulated secretion itself - Cortisol Androgen Stimulating Hormone. Parker et al in 1983 showed a 60,000 MW glycoprotein was extractable from human pituitaries, which stimulated DHA secretion by dispersed canine adrenal cells in vitro, but did not stimulate cortisol secretion. This material contained no ACTH by radioimmunoassay. In 1982 Brubaker et al reported a substance was also present in human fetal pituitaries, which stimulated DHA secretion, but did not effect cortisol. PMID:6100259

  6. Thyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002933.htm Thyroid gland removal To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Thyroid gland removal is surgery to remove all or ...

  7. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Update Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  8. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  9. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ... procedure, a skinny needle is inserted into the thyroid gland, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  10. Adrenal responses to splanchnic nerve stimulation in conscious calves given naloxone.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A V; Jones, C T

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of stimulating the peripheral end of the right splanchnic nerve in the presence of naloxone (2 mg kg-1) have been investigated in conscious 3 to 6-week-old calves. 2. Mean aortic blood pressure rose to significantly higher levels during splanchnic stimulation in bursts at 40 Hz for 1 s at 10 s intervals than it did during stimulation at the corresponding continuous frequency (4 Hz). Furthermore, naloxone significantly reduced the fall in mean vascular resistance in response to both patterns of stimulation. 3. The output of catecholamines from the adrenal gland, together with the proportion of noradrenaline released, was significantly enhanced by stimulating the splanchnic nerves in bursts in animals pre-treated with naloxone and the proportion of noradrenaline released also increased. In both cases the output of adrenaline and noradrenaline was within the same range as that reported previously in normal control animals. 4. Naloxone significantly increased the amounts of enkephalin-like immunoreactivity and corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-like immunoreactivity released from the adrenal gland in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation and raised the proportion of total to free met5-enkephalin that was secreted. 5. Naloxone also inhibited the rise in plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentration during continuous stimulation at 4 Hz, but not during stimulation at 40 Hz in bursts. Under these latter conditions the output of cortisol apparently directly from the adrenal gland was inhibited. The finding that splanchnic nerve stimulation can potentiate the output of cortisol in response to ACTH was confirmed. 6. These results provide evidence that release of enkephalins and of CRF from the adrenal is inhibited by activating opioid receptors within the gland itself. PMID:2559970

  11. Early diagnosis of and surgical strategy for adrenal medullary disease in MEN II gene carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, S.; Tisell, L.E.; Fjaelling, M.L.; Lindberg, S.; Jacobsson, L.; Zachrisson, B.F.

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen multiple endocrine neoplasia type II (MEN II) gene carriers--12 who had undergone thyroidectomy because of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and 4 whose thyroid glands had been removed because of C cell hyperplasia--were examined for the presence of pheochromocytomas. No patient had sought medical advice for pheochromocytoma symptoms. Fourteen patients had MEN IIa syndromes, one patient had a MEN IIb and another patient had a mixed syndrome of von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis and MEN II. Eight patients had undergone unilateral adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma 11 +/- 4 years before. The patients underwent clinical examination, determination of the urinary excretion of catecholamines and metabolites, and /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (/sup 131/I-MIBG) and CAT scans. /sup 131/I-MIBG scanning was performed with images 1, 4, and 7 days after the radionuclide injection. In seven of eight patients who had undergone unilateral adrenalectomies, the /sup 131/I-MIBG scans showed accumulation of the radionuclide in the remaining adrenal gland. Bilateral adrenal accumulation of the radionuclide was demonstrated in seven of eight MEN IIa gene carriers who had not undergone adrenalectomy. Five patients, two of whom had undergone adrenalectomy, were found to have unilateral pheochromocytomas less than 2 cm in diameter. Only one of these five patients had an elevated excretion of urinary catecholamines. Between day 4 and day 7 after /sup 131/I-MIBG injection, adrenal glands with pheochromocytomas increased their relative accumulation of the radionuclide significantly more (p less than 0.02) than did adrenal glands without any demonstrable pheochromocytomas. All the pheochromocytomas were viewed by means of CAT scans.

  12. Budesonide-related adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Arntzenius, Alexander; van Galen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency is a potential harmful side effect of treatment with corticosteroids. It manifests itself when an insufficient cortisol response to biological stress leads to an Addisonian crisis: a life-threatening situation. We describe a case of a patient who developed an Addisonian crisis after inappropriate discontinuation of budesonide (a topical steroid used in Crohn's disease) treatment. Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency due to budesonide use has been rarely reported. Prescribers should be aware of the resulting risk for an Addisonian crisis. PMID:26430235

  13. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment. PMID:27275469

  14. Adrenal-Derived Hormones Differentially Modulate Intestinal Immunity in Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Patrícia Reis; Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; Basso, Paulo José; Nardini, Viviani; Silva, Angelica; Banquieri, Fernanda; Alves, Vanessa Beatriz Freitas; Chica, Javier Emílio Lazo; Nomizo, Auro; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal glands are able to modulate immune responses through neuroimmunoendocrine interactions and cortisol secretion that could suppress exacerbated inflammation such as in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, here we evaluated the role of these glands in experimental colitis induced by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice subjected to adrenalectomy, with or without glucocorticoid (GC) replacement. Mice succumbed to colitis without adrenals with a higher clinical score and augmented systemic levels of IL-6 and lower LPS. Furthermore, adrenalectomy negatively modulated systemic regulatory markers. The absence of adrenals resulted in augmented tolerogenic lamina propria dendritic cells but no compensatory local production of corticosterone and decreased mucosal inflammation associated with increased IFN-γ and FasL in the intestine. To clarify the importance of GC in this scenario, GC replacement in adrenalectomized mice restored different markers to the same degree of that observed in DSS group. Finally, this is the first time that adrenal-derived hormones, especially GC, were associated with the differential local modulation of the gut infiltrate, also pointing to a relationship between adrenalectomy and the modulation of systemic regulatory markers. These findings may elucidate some neuroimmunoendocrine mechanisms that dictate colitis outcome. PMID:27403034

  15. Adrenal-Derived Hormones Differentially Modulate Intestinal Immunity in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Patrícia Reis; Basso, Paulo José; Nardini, Viviani; Silva, Angelica; Banquieri, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal glands are able to modulate immune responses through neuroimmunoendocrine interactions and cortisol secretion that could suppress exacerbated inflammation such as in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, here we evaluated the role of these glands in experimental colitis induced by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice subjected to adrenalectomy, with or without glucocorticoid (GC) replacement. Mice succumbed to colitis without adrenals with a higher clinical score and augmented systemic levels of IL-6 and lower LPS. Furthermore, adrenalectomy negatively modulated systemic regulatory markers. The absence of adrenals resulted in augmented tolerogenic lamina propria dendritic cells but no compensatory local production of corticosterone and decreased mucosal inflammation associated with increased IFN-γ and FasL in the intestine. To clarify the importance of GC in this scenario, GC replacement in adrenalectomized mice restored different markers to the same degree of that observed in DSS group. Finally, this is the first time that adrenal-derived hormones, especially GC, were associated with the differential local modulation of the gut infiltrate, also pointing to a relationship between adrenalectomy and the modulation of systemic regulatory markers. These findings may elucidate some neuroimmunoendocrine mechanisms that dictate colitis outcome. PMID:27403034

