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  1. Bilateral adrenal gland haemorrhage: an unusual cause

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vasant; Malabu, Usman; Cameron, Donald; Sangla, Kunwarjit

    2014-01-01

    Summary Our patient had drainage of a large amoebic liver abscess. This got complicated by a severe degree of hypotension, which required aggressive fluid resuscitation and hydrocortisone support. Computerised tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal gland haemorrhage (BAH) resulting in primary adrenal gland failure, which was the cause for hypotension. Patient was on long-term warfarin for provoked deep vein thrombosis of lower limb, which was discontinued before the procedure. Thrombophilia profile indicated the presence of lupus anticoagulant factor with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Patient was discharged on lifelong warfarin. This case emphasises the need for strong clinical suspicion for diagnosing BAH, rare but life-threatening condition, and its association with amoebic liver abscess and anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS). Learning points Recognition of BAH as a rare complication of sepsis.APLS can rarely cause BAH. PMID:25276353

  2. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  3. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  4. Adrenal Gland Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home > Types of Cancer > Adrenal Gland Tumor Adrenal Gland Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Adrenal Gland Tumor. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Adrenal Gland Tumor Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and ...

  5. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  6. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... adrenal tumors that appear malignant. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  7. Morphofunctional state of the adrenal glands in albino rats under conditions of toxic stress caused by cadmium salt in winter and summer periods.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, S V; Kargina, M V; Kotelnikov, A V

    2011-06-01

    We studied the morphology and function of the adrenal glands in male and female albino rats in cadmium intoxication during winter and summer periods (January and July). In animals of the control group, sex-related differences in the total area of the adrenal glands and in the size of their zones were revealed. In females, zones of adrenal gland were larger than in males. In winter months, these differences were most pronounced. Analysis of seasonal differences in the area of the adrenal glands in males revealed no significant differences in winter and summer months. Irrespective of the season and gender, cadmium chloride treatment led to an increase in the size of the adrenal glands. Cadmium salts caused more pronounced functional strain in males in winter months and in females in summer. PMID:22238762

  8. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... of salt and water Controlling the "fight or flight" response to stress Maintaining pregnancy Initiating and controlling ... overview of the adrenal glands: Beyond fight or flight . Retrieved June 29, 2012 from http://www.endocrineweb. ...

  9. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  10. Adrenal gland denervation and diving in ducks.

    PubMed

    Mangalam, H J; Jones, D R; Lacombe, A M

    1987-06-01

    The extreme elevation in plasma levels of free norepinephrine (NE) and free epinephrine (EP), which occurs during forced diving of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), was studied before and after denervation of the adrenal glands. In intact animals both NE and EP concentration increased by up to two orders of magnitude in a 4-min dive but by a significantly lesser amount if the duck breathed O2 before the dive. Denervating the adrenal glands reduced the amounts of both catecholamines (CA) released during dives, plasma EP decreased to 10%, and NE to 50% of values obtained before denervation. Breathing O2 before a dive virtually eliminated CA release in denervates, indicating that hypoxia was the important non-neural releasing agent. Hypoxia was also the most important neural releasing agent compared with hypercapnia, acidosis, or hypoglycemia. Adrenal denervation did not cause significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure, arterial blood gas tensions, pH, or plasma glucose during dives, although denervation caused increased variation in some of these variables. In ducks CA release in dives is largely due to decreasing arterial O2 partial pressure, and full expression of the response is dependent on intact innervation of the adrenal gland. PMID:3591985

  11. Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

  12. What Are the Treatments for Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for adrenal gland disorders? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... a variety of surgical and medical treatments for adrenal gland disorders. These include 1 : Surgery to remove tumors ...

  13. [Adrenalitis].

    PubMed

    Saeger, W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation of the adrenal glands is caused by autoimmunopathies or infections and can induce adrenal insufficiency. Autoimmune lymphocytic adrenalitis is often combined with other autoimmune diseases and the most frequent cause of Addison's disease; however, it only becomes clinically apparent when more than 90 % of the adrenal cortex has been destroyed. Histological features are characterized by lymphoplasmacytic inflammation leading to an increased destruction of adrenocortical tissue but less severe courses can also occur. The second most frequent form of adrenalitis is adrenal tuberculosis, showing typical granulomatous findings that are nearly always caused by spreading from a tuberculous pulmonary focus. Other bacterial as well as viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and others, generally affect the adrenal glands only in patients with immunodeficiency disorders. In these infections, the adrenal cortex and medulla are frequently involved to roughly the same extent. Although surgical specimens from inflammatory adrenal lesions are extremely rare, the various forms of adrenalitis play an important role in the post-mortem examination of the adrenal glands for clarification of unclear causes of death (e.g. death during an Addisonian crisis). PMID:27099224

  14. The innervation of the mammalian adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, T L; Kesse, W K; Mohamed, A A; Afework, M

    1993-01-01

    Early conflicting reports and the lack of sensitive anatomical methods have led to an oversimplified view of adrenal gland innervation. It was not until the introduction of nerve fibre tracing techniques in the mid-1970s that the true complexity of adrenal innervation began to emerge. The first part of this article comprises a brief review of these and other relevant reports dealing with both medullary and cortical innervation. In the second part a detailed account is given of the work undertaken in Rex Coupland's Department relating to the innervation of the rodent and primate adrenal medulla using a retrograde fluorescent tracer technique. It was concluded that, in all 3 species studied, the adrenal medulla receives a sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent and an afferent innervation. The possible interrelationship between neural control of cortical and medullar secretions is discussed briefly. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:8300416

  15. Ewing's Sarcoma of the Adrenal Gland.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chandra, Vipin; Ranjan, Kumar Rajiv; Chakrabortty, Debasis; Banerjee, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) or primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor (PNET) typically occurs in long or flat bones, the chest wall, extra-skeletal soft tissue, and rarely in solid organs. Incidence of adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare. Here we report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the right adrenal gland in an 8-year-old girl who presented with an abdominal mass. The huge tumor was managed by preoperative neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. She died due to metastasis after five months of surgery. PMID:27398321

  16. Ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal glands in healthy and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Pey, Pascaline; Paepe, Dominique; Rosenberg, Dan; Daminet, Sylvie; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Duchateau, Luc; de Fornel-Thibaud, Pauline; Benchekroun, Ghita; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2013-06-01

    The first part of the study aimed to describe prospectively the ultrasonographic features of the adrenal glands in 94 healthy cats and 51 chronically sick cats. It confirmed the feasibility of ultrasonography of adrenal glands in healthy and chronically sick cats, which were not statistically different. The typical hypoechoic appearance of the gland surrounded by hyperechoic fat made it recognisable. A sagittal plane of the gland, not in line with the aorta, may be necessary to obtain the largest adrenal measurements. The reference intervals of adrenal measurements were inferred from the values obtained in the healthy and chronically sick cats (mean ± 0.96 SD): adrenal length was 8.9-12.5 mm; cranial height was 3.0-4.8 mm; caudal height was 3.0-4.5 mm. The second part of the study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal glands in cats with adrenal diseases (six had hyperaldosteronism and four had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism) and a descriptive comparison with the reference features obtained in the control groups from the prospective study. Cats with hyperaldosteronism presented with unilateral severely enlarged adrenal glands. However, a normal contralateral gland did not preclude a contralateral infiltration in benign or malignant adrenal neoplasms. The ultrasonographic appearance of the adrenal glands could not differentiate benign and malignant lesions. The ultrasonographic appearance of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was mainly a symmetrical adrenal enlargement; however, a substantial number of cases were within the reference intervals of adrenal size. PMID:23234721

  17. Current status of imaging for adrenal gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Song, Julie H; Mayo-Smith, William W

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal glands are common sites of disease involved in a wide spectrum of pathology. Several imaging studies allow accurate diagnosis of adrenal masses, separating inconsequential benign masses from the lesions that require treatment. This article discusses contemporary adrenal imaging techniques, imaging appearance, and the optimal imaging algorithm for the workup of common adrenal masses. PMID:25246052

  18. Histoplasmosis of the adrenal glands studied by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.A.; Muchmore, H.G.; Tisdal, R.G.; Fahmy, A.; Pitha, J.V.

    1984-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the adrenal glands was performed on seven patients who had histologically proved disseminated histoplasmosis. All seven patients showed some degree of adrenal gland abnormality. The range of CT findings included minimal enlargement with faint flecks of calcium, moderate enlargement with focal low attenuation nodules, and massive enlargement with large areas of necrosis or dense calcification. The changes in each patient were bilateral and symmetrical. Adrenal gland shape was usually preserved. Finding of percutaneous adrenal biopsy, which was performed under CT guidance, made the diagnosis in one patient. Five of seven patients had adrenal insufficiency. It is concluded that the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis should be considered in any patient who has bilateral adrenal gland enlargement and who resides in an endemic area, especially if there is evidence of adrenal insufficiency.

  19. Adrenal glands in patients with cogenital renal anomalies: CT appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, P.J.; Robbins, G.L.; Ellis, D.A.; Spirt, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    The CT appearance of the adrenal glands was investigated in 30 patients with congenital renal anomalies. The ipsilateral adrenal was clearly identified in 83% of these patients; in all of them, the adrenal was a paraspinal disk-shaped organ, which appeared linear on CT. Conversely, the adrenals retained their normal shape in a control group of 20 patients with acquired renal atrophy or prior simple nephrectomy.

  20. Sexual Differentiation of Circadian Clock Function in the Adrenal Gland.

    PubMed

    Kloehn, Ian; Pillai, Savin B; Officer, Laurel; Klement, Claire; Gasser, Paul J; Evans, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in glucocorticoid production are associated with increased responsiveness of the adrenal gland in females. However, the adrenal-intrinsic mechanisms that establish sexual dimorphic function remain ill defined. Glucocorticoid production is gated at the molecular level by the circadian clock, which may contribute to sexual dimorphic adrenal function. Here we examine sex differences in the adrenal gland using an optical reporter of circadian clock function. Adrenal glands were cultured from male and female Period2::Luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice to assess clock function in vitro in real time. We confirm that there is a pronounced sex difference in the intrinsic capacity to sustain PER2::LUC rhythms in vitro, with higher amplitude rhythms in adrenal glands collected from males than from females. Changes in adrenal PER2::LUC rhythms over the reproductive life span implicate T as an important factor in driving sex differences in adrenal clock function. By directly manipulating hormone levels in adult mice in vivo, we demonstrate that T increases the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in adrenal glands of both male and female mice. In contrast, we find little evidence that ovarian hormones modify adrenal clock function. Lastly, we find that T in vitro can increase the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in male adrenals but not female adrenals, which suggests the existence of sex differences in the mechanisms of T action in vivo. Collectively these results reveal that activational effects of T alter circadian timekeeping in the adrenal gland, which may have implications for sex differences in stress reactivity and stress-related disorders. PMID:27007073

  1. [A Case of Synchronous Malignant Pheochromocytomas in Bilateral Adrenal Glands].

    PubMed

    Usui, Kimitsugu; Hirasawa, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Masataka; Shioi, Kouichi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sakai, Naoki; Noguchi, Sumio; Tsuura, Yukio

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of synchronous malignant pheochromocytoma in bilateral adrenal glands. A 73- year-old man presented to our hospital with bilateral adrenal masses incidentally found during abdominal ultrasonography examination for an unrelated issue. The patient had a 30-year history of hypertension and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed heterogeneous tumors in bilateral adrenal glands and an enlarged para-aortic lymph node. Hormonal examinations revealed a high value of urinary catecholamines. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed increased uptake in bilateral adrenal glands and the lymph node. Both adrenal tumors and the node were surgically removed. Pathological examination revealed histologically distinct tissue between the two adrenal tumors. The patient received five cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The patient has been in remission for 32 months following surgical treatment. PMID:27452493

  2. Frequency of varicella zoster virus DNA in human adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Badani, Hussain; White, Teresa; Schulick, Nicole; Raeburn, Christopher D; Topkaya, Ibrahim; Gilden, Don; Nagel, Maria A

    2016-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) becomes latent in ganglionic neurons derived from neural crest cells. Because the adrenal gland also contains medullary chromaffin cells of neural crest origin, we examined human adrenal glands and medullary chromaffin cell tumors (pheochromocytomas) for VZV and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We found VZV, but not HSV-1, DNA in 4/63 (6 %) normal adrenal glands. No VZV transcripts or antigens were detected in the 4 VZV DNA-positive samples. No VZV or HSV-1 DNA was found in 21 pheochromocytomas. PMID:26843382

  3. Embryological and molecular development of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ian L; Louw, Graham J

    2015-03-01

    In this mini review, the embryological and functional development of the adrenal glands is presented from a molecular perspective. While acknowledging that this is a highly complex series of events, the processes are described in simple and broad strokes in a single text for the reader who is interested in this field but is not an active researcher. The origin of the adrenal glands is in the mesodermal ridge as early as the fourth week of gestation. Between the eighth and ninth weeks of gestation, the adrenal glands are encapsulated and this results in the presence of a distinct organ. There have been great strides in deciphering the very complicated molecular aspects of adrenal gland development in which multiple transcription factors have been identified, directing the adrenogonadal primordium into the adrenal cortex, kidney, or bipotential gonad. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone is critical for early development of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. Several mutations in transcription factors, responsible for normal adrenal gland development have been found to induce the familial syndrome of congenital adrenal hypoplasia or neoplasia. PMID:25255746

  4. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the normal canine adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Pey, Pascaline; Vignoli, Massimo; Haers, Hendrik; Duchateau, Luc; Rossi, Federica; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2011-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is useful in differentiating adrenal gland adenomas from nonadenomatous lesions in human patients. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and to describe contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the normal canine adrenal gland. Six healthy female Beagles were injected with an intravenous bolus of a lipid-shelled contrast agent (SonoVue(®) ). The aorta enhanced immediately followed by the renal artery and then the adrenal gland. Adrenal gland enhancement was uniform, centrifugal, and rapid from the medulla to the cortex. When maximum enhancement was reached, a gradual homogeneous decrease in echogenicity of the adrenal gland began and simultaneously enhancement of the phrenicoabdominal vessels was observed. While enhancement kept decreasing in the adrenal parenchyma, the renal vein, caudal vena cava, and phrenicoabdominal vein were characterized by persistent enhancement until the end of the study. A second contrast enhancement was observed, corresponding to the refilling time. Objective measurements were performed storing the images for off-line image analysis using Image J (ImageJ(©) ). The shape of the time-intensity curve reflecting adrenal perfusion was similar in all dogs. Ratios of the values of the cortex and the medulla to the values of the renal artery were characterized by significant differences from initial upslope to the peak allowing differentiation between the cortex and the medulla for both adrenal glands only in this time period. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the adrenal glands is feasible in dogs and the optimal time for adrenal imaging is between 5 and 90 s after injection. PMID:21521396

  5. Transrectal ultrasonography of the left adrenal gland in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Durie, Inge; Van Loon, Gunther; Vermeire, Simon; De Clercq, Dominique; Vanschandevijl, Katleen; Deprez, Piet

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available on medical imaging of the adrenal glands in horses. We investigated the feasibility of transrectal ultrasonography to characterize the normal equine adrenal gland. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed in 25 healthy horses using a 7.5 MHz linear array probe at a displayed depth of 8 cm. Transrectal ultrasonography of the right adrenal gland was not feasible. For the left adrenal gland, the left kidney, the abdominal aorta, the left renal artery, the left renal vein, and the cranial mesenteric artery were used as landmarks. The size of the left adrenal gland was variable, but it generally appeared as a long, flat structure with a hyperechoic medulla surrounded by a hypoechoic cortex. The most cranial part of the gland could not be delineated appropriately in 11 horses (44%). The mean (+/-SD) thickness of the gland and medulla was 0.66 +/- 0.15cm (n = 25) and 0.28 +/- 0.09 cm (n = 25) near the caudal pole, 0.87 +/- 0.25 cm (n = 14) and 0.40 +/- 0.18 cm (n = 12) near the cranial pole, and 0.89 +/- 0.18 cm (n = 25) and 0.36 +/- 0.13 cm (n = 25) in the middle of the gland, respectively. The mean (+/-SD) length of the entire adrenal gland and of the medulla was 6.22 +/- 0.77 cm (n = 14) and 5.45 +/- 0.71 cm (n = 6), respectively. Transrectal ultrasonography allowed adequate visualization of the left adrenal gland in horses. PMID:20973389

  6. Computed tomographic quantification of canine adrenal gland volume and attenuation.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Giovanna; Furlanello, Tommaso; De Lorenzi, Davide; Caldin, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study in presumed normal dogs to determine the adrenal gland attenuation and volume values. Multidetector computer tomography (MDCT 16) analysis of the gland was carried out in 48 adult dogs without evidence of adrenal gland disease that underwent CT examination for acute spinal injuries. The mean nonenhanced attenuation value +/- SD of the left adrenal gland was 36.0 +/- 5.3 HU (range: 22.0-42.0 HU). The mean nonenhanced attenuation value +/- SD of the right gland was 34.3 +/- 7.0 HU (range: 20.4-48.6HU). The mean enhanced attenuation value +/- SD were: left gland 101.5 +/- 10.6HU (range: 86.8-128.0 HU), and right gland 97.4 +/- 12.4 HU (range: 58.9-123.6 HU). The mean CT volume +/- SD were: left gland was 0.60 cm3 (range: 0.20-0.95; SD 0.17), and right gland (0.55cm3, range: 0.22-1.01; SD 0.19). Attenuation values and volume data were related to age, weight, and gender, using ANOVA. There was no statistically significant difference between the left and right side or in adrenal measurements, because of body weight class effects. The animal effect was the most important source of variation for all adrenal measurements. Based on our study, CT is an effective method for assessing adrenal characteristics in the dog. Normative CT data are provided to allow estimation of normal adrenal gland size and volume. PMID:17009504

  7. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose adrenal gland disorders? Skip sharing on ... and urine tests. 1 Cushing’s Syndrome If a health care provider suspects Cushing’s syndrome, he or she may ...

  8. What Are Some Types of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome develops from prolonged or excess use of steroid medications. In other cases, the body itself produces ... adrenal glands can be suppressed when people take steroid medications (medicines that act like cortisol in the ...

  9. [Cavernous hemangioma: rare incidentaloma of the adrenal gland].

    PubMed

    de la Villéon, B; Goudard, Y; Peroux, E; Jacquet, S F; Aubert, P; Duverger, V

    2011-12-01

    The hemangioma of the adrenal gland is an adrenal gland lesion rare, benign and usually asymptomatic. Discovered incidentally during an abdominal imaging study, it is part of incidentalomas. Imagery is the best to characterise these silent adrenal masses (computed tomography [CT], Magnetic Resonance Imaging [MRI]± Positron Emission Tomography [PET scan] with 18F-FDG). The main risks of the hemangioma are ignorance of malignancy, bleeding and abdominal mass syndrome. The analysis of the literature shows the importance of laparoscopy. A multidisciplinary discussion on this type of lesion appears indispensable both diagnostic and therapeutic. PMID:22118362

  10. Associations between sex, body weight, age, and ultrasonographically determined adrenal gland thickness in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness.

    PubMed

    Bento, Pedro L; Center, Sharon A; Randolph, John F; Yeager, Amy E; Bicalho, Rodrigo C

    2016-03-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether body weight, age, or sex was associated with ultrasonographically determined adrenal gland thickness (AT) in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness. DESIGN Retrospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 266 dogs (22 sexually intact and 119 castrated males and 19 sexually intact and 106 spayed females representing 12 breeds) with non-adrenal gland illness. PROCEDURES Thickness of the caudal pole of the left and right adrenal glands was measured on longitudinal ultrasonographic images. Dogs were stratified into age and body weight categories to investigate associations with AT. RESULTS AT was significantly lower in dogs that weighed ≤ 12 kg (26.4 lb) than in dogs that weighed > 12 kg and left AT increased with age. Both left and right AT were larger in male than in female dogs that weighed > 12 to ≤ 20 kg, and left AT was larger in male than in female dogs that weighed > 20 to ≤ 30 kg. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that body weight, age, and sex were significantly associated with AT, indicating that these variables should be considered when evaluating AT in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness and when developing reference intervals for AT in dogs. Further, findings indicated that dogs with non-adrenal gland illness that weigh ≤ 12 kg should have an AT no greater than 0.62 cm, whereas dogs that weigh > 12 kg should have an AT no greater than 0.72 cm. PMID:26953919

  11. Failure to visualize adrenal glands in a patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. [/sup 131/I

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.; Mayfield, R.K.; Levine, J.H.; Lopes-Virella, M.F.; Sagel, J.; Buse, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A patient with clinical and biochemical evidence of Cushing's disease and severe hyperlipidemia underwent an adrenal imaging procedure with NP-59 (6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol), without visualization of either gland. Correction of the hyperlipidemia followed by repeated adrenal imaging resulted in bilateral visualization. A pituitary tumor was removed at surgery, confirming the diagnosis of Cushing's disease.

  12. Diagnostic dilemmas in enlarged and diffusely hemorrhagic adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Diolombi, Mairo L; Khani, Francesca; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-07-01

    We have noted an increasing number of cases of enlarged adrenal glands where the underlying diagnosis was masked by a diffusely hemorrhagic process. We identified from our database 59 cases (32 consults, 27 routine) of adrenal glands with diffuse (>25%) hemorrhage received between 2000 and 2014. Fifty-three adrenalectomies and 6 biopsies were identified. The diagnoses after central review were 41 adrenocortical adenomas, 1 nodular adrenocortical hyperplasia with associated myelolipoma, 1 benign adrenocortical cyst, and 10 nonneoplastic adrenal glands with hemorrhage. A definitive diagnosis for the 6 biopsies was precluded by the sample size. The adrenocortical adenomas (size, 1-13 cm; 25%-95% hemorrhage) showed clear cell change in the neoplastic area (10%-80% of the tumor), 19 showed focal calcification (1 with ossification), 11 showed areas of papillary endothelial hyperplasia, 10 showed scattered lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, 6 showed benign cortical tissue extending beyond the adrenal capsule into soft tissue, 1 showed necrosis in the form of ghost cells, 2 showed lipomatous change, and 6 were associated with incidental benign lesions (1 cortical cyst, 1 schwannoma, and 4 myelolipomas). Twenty-four of the adrenocortical adenomas were consults where the referring pathologist had trouble classifying the lesion. Of the 10 nonneoplastic adrenals (4.5-22 cm; 40%-80% hemorrhage), 2 were consults. In summary, pathologists have difficulties recognizing adrenocortical adenomas in the setting of a massively enlarged and hemorrhagic adrenal gland. Although there is a correlation between adrenocortical malignancy and size, hemorrhage into nonmalignant adrenal glands can result in markedly enlarged adrenals. PMID:27001431

  13. Biopsy of the right adrenal gland by the transhepatic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.B.; Bernardino, M.E.; Berkman, W.A.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Torres, W.E.

    1983-08-01

    A transhepatic computed-tomographic-guided biopsy of a right adrenal mass is described. This method is simpler to perform than the usual posterior biopsy carried out with the patient prone and is less likely to cause a complicating pneumothorax. In seven of eight patients with right adrenal masses, adrenal tissue was obtained and an accurate diagnosis was possible. No complications resulted.

  14. Primary Bilateral Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma of the Adrenal Gland Presenting as Incidental Adrenal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Christopher; Camilleri, David James; Gatt, Andre'

    2015-01-01

    Although lymphoma may occasionally involve the adrenal glands as part of a generalized disease process, primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is a rare disease. We present a case of a 62-year-old woman with a history of mild/moderate hereditary spherocytosis with a well-compensated baseline haemoglobin, who presented with rapidly progressive symptomatic anaemia. During the diagnostic workup, imaging revealed bilateral large adrenal masses and she was later diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL), with the adrenal glands being the dominant site of the disease. The patient was started on systemic chemotherapy, but her disease progressed with neurological involvement which responded to second-line therapy. Her adrenal disease however was refractory to further therapy. PMID:26681947

  15. Images of pheochromocytoma in adrenal glands

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Colin J.; Blake, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are relatively rare tumors of the adrenal medulla. A wide spectrum of imaging findings has been described. The aim of this article is to describe the multimodality imaging features of pheochromocytomas including diagnostic pearls that can help differentiate them from other adrenal lesions and pitfalls to avoid. PMID:26310999

  16. Left adrenal gland metastasis of breast invasive ductal carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    HE, TAO; LIU, JIAJU; LI, YIFAN; JIN, LU; SUN, SHUOLEI; NI, LIANGCHAO; MAO, XIANGMING; YANG, SHANGQI; LAI, YONGQING

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the metastatic lesions of the adrenal gland normally originate from lung cancer, colon malignant tumor, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. However, adrenal gland metastasis that metastasize from breast invasive ductal carcinoma are extremely rare. The present study reported a rare case of left adrenal gland metastasis in a 35-year-old female who was diagnosed as breast carcinoma 5 years ago with a mass located on the left adrenal gland, which was detected during a routine examination. The patient was asymptomatic and adrenal gland computed tomography revealed a mass in the left adrenal gland. Definitive preoperative diagnosis failed to be established. Left adrenal gland laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed and the diagnosis of adrenal gland metastasis of breast invasive ductal carcinoma was confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical examination. The patient remained in good condition by the time of writing. PMID:27123296

  17. Standards of ultrasound imaging of the adrenal glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław S.; Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna A.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal glands are paired endocrine glands located over the upper renal poles. Adrenal pathologies have various clinical presentations. They can coexist with the hyperfunction of individual cortical zones or the medulla, insufficiency of the adrenal cortex or retained normal hormonal function. The most common adrenal masses are tumors incidentally detected in imaging examinations (ultrasound, tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), referred to as incidentalomas. They include a range of histopathological entities but cortical adenomas without hormonal hyperfunction are the most common. Each abdominal ultrasound scan of a child or adult should include the assessment of the suprarenal areas. If a previously non-reported, incidental solid focal lesion exceeding 1 cm (incidentaloma) is detected in the suprarenal area, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be conducted to confirm its presence and for differentiation and the tumor functional status should be determined. Ultrasound imaging is also used to monitor adrenal incidentaloma that is not eligible for a surgery. The paper presents recommendations concerning the performance and assessment of ultrasound examinations of the adrenal glands and their pathological lesions. The article includes new ultrasound techniques, such as tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, three-dimensional ultrasound, elastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and parametric imaging. The guidelines presented above are consistent with the recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society. PMID:26807295

  18. Abdomen: Retroperitoneum, peritoneum, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book the author explores aspiration biopsy as it can be applied to lesions of the retroperitoneum, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, peritoneum, and adrenal gland. With experience from two different institutions - one an acute general care hospital, the other a cancer referral center - Dr. Suen has achieved in creating a text that reflects a wide range of experience. Throughout the work, Dr. Suen stresses pattern recognition of cytologic material. And a chapter on unusual and interesting lesions is included. Contents: Introduction and General Considerations; Abdomen Imaging Techniques; Clinical Relevance; Indentification of Normal ABC; retroperitoneum; Gastrointestinal Tract; Kidney; Adrenal Gland; Unusual Lesions; Immunocytochemistry and Electron Microscopy; Index.

  19. Dopamine receptor expression and function in human normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pivonello, Rosario; Ferone, Diego; de Herder, Wouter W; de Krijger, Ronald R; Waaijers, Marlijn; Mooij, Diana M; van Koetsveld, Peter M; Barreca, Antonina; De Caro, Maria Laura del Basso; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2004-09-01

    Dopamine is known to play a role in the modulation of aldosterone and catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland, where dopamine receptors (DR), in particular the DR type 2 (D(2)), have been found to be expressed. DR expression has also been demonstrated in some types of benign adrenal tumors. The aims of the current study were to evaluate DR expression and D(2) localization in the normal adrenal gland and in different types of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, as well as to evaluate the in vitro effects of the dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline on hormone secretion in nontumoral adrenal cells. Adrenal tissues from 25 patients, subjected to adrenal surgery for different diseases, were studied. These included three normal adrenals; five adrenal hyperplasias; four aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two clinically nonfunctioning adrenal adenomas; two aldosterone-secreting, two cortisol-secreting, and two androgen-secreting adrenal carcinomas; and three pheochromocytomas. In all tissues, DR and D(2) isoform (D(2long) and D(2short)) expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. D(2) localization was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a specific polyclonal antibody, whereas D(2)-like receptor expression was evaluated by receptor-ligand binding study, using the radiolabeled D(2) analog (125)I-epidepride. The effects of bromocriptine and cabergoline on baseline and ACTH and/or angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone, cortisol, and androstenedione secretion were evaluated in cell cultures derived from five different adrenal hyperplasia. At RT-PCR, both D(1)-like and D(2)-like receptors were expressed in all normal and hyperplastic adrenals. D(2) and D(4) were expressed in aldosterone- and cortisol-secreting adenomas, cortisol-secreting carcinomas, and clinically nonfunctioning adenomas, whereas no DR was expressed in aldosterone- and androgen-secreting carcinomas. D(2), D(4), and D(5) were expressed in pheochromocytomas. In all D(2

  20. Nicotinic receptor Alpha7 expression during mouse adrenal gland development.

    PubMed

    Gahring, Lorise C; Myers, Elizabeth; Palumbos, Sierra; Rogers, Scott W

    2014-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 (α7) is a ligand-activated ion channel that contributes to a diversity of cellular processes involved in development, neurotransmission and inflammation. In this report the expression of α7 was examined in the mouse developing and adult adrenal gland that expresses a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter as a bi-cistronic extension of the endogenous α7 transcript (α7(G)). At embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) α7(G) expression was associated with the suprarenal ganglion and precursor cells of the adrenal gland. The α7(G) cells are catecholaminergic chromaffin cells as reflected by their progressive increase in the co-expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) that is complete by E18.5. In the adult, α7(G) expression is limited to a subset of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla that cluster near the border with the adrenal cortex. These chromaffin cells co-express α7(G), TH and DBH, but they lack phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) consistent with only norepinephrine (NE) synthesis. These cell groups appear to be preferentially innervated by pre-ganglionic afferents identified by the neurotrophin receptor p75. No afferents identified by beta-III tubulin, neurofilament proteins or p75 co-expressed α7(G). Occasional α7(G) cells in the pre-E14.5 embryos express neuronal markers consistent with intrinsic ganglion cells and in the adult some α7(G) cells co-express glutamic acid decarboxylase. The transient expression of α7 during adrenal gland development and its prominent co-expression by a subset of NE chromaffin cells in the adult suggests that the α7 receptor contributes to multiple aspects of adrenal gland development and function that persist into adulthood. PMID:25093893

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal glands: a comparison with computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.L.; Haaga, J.R.; Fletcher, B.D.; Alfidi, R.J.; Schultz, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    This investigation compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of normal and abnormal adrenal glands. Thirty normal volunteers were studied with MRI, and the results were compared with a retrospective review of 30 normal CT examinations. CT identified both adrenal glands in all 30 patients. MRI identified both glands in 29 of 30 volunteers. There were no statistically significant differences between the two imaging techniques using chi-square analysis. Twenty-one patients with abnormal adrenal gland(s) detected with CT were also studied with MRI. The abnormalities studied included bilateral hyperplasia (three patients), adenoma (two), myelolipoma (one), adrenal metastases (six), adrenal hemorrhage (two), and neuroblastoma (seven). MRI detected the abnormal adrenal gland(s) in 20 of 21 patients. The CT and MRI features of the adrenal lesions are discussed.

