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Sample records for adriatic seafood contamination

  1. Natural radionuclides in seafood from the central Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Desideri, D; Meli, M A; Roselli, C

    2011-02-01

    Activity concentrations of ²¹⁰Po, ²¹⁰Pb, and ⁴⁰K were measured in different samples of marine organisms from the central Adriatic Sea. The marine organisms were purchased from the local consumer market during all four seasons of the year to evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of the natural radioactivity. The concentration trend is the following: ⁴⁰K > ²¹⁰Po > ²¹⁰Pb. ⁴⁰K concentration ranged between 54.9 and 235.9 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight, and the arithmetic mean of Pb concentration for all samples is <0.7 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight. Po activity concentration ranged between 0.3 and 44.6 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight; its arithmetic mean was 5.7 ± 7.2 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight. Among the pelagic species, anchovy displayed the highest polonium concentration. The data obtained depend upon the type of marine organism and the period of sampling. Committed effective dose due to ²¹⁰Po ingestion from marine food for individuals in the two different population groups was calculated to be 95.9 and 466.4 μSv y⁻¹, respectively. PMID:21399431

  2. Two-year study of lipophilic marine toxin profile in mussels of the North-central Adriatic Sea: First report of azaspiracids in Mediterranean seafood.

    PubMed

    Bacchiocchi, Simone; Siracusa, Melania; Ruzzi, Angela; Gorbi, Stefania; Ercolessi, Manuela; Cosentino, Maria Anna; Ammazzalorso, Patrizia; Orletti, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    Since the late 1980s, the North-central Adriatic Sea has frequently experienced blooms of harmful algal species, producing marine lipophilic toxins (MLTs) which accumulate in mussels and pose a serious threat to consumer health. Here, we present a 2-year LC-MS/MS study (2012-2014) of the MLT profile in mussels from the North-central Adriatic Sea in the context of the presence of toxic phytoplankton concentrations in seawater. Okadaic acid increased in mussels from all areas during the summer and autumn-winter periods with a rising trend between 2012 and 2014. In the same periods, Dinophysis sp. increased in abundance in seawater, but the highest densities of algae did not always coincide with the highest levels of toxins in mussels. Yessotoxins (YTXs) content in mussel increased sharply in the autumn-winter periods even exceeding the legal limit; although this accumulation did not always correlated with the YTX-producers in water (such as Lingulodinium polyedrum and Protoceratium reticulatum) a massive bloom of Gonyaulax spinifera was reported in November 2013, suggesting the role of this species in YTXs shellfish contamination. Traces of Azaspiracid 2 (AZA-2) were observed often in mussels during the study period, confirming for the first time the presence of this biotoxin in Mediterranean seafood. PMID:26455996

  3. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. PMID:26123540

  4. Risks of consumption of contaminated seafood: The Quincy Bay case study

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, C.B.; Doyle, M.E. ); Kipp, K. )

    1991-01-01

    A recent EPA-sponsored study of sediment and seafood contamination in Quincy Bay revealed elevated levels of several complex organic pollutants frequently of concern in human health assessments. A seafood consumption risk assessment was conducted using data from samples collected in Quincy Bay in the methodology developed for EPA's Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection for such assessments. Results showed estimate plausible, upperbound excess cancer risks in the 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}2} range. These results are comparable to those found in other seafood contamination risk assessments for areas where consumption advisories and fishing restrictions were implemented. Regulatory response included consumption advisories for lobster tomalley (hepatopancreas) and other types of locally caught seafood. Uncertainties inherent in seafood risk assessment in general and for the Quincy Bay case are discussed, along with implications for further action.

  5. CREATION OF A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO IDENTIFY AT-RISK POPULATIONS IN NEW JERSEY AND NEW YORK FOR CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED FISH AND SEAFOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project Objective: To identify at-risk populations, particularly women of child bearing years and young children, for consumption of contaminated fish and seafood via the use of geographically and demographically defined seafood consumption patterns and fish/seafood contaminatio...

  6. Probabilistic health risk assessment for ingestion of seafood farmed in arsenic contaminated groundwater in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Lee, Jin-Jing; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2013-08-01

    Seafood farmed in arsenic (As)-contaminated areas is a major exposure pathway for the ingestion of inorganic As by individuals in the southwestern part of Taiwan. This study presents a probabilistic risk assessment using limited data for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the seafood by local residents in these areas. The As content and the consumption rate are both treated as probability distributions, taking into account the variability of the amount in the seafood and individual consumption habits. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is utilized to conduct an assessment of exposure due to the daily intake of inorganic As from As-contaminated seafood. Exposure is evaluated according to the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the FAO/WHO and the target risk based on the US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The assessment results show that inorganic As intake from five types of fish (excluding mullet) and shellfish fall below the PTWI threshold values for the 95th percentiles, but exceed the target cancer risk of 10(-6). The predicted 95th percentile for inorganic As intake and lifetime cancer risks obtained in the study are both markedly higher than those obtained in previous studies in which the consumption rate of seafood considered is a deterministic value. This study demonstrates the importance of the individual variability of seafood consumption when evaluating a high exposure sub-group of the population who eat higher amounts of fish and shellfish than the average Taiwanese. PMID:23242940

  7. Nutrient and contaminant tradeoffs: exchanging meat, poultry, or seafood for dietary protein.

    PubMed

    Yaktine, Ann L; Nesheim, Malden C; James, Cara A

    2008-03-01

    When making food choices, consumers are faced with the dilemma of reconciling differences between health benefits and exposure to potential toxins. Analyses to estimate likely intake and exposure outcomes for young children and women of child-bearing age shows that seafood, chicken, and beef, while approximately equivalent in protein, vary in key nutrients of importance as well as in levels of certain contaminants. Increasing the variety of choices among meats, poultry, and seafood and consuming them in amounts consistent with current dietary guidelines and advisories will contribute toward meeting nutritional needs while reducing exposure to any single type of contaminant. PMID:18289176

  8. Seafood Contamination after the BP Gulf Oil Spill and Risks to Vulnerable Populations: A Critique of the FDA Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Karen K.; Solomon, Gina M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The BP oil spill of 2010 resulted in contamination of one of the most productive fisheries in the United States by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs, which can accumulate in seafood, are known carcinogens and developmental toxicants. In response to the oil spill, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed risk criteria and established thresholds for allowable levels [levels of concern (LOCs)] of PAH contaminants in Gulf Coast seafood. Objectives: We evaluated the degree to which the FDA’s risk criteria adequately protect vulnerable Gulf Coast populations from cancer risk associated with PAHs in seafood. Discussion: The FDA LOCs significantly underestimate risk from seafood contaminants among sensitive Gulf Coast populations by failing to a) account for the increased vulnerability of the developing fetus and child; b) use appropriate seafood consumption rates; c) include all relevant health end points; and d) incorporate health-protective estimates of exposure duration and acceptable risk. For benzo[a]pyrene and naphthalene, revised LOCs are between two and four orders of magnitude below the level set by the FDA. Comparison of measured levels of PAHs in Gulf seafood with the revised LOCs revealed that up to 53% of Gulf shrimp samples were above LOCs for pregnant women who are high-end seafood consumers. Conclusions: FDA risk assessment methods should be updated to better reflect current risk assessment practices and to protect vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children. PMID:21990339

  9. Mercury, cadmium and lead contamination in seafood: a comparative study to evaluate the usefulness of Target Hazard Quotients.

    PubMed

    Petroczi, A; Naughton, D P

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the applicability of Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) estimations to inform on seafood hazards through metal contamination. The food recall data set was collated by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC, UK) over the period from January to November 2007. Pearson chi-square goodness of fit test, nonparametric correlation (Kendall tau) and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. Descriptive statistics and statistical analyses were computed by using Excel and SPSS 15.0. The vast majority of food alerts/recalls owing to metal contamination occur in seafood and during the summer months. Only swordfish and shark containing produce received over 10 recalls which were mainly for mercury contamination. Seafood produce originating from only 3 countries had over 10 recalls owing to metal contamination (Spain 50; France 11 and Indonesia 11). Based upon the food alert/recall system, the application of THQ estimations of risk in cases of metal contamination of seafood is questionable as THQ implies frequent if not daily exposure over a lifetime. Infrequent recalls owing to metal contamination and the absence of patterns make it highly unlikely that an individual would be subject to multiple exposures to significant levels of metal ions in seafood. PMID:19041361

  10. Mobilisation processes responsible for iron and manganese contamination of groundwater in Central Adriatic Italy.

    PubMed

    Palmucci, William; Rusi, Sergio; Di Curzio, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Iron and manganese are two of the most common contaminants that exceed the threshold imposed by international and national legislation. When these contamination occurs in groundwater, the use of the water resource is forbidden for any purposes. Several studies investigated these two metals in groundwater, but research focused in the Central Adriatic area are still lacking. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the origin of Fe and Mn contamination in groundwater and the hydrogeochemical processes that can enrich aquifers with these metals. This work is based on hydrogeochemical and multivariate statistical analysis of analytical results undertaken on soils and groundwater. Fe and Mn contamination are widespread in the alluvial aquifers, and their distribution is regulated by local conditions (i.e. long residence time, presence of peat or organic-rich fine sediments or anthropic pollution) that control redox processes in the aquifers and favour the mobilisation of these two metals in groundwater. The concentration of iron and manganese identified within soil indicates that the latter are a concrete source of the two metals. Anthropic impact on Fe and Mn contamination of groundwater is not related to agricultural activities, but on the contrary, the contribution of hydrocarbons (e.g. spills) is evident. PMID:26948970

  11. Toxic elements and speciation in seafood samples from different contaminated sites in Europe.

    PubMed

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Barbosa, Vera; Sloth, Jens J; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Tediosi, Alice; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; van den Heuvel, Fredericus H M; Kotterman, Michiel; Marques, António

    2015-11-01

    The presence of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), arsenic (TAs), inorganic arsenic (iAs), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) was investigated in seafood collected from European marine ecosystems subjected to strong anthropogenic pressure, i.e. hotspot areas. Different species (Mytilus galloprovincialis, n=50; Chamelea gallina, n=50; Liza aurata, n=25; Platichthys flesus, n=25; Laminaria digitata, n=15; and Saccharina latissima, n=15) sampled in Tagus estuary, Po delta, Ebro delta, western Scheldt, and in the vicinities of a fish farm area (Solund, Norway), between September and December 2013, were selected to assess metal contamination and potential risks to seafood consumers, as well as to determine the suitability of ecologically distinct organisms as bioindicators in environmental monitoring studies. Species exhibited different elemental profiles, likely as a result of their ecological strategies, metabolism and levels in the environment (i.e. seawater and sediments). Higher levels of Cd (0.15-0.94 mg kg(-1)), Pb (0.37-0.89 mg kg(-1)), Co (0.48-1.1 mg kg(-1)), Cu (4.8-8.4 mg kg(-1)), Zn (75-153 mg kg(-1)), Cr (1.0-4.5 mg kg(-1)) and Fe (283-930 mg kg(-1)) were detected in bivalve species, particularly in M. galloprovincialis from Ebro and Po deltas, whereas the highest content of Hg was found in P. flesus (0.86 mg kg(-1)). In fish species, most Hg was organic (MeHg; from 69 to 79%), whereas lower proportions of MeHg were encountered in bivalve species (between 20 and 43%). The highest levels of As were found in macroalgae species L. digitata and S. latissima (41 mg kg(-1) and 43 mg kg(-1), respectively), with iAs accounting almost 50% of the total As content in L. digitata but not with S. latissima nor in the remaining seafood samples. This work highlights that the selection of the most appropriate bioindicator species is a fundamental step in environmental monitoring of each contaminant

  12. Contamination of commercially available seafood by key diarrhetic shellfish poisons along the coast of China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Tan, Cai-Yun; Guo, Yi-Ping; Li, Lin; Ren, Hong-Lin; Li, Yan-Song; Hu, Pan; Gong, Sheng; Zhou, Yu; Lu, Shi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of outbreaks of food-borne diseases caused by okadaic acid (OA) and its analogue dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), two key diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) toxins, OA and DTX-1, have become a serious threat to public health and have attracted significant public attention in China. The aim of our study was to monitor OA and DTX-1 contamination in commercially available seafood and to provide references for tracking these toxins and preventing disease outbreaks. From 2010 to 2012, 40 species were collected from six coastal cities of four inland seas in China. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a lateral flow immunochromatographic (LFIC) test strip were used to analyse the samples, and the results were further confirmed using a commercially available ELISA kit. The monitoring results indicated that 23 of 40 species were positive for contamination. In addition, 14 of the positive species were determined to be inedible because the content of OA and DTX-1 was above the regulatory limit. Simultaneously, we verified that the digestive glands of shellfish tended to accumulate toxin, in contrast to the flesh. The highest concentrations of OA and DTX-1 were recorded in Scapharca broughtonii, which was collected from Qing Dao, in relation to the other analysed species. Moreover, the Arca family as well as Mytilus galloprovincialis were severely contaminated by OA and its analogue. The above results indicate that some of the commercially available seafood from the coastal cities in China may be inedible due to serious marine toxin contamination. The results of this study might play an important role in protecting consumer health and safety screening of marine products. PMID:25167824

  13. Combined cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a marine toxin and seafood contaminant metal ions (chromium and cadmium).

    PubMed

    Souid-Mensi, Ghada; Moukha, Serge; Maaroufi, Khira; Creppy, Edmond E

    2008-02-01

    Algal bloom with consequent production of marine toxins contaminating bivalves is increasing in costal regions worldwide because of sea water quality worsening. Contamination of seafood by diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins (DSP) together with metals is frequently reported, a phenomenon not fully explained yet. In this context, metal ions were assayed in clams collected from the banned area of Boughrara, Tunisia, contaminated by Gymnodinium and other algae such as Dinophysis sp, accumulated by these bivalves. The presence of toxic metals ions such as Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) in meat, shells, and water released by the clams prompted us to experiment in Caco-2 intestinal cell line toxic effects of these heavy metals ions in combination with okadaic acid, one DSP present in clams to assess the potential global toxicity. Cr and Cd produce additive effects in (i) reactive oxygen species production, (ii) cytotoxicity as assessed by the mitochondrial activity testing method (MTT test), and (iii) DNA lesions evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and acridine orange staining. Exaggerated DNA fragmentation is observed, suggesting an overloading of repair capacity of Caco-2 cells. The apoptosis suggested by a DNA fragment sizing (180-200 bp) in agarose gel and mechanisms underlying these additive effects in Caco-2 cells still need to be more comprehensively explained. PMID:18214935

  14. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jaikanlaya, Chate; Settachan, Daam; Denison, Michael S.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van den Berg, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in this country that demonstrates contamination of seafood with PCBs and determines the levels of PCBs and total dioxin like activity in mussels, oysters and shrimp, from the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Sixty pooled samples of mussels and twenty-seven pooled samples of oysters were collected from cultivation farms and twenty-one pooled samples of shrimp were collected from fisherman piers. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of 49 PCB congeners was obtained by HRGC-ECD analysis and total dioxin-like activity using the CAFLUX bioassay. Total PCB concentrations varied between three species, ranging between 19 and 1100 ng g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and the levels of PCBs in shrimp was three time higher than that in mussels and oysters. With respected to the pattern of PCB congeners, it implied that the source of PCBs exposure in this area could be from the regional contamination. The calculated CAFLUX bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) values ranged between 0.8 and 18 pg BEQ g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and showed a good relationship with the chemical-derived TEQs. Therefore, the CAFLUX bioassay can be used for effective screening of dioxin-like activity in marine species effectively. PMID:19375780

  15. Emerging Seafood Preservation Techniques to Extend Freshness and Minimize Vibrio Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Lau, Fiona; Banerjee, Swapan K.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the popularity of seafood consumption is increasing exponentially. To meet the demands of a growing market, the seafood industry has increasingly been innovating ways to keep their products fresh and safe while increasing production. Marine environments harbor several species of indigenous microorganisms, some of which, including Vibrio spp., may be harmful to humans, and all of which are part of the natural microbiota of the seafood. After harvest, seafood products are often shipped over large geographic distances, sometimes for prolonged periods, during which the food must stay fresh and pathogen proliferation must be minimized. Upon arrival there is often a strong desire, arising from both culinary and nutritional considerations, to consume seafood products raw, or minimally cooked. This supply chain along with popular preferences have increased challenges for the seafood industry. This has resulted in a desire to develop methodologies that reduce pathogenic and spoilage organisms in seafood items to comply with regulations and result in minimal changes to the taste, texture, and nutritional content of the final product. This mini-review discusses and compares several emerging technologies, such as treatment with plant derived natural compounds, phage lysis, high-pressure processing, and irradiation for their ability to control pathogenic vibrios, limit the growth of spoilage organisms, and keep the desired organoleptic properties of the seafood product intact. PMID:27047466

  16. Hexavalent chromium removal in contaminated water using reticulated chitosan micro/nanoparticles from seafood processing wastes.

    PubMed

    Dima, Jimena Bernadette; Sequeiros, Cynthia; Zaritzky, Noemi E

    2015-12-01

    Chitosan particles (CH) were obtained from seafood processing wastes (shrimp shells) and physicochemically characterized; deacetylation degree of CH was measured by Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and potentiometric titration; polymer molecular weight was determined by intrinsic viscosity measurements. Reticulated micro/nanoparticles of chitosan (MCH) with an average diameter close to 100nm were synthesized by ionic gelation of chitosan using tripolyphosphate (TPP), and characterized by SEM, size distribution and Zeta-potential. Detoxification capacities of CH and MCH were tested analyzing the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) from contaminated water, at different initial chromium concentrations. The effect of pH on adsorption capacity of CH and MCH was experimentally determined and analyzed considering the Cr(VI) stable complexes (anions) formed, the presence of protonated groups in chitosan particles and the addition of the reticulating agent (TPP). Chitosan crosslinking was necessary to adsorb Cr(VI) at pH<2 due to the instability of CH particles in acid media. Langmuir isotherm described better than Freundlich and Temkin equations the equilibrium adsorption data. Pseudo-second order rate provided the best fitting to the kinetic data in comparison to pseudo-first order and Elovich equations. Chemical analysis to determine the oxidation state of the adsorbed Cr, showed that Cr(VI) was adsorbed on CH particles without further reduction; in contrast Cr(VI) removed from the solution was reduced and bound to the MCH as Cr(III). The reduction of toxic Cr(VI) to the less or nontoxic Cr(III) by the reticulated chitosan micro/nanoparticles can be considered a very efficient detoxification technique for the treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated water. PMID:26151484

  17. Screening for petrochemical contamination in seafood by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bencsath, F Aladar; Benner, Ronald A; Abraham, Ann; Wang, Yuesong; El Said, Kathleen R; Jester, Edward L E; Plakas, Steven M

    2015-05-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS) method is described, to screen seafood for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with petrochemical taint. VOCs are extracted from the headspace of heated sample homogenates by adsorption onto a SPME fiber and desorbed for analysis by GC-MS. Targeted compounds are determined semi-quantitatively using representative calibration standards for the various classes (alkanes, alkylbenzenes, indanes/tetralins, and naphthalenes) of VOCs analyzed. Sample preparation is minimal, and the analyses are rapid and automated with a capacity of 50 samples per day. The method was optimized in terms of headspace temperature, sample heating time, extraction time, and desorption time using oyster samples fortified with target compounds. Calibrations for hydrocarbon components were linear in the range of 8.3-167 ng/g; the limit of detection ranged between 0.05 and 0.21 ng/g, and the limit of quantitation between 0.16 and 0.69 ng/g. Good precision (RSD < 10 % at 16.7 ng/g for individual VOCs) and accuracy (recovery range 89-118 % at 25 ng/g) were obtained in oyster, crab, shrimp, and finfish matrices. The trueness of the method was demonstrated by quantifying VOCs at 1-2-ppb levels in oyster fortified with certified reference material NIST SRM 1491a. Following single laboratory validation, the method was employed for the determination of VOCs in seafood exposed to oil contaminated seawater and for the determination of background VOC levels in seafood species from the Gulf of Mexico and local food stores. The method as described can be used to supplement human sensory testing for petrochemical taint in seafood. PMID:25796529

  18. Radioactive contamination of cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea by [sup 90]Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Franic, Z.; Lokobauer, N.; Marovic, G. . Radiation Protection Unit)

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination of water samples from cisterns collecting rainwater containing fission products from roofs and other surfaces have been carried out along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea since 1968. An exponential decline of radioactivity followed the nuclear moratorium. After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, higher levels of [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr were detected again, with cistern waters being the only environmental samples in Croatia in which elevated [sup 90]Sr activities persisted for several years. For the pre-Chernobyl period, the observed mean residence time of [sup 90]Sr in cistern waters, estimated to be 6.2 [+-] 1.9 y, was similar to that calculated for fallout. Contrary, for the post-Chernobyl time, observed [sup 90]Sr mean residence time was calculated to be considerably shorter, reflecting the tropospheric mean residence time. The annual dose for the critical adult population received from [sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs by drinking cistern water was estimated to be very small, in the 1990's less than few [micro]Sv y[sup [minus]1].

  19. Organochlorine contaminants in tissues of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Romanić, S Herceg; Holcer, D; Lazar, B; Klinčić, D; Mackelworth, P; Fortuna, C M

    2014-09-01

    Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found at higher concentrations in comparison with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in all of the analyzed tissues. Sums of six indicator congeners (Σ6PCB) constituted around 50% of the total PCB amount, while PCB-153 and PCB-138 were found to have the highest concentrations. Among the seven investigated OCPs, p,p'-DDE was found at the highest concentrations. In blubber, mean values of 22,048 and 11,310ngg(-1) wet weight were determined for ΣPCB and ΣDDT, respectively. Much lower concentrations were found in muscle samples, followed by similar concentrations in kidneys, liver and heart, while the lowest levels of organochlorine contaminants were found in lungs. The results indicate that p,p'-DDT is still being introduced in the Mediterranean region. PCB concentrations are among the highest found in this region and toxicological assessments indicate that the health of this specie is at high risk. PMID:25151654

  20. Seafood Allergy, Toxicity, and Intolerance: A Review.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka

    2016-04-01

    Seafood allergies have been increasing their presence in the last 2 decades. Allergic reactions to seafood can range from mild urticarial and oral allergy syndrome to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Ingestion of seafood infested with Anisakis larvae can cause a disease known as anisakiasis with symptoms similar to true seafood allergy. Furthermore, some adverse reactions to seafood including histamine fish poisoning (HFP), and intolerance to histamine can trigger clinical symptoms, which, although nonallergic in origin, are similar to true immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic reactions. Because seafood allergy usually remains a lifelong food allergy, this review focuses on the current knowledge on fish and shellfish allergens and emphasizes the importance of differentiating seafood allergy from other allergy-like reactions (anisakiasis, HFP, and intolerance to histamine). Key teaching points: • Fish and shellfish are potent allergens that can provoke serious IgE antibody-mediated adverse reactions in sensitive individuals. • Sensitization to seafood allergens can be achieved by ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. • Shellfish major allergen, tropomyosin, shares significant homology to arthropods (dust mites and cockroaches). • Accidental exposures to seafood products cross-contaminated with fish or shellfish allergens (hidden allergens) during processing may present a health risk for sensitive individuals. • Allergens of fish parasite A. simplex present common hidden allergens in seafood, particularly in raw and undercooked home-made fish dishes. • Symptoms caused by HFP, histamine intolerance, and anisakiasis are similar to true seafood allergy. PMID:26252073

  1. Chlorinated compounds in the muscle tissue of fish from the Croatian Adriatic: preliminary data on contamination and the associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Klinčić, Darija; Tičina, Vjekoslav

    2015-12-01

    Levels of 17 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the muscle tissue of 18 commercially important fish species from the eastern Adriatic Sea. PCBs [contaminants did not seem to bioaccumulate up the food web (trophic levels 3.0 to 4.5). Our findings show no risk of chronic (non-cancerous) effects on human health. PMID:26751862

  2. Adriatic coast as a microcosm for global genotoxic marine contamination--a long-term field study.

    PubMed

    Jaksić, Zeljko; Batel, Renato; Bihari, Nevenka; Micić, Milena; Zahn, Rudolf Karl

    2005-11-01

    Global changes in the marine environment and the continuing disposal of genotoxic xenobiotics are increasing the importance of environmental pollution monitoring and of biomonitoring programs. Current approaches focus on investigations at regional and local levels in an attempt to precisely define the nature and extent of any potential environmental crisis. We have initiated, for the first time, a long-term biomonitoring program focusing on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea to contribute to a more detailed understanding of marine genotoxic effects using the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam., collected along the eastern Adriatic coast over a period of five years (1998-2002), as a key test organism. The integrity of DNA in its gill homogenate was examined by the Fast Micromethod. The strand scission factor (SSF) values, as a measure of DNA integrity, DNA damage or incomplete repair have been used for the ranking of sampling sites with respect to significant genotoxic stress due to the influence or effects of genotoxic xenobiotics. The region of Split (Kastela Bay) proved to be the area with the heaviest load of genotoxic agents. The investigation of harmful effects in the ecosystem based on biomonitoring of genetic and other agents, not only on local levels but also on a wider scale, is considered as an important step in marine environmental management. PMID:15961121

  3. Mercury-nutrient signatures in seafood and in the blood of avid seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-10-15

    Dietary recommendations for seafood are confusing due to the desire to balance both benefits from nutrients and risks from contaminants. The overall health value of different fish and shellfish items depends on concentrations of multiple nutrients (e.g., selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids) and contaminants (e.g., mercury (Hg)). However, few studies have examined the connections between human exposure to multiple nutrients and contaminants and the consumption of specific types of seafood. Our goals were to compare 1) Hg, Se and omega-3 fatty acid concentrations (Hg-nutrient signatures) among common fish and shellfish items and 2) Hg-nutrient signatures in the blood of avid seafood consumers, based on seafood consumption habits. We compiled nutrient and Hg concentration data for common fish and shellfish items from the literature. We also measured blood concentrations of Hg and seafood nutrients collected from adult, avid seafood consumers on Long Island, NY. Canonical discriminant analyses revealed distinct Hg-nutrient signatures among seafood items, and these signatures were reflected in the blood of consumers based on different consumption habits. For example, consumers with a salmon-dominated seafood diet had relatively high percentage of omega-3 fatty acids in blood, and consumers who tend to eat top predator seafood have higher Hg, but similar blood nutrient concentrations compared to consumers who tend to eat low trophic level seafood. These results provide direct evidence of links between the ecological characteristics of the type of seafood consumed and Hg-nutrient exposure. This approach helps assess the overall human health value of specific seafood types, leads to specific diet recommendations, and can be used to characterize risk:benefit status among seafood consumers. PMID:24846746

  4. SWASV speciation of Cd, Pb and Cu for the determination of seawater contamination in the area of the Nicole shipwreck (Ancona coast, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The study reports for the first time on the heavy metal contamination of the waters surrounding a shipwreck lying on the sea floor. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry has been used for a survey of the total and dissolved Cd, Pb and Cu contents of the seawater at the site of the sinking of the Nicole M/V (Coastal Adriatic Sea, Italy). Results show that the hulk has a considerable impact as regards all three metals in the bottom water, especially for the particulate fraction concentrations, which increased by factors of ≈ 9 (Cd), ≈ 3 (Pb) and ≈ 5 (Cu). The contaminated plume extended downstream for about 2 miles. Much lower contamination was observed for dissolved bottom concentrations; nevertheless Pb (0.56 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is higher than the Italian legal limits established for 2015 and Cd (0.23 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is very close the limit of Cd will be exceeded if the hulk is not removed. PMID:21982428

  5. Herbicide contamination of live armclad rockfish, clam and pen shell by moss-control agents used in aquariums of seafood restaurants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Y-S; Agustin-Camacho, M R; Park, H-M; Lee, K-B

    2010-01-01

    Determination of simazine and diuron by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) in moss-control agents, seawater and fish in aquariums was investigated and validated. The detection limits are 0.2 (simazine) and 0.4 µg l(-1) (diuron) in blank seawater, and 0.20 (simazine) and 0.30 µg kg(-1) (diuron) in blank fish homogenate, while the recoveries ranged from 93.9% to 102.4% with a relative standard deviation ≤ 9.8% for simazine and diuron. The method was successfully used in the study of simazine and diuron contamination in live fish stored in seafood restaurant aquaria in Korea. It was found that 0.4-2.3% of simazine and <0.10-3.8% of diuron were included the in moss-control agents tested. Of the 66 sampled aquarium seawaters, simazine was found to be present in four samples (3.8-42 µg l(-1)) while diuron was detected in two samples (1.3-1.6 µg l(-1)). For fish homogenates used in a bioconcentration study, simazine content ranges from 0.17 to 1.8 mg kg(-1). PMID:24779629

  6. Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption. PMID:22690165

  7. Isolation and characterization of Aeromonas from seafoods in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Yaun, S S; Lin, L P

    1993-05-01

    A total of 124 fresh seafoods and 158 processed seafoods collected from the retail markets and supermarkets in Taipei were tested for the contamination with motile Aeromonas spp. Of the fresh seafoods analyzed, 88% displayed the presence of Aeromonas. The isolation rates of various samples were as follows: 100%, freshwater fish; 95%, seawater fish; 78%, fish fillets; 84%, shrimp and crab of the crustacea group; 83%, bivalve shellfish and 84%, non-bivalve shellfish of the mollusca group, and 100%, seaweed. Of the 158 processed seafoods, 11% were contaminated by Aeromonas. The isolation rates were as follows: 0%, canned, dried, or frozen fresh seafood; 18%, salted seafood; 30%, fish cake; 7% vacuum-packaged fish cakes; 14%, frozen seafood dumplings; 8%, cooked seafoods. One hundred and eighty-three Aeromonas strains isolated in this survey were characterized to species level and tested for their ability to produce beta-hemolysin. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of the A. hydrophila produced beta-hemolysin on 5% blood agar, 94% of the A. sobria and 33% of the A. caviae produced beta-hemolysin. Thus it is likely that fresh seafoods are potentially significant sources of the virulent Aeromonas species and may play an important role in the epidemiology of Aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis. PMID:7995079

  8. Biogenic amines in seafood: a review.

    PubMed

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Venkateswarlu, R; Mohan, C O; Gopal, T K Srinivasa

    2016-05-01

    The biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases present normally in the body with biological activity influencing important physiological functions. The physiological functions of these molecules are achieved by very low concentrations in the tissues. However, significantly high amounts of biogenic amines are produced during processing and storage of seafood as a result of microbial contamination and inadequate storage conditions. Microorganisms having decarboxylase enzyme activity convert amino acids to their respective biogenic amines. Biogenic amines in seafood have been implicated as a major causative agent of food borne illness, where intoxication results from the ingestion of foods containing higher amount of biogenic amines. Hence its identification, quantitation and awareness of this food borne toxin are important in relation to food safety and spoilage. The aim of this paper is to review the basic concepts of seafood quality and safety in relation to biogenic amines along with its control measures and future areas for research. PMID:27407186

  9. Seafood intake of US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Current federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) for health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet guidelines, particularly population subgroups. Objectives: To describe prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers,...

  10. Intervention strategies for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Li, Min; Li, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaeomolyticus, a natural inhabitant in estuarine marine water, has been frequently isolated from seafood. It has been recognized as the leading causative agent for seafoodborne illness all over the world. Numerous physical, chemical, and biological intervention methods for reducing V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood products have been investigated and practiced. Each intervention method has distinct advantages and disadvantages depending on the processing needs and consumer preference. This review provides a comprehensive overview of various intervention strategies for reducing V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood with an emphasis on the efficiency of bacterial inactivation treatments and the changes in sensory qualities of seafood. In the meantime, reported researches on alternative technologies which have shown effectiveness to inactivate V. parahaemolyticus in seawater and other food products, but not directly in seafood are also included. The successful applications of appropriate intervention strategies could effectively reduce or eliminate the contamination of V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood, and consequently contribute to the improvement of seafood safety and the reduction of public health risk. PMID:25472618

  11. [SEAFOOD ALLERGY IN ISRAEL].