  16. Recurrence of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed using contralateral adrenal biopsy with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    TANIMOTO, AZUSA; TAKEUCHI, SHINJI; YAEGASHI, HIROSHI; KOTANI, HIROSHI; KITAI, HIDENORI; NANJO, SHIGEKI; EBI, HIROMICHI; YAMASHITA, KANAME; MOURI, HISATSUGU; OHTSUBO, KOUSHIRO; IKEDA, HIROKO; YANO, SEIJI

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old female in whom a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) lesion was resected 19 years previously presented to our hospital with cognitive dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed nodules in the brain, lung, adrenal gland and a pelvic osteolytic lesion. To identify the primary cancer site, the present study performed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the left adrenal lesion. Consequently, the pathological findings of the tissue obtained by EUS-FNA were similar to those of the previous nephrectomy specimen, revealing that the adrenal lesion was the recurrence of RCC. The majority of the metastatic lesions in the patient were reduced in size by the multiple kinase inhibitor, pazopanib. Contralateral adrenal metastasis of RCC is rare and the use of EUS-FNA in the diagnosis of adrenal lesions remains to be elucidated. This is a rare case of adrenal lesion, diagnosed by EUS-FNA. Therefore, EUS-FNA is considered to be a useful diagnostic modality of adrenal metastases from unidentified primary tumor types. PMID:27073657

  17. Evaluation of right adrenal vein anatomy by Dyna computed tomography in patients with primary aldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Chang, Chin-Chen; Liu, Kao-Lang; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Wu, Vin-Cent; Huang, Kuo-How

    2016-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension and consists up to 11% of patients with hypertension. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the recommended procedure for diagnosis of PA, but the technique is difficult and the right adrenal vein is especially hard to catheterize. We retrospectively examined the clinically relevant anatomy of the right adrenal vein in a sample of 66 PA patients with technically successful AVS and distinctly-opacified right adrenal veins in Dyna computed tomography (CT). In the majority of cases: the right adrenal veins were catheterized when the catheter tilted posterior and rightward (57/66, 86.4%), the transverse direction of the right adrenal vein from the inferior vena cava (IVC) was posterior and rightward (55/66, 83.3%), and the vertical direction of the right adrenal vein from the IVC was caudal (52/66, 78.8%). This study shows that Dyna CT is able to provide detailed anatomical information to the course and direction of the right adrenal vein. PMID:27334209

  18. Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... through hormonal blood and urine tests. A health care provider uses these tests first to determine whether cortisol levels are too ... if the diagnosis remains unclear. [ Top ] What other tests might a health care provider perform after diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency? After ...

  19. Endocrinopathies. Thyroid and adrenal disorders.

    PubMed

    Merchant, S R; Taboada, J

    1997-11-01

    This article focuses on common adrenal and thyroid diseases in the geriatric patient consisting of hypothyroidism in the dog, hyperthyroidism in the cat, and hyperadrenocorticism in the dog to include clinical signs, diagnosis, and management. A brief section on hyperadrenocorticism in the cat, thyroid tumors in the dog, and pheochromocytoma in the dog and cat are also included. PMID:9348631

  20. Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin Causes Extensive Tissue Lesions and Rapid Lethality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Firoved, Aaron M.; Miller, Georgina F.; Moayeri, Mahtab; Kakkar, Rahul; Shen, Yuequan; Wiggins, Jason F.; McNally, Elizabeth M.; Tang, Wei-Jen; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET), an adenylyl cyclase, is an important virulence factor that contributes to anthrax disease. The role of ET in anthrax pathogenesis is, however, poorly understood. Previous studies using crude toxin preparations associated ET with subcutaneous edema, and ET-deficient strains of B. anthracis showed a reduction in virulence. We report the first comprehensive study of ET-induced pathology in an animal model. Highly purified ET caused death in BALB/cJ mice at lower doses and more rapidly than previously seen with the other major B. anthracis virulence factor, lethal toxin. Observations of gross pathology showed intestinal intralumenal fluid accumulation followed by focal hemorrhaging of the ileum and adrenal glands. Histopathological analyses of timed tissue harvests revealed lesions in several tissues including adrenal glands, lymphoid organs, bone, bone marrow, gastrointestinal mucosa, heart, and kidneys. Concomitant blood chemistry analyses supported the induction of tissue damage. Several cytokines increased after ET administration, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, eotaxin, keratinocyte-derived cytokine, MCP-1/JE, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and interleukin-1β. Physiological measurements also revealed a concurrent hypotension and bradycardia. These studies detail the extensive pathological lesions caused by ET and suggest that it causes death due to multiorgan failure. PMID:16251415

  1. Primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma metastatic to the lung: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, CHUANGZHI; ZHENG, AIPING; MAO, XIANGMING; SHI, BENTAO; LI, XIANXIN

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare adrenal carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, only 11 cases have been reported since 1987. Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma presents a diagnostic challenge due to its atypical symptoms and histological patterns. At the time of diagnosis, a large percentage of patients are already at the metastatic stage and succumb within a few months. The present study reports a case of a 59-year-old man presenting with asthenia and weight loss with adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma metastatic to the lung. A computed tomography (CT) scan and ultrasonography of the patient's abdomen suggested a large homogeneous mass in the right adrenal gland, and a CT scan of his chest suggested lung metastasis. Right adrenalectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was composed of sarcomatous and carcinomatous differentiation elements. Immunohistochemical examination revealed tumor cell positivity for vimentin and cytokeratin. At the 6-month follow-up the patient exhibited no disease progression and refused further proposed treatment. The patient was alive at the time of writing the current report. The present case report additionally reviews the literature, for the purpose of raising awareness of these rare lesions and assisting in achieving accurate diagnoses and effective treatment. PMID:27123074

  2. Temporal and spatial distribution of mast cells and steroidogenic enzymes in the human fetal adrenal.

    PubMed

    Naccache, Alexandre; Louiset, Estelle; Duparc, Céline; Laquerrière, Annie; Patrier, Sophie; Renouf, Sylvie; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Mukai, Kuniaki; Lefebvre, Hervé; Castanet, Mireille

    2016-10-15

    Mast cells are present in the human adult adrenal with a potential role in the regulation of aldosterone secretion in both normal cortex and adrenocortical adenomas. We have investigated the human developing adrenal gland for the presence of mast cells in parallel with steroidogenic enzymes profile and serotonin signaling pathway. RT-QPCR and immunohistochemical studies were performed on adrenals at 16-41 weeks of gestation (WG). Tryptase-immunopositive mast cells were found from 18 WG in the adrenal subcapsular layer, close to 3βHSD- and CYP11B2-immunoreactive cells, firstly detected at 18 and 24 WG, respectively. Tryptophan hydroxylase and serotonin receptor type 4 expression increased at 30 WG before the CYP11B2 expression surge. In addition, HDL and LDL cholesterol receptors were expressed in the subcapsular zone from 24 WG. Altogether, our findings suggest the implication of mast cells and serotonin in the establishment of the mineralocorticoid synthesizing pathway during fetal adrenal development. PMID:27302892

  3. Angiotensin II binding to cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: identification of angiotensin II receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, V.L.; Printz, M.P.