  2. Resistant hypertension with adrenal nodule: are we removing the right gland?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Peter N; Tabasum, Arshiya; Rao Bondugulapati, L N; Parker, Danny; Baglioni, Piero; Okosieme, Onyebuchi E; Scott Coombes, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Resistant hypertension is often difficult to treat and may be associated with underlying primary aldosteronism (PA). We describe the case of an elderly gentleman who presented with severe and resistant hypertension and was found to have a left adrenal incidentaloma during evaluation but had aldosterone excess secondary to unilateral adrenal hyperplasia (UAH) of the contralateral gland, which needed surgical intervention. A 65-year-old gentleman was evaluated for uncontrolled high blood pressure (BP) in spite of taking four antihypertensive medications. The high BP was confirmed on a 24-h ambulatory reading, and further biochemical evaluation showed an elevated serum aldosterone renin ratio (ARR) (1577 pmol/l per ng per ml per h). Radiological evaluation showed an adrenal nodule (15 mm) in the left adrenal gland but an adrenal vein sampling demonstrated a lateralization towards the opposite site favouring the right adrenal to be the source of excess aldosterone. A laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed and the histology of the gland confirmed nodular hyperplasia. Following surgery, the patient's BP improved remarkably although he remained on antihypertensives and under regular endocrine follow-up. PA remains the most common form of secondary and difficult-to-treat hypertension. Investigations may reveal incidental adrenal lesions, which may not be the actual source of excess aldosterone, but UAH may be a contributor and may coexist and amenable to surgical treatment. An adrenal vein sampling should be undertaken for correct lateralization of the source, otherwise a correctable diagnosis may be missed and the incorrect adrenal gland may be removed. Learning points Severe and resistant hypertension can often be associated with underlying PA. ARR is an excellent screening tool in patients with suspected PA. Lateralization with adrenal venous sampling is essential to isolate the source and differentiate between unilateral and bilateral causes of

  3. Normal adrenal glands in small cell lung carcinoma: CT-guided biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Pagani, J.J.

    1983-05-01

    Twenty-four small cell lung carcinoma patients with morphologically normal adrenal glands by computed tomographic (CT) criteria underwent percutaneous thin-needle biopsy of their adrenal glands. Of 43 glands biopsied, 29 had adequate cellular material for interpretation. Five (17%) of the 29 glands were positive for metastases; the rest had negative biopsies. This series indicates an approximate 17% false-negative diagnosis rate by CT when staging the adrenal glands in patients with small cell lung carcinoma. It also demonstrates the utility of percutaneous needle biopsy as an investigational tool to further evaluate normal-sized adrenal glands in the oncologic patient.

  4. Zinc deficiency affects the composition of the rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, R.J.; Leure-DuPree, A.E.; Fosmire, G.J.

    1986-07-01

    The response of the adrenal gland to zinc deficiency was examined in male weanling rats. In comparison with decapsulated adrenals from ad libitum fed controls, glands from zinc deficient rats had greater relative weight (mg/g body wt), DNA concentration, and total lipid and cholesterol concentrations as well as a smaller protein/DNA ratio. Several of these differences (protein/DNA and cholesterol concentration) could be attributed to the inanition accompanying zinc deficient values were similar to those of pair fed controls. Values for total DNA and protein concentration were similar for all groups. Electron micrographs of the zona fasciculata showed a small number of lipid droplets in the adrenals from ad libitum fed controls, an increase in lipid droplets from pair fed controls, and an even more striking increase in lipid droplets from the zinc deficient adrenals. The increased adrenal lipid composition in the zinc deficient group may be secondary to enhanced steroidogenesis or a zinc deficiency-induced defect of lipid metabolism.

  5. [Mantle cell lymphoma markedly infiltrated into adrenal glands with adrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryo; Iwakiri, Rika; Tsutsumi, Hisashi; Ohta, Masatsugu; Mori, Mayumi

    2004-07-01

    A 66-year-old male was admitted to our hospital complaining of bilateral hypochondrial pain, back pain and loss of weight in May, 2002. Superficial lymph nodes were not palpable on admission. The leukocyte count was 3430/microl, hemoglobin concentration, 13.0g/dl, and platelet count, 174000/microl. LDH, soluble IL-2 receptor, ACTH and cortisol values were out of the normal range (LDH 1368IU/l, sIL-2R 2630U/ml, ACTH 132pg/ml, cortisol 7.4microg/dl). Abdominal CT scan showed bilateral adrenal masses, and abnormal uptake of Ga-scintigraphy was seen correspondent with the bilateral adrenal masses. The histological diagnosis of bilateral adrenal masses cannot be performed because of the bleeding tendency, but atypical cells were observed in the patient's bone marrow aspirate. Surface marker analysis of atypical cells showed CD5+, cyclin D1+, CD19+, CD20+ and HLA-DR+. From these results we diagnosed this case as a mantle cell lymphoma (stage IV B) markedly infiltrated into the adrenal glands with adrenal insufficiency. The bilateral adrenal masses dramatically reduced in size after CHOP chemotherapy with hydrocortisone supplementation. We report on the present case and summarize the reports of adrenal grand-infiltrating lymphomas. PMID:15359915

  6. Endocrine-specific NIR fluorophores for adrenal gland targeting.

    PubMed

    Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Levitz, Andrew; Park, Min Ho; Hyun, Hoon; Venugopal, Vivek; Park, GwangLi; El Fakhri, Georges; Henary, Maged; Gioux, Sylvain; Frangioni, John V; Choi, Hak Soo

    2016-08-11

    The adrenal glands (AGs) are relatively small yet require definitive identification during their resection, or more commonly their avoidance. To enable image-guided surgery involving the AGs, we have developed novel near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores that target the AGs after a single intravenous injection, which provided dual-NIR image-guided resection or avoidance of the AGs during both open and minimally-invasive surgery. PMID:27476533

  7. Adipose Tissue and Adrenal Glands: Novel Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kargi, Atil Y.; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or “adipokines” have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of “cross talk” between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals. PMID:25018768

  8. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal gland size compared to body weight in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Soulsby, Stacy N; Holland, Merrilee; Hudson, Judith A; Behrend, Ellen N

    2015-01-01

    The accepted cut-off value for adrenal gland maximum diameter of 0.74 cm to distinguish adrenal gland enlargement in dogs regardless of body weight may not be appropriate for small to medium breed dogs. The purpose of the current retrospective study was to examine adrenal gland dimensions as a function of body weight in healthy dogs in three weight categories (< 10 kg, 10-30 kg, and > 30 kg) representing small, medium, and large breeds, respectively, to establish greater confidence in determining if adrenal gland size is abnormal. The measurements of length (sagittal plane), cranial and caudal pole thickness (sagittal and transverse planes), and caudal pole width (transverse plane) of both adrenal glands were obtained ultrasonographically in clinically healthy dogs (n = 45) with 15 dogs in each weight group. Findings support our hypothesis that adrenal gland size correlates with body weight in normal dogs, and more precise reference intervals should be created for adrenal gland size by categorizing dogs as small, medium, or large breed. The caudal pole thickness of either adrenal gland in a sagittal plane was the best dimension for evaluating adrenal gland size based on low variability, ease, and reliability in measurement. PMID:25496665

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal gland: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Hricak, H.; Crooks, L.E.; Gooding, C.A.; Moss, A.A.; Engelstad, B.L.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging characteristics of the normal and abnormal adrenal gland were evaluated and compared with findings on computed tomography (CT). Forty-two patients were examined: 36 had normal adrenal glands and 6 had adrenal disease (3 metastatic lesions, 1 pheochromocytoma, and 2 cortical hyperplasia). NMR clearly showed all 42 left adrenals (100%) and 36 right adrenals (86%). In some patients, it appeared to differentiate the adrenal cortex from the medulla. The ability of NMR to detect adrenal disease was similar to that of CT in 6 cases examined. CT demonstrated superior spatial resolution in most cases, but NMR provided superior soft-tissue contrast. Since NMR does not involve ionizing radiation and provides excellent soft-tissue differentiation without contrast material, it has advantages over CT and appears to be a promising modality for imaging of the adrenal gland.

  10. Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Strittmatter, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril labeling of ACE. (/sup 3/H)Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. (/sup 3/H)Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of (/sup 3/H)captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, (/sup 3/H)captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor (/sup 3/H)GEMSA.

  11. Mouse genotypes drive the liver and adrenal gland clocks

    PubMed Central

    Košir, Rok; Prosenc Zmrzljak, Uršula; Korenčič, Anja; Juvan, Peter; Ačimovič, Jure; Rozman, Damjana

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms regulate a plethora of physiological processes. Perturbations of the rhythm can result in pathologies which are frequently studied in inbred mouse strains. We show that the genotype of mouse lines defines the circadian gene expression patterns. Expression of majority of core clock and output metabolic genes are phase delayed in the C56BL/6J line compared to 129S2 in the adrenal glands and the liver. Circadian amplitudes are generally higher in the 129S2 line. Experiments in dark – dark (DD) and light – dark conditions (LD), exome sequencing and data mining proposed that mouse lines differ in single nucleotide variants in the binding regions of clock related transcription factors in open chromatin regions. A possible mechanisms of differential circadian expression could be the entrainment and transmission of the light signal to peripheral organs. This is supported by the genotype effect in adrenal glands that is largest under LD, and by the high number of single nucleotide variants in the Receptor, Kinase and G-protein coupled receptor Panther molecular function categories. Different phenotypes of the two mouse lines and changed amino acid sequence of the Period 2 protein possibly contribute further to the observed differences in circadian gene expression. PMID:27535584

  12. Mouse genotypes drive the liver and adrenal gland clocks.

    PubMed

    Košir, Rok; Prosenc Zmrzljak, Uršula; Korenčič, Anja; Juvan, Peter; Ačimovič, Jure; Rozman, Damjana

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms regulate a plethora of physiological processes. Perturbations of the rhythm can result in pathologies which are frequently studied in inbred mouse strains. We show that the genotype of mouse lines defines the circadian gene expression patterns. Expression of majority of core clock and output metabolic genes are phase delayed in the C56BL/6J line compared to 129S2 in the adrenal glands and the liver. Circadian amplitudes are generally higher in the 129S2 line. Experiments in dark - dark (DD) and light - dark conditions (LD), exome sequencing and data mining proposed that mouse lines differ in single nucleotide variants in the binding regions of clock related transcription factors in open chromatin regions. A possible mechanisms of differential circadian expression could be the entrainment and transmission of the light signal to peripheral organs. This is supported by the genotype effect in adrenal glands that is largest under LD, and by the high number of single nucleotide variants in the Receptor, Kinase and G-protein coupled receptor Panther molecular function categories. Different phenotypes of the two mouse lines and changed amino acid sequence of the Period 2 protein possibly contribute further to the observed differences in circadian gene expression. PMID:27535584

  13. Calcifying fibrous pseudotumor of the adrenal gland: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Zhu, Pingyu; Duan, Xi; Yang, Xuesong; Lu, Dongliang

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying fibrous pseudotumor (CFP) is a rare benign soft tissue lesion. We herein present an extremely rare case of CFP of the adrenal gland. A 32-year-old male patient presented to our hospital with a tumor-like lesion in the area of the left adrenal gland detected by ultrasound during a routine check-up several days prior. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging examination revealed a solitary, well-circumscribed mass, in close proximity to the medial arterial branch of the left adrenal gland. Histological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of sheets of varying amount of inflammatory cell infiltration; interstitial fibrosis and psammomatous calcifications were also observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case of CFP occurring in the adrenal gland in the published literature. We herein report the findings of this case and review the two previously reported cases of CFP of the adrenal gland with valuable information.

  14. Adrenal glands of Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii, Wagler, 1831): morphological and morphometric aspects.

    PubMed

    Santos, A C; Viana, D C; Bertassoli, B M; Vasconcelos, B G; Oliveira, D M; Rici, R E G; Oliveira, M F; Miglino, M A; Assis-Neto, A C

    2016-05-01

    Considering the physiological importance and need of greater morphophysiological knowledge of adrenal glands, the aims of present study were compare the morphometric data between left and right adrenal of male and female; perform a histological, scanning and transmission electron microscopy study showing tissue constitution of glands; finally, in order to define the presence and correct site of the cytochrome P450c17 expression in adrenal glands, immunohistochemical study of this enzyme was performed in 18 adrenal glands (right n=9 and left n=9) of nine adult Galea spixii (four males and five females). Right adrenal was more cranially positioned than left adrenal; dimensions (weight, length and width) of right adrenal was larger than left adrenal; no differences between male and female body and adrenal measurements were found; the morphology of cells and different amounts of lipid droplets may be related to the different demands of steroid hormones production, related to each zone of the adrenal cortex; and, the cytochrome P450c17 immunolocalization in fasciculate and reticular zone may be related with synthesis of 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone, 17-hydroxy-progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone or androstenedione. PMID:27143060

  15. A Rare Cavernous Hemangioma of the Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Cheng; Wu, Pengjie; Zhu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal cavernous hemangiomas are rare nonfunctioning benign tumors. This case report presents a patient with a huge nonfunctioning adrenal cavernous hemangioma presenting as an adrenal incidentaloma suspicious for adrenal myelolipoma. Although adrenal cavernous hemangiomas are rare, they should be considered as a part of the differential diagnosis of adrenal neoplasms. The proper treatment is surgical excision due the risk of spontaneous tumor rupture and the difficulty of ruling out malignancy. PMID:26793524

  16. Adrenal Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is adrenal insufficiency? Did you know? The adrenal glands, located on top of the kidneys, make hormones ... body functions. The outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal glands makes three types of steroid hormones. In adrenal ...

  17. Effects of DDT on bobwhite quail adrenal gland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehman, J.W.; Peterle, T.J.; Mulls, C.M.

    1974-01-01

    A wide range of responses to sublethal levels of DDT exist, many of which are species specific and vary within each species depending upon age, sex, and physiological state. Sublethal levels of DDT do cause an increase in the adrenal cortical tissue of bobwhite quail, which may cause increased secretion of corticosteroids, and in turn affect reproduction. A delicate homeostatic balance exists within the avian endocrine system which may be disturbed by feeding sublethal levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. This adverse effect on the endocrine system may cause subtle reproductive failures which go unnoticed until the population is greatly reduced.

  18. Proliferative activity of adrenal glands with adrenocortical cytomegaly measured by MIB-1 labeling index.

    PubMed

    Fasano, M; Greco, M A

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the proliferative activity of cytomegalic cells in the fetal adrenal cortex, we studied adrenal glands with cytomegaly by immunohistochemistry using the nuclear proliferation maker MIB-1. The percentage of positively stained nuclei was quantified using the SAMBA 4000 image analysis system. Only one case showed occasional positively stained cytomegalic cell nuclei. The permanent cortices showed proliferative activity that decreased with increasing gestational age. No proliferative activity was seen in normal fetal cortices except in one case that received corticosteroid therapy and had a maternal history of diabetes. The near absence of proliferative activity of the cytomegalic cells supports the previously proposed theory of cellular exhaustion following hyperactivity. The high proliferative activity in the fetal cortex of the infant receiving corticosteroid therapy may provide insight into the stimulus causing the hypermetabolic state. PMID:9025875

  19. Preoperative CT evaluation of adrenal glands in non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, M.E. Jr.; Heaston, D.K.; Dunnick, N.R.; Korobkin, M.

    1982-08-01

    Preoperative chest computed tomographic (CT) scans in 84 patients with biopsy-proven non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma were reviewed. At least one adrenal gland was visualized in 70 of these. Evidence of a solid adrenal mass was present in 18 (14.5%) glands in 15 (21.4%) patients. Percutaneous needle aspiration under CT guidance confirmed metastatic malignancy in the four patients who were biopsied. Because the documented presence of adrenal metastases in non-small cell lung cancer makes surgical resection or local irradiation inappropriate, it is recommended that both adrenal glands in their entirety be specifically included whenever a staging chest CT examination is performed in patients with such tumors. Percutaneous needle biopsy for pathologic confirmation of the nature of solid adrenal masses discovered in this process is also useful.

  20. Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome. It occurs when a tumor of the adrenal gland releases excess amounts of the hormone cortisol. Causes ... hormone cortisol. This hormone is made in the adrenal glands . Too much cortisol can be due to various ...

  1. Non-Functional Adrenal Gland Ganglioneuroma Masquerading as Chronic Calculus Cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rashmi D; Vanikar, Aruna V; Trivedi, H L

    2015-09-01

    Adrenal ganglioneuromas in young adults are rare and ill-understood. We report an incidentally detected adrenal gland tumor diagnosed as ganglioneuroma (mature type) in 33 years old man who presented with vomiting and epigastric pain for 2 months. Histopathology examination revealed a well-encapsulated benign tumor of mature ganglion cells and Schwann-like cells arranged in fascicles, staining strongly with NSE and s-100 proteins, with adjacent unremarkable adrenal cortex and medulla. PMID:27608876

  2. p-Hydroxybenzyl Alcohol, an Active Phenolic Ingredient of Gastrodia elata, Reverses the Cycloheximide-Induced Memory Deficit by Activating the Adrenal Gland in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lung-Yuan; Chen, Wang-Chuan; Tsai, Fan-Shiu; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Wu, Chi-Rei; Lin, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the ameliorating effects of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (HBA), an active phenolic ingredient of Gastrodia elata, on cycloheximide (CXM)-induced impairment of passive avoidance response and clarified the role of adrenal glands on the effect of HBA in rats. An adrenalectomy (ADX) caused the memory deficit from 1 to 3 days after surgery. Administration of corticosterone (CORT) plus glucose completely recovered the memory deficit caused by ADX, and this effect was better than that of glucose or CORT alone. HBA ameliorated the memory deficit induced by CXM in sham and ADX rats, but ADX partially blocked it. Furthermore, plasma glucose, epinephrine and adrenal steroid levels of ADX rats significantly decreased. Sham rats who received HBA had an increase in plasma glucose and adrenal steroid levels. Therefore, we suggest that the reversal of CXM-induced memory deficit by HBA was partially dependent on adrenal glands through the increase of the levels of plasma adrenal steroids. PMID:26621444

  3. Quantitative alterations in the liver and adrenal gland in pregnant rats induced by Pyralene 3000

    SciTech Connect

    Vreci, M.; Sek, S.; Lorger, J.; Bavdek, S.; Pogacnik, A.

    1995-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most widespread environmental pollutants known in the world. The half-life of PCBs is very long and, therefore, once released into the environment, they accumulate in food chains and tissues of various mammals, including man. Their presence can cause numerous toxic effects, e.g., hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, dermatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and disorders of the reproductive system, among others. These effects depend on the distribution route in the organism, the rate of metabolism and excretion. Their characteristics are closely associated with the number and position of the chlorine atoms in the molecule. Previous studies of trichlorobiphenyl distributions in various tissues demonstrated that low chlorinated trichlorobiphenyls do no accumulate in endocrine organs, whereas higher chlorinated biphenyls, such as hexa- and octachlorobiphenyl, are deposited and retained in the adrenal gland. A selective distribution of radioabelled tetrachlorobiphenyl to the zona fasciculata, accompanied by morphometric evidence of the hypertrophy of the zona fasciculata, was also noted. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the tissue structure of the pregnant rat liver and adrenal gland induced experimentally by Pyralene 3000 administration. We chose this commercial low chlorinated PCB because it was in use in Slovenia and, discharged from the electroindustrial plants, caused a serious incidence of environmental pollution in the region of Bela Krajina. Our further aim was to research the transplacental influences of Pyralene 3000 in rats. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Computed tomography evaluation of the adrenal gland in the preoperative assessment of bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.A.; Pearlberg, J.L.; Madrazo, B.L.; Gitschlag, K.F.; Gross, S.C.

    1982-12-01

    One hundred ten patients with proved bronchogenic carcinoma who were undergoing computed tomography (CT) of the thorax also underwent CT of the adrenals to determine the value of routine preoperative assessement of this gland. Sixteen adrenal masses were found in 11 patients. In five patients the adrenals were the only site of metastasis. CT of the adrenals should be performed routinely when the thorax is examined pre-operatively in patients with non-oat-cell bronchogenic carcinoma to improve patient selection for thoractomy.

  5. Ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland in association with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wassal, Eslam Y; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Vicens, Rafael; Rao, Priya; Elsayes, Khaled M

    2014-12-28

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome associated with increased risk to develop malignancies including adrenocortical carcinoma. Ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland is a rare tumor-like mesenchymal lesion in BWS patients that lacks detailed radiological description. We report a 17-year-old female patient with BWS, associated with bilateral Wilms tumor, hepatic hemangiomatosis, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and a phyllodes tumor of the right breast. Surveillance abdominal ultrasound identified a right adrenal mass that was further characterized by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Radiologically, this mass displayed features that overlap with adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma but after pathological examination this proved to be an ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland. Adrenal masses in BWS should raise the suspicion for adrenocortical carcinoma though other adrenal tumors including ovarian thecal metaplasia can be seen in these patients. PMID:25550997

  6. De novo dup (5p) in a patient with congenital hypoplasia of the adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Kusyk, C.J.; Tuck-Muller, C.M.

    1995-02-13

    We report on a black male child with congenital hypoplasia of the adrenal gland (CHA) with a de novo duplication of 5p (dir dup(5) (p13.3{r_arrow}p15.1)), confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition to a characteristic clinical course, the patient has hyperpigmentation (melanoderma) since birth, normal external genitalia, marked elevation of ACTH, and absent response to an IV ACTH challenge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of congenital hypoplasia of the adrenal gland associated with a chromosome abnormality. Reviews of dup (5p) and of our patient suggest that duplication of 5p13.3-pter has only minor phenotypic effect, while duplication of the relatively small critical segment p11-p13.2 apparently causes far more deleterious changes. The concurrence of CHA and dup(5p) in our patient may indicate the possible gene localization of an autosomal form of CHA to either at or near 5p13.3 or 5p15.1. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Giant adrenal hemangioma: Unusual cause of huge abdominal mass

    PubMed Central

    Tarchouli, Mohamed; Boudhas, Adil; Ratbi, Moulay Brahim; Essarghini, Mohamed; Njoumi, Noureddine; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal hemangioma is an extremely rare benign and non-functioning neoplasm of the adrenal gland. We report a case of a 71-year-old woman admitted for intermittent abdominal pain and abdominal distension associated with vomiting and chronic constipation for 5 years. Physical examination revealed a large abdominal mass. Both computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging suggested hemangioma in the right lobe of the liver. Laboratory examinations and tumour markers were within normal limits, except for hypochromic microcytic anemia. The mass was removed intact by conventional surgery and histopathology revealed a cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland with no signs of malignancy. Surgical resection was curative, with no recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26600897

  8. Binding sites of atrial natriuretic peptide in tree shrew adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, E.; Shigematsu, K.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Adrenal gland binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126) (ANP) were quantitated in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) by incubation of adrenal sections with (3-(/sup 125/I)-iodotyrosyl28) atrial natriuretic peptide-(99-126), followed by autoradiography with computerized microdensitometry. In the adrenal glands, there are three types of ANP binding sites. One is located in the zona glomerulosa (BMax 84 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein; Kd 122 +/- 9 pM); the second in the zona fasciculata and reticularis (BMax 29 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein; Kd 153 +/- 6 pM) and the third in the adrenal medulla (BMax 179 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein; Kd 70 +/- 2 pM). Besides the influence of ANP on the regulation of adrenocortical mineralcorticoid and glucocorticoid secretion our findings raise the possibility for a local site of action of atrial natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adrenomedullary catecholamines in the tree shrew, primates and man.

  9. Ultrasonographic adrenal gland findings in healthy semi-captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Kirberger, Robert M; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-05-01

    Cheetahs in captivity are believed to suffer from stress predisposing them to poor health. To date fecal glucocorticoids have been used as a non-invasive indicator of chronic stress. This study examines, the feasibility of transabdominal adrenal gland ultrasonography in cheetahs and determined normal adrenal measurements that can potentially be used as a more reliable indicator of chronic stress and/or adrenal function. Thirty-three adult cheetahs, aged between 2 and 13 years, accommodated in large off-display camps were examined over 9 days under general anesthesia. The adrenals were readily identified, with the right adrenal being more difficult to find and measure than the left, and were smaller than those expected in similar sized dogs. The left adrenal was shorter and slightly more oval shaped than the right with a length and cranial pole width at a 95% prediction interval of 16.3-22.4 and 4.1-8.7 mm. The same measurements for the right adrenal were 16.8-26.2 and 3.4-10.8 mm, respectively. Corticomedullary ratios were larger for the left adrenal. When corrected for body size, females had significantly longer and greater left adrenal corticomedullary ratios than males. Adrenal measurements did not correlate with left renal length, body size measurements, or enclosure size. Measurements that increased with age included the cortical and total adrenal widths. Adrenal ultrasonography offers potential benefits in assessment of individual cheetah adrenal pathology or the evaluation of stress induced adrenomegally especially in combination with other evaluations such as non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid analyses. Zoo Biol. 35:260-268, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27093075

  10. Prostate gland development and adrenal tumor in a female with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a case report and review from radiology perspective.

    PubMed

    Fang, Benjamin; Cho, Francis; Lam, Wendy

    2013-12-01

    We describe a case of a female with simple virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) reared as a male diagnosed at the late age of 64. Computed Tomography (CT) demonstrated a large adrenal mass, bilateral diffuse adrenal enlargement, female pelvic organs as well as a clearly visualized prostate gland. This is to the best of our knowledge the first case of such a sizable prostate gland in a female CAH patient documented on CT. We review the literature regarding aspects where radiologists may encounter CAH and the finding of presence of a prostate gland in female CAH patients. PMID:24421935

  11. [Cystic lymphangioma of the adrenal gland. Three misleading cases].

    PubMed

    Berthet, B; Christophe, M; Siméoni, J; Jean, F; Le Treut, Y P; Bricot, R; Assadourian, R

    1993-01-23

    Three cases of adrenal cystic lymphangioma are reported. In 1 patient the lesion was complicated by intracystic haemorrhage. The remaining 2 patients had a hepatic lesion which was treated in the same surgical operation as the adrenal cyst. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography play a major role in the exploration of these cysts. Their unexpected discovery has become more frequent since these methods have multiplied, and this raises therapeutic problems. The nature of adrenal cysts is determined at histology. In asymptomatic cysts percutaneous needle aspiration can only have an indicative value. PMID:8493206

  12. Primary malignant lymphoma combined with clinically "silent" pheochromocytoma in the same adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Babinska, Anna; Peksa, Rafał; Sworczak, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    An increased number of adrenal tumors are now diagnosed due to the increased number of abdominal CT scans being performed. We present the first case of malignant lymphoma combined with clinically "silent" pheochromocytoma in the same adrenal gland. An abdominal CT scan demonstrates unilateral adrenal lesion which suggests pheochromocytoma or adrenal carcinoma. Laboratory examinations revealed a slight increase of 24-h urine vanillylmandelic acid and 24-h urinary methanephrine excretion. Histological examination revealed two intermingled tumor cell proliferations-diffuse B cell lymphoma and pheochromocytoma.Unexpected coexistence of catecholamine-producing tumor with the other adrenal lesion can lead to serious complications of diagnosis and treatment. The adequate preparation for surgery can protect patient from threatening catecholamine crisis. PMID:26419235

  13. DDT (2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl) 1,1,1-trichloroethane) induced structural changes in adrenal glands of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, A.R.; Gautam, A.K.; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H. )

    1990-08-01

    Oldest chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, DDT was used widely to control pest and vector borne diseases in developing countries. Malaria and vector borne diseases can be econometrically controlled by DDT. Chronic and acute exposures to DDT result in systemic disorders in human as well as this confirmed in animals. Experimental study revealed that DDT caused the structural and functional changes in thyroid and reproductive system. The effects of DDT on adrenal glands are not well documented. Therefore this experimental investigation was undertaken to evaluate the histomorphological changes of adrenal gland after the treatment with DDT in rats.

  14. On the release of catecholamines and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase evoked by ouabain in the perfused cat adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, A. G.; Hernandez, M.; Horga, J. F.; Sanchez-Garcia, P.