    PubMed

    Rottem, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Allergy to seafood such as shrimps, crab, lobster and fish eggs is relatively infrequent in Israel compared to fish allergies and allergies to other foods. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the population and restaurants preserve and maintain Kosher food. Changes in the population eating habits, partly due to immigration, were followed by increased frequency of such sensitivities in recent years. We describe three typical cases that illustrate the characteristics of allergy to sea foods. Allergy to seafood can present as a single sensitivity or be part of an allergic tendency, atopy, with other allergic manifestations. Diagnosis by allergy skin test or laboratory evaluation by specific IgE is available for most sea foods but not for fish eggs. The current therapeutic approach is strict avoidance and all patients should be provided with and carry with them an epinephrine auto-injector. PMID:26742225

  12. Rapid quantification of Salmonella in seafood by real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2010-03-01

    A quantitative detection method for Salmonella in seafood was developed using a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay. The assay was developed using pure Salmonella DNA at different dilution levels [i.e., 1,000 to 2 genome equivalents (GE)]. The sensitivity of the real-time assay for Salmonella in seeded seafood samples was determined, and the minimum detection level was 20 CFU/g, whereas a detection level of 2 CFU/ml was obtained for pure culture in water with an efficiency of > or =85%. The real-time assay was evaluated in repeated experiments with seeded seafood samples and the regression coefficient (R(2)) values were calculated. The performance of the real-time assay was further assessed with naturally contaminated seafood samples, where 4 out of 9 seafood samples tested positive for Salmonella and harbored cells <100 GE/g, which were not detected by direct plating on Salmonella Chromagar media. Thus, the method developed here will be useful for the rapid quantification of Salmonella in seafood, as the assay can be completed within 2-3 h. In addition, with the ability to detect a low number of Salmonella cells in seafood, this proposed method can be used to generate quantitative data on Salmonella in seafood, facilitating the implementation of control measures for Salmonella contamination in seafood at harvest and post-harvest levels. PMID:20372029

  13. Arsenic speciation in manufactured seafood products.

    PubMed

    Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    1998-09-01

    The literature on the speciation of arsenic (As) in seafoods was critically reviewed. Most research has been directed toward fresh seafood products with few papers dealing with As speciation in manufactured seafoods. Predictions concerning As species made on the basis of fresh seafood products cannot be extrapolated to manufactured seafoods. Therefore, due to the numerous species of As, the scarcity of data concerning their presence in foods, the transformations each species may undergo during industrial processing and cooking, and the lack of legislation on permitted As levels in seafood products, As species in manufactured seafood products need to be determined and quantified. PMID:9766084

  14. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.
CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological

  15. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2008-03-26

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  16. Antimicrobial seafood packaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suman; Ho Lee, Myung; Park, Lnsik; Shin, Yangjai; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms are the major cause of spoilage in most seafood products; however, only few microbes, called the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), contribute to the offensive off-flavors associated with seafood spoilage. In food, microbial degradation manifests itself as spoilage, or changes in the sensory properties of a food product, rendering it unsuitable for human consumption. The use of antimicrobial substances can control the general microflora as well as specific microorganisms related to spoilage to provide products with higher safety and better quality. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures for use in seafood, especially organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins; some studies have considered inorganic compounds such as AgSiO2, zinc oxide, silver zeolite, and titanium oxide. The characteristics of some organic antimicrobial packaging systems for seafood and their antimicrobial efficiency in film structures are reviewed in this article. PMID:27478206

  17. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2010-01-08

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  18. Radiation inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood products.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christopher H; Rajkowski, Kathleen T

    2011-04-01

    Foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood is, unfortunately, a regular occurrence in the United States. Ionizing (gamma) radiation can effectively inactivate microorganisms and extend the shelf life of seafood. In this study, the ability of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens surface inoculated onto frozen seafood (scallops, lobster meat, blue crab, swordfish, octopus, and squid) was investigated. The radiation D(10)-values (the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log unit of a microorganism) for Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella inoculated onto seafood samples that were then frozen and irradiated in the frozen state (-20°C) were 0.43 to 0.66, 0.48 to 0.71, and 0.47 to 0.70 kGy, respectively. In contrast, the radiation D(10)-value for the same pathogens suspended on frozen pork were 1.26, 0.98, and 1.18 kGy for L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and Salmonella, respectively. The radiation dose needed to inactivate these foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood is significantly lower than that for frozen meat or frozen vegetables. PMID:21477481

  19. A laboratory-incubated redox oscillation experiment to investigate Hg fluxes from highly contaminated coastal marine sediments (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Emili, A; Carrasco, L; Acquavita, A; Covelli, S

    2014-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) mobility at the sediment-water interface was investigated during a laboratory incubation experiment conducted with highly contaminated sediments (13 μg g(-1)) of the Gulf of Trieste. Undisturbed sediment was collected in front of the Isonzo River mouth, which inflows Hg-rich suspended material originating from the Idrija (NW Slovenia) mining district. Since hypoxic and anoxic conditions at the bottom are frequently observed and can influence the Hg biogeochemical behavior, a redox oscillation was simulated in the laboratory, at in situ temperature, using a dark flux chamber. Temporal variations of several parameters were monitored simultaneously: dissolved Hg (DHg) and methylmercury (MeHg), O2, NH4 (+), NO3 (-) + NO2 (-), PO4 (3-), H2S, dissolved Mn(2+), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC). Under anoxic conditions, both Hg (665 ng m(2) day(-1)) and MeHg (550 ng m(2) day(-1)) fluxed from sediments into the water column, whereas re-oxygenation caused concentrations of MeHg and Hg to rapidly drop, probably due to re-adsorption onto Fe/Mn-oxyhydroxides and enhanced demethylation processes. Hence, during anoxic events, sediments of the Gulf of Trieste may be considered as an important source of DHg species for the water column. On the contrary, re-oxygenation of the bottom compartment mitigates Hg and MeHg release from the sediment, thus acting as a natural "defence" from possible interaction between the metal and the aquatic organisms. PMID:24122269

  20. Nonthermal and advanced thermal processing technologies for improving the safety and shelf-life of aquaculture raised seafood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The volume of seafood raised by aquaculture has increased in recent years. This seafood can occasionally become contaminated with foodborne pathogens resulting in foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls. In recent years a number of nonthermal and advanced thermal technologies have been devel...

  1. Seafood Products Course Lecture Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, John Wingo, Ed.; And Others

    This consumer's guide offers practical information about the characteristics and uses of seafoods. It covers both finfish and shellfish, including crabs, lobsters, shrimp, oysters, clams, and scallops. It describes the characteristics, important species, fishing methods, market forms, and consumer inspection tips. It also gives such information as…

  2. Analysis of norovirus contamination of seafood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of human norovirus (NoVs) replication in vitro would be a highly useful tool to virologists and immunologists. For this reason, we have searched for new approaches to determine viability of noroviruses in food samples (especially sea food). Our research team has multiple years of experie...

  3. A community-based assessment of seafood consumption along the lower James River, Virginia, USA: potential sources of dietary mercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Holloman, Erica L; Newman, Michael C

    2010-04-01

    The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods to conduct environmental exposure assessments provides valuable insight about disparities in seafood consumption and contaminant exposure. Ninety-five community-specific seafood consumption surveys were administered to low-income African-American women (ages 16-49) residing in the Southeast community of Newport News, VA, USA, for the purpose of assessing potential dietary mercury exposure. Only the results of the seafood consumption surveys are presented in this manuscript. Approximately 65% of the women surveyed do not fish; however, 83% had consumed seafood within the last 7 days. Whiting, shrimp, and canned tuna were the three items most frequently consumed. Ninety-three percent of the women surveyed stated that grocery/seafood markets were the main sources of the seafood items generally consumed. The mean seafood consumption rate for the women surveyed was 147.8 g/day (95% CI: 117.6-185.8), a rate substantially higher than the mean seafood consumption rate reported for US women (1.8 g/day 95% CI: 1.51-2.04). Shrimp, croaker, and blue crab were the top three seafood items with the highest summed amount (g/day) consumed. There was no significant association between demographic variables (age, income, education, and weight) and total number of seafood items listed, ingestion rate (g/meal), exposure frequency (meals/year), and seafood consumption rate (g/day). By using CBPR to assess seafood consumption in this community, we learned that even though women in Southeast Newport News, Virginia are not subsistence fishers, they consume seafood at a subsistence fisher rate. Of the three seafood items most frequently consumed, canned tuna potentially plays a significant role in dietary mercury exposure for women in this community. Future work includes determining mercury concentrations in seafood items consumed and generating community-specific statements of dietary mercury risks. PMID:20129605

  4. Federal seafood safety response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, Gina M; Krahn, Margaret M; Dickhoff, Walton W; Stein, John E; Walker, Calvin C; Lassitter, Cheryl L; Garrett, E Spencer; Desfosse, Lisa L; Mitchell, Karen M; Noble, Brandi T; Wilson, Steven; Beck, Nancy B; Benner, Ronald A; Koufopoulos, Peter N; Dickey, Robert W

    2012-12-11

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, petroleum-related compounds and chemical dispersants were detected in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood in the region. Federal and Gulf Coast State agencies worked together on a sampling plan and analytical protocols to determine whether seafood was safe to eat and acceptable for sale in the marketplace. Sensory and chemical methods were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dispersant in >8,000 seafood specimens collected in federal waters of the Gulf. Overall, individual PAHs and the dispersant component dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate were found in low concentrations or below the limits of quantitation. When detected, the concentrations were at least two orders of magnitude lower than the level of concern for human health risk. Once an area closed to fishing was free of visibly floating oil and all sensory and chemical results for the seafood species within an area met the criteria for reopening, that area was eligible to be reopened. On April 19, 2011 the area around the wellhead was the last area in federal waters to be reopened nearly 1 y after the spill began. However, as of November 9, 2011, some state waters off the Louisiana coast (Barataria Bay and the Delta region) remain closed to fishing. PMID:22315401

  5. Federal seafood safety response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Ylitalo, Gina M.; Krahn, Margaret M.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Stein, John E.; Walker, Calvin C.; Lassitter, Cheryl L.; Garrett, E. Spencer; Desfosse, Lisa L.; Mitchell, Karen M.; Noble, Brandi T.; Wilson, Steven; Beck, Nancy B.; Benner, Ronald A.; Koufopoulos, Peter N.; Dickey, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, petroleum-related compounds and chemical dispersants were detected in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood in the region. Federal and Gulf Coast State agencies worked together on a sampling plan and analytical protocols to determine whether seafood was safe to eat and acceptable for sale in the marketplace. Sensory and chemical methods were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dispersant in >8,000 seafood specimens collected in federal waters of the Gulf. Overall, individual PAHs and the dispersant component dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate were found in low concentrations or below the limits of quantitation. When detected, the concentrations were at least two orders of magnitude lower than the level of concern for human health risk. Once an area closed to fishing was free of visibly floating oil and all sensory and chemical results for the seafood species within an area met the criteria for reopening, that area was eligible to be reopened. On April 19, 2011 the area around the wellhead was the last area in federal waters to be reopened nearly 1 y after the spill began. However, as of November 9, 2011, some state waters off the Louisiana coast (Barataria Bay and the Delta region) remain closed to fishing. PMID:22315401

  6. Exposure assessment for methyl and total mercury from seafood consumption in Korea, 2005 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sang-Jo; Park, Hyejin; Jung, Yun Sun; Lee, Suuggyu; Kim, Yun-Hee; Choi, Minkyu

    2011-09-01

    Reports on the occurrence and intake assessment of mercury for Korean seafood are currently not available. This is the first report to estimate the intake of methyl (Me-Hg) and total mercury (T-Hg) from seafood consumption in Korea. The concentrations of Me-Hg and T-Hg in seafood ranged from 1.02 to 780 (mean: 55.6) ng g(-1) wet weight and 4.89 to 1008 (mean: 100) ng g(-1) wet weight, respectively. The residue levels of Me-Hg and T-Hg in Korean seafood were moderate compared with those found in other countries. The methylation ratios of fish, cephalopods and crustaceans were similar, but shellfish had lower values compared with other species. The intakes of Me-Hg and T-Hg from seafood consumption for the general population were estimated to be 38.8 and 73.8 ng kg(-1) body weight per day, respectively. Mackerel, tuna and squid made the highest contributions to the total intake of these contaminants. Among eight age groups, 30-49 year and 3-6 year age groups had the highest exposure to Me-Hg and T-Hg. The concentrations and intakes of Me-Hg and T-Hg from Korean seafood were less than the allowable residue levels and threshold intake levels suggested by Korean and international authorities. The present study may be useful for risk management of mercury in Korean seafood. PMID:21847486

  7. Brominated flame retardants and seafood safety: a review.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rebeca; Cunha, Sara C; Casal, Susana

    2015-04-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), frequently applied to industrial and household products to make them less flammable, are highly persistent in the environment and cause multi-organ toxicity in human and wildlife. Based on the review of BFRs presence in seafood published from 2004 to 2014, it is clear that such pollutants are not ideally controlled as the surveys are too restricted, legislation inexistent for some classes, the analytical methodologies diversified, and several factors as food processing and eating habits are generally overlooked. Indeed, while a seafood rich diet presents plenty of nutritional benefits, it can also represent a potential source of these environmental contaminants. Since recent studies have shown that dietary intake constitutes a main route of human exposure to BFRs, it is of major importance to review and enhance these features, since seafood constitutes a chief pathway for human exposure and biomagnification of priority environmental contaminants. In particular, more objective studies focused on the variability factors behind contamination levels, and subsequent human exposure, are necessary to support the necessity for more restricted legislation worldwide. PMID:25700249

  8. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Seafood wastewater treatment in constructed wetland: tropical case.

    PubMed

    Sohsalam, Prapa; Englande, Andrew Joseph; Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud

    2008-03-01

    A series of investigations were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetlands to remove pollutants from seafood processing wastewater. Six emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia spp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia deabata J. Fraser were planted in surface flow wetland. They were fed with seafood wastewater that was 50% diluted with treated seafood wastewater from an aerated lagoon. All macrophytes were found to meet satisfying treatment efficiency (standard criteria for discharged wastewater) at 5 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). While C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia met acceptable treatment efficacy at 3 days HRT. Nutrient uptake rate of these species was observed in the range of 1.43-2.30 g Nitrogen/m(2)day and 0.17-0.29 g Phosphorus/m(2)day, respectively at 3 days HRT. The highest treatment performances were found at 5 days HRT. Average removal efficiencies were 91-99% for BOD(5), 52-90% for SS, 72-92% for TN and 72-77% for TP. Plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were experienced to be most satisfactory for C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia. Lower HRTs affected contaminant removal efficiency for all species. C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia can remove all contaminants efficiently even at the lowest hydraulic retention time (1 day). PMID:17383179

  10. Interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beg Paklar, Gordana; Sepic, Jadranka; Grbec, Branka; Dzoic, Tomislav; Kovac, Zarko; Ivatek-Sahdan, Stjepan

    2016-04-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was implemented in order to reproduce interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation. Simulations and model result analysis were performed for a three-year period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2013. ROMS model run was forced with realistic atmospheric fields obtained from meteorological model Aladin, climatological river discharges, tides and Mediterranean circulation imposed at the southern open boundary. Atmospheric forcing included momentum, heat and water fluxes calculated interactively from the Aladin surface fields during ROMS model simulations. Model results were compared with available CTD and ADCP measurements and discussed in the light of the climatological circulation and thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea and its coastal areas. Interannual variability in the Adriatic circulation is related to the prevailing atmospheric conditions, changes in the hydrological conditions and water mass exchange at the Otranto Strait. Basic features of the Adriatic circulation - basin-wide cyclonic circulation with several embedded smaller cyclonic gyres around main pits - are well reproduced by ROMS model. Modelled temperatures and salinities are within corresponding seasonal intervals, although measured profiles generally indicate stronger stratification than modelled ones. Summer circulation in 2011 with current reversal obtained along the eastern Adriatic coast was related to the sampling results of the early fish stages as well as to ARGO drifter movements. Simulated fields from the Adriatic scale model were used to prescribe the initial and open boundary conditions for the interannual simulation in the middle Adriatic coastal domain.

  11. A Review of Seafood Safety after the Deepwater Horizon Blowout

    PubMed Central

    Doke, Dzigbodi; Tipre, Meghan; Leader, Mark; Fitzgerald, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Deepwater Horizon (DH) blowout resulted in fisheries closings across the Gulf of Mexico. Federal agencies, in collaboration with impacted Gulf states, developed a protocol to determine when it is safe to reopen fisheries based on sensory and chemical analyses of seafood. All federal waters have been reopened, yet concerns have been raised regarding the robustness of the protocol to identify all potential harmful exposures and protect the most sensitive populations. Objectives: We aimed to assess this protocol based on comparisons with previous oil spills, published testing results, and current knowledge regarding chemicals released during the DH oil spill. Methods: We performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journal articles and government documents concerning seafood contamination and oil spills and consulted with academic and government experts. Results: Protocols to evaluate seafood safety before reopening fisheries have relied on risk assessment of health impacts from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures, but metal contamination may also be a concern. Assumptions used to determine levels of concern (LOCs) after oil spills have not been consistent across risk assessments performed after oil spills. Chemical testing results after the DH oil spill suggest PAH levels are at or below levels reported after previous oil spills, and well below LOCs, even when more conservative parameters are used to estimate risk. Conclusions: We recommend use of a range of plausible risk parameters to set bounds around LOCs, comparisons of post-spill measurements with baseline levels, and the development and implementation of long-term monitoring strategies for metals as well as PAHs and dispersant components. In addition, the methods, results, and uncertainties associated with estimating seafood safety after oil spills should be communicated in a transparent and timely manner, and stakeholders should be actively involved in developing a long

  12. Mercury speciation in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Kotnik, Jože; Horvat, Milena; Ogrinc, Nives; Fajon, Vesna; Žagar, Dušan; Cossa, Daniel; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-07-15

    Mercury and its speciation were studied in surface and deep waters of the Adriatic Sea. Several mercury species (i.e. DGM – dissolved gaseous Hg, RHg – reactive Hg, THg – total Hg, MeHg – monomethyl Hg and DMeHg – dimethylmercury) together with other water parameters were measured in coastal and open sea deep water profiles. THg concentrations in the water column, as well as in sediments and pore waters, were the highest in the northern, most polluted part of the Adriatic Sea as the consequence of Hg mining in Idrija and the heavy industry of northern Italy. Certain profiles in the South Adriatic Pit exhibit an increase of DGM just over the bottom due to its diffusion from sediment as a consequence of microbial and/or tectonic activity. Furthermore, a Hg mass balance for the Adriatic Sea was calculated based on measurements and literature data. PMID:26013591

  13. Seafood Manual for School Food Service Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Carol S.; Webb, Anita H.

    Seafood information pertinent to the needs of school food service personnel is presented. Each of five sections contains information considered important by school food service managers and supervisors as indicated in a national survey (1977). Provided in section one are a narrative section, graph, and chart on seafood nutritive value. The next…

  14. Improved Method for Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Nishina, Tokuhiro; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hasegawa, Junko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new, effective procedure for detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods using enrichment and plating onto a chromogenic agar medium. Samples were cultured in salt Trypticase soy broth, which is a nonselective medium, and then a portion of the culture was cultured with salt polymyxin broth, which is a selective medium for V. parahaemolyticus. This two-step enrichment was more effective than the one-step enrichment in salt polymyxin broth alone. The enrichment cultures were then plated onto a new chromogenic agar containing substrates for beta-galactosidase. The V. parahaemolyticus colonies developed a purple color on this growth medium that distinguished them from other related bacterial strains. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated more frequently from naturally contaminated seafood samples using the chromogenic agar than thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar medium, which is currently used for the isolation of V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings suggest that this new enrichment and isolation scheme is more sensitive and accurate for identifying V. parahaemolyticus in seafood samples than previously used methods. PMID:11722939

  15. Rapid Determination of Mercury in Seafood in an Introductory Environmental Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeanette K.; Jenkins, J. David; Manley, A. Citabria; Sorel, Eric; Smith, C. Jimmy

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is described which allows easy, rapid determination of mercury levels in commercially seafood samples from a contaminated area. Students gain experience in the preparation of a calibration curve, the determination of unknown concentrations, and risk assessment based on experimentally determined data.

  16. Elevated blood Hg at recommended seafood consumption rates in adult seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure from seafood continues to be a public health concern due to health effects from elevated exposure, increasing worldwide seafood consumption, and continued Hg inputs into the environment. Elevated Hg exposure can occur in populations with specialized diets of sport-caught freshwater fish. However, we need a better understanding of Hg exposure from seafood, the most common exposure source, and from specific seafood types. We examined Hg exposure in avid seafood consumers, and the seafood items and consumption frequency that confer the largest Hg exposure. Adult, avid seafood consumers, in Long Island, NY, USA, with blood total Hg concentrations predicted to exceed the USEPA reference concentration that is considered safe (5.8 μg L(-1)), were eligible for the study; 75% of self-reported avid seafood consumers were eligible to participate. We measured blood total Hg concentrations and seafood consumption in 285 participants. We examined relationships between Hg and seafood consumption using multiple linear regression. Seafood consumption rate for our population (14.4 kg yr(-1)) was >2 times that estimated for the U.S. (6.8 kg yr(-1)), and lower than the worldwide estimate (18.4 kg yr(-1)). Mean blood Hg concentration was 4.4 times the national average, and 42% of participants had Hg concentrations exceeding 5.8 μg L(-1). Elevated Hg exposures occurred at all seafood consumption frequencies, including the recommended frequency of 2 meals per week. Blood Hg concentrations were positively associated with weekly tuna steak or sushi intake (β=6.30 change in blood Hg, μg L(-1)) and monthly (β=2.54) or weekly (β=9.47) swordfish, shark or marlin intake. Our findings show that seafood consumers in this population have elevated Hg exposures even at relatively low seafood consumption rates that are at or below current dietary recommendations. Further study should examine health risks and benefits of avid seafood consumption, and consider modifying

  17. Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety.

    PubMed

    Tediosi, Alice; Fait, Gabriella; Jacobs, Silke; Verbeke, Wim; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Diogene, Jorge; Reuver, Marieke; Marques, António; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel. PMID:26146050

  18. Seafood Consumption and Components for Health

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, in developed countries and around the world, lifestyle-related diseases have become a serious problem. Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that diet is one of the major factors that influence susceptibility to lifestyle-related diseases, especially the middle-senile state. Studies examining dietary habits have revealed the health benefits of seafood consumption. Seafood contains functional components that are not present in terrestrial organisms. These components include n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexsaenoic acid, which aid in the prevention of arteriosclerotic and thrombotic disease. In addition, seafood is a superior source of various nutrients, such as protein, amino acids, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. This review focuses on the components derived from seafood and examines the significant role they play in the maintenance and promotion of health. PMID:22980234

  19. Seafood consumption among Chinese coastal residents and health risk assessment of heavy metals in seafood.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Yan, Shuangshuang; Liu, Min; Wang, Bi; Hu, Dong; Guo, Dongbei; Wang, Juan; Xu, Wanting; Fan, Chun

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to obtain the seafood dietary patterns of coastal residents, to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, and to evaluate the possible health risks caused by seafood intake. The daily food intakes of 24 types of seafood were collected from 738 participants from Xiamen, a southern Chinese coastal city, using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and dietary history method. One hundred and fifty-six samples of 14 types of highest intake seafood were collected from local markets for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) determination. Health risks via seafood consumption were evaluated by calculating the target hazard quotient (THQ) and the total hazard index (HI) for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the seafood daily intake of Xiamen residents was 61.5 (2.14, 115) g/day. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in seafood were ND-0.45 mg/kg, ND-0.19 mg/kg, ND-0.80 mg/kg, ND-0.70 mg/kg, and 0.32-16.9 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of Cd and As in some samples were higher than national limitation standards. Consumption of 14 common types of seafood would not pose non-carcinogenic risk. However, some types, such as sparuslatus, oyster, and porphyra tenera, would form a carcinogenic risk. Regardless of a carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risk, As posed the highest risk on humans. The observed HI value for non-carcinogenic effect of all metals in all seafood reached 0.69-2.20, and the metal orders of risk can be listed as As > Hg > Cr > Cd > Pb, reiterating the risk of As is a matter of concern in seafood from Xiamen markets. PMID:27194017

  20. Sediment dispersal in the northwestern Adriatic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, C.K.; Sherwood, C.R.; Signell, R.P.; Bever, A.J.; Warner, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment dispersal in the Adriatic Sea was evaluated using coupled three-dimensional circulation and sediment transport models, representing conditions from autumn 2002 through spring 2003. The calculations accounted for fluvial sources, resuspension by waves and currents, and suspended transport. Sediment fluxes peaked during southwestward Bora wind conditions that produced energetic waves and strengthened the Western Adriatic Coastal Current. Transport along the western Adriatic continental shelf was nearly always to the south, except during brief periods when northward Sirocco winds reduced the coastal current. Much of the modeled fluvial sediment deposition was near river mouths, such as the Po subaqueous delta. Nearly all Po sediment remained in the northern Adriatic. Material from rivers that drain the Apennine Mountains traveled farther before deposition than Po sediment, because it was modeled with a lower settling velocity. Fluvial sediment delivered to areas with high average bed shear stress was more highly dispersed than material delivered to more quiescent areas. Modeled depositional patterns were similar to observed patterns that have developed over longer timescales. Specifically, modeled Po sediment accumulation was thickest near the river mouth with a very thin deposit extending to the northeast, consistent with patterns of modern sediment texture in the northern Adriatic. Sediment resuspended from the bed and delivered by Apennine Rivers was preferentially deposited on the northern side of the Gargano Peninsula, in the location of thick Holocene accumulation. Deposition here was highest during Bora winds when convergences in current velocities and off-shelf flux enhanced delivery of material to the midshelf. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Survey of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in seafood purchased in Campania, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Teresa; Fasano, Evelina; Viscardi, Viviana; Arnese, Antonio; Amodio-Cocchieri, Renata

    2010-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic were surveyed in fresh catch, farmed and frozen marine fish, cephalopods and mussels marketed in Campania (Italy), and the population's weekly intake from seafood was assessed. A total of 162 specimens of fish and cephalopods and 30 pools of mussels were analyzed. Pb levels in fresh catch species ranged between <20 and 689 ng/g; in farmed from <20 to 438 ng/g and in frozen from <20 to 541 ng/g. Cd values ranged in fresh catch seafood from <0.8 to 19.8 ng/g; in farmed from <0.8 to 42.3 ng/g; in frozen from <0.8 to 93.1. Hg levels ranged 8-339 ng/g in wild seafood; <5-226 ng/g in farmed and <5-313 ng/g in frozen. In fresh catch seafood, As values ranged <10-231 ng/g; in farmed from 12-310 ng/g and in frozen 12-272 ng/g. Cd and Hg concentrations were below the EU limits in all species; two samples of farmed European seabass and two frozen samples exceeded EU limits for Pb. The median weekly dietary intake could affect the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of Pb by 2% (range 0.5-16.5%), Cd PTWI by 0.9% (range 0.1-8.0%), Hg PTWI by 9.6% (range 0.6-41.0%) and the As PTWI by 3.6% (range 0.4-12.5%). Considering the upper values in the ranges, seafood represents a non-negligible contribution to Pb weekly intake (16.5%), but mainly to the weekly intake of Hg (41.0%) for high seafood consumers and those consuming the most contaminated species. PMID:24785313

  2. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine seafood.

    PubMed

    Branch, Trevor A; DeJoseph, Bonnie M; Ray, Liza J; Wagner, Cherie A

    2013-03-01

    Ocean acidification is a series of chemical reactions due to increased CO(2) emissions. The resulting lower pH impairs the senses of reef fishes and reduces their survival, and might similarly impact commercially targeted fishes that produce most of the seafood eaten by humans. Shelled molluscs will also be negatively affected, whereas cephalopods and crustaceans will remain largely unscathed. Habitat changes will reduce seafood production from coral reefs, but increase production from seagrass and seaweed. Overall effects of ocean acidification on primary productivity and, hence, on food webs will result in hard-to-predict winners and losers. Although adaptation, parental effects, and evolution can mitigate some effects of ocean acidification, future seafood platters will look rather different unless CO(2) emissions are curbed. PMID:23122878

  3. Geochemistry of sediments in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lazzari, A.; Rampazzo, G.; Pavoni, B.

    2004-03-01

    Major, minor and trace elements, loss of ignition, specific surface area, quantities of calcite and dolomite, qualitative mineralogical composition, grain-size distribution and organic micropollutants (PAH, PCB, DDT) were determined on surficial marine sediments sampled during the 1990 ASCOP (Adriatic Scientific Cooperative Program) cruise. Mineralogical composition and carbonate content of the samples were found to be comparable with data previously reported in the literature, whereas geochemical composition and distribution of major, minor and trace elements for samples in international waters and in the central basin have never been reported before. The large amount of information contained in the variables of different origin has been processed by means of a comprehensive approach which establishes the relations among the components through the mathematical-statistical calculation of principal components (factors). These account for the major part of data variance loosing only marginal parts of information and are independent from the units of measure. The sample descriptors concerning natural components and contamination load are discussed by means of a statistical model based on an R-mode Factor analysis calculating four significant factors which explain 86.8% of the total variance, and represent important relationships between grain size, mineralogy, geochemistry and organic micropollutants. A description and an interpretation of factor composition is discussed on the basis of pollution inputs, basin geology and hydrodynamics. The areal distribution of the factors showed that it is the fine grain-size fraction, with oxides and hydroxides of colloidal origin, which are the main means of transport and thus the principal link between chemical, physical and granulometric elements in the Adriatic.

  4. A content analysis of Internet resources about the risks of seafood consumption.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Heather C; Hong, Jie; Friedman, Daniela B; Porter, Dwayne E; Halfacre, Angela C; Scott, Geoffrey I; Lead, Jamie R

    2016-08-01

    Seafood consumption is a main source of human exposure to certain environmental contaminants. Therefore, it is valuable to assess the online health risk messages focused on this topic, as people in the US are increasingly accessing the Internet for health-related information. Previous research indicates that online health information tends to be written at a reading level that is more advanced than ability of the general population. The purpose of this research was to examine the content and readability of Internet resources targeted toward consumers in the US regarding the health risks from consumption of contaminated seafood. Sources for analysis were gathered through a targeted search of state and national government websites, as well as through a Google search. The overall mean readability level was Grade 9.21, which is slightly above the average reading level of US adults. Future research should evaluate the accuracy of the health risk messages, as well as consumer perceptions of risk. PMID:26775549

  5. Seafood Products: Food Service Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Anita H.; And Others

    The nine lessons and supplementary activities included in this seafood food service program guide are intended for use in secondary and postsecondary occupational home economics food service programs. Material covers nutrition, therapeutic diets, harvesting methods, quality assessment, fish cuts and forms, inspection, dressing, storage,…

  6. Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation, or marination can increase the levels of BAs in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of BAs, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of BAs are also reported for potential application in seafood industries. PMID:22675321

  7. Microbiological Quality of Seafood Marketed in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hin-Chung; Jiang, Huai-Yu; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Wang, Yu-Ting

    2015-11-01

    Seafood is often associated with foodborne illnesses, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common pathogen implicated in outbreaks in Taiwan. In this study, the microbiological quality of 300 raw or mixed ready-to-eat (RTE) and other cooking-needed seafood samples was examined. The total aerobic and coliform counts of the RTE samples were significantly higher than those of other cooking-needed samples. On average, 55.8 and 29.7% of the RTE samples failed to meet the local microbiological standards for total aerobic (5 log CFU/g) and coliform (3 log most probable number [MPN] per g), counts respectively; the corresponding percentages for the RTE samples from Taipei City were 9.1 and 18.2%, respectively. The total aerobic and coliform counts in the RTE samples from supermarkets and chain restaurants were significantly lower than those from traditional restaurants. The Vibrio species were more frequently identified in the cooking-needed samples than in RTE samples. Low incidences of V. parahaemolyticus (1.4%), V. vulnificus (1.9%), and V. cholerae (0%) were detected in most RTE samples. High densities of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (1,200 MPN/g) were detected in a few RTE samples, only one of which contained toxigenic (tdh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. The results of this investigation reveal that better hygiene of seafood providers such as chain restaurants, supermarkets, and traditional restaurants in Taipei City would effectively improve the microbiological quality of the seafood. The results will facilitate the establishment of measures for controlling the risks associated with seafood in Taiwan. PMID:26555520

  8. Enzymes in Fish and Seafood Processing.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes have been used for the production and processing of fish and seafood for several centuries in an empirical manner. In recent decades, a growing trend toward a rational and controlled application of enzymes for such goals has emerged. Underlying such pattern are, among others, the increasingly wider array of enzyme activities and enzyme sources, improved enzyme formulations, and enhanced requirements for cost-effective and environmentally friendly processes. The better use of enzyme action in fish- and seafood-related application has had a significant impact on fish-related industry. Thus, new products have surfaced, product quality has improved, more sustainable processes have been developed, and innovative and reliable analytical techniques have been implemented. Recent development in these fields are presented and discussed, and prospective developments are suggested. PMID:27458583

  9. Enzymes in Fish and Seafood Processing

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes have been used for the production and processing of fish and seafood for several centuries in an empirical manner. In recent decades, a growing trend toward a rational and controlled application of enzymes for such goals has emerged. Underlying such pattern are, among others, the increasingly wider array of enzyme activities and enzyme sources, improved enzyme formulations, and enhanced requirements for cost-effective and environmentally friendly processes. The better use of enzyme action in fish- and seafood-related application has had a significant impact on fish-related industry. Thus, new products have surfaced, product quality has improved, more sustainable processes have been developed, and innovative and reliable analytical techniques have been implemented. Recent development in these fields are presented and discussed, and prospective developments are suggested. PMID:27458583

  10. New Alternatives in Seafood Restructured Products.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Helena M; Herranz, Beatriz; Pérez-Mateos, Miriam; Sánchez-Alonso, Isabel; Borderías, Javier A

    2016-01-01

    A general overview, focusing on new trends in the different techniques used in restructured seafood product processing has been described in this work. Heat-induced gelation has been more widely studied in scientific literature than cold gelation technology. This latter technology includes the use of hydrocolloids (alginates and glucomannan) or enzymes (microbial transglutaminase) for making both raw and cooked restructured products. In restructuration processes, fortification processing with some functional ingredients is studied, giving as a result extra value to the products as well as increasing the variety of new seafood products. The process of alleviating heavy metals and organic pollutants from the raw material used has also been reviewed in the present paper. PMID:25000341

  11. The geography of mercury and PCBs in North Carolina's local seafood.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Amy; Sohn, Nari; Hooper, Mark; Rittschof, Dan

    2012-07-01

    Mercury and PCBs are used by non-governmental organizations and federal agencies to inform seafood safety recommendations. Pollution dynamics suggest recommendations on the national scale may be too large to be accurate. We tested softshell and hardshell blue crab, white and pink shrimp, oysters, clams, spot, and mullet from fishers in each of the three North Carolina fishery districts. We measured mercury using EPA method 7473 and PCBs using a commercially available ELISA kit. Over 97% of samples were below the Environmental Protection Agency levels of concern for both mercury and PCBs. Mercury and PCBs have different spatial dynamics, but both differ significantly by water body, suggesting that seafood safety recommendations should occur by water body instead of at the national scale. This finding supports previous research suggesting that differences in water chemistry, terrestrial influence, and flushing time in a particular water body control the contaminant load in locally resident species. PMID:22658912