    1986-03-05

    Physiological experiments have provided evidence that angiotensin II stimulates catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland. Their laboratory and others have now shown by receptor autoradiography the presence of angiotensin II receptors (AIIR) in bovine and rat adrenal medulla. In order to extend these studies they have undertaken to define AIIR on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Cells were isolated using the method of Levitt including cell enrichment with Percoll gradient centrifugation. Primary cultures of bovine adrenal medullary cells were maintained in DME/F12 medium containing 10% FCS. Cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry for Met- and Leu-enkephalin, PNMT, DBH and Chromagranin A. Cultured cells bind with high affinity and specificity (/sup 125/I)-ANG II yielding a K/sub D/ of 0.74 nM and B/sub max/ of 24,350 sites/cell. After Percoll treatment values of .77 nm and 34,500 sites/cell are obtained. K/sub D/ values are in close agreement with that obtained in adrenal slices by Healy. Competition studies identify a rank order of binding by this receptor similar to that of other tissues. They conclude that cultured chromaffin cells provide a suitable model system for the investigation and characterization of the ANG II receptor and for cellular studies of its functional significance.

  4. Use of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in the Differential Diagnosis of Adrenal Tumors in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Bargellini, Paolo; Orlandi, Riccardo; Dentini, Alfredo; Paloni, Chiara; Rubini, Giuseppe; Fonti, Paolo; Diana, Alessia; Peterson, Mark E; Boiti, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), using a second-generation microbubble contrast agent, in differentiating the different types of adrenal mass lesions in 24 dogs. At B-mode ultrasound, 9 lesions involved the right adrenal gland, 14 the left, and 1 was bilateral. Each dog received a bolus of the contrast agent into the cephalic vein, immediately followed by a 5-mL saline flush. The first contrast enhancement of each adrenal lesion was evaluated qualitatively to assess the degree of enhancement and its distribution during the wash-in and wash-out phases, as well as the presence of non-vascularized areas and specific vascular patterns. Pathological diagnoses were determined in all dogs by histopathology or by cytology. Combining enhancement degree and vascularity resulted in the best predictive model, allowing CEUS to differentiate adrenocortical adenoma (n=10), adenocarcinoma (n=7), and pheochromocytoma (n=7) with an accuracy of 91.7% (P < 0.001). Combining enhancement degree and vascularity, CEUS can discriminate malignant versus benign adrenal lesions with a sensitivity of 100.0%, a specificity of 80.0%, and an accuracy of 91.7% (P < 0.001). In conclusion, results of this study confirm that CEUS is useful for differentiating between the different types of adrenal tumors in dogs. PMID:27008325

  5. Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal masses in children: Report of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Orofino, Antonio; Maggipinto, Cosetta; Lanzillotto, MariaPaola; D’Amato, Michele; Ronzini, Massimo; Paradies, Guglielmo

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become a common alternative to open surgery for the resection of adrenal lesions in adults: The advantages are to provide better exposure of the adrenal gland, diminish soft tissue dissection, decrease morbidity and postoperative pain; however, reporting on the laparoscopic adrenalectomy in paediatric patients has been limited. We present two cases of laparoscopic adrenalectomy performed at our institution in two children, for left adrenal neuroblastoma in a first patient with opsomyoclonus syndrome, and for a right incidentaloma in the second case. According to recent literature, our experience has demonstrated that the laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a feasible procedure in children with small, well-circumscribed adrenal masses: It can be used a safety to treat suspected benign and malignant adrenal masses in children, with minimal morbidity and short hospital stay. The lateral trans-peritoneal approach offers optimal visualisation and good outcomes in terms of minimal discomfort, rapid recovery and excellent cosmesis. However, in the paediatric field, the number of patients is limited, making the learning curve longer. PMID:27251661

  6. Exposure to an Extremely-Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Stimulates Adrenal Steroidogenesis via Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase Activity in a Mouse Adrenal Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Kawata, Shiyori; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Kadoriku, Fumiya; Kitamura, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) are generated by power lines and household electrical devices. In the last several decades, some evidence has shown an association between ELF-MF exposure and depression and/or anxiety in epidemiological and animal studies. The mechanism underlying ELF-MF-induced depression is considered to involve adrenal steroidogenesis, which is triggered by ELF-MF exposure. However, how ELF-MFs stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis is controversial. In the current study, we investigated the effect of ELF-MF exposure on the mouse adrenal cortex-derived Y-1 cell line and the human adrenal cortex-derived H295R cell line to clarify whether the ELF-MF stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis directly. ELF-MF exposure was found to significantly stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis (p < 0.01–0.05) and the expression of adrenal steroid synthetic enzymes (p < 0.05) in Y-1 cells, but the effect was weak in H295R cells. Y-1 cells exposed to an ELF-MF showed significant decreases in phosphodiesterase activity (p < 0.05) and intracellular Ca2+ concentration (p < 0.01) and significant increases in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration (p < 0.001–0.05) and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation (p < 0.05). The increase in cAMP was not inhibited by treatment with NF449, an inhibitor of the Gs alpha subunit of G protein. Our results suggest that ELF-MF exposure stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis via an increase in intracellular cAMP caused by the inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity in Y-1 cells. The same mechanism may trigger the increase in adrenal steroid secretion in mice observed in our previous study. PMID:27100201

  7. Polycystic Ovaries Associated with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lucis, O. J.; Hobkirk, R.; Hollenberg, C. H.; MacDonald, S. A.; Blahey, P.

    1966-01-01

    Polycystic ovaries were found in a 16-year-old female with congenital absence of vagina, male-like external genitalia, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Masculinization was sufficiently severe to cause the patient to be reared as a male. Biochemical studies of ovarian tissue revealed hyperactivity and an imbalance of enzyme systems concerned with steroid-hormone biosynthesis, which led to production of large amounts of androgens. The pathway towards estrogens was preserved but less efficient than normal. Urinary steroid metabolites before and after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy revealed an absence of Porter-Silber chromogens and tetrahydrocortisone. Excretion of aldosterone was normal and that of corticosterone slightly higher than normal. The patterns of urinary 17-ketosteroids, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol and pregnanetriolone were similar to those commonly seen in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Urinary estrogens after panhysterectomy were low, being in the post-menopausal range. The pathogenesis of polycystic ovaries and their possible contribution to masculinization are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5901591

  8. Secretion of corticotrophin releasing factor from the adrenal during splanchnic nerve stimulation in conscious calves.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A V; Jones, C T