    1980-01-01

    1 Secretion of catecholamines (CA) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity from the retrogradely perfused cat adrenal gland was studied following ouabain infusion. Perfusion with ouabain (10(-4) M) for 10 min caused a gradual release of CA in the effluent which reached its peak 30 min after the ouabain pulse, and was maintained constant for at least 1 h. The effect of ouabain seemed to be irreversible. 2 Mecamylamine, while blocking the CA secretory effects of acetylcholine (ACh) perfusion, did not affect the secretion of CA evoked by ouabain. In denervated adrenal glands, ouabain-induced CA secretion was similar to that in the contralateral, innervated gland. However, physostigmine perfusion potentiated the CA secretory effects of ouabain. 3 The release of CA evoked by ouabain was accompanied by a proportional release of DBH activity. The time course of appearance of DBH activity followed the pattern of CA release. 4 The CA and DBH outputs in response to a pulse of ouabain were suppressed in the absence of calcium. Calcium reintroduction to a calcium-free perfused, ouabain-treated gland not only restored but greatly potentiated the release of CA and DBH. The amplitude of the secretory response to calcium reintroduction in ouabain-treated glands was proportional to the extracellular calcium concentration, and was antagonized by an external sodium-deficient medium. 5 These data demonstrate that ouabain releases CA from the perfused cat adrenal gland by a calcium-dependent exocytotic mechanism. The secretory effect of ouabain is not secondary to the release of ACh from cholinergic nerve terminals present in the adrenal gland, but due to a direct action on the chromaffin cell itself. In addition, the results suggest that this action is exerted through redistribution of monovalent cations secondary to the inhibition by the glycoside of the sodium pump. Such monovalent cation redistribution may cause a rise of intracellular ionized calcium levels through the

  15. High-fat diet prevents adaptive peripartum-associated adrenal gland plasticity and anxiolysis

    PubMed Central

    Perani, Clara V.; Neumann, Inga D.; Reber, Stefan O.; Slattery, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with lower basal plasma cortisol levels and increased risk of postpartum psychiatric disorders. Given that both obesity and the peripartum period are characterized by an imbalance between adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, we hypothesized that the adrenal glands undergo peripartum-associated plasticity and that such changes would be prevented by a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we demonstrate substantial peripartum adrenal gland plasticity in the pathways involved in cholesterol supply for steroidogenesis in female rats. In detail, the receptors involved in plasma lipid uptake, low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1), are elevated, intra-adrenal cholesterol stores are depleted, and a key enzyme in de novo cholesterol synthesis, hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), is downregulated; particularly at mid-lactation. HFD prevented the lactation-associated anxiolysis, basal hypercorticism, and exaggerated the corticosterone response to ACTH. Moreover, we show that HFD prevented the downregulation of adrenal cholesterol stores and HMGCR expression, and LDLR upregulation at mid-lactation. These findings show that the adrenal gland is an important regulator of peripartum-associated HPA axis plasticity and that HFD has maladaptive consequences for the mother, partly by preventing these neuroendocrine and also behavioural changes. PMID:26442440

  16. Carcinoma-like nonfunctional pheochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Shingo; Takeshita, Hideki; Araki, Saori; Tokairin, Takuo; Kagawa, Makoto; Chiba, Koji; Adachi, Akiko; Noro, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the malignant potential of a pheochromocytoma (PCC) remains controversial. PCC is regarded as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET), and the classification of NETs has gradually been defined over the last decade, particularly for gastroenteropancreatic NET. The present study describes a case of locally advanced, carcinoma-like, nonfunctional PCC, which may be regarded as neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) rather than a malignant PCC. A 72-year-old man was referred to Saitama Red Cross Hospital (Saitama, Japan), presenting with a 2-month history of right flank pain. Computed tomography revealed a right adrenal gland tumor, which measured 6.0 cm in diameter, invading the hilum of the right kidney, liver and inferior vena cava (IVC). Radical surgery was performed with en bloc resection of the right kidney, and adjacent parts of the liver and IVC. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that all of the resected tissues were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, cluster of differentiation 56 and Ki-67, and the specimen had a Ki-67 index of 80%. A diagnosis of carcinoma-like PCC or NEC of the adrenal gland was confirmed. Reports of NEC of the adrenal gland are extremely rare in the literature, and classification of PCC as a NET has not yet been fully discussed. The present case may therefore contribute to the classification of NETs in the adrenal gland. PMID:27446458

  17. Prevention of CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in adrenal gland by Digera muricata extract in rat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Younus, Tahira

    2011-10-01

    Digera muricata (L.) Mart. is a weed and commonly found in waste places, road sides and in maize fields during the summer season. It possesses antioxidant capacity and is locally used for various disorders such as inflammation, urination, as refrigerant, aperient and in sexual anomalies. In this study antioxidant potential of Digera muricata methanol extract (DMME) and n-hexane extract (DMHE) was evaluated against CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress in adrenal gland of Sprague-Dawley male rats. 42 rats were equally divided into 7 groups of 6 rats in each. Group I remained untreated, while Group II treated with vehicles. Group III received only CCl(4) (1 ml/kg b.w., 10% in olive oil) once a week for 16 weeks. Group IV and VI received DMME and DMHE at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. along with CCl(4). Animals of Group V and VII administered with DMME and DMHE alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. once a week for 16 weeks. Lipid peroxidation significantly increased while activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, GST, GSR and GSH-Px) were reduced in adrenal gland samples by the administration of CCl(4). Glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly decreased whereas DNA fragmentation% and AgNORs count was increased in adrenal gland by CCl(4) administration. Treatment of rat by both the extracts (DMME, DMHE) and CCl(4) increased the glutathione level and activities of antioxidant enzymes while reduced the lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation percent and AgNORs count in adrenal gland. These results indicate that Digera muricata extract is able to ameliorate oxidative stress in adrenal gland induced by CCl(4) in rat. PMID:21959806

  18. Incidence and Cause of Hypertension During Adrenal Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakado, Koichiro Takaki, Haruyuki; Yamada, Tomomi; Yamanaka, Takashi; Uraki, Junji; Kashima, Masataka; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takeda, Kan

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and cause of hypertension prospectively during adrenal radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods: For this study, approved by our institutional review board, written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients who received RFA for adrenal tumors (adrenal ablation) and other abdominal tumors (nonadrenal ablation) were included in this prospective study. Blood pressure was monitored during RFA. Serum adrenal hormone levels including epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and cortisol levels were measured before and during RFA. The respective incidences of procedural hypertension (systolic blood pressure >200 mmHg) of the two patient groups were compared. Factors correlating with procedural systolic blood pressure were evaluated by regression analysis.ResultsNine patients underwent adrenal RFA and another 9 patients liver (n = 5) and renal (n = 4) RFA. Asymptomatic procedural hypertension that returned to the baseline by injecting calcium blocker was found in 7 (38.9%) of 18 patients. The incidence of procedural hypertension was significantly higher in the adrenal ablation group (66.7%, 6/9) than in the nonadrenal ablation group (11.1%, 1/9, P < 0.0498). Procedural systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with serum epinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.68, P < 0.0001) and norepinephrine (R{sup 2} = 0.72, P < 0.0001) levels during RFA. The other adrenal hormones did not show correlation with procedural systolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Hypertension occurs frequently during adrenal RFA because of the release of catecholamine.

  19. MR imaging of the adrenal gland in Sipple disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, E.; Despres, E.; Delepine, N.; Taieb, A.

    1987-09-01

    We assessed imaging techniques (nuclear, CT, and magnetic resonance (MR)) in the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas in 10 patients with Sipple disease. Nine patients underwent surgery. Magnetic resonance detected all adrenal and ectopic lesions. Metaiodobenzylguanidine scans had two false-negative results. Computed tomography missed an ectopic lesion that was associated with bilateral medullar hypertrophy and had a false-positive result (a cortical nonhyperfunctioning adenoma). In our opinion MR may replace both CT and nuclear scans in the work up of Sipple disease.

  20. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Adrenal Gland Metastases: University of Florence Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Casamassima, Franco; Livi, Lorenzo; Masciullo, Stefano; Menichelli, Claudia; Masi, Laura; Meattini, Icro; Bonucci, Ivano; Agresti, Benedetta; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Doro, Raffaela

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a retrospective single-institution outcome after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for adrenal metastases. Methods and Materials: Between February 2002 and December 2009, we treated 48 patients with SBRT for adrenal metastases. The median age of the patient population was 62.7 years (range, 43-77 years). In the majority of patients, the prescription dose was 36 Gy in 3 fractions (70% isodose, 17.14 Gy per fraction at the isocenter). Eight patients were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery and forty patients with multi-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy. Results: Overall, the series of patients was followed up for a median of 16.2 months (range, 3-63 months). At the time of analysis, 20 patients were alive and 28 patients were dead. The 1- and 2-year actuarial overall survival rates were 39.7% and 14.5%, respectively. We recorded 48 distant failures and 2 local failures, with a median interval to local failure of 4.9 months. The actuarial 1-year disease control rate was 9%; the actuarial 1- and 2-year local control rate was 90%. Conclusion: Our retrospective study indicated that SBRT for the treatment of adrenal metastases represents a safe and effective option with a control rate of 90% at 2 years.

  1. Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Faa, Gavino; Papalois, Apostolos; Obinu, Eleonora; Locci, Giorgia; Pais, Maria Elena; Lelovas, Pavlos; Barouxis, Dimitrios; Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Vasileiou, Panagiotis V.; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO) and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland. PMID:27504455

  2. Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Faa, Armando; Faa, Gavino; Papalois, Apostolos; Obinu, Eleonora; Locci, Giorgia; Pais, Maria Elena; Lelovas, Pavlos; Barouxis, Dimitrios; Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Vasileiou, Panagiotis V; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO) and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland. PMID:27504455

  3. Ultrasonographical examination of feline adrenal glands: intra- and inter-observer variability.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Stock, Emmelie; Van der Vekens, Elke; Duchateau, Luc; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2014-12-01

    Interpretation of ultrasonographical measurements requires an understanding of the source and the magnitude of variation. A substantial part of the variation can be attributed to the observer, the equipment or the animal. The aim of this study was to evaluate which adrenal gland measurement is the least variable within and between observers. Three experienced ultrasonographers examined six cats at three different times on the same day, more than 1 h apart, according to a strict scanning protocol. Seven ultrasonographical measurements were performed on each adrenal gland (maximal length on sagittal images, maximal height at the cranial and caudal poles on sagittal and transverse images, and maximal width of the cranial and caudal poles on transverse images). Height measurements in both planes showed the lowest variability within and between observers compared with length and width measurements. Descriptive ultrasonographical features, such as echogenicity of the gland, presence of hyperechoic spots or layering assessment, demonstrated satisfactory-to-good intra- and inter-observer agreement, whereas the shape assessment showed very poor inter-observer agreement. The results of this study describe a reliable scanning protocol that can be the basis for future adrenal ultrasonographical examinations for cats suspected of adrenal disease (eg, hyperaldosteronism, hyperadrenocorticism, sex hormone-producing tumours). PMID:24518254

  4. The effects of sustained delivery of diosgenin on the adrenal gland of female rats.

    PubMed

    Benghuzzi, Hamed; Tucci, Michelle; Eckie, Rebecca; Hughes, James

    2003-01-01

    Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin, which is extracted from the root of Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa). It has been reported to have tremendous medical applications. In addition, as an herbal extract it appears to be free of any major adverse effects. Recently, Wild Yam has been used to minimize post-menopausal symptoms and is sold unregulated over the counter at a variety of pharmacy and health food stores. The specific objectives of this study were to continuously deliver diosgenin to adult ovariectomized female rats for 45 days and follow changes in body weight, organ weight and histopathological changes in the adrenal gland. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups (n = 54, 250-300 gm BW). Rats in group I served as the control group, animals in group II were ovariectomized and animals in group II were ovariectomized, and supplemented with tricalcium phosphate (TCP) drug delivery system loaded with 500 mg diosgenin. The results indicated that ovariectomized animals had a significant increase in body weight and spleen weights. Slight increases in wet adrenal weights were observed in the ovariectomized group compared to the control animals. Histopathological evaluation of the adrenal gland revealed an increase in the cortical and medullary adrenal areas of the ovariectomized group and a significant decrease in these areas in the diosgenin treated animals (p < 0.001). The information is considered important because reduction in adrenal mass may poses a potential for major endocrine complications. PMID:12724916

  5. How Is Adrenal Surgery Performed?

    MedlinePlus

    HOME ADRENAL GLANDS Background Where are the adrenal glands? What do the adrenal glands do? Is this adrenal tumor a genetic problem? Primary hyperaldosteronism (aldosterone-producing tumor) What is primary hyperaldosteronism? Signs ...

  6. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to ... less urine Oxytocin – initiates labor, uterine contractions and milk ejection in mothers

  7. Life-Threatening Complication During Percutaneous Ablation of Adrenal Gland Metastasis: Takotsubo Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia Buy, Xavier; Zickler, Pierre; Zupan, Michel Douchet, Marie-Pierre; Gangi, Afshin

    2010-06-15

    A rare life-threatening complication during percutaneous cryoablation of an adrenal gland metastasis from a lung carcinoma is reported. The patient presented hypertensive crisis at the beginning of the thawing cycle, followed by electrocardiographic change which necessitated interruption of the procedure and his transfer to the intensive care unit with suspicion of heart infarct. There was a slight increase in cardiac enzyme levels, and ventricular angiography demonstrated transient hypokinesis-dyskinesis of the mid left ventricular segments without apical involvement, while the coronary arteries showed no significant stenosis on coronarography. These findings led to the diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy left ventricular dysfunction syndrome. This is the first case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy occurring as a complication during percutaneous ablation of an adrenal gland tumor.

  8. Generation of Murine Sympathoadrenergic Progenitor-Like Cells from Embryonic Stem Cells and Postnatal Adrenal Glands

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shobhit; Wahl, Joachim; Huber-Lang, Markus S.; Stadel, Dominic; Braubach, Peter; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Beltinger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Sympathoadrenergic progenitor cells (SAPs) of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are important for normal development of the sympathetic PNS and for the genesis of neuroblastoma, the most common and often lethal extracranial solid tumor in childhood. However, it remains difficult to isolate sufficient numbers of SAPs for investigations. We therefore set out to improve generation of SAPs by using two complementary approaches, differentiation from murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolation from postnatal murine adrenal glands. We provide evidence that selecting for GD2 expression enriches for ESC-derived SAP-like cells and that proliferating SAP-like cells can be isolated from postnatal adrenal glands of mice. These advances may facilitate investigations about the development and malignant transformation of the sympathetic PNS. PMID:23675538

  9. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Casadei, Gian Piero; Bertarelli, Claudia; Giorgini, Eleonora; Cremonini, Nadia; de Biase, Dario; Tallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features. PMID:24997195

  10. Changes in estrogen receptor ERalpha and ERbeta expression in chicken (Gallus domesticus) adrenal gland during short-fasting and refeeding.

    PubMed

    Błachuta, Małgorzata; Wrońska-Fortuna, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen receptors have been found in the adrenal gland of rodents, monkeys, mares and sheep, indicating a connection between sex steroids and the activity of the adrenal gland. In the present study, the expression of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) in the chicken adrenal gland during stress induced by 24 h fasting and after refeeding was determined using reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The presence of both ER mRNAs in the adrenal gland of all examined groups was found. The relative expression of ERalpha mRNA was higher than ERbeta mRNA. There were no significant differences in ERalpha mRNA expression among the examined groups. On the contrary, we observed changes in ERbeta expression during stress conditions. These findings indicate different pathways of estrogen action in the avian adrenal gland. Furthermore, changes in ERbeta level suggest that this form of estrogen receptor plays a predominant role for estrogen action in the chicken adrenal gland during stress. PMID:23342917

  11. Effect of glucocorticoid administration on adrenal gland size and sonographic appearance in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Pey, Pascaline; Daminet, Sylvie; Smets, Pascale M Y; Duchateau, Luc; Travetti, Olga; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of glucocorticoids on the adrenal gland using ultrasonography. Eleven healthy beagles were used in a prospective placebo-controlled study. All dogs received hydrocortisone at 10 mg/kg twice a day per os for 4 months or a gelatin capsule twice a day per os as a placebo. Clinical and endocrinologic examination of the dogs and ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal echogenicity, shape, and measurement of the length and height of the cranial and caudal pole were performed at baseline (TO), at 1 (T1) and 4 months (T4) after the beginning of treatment, and 2 months after the end of the treatment including 1 month of tapering and 1 month without treatment (T6). The dogs were assigned randomly to the glucocorticoid (n = 6) and placebo groups (n = 5). At T1, the difference between the two groups for the height of the cranial and caudal pole was not ultrasonographically remarkable despite a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0165 and P = 0.0206). Decreased height and length of entire gland were observed at T4 (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0015, and P = 0.0035, respectively). Percentages of atrophy were variable between dogs. Both adrenal glands regained normal size and shape 1 month after cessation of glucocorticoid administration. As not all dogs developed marked adrenal gland atrophy and the degree of atrophy varied widely between individuals, ultrasonography cannot be the technique of choice to detect iatrogenic hypercortisolism. Ultrasonographic changes are reversible within 1 month after the end of glucocorticoid administration. PMID:22092685

  12. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Overview What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia? Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or CAH, is a disorder that affects the adrenal glands. The adrenal ...

  13. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in tumors originating from the adrenal gland and extra-adrenal paraganglia.

    PubMed

    Papathomas, Thomas G; Oudijk, Lindsey; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; Post, Edward; Duijkers, Floor A; van Noesel, Max M; Hofland, Leo J; Pollard, Patrick J; Maher, Eamonn R; Restuccia, David F; Feelders, Richard A; Franssen, Gaston J H; Timmers, Henri J; Sleijfer, Stefan; de Herder, Wouter W; de Krijger, Ronald R; Dinjens, Winand N M; Korpershoek, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Hotspot mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene have been recently reported in human cancers and proposed as a novel mechanism of telomerase activation. To explore TERT promoter mutations in tumors originating from the adrenal gland and extra-adrenal paraganglia, a set of 253 tumors (38 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), 127 pheochromocytomas (PCCs), 18 extra-adrenal paragangliomas (ea PGLs), 37 head and neck PGLs (HN PGLs), and 33 peripheral neuroblastic tumors) was selected along with 16 human neuroblastoma (NBL) and two ACC cell lines to assess TERT promoter mutations by the Sanger sequencing method. All mutations detected were confirmed by a SNaPshot assay. Additionally, 36 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) were added to explore an association between TERT promoter mutations and SDH deficiency. TERT promoter mutations were found in seven out of 289 tumors and in three out of 18 human cell lines; four C228T mutations in 38 ACCs (10.5%), two C228T mutations in 18 ea PGLs (11.1%), one C250T mutation in 36 GISTs (2.8%), and three C228T mutations in 16 human NBL cell lines (18.75%). No mutation was detected in PCCs, HN PGLs, neuroblastic tumors as well as ACC cell lines. TERT promoter mutations preferentially occurred in a SDH-deficient setting (P=0.01) being present in three out of 47 (6.4%) SDH-deficient tumors vs zero out of 171 (0%) SDH-intact tumors. We conclude that TERT promoter mutations occur in ACCs and ea PGLs. In addition, preliminary evidence indicates a potential association with the acquisition of TERT promoter mutations in SDH-deficient tumors. PMID:24951106

  14. Rhythmic expression of functional MT1 melatonin receptors in the rat adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hans G; Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Garcia-Sesnich, Jocelyn; Abarzua-Catalan, Lorena; Henriquez, Mauricio G; Alvarez-Felmer, Mauro; Gaete, Fernando; Rehren, German E; Seron-Ferre, Maria

    2008-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that melatonin is involved in the regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid production in diurnal primates through activation of MT1 membrane-bound melatonin receptors. However, whether melatonin has a similar role in nocturnal rodents remains unclear. Using an integrative approach, here we show that the adult rat adrenal gland expresses a functional MT1 melatonin receptor in a rhythmic fashion. We found that: 1) expression of the cognate mRNA encoding for the MT1 membrane-bound melatonin receptor, displaying higher levels in the day/night transition (1800-2200 h); 2) expression of the predicted 37-kDa MT1 polypeptide in immunoblots from adrenals collected at 2200 h but not 1000 h; 3) no expression of the MT2 melatonin receptor mRNA and protein; 4) specific high-affinity 2-[(125)I]iodomelatonin binding in membrane fractions and frozen sections from adrenals collected at 2200 h but not 0800 h (dissociation constant = 14.22 +/- 1.23 pm; maximal binding capacity = 0.88 +/- 0.02 fmol/mg protein); and 5) in vitro clock time-dependent inhibition of ACTH-stimulated corticosterone production by 1-100 nm melatonin, which was reversed by 1 microm luzindole (a melatonin membrane receptor antagonist). Our findings indicate not only expression but also high amplitude diurnal variation of functional MT1 melatonin receptors in the rat adrenal gland. It is conceivable that plasma melatonin may play a role to fine-tune corticosterone production in nocturnal rodents, probably contributing to the down slope of the corticosterone rhythm. PMID:18039783

  15. Ontogeny and regulation of the AT1 and AT2 receptors in the ovine fetal adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Wintour, E M; Moritz, K; Butkus, A; Baird, R; Albiston, A; Tenis, N

    1999-11-25

    The expression and regulation of the receptors for angiotensin II (both AT1 and AT2) were examined in the ovine fetal adrenal gland by RNase protection assay (RPA), in situ hybridisation histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both mRNA and protein for the AT1 receptor were present in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata of the cortex, but not in the medulla, from as early as these zonas were distinguishable (60 days of gestation; term is 145-150 days), and even present in the steroidogenic cells of the unzoned gland at 40 days. The mRNA for the AT2 receptor was present in the same locations (but never in the medulla) from 40-130 days, and declined to extremely low levels after 140 days. The infusion of ang II, 1 microg/h, for 3 days, at mid-gestation (76 +/- 2 days) caused a significant decrease in mRNA for AT1 but no change in AT2 levels. Thus, the biologically active receptor (in terms of aldosterone stimulation) is present in the ovine fetal adrenal from very early in development, and can be down-regulated by mid-gestation. PMID:10619407

  16. [Uptake of 123I-MIBG in a hepatic hemangioma in the scintigraphic study of an adrenal gland lesion].

    PubMed

    Sampol Bas, C; Peña Viloria, C

    2005-01-01

    A 60 year old symptom free female in whom a lesion in left adrenal gland was found by chance in a CT scan is presented. She also had increased serum and urine catecholamines levels. 123I-MIBG scintigraphy showed a non-physiological uptake in right adrenal gland that is still seen in the delayed image, with normal left gland. MRI confirmed the presence of a mass in the left adrenal gland suggestive of an adenoma and found a lesion in the right hepatic area at the level of the previously seen MIBG image. This lesion was labelled as a hemangioma and would explain the findings of the isotopic study with MIBG. It must be considered as a false positive for phaechromocytoma. The increased catecholamine serum and urine levels were due to drug interactions. PMID:15847786

  17. Primary adrenal insufficiency caused by a novel mutation in DAX1 gene.

    PubMed

    Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Dokurel, İpek; Bucak, Feride; Özcabı, Bahar; Ercan, Özcabı; Ceylaner, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) is a rare disorder. The X-linked form is related to mutations in the DAX1 (NROB1) gene. Here, we report a newborn who had a novel hemizygous frameshift mutation in DAX1(c.543delA) and presented with primary adrenal failure that was initially misdiagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia. This report highlights the value of genetic testing for definite diagnosis in children with primary adrenal failure due to abnormal adrenal gland development, providing the possibility both for presymptomatic, and in cases with a sibling with this condition, for prenatal diagnosis. PMID:23367499

  18. Mechanisms Mediating Environmental Chemical-Induced Endocrine Disruption in the Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to hundreds of man-made chemicals that pollute the environment in addition to multiple therapeutic drug treatments administered throughout life. Some of these chemicals, known as endocrine disruptors (EDs), mimic endogenous signals, thereby altering gene expression, influencing development, and promoting disease. Although EDs are eventually removed from the market or replaced with safer alternatives, new evidence suggests that early-life exposure leaves a fingerprint on the epigenome, which may increase the risk of disease later in life. Epigenetic changes occurring in early life in response to environmental toxicants have been shown to affect behavior, increase cancer risk, and modify the physiology of the cardiovascular system. Thus, exposure to an ED or combination of EDs may represent a first hit to the epigenome. Only limited information is available regarding the effect of ED exposure on adrenal function. The adrenal gland controls the stress response, blood pressure, and electrolyte homeostasis. This endocrine organ therefore has an important role in physiology and is a sensitive target of EDs. We review herein the effect of ED exposure on the adrenal gland with particular focus on in utero exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylehyl) phthalate. We discuss the challenges associated with identifying the mechanism mediating the epigenetic origins of disease and availability of biomarkers that may identify individual or population risks. PMID:25788893

  19. Cell-To-Cell Communication in Bilateral Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia Causing Hypercortisolism

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Hervé; Duparc, Céline; Prévost, Gaëtan; Bertherat, Jérôme; Louiset, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that, in the human adrenal gland, cortisol secretion is not only controlled by circulating corticotropin but is also influenced by a wide variety of bioactive signals, including conventional neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, released within the cortex by various cell types such as chromaffin cells, neurons, cells of the immune system, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. These different types of cells are present in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH), a rare etiology of primary adrenal Cushing’s syndrome, where they appear intermingled with adrenocortical cells in the hyperplastic cortex. In addition, the genetic events, which cause the disease, favor abnormal adrenal differentiation that results in illicit expression of paracrine regulatory factors and their receptors in adrenocortical cells. All these defects constitute the molecular basis for aberrant autocrine/paracrine regulatory mechanisms, which are likely to play a role in the pathophysiology of BMAH-associated hypercortisolism. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this topic as well as the therapeutic perspectives offered by this new pathophysiological concept. PMID:25941513

  20. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands of male rats with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, I; Piotrowska, Ż; Knaś, M; Lewandowska, A

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal activity is stimulated and secretion of stress hormones is increased during advanced stages of renovascular hypertension. The literature suggests that the neuropeptide, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), might regulate adrenal secretory function and thus could influence its activity. We assessed potential quantitative and qualitative changes in the cells that contained CART in the adrenal glands of rats with renovascular hypertension. The renal arteries of ten rats were subjected to a clipping procedure, i.e., two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model of arterial hypertension, and after 6 weeks each rat developed stable hypertension. CART was localized using immunohistochemistry. CART was detected in a large population of cells in the medulla, sparse nerve fibers in the cortex and the capsule of the adrenal gland. The population of CART-positive cells in adrenal glands of two kidney-one clip (2K1C) treated rats was greater and their immunoreactivity was increased compared to controls. Similarly, the length, width, area and diameter of CART-immunoreactive cells were significantly greater in the hypertensive rats than in controls. We demonstrated that renovascular hypertension alters the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands. PMID:25151991

  1. Sex-specific prenatal stress effects on the rat reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Cheryl J; George, Susan O; Hogg, Charis O; Lai, Yu-Ting; Brunton, Paula J

    2016-06-01

    Social stress during pregnancy has profound effects on offspring physiology. This study examined whether an ethologically relevant social stress during late pregnancy in rats alters the reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure in post-pubertal male and female offspring. Prenatally stressed (PNS) pregnant rats (n=9) were exposed to an unfamiliar lactating rat for 10 min/day from day 16 to 20 of pregnancy inclusive, whereas control pregnant rats (n=9) remained in their home cages. Gonads, adrenal glands and blood samples were obtained from one female and one male from each litter at 11 to 12-weeks of age. Anogenital distance was measured. There was no treatment effect on body, adrenal or gonad weight at 11-12 weeks. PNS did not affect the number of primordial, secondary or tertiary ovarian follicles, numbers of corpora lutea or ovarian FSH receptor expression. There was an indication that PNS females had more primary follicles and greater ovarian aromatase expression compared with control females (both P=0.09). PNS males had longer anogenital distances (0.01±0.0 cm/g vs 0.008±0.00 cm/g; P=0.007) and higher plasma FSH concentrations (0.05 ng/mL vs 0.006 ng/mL; s.e.d.=0.023; P=0.043) compared with control males. There were no treatment effects on the number of Sertoli cells or seminiferous tubules, seminiferous tubule area, plasma testosterone concentration or testis expression of aromatase, FSH receptor or androgen receptor. PNS did not affect adrenal size. These data suggest that the developing male reproductive axis is more sensitive to maternal stress and that PNS may enhance aspects of male reproductive development. PMID:27026714

  2. Atrial natriuretic factor receptors in rat kidney, adrenal gland, and brain: Autoradiographic localization and fluid balance dependent changes

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, David R.; Braas, Karen M.; Snyder, Soloman H.

    1986-01-01

    Mammalian atria contain natriuretic peptides designated atrial natriuretic factors (ANF). Using in vitro autoradiography with 125I-labeled ANF, we have localized high-affinity (Kd = 150 pM) ANF binding sites to the glomeruli of the kidney, zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland, and choroid plexus of the brain. The numbers of sites in both kidney and adrenal are increased in rats deprived of water; increases are detectable within 72 hr of water deprivation in the kidney and within 24 hr in the adrenal gland. Receptor numbers decline in rats given 2.0% NaCl as drinking water and in diabetic rats. The discrete localizations and dynamic alterations of these receptors suggest that ANF regulates fluid balance through diverse but coordinated effects on receptors in numerous organs including the kidney, adrenal, and brain. Images PMID:3010291

  3. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Litz, Jenny; Kinsel, Michael; Terio, Karen; Saliki, Jeremiah; Fire, Spencer; Carmichael, Ruth; Chevis, Connie; Hatchett, Wendy; Pitchford, Jonathan; Tumlin, Mandy; Field, Cara; Smith, Suzanne; Ewing, Ruth; Fauquier, Deborah; Lovewell, Gretchen; Whitehead, Heidi; Rotstein, David; McFee, Wayne; Fougeres, Erin; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) cetacean unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay), Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003) and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003). In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths. PMID:25992681

  4. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Colegrove, Kathleen M.; Litz, Jenny; Kinsel, Michael; Terio, Karen; Saliki, Jeremiah; Fire, Spencer; Carmichael, Ruth; Chevis, Connie; Hatchett, Wendy; Pitchford, Jonathan; Tumlin, Mandy; Field, Cara; Smith, Suzanne; Ewing, Ruth; Fauquier, Deborah; Lovewell, Gretchen; Whitehead, Heidi; Rotstein, David; McFee, Wayne; Fougeres, Erin; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) cetacean unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay), Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003) and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003). In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths. PMID:25992681

  5. Aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations are common in normal adrenal glands

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Koshiro; Tomlins, Scott A.; Kuick, Rork; Cani, Andi K.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Hovelson, Daniel H.; Liu, Chia-Jen; Sanjanwala, Aalok R.; Edwards, Michael A.; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.; Nanba, Kazutaka; Rainey, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) represents the most common cause of secondary hypertension, but little is known regarding its adrenal cellular origins. Recently, aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) with high expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) were found in both normal and PA adrenal tissue. PA-causing aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) harbor mutations in genes encoding ion channels/pumps that alter intracellular calcium homeostasis and cause renin-independent aldosterone production through increased CYP11B2 expression. Herein, we hypothesized that APCCs have APA-related aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations. APCCs were studied in 42 normal adrenals from kidney donors. To clarify APCC molecular characteristics, we used microarrays to compare the APCC transcriptome with conventional adrenocortical zones [zona glomerulosa (ZG), zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis]. The APCC transcriptome was most similar to ZG but with an enhanced capacity to produce aldosterone. To determine if APCCs harbored APA-related mutations, we performed targeted next generation sequencing of DNA from 23 APCCs and adjacent normal adrenal tissue isolated from both formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and frozen tissues. Known aldosterone driver mutations were identified in 8 of 23 (35%) APCCs, including mutations in calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L-type, α1D-subunit (CACNA1D; 6 of 23 APCCs) and ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, α1-polypeptide (ATP1A1; 2 of 23 APCCs), which were not observed in the adjacent normal adrenal tissue. Overall, we show three major findings: (i) APCCs are common in normal adrenals, (ii) APCCs harbor somatic mutations known to cause excess aldosterone production, and (iii) the mutation spectrum of aldosterone-driving mutations is different in APCCs from that seen in APA. These results provide molecular support for APCC as a precursor of PA. PMID:26240369

  6. Aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations are common in normal adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Koshiro; Tomlins, Scott A; Kuick, Rork; Cani, Andi K; Giordano, Thomas J; Hovelson, Daniel H; Liu, Chia-Jen; Sanjanwala, Aalok R; Edwards, Michael A; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Nanba, Kazutaka; Rainey, William E

    2015-08-18

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) represents the most common cause of secondary hypertension, but little is known regarding its adrenal cellular origins. Recently, aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) with high expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) were found in both normal and PA adrenal tissue. PA-causing aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) harbor mutations in genes encoding ion channels/pumps that alter intracellular calcium homeostasis and cause renin-independent aldosterone production through increased CYP11B2 expression. Herein, we hypothesized that APCCs have APA-related aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations. APCCs were studied in 42 normal adrenals from kidney donors. To clarify APCC molecular characteristics, we used microarrays to compare the APCC transcriptome with conventional adrenocortical zones [zona glomerulosa (ZG), zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis]. The APCC transcriptome was most similar to ZG but with an enhanced capacity to produce aldosterone. To determine if APCCs harbored APA-related mutations, we performed targeted next generation sequencing of DNA from 23 APCCs and adjacent normal adrenal tissue isolated from both formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and frozen tissues. Known aldosterone driver mutations were identified in 8 of 23 (35%) APCCs, including mutations in calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L-type, α1D-subunit (CACNA1D; 6 of 23 APCCs) and ATPase, Na(+)/(K+) transporting, α1-polypeptide (ATP1A1; 2 of 23 APCCs), which were not observed in the adjacent normal adrenal tissue. Overall, we show three major findings: (i) APCCs are common in normal adrenals, (ii) APCCs harbor somatic mutations known to cause excess aldosterone production, and (iii) the mutation spectrum of aldosterone-driving mutations is different in APCCs from that seen in APA. These results provide molecular support for APCC as a precursor of PA. PMID:26240369

  7. Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency: An Overlooked Cause of Hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Jessani, Naureen; Jehangir, Waqas; Behman, Daisy; Yousif, Abdalla; Spiler, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    Failure to thrive in an elderly patient is often attributed to depression, especially when a patient does not have any chronic diseases or if there is no apparent medical reason to justify poor appetite, cachexia and generalized weakness. Hyponatremia often occurs in such patients and a thorough evaluation as to its etiology should be sought before committing to a premature diagnosis, which at the time may seem more plausible. We report a patient who presented with depression, weight loss and persistent hyponatremia, evaluation of which revealed the cause to be due to secondary adrenal insufficiency, which when treated, resulted in resolution of the symptom complex. Therefore, in our case report, we elucidate the importance of pursuing further evaluation to rule out adrenal insufficiency as a medical cause of depression, especially in the presence of hyponatremia, which is often overlooked and is generally attributed to dehydration in the setting of failure to thrive or SIADH in patients who are on psychotropic medications. PMID:25699130

  8. Secondary adrenal insufficiency: an overlooked cause of hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Jessani, Naureen; Jehangir, Waqas; Behman, Daisy; Yousif, Abdalla; Spiler, Ira J

    2015-04-01

    Failure to thrive in an elderly patient is often attributed to depression, especially when a patient does not have any chronic diseases or if there is no apparent medical reason to justify poor appetite, cachexia and generalized weakness. Hyponatremia often occurs in such patients and a thorough evaluation as to its etiology should be sought before committing to a premature diagnosis, which at the time may seem more plausible. We report a patient who presented with depression, weight loss and persistent hyponatremia, evaluation of which revealed the cause to be due to secondary adrenal insufficiency, which when treated, resulted in resolution of the symptom complex. Therefore, in our case report, we elucidate the importance of pursuing further evaluation to rule out adrenal insufficiency as a medical cause of depression, especially in the presence of hyponatremia, which is often overlooked and is generally attributed to dehydration in the setting of failure to thrive or SIADH in patients who are on psychotropic medications. PMID:25699130

  9. Long-term follow-up of the percutaneous treatment of hydatid cyst in the adrenal gland: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akhan, Okan; Canyigit, Murat; Kaya, Diana; Koksal, Ali; Akgoz, Ayca; Yucesoy, Cuneyt; Akinci, Devrim

    2011-02-01

    Although the most involved organs are liver and lung, hydatid cysts occur in adrenal glands, rarely, and constitute only 0.5% of hydatid cysts. Herein, we demonstrate and discuss, for the first time in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the radiological features of adrenal hydatid disease and evaluate the long-term results (57 months of follow-up) of the percutaneous treatment of hydatid cyst in the adrenal gland in a patient. PMID:19669833

  10. Long-Term Follow-Up of the Percutaneous Treatment of Hydatid Cyst in the Adrenal Gland: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Akhan, Okan; Canyigit, Murat; Kaya, Diana; Koksal, Ali; Akgoz, Ayca; Yucesoy, Cuneyt; Akinci, Devrim

    2011-02-15

    Although the most involved organs are liver and lung, hydatid cysts occur in adrenal glands, rarely, and constitute only 0.5% of hydatid cysts. Herein, we demonstrate and discuss, for the first time in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the radiological features of adrenal hydatid disease and evaluate the long-term results (57 months of follow-up) of the percutaneous treatment of hydatid cyst in the adrenal gland in a patient.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands on top of each kidney called the adrenal glands . These glands produce a variety of hormones that ... disorder is adrenal insufficiency, which occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones. Adrenal insufficiency typically ...