  12. A sea of worms: polychaete checklist of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Mikac, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The checklist of polychaetes of the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean) based on bibliographic sources published from 1840 to 2014, as well as on novel data, with 49 new records for the area, is herein presented. The Adriatic Sea polychaete fauna comprises at present of 764 species in 360 genera and 62 families. The richest family is the Syllidae, with 112 species (c.a. 15% of the all taxa). Eight families account for as much as 50% of the diversity (Syllidae, Serpulidae, Sabellidae, Phyllodocidae, Spionidae, Polynoidae, Terebellidae and Nereididae). Among the three Adriatic sectors (Northern, Central and Southern Adriatic), the Northern Adriatic is the richest one, whereas the composition of the most diverse families is very similar in all sectors. Data on endemisms (6), aliens (29) and valid species with the type locality in the Adriatic Sea (90) are also discussed. The list of all relevant papers citing each species in the Adriatic is included, allowing future detailed information retrievals for distinct purposes. Results suggest that the number of species will keep increasing in the future, as new surveys will be undertaken, so regular updates of the present list will be necessary. PMID:25947537

  13. Biomonitoring of organochlorine compounds and trace metals along the Eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia) using Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Kljaković-Gaspić, Zorana; Herceg-Romanić, Snjezana; Kozul, Darija; Veza, Jere

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the results of monitoring trace organic contaminants (17 PCBs and 7 OCPs) and 6 trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) in the coastal waters of the eastern Adriatic in 2006 using Mytilus galloprovincialis as indicator species. OCPs were found in all samples (0.07-14.3 ng g(-1)d.wt.), while in positive samples concentrations of PCBs ranged between 0.16 and 20.5 ng g(-1)d.wt. The α-HCH/γ-HCH and DDE/DDT ratios indicated recent input of γ-HCH and DDT. Spatial distributions of HCB, PCBs, DDTs and Hg were significantly correlated with population density. Although elevated concentrations of all trace metals and organic contaminants were recorded in the densely populated and industrialized areas, overall data point to relatively low level of contamination of the eastern Adriatic coast. Evaluation of the risks to human health associated with consumption of the mussels suggested that there is no health risk for moderate shellfish consumers. PMID:20696441

  14. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of methylmercury from seafood commonly consumed in North America: In vitro and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Siedlikowski, Maia; Bradley, Mark; Kubow, Stan; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2016-08-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global contaminant of concern and human exposures are largely realized via seafood consumption. While it is assumed that 95-100% of the ingested MeHg from seafood reaches systemic circulation, recent in vitro studies have yielded results to suggest otherwise. Of the published studies to have characterized the bioaccessibility or bioavailability of MeHg from seafood, only a handful of seafood species have been characterized, there exists tremendous variability in data within and across species, few species of relevance to North America have been studied, and none of the in vitro studies have adapted results to an epidemiology study. The objective of the current study was two-fold: (a) to characterize in vitro MeHg bioaccessibility and bioavailability from ten commonly consumed types of seafood in North America; and (b) to apply the bioaccessibility and bioavailability data from the in vitro study to an existing human MeHg exposure assessment study. Raw seafood samples (cod, crab, halibut, salmon, scallop, shrimp, tilapia, and three tuna types: canned light, canned white, fresh) were purchased in Montreal and their MeHg concentrations generally overlapped with values reported elsewhere. The bioaccessibility of MeHg from these samples ranged from 50.1±19.2 (canned white tuna) to 100% (shrimp and scallop) of the amount measured in the raw undigested sample. The bioavailability of MeHg from these samples ranged from 29.3±10.4 (crab) to 67.4±9.7% (salmon) of the value measured in the raw undigested sample. There were significant correlations between the initial MeHg concentration in seafood with the percent of that Hg that was bioaccessible (r=-0.476) and bioavailable (r=-0.294). When the in vitro data were applied to an existing MeHg exposure assessment study, the estimated amount of MeHg absorbed into systemic circulation decreased by 25% and 42% when considering bioaccessibility and bioavailability, respectively. When the in vitro data

  15. Contemporary issues in food allergy: seafood toxin-induced disease in the differential diagnosis of allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Chegini, Soheil; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2005-01-01

    Seafood, including fish, shrimp, lobster, crab, crayfish, mussel, and clam are among the most frequent causes of food allergy. Seafood poisoning, including reactions to natural toxins, frequently masquerades as an allergic reaction on presentation. Ingestion of contaminated shellfish results in a wide variety of symptoms, depending on the toxins present, their concentrations in the shellfish, and the amount of contaminated shellfish consumed. Five types of shellfish poisoning have been identified clearly including paralytic, neurotoxic, diarrhetic, amnestic, and azaspiracid shellfish poisonings. Based on the presence or absence of the toxin at the time of capture, fish poisoning can be considered conceptually in two categories. In ciguatera and puffer fish poisoning, the toxin is present in live fish, whereas in scombroid, it is produced only after capture, in the fish flesh, by contaminating bacteria because of improper refrigeration. Most shellfish-associated illness is infectious in nature (bacterial or viral), with the Norwalk virus accounting for most cases of gastroenteritis. PMID:16119031

  16. Microbiological Spoilage of Fish and Seafood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gram, Lone

    Fish and seafood products are some of the most important protein sources in human nutrition. At the same time, these products are perishable and, if left unpreserved, spoil rapidly. Some fish products are heavily cured (salted, dried) and shelf stable at ambient temperature. An increasing number of fish products are preserved by low levels of salt, cooling, packaging in modified atmosphere, and/or addition of low levels of preservatives. The microflora of these products is often complex; however, spoilage is mostly caused by microbial action.

  17. Sediment dynamics in the Adriatic Sea investigated with coupled models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Carniel, Sandro; Cavaleri, Luigi; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Das, Himangshu; Doyle, James D.; Harris, Courtney K.; Niedoroda, Alan W.; Perkins, Henry; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Pullen, Julie; Reed, Christopher W.; Russo, Aniello; Sclavo, Mauro; Signell, Richard P.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Warner, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Several large research programs focused on the Adriatic Sea in winter 2002-2003, making it an exciting place for sediment dynamics modelers (Figure 1). Investigations of atmospheric forcing and oceanic response (including wave generation and propagation, water-mass formation, stratification, and circulation), suspended material, bottom boundary layer dynamics, bottom sediment, and small-scale stratigraphy were performed by European and North American researchers participating in several projects. The goal of EuroSTRATAFORM researchers is to improve our ability to understand and simulate the physical processes that deliver sediment to the marine environment and generate stratigraphic signatures. Scientists involved in the Po and Apennine Sediment Transport and Accumulation (PASTA) experiment benefited from other major research programs including ACE (Adriatic Circulation Experiment), DOLCE VITA (Dynamics of Localized Currents and Eddy Variability in the Adriatic), EACE (the Croatian East Adriatic Circulation Experiment project), WISE (West Istria Experiment), and ADRICOSM (Italian nowcasting and forecasting) studies.

  18. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in Water and Seafood, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Nicole; Kahler, Amy M.; Jones, Jessica L.; Bopp, Cheryl A.; Marano, Nina; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Garrett, Nancy M.; Boncy, Jacques; Henry, Ariel; Gómez, Gerardo A.; Wellman, Michael; Curtis, Maurice; Freeman, Molly M.; Turnsek, Maryann; Benner, Ronald A.; Dahourou, Georges; Espey, David; DePaola, Angelo; Tappero, Jordan W.; Handzel, Tom; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    During the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, water and seafood samples were collected to detect Vibrio cholerae. The outbreak strain of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was isolated from freshwater and seafood samples. The cholera toxin gene was detected in harbor water samples. PMID:22099121

  19. 78 FR 66916 - Alaskan Seafood Processing Effluent Limitations Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... and Preserved Seafood Processing Point Source Category, 40 CFR Part 408, on June 26, 1974 (39 FR 23134), and December 1, 1975 (40 FR 55770). The seafood processing ELGs created two groups of subcategories... 15, 1980). 45 FR 32675 (May 19, 1980). EPA noted that processing plants in Anchorage, Cordova,...

  20. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of bacterial community and metabolites profiles in Korean traditional seafood fermentation: a flatfish-fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Lee, Se Hee; Jin, Hyun Mi; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community and metabolites were analyzed in a flatfish jeotgal, a Korean fermented seafood. Inverse relationship of pH and 16S rRNA gene copy number was identified during fermentation. Lactobacillus was the predominant bacterial genus. Increase of Firmicutes was a common characteristic shared by other fermented seafood. Fructose, glucose, and maltose were the major metabolites. PMID:25035997

  1. Selenium Content in Seafood in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yumiko; Yamashita, Michiaki; Iida, Haruka

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans, and seafood is one of the major selenium sources, as well as red meat, grains, eggs, chicken, liver and garlic. A substantial proportion of the total amount of selenium is present as selenium containing imidazole compound, selenoneine, in the muscles of ocean fish. In order to characterize the selenium content in seafood, the total selenium levels were measured in the edible portions of commercially important fish and shellfish species. Among the tested edible portions, alfonsino muscle had the highest selenium levels (concentration of 1.27 mg/kg tissue). High levels of selenium (1.20–1.07 mg/kg) were also found in the salted ovary products of mullet and Pacific herring. In other fish muscles, the selenium levels ranged between 0.12 and 0.77 mg/kg tissue. The selenium levels were closely correlated with the mercury levels in the white and red muscles in alfonsino. The selenium content in spleen, blood, hepatopancreas, heart, red muscle, white muscle, brain, ovary and testis ranged between 1.10 and 24.8 mg/kg tissue in alfonsino. PMID:23434904

  2. Mercury and selenium content of Taiwanese seafood.

    PubMed

    Fang, G C; Nam, D H; Basu, N

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is avid in Taiwan (and other Asian nations), but little is known about the mercury and selenium content in local seafood. This paper reports on total mercury, methylmercury and selenium levels from 14 commonly consumed seafood items obtained from Taichung, Taiwan. Mean total mercury concentrations varied nearly 100-fold across species. Fifty per cent of the marlins sampled and 35% of the sharks exceeded the 0.3 µg g(-1) US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline. Methylmercury comprised a majority of the total mercury in all species. In all species studied there was a molar excess of selenium over mercury. The rank order of mean selenium-mercury molar ratios was red tilapia (166.8) > abura (87.9) > river prawn (82.4) > whiteleg shrimp (64.2) > butterfish (44.6) > milkfish (37.0) > tuna (15.6) > grouper (13.9) > ayu (13.4) > coral hind (13.0) > weever (11.8) > saury (9.0) > shark (7.8) > marlin (4.2). PMID:24786009

  3. Seafood: nutritional benefits and risk aspects.

    PubMed

    Oehlenschläger, Jörg

    2012-06-01

    Seafood, such as fish, crustacean and molluscan shellfish, and echinoderms, provides in the edible part (e. g., filet, abdominal muscle) many nutritional components beneficial for the human diet like n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids (PUFAs), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), essential elements such as selenium and iodine, high potassium and low sodium concentrations, and the vitamins D, A, E, and B(12), as well as taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) among others. Its protein is highly digestible due to low connective tissue content, and cholesterol content is also low in fish. Lean fish species are extremely low in fat content (<1 %), while fatty species are extremely rich in PUFAs. However, being subject to environmental influences from its habitat, seafood also entails water-borne health risks such as organic pollutants, toxins, parasites, and heavy metals. Nevertheless, the vast majority of experimental and epidemiological studies have proven that the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks even for vulnerable consumer groups. PMID:23258397

  4. Modeling the drift of plastics in the Adriatic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Lecci, Rita; Creti, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Recently, plastic pollution at sea has become widely recognized as an acute environmental problem. Distribution of plastics in the marine environment is controlled by (1) locations and time-varying intensity of inputs; (2) the dynamics of the upper mixed layer of the ocean, where the majority of plastics float; and (3) the sinks of plastics. In the present work, we calculate the plastic concentrations at the sea surface and fluxes onto the coastline (2009-2015) that originated from terrestrial and maritime inputs. We construct a Markov chain model based on coupling the MEDSLIK-II model (De Dominicis et al., 2013) with the daily Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS) ocean currents simulations (1/45° horizontal resolution) (Guarneri et al., 2010) and ECMWF surface wind analyses (0.25° horizontal and 6-h temporal resolutions). We assume that the coastline is the main sink of plastics in the Adriatic Sea (Liubartseva et al., 2015). Our calculations have shown that the mean particle half-life in the basin approximately equals 43.7 days, which allows us to define the Adriatic Sea as a highly dissipative system with respect to floating plastics. On long-term time-mean scales, the most polluted sea surface area (more than 10 g/km2 floating plastics) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. That corresponds to the spatial distributions of plastic inputs, and indicates a tight connection with patterns of the general Adriatic circulation, including the Western Adriatic Coastal Current and the South Adriatic gyre. On seasonal time-mean scales, we indicate the winter plastics' expansion into the basin's interior, spring trapping in the northern Adriatic, summer cleansing the middle and southern Adriatic and autumn spreading into the southeastern Adriatic. Distinctive coastal "hot spot" is found on the Po Delta coastline that receives a plastic flux of 70 kg/(kmṡday). Complex source-receptor relationships

  5. Development of a Florida Seafood Program Using a Multi-Disciplinary Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeels, Holly; Fluech, Bryan; Krimsky, Lisa; Saari, Brooke; Shephard, Elizabeth; Zamojski, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    The seafood industry in Florida is complex, with more than 80 varieties of Florida seafood commodities and an increasing number of imported products. This variety increases consumer confusion, especially with the growing concern about the origin, sustainability, and safety of seafood products. The objective of the Florida Seafood At Your…

  6. Connecting Mercury Science to Policy: from Sources to Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Celia Y.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Mason, Robert P.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant whose presence in the biosphere has been increased by human activity, particularly coal burning/energy production, mining, especially artisanal scale gold mining, and other industrial activities. Mercury input to the surface ocean has doubled over the past century leading governments and organizations to take actions to protect humans from the harmful effects of this toxic element. Recently, the UN Environmental Program led 128 countries to negotiate and sign a legally binding agreement, the 2013 Minimata Convention, to control Hg emissions and releases to land and water globally. In an effort to communicate science to this emerging international policy, the Dartmouth Superfund Research Program formed the Coastal and Marine Mercury Ecosystem Research Collaborative (C-MERC) in 2010 that brought together more than 70 scientists and policy experts to analyze and synthesize the science on Hg pollution in the marine environment from Hg sources to MeHg in seafood. The synthesis of the science revealed that the sources and inputs of Hg and their pathways to human exposure are largely determined by ecosystem spatial scales and that these spatial scales determine the organizational level of policies. The paper summarizes the four major findings of the report. PMID:26820177

  7. Connecting mercury science to policy: from sources to seafood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Celia Y; Driscoll, Charles T; Lambert, Kathleen F; Mason, Robert P; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2016-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant whose presence in the biosphere has been increased by human activity, particularly coal burning/energy production, mining, especially artisanal scale gold mining, and other industrial activities. Mercury input to the surface ocean has doubled over the past century leading governments and organizations to take actions to protect humans from the harmful effects of this toxic element. Recently, the UN Environmental Program led 128 countries to negotiate and sign a legally binding agreement, the 2013 Minimata Convention, to control Hg emissions and releases to land and water globally. In an effort to communicate science to this emerging international policy, the Dartmouth Superfund Research Program formed the Coastal and Marine Mercury Ecosystem Research Collaborative (C-MERC) in 2010 that brought together more than 70 scientists and policy experts to analyze and synthesize the science on Hg pollution in the marine environment from Hg sources to MeHg in seafood. The synthesis of the science revealed that the sources and inputs of Hg and their pathways to human exposure are largely determined by ecosystem spatial scales and that these spatial scales determine the organizational level of policies. The paper summarizes the four major findings of the report. PMID:26820177

  8. Demographic Profiles, Mercury, Selenium, and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Avid Seafood Consumers on Long Island, NY.

    PubMed

    Monastero, Rebecca; Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Meliker, Jaymie

    2016-02-01

    Seafood consumption is known to confer nutritional benefits and risks from contaminant exposure. Avid seafood consumers are neither well-characterized with regard to their demographic profile nor their underlying risk-benefit profile. Contaminants [e.g., mercury (Hg)] and nutrients [e.g., selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids] are prevalent in some seafood. Participants (N = 285) recruited on Long Island, NY, completed food frequency and health questionnaires and received blood draws analyzed for Hg, omega-3s, and Se. Participants were categorized based on frequency and type of seafood consumption. Logistic regression analyses evaluated relationships between seafood consumption and demographics, and were age- and sex-adjusted. t tests assessed relationships between seafood consumption patterns and biomarkers Hg, omega-3s, and Se. Consumption of both tuna and salmon was associated with older age: those aged 55-75 and over 75 years old were more likely than participants aged 18-34 to eat tuna and salmon (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.05, 4.89 and OR 3.67; 95% CI 1.20, 11.20, respectively). Males were less likely than females to eat fish other than tuna or salmon (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.34, 0.97). Caucasians were more likely to consume tuna (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.10, 0.96) or salmon and tuna (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.12, 0.91), while non-Caucasians were more likely to consume other fish types (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.45, 5.12). Total blood Hg was associated with weekly consumption of any type of fish (p = 0.01) and with salmon and tuna consumption (p = 0.01). Salmon was associated with plasma omega-3s (p = 0.01). Se was not associated with fish intake categories. Risk communicators can use these findings to influence seafood preferences of different demographic groups. PMID:26318872

  9. Tocopherols in Seafood and Aquaculture Products.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Cláudia; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Nunes, Leonor; Cardoso, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Fish products contain various nutritionally beneficial components, namely, ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA), minerals, and vitamins. Particularly, tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol) can be provided by seafood and aquaculture products. Hence, this review shows the various aspects of tocopherols in seafood and aquaculture products. For tocopherol determination in these products, HPLC methods coupled with diode array detection in the UV area of the spectrum or fluorescence detection have been shown as sensitive and accurate. These newest methods have helped in understanding tocopherols fate upon ingestion by seafood organisms. Tocopherols pass through the intestinal mucosa mainly by the same passive diffusion mechanism as fats. After absorption, the transport mechanism is thought to consist of two loops. The first loop is dietary, including chylomicrons and fatty acids bound to carrier protein, transporting lipids mainly to the liver. The other is the transport from the liver to tissues and storage sites. Moreover, tocopherol levels in fish organisms correlate with diet levels, being adjusted in fish body depending on diet concentration. For farmed fish species, insufficient levels of tocopherols in the diet can lead to poor growth performance or to nutritional disease. The tocopherol quantity needed as a feed supplement depends on various factors, such as the vitamer mixture, the lipid level and source, the method of diet preparation, and the feed storage conditions. Other ingredients in diet may be of great importance, it has been proposed that α-tocopherol may behave as a prooxidant synergist at higher concentrations when prooxidants such as transition metals are present. However, the antioxidant action of tocopherols outweighs this prooxidant effect, provided that adequate conditions are used. In fact, muscle-based foods containing higher levels of tocopherol show, for instance, higher lipid stability. Besides, tocopherols are important not

  10. Vaccination and consumer perception of seafood quality.

    PubMed

    Engelstad, M

    2005-01-01

    Unlike other segments of international food production, finfish aquaculture has so far not been associated with major food scandals. However, because of increased focus on food safety, the seafood industry and associated businesses have to respond to and document all aspects related to their products and processes. Consumers have a right to know, and need knowledge and information to be able to make qualified choices. In aquaculture good management and environmental attention is essential for both product quality and economic sustainability. One of the main challenges in all farming activities is efficient fish health management, which is crucial for maintaining and further developing the industry. In all biological production, and also in aquaculture, diseases have been, are, and will continue to present a challenge. When dealing with disease incidents, environmental, ethical, biological and economic issues must be taken into account. In animal health management there is a common understanding that prevention is better than treatment, so also in aquaculture. In many segments of industrial fish farming, vaccines have proved a good management tool to control diseases and to reduce both mortality and the use of chemotherapeutics. As seen in a recent Norwegian consumer survey, this might unfortunately look somewhat different from a consumer point of view. The perception of vaccines as foreign substances, visible vaccine lesions or pigment, words about genetically produced vaccines, and a general lack of knowledge may fuel scepticism. Even when experts are giving good and well-documented information, consumers still stick to their original perception of food, including seafood. Given this background, this papers discusses the aquaculture industry's priorities regarding vaccines and vaccination strategies, and its information policy towards the customer. PMID:15962487

  11. Plasma levels of pollutants are much higher in loggerhead turtle populations from the Adriatic Sea than in those from open waters (Eastern Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Bucchia, Matteo; Camacho, María; Santos, Marcelo R D; Boada, Luis D; Roncada, Paola; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we determined the levels of 63 environmental contaminants, including organic (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and PAHs) and inorganic (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn) compounds in the blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from two comparable populations that inhabit distinct geographic areas: the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean basin) and the Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). All animals were sampled at the end of a period of rehabilitation in centers of wildlife recovery, before being released back into the wild, so they can be considered to be in good health condition. The dual purpose of this paper is to provide reliable data on the current levels of contamination of this species in these geographic areas, and secondly to compare the results of both populations, as it has been reported that marine biota inhabiting the Mediterranean basin is exposed to much higher pollution levels than that which inhabit in other areas of the planet. According to our results it is found that current levels of contamination by organic compounds are considerably higher in Adriatic turtles than in the Atlantic ones (∑PCBs, 28.45 vs. 1.12ng/ml; ∑OCPs, 1.63 vs. 0.19ng/ml; ∑PAHs, 13.39 vs. 4.91ng/ml; p<0.001 in all cases). This is the first time that levels of PAHs are reported in the Adriatic loggerheads. With respect to inorganic contaminants, although the differences were not as great, the Adriatic turtles appear to have higher levels of some of the most toxic elements such as mercury (5.74 vs. 7.59μg/ml, p<0.01). The results of this study confirm that the concentrations are larger in turtles from the Mediterranean, probably related to the high degree of anthropogenic pressure in this basin, and thus they are more likely to suffer adverse effects related to contaminants. PMID:25863507

  12. Cadmium and lead in selected tissues of two commercially important fish species from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Gaspić, Z Kljaković; Zvonarić, T; Vrgoc, N; Odzak, N; Barić, A

    2002-12-01

    Baseline levels of cadmium and lead were determined in muscle tissue and liver of hake (Merluccius merluccius) and red mullet (Mullus barbatus), two commercially important fish species from the eastern Adriatic. Concentrations of trace metals in liver (Cd: 6-183 microg kg(-1) w. wt. ; Pb: 39-970 microg kg(-1) w. wt.) were within the range of recently published data for the Mediterranean. In the muscle tissue, cadmium concentrations (4.1-29 microg kg(-1) w. wt.) were among the lowest reported values for the Mediterranean, whereas lead levels (49-158 microg kg(-1) w. wt.) were within the range of values reported for various coastal areas of the Mediterranean. Presented data on cadmium and lead content in the studied fish species provide no proof of the general pollution of the Adriatic. Obtained data were tested in relation to fish length. Metal concentrations in liver decreased with the increase in fish size, whereas no significant correlation was found between trace metal levels in the muscle tissue and the length of both species. Relationships between metal concentrations and sex were also tested, but they gave no significant results. A comparison of contaminant concentrations in the edible tissue of hake and red mullet with the Croatian legislation shows that the consumption of their meat is not harmful for humans, not even for the most endangered population from the coastal region. PMID:12448550

  13. QUINAULT INDIAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TRIBAL SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quinault Indian Nation needed to determine appropriate seafood consumption rates for development of their water quality standards. EPA Region 10 and EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory had been collaborating on computer assisted personal inter...

  14. How to Determine the Geographical Origin of Seafood?

    PubMed

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Montet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Traceability of seafood is a much needed service for the seafood industry. Current ways of tracing seafood are minimal while tracing of shellfish is nearly nonexistent. Tracing fish and shellfish are necessary for indicating where the fish and shellfish were fished from, farmed and packed from. This study reviews history of traceability of aquaculture and analytical approaches to verify the origin of seafood. It then describes the new molecular technique of the traceability by using PCR-DGGE to discriminate the geographical origin of fish (cases studies of Pangasius fish from Viet Nam and Sea bass fish from France) by analysis the DNA fragments of microorganisms (bacteria) on fish. This method is based on the assumption that the microbial communities of food are specific to a geographic area. PMID:24834835

  15. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  16. Relationship between microbial communities and mercury species in the seawater of the Central Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivkovic, Igor; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Joze; Fajon, Vesna; Solic, Mladen; Kanduc, Tjasa

    2016-04-01

    The structure of the microbial food web and its role in biogeochemical processes in marine ecosystems may vary noticeably and depend on environmental trophic status. Importance of picoplankton makes them an essential component for understanding the food web dynamics in marine systems. These small organisms dominate the photosynthetic biomass and primary production in oligotrophic waters like the Adriatic Sea. One of the hypotheses of research is that the factors that enable scavenging nutrients at low concentrations also promote accumulation of contaminants in the biomass of microorganisms. Biologically mediated reactions can transform mercury species and facilitate their entrance into the marine food web in which it bioaccumulates in the form of methylmercury (MeHg). In order to establish relationship between Hg and microbial species, we performed samplings in the Central Adriatic Sea. Samplings were conducted during oceanographic cruises aboard the research vessel Bios Dva from March 2014 to December 2015. Research was constrained to transect from the island of Vis to the Bay of Kastela. Non-filtered water samples were collected for determination of methylmercury (MeHg), total mercury (THg), dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM), and microbial species in Adriatic coastal and open waters. In the pristine environment of the island of Vis, THg concentrations are the lowest and range from 0.14-1.10 ng/L. Mercury contamination from chlor-alkali industrial waters in the Bay of Kastela is observed through the highest THg concentrations (up to 5.58 ng/L). DGM always shows higher values in more contaminated areas (31.8-351 pg/L) than in the pristine environment (22.1-245 pg/L). MeHg concentrations vary, but the highest values are usually found in the Bay of Kastela (up to 34.3 pg/L). Number of picoeukaryotes is the highest in the Bay of Kastela (0.44×106-31.8×106/L) which has been affected by industrial and civil effluents from the surrounding cities. The lowest number is

  17. Hepatotoxic Seafood Poisoning (HSP) Due to Microcystins: A Threat from the Ocean?

    PubMed Central

    Vareli, Katerina; Jaeger, Walter; Touka, Anastasia; Frillingos, Stathis; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Sainis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are a major and growing problem for freshwater ecosystems worldwide that increasingly concerns public health, with an average of 60% of blooms known to be toxic. The most studied cyanobacterial toxins belong to a family of cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins, called microcystins. The microcystins are stable hydrophilic cyclic heptapeptides with a potential to cause cell damage following cellular uptake via organic anion-transporting proteins (OATP). Their intracellular biologic effects presumably involve inhibition of catalytic subunits of protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) and glutathione depletion. The microcystins produced by cyanobacteria pose a serious problem to human health, if they contaminate drinking water or food. These toxins are collectively responsible for human fatalities, as well as continued and widespread poisoning of wild and domestic animals. Although intoxications of aquatic organisms by microcystins have been widely documented for freshwater ecosystems, such poisonings in marine environments have only occasionally been reported. Moreover, these poisonings have been attributed to freshwater cyanobacterial species invading seas of lower salinity (e.g., the Baltic) or to the discharge of freshwater microcystins into the ocean. However, recent data suggest that microcystins are also being produced in the oceans by a number of cosmopolitan marine species, so that Hepatotoxic Seafood Poisoning (HSP) is increasingly recognized as a major health risk that follows consumption of contaminated seafood. PMID:23921721

  18. Dolomite as a tracer for sediment transport and deposition on the northwestern Adriatic continental shelf (Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravaioli, Mariangela; Alvisi, Francesca; Vitturi, Laura Menegazzo

    2003-09-01

    Surface sediments of the Northern and Middle Adriatic shelf were studied during five cruises, from 1977 to 1990, in order to map the distribution of Ca and Mg carbonates in bottom sediments of the Adriatic Sea. The aim of this work was to trace the preferential depositional areas of sediments derived from Italian rivers by distinguishing among the contributions from northeastern Italian rivers, the Po and Apenninic streams. The pattern distribution of dolomite concentration proved to be a good tracer of the alongshore transport of particulate material from the Northern toward the Middle and Southern Adriatic. Moreover, dolomite and textural sedimentary parameters such as grain size distributions discriminate between local, recent sources, and regional, older sources of bottom sedimentary material. The analysis of the main pathways of sediment transfer between different shelf compartments shows that a huge amount of material is transferred from north to south. This occurs in two main shelf sectors: along the Romagna coast, sediments moving inside the belt delimited by the 20 m isobaths are influenced by the local river input and minor coastal gyres, whereas offshore sediments, coming from the northern Adriatic Sea, are transported southward by the Northern Adriatic Coastal Current (NACC); along the Marche and Abruzzo coasts, the "local" belt extends offshore on the outer shelf. In order to obtain a quantitative estimate of sediment accumulation of fine sediments of Northern Adriatic origin along the shelf sectors, a mass budget was calculated for bulk sediments and for dolomite contributions. The budget shows that the amount of sediment transferred between adjacent boxes is always of the order of 50% of the fluvial input to the sea.

  19. February 2003 marine atmospheric conditions and the bora over the northern Adriatic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorman, C.E.; Carniel, S.; Cavaleri, L.; Sclavo, M.; Chiggiato, J.; Doyle, J.; Haack, T.; Pullen, J.; Grbec, B.; Vilibic, I.; Janekovic, I.; Lee, C.; Malacic, V.; Orlic, M.; Paschini, E.; Russo, A.; Signell, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    A winter oceanographic field experiment provided an opportunity to examine the atmospheric marine conditions over the northern Adriatic. Mean February winds are from a northeasterly direction over most of the Adriatic and a more northerly direction along the western coast. Wind speeds are fastest in jets over the NE coast during bora events and weakest in the mid-northwestern Adriatic. Diurnal air temperature cycles are smallest on the NE coast and largest in the midwestern Adriatic. The maximum sea-air difference is +10??C on the eastern coast and near zero on the midwestern Adriatic. Boras are northeasterly (from) wind events that sweep off Croatia and Slovenia, bringing slightly colder and drier air over the northern Adriatic. The main bora season is December to March. Winter 2002-2003 was normal for bora events. Synoptic-scale temporal variations are correlated over the northern Adriatic. Fastest Bora winds and highest wind stress over the northern Adriatic is concentrated in four topographically controlled jets. The strongest is the Senj Jet, while the Trieste Jet extends across the entire northern Adriatic. Between each two jets is a weak wind zone. The greatest mean net heat loss is in bora jets in the NE Adriatic, where it was -438 W m-2 and is weakest in the midwestern northern Adriatic, where it was near zero. Wind stress is concentrated over the NE half of Adriatic in four bora jets, while wind stress is weak in the NW Adriatic. There is significant variation in wind stress mean and standard deviation structure over the northern Adriatic with each bora event. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Microplastics in seafood: Benchmark protocol for their extraction and characterization.

    PubMed

    Dehaut, Alexandre; Cassone, Anne-Laure; Frère, Laura; Hermabessiere, Ludovic; Himber, Charlotte; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Rivière, Gilles; Lambert, Christophe; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud; Duflos, Guillaume; Paul-Pont, Ika

    2016-08-01

    Pollution of the oceans by microplastics (<5 mm) represents a major environmental problem. To date, a limited number of studies have investigated the level of contamination of marine organisms collected in situ. For extraction and characterization of microplastics in biological samples, the crucial step is the identification of solvent(s) or chemical(s) that efficiently dissolve organic matter without degrading plastic polymers for their identification in a time and cost effective way. Most published papers, as well as OSPAR recommendations for the development of a common monitoring protocol for plastic particles in fish and shellfish at the European level, use protocols containing nitric acid to digest the biological tissues, despite reports of polyamide degradation with this chemical. In the present study, six existing approaches were tested and their effects were compared on up to 15 different plastic polymers, as well as their efficiency in digesting biological matrices. Plastic integrity was evaluated through microscopic inspection, weighing, pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and Raman spectrometry before and after digestion. Tissues from mussels, crabs and fish were digested before being filtered on glass fibre filters. Digestion efficiency was evaluated through microscopical inspection of the filters and determination of the relative removal of organic matter content after digestion. Five out of the six tested protocols led to significant degradation of plastic particles and/or insufficient tissue digestion. The protocol using a KOH 10% solution and incubation at 60 °C during a 24 h period led to an efficient digestion of biological tissues with no significant degradation on all tested polymers, except for cellulose acetate. This protocol appeared to be the best compromise for extraction and later identification of microplastics in biological samples and should be implemented in further monitoring studies to ensure

  1. Factors favouring phytoplankton blooms in the northern Adriatic: towards the northern Adriatic empirical ecological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, R.; Supić, N.; Precali, R.