    1988-01-01

    1. The output of corticotrophin releasing factor-like immunoreactivity (CRF) from the adrenal gland has been investigated using the 'adrenal clamp' technique in conscious calves. 2. Stimulation of the peripheral end of the splanchnic nerve for 10 min increased the mean output of CRF progressively, so that it had risen by about twentyfold, to a peak incremental value of 24 +/- 4 pmol min-1 kg-1 at 10 min. This response was significantly increased by stimulating in bursts at 40 Hz for 1 s at 10 s intervals, which raised the mean CRF output by 44 +/- 7 pmol min-1 kg-1 at 10 min (P less than 0.05). 3. The mean output of adrenaline and noradrenaline rose more abruptly in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation with peak incremental values realized within 2.5 min. However, the ratios of adrenal CRF to catecholamine output were closely similar during the later stages of stimulation (7.5-10 min). There was a similarly abrupt rise in adrenal cortisol output in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation which was, nevertheless, linearly related to arterial plasma ACTH concentration throughout. 4. In hypophysectomized calves, administration of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH1-24) at a dose of 5 ng min-1 kg-1 reduced the output of adrenal CRF in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation by about 50% (P less than 0.05). 5. CRF isolated from adrenal venous effluent plasma, collected both at rest and during splanchnic nerve stimulation, was separated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and found to elute in a position identical to that of human 41CRF. This suggests that adrenal CRF is structurally closely similar to its pituitary counterpart. PMID:2843642

  9. The Environmental Pollutant Tributyltin Chloride Disrupts the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis at Different Levels in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila L; Sena, Gabriela C; de Araújo, Julia F P; Lima, Leandro C F; Alves, Izabela S S; Gama-de-Souza, Letícia N; Pelição, Renan; Rodrigues, Lívia C M; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Pires, Rita G W; Martins-Silva, Cristina; Alarcon, Tamara A; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Graceli, Jones B

    2016-08-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an environmental contaminant that is used as a biocide in antifouling paints. TBT has been shown to induce endocrine-disrupting effects. However, studies evaluating the effects of TBT on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are especially rare. The current study demonstrates that exposure to TBT is critically responsible for the improper function of the mammalian HPA axis as well as the development of abnormal morphophysiology in the pituitary and adrenal glands. Female rats were treated with TBT, and their HPA axis morphophysiology was assessed. High CRH and low ACTH expression and high plasma corticosterone levels were detected in TBT rats. In addition, TBT leads to an increased in the inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in the hypothalamus of TBT rats. Morphophysiological abnormalities, including increases in inflammation, a disrupted cellular redox balance, apoptosis, and collagen deposition in the pituitary and adrenal glands, were observed in TBT rats. Increases in adiposity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ protein expression in the adrenal gland were observed in TBT rats. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that TBT leads to functional dissociation between CRH, ACTH, and costicosterone, which could be associated an inflammation and increased of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in hypothalamus. Thus, TBT exerts toxic effects at different levels on the HPA axis function. PMID:27267847

  10. Role of ACTH in the Interactive/Paracrine Regulation of Adrenal Steroid Secretion in Physiological and Pathophysiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Hervé; Thomas, Michaël; Duparc, Céline; Bertherat, Jérôme; Louiset, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    In the normal human adrenal gland, steroid secretion is regulated by a complex network of autocrine/paracrine interactions involving bioactive signals released by endothelial cells, nerve terminals, chromaffin cells, immunocompetent cells, and adrenocortical cells themselves. ACTH can be locally produced by medullary chromaffin cells and is, therefore, a major mediator of the corticomedullary functional interplay. Plasma ACTH also triggers the release of angiogenic and vasoactive agents from adrenocortical cells and adrenal mast cells and, thus, indirectly regulates steroid production through modulation of the adrenal blood flow. Adrenocortical neoplasms associated with steroid hypersecretion exhibit molecular and cellular defects that tend to reinforce the influence of paracrine regulatory loops on corticosteroidogenesis. Especially, ACTH has been found to be abnormally synthesized in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia responsible for hypercortisolism. In these tissues, ACTH is detected in a subpopulation of adrenocortical cells that express gonadal markers. This observation suggests that ectopic production of ACTH may result from impaired embryogenesis leading to abnormal maturation of the adrenogonadal primordium. Globally, the current literature indicates that ACTH is a major player in the autocrine/paracrine processes occurring in the adrenal gland in both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27489549

  11. Role of ACTH in the Interactive/Paracrine Regulation of Adrenal Steroid Secretion in Physiological and Pathophysiological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Hervé; Thomas, Michaël; Duparc, Céline; Bertherat, Jérôme; Louiset, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    In the normal human adrenal gland, steroid secretion is regulated by a complex network of autocrine/paracrine interactions involving bioactive signals released by endothelial cells, nerve terminals, chromaffin cells, immunocompetent cells, and adrenocortical cells themselves. ACTH can be locally produced by medullary chromaffin cells and is, therefore, a major mediator of the corticomedullary functional interplay. Plasma ACTH also triggers the release of angiogenic and vasoactive agents from adrenocortical cells and adrenal mast cells and, thus, indirectly regulates steroid production through modulation of the adrenal blood flow. Adrenocortical neoplasms associated with steroid hypersecretion exhibit molecular and cellular defects that tend to reinforce the influence of paracrine regulatory loops on corticosteroidogenesis. Especially, ACTH has been found to be abnormally synthesized in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia responsible for hypercortisolism. In these tissues, ACTH is detected in a subpopulation of adrenocortical cells that express gonadal markers. This observation suggests that ectopic production of ACTH may result from impaired embryogenesis leading to abnormal maturation of the adrenogonadal primordium. Globally, the current literature indicates that ACTH is a major player in the autocrine/paracrine processes occurring in the adrenal gland in both physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:27489549

  12. Development and Function of the Human Fetal Adrenal Cortex: A Key Component in the Feto-Placental Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to unraveling the biophysiology and development of the human fetal adrenal cortex, which is structurally and functionally unique from other species. It plays a pivotal role, mainly through steroidogenesis, in the regulation of intrauterine homeostasis and in fetal development and maturation. The steroidogenic activity is characterized by early transient cortisol biosynthesis, followed by its suppressed synthesis until late gestation, and extensive production of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, precursors of placental estrogen, during most of gestation. The gland rapidly grows through processes including cell proliferation and angiogenesis at the gland periphery, cellular migration, hypertrophy, and apoptosis. Recent studies employing modern technologies such as gene expression profiling and laser capture microdissection have revealed that development and/or function of the fetal adrenal cortex may be regulated by a panoply of molecules, including transcription factors, extracellular matrix components, locally produced growth factors, and placenta-derived CRH, in addition to the primary regulator, fetal pituitary ACTH. The role of the fetal adrenal cortex in human pregnancy and parturition appears highly complex, probably due to redundant and compensatory mechanisms regulating these events. Mounting evidence indicates that actions of hormones operating in the human feto-placental unit are likely mediated by mechanisms including target tissue responsiveness, local metabolism, and bioavailability, rather than changes only in circulating levels. Comprehensive study of such molecular mechanisms and the newly identified factors implicated in adrenal development should help crystallize our understanding of the development and physiology of the human fetal adrenal cortex. PMID:21051591