  12. Irradiation with X-rays phase-advances the molecular clockwork in liver, adrenal gland and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mareike Hildegard; Rödel, Franz; Rüb, Udo; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-02-01

    The circadian clock of man and mammals shows a hierarchic organization. The master clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), controls peripheral oscillators distributed throughout the body. Rhythm generation depends on molecular clockworks based on transcriptional/translational interaction of clock genes. Numerous studies have shown that the clockwork in peripheral oscillators is capable to maintain circadian rhythms for several cycles in vitro, i.e. in the absence of signals from the SCN. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effects of irradiation with X-rays on the clockwork of liver, adrenal and pancreas. To this end organotypic slice cultures of liver (OLSC) and organotypic explant cultures of adrenal glands (OAEC) and pancreas (OPEC) were prepared from transgenic mPer2(luc) mice which express luciferase under the control of the promoter of an important clock gene, Per2, and allow to study the dynamics of the molecular clockwork by bioluminometry. The preparations were cultured in a membrane-based liquid-air interface culturing system and irradiated with X-rays at doses of 10 Gy and 50 Gy or left untreated. Bioluminometric real-time recordings show a stable oscillation of all OLSC, OAEC and OPEC for up to 12 days in vitro. Oscillations persist after irradiation with X-rays. However, a dose of 50 Gy caused a phase advance in the rhythm of the OLSC by 5 h, in the OPEC by 7 h and in the OAEC by 6 h. Our study shows that X-rays affect the molecular clockwork in liver, pancreas and adrenal leading to phase advances. Our results confirm and extend previous studies showing a phase-advancing effect of X-rays at the level of the whole animal and single cells. PMID:25140390

  13. The Adrenal Gland Volume Measurements in Manifestation of the Metabolic Status in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Serifoglu, Ismail; Oz, Ibrahim Ilker; Bilici, Muammer

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of our study was to investigate the differences in adrenal gland volume between nondiabetic controls and Type-2 diabetic patients and to examine the influence of glycemic control in diabetes mellitus on adrenal gland volume. Methods. From March 2 to November 25, 2015, 62 consecutive patients with Type-2 DM along with 62 nondiabetics matched by age, gender, and BMI were enrolled in this prospective study. Our diabetes patients were categorized into two groups, well-controlled and poorly controlled diabetes groups. Adrenal volumetric measurements were performed by two radiologists, prospectively and independently, with semiautomatic software. Interobserver reliability was studied using the interobserver correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. The total adrenal volume (TAV) was significantly higher in Type-2 diabetic patients when compared with nondiabetic patients (p < 0.05). When we investigated diabetic patients according to glycemic controls, the TAVs in controlled diabetic patients were significantly higher than in those of the poorly controlled or uncontrolled diabetic patients (p < 0.05). Nondiabetic control patients have significantly smaller TAVs when compared to controlled and poorly or noncontrolled diabetic patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Our study suggests that adrenal gland volume measurement may be used as an indirect marker of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. PMID:27563309

  14. The Adrenal Gland Volume Measurements in Manifestation of the Metabolic Status in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of our study was to investigate the differences in adrenal gland volume between nondiabetic controls and Type-2 diabetic patients and to examine the influence of glycemic control in diabetes mellitus on adrenal gland volume. Methods. From March 2 to November 25, 2015, 62 consecutive patients with Type-2 DM along with 62 nondiabetics matched by age, gender, and BMI were enrolled in this prospective study. Our diabetes patients were categorized into two groups, well-controlled and poorly controlled diabetes groups. Adrenal volumetric measurements were performed by two radiologists, prospectively and independently, with semiautomatic software. Interobserver reliability was studied using the interobserver correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. The total adrenal volume (TAV) was significantly higher in Type-2 diabetic patients when compared with nondiabetic patients (p < 0.05). When we investigated diabetic patients according to glycemic controls, the TAVs in controlled diabetic patients were significantly higher than in those of the poorly controlled or uncontrolled diabetic patients (p < 0.05). Nondiabetic control patients have significantly smaller TAVs when compared to controlled and poorly or noncontrolled diabetic patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Our study suggests that adrenal gland volume measurement may be used as an indirect marker of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. PMID:27563309

  15. Imaging of adrenal and renal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Nancy A; Lostumbo, Antonella; Adam, Sharon Z; Remer, Erick M; Nikolaidis, Paul; Yaghmai, Vahid; Berggruen, Senta M; Miller, Frank H

    2015-10-01

    Hemorrhage of the kidneys and adrenal glands has many etiologies. In the adrenal glands, trauma, anticoagulation, stress, sepsis, surgery, and neoplasms are common causes of hemorrhage. In the kidneys, reasons for hemorrhage include trauma, bleeding diathesis, vascular diseases, infection, infarction, hemorrhagic cyst rupture, the Antopol-Goldman lesion, and neoplasms. Angiomyolipoma and renal cell carcinoma are the neoplasms most commonly associated with hemorrhage in the kidneys and adrenal cortical carcinoma, metastases, and pheochromocytoma are associated with hemorrhage in the adrenal glands. Understanding the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features, and causes of hemorrhage in the kidneys and adrenal glands is critical. It is also important to keep in mind that mimickers of hemorrhage exist, including lymphoma in both the kidneys and adrenal glands, and melanoma metastases in the adrenal glands. Appropriate imaging follow-up of renal and adrenal hemorrhage should occur to exclude an underlying malignancy as the cause. If there is suspicion for malignancy that cannot be definitively diagnosed on imaging, surgery or biopsy may be warranted. Angiography may be indicated when there is a suspected underlying vascular disease. Unnecessary intervention, such as nephrectomy, may be avoided in patients with benign causes or no underlying disease. Appropriate management is dependent on accurate diagnosis of the cause of renal or adrenal hemorrhage and it is incumbent upon the radiologist to determine the etiology. PMID:26036792

  16. Primary aldosteronism caused by unilateral adrenal hyperplasia: rethinking the accuracy of imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Yu; Shen, Sjen-Jung; Chou, Chien-Wen; Yang, Chwen-Yi; Cheng, Hon-Mei

    2006-03-01

    A rare type of aldosteronism, known as unilateral adrenal hyperplasia (UAH), is difficult to diagnose, not only because it fails to conform to the typical common subtypes, but also because imaging results are unreliable. We report 2 Taiwanese patients with UAH. Case 1 was a 44-year-old man with 2 episodes of hypokalemic paralysis. Hypertension and suppressed plasma renin activity (PRA) with elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were observed. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a right adrenal mass, but adrenal scintigraphy revealed no definite laterality. The patient underwent a laparoscopic right adrenalectomy. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia was discovered from results of the histologic analysis. Case 2 was a 33-year-old woman referred for hypokalemia, hypertension, and a left adrenal mass found on a CT scan. However, MRI revealed normal adrenal glands. The adrenal vein sampling for PAC showed overproduction of PAC from the left adrenal gland. A laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was done. Pathology results revealed micronodular cortical hyperplasia with central hemorrhage. Blood pressure, plasma potassium, aldosterone, and renin activity levels returned to normal after operation in both cases. Both patients have been well for 3 years and 16 months, respectively, after surgery. We review the literature and discuss the limitations of imaging studies. PMID:16599018

  17. Effect of the growth hormone-secreting tumor StW5 on pituitary and adrenal gland function in rats.

    PubMed

    Coyne, M D; Alpert, L C; Harter, K C; Nunez, A

    1981-01-01

    A growth hormone-secreting tumor (StW5 was implanted into male rats and resulted in a tripling of adrenal weight concomitant with a 30% decrement in pituitary weight. Plasma concentrations of corticosterone in tumor-bearing (TB) rats were significantly elevated at rest or after ACTH injections or the stress of either anesthesia. The rise in plasma concentrations of corticosterone was due mainly to the large increment in adrenal size although a significant increase in adrenal responsiveness to ACTH was demonstrated in vitro. In addition, plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher in TB rats despite both a doubling of the blood volume and a 50% increase in liver capacity to metabolize corticosterone. Pituitary ACTH content was significantly lower in TB rats, but these pituitary glands could still release near-normal quantities of ACTH as shown both by in vitro incubations and adrenal corticosterone output following ether stress. PMID:6266940

  18. The reflex release of adrenaline and noradrenaline from the adrenal glands of cats and dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, J A; Ellis, P; Ungar, A

    1980-01-01

    1. We have studied the release of noradrenaline and adrenaline from the adrenal glands of dogs and cats in response to the lowering of carotid sinus pressure (baroreceptor tests) and to the perfusion of the vascularly isolated carotid bifurcations with hypoxic blood (chemoreceptor tests). 2. In cats, the resting output of catecholamines had a ratio of noradrenaline to adrenaline of 1:1. The ratio in the incremental release during baroreceptor tests rose to 3:1, and during chemoreceptor tests it fell to 1:6. 3. In dogs, the ratio of noradrenaline to adrenaline at rest was 1:4. The ratio did not change over a wide range of outputs during baroreceptor tests, chemoreceptor tests and splanchnic nerve stimulation. 4. The release of catecholamines in response to baroreceptor tests in the cat was abolished by hexamethomium bromide at doses that did not diminish the response to chemoreceptor tests. PMID:7359443

  19. Histological structure of the adrenal gland of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Vuković, S; Lucić, H; Zivković, A; Duras Gomercić, M; Gomercić, T; Galov, A

    2010-02-01

    The structure of the adrenal gland was studied in 11 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and five striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). These species are legally protected in Croatia. All examined animals died of natural causes and were found stranded along eastern Adriatic coast. In both species the adrenal gland consists of a cortex and a medulla; the cortex is divided into three zones. Whereas in the bottlenose dolphin, there is a zona arcuata which contains columnar cells arranged in the form of arches; in the striped dolphin this zone is replaced by zona glomerulosa containing rounded clusters of polygonal cells. In both species, the zona fasciculata consists of radially oriented cords of polygonal cells, whereas in zona reticularis cells are arranged in branching and anastomosing cords. The adrenal medulla in both species contains dark, epinephrine-secreting cells and light norepinephrine-secreting cells. Epinephrine-secreting cells are localized in the outer part of the medulla, whereas norepinephrine-secreting cells are found in the inner part, arranged in clusters and surrounded by septa of thin connective tissue. The gland is surrounded by a thick connective-tissue capsule, from where thick trabeculae extend towards the interior. In the bottlenose dolphin, group of cells resembling both medullar and cortical cells can be seen within the capsule; whereas only groups of cells resembling cortical cells are found within the capsule of the striped dolphin. In the bottlenose dolphin invagination of the adrenal cortex into the medulla is obvious as well as medullary protrusions extending through cortex to the connective tissue capsule. PMID:19912161

  20. The influence of trilostane on steroid hormone metabolism in canine adrenal glands and corpora lutea-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ouschan, C; Lepschy, M; Zeugswetter, F; Möstl, E

    2012-03-01

    Trilostane is widely used to treat hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. Trilostane competitively inhibits the enzyme 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), which converts pregnenolone (P5) to progesterone (P4) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstendione (A4). Although trilostane is frequently used in dogs, the molecular mechanism underlying its effect on canine steroid hormone biosynthesis is still an enigma. Multiple enzymes of 3β-HSD have been found in humans, rats and mice and their presence might explain the contradictory results of studies on the effectiveness of trilostane. We therefore investigated the influence of trilostane on steroid hormone metabolism in dogs by means of an in vitro model. Canine adrenal glands from freshly euthanized dogs and corpora lutea (CL) were incubated with increasing doses of trilostane. Tritiated P5 or DHEA were used as substrates. The resulting radioactive metabolites were extracted, separated by thin layer chromatography and visualized by autoradiography. A wide variety of radioactive metabolites were formed in the adrenal glands and in the CL, indicating high metabolic activity in both tissues. In the adrenal cortex, trilostane influences the P5 metabolism in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while DHEA metabolism and metabolism of both hormones in the CL were unaffected. The results indicate for the first time that there might be more than one enzyme of 3β-HSD present in dogs and that trilostane selectively inhibits P5 conversion to P4 only in the adrenal gland. PMID:22113849

  1. Selective accumulation of meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in steroid-synthesizing cells of the rat adrenal gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo-Benkmann, Mario; Muhm, Markus; Gahlen, Johannes; Vry, Magnus-Sebastian; Deubzer, Hedwig; Holloschi, Andreas; Haffner, Matthias; Heym, Christine; Senninger, Norbert

    1998-04-01

    Rat adrenal glands fluoresce intensely after systemic application of meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). We investigated which parts of the adrenal gland accumulate mTHPC. Furthermore we examined the time course of adrenal mTHPC-accumulation. Ten male Wistar rats each were given 0.5 or 0.7 mg mTHPC kg-1 iv. Each two animals were perfused with normal saline and Zamboni fixative 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after photosensitization. Untreated animals served as controls. Fluorescence was quantified on 20 micrometer frozen sections with CCD-camera and appropriate software. Immunohistochemistry identified specific cell types with antibodies to steroid-synthesizing enzymes. The cortex exhibited an intense fluorescence, with weaker fluorescence of corticocytes in the zona glomerulosa compared to the other zones. Besides intensely fluorescing singly lying scattered cells, the medulla showed a faint mTHPC-induced fluorescence. Immunohistochemistry revealed that intramedullary cells with intense fluorescence were corticocytes, showing a positive reaction to the 21-(beta) -hydroxylase antibody. Peak accumulation of mTHPC was always observed after 24 hours. Our results indicate for the first time that only steroid synthesizing cells of the adrenal gland exhibit an intense photosensitizer-induced fluorescence. Thus mTHPC-application is an uncomplicated method to identify steroid-synthesizing cells, possibly also in other organs.

  2. Secretion of Catecholamines from Adrenal Gland by a Single Electrical Shock: Electrotonic Depolarization of Medullary Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakade, Arun R.; Wakade, Taruna D.

    1982-05-01

    Transmural stimulation of the isolated adrenal gland of the rat and guinea pig results in secretion of catecholamines. The secretion is due to activation of cholinergic receptors of the adrenal medulla by acetylcholine released from splanchnic nerve terminals after transmural stimulation. Our aim was to see whether the same experimental technique could be used to directly excite the adrenal medullary cell membrane by electrical stimulation and whether such stimulation would result in secretion of catecholamines. We demonstrate here that a single electrical shock to the perfused adrenal gland of the rat results in massive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. The secretion is directly related to the strength and duration of the applied stimulus over a wide range. Catecholamine secretion is unaffected by tetrodotoxin or hexamethonium/atropine but is abolished by Ca2+ lack or 3 mM Mn2+. We suggest that the adrenal medullary membrane undergoes nonpropagated electrotonic depolarization on electrical stimulation and thereby voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are opened to initiate secretion.

  3. Dietary copper can regulate the level of mRNA for dopamine B-hydroxylase in rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Sabban, E.L.; Failla, M.L.; McMahon, A.; Seidel, K.E. Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Recent studies have shown that Cu deficiency markedly alters the levels of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in several peripheral tissues of rodents. Conversion of DA to NE is mediated by dopamine B-hydroxylase (DBM). Here the authors examined the effect of dietary Cu deficiency on the levels of DA, NE and DBM mRNA in rat adrenal gland. Severe Cu deficiency was induced by feeding low Cu diet to dams beginning at 17d gestation and weaning pups to the same diet. At 7 wks of age rats fed {minus}Cu diet were characterized by depressed growth, low tissue Cu, enlarged hearts and moderate anemia. Concentrations of DA were higher in adrenals and hearts of {minus}Cu rats compared to +Cu controls. While cardiac level of NE in {minus}Cu rats were reduced to 17% that of controls, adrenal NE was unchanged by Cu deficiency. To investigate possible mechanisms responsible for the response of adrenal gland to Cu deficiency, RNA was isolated and the levels of DBH mRNA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA were analyzed by Northern blots. Steady state levels of adrenal DBH mRNA was increased 2-3 fold in {minus}Cu rats, whereas TH mRNA were unchanged by dietary Cu status. Upon feeding the {minus}Cu rats the Cu adequate diet overnight, there was a further increase in DBH mRNA and a slight elevation of TH mRNA levels. The results indicate that dietary copper can markedly affect the level of DBH mRNA in rat adrenal gland.

  4. Potentiation of K+-evoked catecholamine release in the cat adrenal gland treated with ouabain.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, A. G.; Garcia-Lopez, E.; Horga, J. F.; Kirpekar, S. M.; Montiel, C.; Sanchez-Garcia, P.

    1981-01-01

    1 A vigorous catecholamine secretory response was evoked by small increments (2-10 mM) of the extracellular concentration of K+ ([K+])o) in cat adrenal glands treated with ouabain (10(-4) M), and perfused with Krebs-bicarbonate solution at room temperature. 2 The secretory response depends on [K+]o; increments of [K+]o as small as 2 mM for 2 min evoked a clear secretory response; at 10-17.7 mM K+, the maximal secretory response was observed. In normal glands, not treated with ouabain, no increase of the rate of catecholamine output was observed by raising [K+]o up to 17.7 mM for 2 min. 3 The K+ secretory response was time-dependent, requiring at least 1 min to be initiated; on continued exposure to 10 mM [K+]o, the enhanced response remained for at least 1 h. 4 In low [Na+]o, the K+-secretory response was unchanged. However, in 0-Ca2+, high-Mg2+ solutions, or in the presence of D600, an organic Ca2+ antagonist, it was abolished. 5 The K+-induced secretory response was not altered in the presence of tetrodoxin or tetraethylammonium. 6 It is concluded that ouabain potentiated the catecholamine secretory response to raised [K+]o by increasing the amount of Ca2+ available to the secretory machinery through (a) mobilization of an enhanced pool of membrane-bound Ca2+, (b) activation of membrane Ca2+ inward current; or (c) decrease of intracellular Ca2+ buffering systems. The activation by ouabain of a membrane Na+-Ca2+ exchange system is not involved in this K+-secretory response. It is suggested that the plasma membrane ATPase enzyme system, by changing the affinity of its Ca2+ binding sites, might control the availability of this cation to the secretory machinery and, therefore, modulate catecholamine secretion in the adrenal gland. PMID:7296168

  5. Clinical study on the influence of motion and other factors on stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of adrenal gland tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingsheng; Li, Fengtong; Dong, Yang; Song, Yongchun; Yuan, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the adrenal tumor motion law and influence factors in the treatment of adrenal gland tumor and provide a reference value basis for determining the planning target volume margins for therapy. Materials and methods The subjects considered in this study were 38 adrenal tumor patients treated with CyberKnife with the placement of 45 gold fiducials. Fiducials were implanted into each adrenal tumor using β-ultrasonic guidance. Motion amplitudes of gold fiducials were measured with a Philips SLS simulator and motion data in the left–right, anterior–posterior, and cranio–caudal directions were obtained. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze influencing factors. t-Test was used for motion amplitude comparison of different tumor locations along the z-axis. Results The motion distances were 0.1–0.4 cm (0.27±0.07 cm), 0.1–0.5 cm (0.31±0.11 cm), and 0.5–1.2 cm (0.87±0.21 cm) along the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. Motion amplitude along the z-axis may be affected by tumor location, but movement along the other axes was not affected by age, height, body mass, location, and size. Conclusion The maximum motion distance was along the z-axis. Therefore, this should be the main consideration when defining the planning target volume safety margin. Due to the proximity of the liver, adrenal gland tumor motion amplitude was smaller on the right than the left. This study analyzed adrenal tumor motion amplitude data to evaluate how motion and other factors influence the treatment of adrenal tumor with a goal of providing a reference for stereotactic radiotherapy boundary determination. PMID:27486331

  6. A morphological and histological examination of the pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) and the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Clark, L S; Cowan, D F; Pfeiffer, D C

    2008-04-01

    The morphology and histology of the cetacean adrenal gland are poorly understood. Therefore, this study examined 32 pairs of adrenal glands from 18 pan-tropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) and 14 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris). In both species, the cortex was pseudolobulated and contained a typical mammalian zonation. Medullary protrusions (0-3 per section) and a medullary band were identified in both species. For S. attenuata, no statistical differences were found in the cortex to medulla (CM) ratio or the percent cross-sectional area (PCA) of the adrenal glands compared with sex or sexual maturity. The mean CM ratio for S. attenuata was 2.34 and the PCA was 64.4% cortex, 29.4% medulla and 6.2%'other'. 'Other' indicates blood vessels, connective tissue and the gland capsule itself. For S. longirostris, there was no statistical difference in the CM ratio compared with sexual maturity. However, a statistical difference was found between the CM ratio and sex, suggesting sexual dimorphism (female CM ratio = 2.46 and males = 3.21). No statistical differences were found in the PCA of S. longirostris adrenal glands by sexual maturity. However, a statistical difference was found between the PCA by sex. Female S. longirostris adrenal glands consisted of 65.0% cortex, 27.3% medulla and 7.7% 'other', whereas male adrenal glands consisted of 71.7% cortex, 22.7% medulla and 5.6% 'other'. PMID:18070242

  7. Visinin-like peptide 1 in adrenal gland of the rat. Gene expression and its hormonal control.

    PubMed

    Trejter, Marcin; Hochol, Anna; Tyczewska, Marianna; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Jopek, Karol; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K; Rucinski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    VSNL1 encodes the calcium-sensor protein visinin-like 1 and was identified previously as an upregulated gene in a sample set of aldosterone-producing adenomas. Recently, by means of microarray studies we demonstrated high expression of Vsnl1 gene in rat adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG). Only scanty data are available on the role of this gene in adrenal function as well as on regulation of its expression by factors affecting adrenal cortex structure and function. Therefore we performed relevant studies aimed at clarifying some of the above issues. By Affymetrix(®) Rat Gene 1.1 ST Array Strip, QPCR and immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that expression levels of Vsnl1 in the rat adrenal ZG are notably higher than in the fasciculata/reticularis zone. In QPCR assay this difference was approximately 10 times higher. Expression of this gene in the rat adrenal gland or adrenocortical cells was acutely down regulated by ACTH, while chronic administration of corticotrophin or dexamethasone did not change Vsnl1 mRNA levels. In enucleation-induced adrenocortical regeneration expression levels of both Vsnl1 and Cyp11b2 were notably lowered and positively correlated. Despite these findings, the physiological significance of adrenal Vsnl1 remains unclear, and requires further investigation. PMID:25451331

  8. Alpha-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (. cap alpha. -hANP) specific binding sites in bovine adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, K.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.I.; Ibayashi, H.; Matsuo, H.

    1986-06-13

    The effects of synthetic ..cap alpha..-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (..cap alpha..-hANP) on steroidogenesis in bovine adrenocortical cells in primary monolayer culture were investigated. ..cap alpha..-hANP did not inhibit basal aldosterone secretion. ..cap alpha..-hANP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of basal levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion and also of aCTH (10/sup -8/M)-stimulated increases in aldosterone, cortisol and DHEA secretion. Visualization of (/sup 125/I) ..cap alpha..-hANP binding sites in bovine adrenal gland by an in vitro autoradiographic technique demonstrated that these sites were highly localized in the adrenal cortex, especially the zona glomerulosa. These results suggest that the adrenal cortex may be a target organ for direct receptor-mediated actions of ..cap alpha..-hANP.