    2016-01-01

    Influenced by one of the largest Mediterranean rivers, Po, the northern Adriatic (NA) production is highly variable seasonally and interannually. The changes are especially pronounced between winters and seemingly reflect on total Adriatic bioproduction of certain species (anchovy). We analysed the long-term changes in the phytoplankton production in the region, as derived from monthly oceanographic cruises, in relation to concomitant geostrophic currents distribution in the area and to Po River discharge rates in days preceding the cruises. In winter and early spring the phytoplankton abundances depended on existing circulation fields, in summer and autumn they were related to Po River discharge rates 1-15 days earlier and on concomitant circulation fields, while in late spring phytoplankton abundances increased 1-3 days after high Po River discharge rates regardless of the circulation fields. During the entire year the phytoplankton abundances were dependent on forcing of the previous 1-12 months of surface fluxes and/or Po River rates. The role of wind was uncertain but that was partly due to unmatched sampling time frames between meteorological and sea data. Low evaporation rates in November reflected significantly on the next February circulation pattern and, although with somewhat lower significance, on large phytoplankton blooms in the same month. We showed that the role of wind in evaporative flux enhancements is not straightforward as evaporative fluxes are highly dependent on other factors, e.g. air-sea temperature difference. Wind-induced vertical mixing was only sporadically related to phytoplankton abundances. From 1990 to 2004 a shift towards large winter bioproduction induced by circulation changes appeared. The investigations performed represent the preliminary actions in the construction of an empirical ecological model of the NA which can be used in the sustainable economy of the region, as well as for validation of the numerical ecological model

  2. Evidence of butyltin biomagnification along the Northern Adriatic food-web (Mediterranean Sea) elucidated by stable isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Fortibuoni, Tomaso; Noventa, Seta; Rampazzo, Federico; Gion, Claudia; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Berto, Daniela; Raicevich, Saša

    2013-04-01

    The biomagnification of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT), and total butyltins (ΣBT) was analyzed in the Northern Adriatic food-web (Mediterranean) considering trophodynamic interactions among species and carbon sources in the food-web. Although it is acknowledged that these contaminants bioaccumulate in marine organisms, it is still controversial whether they biomagnify along food-webs. A wide range of species was considered, from plankton feeders to top predators, whose trophic level (TL) was assessed measuring the biological enrichment of nitrogen stable isotopes (δ(15)N). Carbon isotopic signature (δ(13)C) was used to trace carbon sources in the food-web (terrestrial vs marine). At least one butyltin species was detected in the majority of samples, and TBT was the predominant contaminant. A significant positive relationship was found between TL and butyltin concentrations, implying food-web biomagnification. Coherently, the Trophic Magnification Factor resulted higher than 1, ranging between 3.88 for ΣBT and 4.62 for DBT. A negative but not significant correlation was instead found between δ(13)C and butyltin concentrations, indicating a slight decreasing gradient of contaminants concentrations in species according to the coastal influence as carbon source in their diet. However, trophodynamic mechanisms are likely more important factors in determining butyltin distribution in the Northern Adriatic food-web. PMID:23465397

  3. Historical pattern and mass balance of trace metals in sediments of the northwestern Adriatic Sea Shelf.

    PubMed

    Romano, Stefania; Langone, Leonardo; Frignani, Mauro; Albertazzi, Sonia; Focaccia, Paola; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Ravaioli, Mariangela

    2013-11-15

    In view of the recent action in Marine Strategy Framework Directive, reconstructing the history of anthropogenic metal inputs and calculating the budgets for the northwestern part of the Italian Adriatic basin can provide a benchmark for comparison with new evidences and enlighten recent environmental changes. Among the metals, the attention was focused on Pb and Zn, as they provide the most significant anthropogenic signals. In 1988, areal distributions clearly identified the Po, Adige and Brenta rivers as the main sources of contaminants. The study area was divided in three compartments. The area in front of the Po delta represented a sink for metals but the accumulation of Zn and Pb integrated over the entire study area suggests an effective export throughout southern boundary. Most concentration-depth/year profiles in cores showed an upward increase from the Italian Unification (1861), with a still significant anthropogenic supply at the time of sampling. PMID:24119313

  4. A long and winding road: Skeletonema sp transport by Northern Adriatic Dense Waters to the Southern Adriatic Pit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Bernardy Aubry, Fabrizio; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Boldrin, Alfredo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Finotto, Stefania; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The semi enclosed Adriatic Sea is a sub basin of the Mediterranean Sea located in its northeastern part; it has a shallow northern part (average depth of 40 m) and a deep Southern Adriatic Pit (SAP) that reaches 1200m. The presence of a wide continental shelf exposed to strong heat and momentum fluxes during winter months makes the Northern Adriatic a formation site of dense waters, generally referred to as Northern Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW). Once produced, it moves south as a quasi-geostrophically adjusted vein , flowing along the Italian coast and enters the SAP giving origin to descent and cascading dense shelf water bringing into the deep layers oxygen, nutrients and organic compound. In February 2012 a long and intense cold air outbreak, with strong Bora winds, interested the northern part of the Adriatic sea causing a drop in water temperature to less than 6 °C and an increase in density to values as high as 1030.2 kg/m3 (likely the maximum values since 1929). This resulted in a massive production of NAdDW. In order to study the behavior of the NAdDW vein, a rapid response 2 legs cruise (ODW2012) was organized in the southern Adriatic. During the cruise, along with physical and chemical measurements, water and phytoplankton samples were collected at different depths. Usual abundance and distribution with a general decrease in phytoplankton abundance from the surface to the bottom were found in all stations with one exception. The bottom sample of a station located roughly 40 km at 120 m depth in front of Gargano showed a significantly high dominance (40%) of the small diatom Skeletonema sp whose flowering is typical in the surface waters of the northern Adriatic in late winter. The physical parameters of the water column showed signs of the passage of the dense water vein (lower temperature and higher dissolved oxygen concentrations) hence it was hypothesized that those diatoms were actively transported by the NAdDW near-bottom stream. A further

  5. Microbial processes and organic priority substances in marine coastal sediments (Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Dellisanti, Walter; Lungarini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Stefano; Patrolecco, Luisa; Langone, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    PERSEUS EU FP7 Project aims to identify the interacting patterns of natural and human-derived pressures to assess their impact on marine ecosystems and, using the objectives and principles of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) as a vehicle, to design an effective and innovative research governance framework based on sound scientific knowledge. In the frame of this Project (subtask 1.3.3 ADREX: Adriatic and Ionian Seas Experiment), monitoring surveys were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) in order to study the variation of structural and functional characteristics of native bacterial communities and the occurrence of selected classes of organic priority substances in sediments. The study area represents a good natural laboratory sensitive to climate variability and human pressure, owing to the semi-enclosed nature of the Adriatic Sea and to the increasing trend of human activities in the coastal regions. During the cruise ADRI-13 (November 2013) and ADRI-14 (October 2014) we sampled several coastal sites from the mouth of the Po River to the Otranto strait. Surface sediments were collected in all areas, while sediment cores were sampled in selected sites. Microbes associated with marine sediments play an important role in the C-flux being responsible for the transformation of organic detritus (autochthonous and allochthonous) into biomass. The sediment bacterial abundance was determined by epifluorescence microscopy and the rate of bacterial carbon production by measuring the 3H-leucine uptake rates. The community respiration rate was estimated by the measurement of the electron transport system (ETS) activity. The sediment contamination level was determined by measuring the concentration of contaminants included in the list of organic priority substances: PAHs, bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols (APs). The extraction/clean-up of PAHs, BPA and APs was performed by ultrasonic bath with the appropriate solvents, followed by analytical determination with

  6. Biocomplexity in Populations of European Anchovy in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Occhipinti, Giulia; Fioravanti, Tatiana; Santojanni, Alberto; Leonori, Iole; De Felice, Andrea; Arneri, Enrico; Procaccini, Gabriele; Catanese, Gaetano; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Bonanno, Angelo; Nisi Cerioni, Paola; Giovannotti, Massimo; Grant, William Stewart; Caputo Barucchi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The sustained exploitation of marine populations requires an understanding of a species' adaptive seascape so that populations can track environmental changes from short- and long-term climate cycles and from human development. The analysis of the distributions of genetic markers among populations, together with correlates of life-history and environmental variability, can provide insights into the extent of adaptive variation. Here, we examined genetic variability among populations of mature European anchovies (n = 531) in the Adriatic (13 samples) and Tyrrhenian seas (2 samples) with neutral and putative non-neutral microsatellite loci. These genetic markers failed to confirm the occurrence of two anchovy species in the Adriatic Sea, as previously postulated. However, we found fine-scale population structure in the Adriatic, especially in northern areas, that was associated with four of the 13 environmental variables tested. Geographic gradients in sea temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen appear to drive adaptive differences in spawning time and early larval development among populations. Resolving adaptive seascapes in Adriatic anchovies provides a means to understand mechanisms underpinning local adaptation and a basis for optimizing exploitation strategies for sustainable harvests. PMID:27074008

  7. Biocomplexity in Populations of European Anchovy in the Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Occhipinti, Giulia; Fioravanti, Tatiana; Santojanni, Alberto; Leonori, Iole; De Felice, Andrea; Arneri, Enrico; Procaccini, Gabriele; Catanese, Gaetano; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Bonanno, Angelo; Nisi Cerioni, Paola; Giovannotti, Massimo; Grant, William Stewart; Caputo Barucchi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The sustained exploitation of marine populations requires an understanding of a species' adaptive seascape so that populations can track environmental changes from short- and long-term climate cycles and from human development. The analysis of the distributions of genetic markers among populations, together with correlates of life-history and environmental variability, can provide insights into the extent of adaptive variation. Here, we examined genetic variability among populations of mature European anchovies (n = 531) in the Adriatic (13 samples) and Tyrrhenian seas (2 samples) with neutral and putative non-neutral microsatellite loci. These genetic markers failed to confirm the occurrence of two anchovy species in the Adriatic Sea, as previously postulated. However, we found fine-scale population structure in the Adriatic, especially in northern areas, that was associated with four of the 13 environmental variables tested. Geographic gradients in sea temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen appear to drive adaptive differences in spawning time and early larval development among populations. Resolving adaptive seascapes in Adriatic anchovies provides a means to understand mechanisms underpinning local adaptation and a basis for optimizing exploitation strategies for sustainable harvests. PMID:27074008

  8. Evaluation of culture media for selective enrichment and isolation of Salmonella in seafood.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, Poothuvallil K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Seafood, including fish, shrimp, clam, crab, mussel, oyster, lobster, squid, octopus, and cuttlefish samples, was used to compare the recovery of Salmonella serovars by different selective enrichment and isolation media. The samples were selectively enriched in Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) broth and tetrathionate broth (TT), followed by selective isolation on Hektoen enteric (HE) agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD) agar, bismuth sulfite (BS) agar, and Brilliant Green (BG) agar media. Of 443 seafood samples analyzed, 108 were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The role of selective enrichment in Salmonella spp. recovery with RV medium was distinctly high (70%) compared to TT broth (30%). The selective enrichment in RV broth followed by selective isolation on XLD, HE, BS, and BG agar recovered Salmonella at levels of 56, 41, 28, and 16%, respectively. Similarly, after enrichment in TT broth, XLD and HE agars recovered 27 and 23% respectively. The recovery of Salmonella with enrichment in TT followed by isolation on BS and BG was abysmally low at 4.6 and 5%, respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the recovery of Salmonella using the combinations of XLD and HE media with selective enrichment in RV broth. However, performance difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the recovery when BS and BG with RV, and XLD, HE, BS, and BG agars with TT broth were used. The present study showed that the combination of RV with XLD was the most efficient media for isolation of Salmonella from seafood when compared to other isolation media combinations. PMID:21140659

  9. Mercury Levels in Pregnant Women, Children, and Seafood from Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Tutino, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Cantonwine, David E.; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Somers, Emily C.; Rodriguez, Lauren; Schnaas, Lourdes; Solano, Maritsa; Mercado, Adriana; Peterson, Karen; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a global contaminant of concern though little is known about exposures in México. Objectives To characterize mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and commonly consumed seafood samples. Methods Use resources of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohorts to measure total mercury levels in archived samples from 348 pregnant women (blood from three trimesters and cord blood), 825 offspring (blood, hair, urine) and their mothers (hair), and 91 seafood and canned tuna samples from Mexico City. Results Maternal blood mercury levels correlated across three trimesters and averaged 3.4μg/L. Cord blood mercury averaged 4.7μg/L and correlated with maternal blood from trimester 3 (but not trimesters 1 and 2). In children, blood, hair and urine mercury levels correlated and averaged 1.8μg/L, 0.6μg/g, and 0.9μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury was 0.5μg/g in mothers and correlated with child's hair. Mean consumption of canned tuna, fresh fish, canned sardine, and shellfish was 3.1, 2.2, 0.5, and 1.0 times per month respectively in pregnant women. Mean mercury content in 7 of 23 seafood species and 5 of 9 canned tuna brands purchased exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance value of 0.3 μg/g. Conclusions Mercury exposures in pregnant women and children from Mexico City, via biomarker studies, are generally 3-5 times greater than values reported in population surveys from the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere. In particular, mercury levels in 29-39% of the maternal participants exceeded the biomonitoring guideline associated with the U.S. EPA reference dose for mercury. PMID:25262076

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission. PMID:27010163

  11. Toxin Levels and Profiles in Microalgae from the North-Western Adriatic Sea—15 Years of Studies on Cultured Species

    PubMed Central

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Guerrini, Franca; Pezzolesi, Laura; Riccardi, Manuela; Vanucci, Silvana; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell’Aversano, Carmela; Forino, Martino; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Tartaglione, Luciana; Milandri, Anna; Pompei, Marinella; Cangini, Monica; Pigozzi, Silvia; Riccardi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Adriatic Sea is the area of the Mediterranean Sea where eutrophication and episodes related to harmful algae have occurred most frequently since the 1970s. In this area, which is highly exploited for mollusk farming, the first occurrence of human intoxication due to shellfish consumption occurred in 1989, nearly 10 years later than other countries in Europe and worldwide that had faced similar problems. Until 1997, Adriatic mollusks had been found to be contaminated mostly by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) that, along with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., saxitoxins), constitute the most common marine biotoxins. Only once, in 1994, a toxic outbreak was related to the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the Adriatic coastal waters. Moreover, in the past 15 years, the Adriatic Sea has been characterized by the presence of toxic or potentially toxic algae, not highly widespread outside Europe, such as species producing yessotoxins (i.e., Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax spinifera and Lingulodinium polyedrum), recurrent blooms of the potentially ichthyotoxic species Fibrocapsa japonica and, recently, by blooms of palytoxin-like producing species of the Ostreopsis genus. This review is aimed at integrating monitoring data on toxin spectra and levels in mussels farmed along the coast of the Emilia-Romagna region with laboratory studies performed on the species involved in the production of those toxins; toxicity studies on toxic or potentially toxic species that have recently appeared in this area are also reviewed. Overall, reviewed data are related to: (i) the yessotoxins producing species P. reticulatum, G. spinifera and L. polyedrum, highlighting genetic and toxic characteristics; (ii) Adriatic strains of Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii and Prorocentrum lima whose toxic profiles are compared with those of strains of different geographic origins; (iii) F

  12. Jabuka island (Central Adriatic Sea) earthquakes of 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herak, Davorka; Herak, Marijan; Prelogović, Eduard; Markušić, Snježana; Markulin, Željko

    2005-04-01

    We present analyses of one of the strongest earthquake sequences ever recorded within the Adriatic microplate, which occurred near the Jabuka island in the very centre of the Adriatic Sea. The mainshock (29 March 2003, 17:42, ML=5.5) was preceded by over 150 foreshocks, and followed by many aftershocks, over 4600 of which were recorded on the closest station HVAR (about 90 km to the east). As the epicentre was in the open sea and due to the absence of nearby stations, we were able to confidently locate only 597 events. Hypocentral locations were computed by a grid-search algorithm after seven iterations of refining hypocentres and adjusting station corrections. Epicentres lie in a well-defined area of about 300 km 2, just to the W and NW of the Jabuka island. The vertical cross-sections reveal that hypocentres dip to the NE, closely matching faults from the Jabuka-Andrija fault system, as identified on the available reflection profiles in the area. The fault-plane solution of the main shock based on the first-motion polarity readings agrees well with the CMT solutions and indicates faulting caused by a S-N directed tectonic pressure, on a reverse, dip-slip fault. This is in very good agreement with the seismotectonic framework of the area. These earthquakes are important as they identify the Jabuka-Andrija fault system as an active one, which can significantly influence seismic hazard on the islands in the central Adriatic archipelago and on the Croatian coast between Zadar and Split. Along with several other sequences which occurred in the last two decades, they force us to change our notion of Adria as nearly aseismic, compact and rigid block. In fact, it turns out that recent seismicity of the Central Adriatic Sea is comparable to the seismicity of several well known earthquake-prone areas in the circum-Adriatic region.

  13. [Fish and seafood as a source of human exposure to methylmercury].

    PubMed

    Mania, Monika; Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Rebeniak, Małgorzata; Postupolski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Fish and seafood are recommended diet constituents providing high quality protein, vitamins, minerals and omega-3 fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, these foodstuffs can also be the major source ofmethylmercury intake in humans. In general, more than 90% of the mercury in fish is found as methylmercury, but contents of methylmercury can vary considerably between species. Predatory species that are at the top of the food chain and live a long time, may accumulate higher levels of methylmercury. This paper contains information about sources of human exposure to organic compounds of mercury, toxicity, metabolism and transformation of mercury in the environment. Assessment of methylmercury by international risk assessment bodies such as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and U.S. National Research Council (NRC) were presented. Climate changes and their influence on the mercury cycle in the environment especially mercury methylation and concentrations of methylmercury in marine species were also presented. Consumer advice prepared by European Commission and Member States as regards consumption of predatory fishes such as swordfish, tuna, shark, marlin and pike, taking into account the most vulnerable groups of population e.g. women planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding women and children were presented. Mercury and methylmercury contamination of fishes and seafood on the basis of the literature references as well as intake of mercury with fish and fish products in Poland and other European country were discussed. The role of selenium as a factor which counteracts methylmercury toxicity and protects against some neurological effects of methylmercury exposure in humans, as well as information on potential etiological factors connected with autism disorder were also described. Attention has also been drawn to increasing number of notifications to Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed

  14. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage

    PubMed Central

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Hélène Desmonts, Marie; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota. PMID:25333463

  15. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Desmonts, Marie Hélène; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-05-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota. PMID:25333463

  16. Concentration of selected trace elements and PCBs in sediments from the Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, S W; Hamilton, T F; Coquery, M; Villeneuve, J-P; Horvat, M

    2000-07-26

    A broad baseline study of the levels and distributions of trace metals and PCB compounds in sediments has been undertaken. PCB concentrations in surface sediments reflect the source of these contaminates in the region. The highest PCB concentrations as Aroclor 1260 (approximately 10 ng g{sup -1}) were found in sediments near the outflow of the Po river. The lowest concentrations (1.5 ng g{sup -1} dry) were associated with the sediments from the Jabuka Pit in the Middle Adriatic. These values are quite similar to total PCBs (<1.0-17) measured in surface sediments sampled off the coast of Croatia in 1977-78. Thus, based on the limited amount of new data available, it appears that there has been little, if any, decrease in PCB loading in Adriatic sediments over the past 15 years. Downcore profiles of PCBs in sediment cores are also discussed from a pollution history standpoint. Likewise, total mercury in surface sediments was also highest at stations off the Po (403-499 ng g{sup -1} dry) and lowest (67-224 ng g{sup -1}) in the Jabuka Pit. In one core located just south of the Po outflow, total Hg concentrations at all depths were relatively high decreasing gradually from approximately 400 ng g{sup -1} in the top 4 cm to roughly 200 ng g{sup -1} at a depth of 32 cm. Using a {sup 210}Pb-derived sedimentation rate of 0.26 em Y{sup -1} for this station, it appears that anthropogenic inputs of mercury may have been responsible for the gradual increase in total mercury noted over the last 125 years.

  17. Development of a geotechnical and pile driving database, Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Carpaneto, R.; Paoletti, L.; Guaita, P.; Pratico, A.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a geotechnical and pile driving data base relevant to offshore installations in the Adriatic Sea. The paper discusses sources of information, structure, content, and engineering applications of the data base. Data available from Agip`s platform installations in the Adriatic was reviewed, and 20 representative platforms were chosen. Two relational data bases were created, for geotechnical and installation data respectively. The data bases provide a comprehensive and organized source of information about past experience in the area. Such experience is now quickly available for geotechnical engineering activities. As a main application of the data bases, information was processed to make data sets for training Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict pile driveability. It is envisioned that the data bases will also be used in ongoing installation program design.

  18. Parasite communities of Adriatic cage-reared fish.

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Ivona

    2005-04-01

    From June 2001 to March 2002, 7 semi-offshore facilities in the Adriatic Sea rearing sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, sea bream Sparus aurata, sharpsnout bream Diplodus puntazzo and red sea bream Pagellus bogaraveo aged 1+, were monitored for the presence of protozoan and metazoan parasites. Obtained data sets of abundance and prevalence were used to evaluate the structure and dynamic of infra- and component parasite communities. In all hosts, except the red sea bream, dominant parasites were monogenean specialists, showing clear seasonality. Average infracommunity richness was very low, ranging from 1 to 3 parasites per fish, while at component community level, values ranged from 3 to 8, depending on host species. Based on low diversity indices and a moderate to high similarity coefficient between different facilities, it can be concluded that the parasitofauna of Adriatic cage-reared fish is a stable and impoverished stochastic assemblage, with monogeneans as the predominant parasitic group. PMID:15900691

  19. Coflexip installs flexible water line in Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on the design, manufacture, transport and installation of a submarine pipe line network. The network would transport potable water from Yugoslavia's Dubroynil and Peljesac peninsula to the islands of Elafiti and Mljet, popular resort areas in the Adriatic Sea. The pipe line network consists of five separate 8-in. ID flexible lines, each 10 mi long. The pipe is made of thermoplastic tubing, a steel carcass and double crossword armor. The tubing is suitable for potable water service.

  20. Adriatic Sea Decision Support System (ADRI-DSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppini, Giovanni; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Pinardi, Nadia; Montanari, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Attilio; Serra, Stefano; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2010-05-01

    The Adriatic Sea decision support system (ADRI-DSS) consists of an on-line service built upon a set of integrated operational oceanography products. ADRI-DSS integrates the Adriatic Sea monitoring and forecasting system (AFS) with local in-situ observations and is built to support the Emilia-Romagna coastal monitoring system for marine environment and ecosystem health. The target user is the Regional Environment Prevention Agency from Emilia-Romagna (Italy) called ARPA-EMR. Specifically ADRI-DSS will support the daily action of the oceanographic section of ARPA-EMR called ARPA-DAPHNE providing all the available products (forecast, observations, simulations) from Adriatic Forecasting System. The product is shaped as required by the user and moreover ADRI-DSS also integrates with the routinely observations that the user carry out on a weekly basis. The system has been designed through the interaction with ARPA-DAPHNE and consists of a online portal containing simulation and forecast for the relevant north Adriatic region. Moreover the model products are compared with in-situ observations of temperature and salinity collected by the ARPA-DAPHNE itself. In the coming future also satellite observations and indicators will be made available by ADRI-DSS. The final aim of ADRI-DSS is to integrate selected products from the AFS with the insitu and satellite observation to support the monitoring activities of ARPA-DAPNHE and to improve ARPA-DAPHNE capabilities for the Emilia-Romagna marine environment status assessment. ADRI-DSS has been developed within ECOOP project (European COastal-shelf sea OPerational Observing and forecasting system Integrated Project). ADRI-DSS is a web-based application available via internet browsers with JavaScript capability. The server part is implemented on PHP (data management) and NCL (graphics production). The NCL is NCAR Command Language, a free interpreted language designed specifically for scientific data processing and visualization, see

  1. Lithosphere model of the Pannonian-Adriatic overthrusting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šumanovac, Franjo

    2015-12-01

    A gravity model has been established at the contact of the southern part of the Pannonian basin and central Dinarides. Two-dimensional gravity modelling was carried out by means of the calibrated density set, defined at the Alp07 profile (Šumanovac, 2010), which significantly improved the resolution of the method. Gravity attraction caused by the structure in the upper mantle was analyzed in detail, which enabled construction of complete lithosphere model at the contact of the Dinarides, as a part of the Adriatic microplate, and the Pannonian basin as a segment of the Eurasian plate. Geophysical models demonstrate that overthrusting structures need to be considered in the present geological model; notably, the thrusting of the Adriatic microplate under the European plate. However, overthrusting processes cannot provide a complete explanation of the processes in the Pannonian basin. Considering that the Pannonian basin area is in fact a large geothermal anomaly, it is necessary to introduce the asthenosphere upwelling into the model. The presence of this structure is confirmed by a change in densities and seismic velocities in the uppermost mantle. This process has led to a significant thinning of the crust in the Tisia block and to the homogenization of properties as a result of the rising of the asthenosphere, and the crust can therefore be considered as a single layer. The combined effect of the push exerted by the African plate, and the rising of the asthenosphere and the thinning of the crust in the Pannonian basin caused the underthrusting of the Adriatic microplate below the Pannonian segment, thickening of the crust and steeply sinking of the Adriatic upper mantle below the Dinarides. Seismicity of the area and earthquake hypocenters enable the construction of active faults, which correlate well with the main faults at the surface and boundaries of density blocks in the crust.

  2. Atmospheric and oceanologic conditions favouring large bioproduction of northern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Romina; Lučić, Davor; Njire, Jakica; Djakovac, Tamara; Precali, Robert; Supić, Nastjenjka

    2016-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study based on long term data collected in the northern Adriatic relieved winter period to be crucial for the total annual zooplankton production in the region. Namely, yearly averages of some investigated zooplankton species in the 2000-2007 interval were highly related to their February and/or March abundances. The large winter zooplankton abundances appeared in winters of the "A type", in which freshened waters from the Po River spread over the region. Also, the production of phytoplankton was in winters of the "A type" higher than in winters of the "B type", in which these waters are restricted to the coastal areas and do not impact the open sea. That was presumably due to increase in nutrients. In fact, the total inorganic nitrogen and ortophosphate concentration in eastern part reached maximal February values in the 1990-2007 interval in winters of the "A type". Spreading of the Po River water across the northern Adriatic and appearance of the two winter types depends on the existing geostrophic circulation patterns and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions in the preceding months, thus enabling forecast. Obtained results are basis for the future theoretical ecological model which can explain long term changes in bioproduction in the region and be used in planning future environment actions aimed to sustained development, especially as winter phytoplankton and zooplankton production seems to reflect on annual catch of small pelagic fish important for Adriatic fishery, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus).

  3. Haloarchaeal communities in the crystallizers of two adriatic solar salterns.

    PubMed

    Pasić, Lejla; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Crnigoj, Miha; Grabnar, Miklavz; Velikonja, Blagajana Herzog

    2007-01-01

    Solar salterns operate only for short dry periods of the year in the north shore of the Adriatic Sea because of its relatively humid and cold Mediterranean climate. In a previous paper, we showed that the NaCl precipitation ponds (crystallizers) of Northern Adriatic Secovlje salterns have different haloarchaeal populations from those typically found in dry and hot climates such as Southern Spain. To check whether there is a common pattern of haloarchaeal diversity in these less extreme conditions, diversity in crystallizers of other Adriatic solar salterns in Ston, Croatia was ascertained by molecular and culture methods. In addition, the cultivation approach was used to further describe haloarchaeal diversity in both salterns. Over the period of two solar salt collection seasons, isolates related to species of the genera Haloferax, Haloarcula, and Haloterrigena were recovered from both salterns. Within the same sampling effort, relatives of the genus Halorubrum and a Natrinema-like isolate were cultivated from Slovenian Secovlje salterns while Halobacterium related isolates were obtained from the Croatian Ston salterns. Concurrent with our previous findings, a library of Croatian saltern crystallizer PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes was dominated by sequences related to the genus Halorubrum. The microbial community structure was similar in both salterns but diversity indices showed greater values in Slovenian salterns when compared with Croatian salterns. PMID:17496945

  4. Accumulation of organotins in seafood leads to reproductive tract abnormalities in female rats.

    PubMed

    Podratz, Priscila L; Merlo, Eduardo; Sena, Gabriela C; Morozesk, Mariana; Bonomo, Marina M; Matsumoto, Silvia T; da Costa, Mércia B; Zamprogno, Gabriela C; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Miguel, Emilio de C; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Graceli, Jones B

    2015-11-01

    Organotins (OTs) are environmental contaminants used as biocides in antifouling paints that have been shown to be endocrine disrupters. However, studies evaluating the effects of OTs accumulated in seafood (LNI) on reproductive health are particularly sparse. This study demonstrates that LNI leads to impairment in the reproductive tract of female rats, as the estrous cycle development, as well as for ovary and uterus morphology. Rats were treated with LNI, and their reproductive morphophysiology was assessed. Morphophysiological abnormalities, such as irregular estrous cycles, abnormal ovarian follicular development and ovarian collagen deposition, were observed in LNI rats. An increase in luminal epithelia and ERα expression was observed in the LNI uteri. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that LNI are toxic for reproductive morphophysiology, which may be associated with risks to reproductive function. PMID:26050607

  5. Molecular fingerprinting of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica derby isolated from tropical seafood in South India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2008-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby strains isolated from different seafood were genotyped by PCR-ribotyping and ERIC-PCR assays. This study has ascertained the genetic relatedness among serovars prevalent in tropical seafood. PCR-ribotyping exhibited genetic variation in both Salmonella serovars, and ribotype profile (II) was most predominant, which was observed in 10/18 of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and 7/17 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby isolates. Cluster analysis of ERIC-PCR for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium strains exhibited nine different banding patterns and four strains showed >95% genetic homology within the cluster pairs. ERIC-PCR produced more genetic variations in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium; nevertheless, both methods were found to be comparable for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby isolates. Discrimination index of PCR-ribotyping for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium isolates was obtained at 0.674 and index value 0.714 was observed for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby strains. Molecular fingerprinting investigation highlighted the hypothesis of diverse routes of Salmonella contamination in seafood as multiple clones of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby were detected in same or different seafood throughout the study period. PMID:18480975

  6. Prevalence of Pandemic Thermostable Direct Hemolysin-Producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 in Seafood and the Coastal Environment in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Sugiyama, Kanji; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Chowdhury, Ashrafuzzaman; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Ohtomo, Yoshimitsu; Saito, Akinobu; Nagano, Hidetoshi; Nishina, Tokuhiro; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Konuma, Hirotaka; Miyahara, Michiko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    Although thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus has caused many infections in Asian countries, the United States, and other countries, it has been difficult to detect the same pathogen in seafoods and other environmental samples. In this study, we detected and enumerated tdh gene-positive V. parahaemolyticus in Japanese seafoods with a tdh-specific PCR method, a chromogenic agar medium, and a most-probable-number method. The tdh gene was detected in 33 of 329 seafood samples (10.0%). The number of tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus ranged from <3 to 93/10 g. The incidence of tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus tended to be high in samples contaminated with relatively high levels of total V. parahaemolyticus. TDH-producing strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from 11 of 33 tdh-positive samples (short-necked clam, hen clam, and rock oyster). TDH-producing strains of V. parahaemolyticus were also isolated from the sediments of rivers near the coast in Japan. Representative strains of the seafood and sediment isolates were examined for the O:K serovar and by the PCR method specific to the pandemic clone and arbitrarily primed PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques. The results indicated that most O3:K6 tdh-positive strains belonged to the pandemic O3:K6 clone and suggested that serovariation took place in the Japanese environment. PMID:12839757

  7. Impact of winter oceanographic conditions on zooplankton abundance in northern Adriatic with implications on Adriatic anchovy stock prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Romina; Supić, Nastjenjka; Lučić, Davor; Njire, Jakica

    2015-12-01

    Anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus (L.), is commercially one of the most important Adriatic small pelagic fish. Despite the prevailing oligotrophication trend in the northern Adriatic (NA), the anchovy catch increased after 2000, coinciding with an increased number of the winter type A occurrences, when Po River waters are favoured to spread across the NA. Namely, winter type A is characterised by conditions resulting with Po River waters spreading across the NA along with salinity decrease. On the contrary, in winters of type B, salinity is high. We hypothesized in previous paper, based on correlation between circulation patterns and phytoplankton with anchovy catch, that excess feeding of anchovy in this winter pre-spawning period (February) can lead to increased amounts of the anchovy eggs two months later and subsequently to the total fish catch of the same year. In this paper, we investigate in more details and based on longer time series the relation between anchovy catch and winter circulation patterns of the NA. Additionally, we studied the association between anchovy catch and zooplankton, as anchovy is predominantly zooplanktivorous. We found that zooplankton abundances in winters of A type enhance and that ciliates play an important role in the NA anchovy food web and enrichment of the region with anchovy. Finally, the results of our investigation might in time represent the basics for a sustainable anchovy management in the Adriatic Sea as they enable the development of prediction models of the anchovy stock.

  8. Enzymes from Seafood Processing Waste and Their Applications in Seafood Processing.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, V

    2016-01-01

    Commercial fishery processing results in discards up to 50% of the raw material, consisting of scales, shells, frames, backbones, viscera, head, liver, skin, belly flaps, dark muscle, roe, etc. Besides, fishing operations targeted at popular fish and shellfish species also result in landing of sizeable quantity of by-catch, which are not of commercial value because of their poor consumer appeal. Sensitivity to rapid putrefaction of fishery waste has serious adverse impact on the environment, which needs remedial measures. Secondary processing of the wastes has potential to generate a number of valuable by-products such as proteins, enzymes, carotenoids, fat, and minerals, besides addressing environmental hazards. Fishery wastes constitute good sources of enzymes such as proteases, lipases, chitinase, alkaline phosphatase, transglutaminase, hyaluronidase, acetyl glycosaminidase, among others. These enzymes can have diverse applications in the seafood industry, which encompass isolation and modification of proteins and marine oils, production of bioactive peptides, acceleration of traditional fermentation, peeling and deveining of shellfish, scaling of finfish, removal of membranes from fish roe, extraction of flavors, shelf life extension, texture modification, removal of off-odors, and for quality control either directly or as components of biosensors. Enzymes from fish and shellfish from cold habitats are particularly useful since they can function comparatively at lower temperatures thereby saving energy and protecting the food products. Potentials of these applications are briefly discussed. PMID:27452165

  9. Infections related to the ingestion of seafood. Part II: parasitic infections and food safety.

    PubMed

    Butt, Adeel A; Aldridge, Kenneth E; Sanders, Charles V

    2004-05-01

    Parasites are responsible for a substantial number of seafood-associated infections. The factor most commonly associated with infection is consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. People with underlying disorders, particularly liver disease, are more susceptible to infection. In the first part of this review, published last month, we discussed the viral and bacterial agents associated with consumption of seafood. In part II, we discuss the parasites commonly associated with seafood consumption. Parasites readily identifiable from both consumable seafood and infected human beings include nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, and protozoa. The salient features associated with seafood-related parasite infestations are discussed. To provide a safe product for consumers, the seafood industry and the government in the USA have undertaken specific measures, which include good manufacturing practices and hazards analysis and critical control points implemented by the government and regulatory agencies. Consumers should take common precautions including obtaining seafood from reputable sources especially if the seafood is to be consumed uncooked. Adequate cooking of seafood is the safest way of preventing related infections. PMID:15120346

  10. Qualified temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen climatologies in a changing Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipizer, M.; Partescano, E.; Rabitti, A.; Giorgetti, A.; Crise, A.