  13. Salivary glands and human selection: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Shields, E D; Mann, R W

    1996-01-01

    Stafne static bone defect (SSBD) of the mandible is the only described destructive bone lesion that is highly localized, nonprogressive, but nonhealing. This common defect in male is found in the region of the major salivary glands that produce a cornucopia of biologically active factors. We describe rare phenocopies caused by mandibular immobility that hold the gland in a constant position thus implicating a localized chronic "leak" of an osteoclast induction factor from the major salivary glands as the pathologic agent. This finding suggests that increased salivary gland size could simulate immobility by apposing the gland to bone, thus allowing the "leaked" factor's gradient to have an effect. In one step, the putative genetic enlargement of a critical gland that produces many factors important for survival, a broad biological vista would be available to the massive potential for both positive and negative selection. Positive selection was identified by observing a correlation between the prevalence of enhanced androgen-induced enlarge salivary glands (SSBD) as a marker, with a great preponderance of males) and the conjectured resulting increased production of immunoreactive factors, with pole-to-equator isotherm and broad ranged infection clines. Negative selection was observed among the slave ancestors of African Americans for a potential embryonic homeotic mutation causing larger salivary glands in both sexes (decreased prevalence of SSBD, with an equal sex ratio). The decreased production of saliva and electrolytes diminished the salt and water depletive effects of severe diarrhea and vomiting induced by enteric diseases, which killed many slaves. Data presented suggests that SSBD is a polymorphism and a marker of selection processes that cause variation in size, or structure, of the major salivary glands. PMID:8773904

  14. Bioengineered Lacrimal Gland Organ Regeneration in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The lacrimal gland plays an important role in maintaining a homeostatic environment for healthy ocular surfaces via tear secretion. Dry eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye disorders and causes ocular discomfort, significant visual disturbances, and a reduced quality of life. Current therapies for dry eye disease, including artificial tear eye drops, are transient and palliative. The lacrimal gland, which consists of acini, ducts, and myoepithelial cells, develops from its organ germ via reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during embryogenesis. Lacrimal tissue stem cells have been identified for use in regenerative therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring lacrimal gland functions. Fully functional organ replacement, such as for tooth and hair follicles, has also been developed via a novel three-dimensional stem cell manipulation, designated the Organ Germ Method, as a next-generation regenerative medicine. Recently, we successfully developed fully functional bioengineered lacrimal gland replacements after transplanting a bioengineered organ germ using this method. This study represented a significant advance in potential lacrimal gland organ replacement as a novel regenerative therapy for dry eye disease. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in lacrimal regeneration research and the development of bioengineered lacrimal gland organ replacement therapy. PMID:26264034

  15. A case of granulomatous sialadenitis of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Therkildsen, M H; Nielsen, B A; Krogdahl, A

    1989-01-01

    Granulomatous inflammation of the major salivary glands is very rare and may be due to obstruction. Little attention has been paid to this condition. The reaction is caused by extravasation of mucus, as seen in the common mucocele of the minor salivary glands. A case of granulomatous inflammation of the submandibular gland caused by obstruction is presented. The etiology of granulomatous sialadenitis is reviewed. PMID:2914108

  16. An update of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    New, Maria I

    2004-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a family of autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations that encode for enzymes involved in one of the various steps of adrenal steroid synthesis. These defects result in the absence or the decreased synthesis of cortisol from its cholesterol precursor. The anterior pituitary secretes excess adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) via feedback regulation by cortisol, which results in overstimulation of the adrenals and causes hyperplasia. Symptoms due to CAH can vary from mild to severe depending on the degree of ensymatic defect. In the classical form of CAH, there is a severe enzymatic defect owing to mutations in the CYP21 gene. Classically affected female fetuses undergo virilization of the genitalia prenatally and present with genital ambiguity at birth; however, prenatal treatment of CAH with dexamethasone to prevent ambiguity has been successfully utilized for over a decade. In the less severe, late-onset form of CAH, prenatal virilization does not occur. The milder enzyme deficiency was termed nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC21OHD) in 1979 and was later found to be the most common autosomal recessive disorder in humans. Disease frequency of NC21OHD varies between ethnic groups with the highest ethnic-specific disease frequency in Ashkenazi Jews at 1/27. NC21OHD is diagnosed by serum elevations of 17-OHP that plot on a nomogram between the range for unaffected individuals and levels observed for classical CAH and is typically confirmed with molecular genetic analysis. Similar to classical CAH, nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency may cause premature development of pubic hair, advanced bone age, accelerated linear growth velocity and diminished final height in both males and females. Severe cystic acne has also been attributed to nonclassical CAH. Women may present with symptoms of androgen excess, including hirsutism, temporal baldness, and infertility. Menarche in females may be normal or delayed and

  17. Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Pittavini, Loretta; De Gaetano, Andrea; Solano, Giuseppe; Losito, Attilio

    2010-01-01

    The coexistence of renal cancer and adrenal adenoma is rare. We report the case of a 60-year-old patient with synchronous hypernephroma and adrenal adenoma. The patient presented with resistant hypertension, high plasma renin activity and aldosterone and target organ damage. Removal of the affected kidney cured the hypertension and normalized the plasma renin activity (PRA) and circulating aldosterone. This suggests that the coexistence of kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma may be a curable cause of resistant hypertension. The potential mechanisms accounting for the lack of suppression of PRA are discussed. PMID:20383873

  18. Childhood virilization and adrenal suppression after ingestion of methandienone and cyproheptadine.

    PubMed

    Poomthavorn, Preamrudee; Mahachoklertwattana, Pat; Khlairit, Patcharin

    2009-05-01

    We report a combination of precocious pseudopuberty and adrenal insufficiency in a 4 year-old boy who had received an off-label 'appetite stimulant' syrup and excessive virilization in a 2 year-old girl who had received the same medication. Both patients presented with excessive virilization for a period of approximately 1-2 years. The syrup contains cyproheptadine and methandienone, a derivative of testosterone. Both cyproheptadine and methandienone were responsible for severe adrenal suppression in the boy. Methandienone undoubtedly caused precocious virilization in both children. Cessation of the syrup led to partial regression of virilization in both children and normalization of adrenal reserve function in the boy. PMID:19618666

  19. Cellular Pathophysiology of an Adrenal Adenoma-Associated Mutant of the Plasma Membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase ATP2B3.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Philipp; Aichinger, B; Christ, C; Stindl, J; Rhayem, Y; Beuschlein, F; Warth, R; Bandulik, S