  9. Detection of novel CYP11A1-derived secosteroids in the human epidermis and serum and pig adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Kim, Tae-Kang; Li, Wei; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Tieu, Elaine W.; Tang, Edith K. Y.; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether novel pathways of vitamin D3 (D3) and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and previously characterized in vitro, occur in vivo, we analyzed samples of human serum and epidermis, and pig adrenals for the presence of intermediates and products of these pathways. We extracted human epidermis from 13 individuals and sera from 13 individuals and analyzed them by LC/qTOF-MS alongside the corresponding standards. Pig adrenal glands were also analyzed for these steroids and secosteroids. Epidermal, serum and adrenal samples showed the presence of D3 hydroxy-derivatives corresponding to 20(OH)D3, 22(OH)D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, 20,22(OH)2D3, 20,23(OH)2D3, 20,24(OH)2D3, 20,25(OH)2D3, 20,26(OH)2D3, 1,20,23(OH)3D3 and 17,20,23(OH)3D3, plus 1,20(OH)2D3 which was detectable only in the epidermis. Serum concentrations of 20(OH)D3 and 22(OH)D3 were only 30- and 15-fold lower than 25(OH)D3, respectively, and at levels above those required for biological activity as measured in vitro. We also detected 1,20,24(OH)3D3, 1,20,25(OH)3D3 and 1,20,26(OH)3D3 in the adrenals. Products of CYP11A1 action on 7DHC, namely 22(OH)7DHC, 20,22(OH)27DHC and 7-dehydropregnenolone were also detected in serum, epidermis and the adrenal. Thus, we have detected novel CYP11A1-derived secosteroids in the skin, serum and adrenal gland and based on their concentrations and biological activity suggest that they act as hormones in vivo. PMID:26445902

  10. Comprehensive characterization of expression patterns of protein 4.1 family members in mouse adrenal gland: implications for functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Congrong; Debnath, Gargi; Baines, Anthony J; Conboy, John G; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2010-10-01

    The members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1R, 4.1G, 4.1N, and 4.1B, are encoded by four genes, all of which undergo complex alternative splicing. It is well established that 4.1R, the prototypical member of the family, serves as an adapter that links the spectrin-actin based cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane in red cells. It is required for mechanical resilience of the membrane, and it ensures the cell surface accumulation of selected membrane proteins. However, the function of 4.1 proteins outside erythrocytes remains under-explored, especially in endocrine tissues. Transcripts of all 4.1 homologs have previously been documented to be abundantly expressed in adrenal gland. In order to begin to decipher the function of 4.1 proteins in adrenal gland, we performed a detailed characterization of the expression pattern of various 4.1 proteins and their cellular localization. We show that 4.1R (~80 and ~135 kDa) splice forms are expressed on the membrane of all cells, while a ~160 kDa 4.1G splice form is distributed in the cytoplasm and the membrane of zona glomerulosa and of medullary cells. Two 4.1N splice forms, ~135 and ~95 kDa, are present in the peri-nuclear region of both zona glomerulosa and medullary cells, while a single ~130 kDa 4.1B splice form, is detected in all layers of adrenal gland in both the cytoplasm and the membrane. The characterization of distinct splice forms of various 4.1 proteins with diverse cellular and sub-cellular localization indicates multiple functions for this family of proteins in endocrine functions of adrenal gland. PMID:20890708

  11. Sex-specific chronic stress response at the level of adrenal gland modifies sexual hormone and leptin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Balog, Marta; Miljanović, Milan; Blažetić, Senka; Labak, Irena; Ivić, Vedrana; Viljetić, Barbara; Borbely, Attila; Papp, Zoltán; Blažeković, Robert; Vari, Sandor G.; Fagyas, Miklós; Heffer, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare cardiometabolic risk-related biochemical markers and sexual hormone and leptin receptors in the adrenal gland of rat males, non-ovariectomized females (NON-OVX), and ovariectomized females (OVX) under chronic stress. Methods Forty six 16-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into male, NON-OVX, and OVX group and exposed to chronic stress or kept as controls. Weight, glucose tolerance test (GTT), serum concentration of glucose, and cholesterol were measured. Adrenal glands were collected at the age of 28 weeks and immunohistochemical staining against estrogen beta (ERβ), progesterone (PR), testosterone (AR), and leptin (Ob-R) receptors was performed. Results Body weight, GTT, serum cholesterol, and glucose changed in response to stress as expected and validated the applied stress protocol. Stressed males had significantly higher number of ERβ receptors in comparison to control group (P = 0.028). Stressed NON-OVX group had significantly decreased AR in comparison to control group (P = 0.007). The levels of PR did not change in any consistent pattern. The levels of Ob-R increased upon stress in all groups, but the significant difference was reached only in the case of stressed OVX group compared to control (P = 0.033). Conclusion Chronic stress response was sex specific. OVX females had similar biochemical parameters as males. Changes upon chronic stress in adrenal gland were related to a decrease in testosterone receptor in females and increase in estrogen receptor in males. PMID:25891869

  12. Early life stress and post-weaning high fat diet alter tyrosine hydroxylase regulation and AT1 receptor expression in the adrenal gland in a sex dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Maniam, Jayanthi; Ong, Lin Kooi; Dunkley, Peter R; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life stress induced by maternal separation or non-handling can lead to behavioural deficits in rats and that these deficits can be alleviated by providing palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). In these studies we investigated the effects of maternal separation or non-handling and HFD on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 (pSer40TH) and the expression of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein in the adrenal gland as markers of sympatho-adrenomedullary activation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to short maternal separation, S15 (15 min), prolonged maternal separation, S180 (180 min) daily from postnatal days 2-14 or were non-handled (NH) until weaning. Siblings were exposed to HFD or chow from day 21 until 19 weeks when adrenals were harvested. Maternal separation and non-handling had no effects on adrenal TH protein in both sexes. We found an effect of HFD only in the females; HFD significantly increased TH levels in NH rats and pSer40TH in S180 rats (relative to corresponding chow-fed groups), but had no effect on AT1R expression in any group. In contrast, in male rats HFD had no effect on TH protein levels, but significantly increased pSer40TH across all treatment groups. There was no effect of HFD on AT1R expression in male rats; however, maternal separation (for 15 or 180 min) caused significant increases in AT1R expression (relative to NH group regardless of diet). This is the first study to report that early life stress and diet modulate TH protein, pSer40TH and AT1R protein levels in the adrenal gland in a sex dependent manner. These results are interpreted in respect to the potential adverse effects that these changes in the adrenal gland may have in males and females in adult life. PMID:23389660

  13. Right adrenal gland neuroblastoma infiltrating the liver and mimicking mesenchymal hamartoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Abo-Elenain, Ahmed; Naiem, Yousif; Hamedhosam-eldin@hotmail.com, Hosam; Emam, Mohamed; Elkashef, Wagdi; AbdelRafee, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid pediatric malignancy. The most common site is abdomen with predominance of suprarenal medulla. Infiltration of the tumour to the liver is rare. No cases were reported in the literature about the misdiagnosis of neuroblastoma as mesenchymal hamartoma in the liver. Presentation of case We represent a rare case of neuroblastoma misdiagnosed as mesenchymal hamartoma in liver in a six-month-old female infant presented with fever and abdominal mass. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed large cystic lesion occupying most of the right liver enchroaching upon right suprarenal region and displacing the right kidney inferior suggestive for mesenchymal hamartoma. Right adrenalectomy with en-bloc resection of the adjacent liver segments was done. Postoperative pathology revealed neuroblastoma with positive specific immunohistochemistry (IHC). Discussion Although neuroblastoma is the second most common pediatric abdominal malignancy with specific diagnostic modalities, a misdiagnosis of a case with neuroblastoma as mesenchymal hamartoma is rare. Histopathological diagnosis of neuroblastoma with positive IHC is essential as shown in our case. Conclusion We represent a rare case of neuroblastoma which arose from the right adrenal gland and infiltrated the adjacent liver substance mimicking mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver. Neuroblastoma is rarely presented with pyrexia of unknown origin. Neuroblastoma should be considered in differential diagnosis of abdominal mass in all infants and children. PMID:26036461

  14. The content of catecholamines in the adrenal glands and sections of the brain under hypokinesia and injection of some neurotropic agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melnik, B. E.; Paladiy, E. S.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of catecholamine content were studied in the adrenal glands and in various region of the brain of white rats under hypokinesia and injections of neurotropic agents. Profound changes in body catecholamine balance occured as a result of prolonged acute restriction of motor activity. Adrenalin retention increased and noradrenanalin retention decreased in the adrenal glands, hypothalamus, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. Observed alterations in catecholamine retention varied depending upon the type of neurotropic substance utilized. Mellipramine increased catecholamine retention in the tissues under observation while spasmolytin brought about an increase in adrenalin concentration in the adrenals and a decrease in the brain.

  15. Adrenal pseudomasses due to varices: angiographic-CT-MRI-pathologic correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, T.M.; Gross, B.H.; Glazer, G.M. Williams, D.M.

    1985-08-01

    Periadrenal and adrenal portosystemic collaterals are a recently reported cause of adrenal pseudotumor on computed tomography (CT). Nine patients with this left adrenal pseudotumor illustrate its typical position and appearance on CT, angiography, CT-angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The anatomic basis for variceal adrenal pseudotumors is the left inferior phrenic vein, which passes immediately anterior to the left adrenal gland and which serves as a collateral pathway from splenic to left renal vein in portal hypertension. Thus, unlike previously described adrenal pseudotumors, these venous collaterals are not anatomically distinguishable from the adrenal gland on CT. Bolus dynamic CT is usually diagnostic, but in equivocal cases, MRI may prove useful.

  16. Use of 3-Dimensional Volumetric Modeling of Adrenal Gland Size in Patients with Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, P P; Lodish, M B; Turkbey, E B; Papadakis, G Z; Stratakis, C A

    2016-04-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a rare type of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia leading to hypercortisolemia. Adrenal nodularity is often appreciable with computed tomography (CT); however, accurate radiologic characterization of adrenal size in PPNAD has not been studied well. We used 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric analysis to characterize and compare adrenal size in PPNAD patients, with and without Cushing's syndrome (CS). Patients diagnosed with PPNAD and their family members with known mutations in PRKAR1A were screened. CT scans were used to create 3D models of each adrenal. Criteria for biochemical diagnosis of CS included loss of diurnal variation and/or elevated midnight cortisol levels, and paradoxical increase in urinary free cortisol and/or urinary 17-hydroxysteroids after dexamethasone administration. Forty-five patients with PPNAD (24 females, 27.8±17.6 years) and 8 controls (19±3 years) were evaluated. 3D volumetric modeling of adrenal glands was performed in all. Thirty-eight patients out of 45 (84.4%) had CS. Their mean adrenal volume was 8.1 cc±4.1, 7.2 cc±4.5 (p=0.643) for non-CS, and 8.0cc±1.6 for controls. Mean values were corrected for body surface area; 4.7 cc/kg/m(2)±2.2 for CS, and 3.9 cc/kg/m(2)±1.3 for non-CS (p=0.189). Adrenal volume and midnight cortisol in both groups was positively correlated, r=0.35, p=0.03. We conclude that adrenal volume measured by 3D CT in patients with PPNAD and CS was similar to those without CS, confirming empirical CT imaging-based observations. However, the association between adrenal volume and midnight cortisol levels may be used as a marker of who among patients with PPNAD may develop CS, something that routine CT cannot do. PMID:27065461

  17. Precerebellin-related genes and precerebellin 1 peptide in the adrenal gland of the rat: expression pattern, localization, developmental regulation and effects on corticosteroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-03-01

    Precerebellin (Cbln)-related peptides are known to modulate the secretory activity and growth of the adrenal gland. However, precise expression of the Cbln-related genes and Cbln1 peptide in the adrenal remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated, using RT-PCR, QPCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and hormonal assays, their expression in the adrenals of adult rats and in the course of postnatal ontogenesis. Of the 4 known Cblns, Cbln(1-3) mRNAs were found in the adrenal gland of the adult male rats. Expression patterns of Cbln1 and 3 were similar to each other and different from that of Cbln2. Highest expression of the Cbln1 and 3 genes was observed in the zona glomerulosa (ZG), lower expression was noted in the fasciculata/reticularis and lowest expression was observed in the adrenal medulla. Expression of these genes was also present in freshly isolated rat adrenocortical cells. On the contrary, by means of classic RT-PCR, we demonstrated the presence of mRNAs of CBLN(1-4) in the human adrenal gland. In the rat, highest expression of the Cbln1 and 3 genes was found at postnatal day 2 and was somewhat lower at day 90. On the contrary, expression of the Cbln2 gene was low in adrenals of 2-day-old rats and notably higher at the remaining time points studied (up to day 360). Cerebellin (CER)-like immunoreactivity was observed in the membranes of the adrenal ZG cells, while in the medulla, immunoreactive substances were localized primarily in the cytoplasm of chromaffin cells. Cbln1-like immunoreactivity was present mainly in the cortex of the gland, and reaction products were noted both in the membranes and cytoplasm of adrenocortical cells. Semiquantitative evaluation of Cbln1 protein expression in compartments of the adrenal gland of the adult rat revealed a higher concentration of Cbln1 protein in the cortex than in the medulla of studied rats. We also found that both CER and desCER stimulated basal aldosterone secretion by freshly isolated ZG cells. Thus

  18. Intraoperative identification of adrenal-renal fusion.

    PubMed

    Boll, Griffin; Rattan, Rishi; Yilmaz, Osman; Tarnoff, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal - renal fusion is a rare entity defined as incomplete encapsulation of the adrenal gland and kidney with histologically adjacent functional tissue. This report describes the first published intraoperative identification of this anomaly during laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The patient was a 59-year-old man with chronic hypertension refractory to multiple antihypertensives found to be caused by a right-sided aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma in the setting of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. During laparoscopic adrenalectomy, the normal avascular plane between the kidney and adrenal gland was absent. Pathologic evaluation confirmed adrenal - renal fusion without adrenal heterotopia. Identified intraoperatively, this may be misdiagnosed as invasive malignancy, and thus awareness of this anomaly may help prevent unnecessarily morbid resection. PMID:26195881

  19. Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternate Language URL Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH ... individuals treated with hGH looked at causes of death among recipients and found some disturbing news. Many ...

  20. The innervation of the adrenal gland. IV. Innervation of the rat adrenal medulla from birth to old age. A descriptive and quantitative morphometric and biochemical study of the innervation of chromaffin cells and adrenal medullary neurons in Wistar rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, A; Coupland, R E

    1990-01-01

    The innervation of the adrenal medulla has been investigated in normal Wistar rats from birth to old age and ultrastructural findings compared with biochemical markers of the cholinergic innervation of the adrenal gland and catecholamine storage. Morphological evidence of the immaturity of the innervation during the first postnatal week is provided and using quantitative morphometry the innervation of chromaffin cells is shown to reach a mean total of 5.4 synapses per chromaffin cell during the period 26 days to 12 weeks of age. The variation in contents of synaptic profiles is discussed in the light of recent work that demonstrates a major sensory as well as visceral efferent innervation of the gland. Adrenal medullary neurons usually occur in closely packed groups, intimately associated with Schwann cells. Axodendritic and axosomatic synapses on these neurons are described and the likely origin of axonal processes innervating the neurons discussed. In old age the density of innervation remains the same as in young adult animals even though the medulla shows evidence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of individual chromaffin cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:2384334

  1. Consumption of sucrose from infancy increases the visceral fat accumulation, concentration of triglycerides, insulin and leptin, and generates abnormalities in the adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Aguila, Yadira; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela; Zambrano, Elena; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Muñoz, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2016-03-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages promotes the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. One factor related to the appearance of MetS components is the dysfunction of the adrenal gland. In fact, the experimental generation of hyperglycemia has been associated with morphological and microvascular changes in the adrenal glands of rats. We hypothesized that high sucrose consumption from infancy promotes histological disruption of the adrenal glands associated with the appearance of metabolic syndrome indicators. Male Wistar rats were separated at weaning (21 days old) into two groups: free access to tap water (control group, C) or 30 % sucrose diluted in water (sugar-fed group). After 12 weeks, high sucrose consumption promoted an increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipose cell number, and insulin resistance. Also, a rise in the concentration of triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein, insulin and leptin was observed. In control rats, a histomorphometric asymmetry between the right and left adrenal glands was found. In the sugar-fed group, sucrose consumption produced a major change in adrenal gland asymmetry. No changes in corticosterone serum level were observed in either group. Our results suggest that a high sucrose liquid-diet from early life alters the morphology of adrenocortical zones, leading to MetS indicators. PMID:25834995

  2. Expression of the spexin gene in the rat adrenal gland and evidences suggesting that spexin inhibits adrenocortical cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Porzionato, Andrea; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2010-04-01

    Spexin (SPX, also called NPQ) is a recently identified, highly conserved peptide which is processed and secreted. We analysed the SPX gene and its protein product in the rat adrenal gland to ascertain whether SPX is involved in the regulation of corticosteroid secretion of and growth of adrenocortical cells. In adult rat adrenal glands the highest levels of SPX mRNA were present in the glomerulosa (ZG) and fasciculate/reticularis (ZF/R) zones. High SPX gene expression levels were found in freshly isolated adult rat ZG and ZF/R cells. In cultured adrenocortical cells the levels of SPX mRNA were lower than in freshly isolated cells. SPX mRNA expression levels were found to be 2-3 times higher during days 90-540 of postnatal development than found during days 2-45. Prolonged ACTH administration lowered and dexamethasone increased adrenal SPX mRNA levels in vivo. Adrenal enucleation produced a significant linear increase in SPX mRNA levels, with the highest value occurring at day 8 after surgery, with control values taken on day 30 after enucleation. Immunohistochemistry revealed SPX-like immunoreactivity in the entire cortex of the adult male rat and in enucleation-induced regenerating cortex. A concentration of 10-6M SPX peptide stimulated basal aldosterone secretion by freshly isolated ZG. In prolonged exposure of adrenocortical cell primary cultures to SPX (10-6M) resulted in a small increase in corticosterone secretion and a notable decrease in BrdU incorporation. The results suggest the direct involvement of SPX in the regulation of adrenocortical cell proliferation; however, the mechanism of action remains unknown. PMID:20045034

  3. Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with /sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Inano, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ishii-Ohba, H.; Imada, Y.; Kumagai, R.; Kurihara, S.; Sato, A.

    1989-02-01

    Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth.

  4. “Looks Can Be Deceiving”: Adrenal Teratoma Causing Diagnostic Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Mehwash; Ather, Muhammad Hammad; Sulaiman, M. Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Teratomas are unusual tumours that derived from totipotent cells with their origin from more than one or usually all three germ cells. Here authors are presenting a case of primary retroperitoneal tumour that is a rare clinical entity. A 19-year-old male presented with right lumbar pain and was found to have complex cyst with large calcification in right adrenal gland on imaging. Intraoperatively, he was found to have a solid mass with areas of soft consistency, which was excised en bloc. On gross examination, the cyst contained pieces of bone, few teeth, and hairs entangled in mucinous material. On histological evaluation, it was confirmed to be mature teratoma arising from the right adrenal gland. He made uneventful recovery and was kept well on annual follow-up. PMID:26788398

  5. Single-Session CT-Guided Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Bilateral Adrenal Gland Hyperplasia Due to Ectopic ACTH Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, Asha Shyn, Paul B.; Vivian, Mark A.; Ng, Ju-Mei; Tuncali, Kemal; Lorch, Jorchen H.; Zaheer, Sarah N.; Gordon, Michael S.; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2015-10-15

    Bilateral adrenalectomy is currently the only available treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing’s syndrome (ectopic ACTH syndrome) that is refractory to pharmacologic therapy. We describe two patients with refractory ectopic ACTH syndrome who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of both hyperplastic adrenal glands in a single session: One was not a surgical candidate, and the other had undergone unsuccessful surgery. Following the procedure, both patients achieved substantial decreases in serum cortisol, symptomatic improvement, and decreased anti-hypertensive medication requirements.

  6. Synchronous renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the contralateral adrenal gland and pancreas: A case report with 7-year follow-up subsequent to surgical therapy

    PubMed Central

    WU, CUNZAO; ZHOU, ZHENXU; YE, XUETING; HU, WEILIE

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) disseminates to a number of organ sites and few patients demonstrate long-term survival following surgery. However, synchronous metastasis of RCC to the contralateral adrenal gland and pancreas is rare. In the present report, a case of synchronous RCC metastasis to the contralateral adrenal gland and pancreas in a 55-year-old patient, with an 116×92×61 mm right renal tumor and a 96×79×57 mm left adrenal lesion, is described. In April 2007, right nephrectomy was performed to treat the RCC, left adrenalectomy was performed to treat the adrenal tumor and the pancreatic metastases were resected. The patient remained alive at the 7-year follow-up appointment. PMID:27313756

  7. Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who ... a medical ID card and wear a Medic-Alert bracelet to tell emergency workers that you lack ...

  8. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of the Adrenal Glands: Analysis of 21 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Rajesh; Choudhary, Narendra S.; Kotecha, Hardik; Misra, Smruti Ranjan; Bhagat, Suraj; Paliwal, Manish; Madan, Kaushal; Saraf, Neeraj; Sarin, Haimanti; Guleria, Mridula; Sud, Randhir

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology of adrenal masses helps in etiological diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA of adrenal masses in cases where other imaging methods failed and/or were not feasible. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients with adrenal masses, in whom adrenal FNA was performed because conventional imaging modalities failed and/or were not feasible, were prospectively evaluated over a period of 3 years. Results Of the 21 patients (mean age, 56±12.2 years; male:female ratio, 2:1), 12 had pyrexia of unknown origin and the other nine underwent evaluation for metastasis. The median lesion size was 2.4×1.6 cm. Ten patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis (shown by the presence of caseating granulomas [n=10] and acid-fast bacilli [n=4]). Two patients had EUS-FNA results suggestive of histoplasmosis. The other patients had metastatic lung carcinoma (n=6), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=1), and adrenal lipoma (n=1) and adrenal myelolipoma (n=1). EUS results were not suggestive of any particular etiology. No procedure-related adverse events occurred. Conclusions EUS-FNA is a safe and effective method for evaluating adrenal masses, and it yields diagnosis in cases where tissue diagnosis is impossible or has failed using conventional imaging modalities. PMID:25844346

  9. Atrial natriuretic factor mRNA and binding sites in the adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, D J; Davenport, A P; Brown, M J

    1990-01-01

    The factor inhibiting aldosterone secretion produced by the adrenal medulla may be atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), since the latter abolishes aldosterone release in response to a number of secretagogues, including angiotensin II and K+. In this study we have shown that cells in the adrenal medulla contain ANF mRNA and therefore have the potential to synthesize this peptide. The presence of binding sites for ANF predominantly in the adrenal zona glomerulosa suggests that, if ANF is synthesized in the medulla and transferred to the cortex, it may affect mineralocorticoid status. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2146954

  10. (/sup 131/I) iodocholesterol scintiscan and a rare functional black adenoma of the adrenal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.M.; Lieberman, L.M.; Gould, H.R.; Hafez, G.R.

    1983-06-01

    A rare functional black adenoma (FBA) of the adrenal cortex was found to be the cause of hypertension and cushingoid features in a 34-yr-old white female., Preoperative studies included (/sup 131/I)iodocholesterol scanning (ICS) of the adrenal glands, which demonstrated the increased release of cortisol from the affected adrenal gland, with the failure of the opposite adrenal gland to record. This is evidence that cortisol was suppressing adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) output by the pituitary gland. This case documents the clinical utility of functional imaging techniques in this clinical setting.

  11. Methodology for Using 3-Dimensional Sonography to Measure Fetal Adrenal Gland Volumes in Pregnant Women With and Without Early Life Stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deborah; Epperson, C Neill; Ewing, Grace; Appleby, Dina; Sammel, Mary D; Wang, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    Fetal adrenal gland volumes on 3-dimensional sonography have been studied as potential predictors of preterm birth. However, no consistent methodology has been published. This article describes the methodology used in a study that is evaluating the effects of maternal early life stress on fetal adrenal growth to allow other researchers to compare methodologies across studies. Fetal volumetric data were obtained in 36 women at 20 to 22 and 28 to 30 weeks' gestation. Two independent examiners measured multiple images of a single fetal adrenal gland from each sonogram. Intra- and inter-rater consistency was examined. In addition, fetal adrenal volumes between male and female fetuses were reported. The intra- and inter-rater reliability was satisfactory when the mean of 3 measurements from each rater was used. At 20 weeks' gestation, male fetuses had larger average adjusted adrenal volumes than female fetuses (mean, 0.897 versus 0.638; P = .004). At 28 weeks' gestation, the fetal weight was more influential in determining values for adjusted fetal adrenal volume (0.672 for male fetuses versus 0.526 for female fetuses; P = .034). This article presents a methodology for assessing fetal adrenal volume using 3-dimensional sonography that can be used by other researchers to provide more consistency across studies. PMID:27562975

  12. Comparative Effect of ACTH and Related Peptides on Proliferation and Growth of Rat Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Claudimara Ferini Pacicco; de Mendonca, Pedro O. R.

    2016-01-01

    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a polypeptide precursor known to yield biologically active peptides related to a range of functions. These active peptides include the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is essential for maintenance of adrenal growth and steroidogenesis, and the alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone, which plays a key role in energy homeostasis. However, the role of the highly conserved N-terminal region of POMC peptide fragments has begun to be unraveled only recently. Here, we review the cascade of events involved in regulation of proliferation and growth of murine adrenal cortex triggered by ACTH and other POMC-derived peptides. Key findings regarding signaling pathways and modulation of genes and proteins required for the regulation of adrenal growth are summarized. We have outlined the known mechanisms as well as future challenges for research on the regulation of adrenal proliferation and growth triggered by these peptides. PMID:27242663

  13. Gene array analysis of adrenal glands in broiler chickens following ACTH treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bureau, Clara; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Couty, Michel; Guémené, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Background Difference in adaptability responses to stress has been observed amongst bird species, strains, and individuals. Components of the HPA axis, one of the internal systems involved in homeostasis re-establishment following stress, could play a role in this variability of responses. The aim of the present study was 1) to identify genes involved in the regulation of adrenal activity following ACTH stimulation and 2) to examine adrenal genes differentially expressed in individuals with high and low plasma corticosterone response following ACTH treatment. Results Analysis with 21 K poultry oligo microarrays indicated that ACTH treatment affected the expression of 134 genes. Several transcripts assigned to genes involved in the adrenal ACTH signaling pathway and steroidogenic enzymes were identified as differentially expressed by ACTH treatment. Real-time PCR on 18 selected genes confirmed changes in transcript levels of 11 genes, including MC2R, CREM, Cry, Bmal1, Sqle, Prax1, and StAR. Only 4 genes revealed to be differentially expressed between higher and lower adrenal responders to ACTH treatment. Conclusion The results from the present study reveal putative candidate genes; their role in regulation of adrenal functions and adaptability to stress should be further investigated. PMID:19751509

  14. Autoradiographic localization of (/sup 125/I)-angiotensin II binding sites in the rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, D.P.; Maciejewski, A.R.; Printz, M.P.

    1985-03-01

    To gain greater insight into sites of action of circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) within the adrenal, we have localized the (/sup 125/I)-Ang II binding site using in vitro autoradiography. Autoradiograms were generated either by apposition of isotope-sensitive film or with emulsion-coated coverslips to slide-mounted adrenal sections labeled in vitro with 1.0 nM (/sup 125/I)-Ang II. Analysis of the autoradiograms showed that Ang II binding sites were concentrated in a thin band in the outer cortex (over the cells of the zona glomerulosa) and in the adrenal medulla, which at higher power was seen as dense patches. Few sites were evident in the inner cortex. The existence of Ang II binding sites in the adrenal medulla was confirmed by conventional homogenate binding techniques which revealed a single class of high affinity Ang II binding site (K/sub d/ . 0.7nM, B/sub max/ . 168.7 fmol/mg). These results suggest that the adrenal medulla may be a target for direct receptor-mediated actions of Ang II.

  15. Spontaneous idiopathic bilateral adrenal haemorrhage: a rare cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Salik; Sivarajah, Surendra; Fiscus, Valena; York, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 62-year-old woman with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease who presented to the emergency department with left lower quadrant abdominal pain, flank pain with nausea and no history of preceding trauma. The patient had finished a course of azithromycin and oral methylprednisolone 1 day prior to presentation. Abdominal and pelvic CT scan identified changes suggestive of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. The patient did not show signs of acute adrenal insufficiency but was started on steroid replacement therapy because of concerns about possible disease progression. All recognised causes of adrenal haemorrhage were excluded suggesting this was a case of spontaneous idiopathic bilateral adrenal haemorrhage, a rarely reported phenomenon in the literature. The patient was discharged after clinical improvement following 6 days in hospital, taking oral steroid replacement. PMID:27166002

  16. [Curative en-bloc resection (lung, diaphragm, liver, adrenal gland and thoracic wall) for echinococcus multilocularis. Report of an unusual disease course].

    PubMed

    Lampl, L; Hamperl, W D

    1992-01-01

    Report concerning an en-bloc-resection of right lower lobe of the lung, diaphragm, right lobe of the liver, right adrenal gland, parts of the chestwall and a fistula for alveolar echinococcus. Combined postoperative treatment with mebendazol. More than 4 years postoperatively no evidence of a recurrency. PMID:1583984

  17. 12. Patterns of Adrenal Gland Involvement from Lung Cancer Shown by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Compared to Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zubeldia; Abou-Zied; Nabi

    2000-07-01

    Purpose: The frequency of adrenal metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies between 4 to 25%. Adrenal metastases are frequently missed (78%) by Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study was to characterize the patterns of adrenal gland involvement from lung cancer by 18-F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG-PET).Methods: Retrospective review of patients evaluated for known or suspected lung carcinoma. Results of 18FDG-PET, CT, MRI, and scans were compared.Results: From February 1996 to May 2000, 91 patients with known (85 patients) or suspected (6 patients) lung cancer were evaluated with 18FDG-PET scan. Twenty-two patients (mean age 63, range 38-88 years) had abnormal adrenal glands by either 18FDG-PET (16 patients), CT (12 patients) or MRI (1 patient). In 13 cases 18FDG-PET scan was ordered to clarify CT or MRI findings. Only 7 patients showed adrenal gland involvement: 5 patients (5.5%) with unilateral disease and 2 patients (2.2%) with bilateral disease. PET depicted unsuspected findings in 9 patients: 8 patients (8.8%) with unilateral disease and 1 patient (1.1%) with bilateral disease.(18)FDG-PET upstaged 9 patients from limited (N1M0) to widespread disease (M1), thus obviating surgical intervention.Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of 18FDG-PET scanning in revealing unsuspected adrenal metastases in patients with early stages of NSCLC as well as characterizing CT or MRI equivocal adrenal masses. PMID:11150769

  18. Expression of the beacon gene in the rat adrenal gland: direct inhibitory effect of beacon[47-73] on aldosterone secretion from dispersed adrenal zona glomerulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Neri, Giuliano; Di Liddo, Rosa; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2004-02-01

    Beacon gene was recently identified in the rat hypothalamus, and there is evidence that beacon may be involved in the functional regulation of neuroendocrine axes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry showed the expression of beacon mRNA and protein in the rat adrenal gland, especially in the cortex. Beacon[47-73], at a concentration over 10(-7) M decreased basal aldosterone secretion from dispersed rat zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells, without affecting the ACTH-stimulated one. Basal and agonist-stimulated corticosterone secretion from dispersed zona fasciculata-reticularis cells and catecholamine release from adrenomedullary slices were unaffected by beacon[47-73]. The suppressive effect of beacon[47-73] on aldosterone secretion from ZG cells was abolished by either H-89 or calphostin-C, which are inhibitors of protein kinase A and C signaling cascades. Taken together, these findings allow us to suggest that beacon can be included in the group of regulatory peptides involved in the fine tuning of ZG secretory activity. PMID:14719126

  19. Enriched cages for groups of laboratory male rats and their effects on behaviour, weight gain and adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Lidfors, L; Wichman, A; Ewaldsson, B; Lindh, A-S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated if there were any negative effects on the behaviour and physiology of rats housed in groups of five in two types of enriched cages and compared them with paired-housed rats housed in traditional cages. Eighty-four male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were housed in an enriched rat cage (ERC), a rebuilt rabbit cage (RRC) or a Makrolon III cage (MC) system from 5-16 weeks of age with access to different enrichments. Recordings of behaviour and cage use (3 × 24 h video recording), weekly weighing, measuring food consumption four days/week and water consumption two days/week, were carried out. The rats' muscle strength was assessed using the 'inclined plane' at the end of the study, and after euthanasia the adrenal glands were removed and weighed. Being in the shelter was the most common behaviour in the ERC and RRC groups. In the MC group, which lacked a shelter, rats performed the highest percentage of lying, grooming, rearing, play fighting and manipulating paper shreds. Rats in the RRC had the highest percentage of standing and manipulating gnawing sticks. Water consumption was higher in MC than in ERC and RRC rats. Rats from the RRC managed to remain at a steeper angle on the 'inclined plane' than rats from the MC. There were no significant effects of cage type on weight gain, food consumption or relative weights of adrenal glands. In conclusion, male rats kept in groups of five in larger enriched cages benefited from the enrichments, and no negative effects were found in the larger groups. PMID:24080597

  20. Co-release of enkephalins and precursors with catecholamines from the perfused cat adrenal gland in situ.

    PubMed

    Chaminade, M; Foutz, A S; Rossier, J

    1984-08-01

    We have compared the nature of the enkephalin-like material derived from proenkephalin present in the intact cat adrenal gland with the material co-released with catecholamines from the perfused adrenal in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation and to perfusions with solutions containing acetylcholine (ACh) or high potassium chloride (KCl). In cat adrenals most of the enkephalin-like material was in the form of large enkephalin-containing peptides. Free (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity represented only 25% of the total (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity as determined by enzymatic digestion of large enkephalin-containing fragments. Electrical stimulation (15 Hz) of the splanchnic nerve or perfusion of the gland with ACh (0.1 mM) or KCl (50 mM), applied for 10 min, induced an immediate release of free (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity, (met)enkephalyl-arg-phe immunoreactivity, and of large (met)enkephalin-containing peptides. The release by all three modes of stimulation followed a pattern that paralleled the output of catecholamines. A rapid fatigue of all secretory processes developed during the stimulation periods, similar to that observed for catecholamines. During splanchnic nerve stimulation, each nanomole of catecholamine output was accompanied by the output of 0.4 pmol free (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity, of 1.1 pmol total (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity and of 0.1 pmol (met)enkephalyl-arg-phe immunoreactivity. Analysis of the perfusate by high-pressure liquid chromatography revealed that (met)enkephalin, (met)enkephalyl-arg-phe and (met)enkephalyl-arg-gly-leu were released in molar ratios of 4 to 1 to 1 which is similar to the ratio found in the precursor, proenkephalin. The ratio of total (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity to free (met)enkephalin immunoreactivity in the perfusate was the same (approximately 2.7) during two successive periods of splanchnic nerve stimulation separated by 10 min. When release was evoked by increasing the K+ concentration to 50

  1. Increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal glands contributes to high circulating catecholamines in pigs with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tomaszek, A; Kiczak, L; Bania, J; Paslawska, U; Zacharski, M; Janiszewski, A; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Dziegiel, P; Kuropka, P; Ponikowski, P; Jankowska, E A

    2015-04-01

    High levels of circulating catecholamines have been established as fundamental pathophysiological elements of heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear whether the increased gene expression of catecholamine-synthesis enzymes in the adrenal glands contributes to these hormone abnormalities in large animal HF models. We analyzed the mRNA levels of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes: tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in adrenal glands of 18 pigs with chronic systolic non-ischaemic HF (tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy due to right ventricle pacing) and 6 sham-operated controls. Pigs with severe HF demonstrated an increased expression of TH and DBH (but neither AAAD nor PNMT) as compared to animals with milder HF and controls (P<0.05 in all cases). The increased adrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH was accompanied by a reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) (P<0.001) and an elevated plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (P<0.01), the other indices reflecting HF severity. There was a positive relationship between the increased adrenal mRNA expression of TH and DBH, and the high levels of circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline (all P<0.05). The association with noradrenaline remained significant also when adjusted for LVEF and plasma BNP, suggesting a significant contribution of adrenals to the circulating pool of catecholamines in subjects with systolic HF. PMID:25903953

  2. In vivo evidence for the crucial role of SF1 in steroid-producing cells of the testis, ovary and adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Buaas, F. William; Gardiner, Jennifer R.; Clayton, Sally; Val, Pierre; Swain, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adrenal and gonadal steroids are essential for life and reproduction. The orphan nuclear receptor SF1 (NR5A1) has been shown to regulate the expression of enzymes involved in steroid production in vitro. However, the in vivo role of this transcription factor in steroidogenesis has not been elucidated. In this study, we have generated steroidogenic-specific Cre-expressing mice to lineage mark and delete Sf1 in differentiated steroid-producing cells of the testis, the ovary and the adrenal gland. Our data show that SF1 is a regulator of the expression of steroidogenic genes in all three organs. In addition, Sf1 deletion leads to a radical change in cell morphology and loss of identity. Surprisingly, sexual development and reproduction in mutant animals were not compromised owing, in part, to the presence of a small proportion of SF1-positive cells. In contrast to the testis and ovary, the mutant adult adrenal gland showed a lack of Sf1-deleted cells and our studies suggest that steroidogenic adrenal cells during foetal stages require Sf1 to give rise to the adult adrenal population. This study is the first to show the in vivo requirements of SF1 in steroidogenesis and provides novel data on the cellular consequences of the loss of this protein specifically within steroid-producing cells. PMID:23136395

  3. [Morphological studies of rat adrenal glands after space flight on "Kosmos-1667"].