    2014-10-01

    An updated climatology, based on a comprehensive data set (1911-2009) of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, has been produced for the whole Adriatic Sea with the variational inverse method using the DIVA (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis) software. Climatological maps were produced at 26 levels and validated with ordinary cross-validation and with a real vs. synthetic temperature-salinity diagram intercomparison. The concept of climatology-observation misfit (COM) has been introduced as an estimate of the physical variability associated with the climatological structures. In order to verify the temporal stability of the climatology, long-term variability has been investigated in the Middle Adriatic and the South Adriatic pits, regarded as the most suitable records of possible long-term changes. Compared with previous climatologies, this study allows a clear identification of the seasonal dynamic of the southern Adriatic, where a clear oxygen minimum is typically observed in the centre of the South Adriatic Gyre. New and better resolved features emerged from this analysis: (1) below 100 m all properties profoundly differ between the central and the southern Adriatic and seem characterized by different biogeochemical dynamics; (2) the South Adriatic Pit clearly shows the remote effects of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient, while no effect is observed in the Middle Adriatic Pit; (3) the deepest part of the southern Adriatic seems now to be significantly saltier (+0.18 psu since the period 1910-1914, with an increase of +0.018 decade-1 since the late 1940s) and warmer (+0.54 °C since 1910-1914) even though a long-term temperature trend could not be statistically demonstrated; (4) the Middle Adriatic Pit shows a long-term increase in apparent oxygen utilization (+0.77 mL L-1 since 1910-1914, with a constant increase of +0.2 mL L-1 decade-1 after the 1970s).

  11. Qualified temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen climatologies in a changing Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipizer, M.; Partescano, E.; Rabitti, A.; Giorgetti, A.; Crise, A.

    2014-02-01

    An updated climatology, based on a comprehensive dataset (1911-2009) of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, has been produced for the whole Adriatic Sea with the Variational Inverse Method using the DIVA software. Climatological maps were produced at 26 levels and validated with Ordinary Cross Validation and with real vs. synthetic Temperature-Salinity diagram intercomparison. The concept of Climatology-Observation Misfit (COM) has been introduced as an estimate of the physical variability associated with the climatological structures. In order to verify the temporal stability of the climatology, long-term variability has been investigated in the Mid Adriatic and the South Adriatic Pits, regarded as the most suitable records of possible long-term changes. Compared with previous climatologies, this study reveals a surface temperature rise (up to 2 °C), a clear deep dissolved oxygen minimum in the South Adriatic Gyre and a bottom summer oxygen minimum in the North Adriatic. Below 100 m all properties profoundly differ between the Middle and the South Adriatic. The South Adriatic Pit clearly shows the remote effects of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient, while no effect is observed in Middle Adriatic Pits. The deepest part of the South Adriatic seems now to be significantly saltier (+0.18 since the period 1911-1914, with an increase of +0.018 decade-1 since the late 1940s) and warmer (+0.54 °C since 1911-1914), even though a long-term temperature trend could not be statistically demonstrated. Conversely, the Middle Adriatic Pits present a long-term increase in apparent oxygen utilisation (+0.77 mL L-1 since 1911-1914, with a constant increase of +0.2 mL L-1 decade-1 after the 1970s).

  12. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafoods from Lake Timsah.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gamal A

    2002-03-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrpcarvons (PAHs) in some seafoods caught from Lake Timsah were determined. The tested samples were tilapia fish (Oreochromis aureus), crabs (Portuns pelagicus), bivalves (Venerupis decussata), clams (Strombus tricornis) and gastropods (Munes Sp.). Where these seafoods are locally and favorite consumed foods in the area around the lake (Ismailia governorate). Results showed that crabs contained significantly higher concentrations of both total and carcinogenic PAHs ranging from 1318.6 to 3767.4 and 1230.3 to 3442.2 microg kg(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, clams contained significantly lower levels with mean value of 28.4 microg kg(-1) for total and 24.4 microg kg(-1) for carcinogenic PAHs. The most frequently detected PAHs in the tested samples were indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene followed by benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene which are characterized as carcinogenic compounds. PMID:11970818

  13. Evaluation of Potential Risk of Botulism from Seafood Cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Lerke, Peter

    1973-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum E could not be detected in 35 samples of commercial seafood cocktails, ranging in pH from 4.10 to 4.85. At 30 C, toxinogenesis in homogenates acidified with a citric-acetic acid mixture was prevented at pH 4.86 or lower for crabmeat and at 5.03 or lower for shrimp. Measurements of the rate of acid penetration into the centers of large pieces of flesh indicated that the already small risk of botulism from seafood cocktails could be completely eliminated by using a cocktail sauce at a maximum pH of 3.70 and by cooling the final product to at least 10 C for 24 h. PMID:4577180

  14. Trends in mercury concentrations in the hair of women of Nome, Alaska - Evidence of seafood consumption or abiotic absorption?

    SciTech Connect

    Lasorsa, B.

    1992-06-01

    Eighty samples of hair from women of child-bearing age from Nome, Alaska, and seven control samples from women living in Sequim, Washington, were analyzed for mercury concentration by segmental analysis in an effort to determine whether seasonal fluctuations in mercury concentration in the hair samples can be correlated to seasonal seafood consumption. Full-length hair strands were analyzed in 1.1-cm segments representing 1 month`s growth using a strong acid digestion and cold vapor atomic fluorescence analysis. It was assumed that the concentration of mercury in each segment is an indicator of the mercury body burden during the month in which the segment emerged from the scalp. Eighteen of the samples show seasonal variability, with five of the controls and one Nome resident showing winter highs while all Nome residents show summer highs. Twenty-six of the samples show an increase in mercury concentration toward the distal end of the strand regardless of month of growth. The trend of increasing mercury concentrations toward the distal end of the hair strand regardless of month of emergence, and the documented presence of elevated levels of elemental mercury in the Nome area suggest that these elevated levels may actually be due to external contamination of the hair strands by adsorption and not due to ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs such as seafood.

  15. Trends in mercury concentrations in the hair of women of Nome, Alaska - Evidence of seafood consumption or abiotic absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Lasorsa, B. )

    1992-06-01

    Eighty samples of hair from women of child-bearing age from Nome, Alaska, and seven control samples from women living in Sequim, Washington, were analyzed for mercury concentration by segmental analysis in an effort to determine whether seasonal fluctuations in mercury concentration in the hair samples can be correlated to seasonal seafood consumption. Full-length hair strands were analyzed in 1.1-cm segments representing 1 month's growth using a strong acid digestion and cold vapor atomic fluorescence analysis. It was assumed that the concentration of mercury in each segment is an indicator of the mercury body burden during the month in which the segment emerged from the scalp. Eighteen of the samples show seasonal variability, with five of the controls and one Nome resident showing winter highs while all Nome residents show summer highs. Twenty-six of the samples show an increase in mercury concentration toward the distal end of the strand regardless of month of growth. The trend of increasing mercury concentrations toward the distal end of the hair strand regardless of month of emergence, and the documented presence of elevated levels of elemental mercury in the Nome area suggest that these elevated levels may actually be due to external contamination of the hair strands by adsorption and not due to ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs such as seafood.

  16. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Drewery, M L; Gaitán, A V; Thaxton, C; Xu, W; Lammi-Keefe, C J

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8-12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  17. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lammi-Keefe, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  18. Heavy Metals in Seafood and Farm Produce from Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orisakwe, Orish E.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Ajaezi, Godwin C.; Edet, Ukeme W.; Uwana, Patrick U.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to obtain representative data on the levels of heavy metals in seafood and farm produce consumed by the general population in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, a region known for the exploration and exploitation of crude oil. Methods: In May 2012, 25 food items, including common types of seafood, cereals, root crops and vegetables, were purchased in Uyo or collected from farmland in the region. Dried samples were ground, digested and centrifuged. Levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt and chromium) were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Average daily intake and target hazard quotients (THQ) were estimated. Results: Eight food items (millet, maize, periwinkle, crayfish, stock fish, sabina fish, bonga fish and pumpkin leaf) had THQ values over 1.0 for cadmium, indicating a potential health risk in their consumption. All other heavy metals had THQ values below 1.0, indicating insignificant health risks. The total THQ for the heavy metals ranged from 0.389 to 2.986. There were 14 items with total THQ values greater than 1.0, indicating potential health risks in their consumption. Conclusion: The regular consumption of certain types of farm produce and seafood available in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is likely adding to the body burden of heavy metals among those living in this region. PMID:26052462

  19. Morphometric Analysis of Major Catchments Draining the Adriatic Indenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Topography and relief in collisional orogens such as the European Alps result from the interplay of uplift driven by plate convergence and crustal shortening, and erosional surface processes that act along evolving topographic gradients and counteract topography formation. Due to ongoing indentation of the Adriatic indenter into the Eastern Alps, the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter is one of the tectonically most active zones of the Central Mediterranean region. The region is characterized by numerous earthquakes, distinct spatial gradients in recent uplift rates and exhumation level, and active faulting. However, the predominance of carbonaceous lithology hindered low-temperature thermochronology and cosmogenic nuclide dating, so that timing, rates and drivers of south-alpine topography development are still not well constrained. Further on, a systematic morphometric analysis of rivers draining the south-alpine indenter is still missing. In this study we fill this gap and investigate the interplay of tectonics and climate by a morphometric analysis of drainage systems of the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter. We systematically extract a variety of characteristic channel metrics of four major drainage systems (Adige, Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento) of this domain and interpret the morphometric results in terms of (a) lithological effects such as erodibility contrasts and karstification, (b) spatially variable uplift rates, (c) base level lowering caused by glacial erosion and possible Messinian preconditioning, and (d) the migration of drainage divides. We find a clear correlation between the normalized steepness index (ksn) and bedrock type. ksn - values are systematically increased whenever rivers incise into the basement of the south-alpine indenter. However, the outcrop of the basement indicates a high level of exhumation and thus the highest overall uplift of the domain such that both increased uplift rates and low rock erodibility may be

  20. Mercury and selenium intake by seafood from the Ionian Sea: A risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Copat, Chiara; Vinceti, Marco; D'Agati, Maria Grazia; Arena, Giovanni; Mauceri, Valeria; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Ferrante, Margherita

    2014-02-01

    The subject of the present study is the evaluation of the concentrations of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) in fish and shellfish from the Gulf of Catania (Ionian Sea) and the assessment of related risk-based consumption limits per single contaminant in adults and children. In contrast to the potential harm from Hg, Se is an essential element that is normally found in high levels in seafood. If the amount of Hg is high enough, it could bind Se and irreversibly inhibit selenium-dependent enzymes. Thus, adequate levels of Se need to be available to replace the amount of Se lost to Hg sequestration, thereby maintaining normal selenoprotein synthesis. Hg analysis was conducted using a flow injection analysis system coupled with an atomic adsorption spectrometer, and Se analysis was conducted using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the trace elements investigated, only Hg has a limit set by the European Community for human consumption, and this was never exceeded. Nevertheless, based on Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) over 1, and on the Estimated Daily Intake per meal (EDIm) higher than the Provisional Tolerable Intake (PTI) suggested by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive (JECFA), Hg oral exposure derived from consumption of the benthonic fish and of the bigger pelagic fish species analyzed, could follow the occurrence of systemic effects. Se was found always in molar excess respect to Hg in all pelagic fish and in the shellfish, nearly equimolar in the benthonic fish. Determining the evidence that foods, such as pelagic fish, with high molar excess of Se, could contribute to replace the amount of Se bound to Hg and thereby maintaining normal selenoprotein synthesis, is useful for a better understanding of the seafood safety. PMID:24433795

  1. A Quantitative Synthesis of Mercury in Commercial Seafood and Implications for Exposure in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Timothy P.; Fisher, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that presents public health risks through fish consumption. A major source of uncertainty in evaluating harmful exposure is inadequate knowledge of Hg concentrations in commercially important seafood. Objectives: We examined patterns, variability, and knowledge gaps of Hg in common commercial seafood items in the United States and compared seafood Hg concentrations from our database to those used for exposure estimates and consumption advice. Methods: We developed a database of Hg concentrations in fish and shellfish common to the U.S. market by aggregating available data from government monitoring programs and the scientific literature. We calculated a grand mean for individual seafood items, based on reported means from individual studies, weighted by sample size. We also compared database results to those of federal programs and human health criteria [U.S. Food and Drug Administration Hg Monitoring Program (FDA-MP), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Results: Mean Hg concentrations for each seafood item were highly variable among studies, spanning 0.3–2.4 orders of magnitude. Farmed fish generally had lower grand mean Hg concentrations than their wild counterparts, with wild seafood having 2- to12-fold higher concentrations, depending on the seafood item. However, farmed fish are relatively understudied, as are specific seafood items and seafood imports from Asia and South America. Finally, we found large discrepancies between mean Hg concentrations estimated from our database and FDA-MP estimates for most seafood items examined. Conclusions: The high variability in Hg in common seafood items has considerable ramifications for public health and the formulation of consumption guidelines. Exposure and risk analyses derived from smaller data sets do not reflect our collective, available information on seafood Hg concentrations. PMID:22732656

  2. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk and serum collected from lactating mothers in the northern Adriatic area of Yugoslavia

    SciTech Connect

    Krauthacker, B. )

    1991-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent contaminants of the environment. Owing to their lipophilic properties they are primarily stored in fat-rich tissues and fluids of humans and animals. The results of a monitoring study on levels of the DDT-complex, HCH-group of isomers, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB in human milk and serum are presented in this paper. Samples were collected in the northern Adriatic area for which no data have so far been available. Sample donors were chosen from rural and small urban locations where mediterranean eating habits are still maintained. The previous studies were conducted in an industrialized continental town of Croatia.

  3. Marine conservation and accession: the future for the Croatian Adriatic.

    PubMed

    Mackelworth, Peter; Holcer, Draško; Jovanović, Jelena; Fortuna, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    The European Union (EU) is the world's largest trading bloc and the most influential supra-national organisation in the region. The EU has been the goal for many eastern European States, for Croatia accession remains a priority and underpins many of its national policies. However, entry into the EU requires certain commitments and concessions. In October 2003 the Croatian parliament declared an ecological and fisheries protection zone in the Adriatic. Under pressure the zone was suspended, finally entering into force in March 2008 exempting EU States. There are other marine conflicts between Croatia and the EU, particularly the contested maritime border with Slovenia, and the development of the Croatian fishing fleet in opposition to the Common Fisheries Policy. Conversely, attempts to harmonise Croatian Nature Protection with the EU Habitats Directive, facilitated by pre-accession funding, has galvanised conservation policy. Since 2005 two marine protected areas have been declared, significantly increasing the marine ecosystem under protection. Finally, the development of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the latest EU attempt to integrate environmental policy in the maritime realm. This will have an effect not only on member States but neighbouring countries. For marine nature protection to be effective in the region the Adriatic Sea needs to be viewed as a mutually important shared and limited resource not a bargaining chip. Negotiations of the EU and Croatia have been watched closely by the other Balkan States and precedents set in this case have the potential to affect EU expansion to the East. PMID:20221828

  4. Marine Conservation and Accession: The Future for the Croatian Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackelworth, Peter; Holcer, Draško; Jovanović, Jelena; Fortuna, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    The European Union (EU) is the world's largest trading bloc and the most influential supra-national organisation in the region. The EU has been the goal for many eastern European States, for Croatia accession remains a priority and underpins many of its national policies. However, entry into the EU requires certain commitments and concessions. In October 2003 the Croatian parliament declared an ecological and fisheries protection zone in the Adriatic. Under pressure the zone was suspended, finally entering into force in March 2008 exempting EU States. There are other marine conflicts between Croatia and the EU, particularly the contested maritime border with Slovenia, and the development of the Croatian fishing fleet in opposition to the Common Fisheries Policy. Conversely, attempts to harmonise Croatian Nature Protection with the EU Habitats Directive, facilitated by pre-accession funding, has galvanised conservation policy. Since 2005 two marine protected areas have been declared, significantly increasing the marine ecosystem under protection. Finally, the development of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the latest EU attempt to integrate environmental policy in the maritime realm. This will have an effect not only on member States but neighbouring countries. For marine nature protection to be effective in the region the Adriatic Sea needs to be viewed as a mutually important shared and limited resource not a bargaining chip. Negotiations of the EU and Croatia have been watched closely by the other Balkan States and precedents set in this case have the potential to affect EU expansion to the East.

  5. Climatology of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen in a changing Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipizer, Marina; Crise, Alessandro; Partescano, Elena; Rabitti, Anna; Giorgetti, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    A new climatology, based on a comprehensive dataset (1911-2009) of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, is presented for the whole Adriatic Sea, by using Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA). Climatological maps were produced at 26 levels and validated with Ordinary Cross Validation. The approximation error and the uncertainty degree associated to the updated climatology have been estimated in order to provide information on the reliability of the products obtained. The concept of Climatology-Observation Misfit (COM) has been introduced as an estimate of the uncertainty of the patterns revealed in the climatology, which is induced by the dynamical variability associated with the climatological structures. The uncertainty associated with the climatology, higher in the upper layer and in the northern and shallower part of the basin, underlines the importance of mesoscale processes in the Adriatic Sea. Lastly, in order to identify possible temporal trends, long-term variability has been investigated in the Mid Adriatic and the South Adriatic Pits. New or better resolved features emerged from this analysis: (1) below 100 m all properties profoundly differ between the Middle and the South Adriatic and seem characterized by different biogeochemical dynamics; (2) the South Adriatic Pit clearly shows the remote effects of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient, while no effect is observed in Middle Adriatic Pits; (3) the deepest part of the South Adriatic seems now to be significantly saltier (+0.18 since the period 1910-1914, with an increase of +0.018 decade-1 since the late 1940s) and warmer (+0.54°C since 1910-1914),; (4) the Middle Adriatic Pits present a long-term increase in Apparent Oxygen Utilisation (+0.77 ml l-1 since 1910-1914, with a constant increase of +0.2 ml l-1 decade-1 after the 1970s).

  6. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  7. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  8. Occurrences of igneous rocks in the Adriatic Sea: a possible indicator of the Paleozoic supercontinent disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrna Prašek, Marko; Petrinec, Zorica; Balen, Dražen

    2014-05-01

    Islands of the Adriatic Sea are part of the Mesozoic Adriatic Dinaridic Carbonate Platform (ADCP) and so are mostly comprised of limestones. Occurrences of igneous rocks inside ADCP are in general extremely rare, with the exception of two small islands, Jabuka and Brusnik, which are completely igneous in origin. Small outcrops of igneous rocks can also be found on the island of Vis. Samples used in this research where gathered on a diving expedition of the islands Jabuka and Brusnik and a previously unknown and unexplored underwater (14-25 m b.s.l.) locality - Brusnik Shoal. Samples are mostly hypidiomorphic holocrystalline medium-grained rocks with a massive, locally ophitic texture. Mineral composition is dominated by clinopyroxene and weakly zoned polysynthetic twins of plagioclase. Subordinate are secondary aggregates of amphibole (uralite), chlorite, sericite, biotite, apatite and fine-grained opâque minerals while microfissures are filled with non-oriented needles of prehnite and calcite. Petrographically, all samples are determined as gabbro to gabbro-diorite. Major and trace element signature, characterized by low content of MgO (2.43-5.01 wt. %), low magnesium number (34-53), low content of Ni and Cr (6-12 and 6-61 ppm, respectively) is typical for calc-alkaline to tholeiitic gabbros and shows that the parental magma was not primitive by nature. Trace element patterns, high LILE/HSFE and chondrite-normalized LREE/HREE ratios (LaN/YbN: 3.27 - 5.26), Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*: 0.75 - 0.93), low Nb (2.2 - 3.8 ppm) and high Pb (2 - 18 ppm), together with elevated P, Zr, Ti, U, Th, K concentrations studied in this research point to an active marginal setting with significant contribution from the recycled continental crust. Observed geochemical characteristics point to a single igneous event that led to the formation of all studied samples. At the same time, different degrees of crustal contamination, fractionation of pyroxene and plagioclase and/or development of

  9. Seafood-Associated Shellfish Allergy: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Khora, Samanta S

    2016-08-01

    Shellfish are diverse, serve as main constituents of seafood, and are extensively consumed globally because of their nutritional values. Consequently, increase in reports of IgE-mediated seafood allergy is particularly food associated to shellfish. Seafood-associated shellfish consists of crustaceans (decapods, stomatopods, barnacles, and euphausiids) and molluskans (gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods) and its products can start from mild local symptoms and lead to severe systemic anaphylactic reactions through ingestion, inhalation, or contact like most other food allergens. Globally, the most commonly causative shellfish are shrimps, crabs, lobsters, clams, oysters, and mussels. The prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated to be 0.5-2.5% of the general population but higher in coastal Asian countries where shellfish constitute a large proportion of the diet. Diversity in allergens such as tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, and sarcoplasmic binding protein are from crustaceans whereas tropomyosin, paramyosin, troponin, actine, amylase, and hemoyanin are reported from molluskans shellfish. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between shellfish and other invertebrates, within crustaceans, within molluskans, between crustaceans vs. molluskans as well as between shellfish and fish. Allergenicity diagnosis requires clinical history, in vivo skin prick testing, in vitro quantification of IgE, immunoCAP, and confirmation by oral challenge testing unless the reactions borne by it are life-threatening. This comprehensive review provides the update and new findings in the area of shellfish allergy including demographic, diversity of allergens, allergenicity, their cross-reactivity, and innovative molecular genetics approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-threatening as well as life-long disease. PMID:27404324

  10. Cancer and Noncancer Mortality Among American Seafood Workers

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric S.; Faramawi, Mohammed F; Sall, Macodu; Choi, Kyung-Mee

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated mortality in seafood workers worldwide, and no such study has been conducted in the United States. The objective of this study was to investigate mortality in American seafood workers. Methods The study population was derived from 4 states and consisted of 4116 subjects who worked mainly in seafood processing plants. They were followed up from 1966 to 2003. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) were estimated, using the US general population for comparison. Results About 45% of the cohort was born after 1949. A total of 788 deaths were recorded; 53% of the decedents were female, and 88% were white. The SMRs for stomach cancer and disorders of the thyroid gland in the cohort as a whole were 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–3.8) and 6.1 (95% CI 1.3–18.0), respectively. The SMRs for breast cancer, and occlusion/stenosis of the pre-cerebral/cerebral arteries in the cohort as a whole were 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3–0.9) and 0.5 (95% CI, 0.2–0.8), respectively. The SMR for ischemic heart disease in white females was 0.8 (95% CI, 0.6–0.9). Conclusions This cohort had excess deaths from stomach cancer and disorders of the thyroid gland, and deficit of deaths from breast cancer, stroke and ischemic heart disease. The significance of these findings is unknown, especially as less than 20% of the cohort were deceased. Nevertheless, the cohort is unique and important, and further follow-up may shed more light on mortality patterns in this occupational group. PMID:21467730

  11. JV Task - 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

    2009-03-30

    Continuing studies under these three funded projects - (JV Task 77 The Health Implications of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, JV Task 96 Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, and JV Task 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue) - were performed to determine the effects of different levels of dietary mercury and selenium on the growth and development of test animals, and related tissue analyses, to understand the protective benefits of dietary selenium in reference to low-level exposure to mercury. Maternal exposure to methylmercury from seafood has been found to cause neurodevelopmental harm in children. However, significant nutritional benefits will be lost if fish consumption is needlessly avoided. The results of these studies support the hypothesis that intracellular Se itself is the physiologically important biomolecule and that the harm of mercury toxicity arises when Hg abundance becomes great enough to bind a significant portion of intracellular Se in vulnerable tissues such as the brain. Formation of HgSe limits bioavailability of Se for synthesis of Se-dependent enzymes, particularly in brain tissues. When production of these enzymes is impaired, the loss of their numerous essential functions results in the signs and symptoms of Hg toxicity. The finding that one mole of Se protects against many moles of Hg indicates that its beneficial effect is not due to sequestration of mercury as HgSe but rather due to the biological activity of the Se. Therefore, the selenium content of seafoods must be considered along with their methylmercury contents in evaluating the effect of dietary exposure to mercury.

  12. Numerical modelling of sediment transport in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, A.; Souza, A. J.; Pinardi, N.; Traykovski, P.

    2014-06-01

    A new sediment transport model, considering currents, tides and waves is presented for the Adriatic Sea basin. The simulations concentrate on the winter of 2002-2003 because of field data availability and interesting intermittent processes occurrence. A process oriented analysis is performed to investigate the impact that Sirocco and Bora wind regimes have on sediment transport. The comparisons of the simulations with the observed data show that the model is capable to capture the main dynamics of sediment transport along the Italian coasts and the sediment concentration within the water column. This latter can reach values up to several g L-1, especially within the first centimetres above the bottom. The sediments are transported mainly southwards along the Italian coasts, consistently with the known literature results, except during Sirocco wind events, which can be responsible for reversing the coastal circulation in the northern area of the basin, and consequently the sediment transport. The resuspension of sediments is also related to the specific wave regimes induced by Bora and Sirocco, the former inducing resuspension events near the coasts while the latter causing a more diffused resuspension regime in the Northern Adriatic basin. Beside the realistic representation of short timescales resuspension/deposition events due to storms, the model was also used to investigate persistent erosion or deposition areas in the Adriatic Sea. Two main depocenters were identified: one, very pronounced, in the surroundings of the Po river delta, and another one a few kilometres off the coast in front of the Ancona promontory. A third region of accumulation, even if less intense, was found to be offshore the southernmost limit of the Gargano region. On the contrary the whole western coast within a distance of a few kilometres from the shore was found to be subject to prevailing erosion. The comparison with observed accumulation and erosion data shows that the model captures

  13. Distribution of phosphorus in the eastern Adriatic Sea sediments (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijević, Slavica; Bogner, Danijela; Kušpilić, Grozdan; Veža, Jere

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is very important nutrient for the eastern Adriatic Sea owing to its limiting role in the primary production. Orthophosphate concentrations are low (median HPO42- value: 0.039 µmol dm-3) as a consequence of relatively small number of freshwater inflows and cyclonic circulation of oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean water masses. Due to anthropogenic influence in coastal areas such as bays, estuaries and channel waters, P concentrations increment occurred leading to the formation of trophic gradient from the open sea towards the coast. As marine sediment presents the ultimate sink for particulate organic P from the water column, as well as for inorganic P forms, knowledge about distribution of different sediment P species is of great importance for understanding the burial, diagenesis and environmental geochemical significance of P. This paper presents results of P distribution at the eastern Adriatic sites of different trophic status (open sea, channel, estuary, semi-enclosed bay under the anthropogenic influence and fish farms) during 2002-2012. In the water column dissolved and particulate inorganic and organic P were analyzed. In all sediments total phosphorus (organic and inorganic P) was determined, while at certain sites beside organic P, inorganic P forms were examined using modified SEDEX methods (P in biogenic - P-FD; authigenic - P-AUT and in detrital apatite - P-DET; phosphorus bound to iron oxides and hydroxides - P-Fe). Various geochemical variables in the water column and sediment (HPO42- concentration, sediment redox potential, granulometric composition, carbonate content, iron, organic carbon and total nitrogen content) were also investigated. Results proved total P concentrations range between 3 and 161 µmol g-1, with highest values at sites under the strong anthropogenic impact including fish farms, estuaries and bay areas. Major inorganic P species in the eastern Adriatic was P-Fe form. Fish debris P species P-FD, prevailed in

  14. Chemical properties of surimi seafood nutrified with ω-3 rich oils.

    PubMed

    Pietrowski, Brittney N; Tahergorabi, Reza; Matak, Kristen E; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    Surimi-based seafood products are widely accepted and enjoyed worldwide. The US consumption increased in 1980s; however, it leveled thereafter. Food products nutrified with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are in increasing demand due to demonstrated health benefits. Currently, surimi seafood is not nutrified with ω-3 PUFAs. In the present study, surimi seafood was nutritionally-enhanced with ω-3 PUFAs-rich oils (flaxseed, algae, menhaden, krill, and blend). The objectives were (1) chemical characterization of FA composition and oxidation, and (2) determination of physicochemical properties (colour and texture) of the nutritionally-enhanced surimi seafood. Oil addition resulted in increased (P<0.05) concentration of total ω-3 FAs in surimi seafood; however, the concentration of α-linolenic (ALA, 18:3ω-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω-3) acids depended on which oil was added. Although the ω-3 PUFAs nutrification resulted in increased (P<0.05) susceptibility of surimi seafood to lipid oxidation, it was within ranges acceptable to consumers. Texture analysis (texture profile analysis, Kramer shear and torsion test) showed that ω-3 PUFAs nutrification did not affect texture. Colour properties of ω-3 PUFAs nutrified surimi seafood were generally improved except when krill oil or blend was added. This study demonstrates that nutritional value of surimi seafood can be enhanced with concurrent improvement of colour and without affecting texture. PMID:25212318

  15. 78 FR 66899 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Commercial Fisheries Seafood Processor Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...; Commercial Fisheries Seafood Processor Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... collection. The objective of the survey is to collect information on seafood plant characteristics, plant... information collected in this survey will be used to provide information on ] potential impacts of...

  16. World Foods. Fish and Seafood - The Present and Future Use in World Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in the study of fish and seafood and their contribution in the present and future to feeding the world's people. The guide's one unit provides an overview of the various uses of fish and seafood in various cuisines, their nutritional qualities, their various classifications and forms, and the…

  17. Applications of remote sensing for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Vitiello, F.; Borfecchia, F.; De Cecco, L.; Martini, S.

    1997-08-01

    The paper shows the remote sensing activities that ENEA is carrying out for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions and their modifications over the last fifteen years. The activities were requested by the Italian Research Ministry to gain knowledge of the circulation model of the Adriatic Sea and to understand what caused algae blooms in some of the last years. The Adriatic Sea is a high environmental risk sea, because its depth is low and a strong pollutant charge is coming into the sea from the Po river and from many other rivers of the NE coast of Italy. Processing of satellite images has covered the period from 1980 up to now and has allowed the reconstruction of modifications of the environmental conditions of the sea. The paper shows the first results obtained by remote sensing images processing that will be utilized for the database of the Adriatic Sea.

  18. A High Throughput Method for Measuring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seafood Using QuEChERS Extraction and SBSE.

    PubMed

    Pfannkoch, Edward A; Stuff, John R; Whitecavage, Jacqueline A; Blevins, John M; Seely, Kathryn A; Moran, Jeffery H

    2015-01-01

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Method NMFS-NWFSC-59 2004 is currently used to quantitatively analyze seafood for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, especially following events such as the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that released millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This method has limited throughput capacity; hence, alternative methods are necessary to meet analytical demands after such events. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an effective technique to extract trace PAHs in water and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction strategy effectively extracts PAHs from complex food matrices. This study uses SBSE to concentrate PAHs and eliminate matrix interference from QuEChERS extracts of seafood, specifically oysters, fish, and shrimp. This method provides acceptable recovery (65-138%) linear calibrations and is sensitive (LOD = 0.02 ppb, LOQ = 0.06 ppb) while providing higher throughput and maintaining equivalency between NOAA 2004 as determined by analysis of NIST SRM 1974b mussel tissue. PMID:25873967

  19. Synthetic musk in seafood products from south Europe using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction method.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, M; Cavalheiro, J; Lanceleur, L; Monperrus, M

    2016-06-01

    This study aims at developing a method for the determination of 9 synthetic musk compounds in seafood products by combining the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and determination by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). Method detection limits (MDL) ranging between 0.001 and 1.94 ng g(-1) were obtained. The linearity is higher than 0.9899 in the range MDL - 100 ng g(-1) with precision below 18% and recoveries between 46% and 120% were obtained. The method was applied to quantify musk compounds in seafood products from the European southwest coast (oysters, mussels, salmon organs, glass eels). Galaxolide and Tonalide exhibited the highest concentration levels ranging between MDL - 96.4 ng g(-1) and MDL - 6.85 ng g(-1), respectively. Contamination levels observed for the two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) are significantly lower ranging between MDL - 0.6 ng g(-1) and MDL - 0.09 ng g(-1), respectively. Analysis of different organs of salmons showed higher concentrations in liver and gonad than in muscle tissues. PMID:26830596

  20. A High Throughput Method for Measuring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seafood Using QuEChERS Extraction and SBSE

    PubMed Central

    Pfannkoch, Edward A.; Stuff, John R.; Whitecavage, Jacqueline A.; Blevins, John M.; Seely, Kathryn A.; Moran, Jeffery H.