    2016-06-01

    Adrenal aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are a main cause for primary aldosteronism leading to arterial hypertension. Physiologically, aldosterone production in the adrenal gland is stimulated by angiotensin II and high extracellular potassium. These stimuli lead to a depolarization of the plasma membrane and, as a consequence, an increase of intracellular Ca(2+). Mutations of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase ATP2B3 have been found in APAs with a prevalence of 0.6%-3.1%. Here, we investigated the effects of the APA-associated ATP2B3(Leu425_Val426del) mutation in adrenocortical NCI-H295R and human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells. Ca(2+) measurements revealed a higher basal Ca(2+) level in cells expressing the mutant ATP2B3. This rise in intracellular Ca(2+) was even more pronounced under conditions with high extracellular Ca(2+) pointing to an increased Ca(2+) influx associated with the mutated protein. Furthermore, cells with the mutant ATP2B3 appeared to have a reduced capacity to export Ca(2+) suggesting a loss of the physiological pump function. Surprisingly, expression of the mutant ATP2B3 caused a Na(+)-dependent inward current that strongly depolarized the plasma membrane and compromised the cytosolic cation composition. In parallel to these findings, mRNA expression of the cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2 (aldosterone synthase) was substantially increased and aldosterone production was enhanced in cells overexpressing mutant ATP2B3. In summary, the APA-associated ATP2B3(Leu425_Val426del) mutant promotes aldosterone production by at least 2 different mechanisms: 1) a reduced Ca(2+) export due to the loss of the physiological pump function; and 2) an increased Ca(2+) influx due to opening of depolarization-activated Ca(2+) channels as well as a possible Ca(2+) leak through the mutated pump. PMID:27035656

  20. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Merke, Deborah P; Poppas, Dix P

    2014-01-01

    The management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia involves suppression of adrenal androgen production, in addition to treatment of adrenal insufficiency. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia is especially challenging because changes in the hormonal milieu during puberty can lead to inadequate suppression of adrenal androgens, psychosocial issues often affect adherence to medical therapy, and sexual function plays a major part in adolescence and young adulthood. For these reasons, treatment regimen reassessment is indicated during adolescence. Patients with non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia require reassessment regarding the need for glucocorticoid drug treatment. No clinical trials have compared various regimens for classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia in adults, thus therapy is individualised and based on the prevention of adverse outcomes. Extensive patient education is key during transition from paediatric care to adult care and should include education of females with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia regarding their genital anatomy and surgical history. Common issues for these patients include urinary incontinence, vaginal stenosis, clitoral pain, and cosmetic concerns; for males with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia, common issues include testicular adrenal rest tumours. Transition from paediatric to adult care is most successful when phased over many years. Education of health-care providers on how to successfully transition patients is greatly needed. PMID:24622419

  1. Zonal corticosteroid hormone biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex in rats exposed to emotional stress combined with salt loading

    SciTech Connect

    Shul'ga, V.A.

    1987-07-01

    The authors study the pattern of biosynthesis of corticosteroid hormones in the zona glomerulosa and the combined zona fasciculata + zona reticularis of the adrenals, which are responsible for the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid function of the glands, during simultaneous exposure of animals to salt loading and emotional stress. Experiments were carried out on rats. The adrenals were divided into parts and samples were incubated in vitro with the addition of /sup 3/H-progesterone to each sample. The specific activity of the /sup 3/H-labeled corticosteroids decreased significantly in rats with a normal salt intake exposed to emotional stress.

  2. Pannexin 1 channels: new actors in the regulation of catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Momboisse, Fanny; Olivares, María José; Báez-Matus, Ximena; Guerra, María José; Flores-Muñoz, Carolina; Sáez, Juan C.; Martínez, Agustín D.; Cárdenas, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    Chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland medulla synthesize and store hormones and peptides, which are released into the blood circulation in response to stress. Among them, adrenaline is critical for the fight-or-flight response. This neurosecretory process is highly regulated and depends on cytosolic [Ca2+]. By forming channels at the plasma membrane, pannexin-1 (Panx1) is a protein involved in many physiological and pathological processes amplifying ATP release and/or Ca2+ signals. Here, we show that Panx1 is expressed in the adrenal gland where it plays a role by regulating the release of catecholamines. In fact, inhibitors of Panx1 channels, such as carbenoxolone (Cbx) and probenecid, reduced the secretory activity induced with the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP, 50 μM) in whole adrenal glands. A similar inhibitory effect was observed in single chromaffin cells using Cbx or 10Panx1 peptide, another Panx1 channel inhibitors. Given that the secretory response depends on cytosolic [Ca2+] and Panx1 channels are permeable to Ca2+, we studied the possible implication of Panx1 channels in the Ca2+ signaling occurring during the secretory process. In support of this possibility, Panx1 channel inhibitors significantly reduced the Ca2+ signals evoked by DMPP in single chromaffin cells. However, the Ca2+ signals induced by caffeine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ was not affected by Panx1 channel inhibitors, suggesting that this mechanism does not involve Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Conversely, Panx1 inhibitors significantly blocked the DMPP-induce dye uptake, supporting the idea that Panx1 forms functional channels at the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that Panx1 channels participate in the control the Ca2+ signal that triggers the secretory response of adrenal chromaffin cells. This mechanism could have physiological implications during the response to stress. PMID:25237296

  3. The diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Park, Julie; Didi, Mohammed; Blair, Joanne

    2016-09-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency in childhood and adolescence poses a number of challenges. Clinical features of chronic adrenal insufficiency are vague and non-specific, and mimic many other causes of chronic ill health. A range of diagnostic tests are available for the assessment of adrenal function, all of which have advantages and disadvantages. Cortisol responses to these tests may vary with age and between genders. Knowledge of normal cortisol levels during health and ill health in childhood is also limited, and the cortisol replacement therapies available in clinical practice enable only crude mimicry of physiological patterns of cortisol secretion. An awareness of the limitations of diagnostic tests and treatments is important, and critical clinical assessment, integrating clinical and biochemical data, is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of children with suspected adrenal insufficiency. The aim of this review is to draw on data from clinical studies to inform a pragmatic approach to the child presenting with symptoms of chronic adrenal insufficiency. Clinical features of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, and syndromes associated with these diagnoses are described. Factors to consider when selecting a diagnostic test of adrenal function and interpretation of test results are considered. Finally, the limitations of cortisol replacement therapy are also discussed. PMID:27083756

  4. The Role of Cholesterol Utilization in a Computational Adrenal Steroidogenesis Model to Improve Predictability of Biochemical Responses to Endocrine Active Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroids, which have an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, are synthesized primarily in the gonads and adrenal glands through a series of enzyme-mediated reactions. The activity of steroidogenic enzymes can be altered by a variety of endocrine active chem...

  5. Adrenal scan in 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency: false indication of adrenal adenoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, R.M.; Lieberman, L.M.; Newman, T.J.; Friedman, A.; Bargman, G.J.

    1981-07-01

    A patient who was thought to have testicular feminization syndrome and primary aldosteronism had an adrenal scan that suggested an adrenal adenoma. After later diagnosis of 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, she was treated with glucocorticoids rather than surgery. Her clinical course and a repeat adrenal scan confirmed she did not have a tumor.