    PubMed

    Prodan, N G; Bara'nska, V

    1989-01-01

    Histological and histomorphometric examinations of rat adrenals after a 7-day flight revealed the following changes: blood congestion in the cortex and medulla, progressive delipoidization of the cortex, slight enlargement of the nuclear volume of glomerular and fascicular zones, vacuolization of the cytoplasm of medulla cells, reduction of the area of noradrenocyte islets and cell nuclei of the medulla; the adrenal weight remained however unchanged. It is concluded that an early period of adaptation to microgravity was accompanied by a weak stress-reaction. Upon return to Earth the rats developed an acute gravitational stress. From the morphological point of view the stress manifested as: increased volume of nuclei in fascicular cells, decreased content of lipids in them, and greater vacuolization of the cytoplasm of medulla cells. The lack of medulla hypertrophy, reduction of the area of noradrenocyte islets and nuclei of medulla cells suggest that 7-day exposure to microgravity did not exert of stimulating effect on the sympathetic system of rats. PMID:2625973

  4. Atrial natriuretic factor: radioimmunoassay and effects on adrenal and pituitary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Gutkowska, J.; Horky, K.; Schiffrin, E.L.; Thibault, G.; Garcia, R.; De Lean, A.; Hamet, P.; Tremblay, J.; Anand-Srivastava, M.B.; Januszewicz, P.

    1986-06-01

    A simple and sensitive radioimmunoassay was developed for measurement of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor (IR-ANF) in rat and human plasma and in rat atria. The two atria contain about 20 ..mu..g ANF per rat. The right atrium contained 2.5 times more ANF than did the left. Ether anesthesia and morphine markedly increased IR-ANF in rat plasma. The concentration of IR-ANF in plasma of clinically normal human subjects was 65.3 +/- 2.5 pg/ml. Paroxysmal tachycardia and rapid atrial pacing significantly increased IR-ANF in human plasma. Two- to seven-fold higher concentrations were found in coronary sinus blood than in the peripheral circulation. In the plasma of rats and humans, circulating ANF is probably a small-molecular-weight peptide. ANF acts on the adrenal and the pituitary. ANF inhibits aldosterone secretion from rat zona glomerulosa and steroid secretion by bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa and fasciculata. ANF stimulated the basal secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in vitro and inhibited KCl-stimulated release of AVP.

  5. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage leading to adrenal crisis

    PubMed Central

    McGowan-Smyth, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A 77-year-old man presented with an acute worsening of chronic back pain. CT showed dense bilateral adrenal glands suggestive of adrenal haemorrhage which was confirmed by MRI. Despite appropriate glucocorticoid replacement for adrenal insufficiency, 7 days after admission this patient suffered an adrenal crisis. Owing to the timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment was given and the patient survived. Large bilateral adrenal haemorrhage however, can lead to cardiovascular collapse and death if not appropriately diagnosed and managed promptly. Despite its rarity, bilateral adrenal haemorrhage should always be considered as a differential for back pain in the setting of an acute illness due to its potentially fatal consequences. PMID:24969071

  6. Apophysomyces elegans causing acute otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis involving salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Amit; Tyagi, Isha; Syal, Rajan; Marak, R S K; Singh, Jagdeep

    2007-08-01

    Zygomycosis is an invasive, life threatening fungal infection that usually affects immunocompromised hosts. In the head and neck region, rhino-orbito-cerebral zygomycosis is more common than the cervicofacial variety. We report the first case of otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis caused by Apophysomyces elegans involving the salivary glands, an uncommon site of infection. The case began after a trivial trauma in a diabetic patient and despite surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin B therapy, the patient died due to extensive involvement and metabolic/hemodynamic complications. PMID:17654273

  7. Somatostatin analog (SMS 201-995) inhibits the basal and angiotensin II-stimulated sup 3 H-thymidine uptake by rat adrenal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlikowski, M.; Lewinski, A.; Sewerynek, E.; Szkudlinski, M.; Kunert-Radek, J.; Wajs, E. )

    1990-02-14

    The effects of a long-acting somatostatin analog SMS 201-995 injections on the basal and angiotensin II-stimulated ({sup 3}H)-thymidine uptake by the rat adrenal glands incubated in vitro were examined. It was shown that SMS 201-995 significantly inhibited the ({sup 3}H)-thymidine uptake and, additionally, suppressed the stimulatory effect of a single angiotensin II injection.

  8. Voluminous Incidental Oncocytic Neoplasm of the Adrenal Gland With Uncertain Malignant Potential.

    PubMed

    Chakroun, Marouene; Kerkeni, Waild; Zidi, Yosra; Ayed, Haroun; Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Ben Slama, Mohamed Riadh; Rammeh, Sihem; Derouiche, Amine; Chebil, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with right flank pain and a palpable mass in the left flank. Blood pressure was normal. Contrastenhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a 17 × 16 × 12 cm retroperitoneal mass over the left kidney, solid and heterogeneous. There were also 3 retro aortic lymph nodes and bilateral renal lithiasis. Twenty four-hour urinary metanephrines and normetanephrines were normal. The patient underwent a resection of the mass with left adrenalectomy by a lumbar incision. Histological findings revealed an adrenal oncocytic neoplasm (AON) with uncertain malignant potential. Six months after surgery, CT control showed neither local nor distant recurrence. PMID:27413692

  9. Genome-wide expression analysis reveals 100 adrenal gland-dependent circadian genes in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Amagai, Noriko; Shirai, Hidenori; Kadota, Koji; Ohkura, Naoki; Ishida, Norio

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in genome-wide expression analysis has identified hundreds of circadian genes not only in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (the mammalian master clock) but also in peripheral tissues, such as heart, liver and kidney of mammals. Glucocorticoid is thought to be a circadian time cue for mammalian peripheral clocks. To identify the genes of which the circadian expression is regulated by endogenous glucocorticoids, we performed DNA microarray analysis using hepatic RNA from adrenalectomized (ADX) and sham-operated mice. We identified 169 genes that fluctuated between day and night in the livers of the sham-operated mice. Among these, 100 lost circadian rhythmicity in ADX mice. These included the genes for key enzymes of liver metabolic functions, such as glucokinase, HMG-CoA reductase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The circadian expression of Lpin1, FKBP51 and S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase was also abolished in the ADX mice. On the other hand, although the circadian expression of clock or clock-related genes, such as mPer2, DBP, E4BP4, mDec1, Usp2 and Wee1 remained almost totally intact in the liver of ADX mice, it was extremely damped in homozygous Clock mutant mice. The present findings suggested that one type of hepatic circadian genes in mice is transcriptionally regulated by core components of the circadian clock, such as CLOCK and BMAL1, and that the other depends on the adrenal gland. PMID:16303750

  10. First case report of rare congenital adrenal insufficiency caused by mutations in the CYP11A1 gene in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Pomahačová, Renata; Sýkora, Josef; Zamboryová, Jana; Paterová, Petra; Varvařovská, Jana; Šubrt, Ivan; Dort, Jiří; Dortová, Eva

    2016-06-01

    We characterized a case of congenital adrenal insufficiency caused by cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) deficiency. The patient presented after birth with cardiopulmonary instability, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. We confirmed primary adrenal insufficiency. There were no signs of the external genitalia virilism. The replacement therapy with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids led to normal laboratory results. At the age of 12 years, we confirmed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, which revealed disorder of steroidogenesis in the adrenal glands and in the gonads. The enzymatic block was found at the beginning of steroidogenesis. The mutation was confirmed in the CYP11A1 gene. The patient is compound heterozygote for the novel CYP11A1 missense mutation c.412G>A (p.Gly138Arg) in exon 2 and frameshift mutation c.508_509delCT (p.Leu170Valfs*30) in exon 3. The CYP11A1: c.412G>A (p.Gly138Arg) was predicted as pathogenic by in silico analysis. So far, only 19 patients with CYP11A1 mutations causing P450scc deficiency have been reported worldwide. There are no related reports in the Czech Republic. PMID:27008691

  11. Adrenal steroidogenesis disruption caused by HDL/cholesterol suppression in diethylstilbestrol-treated adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Haeno, Satoko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Kousuke; Sato, Michiko; Uto, Aika; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol is used to prevent miscarriages and as a therapeutic treatment for prostate cancer, but it has been reported to have adverse effects on endocrine homeostasis. However, the toxicity mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, we reported that diethylstilbestrol impairs adrenal steroidogenesis via cholesterol insufficiency in adult male rats. In the present study, we found that the adrenal cholesterol level was significantly reduced without of the decrease in other precursors in the adrenal steroidogenesis 24 h after a single dose of diethylstilbestrol (0.33 μg/g body mass). The serum HDL/cholesterol level was also reduced only 12 h after the diethylstilbestrol exposure. The level of Apo E, which is indispensable for HDL/cholesterol maturation, was decreased in both the HDL and VLDL/LDL fractions, whereas the level of Apo A1, which is an essential constituent of HDL, was not altered in the HDL fraction. Because the liver is a major source of Apo E and Apo A1, the secretion rates of these proteins were examined using a liver perfusion experiment. The secretion rate of Apo A1 from the liver was consistent between DES-treated and control rats, but that of Apo E was comparatively suppressed in the DES-treated rats. The disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis by diethylstilbestrol was caused by a decrease in serum HDL/cholesterol, which is the main source of adrenal steroidogenesis, due to the inhibition of Apo E secretion from the liver. PMID:26349937

  12. CT manifestations of adrenal trauma: experience with 73 cases.

    PubMed

    Sinelnikov, Alex O; Abujudeh, Hani H; Chan, David; Novelline, Robert A

    2007-03-01

    Adrenal injuries, although an uncommon consequence of abdominal trauma, are important to recognize. If bilateral, adrenal trauma could result in life-threatening adrenal insufficiency. Furthermore, in the setting of trauma, adrenal injury can point to other concomitant injuries and has been associated with overall increased morbidity and mortality. In the past, before the advent of computed tomography (CT), detection was difficult, and the diagnosis was often made only at surgery or postmortem. Today, the diagnosis of adrenal injuries can be quickly and accurately made with CT. This retrospective review was carried out to identify, describe, and analyze different CT appearances of adrenal injuries and correlated with associated injuries and observed clinical context and outcomes. A patient cohort of CT-detected adrenal injuries was identified through a radiology software research tool by searching for keywords in radiology reports. The identified CT scans were reviewed and correlated with the patients' available clinical chart data and follow-up. Between April 1995 and October 2004, 73 cases of CT-detected adrenal injuries were identified, including 48 men and 25 women, with an age range 6 to 90 years and a mean age of 42.7 years. Of the cases, 77% were right-sided, 15% were left-sided, and 8% were bilateral. The causes of injuries were motor vehicle collisions (75%), falls (14%), sports related (4%), and miscellaneous causes (7%). Associated trauma included injuries of the liver (43%), spleen (23%), lung (19%), and kidney (18%), as well as pneumothoraces/hemothoraces (22%). Skeletal injuries included fractures of the ribs, clavicles, and/or scapulae (39%), pelvis and hips (30%), and the spine (23%). Isolated adrenal trauma was seen in only 4% of the cases. The CT findings of adrenal trauma were focal hematoma (30%), indistinct (27%) or enlarged (18%) adrenal gland, gross (15%) or focal (7%) adrenal hemorrhage, and adrenal mass (11%). Associated CT findings

  13. Conditional Mutagenesis of Gata6 in SF1-Positive Cells Causes Gonadal-Like Differentiation in the Adrenal Cortex of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pihlajoki, Marjut; Gretzinger, Elisabeth; Cochran, Rebecca; Kyrönlahti, Antti; Schrade, Anja; Hiller, Theresa; Sullivan, Laura; Shoykhet, Michael; Schoeller, Erica L.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA6 is expressed in the fetal and adult adrenal cortex and has been implicated in steroidogenesis. To characterize the role of transcription factor GATA6 in adrenocortical development and function, we generated mice in which Gata6 was conditionally deleted using Cre-LoxP recombination with Sf1-cre. The adrenal glands of adult Gata6 conditional knockout (cKO) mice were small and had a thin cortex. Cytomegalic changes were evident in fetal and adult cKO adrenal glands, and chromaffin cells were ectopically located at the periphery of the glands. Corticosterone secretion in response to exogenous ACTH was blunted in cKO mice. Spindle-shaped cells expressing Gata4, a marker of gonadal stroma, accumulated in the adrenal subcapsule of Gata6 cKO mice. RNA analysis demonstrated the concomitant upregulation of other gonadal-like markers, including Amhr2, in the cKO adrenal glands, suggesting that GATA6 inhibits the spontaneous differentiation of adrenocortical stem/progenitor cells into gonadal-like cells. Lhcgr and Cyp17 were overexpressed in the adrenal glands of gonadectomized cKO vs control mice, implying that GATA6 also limits sex steroidogenic cell differentiation in response to the hormonal changes that accompany gonadectomy. Nulliparous female and orchiectomized male Gata6 cKO mice lacked an adrenal X-zone. Microarray hybridization identified Pik3c2g as a novel X-zone marker that is downregulated in the adrenal glands of these mice. Our findings offer genetic proof that GATA6 regulates the differentiation of steroidogenic progenitors into adrenocortical cells. PMID:23471215

  14. [Congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency. A case report].

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Jadwiga; Bohdanowicz-Pawlak, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a case of an adult woman with congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency. The patient presented not only typical features of this disease such as virilization and hypokaliemic hypertension but also rare pathologies, such as ectopic adrenal tissues, salt loss during infancy, and functional adrenomedullary hyperactivity. In spite of the severe disease and delays in its diagnosis and adequate treatment, significant improvement in appearance and normalization of blood pressure as well as the birth of a healthy child were achieved. The paper also discusses current opinions concerning the pathogenesis and treatment in CAH with 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency as well as difficulties in diagnostic and therapeutic management. PMID:19347818

  15. Photosensitizer-induced fluorescence of the rat adrenal gland and rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) by meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo-Benkmann, Mario; Muhm, Markus; Gahlen, Johannes; Heym, Christine; Senninger, Norbert

    1997-12-01

    Rat adrenal glands exhibit an intense mTHPC-induced fluorescence. The objective of our study was the identification of adrenal cells exhibiting mTHPC-induced fluorescence under normal conditions and under stimulation of adrenal proliferation by reserpine. Furthermore mTHPC-uptake of rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells was investigated. Four male Wistar rats received 0.5 mg mTHPC/kg iv 48 hours before perfusion. Furthermore four rats received reserpine (2 mg/kg im od), bromo-deoxy-uridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg ip od) each for one week and mTHPC (0.5 mg/kg) 48 hours before perfusion. BrdU was detected immunohistochemically. PC 12-cells were incubated with 0.5 mg mTHPC/l culture medium for 24 or 48 hours. Cells and tissues were examined by fluorescence microscopy. The adrenal cortex exhibited an intense mTHPC-induced fluorescence. The adrenal medulla fluoresced faintly. Reserpine increased fluorescence of intramedullary cells, not coinciding with adrenal proliferation. Cortical fluorescence remained unchanged. PC 12-cells lying singly or in small groups and differentiating cells showed a more intense mTHPC- induced fluorescence than confluent cells. Differences of cortical and medullary uptake of mTHPC are independent of proliferation and may be explained by lipophilia of mTHPC, since adrenocytes have an uptake mechanism for cholesterol. The difference of mTHPC-uptake between PC 12-cells and chromaffin cells implicate the possibility of photodynamic applications for medullary neoplasia.

  16. Detection of disease-associated prion protein in the optic nerve and the adrenal gland of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy by using highly sensitive immunolabeling procedures.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou

    2012-04-01

    A sensitive immunohistochemical procedure, the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) system, was applied to detect the localization of immunolabeled disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in cattle affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). In this procedure, immunolabeling could be visualized in the optic nerve and the adrenal medulla. In the optic nerve, the dual immunofluorescent technique showed that the granular PrP(Sc) was occasionally detected in the astrocytes, microglia, and myelin sheath adjacent to the axon. Clustered PrP(Sc) was also scattered in association with microglial cells and astrocytes of the optic nerve. In the adrenal gland, PrP(Sc) immunolabeling was confined within the sympathetic nerve fibers and endings. The results suggest that (1) PrP(Sc) might centrifugally spread within and between glial cells and/or the non-axonal (also known as ad-axonal) region of nerve fibers, rather than the axonal and/or extracellular space pathway in the optic nerve, and (2) the sympathetic innervations might be important for the trafficking of BSE agent in the adrenal glands of cattle. This study also suggests that tyramide-based immunochemical analysis should be performed to detect immunolabeled PrP(Sc) in the extracerebral tissues of BSE-affected cattle. PMID:22260993

  17. Rare Causes of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: Genetic and Clinical Characterization of a Large Nationwide Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, Federica; Saka, Nurcin; Ozbek, Mehmet Nuri; Aycan, Zehra; Bereket, Abdullah; Bas, Firdevs; Darcan, Sukran; Bideci, Aysun; Guven, Ayla; Demir, Korcan; Akinci, Aysehan; Buyukinan, Muammer; Aydin, Banu Kucukemre; Turan, Serap; Agladioglu, Sebahat Yilmaz; Atay, Zeynep; Abali, Zehra Yavas; Tarim, Omer; Catli, Gonul; Yuksel, Bilgin; Akcay, Teoman; Yildiz, Metin; Ozen, Samim; Doger, Esra; Demirbilek, Huseyin; Ucar, Ahmet; Isik, Emregul; Ozhan, Bayram; Bolu, Semih; Ozgen, Ilker Tolga; Suntharalingham, Jenifer P.; Achermann, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a life-threatening condition that is often due to monogenic causes in children. Although congenital adrenal hyperplasia occurs commonly, several other important molecular causes have been reported, often with overlapping clinical and biochemical features. The relative prevalence of these conditions is not known, but making a specific diagnosis can have important implications for management. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the clinical and molecular genetic characteristics of a nationwide cohort of children with PAI of unknown etiology. Design: A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate clinical, biochemical, and imaging data. Genetic analysis was performed using Haloplex capture and next-generation sequencing. Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, adrenoleukodystrophy, autoimmune adrenal insufficiency, or obvious syndromic PAI were excluded. Setting: The study was conducted in 19 tertiary pediatric endocrinology clinics. Patients: Ninety-five children (48 females, aged 0–18 y, eight familial) with PAI of unknown etiology participated in the study. Results: A genetic diagnosis was obtained in 77 patients (81%). The range of etiologies was as follows: MC2R (n = 25), NR0B1 (n = 12), STAR (n = 11), CYP11A1 (n = 9), MRAP (n = 9), NNT (n = 7), ABCD1 (n = 2), NR5A1 (n = 1), and AAAS (n = 1). Recurrent mutations occurred in several genes, such as c.560delT in MC2R, p.R451W in CYP11A1, and c.IVS3ds+1delG in MRAP. Several important clinical and molecular insights emerged. Conclusion: This is the largest nationwide study of the molecular genetics of childhood PAI undertaken. Achieving a molecular diagnosis in more than 80% of children has important translational impact for counseling families, presymptomatic diagnosis, personalized treatment (eg, mineralocorticoid replacement), predicting comorbidities (eg, neurological, puberty/fertility), and targeting clinical genetic testing in the

  18. An unusual presentation of Carney complex with diffuse primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease on one adrenal gland and a nonpigmented adrenocortical adenoma and focal primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease on the other.

    PubMed

    Tung, Shih-Chen; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Yang, Joseph W; Chen, Wei-Jen; Lee, Chien-Te

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old female patient with cushingoid appearance was admitted in May 2000. The endocrine studies showed ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. A 2-day high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) revealed paradoxical increase of 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC). Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a left adrenal nodule (3 x 2 cm in diameter). An adrenal scintigram with ¹³¹I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol showed uptake of the isotope in the left adrenal gland and non-visualization in the right adrenal gland throughout the examination course. A retroperitoneoscopic left total adrenalectomy was performed in July 2000. The cut surface of the left adrenal was yellow-tan grossly. Microscopically, the left adrenal nodule contained a nonpigmented adrenocortical adenoma (NP) and another focal primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, FP) mixed lesion. The immunohistochemical studies of CYP17 demonstrate positive in NP and FP of the left adrenal gland. Very low baseline morning plasma cortisol (0.97 μg/dL) and subnormal ACTH (8.16 pg/mL) levels were measured 1.5 months after left adrenalectomy. Right adrenal gland recovered its function 6 months after left adrenalectomy. Plasma cortisol could be suppressed to 3.47 μg/dL by overnight low-dose dexamethasone suppression test 65 months after left adrenalectomy. Cushingoid features still did not appear 122 months after left adrenalectomy. In May 2011, this patient was readmitted due to cushingoid characteristics. Paradoxical rise of 24-h UFC to 2-day HDDST was demonstrated. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed bilateral thyroid cysts. Subtotal right adrenalectomy about 80% of right adrenal was performed. Diffuse PPNAD of the right adrenal was proved pathologically. Immunohischemical stain for CYP17 is positive in the right adrenal gland but weaker positive than that in the left adrenal gland. The genetic study of the peripheral blood, left adrenocortical nodule, and right PPNAD all showed p.R16X

  19. Rapid and fine adjustment of corticosteroidogenesis operating in the adrenal gland of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) superfused in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Fenske, M

    1987-09-01

    Corticosteroid release from adrenals of male adult Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) has been studied during continuous and discontinuous in-vitro superfusion. Corticosteroid output from glands of untreated animals with plasma corticosteroid levels below 300 ng/ml was 3.3 +/- 0.3 ng/adrenal pair/min and decreased only slightly with the length of superfusion (60 min: 3.1 +2- 0.3 ng/adrenal pair/min). In-vitro secretion was significantly higher from adrenals of animals which had corticosteroid plasma levels of over 300 ng/ml, underwent clonic-tonic seizures, or were injected with 6 IU/animal (1-24) ACTH. On the other hand, injection of 2 X 50 micrograms dexamethasone markedly decreased corticosteroid plasma levels but had no significant effect on in-vitro secretion of corticosteroids. In contrast to the slow and small, but long-lasting stimulation of corticosteroid secretion elicited by (1-24) ACTH, secretion could be changed within much shorter time periods, either by the addition of plasma proteins to superfusion medium or by stops of superfusion flow. While a significant stimulation of corticosteroid output occurred after the addition of 1% or 10% BSA or rat plasma, stops of superfusion flow for 1.5 or 10 min resulted in a strong inhibition of steroidogenesis, as is evident from corticosteroid amounts found in the first 1-min samples after re-start of superfusion. Within 4-5 min after re-start of superfusion, secretion returned to basal values. Corticosteroid amounts secreted from adrenals superfused in-vitro were significantly higher than those secreted from adrenals incubated in-vitro. In addition, prolonged incubation suppressed corticosteroidogenesis (30 min: 100%, 60 min: 64%, 90 min: 56%, 120 min: 59%). The results demonstrate that superfusion of sliced adrenal tissue gives insights into aspects of adrenal function, including the rapid changes in synthesis and secretion after flow stops which cannot be investigated by incubation of either tissue

  20. CT demonstration of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-08-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.

  1. Therapy of adrenal insufficiency: an update.

    PubMed

    Falorni, Alberto; Minarelli, Viviana; Morelli, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Adrenal insufficiency may be caused by the destruction or altered function of the adrenal gland with a primary deficit in cortisol secretion (primary adrenal insufficiency) or by hypothalamic-pituitary pathologies determining a deficit of ACTH (secondary adrenal insufficiency). The clinical picture is determined by the glucocorticoid deficit, which may in some conditions be accompanied by a deficit of mineralcorticoids and adrenal androgens. The substitutive treatment is aimed at reducing the signs and symptoms of the disease as well as at preventing the development of an addisonian crisis, a clinical emergency characterized by hypovolemic shock. The oral substitutive treatment should attempt at mimicking the normal circadian profile of cortisol secretion, by using the lower possible doses able to guarantee an adequate quality of life to patients. The currently available hydrocortisone or cortisone acetate preparations do not allow an accurate reproduction of the physiological secretion pattern of cortisol. A novel dual-release formulation of hydrocortisone, recently approved by EMEA, represents an advancement in the optimization of the clinical management of patients with adrenal insufficiency. Future clinical trials of immunomodulation or immunoprevention will test the possibility to delay (or prevent) the autoimmune destruction of the adrenal gland in autoimmune Addison's disease. PMID:23179775

  2. Voltage-dependent currents and modulation of calcium channel expression in zona fasciculata cells from rat adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Barbara, J G; Takeda, K

    1995-01-01

    1. Whole-cell voltage-activated currents from single zona fasciculata (ZF) cells from rat adrenal glands were studied. T- and L-type Ca2+ currents and a slowly inactivating A-type K+ current were the three major currents observed. 2. In freshly isolated cells, the A-type K+ current and the T-type Ca2+ current were predominant. The A-type current was activated at -50 mV and inhibited by 4-amino-pyridine with a half-maximal block (IC50) at 130 microM while the T-type current was activated at -70 mV and blocked by Cd2+, Ni2+ and amiloride with IC50 values of 24.1, 132.4 and 518.9 microM, respectively. 3. Under current clamp, depolarizing current pulses produced a single Ca2+ action potential with Cs+ in the pipette internal solution. Upon replacement of Cs+ by K+, the half-amplitude width of the action potential was shortened and membrane potential oscillations were seen after the spike. 4. In freshly isolated cells and during the first 24 h after plating, the T-type current was observed in all cells, with L-type current being observed in < 2% of cells, even in the presence of (+)SDZ 202,791, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel agonist. With time in culture, the T-type current disappeared, and a high-voltage-activated L-type current became increasingly apparent. In cells tested after > 2 days in culture, (+)SDZ 202,791 potentiated L-type current by 407 +/- 12% and the antagonist (-)SDZ 202,791 blocked this increase. The L-type current was activated between -30 and -20 mV and was sensitive to nitrendipine and omega-conotoxin GVIA. 5. Pre-incubation of cultured ZF cells with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) for 3 days resulted in a high, sustained level of expression of T-type current, with a mean amplitude of 34.2 +/- 5.5 pA pF-1 for ACTH-treated cells compared with 3.4 +/- 1.8 pA pF-1 for untreated cells. Cycloheximide strongly inhibited this effect. Neither treatment affected L-type current expression. 6. The expression of both Ca

  3. Radioguided Adrenal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Deus, Javier; Millera, Alfonso; Andrés, Alejandro; Prats, Enrique; Gil, Ismael; Suarez, Manuel; Salcini, José L.; Lahoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered as the procedure of choice for the treatment of adrenal hyperplasia and tumor lesions. However, some special situations may limit the use of this method due to the difficulty to locate the gland and perform the lesion excision. We analyze 2 patients of a left adrenal tumor, explaining how they have overcome the difficulties in both situations. The first case was a patient with a history of intra-abdominal surgery and the other patient suffered from severe obesity. We performed with the use of the gamma probe, and the 2 cases, was of great help to access and glandular localization. The help of gamma probe test was achieved in the surgical bed, that removal was complete. The use of the portable gamma probe facilitated the access to the left adrenal gland as well as conducting the glandular excision without delay, despite the difficulties due to the intra abdominal surgery caused by the previous surgery, and in the case of severe obesity. PMID:26426608

  4. Enucleation-induced rat adrenal gland regeneration: expression profile of selected genes involved in control of adrenocortical cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tyczewska, Marianna; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Trejter, Marcin; Hochol-Molenda, Anna; Nowak, Krzysztof W; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2014-01-01

    Enucleation-induced adrenal regeneration is a highly controlled process; however, only some elements involved in this process have been recognized. Therefore, we performed studies on regenerating rat adrenals. Microarray RNA analysis and QPCR revealed that enucleation resulted in a rapid elevation of expression of genes involved in response to wounding, defense response, and in immunological processes. Factors encoded by these genes obscure possible priming effects of various cytokines on initiation of regeneration. In regenerating adrenals we identified over 100 up- or downregulated genes involved in adrenocortical cell proliferation. The changes were most significant at days 2-3 after enucleation and their number decreased during regeneration. For example, expression analysis revealed a notable upregulation of the growth arrest gene, Gadd45, only 24 hours after surgery while expression of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 genes was notably elevated between days 1-8 of regeneration. These changes were accompanied by changes in expression levels of numerous growth factors and immediate-early transcription factors genes. Despite notable differences in mechanisms of adrenal and liver regeneration, in regenerating adrenals we identified genes, the expression of which is well recognized in regenerating liver. Thus, it seems legitimate to suggest that, in the rat, the general model of liver and adrenal regeneration demonstrate some degree of similarity. PMID:25431590

  5. Enucleation-Induced Rat Adrenal Gland Regeneration: Expression Profile of Selected Genes Involved in Control of Adrenocortical Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tyczewska, Marianna; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Trejter, Marcin; Hochol-Molenda, Anna; Nowak, Krzysztof W.; Malendowicz, Ludwik K.