    2015-01-01

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Method NMFS-NWFSC-59 2004 is currently used to quantitatively analyze seafood for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, especially following events such as the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that released millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This method has limited throughput capacity; hence, alternative methods are necessary to meet analytical demands after such events. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an effective technique to extract trace PAHs in water and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction strategy effectively extracts PAHs from complex food matrices. This study uses SBSE to concentrate PAHs and eliminate matrix interference from QuEChERS extracts of seafood, specifically oysters, fish, and shrimp. This method provides acceptable recovery (65–138%) linear calibrations and is sensitive (LOD = 0.02 ppb, LOQ = 0.06 ppb) while providing higher throughput and maintaining equivalency between NOAA 2004 as determined by analysis of NIST SRM 1974b mussel tissue. PMID:25873967

  1. Adriatic indentation of the Eastern Alps - nature vs. analogue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, S.; Scharf, A.; Schuster, R.; Handy, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Alps underwent late Oligocene-Miocene indentation by the Adriatic microplate, followed by rapid Miocene exhumation in the Tauern Window and orogen-parallel escape. Analogue models of indentation in the Eastern Alps indicate that exhumation of orogenic crust in front of the Adriatic indenter was coeval, with faults and post-nappe folds forming an asymmetrical conjugate pattern in front of the indenting block (Ratschbacher et al 1991, Rosenberg et al 2007). The amount and rate of exhumation is greatest at this location, but decrease laterally towards an unconfined boundary of the models that represents the retreating Carpathian subduction orogen. In nature, however, isotopic age patterns of deeply buried and exhumed basements rocks in the Tauern Window of the Eastern Alps indicate that cooling and possibly also exhumation were diachronous along strike of the orogen. In the westernmost Tauern Window, previous thermal modeling of fission-track ages (Fügenschuh et al 1997) revealed that rapid exhumation (≥ 1mm/a) lasted from 20-13 Ma and appears to have been triggered by sinistral transpression along the Guidicarie Belt beginning in Late Oligocene time. Rapid cooling (≥25°C/Ma) from 550 to 270°C lasted from 18-12 Ma (von Blanckenburg et al 1989; Fügenschuh et al 1997). In the easternmost part, however, rapid cooling from a similar peak temperature lasted from 23-20 Ma and ended no later than 17 Ma. Thus, rapid exhumation cannot have begun later than 23-21 Ma. Cooling patterns in the eastern central part of the Tauern Window are more complex and reflect the combined effects of doming and extensional exhumation. New Rb-Sr mica ages in post-nappe basement domes generally decrease from NW (muscovite: 26 Ma; biotite: 22 Ma) to SE (muscovite: 22 Ma; biotite: 18 Ma). We interpret these trends to show that doming began in the south-central part of the Tauern Window and then migrated to the SE while the entire basement nappe pile underwent orogen

  2. Variability of PAHs and trace metals in the sediments in relation to environmental characteristics of the bottom layer in the middle Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Federica; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Campanelli, Alessandra; Guicciardi, Stefano; Marini, Mauro; Marasovic, Ivona; Grbec, Branka; Skejić, Sanda; Ujević, Ivana; Lušić, Jelena

    2015-04-01

    towards the Italian coast. The total PAHs concentrations (sum of 16 PAH priority pollutant - US EPA) recorded in the marine sediments during the cruise in April 2013 showed a higher level of PAH contamination in the pits, especially in the central pit (28.5 ng/g d.w.), in comparison to others analyzed samples. The corresponding bottom water in the central pit is characterized by a temperature of 10.9°C, density of 29.6 kg/m3, salinity of 38.6 and low values of DIN (0.55 μmol•l-1). The linear regression between DIN and PAHs showed a significant negative relationship (p ≤ 0.05). This feature implies a possible accumulation of PAHs very likely due to a lower microbial activity as demonstrated by Xu et al. (2014). The physical and chemical characteristics of the bottom layer in these areas could influence the PAHs contamination of the deep sediments. Bibliography: Grbec, B. and Morović, M. (1997): Seasonal thermohaline fluctuations in the middle Adriatic Sea. Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di Fisica C-Geophysics & Space Physics. 20(4): 561-576. Grilli F., Marini M., Book J. W., Campanelli A., Paschini E., Russo A., 2013. Flux of nutrients between the middle and southern Adriatic Sea (Gargano-Split section). Marine Chemistry 153,1-14. Marini, M., Russo, A., Paschini, E., Grilli, F., Campanelli, A., 2006. Short-term physical and chemical variations in the bottom water of middle Adriatic depressions. Climate Research 31, 227-237. Meiying Xu, Qin Zhang, Chunyu Xia, Yuming Zhong, Guoping Sun, Jun Guo, Tong Yuan, Jizhong Zhou and Zhili He, 2014. Elevated nitrate enriches microbial functional genes for potential bioremediation of complexly contaminated sediments. The ISME Journal 8, 1932-1944 | doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.42 Marasović I., Grbec B. & Morović M., 1995. Long term production changes in the Adriatic. Neth. J. of Sea Res. 34 (4): 267-273. Vilibić I., Grbec B. and Supić N., 2004. Dense water generation in the north Adriatic in 1999 and its recirculation along

  3. Levels and distribution of methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plant and soil samples surrounding a seafood processing factory and a seafood market.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Liu, Jiyan; Liu, Yanwei; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) along with hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were found in plant and soil samples collected surrounding a seafood processing factory and a seafood market in China. The profiles of MeO-PBDE congeners were different between seafood processing factory and seafood market. The detection frequency and concentration of 6-OH-BDE-47 were lower than that of MeO-PBDEs. Near seafood processing factory, a decreasing trend of analyte concentrations in plants was found downstream the river where factory wastewater was discharged. Concentrations of ΣMeO-PBDEs in plant and soil samples showed difference as root > soil > leaf. However, at seafood market, the concentrations of ΣMeO-PBDEs were much higher in leaves than those in soil. The concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs in leaves showed a remarkable difference between Calystegia soldanella (Linn.) R. Br. and Setaira viridis (L.) Beauv. PMID:23416744

  4. Health risk assessment of hazardous metals for population via consumption of seafood from Ogoniland, Rivers State, Nigeria; a case study of Kaa, B-Dere, and Bodo City.

    PubMed

    Nkpaa, K W; Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, K C; Wegwu, M O; Essien, E B

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the human health risk through consumption of seafood from contaminated sites in Kaa, B-Dere, and Bodo City all in Ogoniland. The potential non-carcinogenic health risk for consumers were investigated by assessing the estimated daily intake and target hazard quotients for Cr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Mn, and Fe while carcinogenic health effect from Cr, Cd, and Pb was also estimated. The estimated daily intake from seafood consumption was below the threshold values for Cr, Mn, and Zn while they exceeded the threshold for Cd, Pb, and Fe. The target hazard quotients for Zn and Cr were below 1. Target hazard quotients values for Cd, Pb, Mn, and Fe were greater than 1 except for Fe level in Liza falcipinis from Kaa. Furthermore, estimation of carcinogenic risk for Cr in all samples under study exceeded the accepted risk level of 10E-4. Also, Cd carcinogenic risk level for L. falcipinis and Callinectes pallidus collected from B-Dere and C. pallidus collected from Bodo City was 1.1E-3 which also exceeded the accepted risk level of 10E-4 for Cd. Estimation of carcinogenic risk for Pb was within the acceptable range of 10E-4. Consumers of seafood from these sites in Ogoniland may be exposed to metal pollution. PMID:26635021

  5. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer. PMID:24651928

  6. Nematofauna in the Adriatic Sea: review and check-list of free-living nematode species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travizi, Ana; Vidaković, Jasna

    1998-02-01

    The present paper presents a collection and synthesis of data found in numerous publications on Adriatic Sea nematofauna, as well as unpublished, data mentioned in annotations. For this purpose, a chronological order of investigations and a general survey of the species that occurred in the Adriatic Sea are given. In all, 281 free-living nematode species comprised in 133 genera and 34 families were discerned and listed in a taxonomic review, according to their spatial distribution. In special cases, descriptions of habitat features were noted. The position of species characterized by high population densities, their importance, and contribution to the faunistic composition of certain parts of the Adriatic were also discussed. The summary of the results, of prevailing research on free-living marine nematodes serves as a tool for making distinctions concerning the research level and state of nematofauna knowledge in different parts of the Adriatic Sea. Northern Adriatic nematofauna has been considerably more intensively investigated than that of the Central and South Adriatic.

  7. Mapping of decadal middle Adriatic oceanographic variability and its relation to the BiOS regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihanović, Hrvoje; Vilibić, Ivica; Dunić, Natalija; Å epić, Jadranka

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed long-term time series of temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations collected along the Palagruža Sill transect (middle Adriatic) between 1952 and 2010. The data have been mostly collected on seasonal basis, allowing for extraction of seasonal signal from the series. By applying Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method, a kind of unsupervised neural network method, the processes on a decadal time scale emerged as the most relevant for changes of oceanographic properties in the middle Adriatic area. Sensitivity studies revealed that oceanographic patterns obtained by SOM were not sensitive to shortening of time series, to removal of data from one station or to removal of DO from the analysis. Simultaneous SOM-based mapping of sea surface heights in the northern Ionian Sea, with these heights serving as a proxy for the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS), revealed asymmetry between anticyclonic and cyclonic BiOS patterns and correlated the decadal oscillations in the middle Adriatic with the reversals in the BiOS circulation regimes. These reversals are found to either rapidly change oceanographic properties in the middle Adriatic (e.g., during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient) or to change them with a time lag of 2-3 years. The mapped connections may be used for a short-time (a few years) forecasting of the Adriatic oceanographic properties or for mapping future climate decadal oscillations as seen by ocean climate models.

  8. Inorganic arsenic in seafood: does the extraction method matter?

    PubMed

    Pétursdóttir, Ásta H; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Nine different extraction methods were evaluated for three seafood samples to test whether the concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) determined in seafood is dependent on the extraction method. Certified reference materials (CRM) DOLT-4 (Dogfish Liver) and TORT-2 (Lobster Hepatopancreas), and a commercial herring fish meal were evaluated. All experimental work described here was carried out by the same operator using the same instrumentation, thus eliminating possible differences in results caused by laboratory related factors. Low concentrations of iAs were found in CRM DOLT-4 (0.012±0.003mgkg(-1)) and the herring fish meal sample (0.007±0.002mgkg(-1)) for all extraction methods. When comparing the concentration of iAs in CRM TORT-2 found in this study and in the literature dilute acids, HNO3 and HCl, showed the highest extracted iAs wheras dilute NaOH (in 50% ethanol) showed significantly lower extracted iAs. However, most other extraction solvents were not statistically different from one another. PMID:24360462

  9. Vulnerability to shocks in the global seafood trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Rovenskaya, Elena; Dieckmann, Ulf; Pace, Michael L.; Brännström, Åke

    2016-03-01

    Trade can allow countries to overcome local or regional losses (shocks) to their food supply, but reliance on international food trade also exposes countries to risks from external perturbations. Countries that are nutritionally or economically dependent on international trade of a commodity may be adversely affected by such shocks. While exposure to shocks has been studied in financial markets, communication networks, and some infrastructure systems, it has received less attention in food-trade networks. Here, we develop a forward shock-propagation model to quantify how trade flows are redistributed under a range of shock scenarios and assess the food-security outcomes by comparing changes in national fish supplies to indices of each country’s nutritional fish dependency. Shock propagation and distribution among regions are modeled on a network of historical bilateral seafood trade data from UN Comtrade using 205 reporting territories grouped into 18 regions. In our model exposure to shocks increases with total imports and the number of import partners. We find that Central and West Africa are the most vulnerable to shocks, with their vulnerability increasing when a willingness-to-pay proxy is included. These findings suggest that countries can reduce their overall vulnerability to shocks by reducing reliance on imports and diversifying food sources. As international seafood trade grows, identifying these types of potential risks and vulnerabilities is important to build a more resilient food system.

  10. Theoretical dietary modelling of Australian seafood species to meet long-chain omega 3 fatty acid dietary recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Grieger, Jessica A.; McLeod, Catherine; Chan, Lily; Miller, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several agencies recommend seafood to be consumed 2–3 times per week. In Australia, there is a lack of nutrient composition data for seafood species and it is not known whether including different seafood species in a diet would provide sufficient long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LC n–3 PUFA) to meet various national recommendations. Objective To utilise recent nutrient composition data for major Australian seafood groups (n=24) with the addition of two tuna options (total n=26) to: (1) determine whether including these species into a diet based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) will achieve LC n–3 PUFA recommendations [Adequate Intake (AI: 160 mg/d men, 90 mg/d women)], Suggested Dietary Target (SDT), 500 mg/d Heart Foundation (HF) recommendation and (2) determine the weekly number of servings of seafood to meet recommendations using either lower fat (n=23, <10% total fat) or higher fat (n=3, ≥10% total fat) seafood. Design Two simulation models incorporated all 26 species of seafood or only lower fat seafood into a diet based on the AGHE. Two further models identified the number of servings of lower or higher fat seafood required to meet recommendations. Results Including 2 and 3 servings/week of any seafood would enable 89% of women and 66% of men to meet the AI. Including only lower fat seafood would enable 83% of women and 47% of men to meet the AI. Half a serving/week of higher fat seafood would enable 100% of men and women to meet the AI. Conclusions Including the recommended 2–3 servings of seafood/week requires at least some higher fat seafood to be consumed in order for most men and women to meet the AI. Further messages and nutrition resources are needed which provide options on how to increase intake of LC n–3 PUFA, specifically through consumption of the higher fat seafood. PMID:24179469

  11. Assessment of PCB and chlorinated pesticide accumulation in mussels at Kaštela Bay (Eastern Adriatic).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Grgas, Dijana; Dragičević, Tibela Landeka

    2016-08-15

    The biological response of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, resident and transplanted to cages, to contamination with anthropogenic pollutants from Kaštela Bay, located in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast, was investigated. The main purpose of this paper is to trace the accumulation of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides (HCB, lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, p,p'-DDTs) as a direct measure of potential contaminant availability to organisms, in a period from 2000 to 2011. In order to do so, cultured mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the same size and age were transplanted from the unpolluted Mali Ston Bay to the Kaštela Bay. Sampling was performed bimonthly, and the level of target contaminants in whole soft tissue was determined. After two months of exposure, the concentration of PCBs in transplanted mussels increased on average 6.5-times, and of DDTs 2-times, while the intensity of changes for HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin was negligible. Seasonal variation of pesticide content was similar without a significant change throughout the experimental period, while that of PCBs was somewhat different showing increased accumulation in summer. Seasonal and spatial variation of organochlorines in the Kaštela Bay was likely the result of prevailing environmental rather than biological parameters. In accordance with prevailing hydrodynamic cycling, contaminant concentration decreased in acyclonic direction towards the exit of the Bay. Measurement of target contaminants in resident mussels sampled from the most contaminated area of the Bay exhibited decreasing concentrations of lindane, aldrin and p,p'-DDTs. However, PCBs exhibited statistically significant increasing concentrations in relation to the slightly increasing concentrations of HCB. With regard to human health, organochlorine (OC) levels in the mussel tissue were below prescribed limits for human consumption. PMID:27096632

  12. From Reef to Table: Social and Ecological Factors Affecting Coral Reef Fisheries, Artisanal Seafood Supply Chains, and Seafood Security.

    PubMed

    Kittinger, John N; Teneva, Lida T; Koike, Haruko; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, Daniela S; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Conklin, Eric; Gomes, Mahana; Wilcox, Bart; Friedlander, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide critical fisheries, coastal protection, and cultural benefits to communities worldwide, but these services are diminishing due to local and global threats. In response, place-based strategies involve communities and resource users in management have proliferated. Here, we present a transferable community-based approach to assess the social and ecological factors affecting resource sustainability and food security in a small-scale, coral reef fishery. Our results show that this small-scale fishery provides large-scale benefits to communities, including 7,353 ± 1547 kg yr(-1) (mean ± SE) of seafood per year, equating to >30,000 meals with an economic value of $78,432. The vast majority of the catch is used for subsistence, contributing to community food security: 58% is kept, 33.5% is given away, and 8.5% is sold. Our spatial analysis assesses the geographic distribution of community beneficiaries from the fishery (the "food shed" for the fishery), and we document that 20% of seafood procured from the fishery is used for sociocultural events that are important for social cohesion. This approach provides a method for assessing social, economic, and cultural values provided by small-scale food systems, as well as important contributions to food security, with significant implications for conservation and management. This interdisciplinary effort aims to demonstrate a transferable participatory research approach useful for resource-dependent communities as they cope with socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental change. PMID:26244910

  13. From Reef to Table: Social and Ecological Factors Affecting Coral Reef Fisheries, Artisanal Seafood Supply Chains, and Seafood Security

    PubMed Central

    Kittinger, John N.; Teneva, Lida T.; Koike, Haruko; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; Kittinger, Daniela S.; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Conklin, Eric; Gomes, Mahana; Wilcox, Bart; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide critical fisheries, coastal protection, and cultural benefits to communities worldwide, but these services are diminishing due to local and global threats. In response, place-based strategies involve communities and resource users in management have proliferated. Here, we present a transferable community-based approach to assess the social and ecological factors affecting resource sustainability and food security in a small-scale, coral reef fishery. Our results show that this small-scale fishery provides large-scale benefits to communities, including 7,353 ± 1547 kg yr-1 (mean ± SE) of seafood per year, equating to >30,000 meals with an economic value of $78,432. The vast majority of the catch is used for subsistence, contributing to community food security: 58% is kept, 33.5% is given away, and 8.5% is sold. Our spatial analysis assesses the geographic distribution of community beneficiaries from the fishery (the “food shed” for the fishery), and we document that 20% of seafood procured from the fishery is used for sociocultural events that are important for social cohesion. This approach provides a method for assessing social, economic, and cultural values provided by small-scale food systems, as well as important contributions to food security, with significant implications for conservation and management. This interdisciplinary effort aims to demonstrate a transferable participatory research approach useful for resource-dependent communities as they cope with socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental change. PMID:26244910

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on the survival of pathogens in kwamegi, a traditional Korean semidried seafood.

    PubMed

    Chawla, S P; Kim, D H; Jo, C; Lee, J W; Song, H P; Byun, M W

    2003-11-01

    Kwamegi (semidried raw Pacific saury) is traditional seafood available in Korea. It has water activity in the range of 0.90 to 0.95. Spoilage and the growth of most pathogenic bacteria is retarded because of low water activity, low temperature, and packaging. However, it is contaminated with bacteria of public health significance and poses a hazard to the consumer because it is consumed raw without any cooking. The effectiveness of these hurdles in preventing the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli and the efficacy of irradiation treatment in eliminating these bacteria from kwamegi using inoculated pack studies was examined. Radiation sensitivity of S. aureus, B. cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and E. coli in kwamegi was investigated. D10-values of these organisms in kwamegi were 590 +/- 13.6, 640 +/- 14.9, 560 +/- 45.4, and 550 +/- 8.6 Gy, respectively. The growth of all four test organisms inoculated into these foods during 4 weeks of storage at an ambient winter temperature (ranging from -5 degrees C to +5 degrees C) was recorded. All four pathogens (inoculated at 10(6) CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 4 kGy. These studies unequivocally demonstrate that irradiation, with a combination of low water activity and low temperature, results in microbiologically safe kwamegi. PMID:14627288

  15. The good, the bad, and the ugly: weighing the risks and benefits of seafood consumption.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    The health benefits that long chain omega-3 fatty acids contribute in the reduction of coronary heart disease are well established through a number of scientific publications. A number of studies are also examining their potential role in mitigating other diseases and health conditions such as Alzheimer's and mental disorders. Some of the latest research have shown the importance of omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid in cognitive development in infants. Extensive scientific research and recommendations to consume fish regularly from professional societies, health organizations, and government agencies consistently support dietary guidance to consume fish regularly. Nevertheless, increasingly consumers are being warned to eliminate or minimize their consumption of certain species. The warnings, which have been issued due to risks associated with chemical contaminates such as mercury, PCB, and dioxin in fish, have received extensive coverage in news articles and stories in popular magazines. There have been a series of mixed messages to the consumer about the benefits or risks in eating seafood. In some cases, the warnings have been issued by government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration and Environmental Protection Agency's Joint Fish Advisory on methylmercury. In other cases, the warnings have come from advocacy groups and others. Unfortunately, the advice is often miscommunicated and misunderstood by consumers. The emerging news about the benefits and risks of fish consumption will be discussed in the context of their impacts on consumer's health and well-being. PMID:16859182

  16. Isolation and characterization of Arcobacter spp. from fresh seafood and the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Laishram, Martina; Rathlavath, Srinu; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Kumar, Sanath; Nayak, Binaya Bhusan

    2016-09-01

    Arcobacter is an emerging pathogen associated with foods of animal origin. Members of the genus Arcobacter are increasingly being isolated from fish, shellfish and the aquatic environment. In the present study, we analyzed fish, shellfish and water samples for the presence of Arcobacter spp. by conventional isolation as well as by direct PCR on the enrichment broth. Of 100 samples comprising of 42 finfish, 34 shellfish and 24 water samples analyzed, Arcobacter spp. was isolated from 8 (19%) finfish, 5 (14.7%) shellfish and 5 (20.8%) water samples. Arcobacter DNA was detected in 24 (24%) samples by direct PCR on the enrichment broth. Based on m-PCR specific to different Arcobacter spp. and 16S rRNA sequence analyses, majority (19) of the isolates were identified as Arcobacter butzleri, while two isolates were Arcobacter mytili. All Arcobacter butzleri isolates harbored putative virulence genes cadF, ciaB, mviN, pldA, tlyA and cj1349. The two isolates of A. mytili harbored mviN and cj1349 genes only. The study highlights emerging problem of the contamination of aquatic environment and fresh seafood with potentially pathogenic Arcobacter spp. PMID:27261768

  17. Use of DNA barcoding to reveal species composition of convenience seafood.

    PubMed

    Huxley-Jones, Elizabeth; Shaw, Jennifer L A; Fletcher, Carly; Parnell, Juliette; Watts, Phillip C

    2012-04-01

    Increased education of consumers can be an effective tool for conservation of commercially harvested marine species when product labeling is accurate and allows an informed choice. However, generic labeling (e.g., as white fish or surimi) and mislabeling of seafood prevents this and may erode consumer confidence in seafood product labels in general. We used DNA barcoding to identify the species composition of two types of convenience seafood (i.e., products processed for ease of consumption): fish fingers (long pieces of fish covered with bread crumbs or batter, n = 241) and seafood sticks (long pieces of cooked fish, n = 30). In products labeled as either white fish or surimi, four teleost species were present. Less than 1.5% of fish fingers with species-specific information were mislabeled. Results of other studies show substantially more mislabeling (e.g., >25%) of teleost products, which likely reflects the lower economic gains associated with mislabeling of convenience seafood compared with whole fillets. In addition to species identification, seafood product labels should be required to contain information about, for example, harvesting practices, and our data indicate that consumers can have reasonable confidence in the accuracy of the labels of convenience seafood and thus select brands on the basis of information about current fisheries practice. PMID:22268756

  18. Advanced glycation endproducts in 35 types of seafood products consumed in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zhenxing; Pavase, Ramesh Tushar; Lin, Hong; Zou, Long; Wen, Jie; Lv, Liangtao

    2016-05-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been recognized as hazards in processed foods that can induce chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the AGEs contents of 35 types of industrial seafood products that are consumed frequently in eastern China. Total fluorescent AGEs level and Nɛ-carboxymethyl- lysine (CML) content were evaluated by fluorescence spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The level of total fluorescent AGEs in seafood samples ranged from 39.37 to 1178.3 AU, and was higher in canned and packaged instant aquatic products that were processed at high temperatures. The CML content in seafood samples ranged from 44.8 to 439.1 mg per kg dried sample, and was higher in roasted seafood samples. The total fluorescent AGEs and CML content increased when seafood underwent high-temperature processing, but did not show an obvious correlation. The present study suggested that commonly consumed seafood contains different levels of AGEs, and the seafood processed at high temperatures always displays a high level of either AGEs or CML.

  19. Advanced glycation endproducts in 35 types of seafood products consumed in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zhenxing; Pavase, Ramesh Tushar; Lin, Hong; Zou, Long; Wen, Jie; Lv, Liangtao

    2016-08-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been recognized as hazards in processed foods that can induce chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the AGEs contents of 35 types of industrial seafood products that are consumed frequently in eastern China. Total fluorescent AGEs level and Nɛ-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) content were evaluated by fluorescence spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The level of total fluorescent AGEs in seafood samples ranged from 39.37 to 1178.3 AU, and was higher in canned and packaged instant aquatic products that were processed at high temperatures. The CML content in seafood samples ranged from 44.8 to 439.1 mg per kg dried sample, and was higher in roasted seafood samples. The total fluorescent AGEs and CML content increased when seafood underwent high-temperature processing, but did not show an obvious correlation. The present study suggested that commonly consumed seafood contains different levels of AGEs, and the seafood processed at high temperatures always displays a high level of either AGEs or CML.

  20. Variability of PAHs and trace metals in the sediments in relation to environmental characteristics of the bottom layer in the middle Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Federica; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Campanelli, Alessandra; Guicciardi, Stefano; Marini, Mauro; Marasovic, Ivona; Grbec, Branka; Skejić, Sanda; Ujević, Ivana; Lušić, Jelena

    2015-04-01

    towards the Italian coast. The total PAHs concentrations (sum of 16 PAH priority pollutant - US EPA) recorded in the marine sediments during the cruise in April 2013 showed a higher level of PAH contamination in the pits, especially in the central pit (28.5 ng/g d.w.), in comparison to others analyzed samples. The corresponding bottom water in the central pit is characterized by a temperature of 10.9°C, density of 29.6 kg/m3, salinity of 38.6 and low values of DIN (0.55 μmol•l-1). The linear regression between DIN and PAHs showed a significant negative relationship (p ≤ 0.05). This feature implies a possible accumulation of PAHs very likely due to a lower microbial activity as demonstrated by Xu et al. (2014). The physical and chemical characteristics of the bottom layer in these areas could influence the PAHs contamination of the deep sediments. Bibliography: Grbec, B. and Morović, M. (1997): Seasonal thermohaline fluctuations in the middle Adriatic Sea. Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di Fisica C-Geophysics & Space Physics. 20(4): 561-576. Grilli F., Marini M., Book J. W., Campanelli A., Paschini E., Russo A., 2013. Flux of nutrients between the middle and southern Adriatic Sea (Gargano-Split section). Marine Chemistry 153,1-14. Marini, M., Russo, A., Paschini, E., Grilli, F., Campanelli, A., 2006. Short-term physical and chemical variations in the bottom water of middle Adriatic depressions. Climate Research 31, 227-237. Meiying Xu, Qin Zhang, Chunyu Xia, Yuming Zhong, Guoping Sun, Jun Guo, Tong Yuan, Jizhong Zhou and Zhili He, 2014. Elevated nitrate enriches microbial functional genes for potential bioremediation of complexly contaminated sediments. The ISME Journal 8, 1932-1944 | doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.42 Marasović I., Grbec B. & Morović M., 1995. Long term production changes in the Adriatic. Neth. J. of Sea Res. 34 (4): 267-273. Vilibić I., Grbec B. and Supić N., 2004. Dense water generation in the north Adriatic in 1999 and its recirculation along

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of potentially pathogenic halophilic vibrios isolated from seafood.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, D; Bacchiocchi, I; Masini, L; Leoni, F; Carraturo, A; Giammarioli, M; Sbaraglia, G

    2001-08-01

    Susceptibility patterns to 27 antimicrobial agents and beta-lactamase production were investigated in potentially pathogenic halophilic vibrios from seafood. The effect of salinity on the response to the drugs in vitro was also studied. All isolates were uniformly sensitive to choramphenicol, imipenem, meropenem but resistant to lincomycin. All were highly sensitive to oxolinic acid, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, doxycycline, flumequine, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Some strains of V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus apparently had mechanisms of resistance to several beta-lactam antibiotics other than by the production of beta-lactamases. Sixty-nine strains produced penicillinase but a low correlation between beta-lactamase activity and resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was noted. The salt concentration affected the in vitro susceptibility of halophilic vibrios and the effect of salinity depended on both the individual strains and the antimicrobial tested. PMID:11516936

  2. Recovery of astaxanthin from seafood wastewater utilizing fish scales waste.

    PubMed

    Stepnowski, P; Olafsson, G; Helgason, H; Jastorff, B

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents basic data on astaxanthin adsorption from fisheries wastewater to fish scales. This process has been proposed to be applicable in fisheries and shrimp waste management [Helgason, Recovery of compounds using a natural adsorbent, Patent WO 01/77230, 2001]. The innovative feature of the method is the application of a solid waste (fish scales) as a natural adsorbent for a carotenoid pigment (astaxanthin) from the seafood industry wastewater. The model investigations were performed with pure synthetic carotenoids to exclude the role of matrix in which astaxanthin is present in the wastewater. Under the experimental conditions used, the maximum loading capacity of astaxanthin onto the scales is 360 mg kg(-1) dry wt. Studies of the thus formed value added product indicated that drying causes significant loss of astaxanthin activity. Due to the effective filtration characteristics of the studied sorption material, we suggest the scale/astaxanthin sorption process to be suitable for treatment of wastewater from different industries. PMID:14575754

  3. Sustainable Multi-Product Seafood Production Planning Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanjuntak, Ruth; Sembiring, Monalisa; Sinaga, Rani; Pakpahan, Endang J.; Mawengkang, Herman

    2013-04-01

    A multi-product fish production planning produces simultaneously multi fish products from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as production cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.

  4. Operational ocean models in the Adriatic Sea: a skill assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiggiato, J.; Oddo, P.

    2006-12-01

    In the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System project (MFS) sub-regional and regional numerical ocean forecasting systems performance are assessed by mean of model-model and model-data comparison. Three different operational systems have been considered in this study: the Adriatic REGional Model (AREG); the AdriaROMS and the Mediterranean Forecasting System general circulation model (MFS model). AREG and AdriaROMS are regional implementations (with some dedicated variations) of POM (Blumberg and Mellor, 1987) and ROMS (Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) respectively, while MFS model is based on OPA (Madec et al., 1998) code. The assessment has been done by means of standard scores. The data used for operational systems assessment derive from in-situ and remote sensing measurements. In particular a set of CTDs covering the whole western Adriatic, collected in January 2006, one year of SST from space born sensors and six months of buoy data. This allowed to have a full three-dimensional picture of the operational forecasting systems quality during January 2006 and some preliminary considerations on the temporal fluctuation of scores estimated on surface (or near surface) quantities between summer 2005 and summer 2006. In general, the regional models are found to be colder and fresher than observations. They eventually outperform the large scale model in the shallowest locations, as expected. Results on amplitude and phase errors are also much better in locations shallower than 50 m, while degraded in deeper locations, where the models tend to have a higher homogeneity along the vertical column compared to observations. In a basin-wide overview, the two regional models show some dissimilarities in the local displacement of errors, something suggested by the full three-dimensional picture depicted using CTDs, but also confirmed by the comparison with SSTs. In locations where the regional models are mutually correlated, the aggregated mean-square-error has

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood from the Gulf of Alaska following a major crude oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Saxton, W.L.; Newton, R.T.; Rorberg, J.; Sutton, J.; Johnson, L.E. )

    1993-10-01

    More than ten million gallons of Prudo Bay crude oil spilled into Prince William Sound, Alaska, when the supertanker EXXON VALDEZ ran aground March 1989. The oil spread over thousands of square miles of prime commercial fishing waters, causing State and Federal agencies to initiate immediate controls to ensure that seafood contaminated with this crude oil did not enter commercial channels. Consequently, the 1989 herring fishery was closed for the season, and other fisheries were closely monitored. Whenever there was visible evidence of oil in an area, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG) closed that area to commercial fishing. Salmon harvested from open areas during the remainder of that season were screened organoleptically as they were being off-loaded from the vessels. PAHs were selected for analysis because they are constituents of crude oil and some are carcinogenic. During the 1990 herring fishing season, ADFG collected samples at the various catch sites prior to the season opening. Only when there was no evidence of oil contamination was the herring fishery allowed to open. In addition, samples were collected during the course of the harvest season and similarly analyzed. The 1990 salmon fishery was controlled in a like manner. After the fishery was allowed to open, catches continued to be monitored organoleptically by ADEC and FDA investigators. Negative organoleptic samples continued to be sent to the ADEC, Palmer Laboratory, selective tissue portions removed and sent to the FDA laboratory where they were further analyzed for PAH levels by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Changes in the Adriatic oceanographic properties induced by the Eastern Mediterranean Transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilibić, I.; Matijević, S.; Šepić, J.; Kušpilić, G.

    2012-06-01

    Long-term time series of physical and chemical parameters collected between 1960 and 2010 along the Palagruža Sill transect, Middle Adriatic Sea, have been investigated in terms of average water properties and their variability. Nutrients, especially orthophosphates, reached rather high levels of concentration below the euphotic zone between 1991 and 1998, the highest levels in the investigated period. Simultaneously, the N:P ratio, which is normally higher than 25:1, decreased to values less than 16:1 in the euphotic zone, indicating a switch from typical phosphorus to nitrogen- limited preconditioning for the primary production. Higher-than-usual nutrient levels peaking in the mid-1990s, coupled with lower-than-usual temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH values, are presumably related to the flow of the nutrient richer Western Mediterranean waters to the Adriatic below the euphotic layer. These waters, which keep their footprint in the N:P ratio, enter the Adriatic during the anticyclonic phase of the Bimodal Adriatic-Ionian Oscillation (BiOS), which has been uniquely strengthened by the Eastern Mediterranean Transient occurring in the early 1990s. This hypothesis should be confirmed through targeted research and modelling exercises, as it is highly relevant for the biogeochemistry of the Adriatic Sea.