  6. Approach to the Patient: The Adult With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). When the nonclassical (mild) form is included, 21OHD is the most common genetic disease in human beings. With the advent of pharmaceutical preparation of glucocorticoids starting in the 1960s and newborn screening starting in the 1990s, the majority of children with 21OHD are reaching adulthood, which has yielded a cohort of patients with, in essence, a new disease. Only recently have some data emerged from cohorts of adults with 21OHD, and in some centers, experience with the management of these patients is growing. These patients suffer from poor health, infertility, characteristic tumors in the adrenal glands and gonads, and consequences of chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Their care is fragmented and inconsistent, and many stop taking their medications out of frustration. Internal medicine residents and endocrinology fellows receive little training in their care, which further discourages their seeking medical attention. Adults with 21OHD have a different physiology from patients with Addison's disease or other androgen excess states, and their needs are different than those of young children with 21OHD. Consequently, their care requires unorthodox treatment and monitoring strategies foreign to most endocrine practitioners. Our goal for this article is to review their physiology, complications, and needs in order to develop rational and effective treatment and monitoring strategies. PMID:23837188

  7. Spontaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma rupture complicated by intraperitoneal hemorrhage and shock

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    MEN2A is a hereditary syndrome characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma. Classically patients with a pheochromocytoma initially present with the triad of paroxysmal headaches, palpitations, and diaphoresis accompanied by marked hypertension. However, although reported as a rare presentation, spontaneous hemorrhage within a pheochromocytoma can present as an abdominal catastrophe. Unrecognized, this transformation can rapidly result in death. We report the only documented case of a thirty eight year old gentleman with MEN2A who presented to a community hospital with hemorrhagic shock and peritonitis secondary to an unrecognized hemorrhagic pheochromocytoma. The clinical course is notable for an inability to localize the source of hemorrhage during an initial damage control laparotomy that stabilized the patient sufficiently to allow emergent transfer to our facility, re-exploration for continued hemorrhage and abdominal compartment syndrome, and ultimately angiographic embolization of the left adrenal artery for control of the bleeding. Following recovery from his critical illness and appropriate medical management for pheochromocytoma, he returned for interval bilateral adrenal gland resection, from which his recovery was unremarkable. Our review of the literature highlights the high mortality associated with the undertaking of an operative intervention in the face of an unrecognized functional pheochromocytoma. This reinforces the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for pheochromocytoma in similar cases. Our case also demonstrates the need for a mutimodal treatment approach that will often be required in these cases. PMID:21843357

  8. Genetic mutations potentially cause two novel NCF1 splice variants up-regulated in the mammary gland, blood and neutrophil of cows infected by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zijing; Wang, Xiuge; Li, Rongling; Ju, Zhihua; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Fang; Luo, Guojing; Li, Qiuling; Wang, Changfa; Zhong, Jifeng; Xu, Yinxue; Huang, Jinming; Xu, Yinxue

    2015-05-01

    Neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (NCF1) plays a crucial role in host defense against microbial pathogens. In this study, we investigated the potential alternative splicing patterns, expression and splice-relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the bovine NCF1 gene to increase insights into its potential role against bovine mastitis caused by Escherichia coli infection. Using RT-PCR and clone sequencing methods, we found two novel splice variants designed as NCF1-TV1 (retained intron 6) and NCF1-TV2 (retained part of intron 8), respectively, encoding two putative truncated proteins (239AA and 283AA). Two splice variants were drastically up-regulated in the mastitis-infected cows' mammary tissues, blood and neutrophils compared with these of healthy cows using real-time RT-PCR. Genomic sequencing analysis identified four novel SNPs g.10112 G>A, g.10766 T>C, SNPs g.12085 G>A and g.12430 T>C at the ends of intron 6 and intron 8 of NCF1. ESE motif predicted that the SNP (g.10766 T>C) might affect the binding with splicing-related factors and subsequently caused the production of aberrant splice variant NCF1-TV1, which is one of the potential reasons that the functional SNP was associated with increased milk somatic cell score in cow. Our results would help in better understanding the NCF1 gene function in the process against pathogen infection, and the effect of splicing-related SNP on the production of aberrant splice variant and careful functional characterization in dairy cattle. PMID:25946326

  9. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  10. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  11. Tumoral angiogenesis in both adrenal adenomas and nonadenomas: a promising computed tomography biomarker for diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xifu; Li, Kangan; Sun, Haoran; Zhao, Jinglong; Zhang, Zhuoli; Zheng, Linfeng; Li, Weiguo; Bai, Renju; Zhang, Guixiang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the correlation between the typical findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and tumoral angiogenesis (microvessel density [MVD] and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) in adenomas and nonadenomas such that the enhancement mechanism of DCE-CT in adrenal masses can be explained more precisely. Forty-two patients with 46 adrenal masses confirmed by surgery and pathology were included in the study; these masses included 23 adenomas, 18 nonadenomas, and 5 hyperplastic nodules. The findings of DCE-CT and angiogenesis in adrenal masses were studied. The features of DCE-CT in adenomas and nonadenomas were evaluated to determine whether the characteristics of DCE-CT in adrenal masses were closely correlated with tumoral angiogenesis. Adrenal adenomas were significantly different from nonadenomas in the time density curve and the mean percentage of enhancement washout at the 7-minute delay time in DCE-CT. The mean MVD and VEGF expression exhibited significant differences between the rapid washout group (types A and C) and the slow washout group (types B, D, and E) and between the relative washout (Washr) ≥34% and the absolute washout (Washa) ≥43% on the 7-minute enhanced CT scans (P=0.000). Adenomas were suggested when adrenal masses presented as types A and C, and/or the Washr ≥34%, and/or the Washa ≥43%, and the opposite was suggested for nonadenomas. These results showed a close correlation between the characteristics of DCE-CT and both MVD and VEGF expression in adrenal masses. There was also a significant difference in MVD and VEGF expression between adenomas and nonadenomas. In conclusion, MVD and VEGF expression are two important pathological factors that play important roles in the characterization of DCE-CT in adrenal masses because they cause different time density curve types, the Washr and the Washa for adrenal adenomas and nonadenomas. PMID:27099515

  12. Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

  13. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  14. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:26902981

  15. A Rare Case of Adrenal Pheochromocytoma with Unusual Clinical and Biochemical Presentation: 
A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S.; Ahmed, Riyaz; Ramadhan, Fatima A.; Al-Kindi, Manal K.; Al-Busaidi, Noor B.; Al-Muslahi, Hilal N.; Al-Lamki, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old Omani woman presented to the Outpatient Clinic, Royal Hospital, Oman with right upper abdominal pain and backache that had lasted 10 days. She had no palpitation, sweating, or hypertension (blood pressure 122/78mmHg). The patient’s history revealed that she had a similar incidence of abdominal pain two months prior, which was a "dull ache" in nature and somewhat associated with headache. The pain was relieved using a mild analgesic drug. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a right adrenal mass, and both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal glands confirmed a right adrenal mass consistent with adrenal pheochromocytoma. However, clinical biochemistry tests revealed normal levels of plasma catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and metanephrine, which are unusual findings in adrenal pheochromocytoma. Meanwhile, the patient had markedly raised plasma normetanephrine (10-fold) which, together with the normal metanephrine, constitutes a metabolic profile that is compatible with extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma. The patient also had markedly raised chromogranin A (16-fold), consistent with the presence of a neuroendocrine tumor. Laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was done and the adrenal tumor was excised and retrieved in total. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal pheochromocytoma; the tumor cells being positive for chromogranin, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein. Following surgery, the patient did well and showed full recovery at follow-up after three months. Molecular genetic testing showed no pathogenic mutation in pheochromocytoma genes: MAX, SDHA, SDHAF2, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, VHL, and PRKAR1A. A review of the literature was conducted to identify the pathophysiology and any previous reports of such case. To our knowledge, this is the first report in Oman of the extremely rare entity of pheochromocytoma with an unusual clinical and biochemical scenario. PMID:26421121