    2014-01-01

    Enucleation-induced adrenal regeneration is a highly controlled process; however, only some elements involved in this process have been recognized. Therefore, we performed studies on regenerating rat adrenals. Microarray RNA analysis and QPCR revealed that enucleation resulted in a rapid elevation of expression of genes involved in response to wounding, defense response, and in immunological processes. Factors encoded by these genes obscure possible priming effects of various cytokines on initiation of regeneration. In regenerating adrenals we identified over 100 up- or downregulated genes involved in adrenocortical cell proliferation. The changes were most significant at days 2-3 after enucleation and their number decreased during regeneration. For example, expression analysis revealed a notable upregulation of the growth arrest gene, Gadd45, only 24 hours after surgery while expression of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 genes was notably elevated between days 1–8 of regeneration. These changes were accompanied by changes in expression levels of numerous growth factors and immediate-early transcription factors genes. Despite notable differences in mechanisms of adrenal and liver regeneration, in regenerating adrenals we identified genes, the expression of which is well recognized in regenerating liver. Thus, it seems legitimate to suggest that, in the rat, the general model of liver and adrenal regeneration demonstrate some degree of similarity. PMID:25431590

  6. Acute adrenal crisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cortisol and adrenaline are released in response to stress . Cortisol production is regulated by the pituitary gland. This ... adrenal crisis include: Dehydration Infection and other physical ... medicines such as prednisone or hydrocortisone Surgery Trauma

  7. Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor system in the rat adrenal gland: ontogenetic and physiologic regulation, and its involvement in regulating adrenocortical growth and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Lukasz; Zemleduch, Tomasz; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2010-09-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is a regulatory peptide secreted mostly by adipose tissue and acting via two receptors: AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Our aim was to investigate expression of adiponectin system genes in the rat adrenal gland as well as its ontogenetic and physiological control. Furthermore, we examined the effects of acute and prolonged activation of HPA axis on ADN system in adipose tissue. By means of QPCR, ADN and AdipoR1 expression was demonstrated in rat adrenal cortex both at mRNA and protein levels, while AdipoR2 could only be detected at mRNA levels. ADN expression level was significantly upregulated in a developing and regenerating adrenal cortex. Globular domain of adiponectin at 10(-9) M stimulated corticosterone output and BrdU incorporation by cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Moreover, both acute (ACTH and ether stress) and prolonged (ACTH) adrenal stimulation resulted in lowered ADN levels, while expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was upregulated by the acute treatment. Depending on its site of origin, visceral (VAT) or subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue responded differently to alterations in HPA axis. VAT expression of ADN and its receptors remained almost unchanged by experimental manipulations. In SAT, on the other hand, expression of ADN and AdipoR2 was markedly increased by ACTH treatment and stress, while dexamethasone suppressed ADN and AdipoR1 mRNA levels. The results of this study provide new evidence for direct and indirect interactions between adipokines and HPA axis. PMID:20600433

  8. Adrenal Insufficiency Associated with Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Shingo; Torii, Ryo; Shimabukuro, Ikuko; Yamasaki, Kei; Kido, Takashi; Yoshii, Chiharu; Mukae, Hiroshi; Yatera, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    A 78-year-old Japanese man with fatigue, appetite loss, skin hyperpigmentation, hypotension and hypoglycemia, visited our hospital to evaluate an abnormal chest X-ray and adrenal gland swelling in echography in February 2015. Chest computed tomography showed a mass lesion in the right lower lobe and bilateral adrenal swellings, and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with bilateral adrenal metastasis was diagnosed after bronchoscopy. According to low levels of serum cortisol, elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and rapid ACTH test, the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency associated with SCLC was made. Treatment with hydrocortisone (20 mg/day) was started in addition to systemic chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide. The patient's symptoms were slightly improved, however, systemic chemotherapy was discontinued according to the patient's request after 1 course of chemotherapy. Thereafter, he received only supportive care, and his general condition gradually worsened and he ultimately died in August 2015. Adrenal insufficiency associated with SCLC, which is caused by tissue destruction more than 90% of the adrenal glands, is rare although adrenal metastasis is not rare in patients with lung cancer. The findings such as general fatigue, appetite loss, hypotension, and hyponatremia are often got follow up as findings of advanced cancer, but appropriate therapy for adrenal insufficiency, supplement of the adrenal corticosteroid hormone, may lead to a significant improvement in the symptoms and quality of life in clinical practice of lung cancer. Therefore, physicians must consider potential adrenal insufficiency in lung cancer patients with bilateral adrenal metastasis. PMID:27302729

  9. Percutaneous Ablation of Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Locklin, Julia; Dupuy, Damian E.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2010-01-01

    Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms, and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma and adrenal metastases. Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation, microwave ablation and chemical ablation. Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland’s unique anatomic and physiologic features. The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article. Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed. PMID:20540918

  10. [THE TECHNIQUE OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR SIMULTANEOUS DIAGNOSTIC OF INHERENT HYPERPLASIA OF ADRENAL GLANDS TYPE I AND II].

    PubMed

    Dutov, A A; Nikitin, D A; Lukyanova, Yu L; Shemiakina, N A

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography making it possible simultaneously detect cortisol, cortisone and secondary steroids in serum for consequent analysis of common reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet under 240 nm. The liquid-liquid extraction from alkaline medium in diethyl ether The separation using column of 150x4.6 size ODS 3.5 mkm in isocratic mode. The eluent acetonitrile--0.02 M phosphate buffer pH 8.0--isopropanol (40:60:1). The application of proposed technique managed to separate cortisol, cortisone, dexamethasone, corticosterone, 11-desoxicortisol, testosterone, desoxicorticosterone, 17α-gidroxiprogesterone and androstendion in 20 minutes. The simplicity, reproducibility and sufficient selectivity and sensitivity of technique permit implement it in clinical practice for simultaneous diagnostic of inherent hyperplasia of adrenal glands type I and II. PMID:27183726

  11. Microelectrode Arrays of Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Channels for Real-Time Detection of Exocytotic Events from Cultured Chromaffin Cells and Slices of Adrenal Glands.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Bernardi, Ettore; Marcantoni, Andrea; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2016-08-01

    A microstructured graphitic 4 × 4 multielectrode array was embedded in a single-crystal diamond substrate (4 × 4 μG-SCD MEA) for real-time monitoring of exocytotic events from cultured chromaffin cells and adrenal slices. The current approach relies on the development of a parallel ion beam lithographic technique, which assures the time-effective fabrication of extended arrays with reproducible electrode dimensions. The reported device is suitable for performing amperometric and voltammetric recordings with high sensitivity and temporal resolution, by simultaneously acquiring data from 16 rectangularly shaped microelectrodes (20 × 3.5 μm(2)) separated by 200 μm gaps. Taking advantage of the array geometry we addressed the following specific issues: (i) detect both the spontaneous and KCl-evoked secretion simultaneously from several chromaffin cells directly cultured on the device surface, (ii) resolve the waveform of different subsets of exocytotic events, and (iii) monitoring quantal secretory events from thin slices of the adrenal gland. The frequency of spontaneous release was low (0.12 and 0.3 Hz, respectively, for adrenal slices and cultured cells) and increased up to 0.9 Hz after stimulation with 30 mM KCl in cultured cells. The spike amplitude as well as rise and decay time were comparable with those measured by carbon fiber microelectrodes and allowed to identify three different subsets of secretory events associated with "full fusion" events, "kiss-and-run" and "kiss-and-stay" exocytosis, confirming that the device has adequate sensitivity and time resolution for real-time recordings. The device offers the significant advantage of shortening the time to collect data by allowing simultaneous recordings from cell populations either in primary cell cultures or in intact tissues. PMID:27376596

  12. Genetics Home Reference: intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most severe feature of IMAGe syndrome . The adrenal glands are a pair of small glands on top ... how these genetic changes underlie the bone abnormalities, adrenal gland underdevelopment, and other signs and symptoms of this ...

  13. Untreated Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with 17-α Hydroxylase/17,20-Lyase Deficiency Presenting as Massive Adrenocortical Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Jin; Song, Je Eun; Hwang, Sena; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Park, Hye-Sun; Han, Seunghee

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is usually characterized by hypertension and primary amenorrhea, sexual infantilism in women, and pseudohermaphroditism in men. hypertension, and sexual infantilism in women and pseudohermaphroditism in men. In rare cases, a huge adrenal gland tumor can present as a clinical manifestation in untreated CAH. Adrenal cortical adenoma is an even more rare phenotype in CAH with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. A 36-year-old female presented with hypertension and abdominal pain caused by a huge adrenal mass. Due to mass size and symptoms, left adrenalectomy was performed. After adrenalectomy, blood pressure remained high. Based on hormonal and genetic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as CAH with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. The possibility of a tumorous change in the adrenal gland due to untreated CAH should be considered. It is important that untreated CAH not be misdiagnosed as primary adrenal tumor as these conditions require different treatments. Adequate suppression of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in CAH is also important to treat and to prevent the tumorous changes in the adrenal gland. Herein, we report a case of untreated CAH with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency presenting with large adrenal cortical adenoma and discuss the progression of adrenal gland hyperplasia due to inappropriate suppression of ACTH secretion. PMID:26248854

  14. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Caused by Biallelic TNXB Variants in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wuyan; Perritt, Ashley F; Morissette, Rachel; Dreiling, Jennifer L; Bohn, Markus-Frederik; Mallappa, Ashwini; Xu, Zhi; Quezado, Martha; Merke, Deborah P

    2016-09-01

    Some variants that cause autosomal-recessive congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) also cause hypermobility type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) due to the monoallelic presence of a chimera disrupting two flanking genes: CYP21A2, encoding 21-hydroxylase, necessary for cortisol and aldosterone biosynthesis, and TNXB, encoding tenascin-X, an extracellular matrix protein. Two types of CAH tenascin-X (CAH-X) chimeras have been described with a total deletion of CYP21A2 and characteristic TNXB variants. CAH-X CH-1 has a TNXB exon 35 120-bp deletion resulting in haploinsufficiency, and CAH-X CH-2 has a TNXB exon 40 c.12174C>G (p.Cys4058Trp) variant resulting in a dominant-negative effect. We present here three patients with biallelic CAH-X and identify a novel dominant-negative chimera termed CAH-X CH-3. Compared with monoallelic CAH-X, biallelic CAH-X results in a more severe phenotype with skin features characteristic of classical EDS. We present evidence for disrupted tenascin-X function and computational data linking the type of TNXB variant to disease severity. PMID:27297501

  15. [Addison's disease : Primary adrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Pulzer, A; Burger-Stritt, S; Hahner, S

    2016-05-01

    Adrenal insufficiency, a rare disorder which is characterized by the inadequate production or absence of adrenal hormones, may be classified as primary adrenal insufficiency in case of direct affection of the adrenal glands or secondary adrenal insufficiency, which is mostly due to pituitary or hypothalamic disease. Primary adrenal insufficiency affects 11 of 100,000 individuals. Clinical symptoms are mainly nonspecific and include fatigue, weight loss, and hypotension. The diagnostic test of choice is dynamic testing with synthetic ACTH. Patients suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency require lifelong hormone supplementation. Education in dose adaption during physical and mental stress or emergency situations is essential to prevent life-threatening adrenal crises. Patients with adrenal insufficiency should carry an emergency card and emergency kit with them. PMID:27129928

  16. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging demonstrates the specific localization of deca-bromo-diphenyl-ether residues in the ovaries and adrenal glands of exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Seyer, Alexandre; Riu, Anne; Debrauwer, Laurent; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Brunelle, Alain; Laprévote, Olivier; Zalko, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Deca-bromo-diphenyl ether (DBDE) is one of the most efficient brominated flame retardant (BFR) available on the market. We recently demonstrated that when administered to female rat by oral route, DBDE is efficiently absorbed, with the highest residual concentrations found in two endocrine glands, namely the adrenal glands and the ovaries. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging, a technique usually used for the study of endogenous compounds, was applied for the first time to a persistent organic pollutant, allowing to detect and to precisely localize DBDE residues in these two target tissues. The detection of the bromide ion ((81)Br isotope) by TOF-SIMS mass spectrometry imaging allowed us to demonstrate a marked cortical tropism of DBDE residues for the adrenal glands in female rats dosed per os 2 mg·kg(-1) DBDE, daily, over 96 h. In ovaries, DBDE residues were found to be concentrated in spots corresponding to part of the corpora lutea. Hepatic residues of DBDE were found to be homogeneously distributed. Due to the intrinsic toxicity of DBDE, its accumulation in the adrenal glands and the ovaries may be connected to the mechanisms of actions by which DBDE could trigger endocrine disruption in mammals. PMID:20675151

  17. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  18. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate (99mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  19. Adrenal involvement in non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Paling, M.R.; Williamson, B.R.J.

    1983-08-01

    Adrenal masses are described in seven cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a series of 173 patients. In all seven patients the lymphoma was diffuse rather than nodular. Three patients had adrenal masses at the time of presentation, whereas in four cases the adrenal gland was a site of tumor recurrence after therapy. Three patients had simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement by tumor. No characteristic features were recognized that might have distinguished these tumors from other adrenal masses. Appropriate therapy successfully resolved the adrenal masses in all but one case. The latter patient was the only one with evidence of adrenal insufficiency.

  20. MCM4 mutation causes adrenal failure, short stature, and natural killer cell deficiency in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Claire R.; Guasti, Leonardo; Meimaridou, Eirini; Chuang, Chen-Hua; Schimenti, John C.; King, Peter J.; Costigan, Colm; Clark, Adrian J.L.; Metherell, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    An interesting variant of familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD), an autosomal recessive form of adrenal failure, exists in a genetically isolated Irish population. In addition to hypocortisolemia, affected children show signs of growth failure, increased chromosomal breakage, and NK cell deficiency. Targeted exome sequencing in 8 patients identified a variant (c.71-1insG) in minichromosome maintenance–deficient 4 (MCM4) that was predicted to result in a severely truncated protein (p.Pro24ArgfsX4). Western blotting of patient samples revealed that the major 96-kDa isoform present in unaffected human controls was absent, while the presence of the minor 85-kDa isoform was preserved. Interestingly, histological studies with Mcm4-depleted mice showed grossly abnormal adrenal morphology that was characterized by non-steroidogenic GATA4- and Gli1-positive cells within the steroidogenic cortex, which reduced the number of steroidogenic cells in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. Since MCM4 is one part of a MCM2-7 complex recently confirmed as the replicative helicase essential for normal DNA replication and genome stability in all eukaryotes, it is possible that our patients may have an increased risk of neoplastic change. In summary, we have identified what we believe to be the first human mutation in MCM4 and have shown that it is associated with adrenal insufficiency, short stature, and NK cell deficiency. PMID:22354170

  1. Primary Adrenal Insufficiency Misdiagnosed as Hypothyroidism in a Patient with Polyglandular Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Upala, Sikarin; Yong, Wai Chung; Sanguankeo, Anawin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is a rare condition that causes a variety of clinical symptoms due to autoimmune processes involving multiple endocrine organs. Its vague presentation can cause missed or delayed treatment for adrenal insufficiency, resulting in a life-threatening adrenal crisis. Case Report: A 21-yr-old man presented with lethargy, hypotension, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. He was binge drinking the day before presentation. No significant response to initial treatment with levothyroxine and dextrose occurred. Diagnostic workup later revealed primary adrenal insufficiency. All initial symptoms completely resolved following treatment with hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and levothyroxine. Conclusion: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome causes dysfunction of multiple endocrine organs such as the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and pancreas. Initial diagnosis of APS is crucial and difficult because of its vague, acute presentation, which often involves hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. Delayed treatment of adrenal insufficiency can result in a life-threatening adrenal crisis. A diagnostic workup for adrenal insufficiency should be performed in patients who do not respond to hypothyroidism treatment. PMID:27298818

  2. Positive iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59) adrenal images can precede return of adrenocortical function after o,p' DDD treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sparagana, M.; Ackerman, L.

    1988-05-01

    A patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, due to the ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) syndrome, received a 3-month course of treatment with 1,1 dichloro-2(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p' DDD), which caused adrenal hypofunction requiring steroid therapy. Eleven months later, Cushing's syndrome recurred. His CT scan showed a left adrenal gland that was enlarged and a normal-sized right adrenal gland. However, the NP-59 image showed increased uptake by both glands. Venous effluent was sampled from each adrenal vein. The plasma cortisol level from the left gland was 1392 ng/ml, and that from the right gland was 667 ng/ml. The latter value was not significantly different from the values obtained at peripheral sites (517-744 ng/ml). In the course of recovery from o,p' DDD damage, the ability of the adrenal gland to take up NP-59 may be restored before the return of its biosynthetic and secretory functions. Serial NP-59 adrenal images can anticipate the recurrence of Cushing's syndrome after adrenolytic therapy, thereby permitting early retreatment.

  3. Autoradiographic localization and characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites in the rat central nervous system and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.R.; Wildey, G.M.; Manaker, S.; Glembotski, C.C.

    1986-07-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) have recently been identified in both heart and CNS. These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities, and are all apparently derived from a single prohormone. Specific ANP binding sites have been characterized in the adrenal zona glomerulosa and kidney cortex, and one study reported ANP binding sites in the CNS. However, a detailed examination of the localization of ANP binding sites throughout the brain has not been reported. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was employed to examine the distribution of ANP receptors in the rat CNS. The binding of (3-/sup 125/I-iodotyrosyl28) rat ANP-28 to binding sites in the rat CNS was saturable, specific for ANP-related peptides, and displayed high affinity (Kd = 600 pM). When the relative concentrations of ANP binding sites were determined throughout the rat brain, the highest levels of ANP binding were localized to the circumventricular organs, including the area postrema and subfornical organ, and the olfactory apparatus. Moderate levels of ANP binding sites were present throughout the midbrain and brain stem, while low levels were found in the forebrain, diencephalon, basal ganglia, cortex, and cerebellum. The presence of ANP binding sites in the subfornical organ and the area postrema, regions considered to be outside the blood-brain barrier, suggests that peripheral ANP levels may regulate some aspects of CNS control of salt and water balance. The possible functions of ANP binding sites in other regions of the rat brain are not known, but, like many other peptides, ANP may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator at these loci.

  4. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M. Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-04-15

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture.

  5. What Causes Cushing's Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adenomas in places other than the pituitary or adrenal glands, mostly in the lungs, pancreas, thyroid, or thymus ... Cancer in places other than the pituitary or adrenal glands, mostly in the lungs, pancreas (pronounced PAN-kree- ...

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cerina, Vatroslav; Kruljac, Ivan; Radosevic, Jelena Marinkovic; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Stipic, Darko; Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-03-01

    The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency (AI) after pituitary surgery. The ITT is unpleasant for patients, requires close medical supervision and is contraindicated in several comorbidities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether tumor size, remission rate, preoperative, and early postoperative baseline hormone concentrations could serve as predictors of AI in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of morning serum cortisol. This prospective study enrolled 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pituitary adenomas. Thirty-seven patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA), 28 had prolactinomas and 5 had somatotropinomas. Thyroxin (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) were measured preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day. Serum morning cortisol was measured on the third postoperative day (CORT3) as well as the sixth postoperative day (CORT6). Tumor mass was measured preoperatively and remission was assessed 3 months after surgery. An ITT was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively. Remission was achieved in 48% of patients and AI occurred in 51%. Remission rates and tumor type were not associated with AI. CORT3 had the best predictive value for AI (area under the curve (AUC) 0.868, sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 83.3%). Tumor size, preoperative T4, postoperative T4, and TSH were also associated with AI in a multivariate regression model. A combination of all preoperative and postoperative variables (excluding serum cortisol) had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 77.8%. The predictive power of CORT3 substantially improved by adding those variables into the model (AUC 0.921, sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 78.3%, PPV 81.9%, NPV of 92.7%). In a subgroup analysis that included only female patients with NPA, LH had exactly the same predictive value as CORT3. The addition

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Vatroslav; Kruljac, Ivan; Radosevic, Jelena Marinkovic; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Stipic, Darko; Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency (AI) after pituitary surgery. The ITT is unpleasant for patients, requires close medical supervision and is contraindicated in several comorbidities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether tumor size, remission rate, preoperative, and early postoperative baseline hormone concentrations could serve as predictors of AI in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of morning serum cortisol. This prospective study enrolled 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pituitary adenomas. Thirty-seven patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA), 28 had prolactinomas and 5 had somatotropinomas. Thyroxin (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) were measured preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day. Serum morning cortisol was measured on the third postoperative day (CORT3) as well as the sixth postoperative day (CORT6). Tumor mass was measured preoperatively and remission was assessed 3 months after surgery. An ITT was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively. Remission was achieved in 48% of patients and AI occurred in 51%. Remission rates and tumor type were not associated with AI. CORT3 had the best predictive value for AI (area under the curve (AUC) 0.868, sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 83.3%). Tumor size, preoperative T4, postoperative T4, and TSH were also associated with AI in a multivariate regression model. A combination of all preoperative and postoperative variables (excluding serum cortisol) had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 77.8%. The predictive power of CORT3 substantially improved by adding those variables into the model (AUC 0.921, sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 78.3%, PPV 81.9%, NPV of 92.7%). In a subgroup analysis that included only female patients with NPA, LH had exactly the same predictive value as CORT3. The

  8. Brunner's gland hamartoma: a cause of the double-duct sign.

    PubMed

    Kostalas, M; Jackson, P; Karanjia, N

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Brunner's glands are submucosal glands found in the duodenum. Proliferation of these glands can lead to the formation of Brunner's gland hamartomas (BGHs), which are uncommon, asymptomatic and usually found incidentally. They are predominantly benign lesions, but instances of malignant transformation have been reported. Case History We describe a rare case in which a periampullary lesion was causing biliary obstruction on a background of weight loss, and was associated with dilatation of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Further investigation with endoscopic ultrasound and biopsy did not provide a definitive diagnosis. Given the symptoms and findings upon investigations, we proceeded to pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Conclusions This was a rare case in which BGH gave rise to biliary obstruction against a background of weight loss. Due to a high index of suspicion (weight loss and evidence of dilatation of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct), this procedure was justified because the consequences of a missed periampullary cancer far outweighed surgical risks. PMID:27055413

  9. Agents that cause enlargement of sebaceous glands in hairless mice. II. Ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Lesnik, R H; Kligman, L H; Kligman, A M

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a murine model to measure the effects on sebaceous glands of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Hairless mice were irradiated with Westinghouse FS-40 tubes filtered to attenuate the radiation below 290 nm. Emission was mainly in the UVB range (peak, 313nm). Single and multiple exposures were given with fractions or multiples of one minimal erythemal dose (MED). Biopsies, fixed for light microscopy, were stained with H & E. Under high power, sebocytes of 30 glands per specimen were counted and the means determined. A single exposure of 1 MED caused a significant increase in sebocyte count, as did thrice-weekly exposures to 0.5 MED for 3 weeks. One 3-MED exposure produced sebocyte necrosis, yet 30 exposures at 4 MED failed to ablate the glands. In both cases there was rebound enlargement which had not returned to control levels by the end of the studies (24-30 weeks). Prolonged irradiation produced maximum enlargement in a few weeks. Thus, in a manner similar to other skin components, the response of sebaceous glands to UV radiation is one of hyperplasia. PMID:1610209

  10. Hyperthyroidism caused by a toxic intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, R.; Lakshmipathi, N.; Jena, A.; Behari, V.; Chopra, M.K.

    1986-09-01

    The rare presentation of hyperthyroidism caused by an intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland is described. The toxic intrathoracic goiter demonstrated avid uptake of (/sup 131/I) and (99mTc)pertechnetate, with comparatively faint isotopic accumulation seen in the cervical thyroid. A chest roentgenogram and radioisotope scan should be mandatory in cases of hyperthyroidism having no cervical thyroid enlargement to explore the possibility of a toxic intrathoracic goiter.

  11. Primary emphysematous adrenal hydatid: Unusual site for presentation with rare pathology

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Gaurav; Goel, Apul; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the adrenal gland is uncommon. We present images and description a case of emphysematous hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland that had an unfavourable intraoperative outcome. PMID:27555689

  12. Disabled-2 is expressed in adrenal zona glomerulosa and is involved in aldosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Romero, Damian G; Yanes, Licy L; de Rodriguez, Angela F; Plonczynski, Maria W; Welsh, Bronwyn L; Reckelhoff, Jane F; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E

    2007-06-01

    The differentiation of the adrenal cortex into functionally specific zones is probably due to differential temporal gene expression during fetal growth, development, and adulthood. In our search for adrenal zona glomerulosa-specific genes, we found that Disabled-2 (Dab2) is expressed in the zona glomerulosa of the rat adrenal gland using a combination of laser capture microdissection, mRNA amplification, cDNA microarray hybridization, and real-time RT-PCR. Dab2 is an alternative spliced mitogen-regulated phosphoprotein with features of an adaptor protein and functions in signal transduction, endocytosis, and tissue morphogenesis during embryonic development. We performed further studies to analyze adrenal Dab2 localization, regulation, and role in aldosterone secretion. We found that Dab2 is expressed in the zona glomerulosa and zona intermedia of the rat adrenal cortex. Low-salt diet treatment increased Dab2-long isoform expression at the mRNA and protein level in the rat adrenal gland, whereas high-salt diet treatment did not cause any significant modification. Angiotensin II infusion caused a transient increase in both Dab2 isoform mRNAs in the rat adrenal gland. Dab2 overexpression in H295R human adrenocortical cells caused an increase in aldosterone synthase expression and up-regulated aldosterone secretion under angiotensin II-stimulated conditions. In conclusion, Dab2 is an adrenal gland zona glomerulosa- and intermedia-expressed gene that is regulated by aldosterone secretagogues such as low-salt diet or angiotensin II and is involved in aldosterone synthase expression and aldosterone secretion. Dab2 may therefore be a modulator of aldosterone secretion and be involved in mineralocorticoid secretion abnormalities. PMID:17303656

  13. In vivo production of novel vitamin D2 hydroxy-derivatives by human placentas, epidermal keratinocytes, Caco-2 colon cells and the adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Kim, Tae-Kang; Shehabi, Haleem Z.; Tang, Edith; Benson, Heather A. E.; Semak, Igor; Lin, Zongtao; Yates, Charles R.; Wang, Jin; Li, Wei; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the metabolism of vitamin D2 to hydroxyvitamin D2 metabolites ((OH)D2) by human placentas ex-utero, adrenal glands ex-vivo and cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and colonic Caco-2 cells, and identified 20(OH)D2, 17,20(OH)2D2, 1,20(OH)2D2, 25(OH)D2 and 1,25(OH)2D2 as products. Inhibition of product formation by 22R-hydroxycholesterol indicated involvement of CYP11A1 in 20- and 17-hydroxylation of vitamin D2, while use of ketoconazole indicated involvement of CYP27B1 in 1α-hydroxylation of products. Studies with purified human CYP11A1 confirmed the ability of this enzyme to convert vitamin D2 to 20(OH)D2 and 17,20(OH)2D2. In placentas and Caco-2 cells, production of 20(OH)D2 was higher than 25(OH)D2 while in human keratinocytes the production of 20(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D2 were comparable. HaCaT keratinocytes showed high accumulation of 1,20(OH)2D2 relative to 20(OH)D2 indicating substantial CYP27B1 activity. This is the first in vivo evidence for a novel pathway of vitamin D2 metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and modified by CYP27B1, with the product profile showing tissue- and cell-type specificity. PMID:24382416

  14. In vivo production of novel vitamin D2 hydroxy-derivatives by human placentas, epidermal keratinocytes, Caco-2 colon cells and the adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Kim, Tae-Kang; Shehabi, Haleem Z; Tang, Edith K Y; Benson, Heather A E; Semak, Igor; Lin, Zongtao; Yates, Charles R; Wang, Jin; Li, Wei; Tuckey, Robert C

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the metabolism of vitamin D2 to hydroxyvitamin D2 metabolites ((OH)D2) by human placentas ex-utero, adrenal glands ex-vivo and cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and colonic Caco-2 cells, and identified 20(OH)D2, 17,20(OH)₂D2, 1,20(OH)₂D2, 25(OH)D2 and 1,25(OH)₂D2 as products. Inhibition of product formation by 22R-hydroxycholesterol indicated involvement of CYP11A1 in 20- and 17-hydroxylation of vitamin D2, while use of ketoconazole indicated involvement of CYP27B1 in 1α-hydroxylation of products. Studies with purified human CYP11A1 confirmed the ability of this enzyme to convert vitamin D2 to 20(OH)D2 and 17,20(OH)₂D2. In placentas and Caco-2 cells, production of 20(OH)D2 was higher than 25(OH)D2 while in human keratinocytes the production of 20(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D2 were comparable. HaCaT keratinocytes showed high accumulation of 1,20(OH)₂D2 relative to 20(OH)D2 indicating substantial CYP27B1 activity. This is the first in vivo evidence for a novel pathway of vitamin D2 metabolism initiated by CYP11A1 and modified by CYP27B1, with the product profile showing tissue- and cell-type specificity. PMID:24382416

  15. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. PMID:25776460

  16. How Do I Find an Experienced Adrenal Surgeon?

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Adrenal Gland Disorders: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page ... do I find an experienced adrenal surgeon? Make sure that the surgeon you choose ...

  17. Identification, cloning and regulation of cDNA encoding aldo-keto reductase 1B7 in the adrenal gland of two Saharan rodents Meriones libycus (Libyan jird) and Gerbillus gerbillus (gerbil).