  7. The Occurrence of Internal Tides along the Italian Coast of the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Pinardi, Nadia; Dobricic, Srdjan; Guarnieri, Antonio; Oddo, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of internal tides along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea during stratification season is revealed by a high-resolution, state-of-the-art, three-dimensional primitive-equation baroclinic tidal ocean model of the Adriatic Sea. The NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) model is implemented in the Adriatic Sea with a horizontal resolution of 1°/48 and 120 vertical layers. Tidal components important for the Adriatic, including four major semi-diurnal and three major diurnal tides, are simulated by imposing tidal elevations and velocities along the model domain's southern boundary, which is in the northern Ionian Sea. Effects of atmospheric pressure and wind stress are simulated as well. The co-tidal charts of both semi-diurnal and diurnal tides are well reproduced by the model, suggesting that the hydrodynamics key to tidal processes in the Adriatic (Kelvin, Poincare, and topographic waves) are correctly represented. Compared against tide gauge observations, tidal harmonic analysis shows that the averaged error of modelled amplitudes and phases at eight stations along the Italian coast are 15% and 5%, respectively. Vertical oscillations of isotherms near diurnal frequencies are evident at sites along the Italian coast during stratification season. Such oscillations are absent when the tidal forcings are removed from the model. The occurrence of internal tides is readily explained by the supercritical slope theory.

  8. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in cultured mussels from the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Herceg-Romanić, Snježana; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Klinčić, Darija; Ujević, Ivana

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigated the distribution of 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 17 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners in the edible tissue of the blue mussels (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) collected at 15 shellfish breeding farms and 1 harvesting area along the Croatian Adriatic coast. All analyzed OCPs were found in all samples (0.011-1.47 ng g(-)(1) w.wt.). Concentrations of PCB congeners in positive samples ranged between 0.007 and 7.66 ng g(-)(1) w.wt. The most abundant compounds were γ-HCH, PCB-138 and PCB-153. Overall levels of PCBs and OCPs were in the lower end of the concentration ranges reported in literature. Significant differences of all contaminants were recorded between seasons, with higher values in the warmer part of the year. Results of the evaluation of the risks to human health associated with consumption of the mussels containing organic contaminants suggest that the levels of these compounds in mussels do not pose any threat for consumers of cultivated mussels. PMID:25113185

  9. Triassic oils and related hydrocarbon kitchens in the Adriatic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, L.; Demaison, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Without exception, the oils from both the Abruzzi basin and Albanian foredeep are of lower Liassic to Upper Triassic origin. This is demonstrated by biological marker-based correlations between the oils and stratigraphically controlled, carbonate-rich source rocks. The biomarker studies also provided proof to conclude that many of the oils possess low API gravities and high sulfur contents because they are immature rather than biodegraded. Following the geochemical investigations, a computer-aided, basinwise maturation simulation of the hydrocarbon kitchens was carried out, with backstripping in geologic time. The simulations, performed with the Tissot-Espitalie kinetic model, used basin-specific kerogen activation energies obtained by the optimum method. These simulated values were calibrated with observed values in deep wells. Two characteristics diverge from normal petroleum basin situations (e.g., the North Sea basin): sulfur-rich kerogens in the source rocks, featuring relatively low activation energy distributions, and low geothermal gradients in the subsurface. The geographic outlines of simulated Triassic-lower Liassic hydrocarbon kitchens closely coincide with the zones of petroleum occurrence and production in the Adriatic basin. Furthermore, API gravities of the oils are broadly predicted by the mathematical simulations. This methodology has once again shown its ability to rationally high-grade the petroleum-rich sectors of sedimentary basin while identifying those areas where chances of success are extremely low regardless of the presence of structures.

  10. A nonstationary analysis for the Northern Adriatic extreme sea levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, Marinella; Lamberti, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    The historical data from the Trieste, Venice, Porto Corsini, and Rimini tide gauges have been used to investigate the spatial and temporal changes in extreme high water levels in the Northern Adriatic. A detailed analysis of annual mean sea level evolution at the three longest operating stations shows a coherent behavior both on a regional and global scale. A slight increase in magnitude of extreme water elevations, after the removal of the regularized annual mean sea level necessary to eliminate the effect of local subsidence and sea level rise, is found at the Venice and Porto Corsini stations. It seems to be mainly associated with a wind regime change occurred in the 1990s, due to an intensification of Bora wind events after their decrease in frequency and intensity during the second half of the 20th century. The extreme values, adjusted for the annual mean sea level trend, are modeled using a time-dependent GEV distribution. The inclusion of seasonality in the GEV parameters considerably improves the data fitting. The interannual fluctuations of the detrended monthly maxima exhibit a significant correlation with the variability of the large-scale atmospheric circulation represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation indices. The different coast exposure to the Bora and Sirocco winds and their seasonal character explain the various seasonal patterns of extreme sea levels observed at the tide gauges considered in the present analysis.

  11. The arsenic content in marketed seafood and associated health risks for the residents of Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing; Gao, Mi; Wang, Lei; Luo, Yongju; Bi, Ran; Li, Lixia; Xie, Lingtian

    2014-04-01

    Seafood is considered as the main source of arsenic in the human diet. In this study, we quantified the total arsenic content in 200 samples of 22 species collected from eight cities in Shandong, China. Subsequently, we evaluated the health risks associated with seafood consumption for three consumption scenarios based on the quantification of inorganic arsenic in three commonly consumed seafood species. The bivalves had the highest total arsenic concentrations in three categories of seafood (fish, shrimp, and bivalves) and the mean total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.037 μg/g ww in fish to 3.4 μg/g in bivalves. The results suggested that organisms which had a closer relationship with sediments may accumulate more arsenic. Bivalves were the major contributor for the arsenic intakes in the seafood consumers. The margins of exposure (MOEs) estimated in the present work showed that there existed a health risk for the consumers. The carcinogen risks exceeded the acceptable range for life cancer risk. Our results suggested that more attention should be paid to the safety of seafood consumption, especially of benthic economic species and for special consumers. PMID:24530733

  12. Long-term climate variability of the Adriatic Sea thermohaline properties using an ensemble of regional ocean hindcast simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunic, Natalija; Vilibic, Ivica; Sepic, Jadranka; Sevault, Florence; Somot, Samuel; Waldman, Robin; Jorda, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea has a substantial impact on dynamical properties and thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean, through a large freshwater input and dense water formation processes that drive the thermohaline circulation of the Adriatic-Ionian basin. Together with Bimodal Adriatic-Ionian Oscillation (BiOS), it represents the major driving process of interannual and decadal variations in thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea and Central/Eastern Mediterranean. Recent findings, extracted from the long-term observations, implicate a change in driving Adriatic climate processes, which might be important for future climate of the whole Eastern Mediterranean. The reproduction of these processes may be challenging for climate models, as occurring over limited areas and over daily timescales at the most. For that reason, an ensemble of NEMOMED regional ocean hindcast simulations with different spatial (10 and 6 km) and vertical (43 and 75 z-levels) resolutions, atmosphere (50 and 12 km resolution) and freshwater (from 8 to 43 river mouths in the basin) forcing have been analyzed, focusing on their representativeness for the Adriatic Sea dynamics. Furthermore, new Adriatic river climatology, developed recently within short-term oceanographic studies, has been imposed to the hindcast simulations with an aim to lower model biases. Half-centurial time series of temperature and salinity collected at the Palagruža Sill transect, and at the Jabuka and South Adriatic Pits known to be collectors of the Adriatic dense waters, were used for verification of models. The analyses focused on the reproduction of the Adriatic interannual and decadal variations, including their governing processes, dense water formation and BiOS for the 1980-2012 time period. Once becoming reliably reproduced, it will allow for an assessment of their importance and changes in future climate.

  13. Long-term variability of the southern Adriatic circulation in relation to North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabrang, L.; Menna, M.; Pizzi, C.; Lavigne, H.; Civitarese, G.; Gačić, M.

    2016-02-01

    The interannual variability of the South Adriatic Gyre and its relation to the wind vorticity and the large-scale climatic pattern (North Atlantic Oscillation - NAO) was studied using the time series of satellite altimetric data and ocean surface wind products. The cyclonic circulation observed in the southern Adriatic area was partly sustained by the local wind forcing, as suggested by the positive correlation between the rate of change of the current vorticity and the wind-stress vorticity. Nevertheless, the influence of vorticity advection from the adjacent area (northern Ionian Sea) cannot be ignored and it is more significant during the anticyclonic phase of Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillation System. The geostrophic current vorticities of the southern Adriatic and northern Ionian seas are correlated with a time lag of 14 months, which approximately corresponds to an advection speed of ˜ 1 cm s-1. The different wind patterns observed during two NAO phases in the winter revealed a stronger positive vorticity during the negative NAO phase. Conversely, during the wintertime positive NAO phase the wind vorticity is characterized by lower positive or slightly negative values. Despite a statistically significant negative correlation between the NAO index and the wind vorticity, no unequivocal relationship between large climatic system and the interannual variability of the South Adriatic Gyre intensity was found due to additional effects of the vorticity advection from the Ionian. This can be explained by the fact that the Ionian circulation mode does not depend on the NAO variations. Therefore, the main result of this study is that the interannual variability of the southern Adriatic cyclonic circulation is a result of the combined influence of the vorticity advection from the Ionian and the local wind-curl effect.

  14. Estimation of the Adriatic Sea water turnover time using fallout 90Sr as a radioactive tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franić, Zdenko

    2005-08-01

    Systematic, long-term measurements, starting in 1963, of 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water have been performed at four locations (cities of Rovinj, Rijeka, Split and Dubrovnik) along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea. In addition, fallout samples were collected in the city of Zadar. 90Sr activity concentrations are in good correlation with the fallout activity, the coefficient of correlation being 0.72. After the nuclear moratorium on atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in 1960s, 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water exponentially dropped from 14.8 ± 2.4 Bq m -3 in 1963 to 2.0 ± 0.3 Bq m -3 in 2003. In the same period, the total annual 90Sr land surface deposit in Zadar fell by three orders of magnitude, from 713.3 Bq m -2 in 1963 to 0.4 Bq m -2 in 2003. Using strontium sea water and fallout data, a mathematical model was developed to describe the rate of change of 90Sr activity concentrations in the Adriatic Sea water and estimate its mean residence time in the Adriatic. By fitting the experimental data to a theoretically predicted curve, the mean residence time of 90Sr in the Adriatic Sea water was estimated to be approximately 3.4 ± 0.4 years, standard deviation being calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. As in physical oceanography 90Sr can be used as effective radioactive tracer of water mass transport, this value also reflects the upper limit for turnover time of the Adriatic Sea water. The turnover time of 3.4 years for the Adriatic Sea water is in reasonable agreement with the value which was estimated, by studying water flows through the Strait of Otranto, to be on the order of 1 year.

  15. Effects of winter convection on the deep layer of the Southern Adriatic Sea in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensi, M.; Cardin, V.; Rubino, A.; Notarstefano, G.; Poulain, P. M.

    2013-11-01

    We analyze aspects concerning the thermohaline changes observed in the near-bottom layer of the Southern Adriatic Pit (SAP), in the Eastern Mediterranean, after the arrival of abundant and exceptionally dense water (σθ > 30 kg m-3) produced in the shallow Northern Adriatic Sea during winter 2012. For this purpose, we use temperature (T), salinity (S), and current time series collected at the E2M3A deep-ocean observatory of the Southern Adriatic, and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth data obtained both in the Southern and Middle Adriatic from freely drifting profiling floats. The dense water produced in the Northern Adriatic arrived in the central and deepest part of the SAP as a series of individual pulses starting on 10 March 2012; while, a stronger and prolonged signal that significantly modified the local deep water stratification arrived after 10 April 2012. As a consequence, T and S suddenly decreased (≈0.15°C and ≈0.015), thus interrupting positive T and S bottom trends observed during the previous 5 years and producing a density increase of ≈0.02 kg m-3. Such variability has been rarely observed in the area. We ascribe its occurrence to the concomitance of exceptionally harsh and long-lasting Bora wind, scarce precipitation, and low river discharge over the Northern Adriatic during winter 2011/2012. Eventually, this newly formed AdDW reached the Strait of Otranto during July 2012. Its characteristics profoundly differed from those observed in the previous decade. Hence, a noticeable variability in structure and circulation of the abyssal layers of the Ionian basin is likely to occur in the near future.

  16. Determination of four paraben-type preservatives and three benzophenone-type ultraviolet light filters in seafoods by LC-QqLIT-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Xia, Biqi; Chen, Xiangzhun; Shen, Jincan; Miao, Qian; Shen, Yan

    2016-03-01

    For the first time, an efficient and sensitive analytical method based on liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of four paraben-type preservatives and three benzophenone-type ultraviolet light filters in both plant (Sargassum fusiforme, porphyra, kelp) and animal (hairtail, yellow croaker, shrimp) seafood. The samples were extracted in methanol by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and the extracts were then cleaned up by mixed-mode cationic exchange (MCX) solid-phase extraction cartridges. Both isotope-labeled internal standards and matrix-matched calibration standards were used to alleviate and correct for the matrix effects, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 10.0μg kg(-1) for all target compounds. The average recoveries were in the range of 80.6-107.8% at three spiked concentration levels (10, 50 and 100μgkg(-1)) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8.5%. The results suggest that very limited contamination of these seven emerging contaminants, mainly associated with PCPs, occurred in these common seafoods. PMID:26471672

  17. Tephrostratigraphy of the last 170 ka in sedimentary successions from the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calanchi, Natale; Dinelli, Enrico

    2008-10-01

    In this study are discussed new SEM-EDS analyses performed on glass shards from five cores collected in the Central Adriatic Sea and two cores recovered from the South Adriatic Sea. A total of 26 tephra layers have been characterized and compared with the geochemical features of terrestrial deposits and other tephra archives in the area (South Adriatic Sea and Lago Grande di Monticchio, Vulture volcano). The compositions are compatible with either a Campanian or a Roman provenance. The cores, located on the Central Adriatic inner and outer shelf, recorded tephra referred to explosive events described in the literature: AP3 (sub-Plinian activity of the Somma-Vesuvius, 2710 ± 60 14C years BP); Avellino eruption (Somma-Vesuvius, 3548 ± 129 14C years BP); Agnano Monte Spina (Phlegrean Fields, 4100 ± 400 years BP); Mercato eruption (Somma-Vesuvius, 8010 ± 35 14C years BP; Agnano Pomici Principali eruption (Phlegrean Fields, 10,320 ± 50 14C years BP); Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (Phlegrean Fields, 12,100 ± 170 14C years BP). Some of these layers were also observed in the South Adriatic core IN68-9 in addition to younger ( AP2, sub-Plinian eruption, Somma-Vesuvius, 3225 ± 140 14C years BP), and older layers ( Pomici di Base eruption, Somma-Vesuvius, 18,300 ± 150 14C years BP). Significant is the tephra record of core RF95-7 that, for the first time in the Adriatic Sea, reports the occurrence of tephra layers older than 60 ka: the well known Mediterranean tephra layers X2 (ca. 70 ka), W1 (ca. 140 ka) and V2 (Roman origin, ca. 170 ka) as well as other tephra layers attributed, on the basis of geochemistry and biostratigraphy, to explosive eruptions occurred at Vico (138 ± 2 and 151 ± 3 ka BP) and Ischia (147-140 ka BP). Previous tephra correlations performed on other cores in the Central Adriatic Sea were also critically revised according to new available data, and integrated with the results of this study for a correlation at a regional scale. The most important key

  18. Possible observation of horizontal roll vortices over the Adriatic Sea during bora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusic, Danijel; Vecenaj, Zeljko; LeMone, Margaret

    2015-05-01

    We report a possible occurrence of horizontal roll vortices over the Adriatic Sea during the bora wind. The National Center for Atmospheric Research Electra aircraft measured the turbulence structure above the Adriatic on 07 November 1999 during the Mesoscale Alpine Program. The data indicate that horizontal roll vortices are generated by the strong cold-air outbreak associated with bora. The rolls have a horizontal wavelength of about 1 km and an aspect ratio of approximately 1.5. There is no indication of the presence of cloud streets typically associated with the rolls, which is a consequence of the dry air advection in the lower troposphere resulting from the downslope flow.

  19. Occurrence and role of lactic acid bacteria in seafood products.

    PubMed

    Françoise, Leroi

    2010-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fish flesh has long been disregarded because the high post-mortem pH, the low percentage of sugars, the high content of low molecular weight nitrogenous molecules and the low temperature of temperate waters favor the rapid growth of pH-sensitive psychrotolerant marine Gram-negative bacteria like Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Photobacterium. In seafood packed in both vacuum (VP) and modified atmosphere (MAP) packaging commonly CO(2) enriched, the growth of the Gram-negative aerobic bacteria group (predominantly pseudomonads) is effectively inhibited and the number reached by LAB during storage is higher than that achieved in air but always several log units lower than the trimethylamine oxide (TMA-O) reducing and CO(2)-resistant organisms (Shewanella putrefaciens and Photobacterium phosphoreum). Accordingly, LAB are not of much concern in seafood neither aerobically stored nor VP and MAP. However, they may acquire great relevance in lightly preserved fish products (LPFP), including those VP or MAP. Fresh fish presents a very high water activity (aw) value (0.99). However, aw is reduced to about 0.96 when salt (typically 6% WP) is added to the product. As a result, aerobic Gram-negative bacteria are inhibited, which allows the growth of other organisms more resistant to reduced aw, i.e. LAB, and then they may acquire a central role in the microbial events occurring in the product. Changes in consumers' habits have led to an increase of convenient LPFP with a relative long shelf-life (at least 3 weeks) which, on the other hand, may constitute a serious problem from a safety perspective since Listeria monocytogenes and sometimes Clostridium botulinum (mainly type E) may able to grow. In any case the LAB function in marine products is complex, depending on species, strains, interaction with other bacteria and the food matrix. They may have no particular effect or they may be responsible for spoilage and, in certain cases, they may even exert

  20. Effects of repeated seafood consumption on urinary excretion of arsenic species by volunteers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung-Sun; Choi, Seong-Jin; Kim, Dong-Won; Huang, Mingai; Kim, Na-Young; Park, Kyung-Su; Kim, Choong-Yong; Lee, Hyo-Min; Yum, Young-Na; Han, Eui-Sik; Kang, Tae-Seok; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a known human carcinogen and widely distributed in the environment. The main route of As exposure in the general population is through food and drinking water. Seafood harvested in Korea contains high-level organoarsenics such as arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, and arsenosugars, which are much less harmful than inorganic arsenics. However, for those who eat large amounts of seafood it is important to understand whether seafood consumption affects urinary levels of inorganic As metabolites such as arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). In this study we investigated urinary As metabolites (inorganic As, MMA[V], DMA[V]) and some biological indexes such as AST, GSH, GPX, lipid peroxidation, and uric acid in volunteer study subjects (seven males and nine females). Total urinary As metabolites were analyzed by the hydride generation method, followed by arsenic speciation using HPLC with ICP-mass spectrometry. Study subjects refrained from eating seafood for 3 days prior to the first urine collection and then ingested seafood daily for 6 consecutive days. The first voided urine of the morning was collected from each subject the first day of the consecutive 6 days of seafood ingestion but prior to the first seafood meal. The first voided urine of the morning was also collected on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14 after seafood ingestion. The daily mean intake of total As was 6.98 mg, comprised of 4.71 mg of seaweed (67%), 1.74 mg of flat fish (25%), and 0.53 mg of conch (8%). We observed a substantial increase in total urinary As metabolites for subjects consuming seafood from day 1, which recovered to control level at day 10. The increase in total urinary As metabolites was attributed to the increase in DMA, which is a more harmful metabolite than organoarsenics. However, no significant changes in response biological indexes were observed. These results suggest that it is necessary to evaluate As metabolism when

  1. A North Adriatic centenarian: The marine research station at Rovinj

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodnik, D.

    1995-03-01

    The institute in Rovinj was founded in 1891 as the field station of the Berlin Aquarium. It soon gained in scientific importance. From 1911, it was governed by various scientific bodies, such as the ‘Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften’, the ‘Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano’, and the ‘Jugoslavenska Akademija znanosti i umjetnosti’. At present, it is a department of the ‘Ruđer Bo\\vsković’ Institute, called the ‘Center for Marine Research Rovinj’. In the past hundred years, the Rovinj station experienced several ascents and declines in its development: both in the First and Second World Wars the station's scientific equipment, research vessels, library and reference collections were dispersed, and from 1945 1948 the station was closed. But in “happier” periods, rich support by the state and international bodies favoured the increase in research facilities and promoted interest among visiting scientists. The station has always been involved in studies of the Adriatic Sea, especially in its northern part. It contributed much to general knowledge of oceanography, of the physics and chemistry of the sea, but its paramount contribution is to various disciplines of marine biological sciences. Applied research, however, was most oriented to fisheries biology, especially shellfish culture, to resource studies, and, recently, to toxicology, bacteriology, eutrophication and pollution monitoring. The international approach in science and applied research was always favoured. At present, the Center is well equipped for complex coastal and offshore field- and laboratory research, and maintains facilities for graduate and postgraduate teaching. Scientific dissemination is also promoted by the public aquarium and professional meetings.

  2. Karstification, Caves and Karst Aquifers on the Adriatic Islands (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, M.; Terzic, J.

    2009-04-01

    This article deals with the Adriatic karst island aquifers especially from the point of view of karstification and how karst phenomena influence the accumulation of groundwater, its movements inside the system and its outflow. Flow through karst channels has been separated from flow through fractures within the rock mass regarding the scale of study. Although it is usually understood that groundwater flow in karst aquifers is usually turbulent, it has been shown that this phenomenon should also be taken into consideration regarding the scale. Turbulent flows are present in karst channels, but on most islands the majority of flow is happening through the network of fractures and joints within the rock mass, and that flow is predominantly laminar proven by statistic processing of step-drawdown pumping test. It has been shown how extensive and systematical research of karst aquifers must cover both phenomena. The most significant method of karst channel flows research as well as for disintegrated fault zones tracing is pointed out. On the other hand, while rock mass behaves according to the Darcy's law to a certain extent, hydraulic parameters can be used for description of such an aquifer. Still, in karst terrains all hydraulic values should be taken only as approximations. Based on all known findings it is possible to conclude that karstification processes are very important for hydrogeologic research on the Adriatic islands. In order to understand those processes, besides the karstification process, it is also important to know about the changes in sea level during recent geologic past - especially in Holocene. Karst phenomena from earlier karstification phases also exist and participate in the whole hydrogeologic setting, but because of the latter processes, they don't have the significance of recent ones which are still hydrogeologically active. Due to karstification and the presence of dissolution cavities, channels, and speleological objects, a very

  3. Factors affecting the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products.

    PubMed

    Rocha, R A; de la Fuente, B; Clemente, M J; Ruiz, A; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2013-09-01

    Fluoride is considered important for health because of its beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries and on bone development in the child population. However, excessive intake has negative effects. The main pathway for exposure is oral, through consumption of drinking water, and some food products. Therefore its bioaccessibility (quantity of the element solubilized during the digestive process) is a parameter to be considered when estimating the risk/benefit associated with this element. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the digestion phase, gastrointestinal digestion factors (pH, pepsin and bile salt concentrations) and the presence of cations on the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products. The results show that the solubilization of fluoride takes place entirely during the gastric phase. Its bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by conditions that favor the formation of insoluble complexes of fluoride with other elements present in the matrix. The factors that are most influential in reducing its bioaccessibility are the increase in pH in the gastric phase, the presence of cations, especially in the intestinal phase, and a low concentration of bile salts. PMID:23747712

  4. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Hamdy, A.; Abu Amr, Salem S.

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  5. Kocuria atrinae sp. nov., isolated from traditional Korean fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Jung, Mi-Ja; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2010-04-01

    A novel actinobacterium, strain P30(T), was isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood. Cells were aerobic, Gram-positive, non-motile and coccoid. Optimal growth occurred at 30-37 degrees C, at pH 8-9 and in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain P30(T) was phylogenetically closely related to Kocuria carniphila, Kocuria gwangalliensis, Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria marina, Kocuria rosea and K. varians with levels of similarity of 98.6, 98.2, 98.1, 97.4, 97.3 and 97.3 %, respectively, to the type strains of these species. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain P30(T) and the type strains of K. carniphila, K. rhizophila, K. marina, K. rosea and K. varians were 37, 43, 37, 25 and 17 %, respectively. The predominant menaquinone of strain P30(T) was MK-7. Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain P30(T) was 70.2 mol%. Based on these data, strain P30(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria atrinae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P30(T) (=KCTC 19594(T)=JCM 15914(T)). PMID:19661502

  6. Toxicology evaluation of Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Bryan Lee; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto; Gagnon, Graham A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out an acute aquatic toxicity assessment on select effluent samples from Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plants. Raw effluent acute aquatic toxicity for the flatfish and salmon effluents was assessed using the acute lethality test and Microtox test. The effectiveness of dissolved air flotation treatment (DAF) in removing acute toxicity from these effluents was evaluated using the Microtox test. The salmon effluent failed the acute lethality test using rainbow trout while the flatfish effluent showed acute toxicity in the Microtox test with a 50% inhibiting concentration (IC(50)) of 38.84%. Subsequent treatment by DAF of the flatfish and salmon effluents increased IC(50) values by 20% and 26% respectively. The findings of this study indicate that all of the processing effluents sampled showed characteristics that could potentially degrade effluent receiving waters and acute toxicity was demonstrated in the two raw finfish effluents. Application of DAF treatment was successful in significantly increasing Microtox IC(50) values, thereby reducing acute toxicity, but failed to entirely remove acute toxicity. PMID:19283858

  7. An investigation of biodiesel production from wastes of seafood restaurants.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Hamdy, A; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  8. Kocuria koreensis sp. nov., isolated from fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jin; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Mi-Ja; Shin, Kee-Sun; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2010-01-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile and coccoid actinobacterium, designated P31(T), was isolated from a traditional, fermented seafood. The strain was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells grew in the presence of 0-15.0 % (w/v) NaCl, and at pH 5-10 and 15-37 degrees C. Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). Strain P31(T) contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain P31(T) was 65.2 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain P31(T) was most closely related to Kocuria kristinae DSM 20032(T), with 96.9 % similarity, and these two strains clustered together in constructed phylogenetic trees. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain P31(T) and K. kristinae DSM 20032(T) was 21.1 %. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it is suggested that strain P31(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria koreensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P31(T) (=KCTC 19595(T)=JCM 15915(T)). PMID:19648328

  9. Collaborative study on determination of mono methylmercury in seafood.

    PubMed

    Valdersnes, Stig; Fecher, Peter; Maage, Amund; Julshamn, Kaare

    2016-03-01

    Eight laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory method-performance (collaborative) study of a method for the determination of mono methylmercury (MMHg) in foodstuffs of marine origin by gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-IDMS) after dissolution, derivatisation and extraction of the species. The method was tested on seven seafood products covering both a wide concentration range and variations in the MMHg concentrations as well as matrix compositions. The samples were mussel tissue, squid muscle, crab claw meat, whale meat, cod muscle, Greenland halibut muscle and dogfish liver (NRCC DOLT-4), with MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.035 to 3.58mg/kg (as Hg) dry weight. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) for MMHg ranged from 2.1% to 8.7%. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 5.8% to 42%. All samples showed HorRat value below 1.0, except for the sample with the lowest MMHg content, mussel tissue, with a HorRat value of 1.6. PMID:26471575

  10. Seafood Intake and Urine Concentrations of Total Arsenic, Dimethylarsinate and Arsenobetaine in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo

    2010-01-01

    Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ≥6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ≥2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake. PMID:21093857

  11. Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus detected in seafood products from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Coly, Ignace; Sow, Amy Gassama; Seydi, Malang; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    The detection of pathogenic Vibrio in seafood from Senegal has generated five food alerts in the European Union. To investigate the presence and abundance Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood and coastal and estuarine waters, 123 seafood samples and 52 water samples were collected during 2007-2009 from two large seafood markets in Dakar, and from different oceanic and estuarine areas of the country. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 30.1% of seafood samples, whereas presence of V. cholerae was only found in 1.6%. In water samples, V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae were detected in 28.8% and 5.7% of the samples, respectively. Abundance of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood from the fishing areas ranged from <0.3 to 7.5 most probable number (MPN) per gram. In samples from markets, densities of V. parahaemolyticus showed higher values ranging from 0.61 to >110 MPN/g. Densities of V. cholerae in the two positive seafood samples reached values of 0.36 and 0.61 MPN/g, repectively. V. parahaemolyticus strains were found to possess tlh, but not tdh and trh by polymerase chain reaction, and all the strains of V. cholerae were non-O1 or non-O139. These results suggest that the prevalence of high salinities in coastal and estuarine environments of Senegal limits the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae, despite warmer temperatures prevailing in seawater environments throughout the year. Furthermore, temperature abuse driven by a deficient cold chain over the distribution and retail sales may represent a major risk due to the postharvest multiplication of these Vibrio pathogens. PMID:24147655

  12. Matching oceanography and genetics at the basin scale. Seascape connectivity of the Mediterranean shore crab in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schiavina, M; Marino, I A M; Zane, L; Melià, P

    2014-11-01

    Investigating the interactions between the physical environment and early life history is crucial to understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic structure of marine populations. Here, we assessed the genetic differentiation in a species with larval dispersal, the Mediterranean shore crab (Carcinus aestuarii) in the Adriatic Sea (central Mediterranean), and we investigated the role of oceanic circulation in shaping population structure. To this end, we screened 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 431 individuals collected at eight different sites. We found a weak, yet significant, genetic structure into three major clusters: a northern Adriatic group, a central Adriatic group and one group including samples from southern Adriatic and Ionian seas. Genetic analyses were compared, under a seascape genetics approach, with estimates of potential larval connectivity obtained with a coupled physical-biological model that integrates a water circulation model and a description of biological traits affecting dispersal. The cross-validation of the results of the two approaches supported the view that genetic differentiation reflects an oceanographic subdivision of the Adriatic Sea into three subbasins, with circulation patterns allowing the exchange of larvae through permanent connections linking north Adriatic sites and ephemeral connections like those linking the central Adriatic with northern and southern locations. PMID:25294324

  13. Activity concentrations of (137)Caesium and (210)Polonium in seafood from fishing regions of New Zealand and the dose assessment for seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine activity concentrations for (134)Caesium, (137)Caesium and (210)Polonium in New Zealand seafood, and establish if activity concentrations varied with respect to species/ecological niche and coastal region. Thirty seafood samples were obtained from six fishing regions of New Zealand along with a further six samples of two commercially important species (hoki and arrow squid) with well-defined fisheries. (134)Caesium was not detected in any sample. (137)Caesium was detected in 47% of samples, predominantly in pelagic fish species, with most activities at a trace level. Detections of (137)Caesium were evenly distributed across all regions. Activity concentrations were consistent with those expected from the oceanic inventory representing residual fallout from global nuclear testing. (210)Polonium was detected above the minimum detectable concentration in 33 (92%) of the analysed samples. Molluscs displayed significantly elevated activity concentrations relative to all other species groups. No significant regional variation in activity concentrations were determined. Two dose assessment models for high seafood consumers were undertaken. Dose contribution from (137)Caesium was minimal and far below the dose exemption limit of 1 mSv/year. Exposure to (210)Polonium was significant in high seafood consumers at 0.44-0.77 mSv/year (5th-95th percentile). (137)Caesium is concluded to be a valuable sentinel radionuclide for monitoring anthropogenic releases, such as global fallout and reactor releases, in the marine environment. (210)Polonium is of importance as a natural radionuclide sentinel due to its high contribution to dietary committed dose in seafood consumers. PMID:26272653

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the western Adriatic Sea: Sources, historical trends and inventories.

    PubMed

    Combi, Tatiane; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Guerra, Roberta

    2016-08-15

    Sources, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in sediments collected in five transects along the north-south axis of the western Adriatic Sea. The concentration of total PCBs (∑28 PCBs) ranged from Adriatic Sea. This is further corroborated by the estimated inventories of PCBs, which were ~4-7 times higher in the Po River prodelta (256ngcm(-2)) in comparison to the middle and southern Adriatic, respectively, and about 100 times higher than the in the deep Adriatic Sea. PMID:27110972

  15. Evaluation of genetic diversity and root traits of sea beet accessions of the Adriatic Sea coast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty nine sea beet [Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang.] accessions of the Adriatic coast were screened genetically and for their adaptive morpho-functional root traits in order to identify new sources of abiotic resistances for sugar beet breeding programs. Genetic diversity was evaluat...