  16. A Rare Case of Adrenal Pheochromocytoma with Unusual Clinical and Biochemical Presentation: 
A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S; Ahmed, Riyaz; Ramadhan, Fatima A; Al-Kindi, Manal K; Al-Busaidi, Noor B; Al-Muslahi, Hilal N; Al-Lamki, Mohammad A

    2015-09-01

    A 50-year-old Omani woman presented to the Outpatient Clinic, Royal Hospital, Oman with right upper abdominal pain and backache that had lasted 10 days. She had no palpitation, sweating, or hypertension (blood pressure 122/78mmHg). The patient's history revealed that she had a similar incidence of abdominal pain two months prior, which was a "dull ache" in nature and somewhat associated with headache. The pain was relieved using a mild analgesic drug. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a right adrenal mass, and both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal glands confirmed a right adrenal mass consistent with adrenal pheochromocytoma. However, clinical biochemistry tests revealed normal levels of plasma catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and metanephrine, which are unusual findings in adrenal pheochromocytoma. Meanwhile, the patient had markedly raised plasma normetanephrine (10-fold) which, together with the normal metanephrine, constitutes a metabolic profile that is compatible with extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma. The patient also had markedly raised chromogranin A (16-fold), consistent with the presence of a neuroendocrine tumor. Laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was done and the adrenal tumor was excised and retrieved in total. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal pheochromocytoma; the tumor cells being positive for chromogranin, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein. Following surgery, the patient did well and showed full recovery at follow-up after three months. Molecular genetic testing showed no pathogenic mutation in pheochromocytoma genes: MAX, SDHA, SDHAF2, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, VHL, and PRKAR1A. A review of the literature was conducted to identify the pathophysiology and any previous reports of such case. To our knowledge, this is the first report in Oman of the extremely rare entity of pheochromocytoma with an unusual clinical and biochemical scenario. PMID:26421121

  17. Adrenal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus secondary to the use of topical corticosteroids for cosmetic purpose.

    PubMed

    Sobngwi, E; Lubin, V; Ury, P; Timsit, F-J; Gautier, J-F; Vexiau, P

    2003-06-01

    We report a case of symptomatic topical corticosteroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and diabetes in a 46-yr old HIV 1 positive woman of African descent. Topical Betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%-containing creams were used for the purpose of bleaching over a 2 month period prior to the acute episode. She recovered from her acute onset diabetes with ketosis and adrenal insufficiency a few months after withdrawal of corticosteroids. Despite possible discussion about pathophysiology of diabetes because acute-onset remitting diabetes is not rare in patients of African descent, and diabetes may occur in patients taking anti-retroviral treatments, no other cause of a hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis disorder was found. This case suggests that chronic use of high dose topical corticosteroid containing creams should be ruled out in patients presenting with Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal hypofunction. PMID:12910062

  18. Immunohistochemical analysis of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in dogs: Sex-linked and seasonal variation.

    PubMed

    Gallelli, M F; Lombardo, D; Vissio, P; Quiroga, A; Caggiano, N; Soler, E; Meikle, A; Castillo, V A

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated sexual dimorphism and seasonal variations in corticotrophs and adrenal zona fasciculata in dogs, as well as the expression of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα). An immunohistochemical analysis was conducted in pituitaries for ACTH and in adrenal glands for ERα and for the melanocortin-2-receptor (MC2R) in winter and summer. Double immunofluorescence was performed to identify ERα in corticotrophs. Females had a greater proportion of corticotrophs per field (p<0.01), with a greater cellular area and optical density (p<0.001) than males. Optical density of corticotrophs was greater in winter for both sexes (p<0.001). In zona fasciculata, ERα and MC2R expression was greater in females (p<0.001) and was greater in winter (p<0.001). ERα was identified in corticotrophs. This study is the first to demonstrate ERα expression in corticotrophs and the adrenal cortex in dogs, providing evidence for sexual dimorphism and seasonal variations. PMID:26850531

  19. Renal myelolipoma: a rare extra-adrenal tumor in a rare site: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Myelolipomas are uncommon, benign tumors composed of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements. They mostly occur in the adrenal glands, but extra-adrenal myelolipomas have also been reported in other locations such as the presacral region, retroperitoneum, pelvis and mediastinum. Here, we present a case of an extra-adrenal myelolipoma in a rare site: the renal parenchyma. To the best of our knowledge, it is only the third case reported in this unusual location. Case presentation We report a case of primary myelolipoma occurring in the kidney of a 55-year-old Moroccan man. We describe the radiological and clinicopathologic features of this unusual tumor with a review of the literature, and we discuss differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal myelolipomas. Conclusion This case is noteworthy because the tumor site was unusual. Although renal myelolipoma is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions in this site. PMID:23556993

  20. Hyponatremia due to Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency Successfully Treated by Dexamethasone with Sodium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Itsuro; Tamada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 60 Final Diagnosis: Hyponatremia due to secondary adrenal insufficiency Symptoms: prolonged general fatigue and anorexia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Successfully treated by dexamethasone with sodium chloride Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Patients who were surgically treated for Cushing’s syndrome postoperatively surrender to “primary” adrenal insufficiency. However, the preoperative over-secretion of cortisol or the postoperative administration of excessive glucocorticoids can cause “secondary” adrenal insufficiency, in which the prevalence of hyponatremia is usually lower than that of primary adrenal insufficiency. Case Report: A 60-year-old woman with a past medical history of Cushing’s syndrome developed hyponatremia with symptoms of acute glucocorticoid deficiency, such as prolonged general fatigue and anorexia, after upper respiratory tract infection. A decrease in the serum cortisol level and the lack of increase in the ACTH level, despite the increased demand for cortisol, enabled a diagnosis of “secondary” adrenal insufficiency. Although the initial fluid replacement therapy was not effective, co-administration of dexamethasone and sodium chloride quickly resolved her symptoms and ameliorated the refractory hyponatremia. Conclusions: In this case, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis of the patient was thought to have become suppressed long after the surgical treatment for Cushing’s syndrome. This case suggested a mechanism of refractory hyponatremia caused by secondary adrenal insufficiency, for which the administration of dexamethasone and sodium chloride exerted additional therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26319655