    PubMed

    Mataoui-Mazari, Houria; Amirat, Zaïna; Khammar, Farida; Martinez, Antoine

    2011-12-01

    Aldo-Keto Reductase 1B7 (AKR1B7) is a mouse aldose reductase-like protein with two major sites of expression, the vas deferens and the adrenal cortex. In the adrenal cortex, Akr1b7 is an adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-responsive-gene whose product scavenges harmful byproducts of steroidogenesis and limits stress response through the biosynthesis of prostaglandin F2α. The purpose of the present study was to explore the possible expression of AKR1B7 in the adrenal glands of two saharan rodents, Libyan jird and Lesser Egyptian gerbil. Western blot analyses demonstrated that a protein related to murine/rat AKR1B7 was highly expressed in adrenals and absent from vas deferens of both saharan species. Based on conserved sequences between mouse and rat, full length cDNA were cloned and sequenced in both species while hormonal regulation and tissue localization were explored in Libyan jird. Both cDNA encoded the expected 316 amino acids protein typical of AKR1B subfamily and contained the highly conserved catalytic tetrad consisting in Asp-44, Tyr-49, Lys-78 and His-111 residues. The deduced proteins shared higher identities with aldose reductase-like, i.e. AKR1B7 (86-94%), AKR1B8 and AKR1B10 (83-86%) than with aldose reductase group, i.e. AKR1B1 and AKR1B3 (70%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Libyan jird and gerbil enzymes were more closely related to murine and rat AKR1B7 than to the other AKR1B members. Northern blot analyses of total RNA from Libyan jird adrenals showed a single mRNA transcript of 1.4 kb whose expression was dependent on circulating ACTH levels. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that adrenal glands of Libyan jird and gerbil express both an ortholog of the murine/rat Akr1b7 gene and that ACTH-responsiveness is at least conserved in Libyan jird. PMID:21963864

  18. Giant adrenal myelolipoma: when trauma and oncology collide.

    PubMed

    Zorgdrager, Marcel; Pol, Robert; van Hemel, Bettien; van Ginkel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Three patients presented some decades after severe traumatic injury with atypical bowel symptoms which were caused by a giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland. The aetiology of this rare, benign and generally asymptomatic tumour is virtually unknown at present and several hypotheses have been devised. This report describes a possible association between high-energy trauma and the development of giant myelolipomas, further contributing to the hypothesis that severe systemic stress could be an aetiological factor in the development of an adrenal myelolipoma. PMID:24872487

  19. Effect of dietary copper and sucrose on catecholamine concentrations in the adrenal medulla

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, S.I.; Peterson, D.F.; Mason, P.A. KCOM, Kirksville, MO Air Force/SAM/RZP, Brooks AFB, TX )

    1991-03-11

    The severity of copper (Cu) deficiency in the rat is enhanced by dietary sucrose. Possible interactive effects of Cu status and sucrose on catecholamine concentrations in the adrenal medulla were investigated in Cu deficient rats fed a diet were investigated in Cu deficient rats fed a diet containing either glucose or sucrose, as compared with respective Cu-adequate controls. Catecholamines were analyzed by an HPLC method using 3,4-dihydroxybenxylamine as the internal standard. Cu deficiency caused pronounced decreases in norepinephrine and epinephrine, with no significant effect on dopamine, as expressed in nmoles/mg tissue. Dietary sucrose showed no appreciable effect on catecholamines in the adrenal medulla. The adrenal glands were markedly enlarged in Cu-deficient rats, whether fed glucose or sucrose. Adrenal weights were not affected by dietary sucrose. Data indicate that the increased severity of copper deficiency due to sucrose feeding is not associated with changes in adrenal catecholamine output.

  20. Sonographic Diagnosis of Fetal Adrenal Hemorrhage Complicating a Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Kütük, Mehmet Serdar; Doğanay, Selim; Özdemir, Ahmet; Görkem, Süreyya Burcu; Öztürk, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a rare intracranial vascular malformation which causes end-organ ischemia or venous congestion due to heart failure. Adrenal hemorrhage associated with VGAM has not been reported in the literature. We present the imaging findings of a fetal VGAM with adrenal hemorrhage. Case Report: A 26 year-old primigravida woman whose fetus with VGAM and mild cardiomegaly was scanned in the 34th week. On fetal ultrasound, a hyperechoic, well-circumscribed mass in the left suprarenal region was shown. Fetal and postnatal magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage. The baby died after delivery. Conclusion: Adrenal hemorrhage can complicate VGAM in fetuses with severe heart failure. Evaluation of the adrenal gland in affected cases may contribute to the prenatal counseling, and postnatal management. PMID:26966627

  1. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  2. Compensatory adrenal growth - A neurally mediated reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallman, M. F.; Engeland, W. C.; Shinsako, J.

    1976-01-01

    The responses of young rats to left adrenalectomy or left adrenal manipulation were compared to surgical sham adrenalectomy in which adrenals were observed but not touched. At 12 h right adrenal wet weight, dry weight, DNA, RNA, and protein content were increased (P less than 0.05) after the first two operations. Left adrenal manipulation resulted in increased right adrenal weight at 12 h but no change in left adrenal weight. Sequential manipulation of the left adrenal at time 0 and the right adrenal at 12 h resulted in an enlarged right adrenal at 12 h (P less than 0.01), and an enlarged left adrenal at 24 h (P less than 0.05), showing that the manipulated gland was capable of response. Bilateral adrenal manipulation of the adrenal glands resulted in bilateral enlargement of 12 h (P less than 0.01). Taken together with previous results, these findings strongly suggest that compensatory adrenal growth is a neurally mediated reflex.

  3. Relationship of serum lipids to adrenal-gland uptake of 6. beta. -(/sup 131/I) iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol in Cushing's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Valk, T.W.; Gross, M.D.; Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.P.; Schteingart, D.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1980-11-01

    An alteration in serum cholesterol levels has been suggested as a possible modifier of adrenal uptake of the cholesterol analog, 6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (NP-59). To assess the effect of hypercholesterolemia upon NP-59 adrenal uptake, patients with Cushing's syndrome (eight with pituitary-dependent, four with ACTH-independent, and two with ectopic-ACTH syndrome) were selected for retrospective analysis based on the availability of serum cholesterol (n = 14) and triglyceride (n = 10) concentrations obtained at the time of adrenal scintigraphy. A negative correlation (r = -0.78, p < 0.01) was found between NP-59 uptake and serum cholesterol levels in patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease. Compared with pituitary-dependent disease, the ectopic-ACTH syndrome and ACTH-independent states demonstrated equal or greater adrenal uptake of NP-59 at similar serum cholesterol concentrations. Serum triglyceride concentrations did not correlate with total adrenal uptake of NP-59 in any of the patient groups studied. Increased serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with diminished adrenal uptake of NP-59, and in some cases may limit the diagnoic efficacy of adrenal scintigraphy in Cushing's syndrome.

  4. CD44 expression in normal adrenal tissue and adrenal tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Barshack, I; Goldberg, I; Nass, D; Olchovsky, D; Kopolovic, J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein found on many normal cells, mainly lymphoid and epithelial. Normal cells usually express standard CD44 (CD44-S), whereas malignant tumours may express CD44 variant isoforms (CD44-V). CD44 expression has been described for neural crest derivatives. Characterisation of differences in CD44 expression may help in the diagnosis and differentiation of distinct adrenal tumours. AIMS: To examine CD44 expression in different layers of cortical cortex, in adrenal medulla, and in adrenal tumours. METHODS: CD44-S and CD44-V6 expression were studied in 12 cases of adrenal cortical adenoma, 3 of adrenal cortical carcinoma, 10 of pheochromocytoma, and 4 normal adrenal glands. RESULTS: CD44-V6 staining showed cytoplasmic expression in normal adrenal cortex and in cortical adenomas and carcinomas. Pheochromocytomas also showed CD44-V6 expression but in 5 of the 10 cases it was sparse, focal, and sometimes perinuclear. Strong membranous staining for CD44-S was observed in normal adrenal medulla. Analysis of CD44-S expression revealed differences between cortical adrenal tumours and pheochromocytomas. Ten of 12 cortical adenomas and 2 of 3 cortical carcinoma cells showed weak to moderate cytoplasmic staining, but all cases of pheochromocytoma had strong membranous staining. CONCLUSIONS: Membranous CD44-S staining may help to distinguish pheochromocytoma from adrenal cortical adenoma. Images PMID:9577373

  5. Resveratrol alleviates endotoxemia-associated adrenal insufficiency by suppressing oxidative/nitrative stress.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guo-Li; Wang, Chang-Nan; Liu, Yu-Jian; Yu, Qing; Tang, Xiao-Lu; Ni, Xin; Zhu, Xiao-Yan

    2016-06-30

    We have recently demonstrated that endotoxin causes oxidative stress and overproduction of nitric oxide in adrenal glands, thereby leading to adrenocortical insufficiency. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of resveratrol, a natural plant polyphenol with anti-oxidant and anti-nitrative properties, on endotoxemia-associated adrenocortical insufficiency. Resveratrol was administered immediately before injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Twenty four hours later, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests was been performed to measure the plasma corticosterone level and the adrenal gland tissues were collected for histopathologic examination, and determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite production. Treatment with resveratrol significantly inhibited endotoxemia-induced iNOS expression, NO production, and peroxynitrite formation and also attenuated LPS-induced oxidative stress in the adrenal gland, as evidenced by the decrease of pro-oxidant biomarker (MDA), and the increases of anti-oxidant biomarkers (T-AOC, CAT and SOD activity). H&E staining demonstrated that administration of LPS resulted in increased into the adrenal gland. H&E-stained sections of adrenal glands demonstrated signs of leukocyte infiltration and hemorrhage during endotoxemia, which were significantly improved by resveratrol treatment. In addition, resveratrol reversed the LPS-induced downregulation of ACTH receptor and silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in adrenal gland, as well as adrenocortical hyporesponsiveness to ACTH. Resveratrol exerts protective effects against endotoxemia-associated adrenocortical insufficiency by suppressing oxidative/nitrative stress. These findings support the potential for resveratrol as a possible pharmacological agent to improve adrenocortical

  6. Kuttner tumour: an unusual cause of enlargement of a minor salivary gland in the lip.

    PubMed

    Paul, R; Shekar, K; Singh, M

    2010-03-01

    Kuttner tumour is benign, chronic, sclerosing sialadenitis that usually occurs in the submandibular gland and is regarded as a salivary gland neoplasm because of its clinical features. We describe a tumour arising from a minor salivary gland of the upper lip. To our knowledge, there are only two previously reported cases. PMID:19926183

  7. Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with adrenal Cushing syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Franco, Carlos Andrés; Román-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Velez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Echeverri-Isaza, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia or the independent adrenocorticotropic hormone bilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause hypercortisolism, its diagnosis is challenging and there is no clear way to decide the best therapeutic approach. Adrenal venous sampling is commonly used to distinguish the source of hormonal production in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. It could be a useful tool in this context because it might provide information to guide the treatment. We report the case of a patient with ACTH independent Cushing syndrome in whom the use of adrenal venous sampling with some modifications radically modified the treatment and allowed the diagnosis of a macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:26309345

  8. Imaging of an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Graham, M.M.; Nelp, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Though the typical scintigraphic appearance in adrenal cortical carcinoma is bilateral nonvisualization of the adrenal glands, a case with simultaneous visualization of both an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis using 6-..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol is reported.

  9. Imaging of an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Graham, M.M.; Nelp, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Though the typical scintigraphic appearance in adrenal cortical carcinoma is bilateral nonvisualization of the adrenal glands, we report a case with simultaneous visualization of both an adrenal cortical carcinoma and its skeletal metastasis using 6-beta-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol.

  10. Loss of Igfbp7 Causes Precocious Involution in Lactating Mouse Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sumanta; Bacopulos, Stephanie; Yang, Wenyi; Amemiya, Yutaka; Spyropoulos, Demetri

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are secreted peptides that play major roles in regulating the normal development and maturation of mammary gland. While Igfbp7 has been shown to decrease breast tumor growth, its role in regulating the normal mammary gland development has not been studied. To this end, we generated Igfbp7-null mice and examined the development and maturation of mammary glands in the virgin, pregnant and lactating animals. Results We report here that loss of Igfbp7 significantly retards mammary gland development in the virgin animals. More significantly, the pregnant Igfpb7-null glands contained fewer alveolar structures and that during lactation these glands exhibit the morphological changes that are associated with involution. The transcriptome profile of the Igfbp7-null glands on the lactation day 3 revealed a distinct involution-related gene signature compared to the lactating WT glands. Interestingly, we found that the lactating Igfbp7-null glands exhibit increased expression of Stat3 and enhanced activation of (phosphorylated) Stat3, combined with decreased expression of Stat5 suggesting that the absence of Igfbp7 accelerates the onset of involution. We also found that in absence of Igfpb7, the lactating glands contain increased Igfbp5 protein along with decreased expression of IGF-1 Receptor and Akt activation. Finally, we show that during the normal course of involution, Igfbp7 expression is significantly decreased in the mammary gland. Conclusion Our data suggest that loss of Igfbp7 induces precocious involution possibly through diminished cell survival signals. Our findings identify Igfbp7 as major regulator of involution in the mammary gland. PMID:24505323

  11. Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for pyloric stenosis caused by heterotopic glands in a young female: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Tanioka, Toshiro; Matsumoto, Satoru; Takahashi, Shusaku; Ueki, Shinya; Takahashi, Masahiro; Ichihara, Shin

    2015-06-01

    A 17-year-old female was referred to our hospital with worsening dietary intake and abdominal bloating. She had epigastric fullness, but no abdominal pain. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed food residue and pyloric stenosis. A contrast-enhanced radiograph also showed pyloric stenosis, and gastrografin was not passed well through her pylorus. Computed tomography revealed similar findings. The biopsy results indicated hyperplasia of the gastric glands. The patient was diagnosed with a benign lesion, and underwent endoscopic balloon dilation several times. However, her stenosis worsened and we decided to perform surgery. In consideration of the cosmetic outcome, we performed laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. The postoperative course was good, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 10. The final diagnosis was pyloric stenosis caused by heterotopic glands. No malignant lesions were found. Since gastric stenosis caused by heterotopic glands has not been reported previously, we consider this to be a very rare case. PMID:24986451

  12. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  13. Salivary glands - "an unisex organ'?

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Y T; Stegaev, V; Mackiewicz, Z; Porola, P; Hänninen, A; Szodoray, P

    2010-10-01

    Usually no distinction is made between female and male salivary glands although cyclic changes of and ⁄ or differences in serum and salivary sex steroid concentrations characterize women and men. Moreover, sexual dimorphism is well recognized in salivary glands of rodents.Salivary glands contain estrogen and androgen receptors and are, according to modern high throughput technologies,subjected to gender differences not explainable by gene dose effects by the X chromosome alone. Because sex steroids are lipophilic, it is often thought that approximately 10% of them passively diffuse from plasma to saliva. Indeed, saliva can find use as sample material in sports medicine, pediatrics, veterinary medicine and behavioral sciences. Last but not least, humans and other primates are unique in that they have a reticular zone in their adrenal cortex, which produces dehydroepiandrosterone and androstendione pro-hormones. These are processed in peripheral tissues, not only in female breast and uterus and male prostate, but also in salivary glands by an intracrine enzymatic machinery to active 17b-estradiol,dihydrotestosterone and others, to satisfy and buffer against a constantly changing needs caused by circadian,menstrual, pregnancy and chronobiological hormonal changes in the systemic circulation. Female dominance of Sjögren's syndrome and certain forms of salivary gland cancer probably reflect these gender-based differences. PMID:20412448

  14. Clinical application of SPECT in adrenal imaging with iodine-131 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimura, J.; Kawanaka, M.; Fukuchi, M.

    1989-04-01

    Forty-one patients with or without adrenocortical disorders were studied to evaluate the clinical usefulness of SPECT in adrenal imaging with I-131 Adosterol. In the SPECT images from this study, all glands with either normally functioning or hyperfunctioning adrenal cortices could be detected, while those glands with hypofunctioning adrenal cortices could not be detected. Particularly in transaxial and sagittal slices, the adrenal gland was identified posteriorly and was clearly distinguished from the gallbladder. In preliminary results using SPECT by a standard method, uptake in 68 detectable glands ranged from 1.7% to 4.9% in four glands with Cushing's syndrome, from 1.1% to 1.3% in seven glands with primary aldosteronism, and were distributed below 1.0% in the remaining glands with normally functioning adrenal cortices. These data show that it is possible to evaluate the adrenocortical functioning status simply by analyzing the SPECT images of the adrenal.

  15. Adrenal oncoctyoma of uncertain malignant potential: a rare etiology of adrenal incidentaloma.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Rohit R; Muinov, Lucy; Lele, Subodh M; Shivaswamy, Vijay

    2016-03-01

    A rare cause for rapid adrenal enlargement is adrenal oncocytoma of uncertain malignant potential. A full biochemical evaluation is warranted to screen secreting adrenal adenomas as well as to evaluate adrenal cortical carcinoma. Careful pathologic evaluation is required as the diagnosis of AOC cannot be made by imaging. PMID:27014458

  16. Laparoscopic Resection of Adrenal Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Vitagliano, Gonzalo; Villeta, Matias; Arellano, Leonardo; Santis, Oscar

    2006-01-01

    Background: Teratoma is a germ-cell tumor that commonly affects the gonads. Its components originate in the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. Extragonadal occurrence is rare. Teratomas confined to the adrenal gland are exceptional; only 3 cases have been reported in the English-language literature. We report 2 cases of mature teratomas of the adrenal gland that were laparoscopically excised. Methods: Two patients (ages 8 and 61 years) were diagnosed with adrenal teratoma at our institution. Radiological examination showed a solid 8-cm adrenal lesion in both cases. Hormonal assessment was normal. Both patients underwent laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy. Results: Surgical time was 120 minutes and 50 minutes, respectively. One patient was discharged on postoperative day 2, and the other remained hospitalized until day 10. The latter patient required percutaneous drainage of a retroperitoneal collection. Both tumors were identified as mature cystic teratomas. No evidence was present of recurring disease in either patient. Conclusions: Adrenal teratoma is rare. Laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy is a feasible, effective technique that enables excellent oncologic results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pure adrenal teratoma. PMID:17575773

  17. Adrenal response to ACTH stimulation in Rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    PubMed

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T

    1984-01-01

    Resting cortisol values in immobilized mature Rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) and the response to synthetic ACTH were investigated. The mean level of cortisol in mature Rusa stags was found to be 3.80 ng/ml (SD = 0.87, N = 18). Over the range 0.37-6.0 i.u. the adrenal response to ACTH challenge was linearly related to the log dose ACTH administered (r = 0.998). More than 6 i.u. of ACTH caused maximal stimulation of the adrenal gland. Rusa deer appear to be much more sensitive to ACTH administration than other species. PMID:6150796

  18. Role of DAX-1 (NR0B1) and steroidogenic factor-1 (NR5A1) in human adrenal function.

    PubMed

    El-Khairi, Ranna; Martinez-Aguayo, Alejandro; Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lin, Lin; Achermann, John C

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear receptor transcription factors DAX-1 (NR0B1) and SF-1 (NR5A1) regulate many aspects of adrenal and reproductive development and function. Disruption of the genes encoding these factors can be associated with pediatric adrenal disease. DAX-1 mutations are classically associated with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and impaired spermatogenesis. However, other phenotypes are also being reported, such as isolated mineralocorticoid insufficiency, premature sexual development, primary adrenal insufficiency in a 46, XX patient and late-onset X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. SF-1 mutations have also been associated with primary adrenal insufficiency, together with 46, XY disorders of sex development. However it is emerging that SF-1 changes are a relatively rare cause of primary adrenal failure in humans, and most individuals with SF-1 mutations have a spectrum of 46, XY disorders of sex development phenotypes. These conditions range from 46, XY females with streak gonads and müllerian structures, through children with ambiguous genitalia and inguinal testes, to severe penoscrotal hypospadias with undescended testes. Therefore, the human gonad appears to be more sensitive than the adrenal gland to loss of SF-1 function. This review will focus on the expanding range of phenotypes associated with DAX-1 and SF-1 mutations. PMID:21164257

  19. Adrenal Incidentaloma

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  20. Idiopathic Bilateral Adrenal Hemorrhage in a 63-Year-Old Male: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bodukam, Vijay Kumar; Thakur, Kshitij; Singh, Amandeep; Jenkins, Donald; Bahl, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage is a largely uncommon condition typically caused by a number of factors including infection, MI, CHF, anticoagulants, trauma, surgery, and antiphospholipid syndrome. Yet, idiopathic bilateral hemorrhage is rare. The authors present a case of a 63-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain that was eventually diagnosed as bilateral adrenal hemorrhages due to an unknown origin. Abdominal CT revealed normal adrenal glands without enlargement, but an MRI displayed enlargement due to hemorrhage in both adrenals. There was no known cause; the patient had not suffered from an acute infection and was not on anticoagulants, and the patient's history did not reveal any of the other known causative factors. The case underscores the importance of keeping bilateral adrenal hemorrhages on the list of differentials even when a cause is not immediately clear. It also raises the question of whether CT is the most sensitive test in the diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage and whether the diagnostic approach should place greater weight on MRI. The case highlights the need for prompt therapy with steroids once bilateral hemorrhage is suspected to avert the development or progression of adrenal insufficiency. PMID:25973281

  1. Secondary radiation damage as the main cause for unexpected volume effects: A histopathologic study of the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.umcg.nl; Faber, Hette; Cotteleer, Femmy; Vissink, Arjan; Coppes, Rob P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate with a histopathological study the mechanism of region-dependent volume effects in the partly irradiated parotid gland of the rat. Methods and Materials: Wistar rats were locally X-irradiated with collimators with conformal radiation portals for 100% volume and 50% cranial/caudal partial volumes. Single doses up to 40 Gy were applied. Parotid saliva samples were collected, and the three lobes of the parotid gland were examined individually on the macro- and micromorphologic level up to 1 year after irradiation. Results: Dose-dependent loss of gland weight was observed 1 year after total or partial X-irradiation. Weight loss of the glands correlated very well with loss of secretory function. Irradiating the cranial 50% volume (implicating a shielded lateral lobe) resulted in substantially more damage in terms of weight loss and loss of secretory function than 50% caudal irradiation (shielding the ventral and dorsal lobe). Histologic examinations of the glands 1 year after irradiation revealed that the shielded lateral lobe was severely affected, in contrast to the shielded ventral and dorsal lobes. Time studies showed that irradiation of the cranial 50% volume caused late development of secondary damage in the shielded lateral lobe, becoming manifest between 240 and 360 days after irradiation. The possible clinical significance of this finding is discussed. Conclusion: It is concluded that the observed region-dependent volume effect for late function loss in the rat parotid gland after partial irradiation is mainly caused by secondary events in the shielded lateral lobe. The most probable first step (primary radiation event) in the development of this secondary damage is radiation exposure to the hilus region (located between the ventral and dorsal lobe). By injuring major excretory ducts and supply routes for blood and nerves in this area, the facility system necessary for proper functioning of the nonexposed lateral lobe is seriously affected

  2. An effect of mammary gland infection caused by Streptococcus uberis on composition and physicochemical changes of cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Pecka-Kiełb, E; Vasil, M; Zachwieja, A; Zawadzki, W; Elečko, J; Zigo, F; Illek, J; Farkašová, Z

    2016-01-01

    An effect of mammary gland infection caused by Streptococcus uberis on the changes in cows' milk composition and its physicochemical properties was examined. The study was conducted in the herd of Slovak Pied breed cattle (with a share of HF blood), in 2nd and 3rd lactation, after 4th month of milking. Milk samples were collected from a quarter milking. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis, basic milk composition, total bacteria count, somatic cell count and physicochemical properties were examined. Also analyses of protein fractions share and fatty acids profile were conducted. An effect of bacterial infection of the mammary gland bring an increase (P<0.01) in somatic cell count was observed in this study. Milk samples contaminated with S. uberis were characterized by higher (P<0.05) total bacteria count and total protein compared to milk samples collected from non-infected mammary gland. The level of κ-casein was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in cows with subclinical mastitis caused by S. uberis. Significant (P<0.05) reduction in the share of C13:0 acid, and an increased level of C18:0, C18:1n7t and CLA were observed in milk contaminated with S. uberis compared to healthy cows' milk. It should be concluded that S. uberis causes the increase in total bacteria count, SCC and the decrease in κ-casein level, which significantly affects deterioration of technological quality of cows' milk. PMID:27096787

  3. Localization of functional adrenal tumors by computed tomography and venous sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnick, N.R.; Doppman, J.L.; Gill, J.R. Jr.; Strott, C.A.; Keiser, H.R.; Brennan, M.F.

    1982-02-01

    Fifty-eight patients with functional lesions of the adrenal glands underwent radiographic evaluation. Twenty-eight patients had primary aldosteronism (Conn syndrome), 20 had Cushing syndrome, and 10 had pheochromocytoma. Computed tomography (CT) correctly identified adrenal tumors in 11 (61%) of 18 patients with aldosteronomas, 6 of 6 patients with benign cortisol-producing adrenal tumors, and 5 (83%) of 6 patients with pheochromocytomas. No false-positive diagnoses were encountered among patients with adrenal adenomas. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia appeared on CT scans as normal or prominent adrenal glands with a normal configuration; however, CT was not able to exclude the presence of small adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling was correct in each case, and reliably distinguished adrenal tumors from hyperplasia. Recurrent pheochromocytomas were the most difficult to loclize on CT due to the surgical changes in the region of the adrenals and the frequent extra-adrenal locations.

  4. Adrenal myelolipoma.

    PubMed

    Cyran, K M; Kenney, P J; Memel, D S; Yacoub, I

    1996-02-01

    In 1905, Gierke [1] first described the occurrence of a tumor in the adrenal composed of mature fat and mixed myeloid and erythroid cells, subsequently termed "formations myelolipomatoses" by Oberling [2] in 1929. PMID:8553954

  5. The effect of changes in adrenal blood flow on adrenal cortical responses to adrenocorticotrophin in conscious calves.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C T; Edwards, A V; Bloom, S R

    1990-01-01

    1. The effect of varying adrenal blood flow on the rate at which it was estimated that adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) was presented to the adrenal gland was related to right adrenal cortisol output in conscious calves fitted with 'adrenal clamps'. 2. Intra-aortic infusions of endothelin at either 15.0 or 7.5 pmol min-1 kg-1 produced a substantial fall in right adrenal blood flow which was dose-related over this range. There was an associated fall in right adrenal cortisol output and cortisol output was linearly related to estimated ACTH presentation to the gland over the whole range investigated. The changes in adrenal cortisol output were reflected by changes in the concentration of cortisol in the peripheral plasma, which could be attributed entirely to the fluctuations in adrenal cortisol output. 3. It is concluded that delivery of ACTH to the adrenal gland is flow dependent over the physiological range in these animals and that changes in adrenal cortical blood flow can therefore be expected to result in changes in adrenal output due to variations in the presentation rate of ACTH. PMID:2177504

  6. Estrogenic Plant Extracts Reverse Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation without Causing Mammary Gland or Uterine Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Saunier, Elise F.; Vivar, Omar I.; Rubenstein, Andrea; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Olshansky, Moshe; Baggett, Scott; Staub, Richard E.; Tagliaferri, Mary; Cohen, Isaac; Speed, Terence P.; Baxter, John D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG) and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP) bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. PMID:22163294

  7. [Meibomian glands : part III. Dysfunction - argument for a discrete disease entity and as an important cause of dry eye].

    PubMed

    Knop, E; Knop, N; Brewitt, H; Pleyer, U; Rieck, P; Seitz, B; Schirra, F

    2009-11-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), mainly synonymous with posterior blepharitis but typically without prominent inflammatory alterations of the lid margin, is a discrete disease entity and a frequent cause of wetting deficiencies of the ocular surface leading to dry eye disease that deserves increased recognition by clinicians. The history, classification, pathology, influencing factors, diagnostics and therapy are explained and discussed. MGD is mainly based on an obstructive mechanism caused by hyperkeratinization of the excretory duct and/or increased viscosity of the secretion (meibum) with subsequent deficiency of the tear film lipid layer. MGD is influenced by the hormonal status and by chemical and mechanical noxes as well as genetic defects and it occurs more frequently in women and generally increases with age. It results in stasis of meibum inside the glands, dilatation of the ductal system and eventually in atrophy and loss of glandular tissue (gland dropout). Careful investigation of the eyelids and lid margins with eversion, if necessary, should therefore be performed in every case of a wetting defect, notably before fitting contact lenses. Particularly important is the inspection of the meibomian orifices and diagnostic expression by mild mechanical compression of the lid. PMID:19941140

  8. Radioguided Adrenal Surgery: Access in Complex Situations: Technical Notes.

    PubMed

    Deus, Javier; Millera, Alfonso; Andrés, Alejandro; Prats, Enrique; Gil, Ismael; Suarez, Manuel; Salcini, José L; Lahoz, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    The laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered as the procedure of choice for the treatment of adrenal hyperplasia and tumor lesions. However, some special situations may limit the use of this method due to the difficulty to locate the gland and perform the lesion excision. We analyze 2 patients of a left adrenal tumor, explaining how they have overcome the difficulties in both situations. The first case was a patient with a history of intra-abdominal surgery and the other patient suffered from severe obesity. We performed with the use of the gamma probe, and the 2 cases, was of great help to access and glandular localization. The help of gamma probe test was achieved in the surgical bed, that removal was complete. The use of the portable gamma probe facilitated the access to the left adrenal gland as well as conducting the glandular excision without delay, despite the difficulties due to the intra abdominal surgery caused by the previous surgery, and in the case of severe obesity. PMID:26426608

  9. A Novel Population of Inner Cortical Cells in the Adrenal Gland That Displays Sexually Dimorphic Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptor-β1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen-Che Jeff; Kraft, Cary; Moy, Nicole; Ng, Lily

    2015-01-01

    The development of the adrenal cortex involves the formation and then subsequent regression of immature or fetal inner cell layers as the mature steroidogenic outer layers expand. However, controls over this remodeling, especially in the immature inner layer, are incompletely understood. Here we identify an inner cortical cell population that expresses thyroid hormone receptor-β1 (TRβ1), one of two receptor isoforms encoded by the Thrb gene. Using mice with a Thrbb1 reporter allele that expresses lacZ instead of TRβ1, β-galactosidase was detected in the inner cortex from early stages. Expression peaked at juvenile ages in an inner zone that included cells expressing 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, a marker of the transient, so-called X-zone in mice. The β-galactosidase-positive zone displayed sexually dimorphic regression in males after approximately 4 weeks of age but persisted in females into adulthood in either nulliparous or parous states. T3 treatment promoted hypertrophy of inner cortical cells, induced some markers of mature cortical cells, and, in males, delayed the regression of the TRβ1-positive zone, suggesting that TRβ1 could partly divert the differentiation fate and counteract male-specific regression of inner zone cells. TRβ1-deficient mice were resistant to these actions of T3, supporting a functional role for TRβ1 in the inner cortex. PMID:25774556

  10. Adrenal Lymphangioma Masquerading as a Catecholamine Producing Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Hodish, Israel; Schmidt, Lindsay; Moraitis, Andreas G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To report the unusual case of an adrenal lymphangioma presenting in a patient with an adrenal cystic lesion and biochemical testing concerning for pheochromocytoma. The pertinent diagnostic and imaging features of adrenal lymphangiomas are reviewed. Methods. We describe a 59-year-old patient who presented with hyperhidrosis and a 2.2 by 2.2 cm left adrenal nodule. Biochemical evaluation revealed elevated plasma-free normetanephrine, urine normetanephrine, urine vanillylmandelic acid, and urine norepinephrine levels. Elevated plasma norepinephrine levels were not suppressed appropriately with clonidine administration. Results. Given persistent concern for pheochromocytoma, the patient underwent adrenalectomy. The final pathology was consistent with adrenal lymphangioma. Conclusions. Lymphangiomas are benign vascular lesions that can very rarely occur in the adrenal gland. Imaging findings are generally consistent with a cyst but are nonspecific. Excluding malignancy in patients presenting with adrenal cysts can be difficult. Despite its benign nature, the diagnosis of adrenal lymphangioma may ultimately require pathology. PMID:26618011