  16. Comparative growth and toxin profile of cultured Ostreopsis ovata from the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Franca; Pezzolesi, Laura; Feller, Andrea; Riccardi, Manuela; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Tartaglione, Luciana; Dello Iacovo, Emma; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Forino, Martino; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2010-01-01

    Massive blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata Fukuyo have recently occurred along the whole Italian coastlines, both Tyrrhenian and Adriatic, resulting sometimes in benthonic biocenosis sufferings and, occasionally, in human health problems. In this work, two strains of O. ovata collected in 2006 along the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coastlines and grown in culture were studied to characterize their growth and toxin profile. The two strains showed different cell volumes, the Adriatic strain being nearly twice bigger than the Tyrrhenian, but they had similar slow growth rates. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses indicated that both strains produce putative palytoxin (pPLTX) and ovatoxin-a (OVTX-a), a palytoxin-like compound presenting 2 oxygen atoms less than palytoxin. Toxin content was determined at the end of the stationary and exponential growth phases and reached the highest value in the Adriatic strain at the end of the stationary phase, with concentrations of 353.3 microg l(-1) for OVTX-a and 30.4 microg l(-1) for pPLTX. Toxin released in the growth medium was also measured and resulted to be the highest at the end of the stationary phase, suggesting that a long lasting bloom could enhance the toxin content in the water and cause toxic effects in people inhaling the aerosol. PMID:19638281

  17. Fukushima radionuclides in the NW Pacific, and assessment of doses for Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood

    PubMed Central

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Variations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs) in seawater and biota offshore Fukushima and in the NW Pacific Ocean were investigated and radiation doses to the Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood contaminated by Fukushima radionuclides were estimated and compared with those from other sources of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. The total effective dose commitment from ingestion of radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweed caught in coastal waters off Fukushima was estimated to be 0.6 ± 0.4 mSv/y. The individual effective dose commitment from consumption of radioactive-contaminated fish caught in the open Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.07 ± 0.05 mSv/y. These doses are comparable or much lower than doses delivered from the consumption of natural 210Po in fish and in shellfish (0.7 mSv/y). The estimated individual doses have been below the levels when any health damage of the Japanese and world population could be expected. PMID:25761420

  18. Fukushima radionuclides in the NW Pacific, and assessment of doses for Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-03-01

    Variations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs) in seawater and biota offshore Fukushima and in the NW Pacific Ocean were investigated and radiation doses to the Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood contaminated by Fukushima radionuclides were estimated and compared with those from other sources of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. The total effective dose commitment from ingestion of radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweed caught in coastal waters off Fukushima was estimated to be 0.6 +/- 0.4 mSv/y. The individual effective dose commitment from consumption of radioactive-contaminated fish caught in the open Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.07 +/- 0.05 mSv/y. These doses are comparable or much lower than doses delivered from the consumption of natural 210Po in fish and in shellfish (0.7 mSv/y). The estimated individual doses have been below the levels when any health damage of the Japanese and world population could be expected.

  19. Flow cytometric detection of DNA cell cycle alterations in hemocytes of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) off the Adriatic coast, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Nevenka; Micić, Milena; Batel, Renato; Zahn, Rudolf K

    2003-07-16

    Studies were carried out to determine the alteration in DNA cell cycle characteristics of hemocytes of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis collected at 17 different locations (146 individuals) along the Adriatic coast, Croatia. In order to connect possible genomic manifestation to urban and/or industrial waste flow cytometry was used. We studied incidence of altered DNA profile reflective of chromosomal fragmentation phenomena or aneuploid mosaicism, coefficient of variation (CV) in DNA fluorescence as a measure of intraindividual genome size variability and DNA index (DI) as a measure of ploidy. The different classes of DNA cell cycle alterations found in this study mirror either acute or cumulative genotoxic effects of the surrounding environment on mussel hemocyte DNA. These are intraindividual genome size variability (CV>8, seven individuals from four sites), aneuploidy (altered DNA profile and DI<0.9, 45 individuals from 14 sites) and accidental apoptotic processes (altered DNA profile and presence of apoptotic cells, two individuals from two sites). Normal cell cycle DNA profiles were obtained for 89 (60.9%) individuals from all 17 sites and for 146 examined samples polyploids were absent. Flow cytometry proved to be a powerful technique for the determination of alterations in cell cycle characteristics in mussel hemocyte DNA. Therefore, it may be used in pollution control measurements to distinguish affected or vulnerable populations from healthy populations living in the presence of a wide variety of marine environmental contaminants. PMID:12799105

  20. Life Cycle Considerations for Improving Sustainability Assessments in Seafood Awareness Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that improving the sustainability of seafood production requires efforts to reverse declines in global fisheries due to overfishing and to reduce the impacts to host ecosystems from fishing and aquaculture production technologies. Reflective of on-going dialogue amongst participants in an international research project applying Life Cycle Assessment to better understand and manage global salmon production systems, we argue here that such efforts must also address the wider range of biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic impacts stemming from the material and energetic throughput associated with these industries. This is of particular relevance given the interconnectivity of global environmental change, ocean health, and the viability of seafood production in both fisheries and aquaculture. Although the growing popularity of numerous ecolabeling, certification, and consumer education programs may be making headway in influencing Western consumer perceptions of the relative sustainability of alternative seafood products, we also posit that the efficacy of these initiatives in furthering sustainability objectives is compromised by the use of incomplete criteria. An emerging body of Life Cycle Assessment research of fisheries and aquaculture provides valuable insights into the biophysical dimensions of environmental performance in alternative seafood production and consumption systems, and should be used to inform a more holistic approach to labeling, certifying, and educating for sustainability in seafood production. More research, however, must be undertaken to develop novel techniques for incorporating other critical dimensions, in particular, socioeconomic considerations, into our sustainability decision-making.

  1. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helen H

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends. PMID:17049949

  2. Early diagenesis and nutrient benthic fluxes in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnoli, F.; Frascari, F.; Marcaccio, M.; Bergamin, M. C.

    2003-04-01

    Early diagenesis processes and dissolved nutrient benthic fluxes of Northern and Central Adriatic Sea bottom sediments were investigate in order to know different sedimentary environmental settings. The study was carried out in 12 stations by means of an integrated analysis of pore water and solid phase composition. In each station one core, about one meter long, was collected. In the solid phase the following parameters were determined: grain size, mineralogy, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Al, S, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total P. In pore waters nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, alkalinity, sulphate, Fe, Mn and silica were analysed. Benthic fluxes were measured in situ, by benthic chamber, and calculated by modelisation of pore waters. In each station also the chemical-physical parameters of water column were measured. The area North of the Po River is characterised mainly by carbonate sediments, by low phosphate fluxes towards water column, in some cases even negative, due to authigenic apatite precipitation and by low ammonia fluxes for low reactive organic matter inputs. Near Tagliamento and Adige-Brenta river mouths sediments are higher in organic matter contents in comparison with offshore areas. In these environments pore water nutrient regeneration takes place in the uppermost centimetres of sediment by oxic and suboxic organic matter degradation (Adige-Brenta prodelta sediments) or at higher depth by organic matter degradation, mainly anoxic, via sulphate reduction (Tagliamento prodelta area). Fluxes of phosphate and TCO2 in these two areas are slowly higher than other North Po River areas. The Po River proximal prodelta area is characterised by high ammonia, phosphate and TCO2 fluxes due to high organic matter and silicate inputs, degrading mainly in anoxic conditions by sulphate reduction. When bottom water column reach anoxic conditions in these areas also Fe, Mn and phosphate fluxes increase for dissolution of Fe and Mn oxi-hydroxide surface layer. South

  3. Regional prospectivity of Mesozoic and Tertiary in the eastern Adriatic and adjacent area

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Dolan, P.; Lunn, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Post-Hercynian deposits in the eastern Adriatic and the adjacent external zones of the Dinarides and Albanian Hellenides may be subdivided into four facies groups. (1) Permian-Lower Triassic clastics and carbonates with some evaporites, (2) Middle Triassic-lower Tertiary carbonate platform facies with associated continental margin deeper marine sequences, (3) Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary flysch, and (4) middle Tertiary molasse and postorogenic Neogene sediments. The Permian to lower Tertiary section was deposited during the complex Alpine cycle, while the upper Tertiary section is the product of post-Alpine deposition. This depositional history during markedly different tectonic regimes creates two groups of petroleum plays in the eastern Adriatic: (1) Alpine cycle plays in the Permian to lower Tertiary in the thrust-faulted and folded foreland of Adria and (2) post-Alpine plays in upper Tertiary postorogenic or late synorogenic basins. Around the Adriatic, the post-Alpine plays have so far proved the most successful. Major production occurs in the onshore Po basin and its extension beneath the Adriatic. Some of this production is from deep Alpine-cycle reservoirs, but the bulk is from the upper Tertiary-Quaternary. Similar horizons produce onshore and offshore the central-southern Adriatic coast of Italy. Major Tertiary production also occurs to the northeast in the Pannonian basin of Yugoslavia and Hungary from Miocene and younger sequences. Onshore Albania produces significant quantities of hydrocarbons; although data are scarce, much of this production is presumably from upper Tertiary molasse or lower Tertiary flysch.

  4. Determination of Fluopicolide in Livestock Products and Seafood by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Sakai, Naoko; Kamijo, Kyoko; Otani, Harunori; Hayashi, Masaki; Koike, Hiroshi; Baba, Itoko; Sasamoto, Takeo; Nemoto, Satoru; Shindo, Tetsuya; Takano, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of fluopicolide in livestock products and seafood was developed using LC-MS/MS. Sodium chloride was added to livestock products and seafood samples and fluopicolide was extracted twice with acetone after acidification with formic acid. The fat from the crude extract was removed using a macroporous diatomaceous earth column, followed by purification with a combination of mini-columns of GC (graphite carbon) and PSA (ethylenediamine-N-propyl silylation silica gel). The average recovery (n=5) of fluopicolide from 10 types of livestock products and seafood (cattle fat, cattle liver, cattle muscle, chicken, eel, egg, freshwater clam, honey, milk and salmon) spiked at the MRLs or at the uniform limit (0.01 ppm) was 96-100%, with a relative standard deviation of 2.3-6.2%. The limit of quantitation of the developed method was calculated to be 0.01 mg/kg. PMID:27558226

  5. Seafood traceability: current needs, available tools, and biotechnological challenges for origin certification.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Pimentel, Tânia; Ricardo, Fernando; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Market globalization and recurring food safety alerts have resulted in a growing consumer awareness of the need for food traceability. This is particularly relevant for seafood due to its perishable nature and importance as a key protein source for the population of the world. Here, we provide an overview of the current needs for seafood origin traceability, along with the limitations and challenges for its implementation. We focus on geochemical, biochemical, and molecular tools and how they should be optimized to be implemented globally and to address our societal needs. We suggest that seafood traceability is key to enforcing food safety regulations and fisheries control, combat fraud, and fulfill present and future expectations of conscientious producers, consumers, and authorities. PMID:25865857

  6. Identification of shark species in seafood products by forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS).

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; Pérez-Martín, R I; Sotelo, C G

    2008-11-12

    The identification of commercial shark species is a relevant issue to ensure the correct labeling of seafood products, to maintain consumer confidence in seafood, and to enhance the knowledge of the species and volumes that are at present being captured, thus improving the management of shark fisheries. The polymerase chain reaction was employed to obtain a 423 bp amplicon from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The sequences from this fragment, belonging to 63 authentic individuals of 23 species, were analyzed using a genetic distance method. Nine different samples of commercial fresh, frozen, and convenience food were obtained in local and international markets to validate the methodology. These samples were analyzed, and sequences were employed for species identification, showing that forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) is a suitable technique for identification of processed seafood containing shark as an ingredient. The results also showed that incorrect labeling practices may occur regarding shark products, probably because of incorrect labeling at the production point. PMID:18831561

  7. High pressure processing as an intervention for raw virus-contaminated shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 7 years, the USDA ARS Seafood Safety Laboratory has evaluated the potential use of high pressure processing (HPP) as a processing strategy for virus-contaminated shellfish. HPP can inactivate hepatitis A virus, (HAV), the human norovirus surrogates feline calicivirus and murine norovi...

  8. Mercury exposure and a shift toward oxidative stress in avid seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms of mercury (Hg) toxicity at low doses from seafood consumption, the most common exposure route, are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that seafood Hg exposure is related to a shift in redox status, indicated by a decrease in the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) in blood, or increase in redox potential (Eh). We also examined whether key seafood nutrients (selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids) confound or modify this shift. We measured blood concentrations of total Hg, Se, GSH, GSSG, and the Omega-3 Index (% omega-3s of total fatty acids in red blood cell membranes) in seafood consumers in Long Island, NY. We examined relationships between Hg, GSH:GSSG ratio and Eh. Elevated blood Hg (>5.8µgL(-1)) was associated with lower GSH:GSSG (β=-116.73, p=0.01), with no evidence of confounding by Se or Omega-3 Index. However, in models stratified by Omega-3 Index levels, Hg-GSH:GSSG associations were weakened among those with high Omega-3 Index levels (>6% of fatty acids, β=-63.46, p=0.28), and heightened among those with low Omega-3 Index (β=-182.53, p<0.01). We observed comparable patterns for Eh in relation to Hg. These results support the hypothesis that Hg exposure from seafood is linked to a shift in redox status toward oxidative stress, modified by omega-3 fatty acids in this population. Further work should examine the role of different seafood nutrients and Hg-induced shifts in redox status in the diverse health effects associated with elevated Hg exposure. PMID:26745733

  9. Presence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in waters and seafood from the Tunisian Sea.

    PubMed

    Khouadja, Sadok; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Spagnoletti, Matteo; Croci, Luciana; Colombo, Mauro M; Amina, Bakhrouf

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of the hemolysin genes, tdh and trh, in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from environmental samples collected from various exported seafood products comprising of fishes and shellfish (Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas) or seawater, was studied. Eight strains were confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus by toxR -based polymerase chain reaction and only one strain out of these 8 strains was positive for tdh and trh genes. Toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates are present in Tunisian coastal areas and they may also be present in Tunisian exported seafood products. PMID:23430717

  10. Consumers' health risk-benefit perception of seafood and attitude toward the marine environment: Insights from five European countries.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Pieniak, Zuzanna; De Henauw, Stefaan; Maulvault, Ana Luisa; Reuver, Marieke; Fait, Gabriella; Cano-Sancho, German; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    This research classifies European consumers into segments based on their health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. The profiling variables of these segments are seafood consumption frequency, general attitude toward consuming fish, confidence in control organizations, attitude toward the marine environment, environmental concern and socio-demographics. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample of 2824 participants. A cluster analysis was performed based on risk-benefit perception related to seafood and the profiles of the segments were determined by a robust 2-way ANOVA analysis accounting for country effects. Although this study confirms consumers' positive image of consuming seafood, gradients are found in health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. Seafood consumption frequency is mainly determined by country-related traditions and habits related to seafood rather than by risk-benefit perceptions. Segments with a higher benefit perception, irrespective of their level of risk perception, show a more positive attitude toward consuming seafood and toward the marine environment; moreover, they report a higher concern about the marine environment and have a higher involvement with seafood and with the marine environment. Consequently, information campaigns concentrating on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise the involvement with seafood and the marine environment as this is associated with a higher environmental concern. This research underpins that in such information campaigns a nationally differentiated rather than a pan-European or international information strategy should be aimed for because of significant cultural differences between the identified segments. PMID:25864933

  11. Observed and modeled surface Lagrangian transport between coastal regions in the Adriatic Sea with implications for marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Daniel F.; Griffa, Annalisa; Zambianchi, Enrico; Suaria, Giuseppe; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Russo, Aniello; Bellomo, Lucio; Mantovani, Carlo; Celentano, Paolo; Molcard, Anne; Borghini, Mireno

    2016-04-01

    Surface drifters and virtual particles are used to investigate transport between seven coastal regions in the central and southern Adriatic Sea to estimate the degree to which these regions function as a network. Alongshore coastal currents and cyclonic gyres are the primary circulation features that connected regions in the Adriatic Sea. The historical drifter observations span 25 years and, thus, provide estimates of transport between regions realized by the mean surface circulation. The virtual particle trajectories and a dedicated drifter experiment show that southeasterly Sirocco winds can drive eastward cross-Adriatic transport from the Italian coast near the Gargano Promontory to the Dalmatian Islands in Croatia. Southeasterly winds disrupt alongshore transport on the west coast. Northwesterly Mistral winds enhanced east-to-west transport and resulted in stronger southeastward coastal currents in the western Adriatic current (WAC) and export to the northern Ionian Sea. The central Italian regions showed strong connections from north to south, likely realized by alongshore transport in the WAC. Alongshore, downstream transport was weaker on the east coast, likely due to the more complex topography introduced by the Dalmatian Islands of Croatia. Cross-Adriatic connection percentages were higher for east-to-west transport. Cross-Adriatic transport, in general, occurred via the cyclonic sub-gyres, with westward (eastward) transport observed in the northern (southern) arms of the central and southern gyres.

  12. Salimicrobium jeotgali sp. nov., isolated from salted, fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Jin; Jin, Hyun Mi; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Che Ok

    2014-11-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, motile bacterium, designated strain MJ3(T), was isolated from myeolchi-jeot (anchovy jeotgal), a traditional fermented seafood in South Korea. Cells were non-endospore-forming cocci showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Growth of strain MJ3(T) was observed at 15-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 1-24% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 10% NaCl). Phylogenetic inference based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ3(T) formed a tight phyletic lineage with members of the genus Salimicrobium. Strain MJ3(T) was related most closely to Salimicrobium salexigens 29CMI(T), Salimicrobium album DSM 20748(T), Salimicrobium flavidum ISL-25(T), Salimicrobium luteum BY-5(T) and Salimicrobium halophilum DSM 4771(T), with similarities of 98.8%, 98.7%, 98.6%, 98.4% and 98.3%, respectively. However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain MJ3(T) (KF732837) and S. salexigens DSM 22782(T), S. album DSM 20748(T), S. flavidum DSM 23127(T), S. luteum KCTC 3989(T) and S. halophilum JCM 12305(T) were 60 ± 5.4%, 58.5 ± 6.5%, 43.6 ± 5.5%, 37.2 ± 5.8% and 16.7 ± 0.2%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic data (sole isoprenoid quinone, MK-7; major cell-wall type, meso-diaminopimelic acid; major cellular fatty acids, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0; major polar lipids, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; DNA G+C content, 46.3 mol%) also supported the affiliation of strain MJ3(T) with the genus Salimicrobium. Therefore, strain MJ3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Salimicrobium, for which the name Salimicrobium jeotgali sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ3(T) ( = KACC 16972(T) = JCM 19758(T)). PMID:25070217

  13. Coupled Air-ocean Nested Modeling Studies Of The Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, J.; Doyle, J.; Hodur, R.; Cummings, J.

    We have conducted simulations of the Adriatic Sea using the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), with surface forcing provided by the atmospheric component of the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). Our aim is to document and investigate the response pattern of the Adriatic to the complex combined forcing of the bora winds and strong Po River run-off. Separate three- dimensional multivariate optimum interpolation (MVOI) analysis techniques are used to generate the initial conditions for both COAMPS and NCOM. First, we used a 6-km NCOM grid over the entire Mediterranean Sea, with forcing supplied by sur- face stresses from a 27-km COAMPS grid, also covering the entire Mediterranean Sea area. Both the atmospheric and ocean fields produced were part of independent 12-hour incremental data assimilation cycles over the time period of interest. The re- sulting NCOM forecasts were then used as lateral boundary conditions for a series of higher resolution (2 km) NCOM forecasts of the Adriatic Sea. In these forecasts, a set of surface stress fields from COAMPS, using a nested 4 km grid centered over the Adriatic Sea, were used to force the NCOM high-resolution ocean nest. In addition, the 2 km Adriatic Sea model is forced by observed daily river discharge values from the Po River. We have focused on the time period of winter and spring 2001 when there were several bora wind events documented by the pilot program observations taken in preparation for the fall and winter 2002-2003 Adriatic Current Experiment (ACE). In addition, we analyze results from a multi-month simulation in fall/winter 1999 to establish circu- lation patterns that may appear during the upcoming observational season. The ACE observations will include ADCP's, moored buoys, CTD sections, and radar sites. The observational programs will generate much data about the circulation of this shallow sea subjected to river floods and strong bora wind events. The main goals of our work are to

  14. Spatial data integration for analyzing the dynamics of Albanian Adriatic shoreline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arapi, Luan; Nikolli, Pal; Kovaçi, Sander

    2016-04-01

    Shoreline mapping and shoreline change detection are critical subjects for coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection and sustainable coastal development and planning. Coastal changes are attracting more focus since they are important environmental indicators that directly impact coastal economic development and land management. Changes in the shape of shoreline may essentially affect the environment of the coastal zone. These may be caused by natural processes and human activities. The undertaken work focuses on analyzing the Adriatic shoreline dynamics, using spatial temporal data, by taking advantage of Geographic Informatin System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). Shoreline mapping focuses on some specific issues such as mapping methods used to acquire shoreline data, models and database design used to represent shoreline in the spatial database and shoreline -change analysis methods. The study area extends from the mouth of Buna River in the north to Vlora Bay in the south covering a total length of about 220 km. Detection and future assessment of Albanian Adriatic shoreline spatial position is carried out through integration of multi scale resolution of spatial temporal data and different processing methods. We have combined topographic maps at different scales (1:75 000, 1918; 1:50 000, 1937; 1:25 000, 1960, 1986 and 1:10 000, 1995), digital aerial photographs of 2007 year, satellite images of Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+ and field observed GIS data. Generation of spatial data is carried out through vectorization process and image processing. Monitoring the dynamics of shoreline position change requires understanding the coastal processes as well as coastal mapping methods. The net rates of variations in the position of the shoreline are calculated according to transects disposed perpendicularly to the baseline and spaced equally along the coast. Analysis of the relative impact of the natural factors and human activities, it is fundamental

  15. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seafood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Mastovska, Katerina; Sorenson, Wendy R; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to determine selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their relevant alkyl homologs in seafood matrixes using a fast sample preparation method followed by analysis with GC/MS. The sample preparation method involves addition of (13)C-PAH surrogate mixture to homogenized samples and extraction by shaking with a water-ethyl acetate mixture. After phase separation induced by addition of anhydrous magnesium sulfate-sodium chloride (2 + 1, w/w) and centrifugation, an aliquot of the ethyl acetate layer is evaporated, reconstituted in hexane, and cleaned up using silica gel SPE. The analytes are eluted with hexane-dichloromethane (3 + 1, v/v), the clean extract is carefully evaporated, reconstituted in isooctane, and analyzed by GC/MS. To allow for the use of various GC/MS instruments, GC columns, silica SPE cartridges, and evaporation techniques and equipment, performance-based criteria were developed and implemented in the qualification phase of the collaborative study. These criteria helped laboratories optimize their GC/MS, SPE cleanup, and evaporation conditions; check and eliminate potential PAH contamination in their reagent blanks; and become familiar with the method procedure. Ten laboratories from five countries qualified and completed the collaborative study, which was conducted on three seafood matrixes (mussel, oyster, and shrimp) fortified with 19 selected PAH analytes at five different levels of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranging from 2 to 50 μg/kg. Each matrix had a varying mixture of three different BaP levels. The other studied PAHs were at varying levels from 2 to 250 μg/kg to mimic typical PAH patterns. The fortified analytes in three matrixes were analyzed as blind duplicates at each level of BaP and corresponding other PAH levels. In addition, a blank with no added PAHs for each matrix was analyzed singly. Eight to 10 valid results were obtained for the majority of determinations. Mean recoveries of all

  16. Readily available sources of long-chain omega-3 oils: is farmed Australian seafood a better source of the good oil than wild-caught seafood?

    PubMed

    Nichols, Peter D; Glencross, Brett; Petrie, James R; Singh, Surinder P

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C₂₀) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and barramundi (Lates calcifer), have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%-50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1). Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health. PMID:24618601

  17. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion. PMID:25641876

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Central Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Arianna; Tavoloni, Tamara; Bastari, Eleonora; Lestingi, Carmela; Romanelli, Sara; Saluti, Giorgio; Moretti, Simone; Galarini, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    One-hundred and thirty-four samples of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along Central Adriatic Sea in 2013 were examined to determine the levels of fifteen congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The purified samples were analysed by gas-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) applying the isotopic dilution. Only four congeners (PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 49 and PBDE 100) were present above the established limits of quantification with mean concentrations equal to 73, 30, 19 and 18 pg g(-1), respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs (sum) ranged from 27 to 386 pg g(-1), with the highest levels around the coastal area of Ancona town. The here found levels were comparable to those measured in mussels collected along Southern Adriatic Sea. PMID:26497256

  19. Underwater noise assessment in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) using an MSFD approach.

    PubMed

    Codarin, Antonio; Picciulin, Marta

    2015-12-30

    In the marine environment, underwater noise is one of the most widespread input of man-made energy. Recently, the European Commission has stressed the necessity of establishing threshold levels as a target for the descriptor 11.2.1 "Continuous low frequency sounds" in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In 2012, a monthly underwater noise monitoring programme was conducted in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy); the collected acoustic samples (frequency range: 10-20,000 Hz) were analysed in the 1/3 octave bands. The stations have been further clustered following the 63 and 125 Hz bands noise levels. Average SPL levels resulted similar to those previously computed for proximate areas, indicating that the Adriatic Sea sub-region experiences high noise pressure in the marine waters. In its turn this claims for a scientific and technical international cooperation, as requested by the EU programme. No seasonal variation in local noise levels has been found. PMID:26506026

  20. Investigating the northern Adriatic Sea ecosystem state with a very high resolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattia, Gelsomina; Zavatarelli, Marco; Lovato, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea ecosystem dynamics is simulated using the coupling of the BFM (Biogeochemical Flux Model) with the NEMO (Nucleus for European Models of the Ocean) model. The modeling system is implemented at very high horizontal (~800 m) and vertical (95 z-level) resolution and is nested with a coarser scale Adriatic/Mediterranean model. Simulation in hindcast and projection mode are being executed and are aimed to evaluate the ecosystem attributes (vigor, organization, resilience), in order to understand the ecosystem state of the basin with respect to the so-called "Good Ecosystem State" (GES) as defined by the EU-MSF9 Directive. Skill of the model in replicating integrated environmental indices such as the EU-EEACS1023+ is also investigated. Finally the model is also open to an off-line coupling with an higher trophic level (HTL) model.

  1. 78 FR 20092 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Fish and Seafood Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Fish and... collection. Under the authority of the Fish and Seafood Promotion Act of 1986, information collected under this program is used to promote domestically-produced fish products. The information...

  2. Arsenic in the human food chain, biotransformation and toxicology--Review focusing on seafood arsenic.

    PubMed

    Molin, Marianne; Ulven, Stine Marie; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Fish and seafood are main contributors of arsenic (As) in the diet. The dominating arsenical is the organoarsenical arsenobetaine (AB), found particularly in finfish. Algae, blue mussels and other filter feeders contain less AB, but more arsenosugars and relatively more inorganic arsenic (iAs), whereas fatty fish contain more arsenolipids. Other compounds present in smaller amounts in seafood include trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), trimethylarsoniopropionate (TMAP), dimethylarsenate (DMA), methylarsenate (MA) and sulfur-containing arsenicals. The toxic and carcinogenic arsenical iAs is biotransformed in humans and excreted in urine as the carcinogens dimethylarsinate (DMA) and methylarsonate (MA), producing reactive intermediates in the process. Less is known about the biotransformation of organoarsenicals, but new insight indicates that bioconversion of arsenosugars and arsenolipids in seafood results in urinary excretion of DMA, possibly also producing reactive trivalent arsenic intermediates. Recent findings also indicate that the pre-systematic metabolism by colon microbiota play an important role for human metabolism of arsenicals. Processing of seafood may also result in transformation of arsenicals. PMID:25666158

  3. A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Seafood Processing Training Sessions in the Galveston Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Robert F.

    A cost-benefit study was conducted to determine the economic viability of continuing to offer training sessions for seafood processors through the College of the Mainland in Texas. Data for the study were collected from both primary and secondary sources, including the college and local company participating in the program, federal and state…

  4. Long Waves Perturbations to Astronomical Tides in Adriatic and Tyrrenian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2008-01-03

    Portable tide gauges have been made with ultrasonic detectors with acquisition rate of 100 data per minute. With them we measured mean sea level variations in different locations of Adriatic and Tyrrenian sea around latitude 42 deg. N. Several long term variations are superimposed to astronomical tide, ranging from 4 to 60 minutes. Their nature of seiches or edge waves and their identification with transversal oscillations of the whole sea are discussed.

  5. Offshore Adriatic marginal gas fields: An approach to the technique of reservoir development

    SciTech Connect

    Montanari, A.; Bolelli, V.; Piccoli, G.

    1986-01-01

    The application of accelerated gas blowdown and wire line techniques in reservoir development and exploitation is presented for an off-shore Adriatic marginal gas field. The approach discussed in this paper utilizes selective completion, very low reserves/production ratio, sequential production, Through Tubing Bridge Plug and Through Tubing Perforation techniques to avoid the use of costly workover rigs and to allow economically convenient exploitation of a structure which otherwise would have been abandoned.

  6. Eutrophication in the northern Adriatic Sea: Benthic fluxes and nutrient budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Berelson, W.M.; Hammond, D.E. ); Giordani, P. )

    1990-01-09

    The northern Adriatic Sea has been plagued by problems of eutrophication. This area is relatively shallow (maximum depth = 60m), becoming stratified during the summer months which inhibits oxygen transport to bottom waters. Anthropogenic nutrient loading in rivers entering the northern Adriatic has increased nutrient input to this system and stimulated algai growth. Five stations in the western Adriatic (south of the Po River Delta) were occupied during September, 1988 and benthic flux chambers used to measure nutrient fluxes. These sites included 3 stations previously studied in 1982. Flux measurements of dissolved silica, nitrate, oxygen, ammonia, phosphate, CO[sub 2], alkalinity and radon were made during 24 hour incubations of flux chambers (area covered - 0.07 m[sup 2], volume = [approximately]81) that were continuously stirred and sampled periodically. Nutrient fluxes measured were generally consistent with the fluxes measured previously in June, 1982 except for radon fluxes which were 203 times greater in the earlier field season. There was a general trend in nutrient fluxes to decrease offshore, a pattern probably controlled by the sedimentation patterns because fine grained, organic matter-rich sediment are concentrated in a zone near shore. Average regional fluxes were (in mmol m[sup -2]d[sup -1], negative values indicate flux into sediment): Oxygen (-12), CO[sub 2] (19), Alkalinity (4), Silica (3.3), Ammonia (1.5), Phosphate (0.1) and Nitrate (0.3). The carbon/ammonia flux ratio is about twice the C/N ratio in marine phytoplankton, suggesting that large amounts of denitrification may be occuring in these sediments. Comparisons of benthic fluxes and sediment burial rates indicate that 50-90% of the carbon, silica, phosphorus and nitrogen arriving at the sediment-water interface is recycled before burial. The nutrient input to the water column from NW Adriatic sediments is about equal to the input from coastal rivers.

  7. Characterization of aerosols above the Northern Adriatic Sea: Case studies of offshore and onshore wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzola, J.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Canepa, E.; Tedeschi, G.; Prati, P.; Zarmpas, P.; Bastianini, M.; Missamou, T.; Cavaleri, L.

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol particles in coastal areas result from a complex mixing between sea spray aerosols locally generated at the sea surface by the wind-waves interaction processes and a continental component resulting from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. This paper presents a physical and chemical analysis of the aerosol data acquired from May to September 2014 in the Adriatic Sea. Aerosol distributions were measured on the Acqua Alta platform located 15 km off the coast of Venice using two Particle Measuring System probes and a chemical characterization was made using an Ion Chromatography analysis (IC). Our aim is to study both the sea-spray contribution and the anthropogenic influence in the coastal aerosol of this Mediterranean region. To this end, we focus on a comparison between the present data and the aerosol size distributions measured south of the French Mediterranean coast. For air masses of marine origin transported by southern winds on the French coast and by the Sirocco in the Adriatic, we note a good agreement between the concentrations of super-micrometer aerosols measured in the two locations. This indicates a similar sea surface production of sea-spray aerosols formed by bubble bursting processes in the two locations. In contrast, the results show larger concentrations of submicron particles in the North-Western Mediterranean compared to the Adriatic, which result probably from a larger anthropogenic background for marine conditions. In contrast, for a coastal influence, the chemical analysis presented in the present paper seems to indicate a larger importance of the anthropogenic impact in the Northern Adriatic compared to the North-Western Mediterranean.

  8. Bacterial diversity in the South Adriatic Sea during a strong, deep winter convection year.

    PubMed

    Korlević, M; Pop Ristova, P; Garić, R; Amann, R; Orlić, S

    2015-03-01

    The South Adriatic Sea is the deepest part of the Adriatic Sea and represents a key area for both the Adriatic Sea and the deep eastern Mediterranean. It has a role in dense water formation for the eastern Mediterranean deep circulation cell, and it represents an entry point for water masses originating from the Ionian Sea. The biodiversity and seasonality of bacterial picoplankton before, during, and after deep winter convection in the oligotrophic South Adriatic waters were assessed by combining comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The picoplankton communities reached their maximum abundance in the spring euphotic zone when the maximum value of the chlorophyll a in response to deep winter convection was recorded. The communities were dominated by Bacteria, while Archaea were a minor constituent. A seasonality of bacterial richness and diversity was observed, with minimum values occurring during the winter convection and spring postconvection periods and maximum values occurring under summer stratified conditions. The SAR11 clade was the main constituent of the bacterial communities and reached the maximum abundance in the euphotic zone in spring after the convection episode. Cyanobacteria were the second most abundant group, and their abundance strongly depended on the convection event, when minimal cyanobacterial abundance was observed. In spring and autumn, the euphotic zone was characterized by Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteroidetes clades NS2b, NS4, and NS5 and the gammaproteobacterial SAR86 clade were detected to co-occur with phytoplankton blooms. The SAR324, SAR202, and SAR406 clades were present in the deep layer, exhibiting different seasonal variations in abundance. Overall, our data demonstrate that the abundances of particular bacterial clades and the overall bacterial richness and diversity are greatly impacted by strong winter convection. PMID:25548042

  9. Characterization of aerosols above the Northern Adriatic Sea: Case studies of offshore and onshore wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzola, J.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Canepa, E.; Tedeschi, G.; Prati, P.; Zarmpas, P.; Bastianini, M.; Missamou, T.; Cavaleri, L.

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol particles in coastal areas result from a complex mixing between sea spray aerosols locally generated at the sea surface by the wind-waves interaction processes and a continental component resulting from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. This paper presents a physical and chemical analysis of the aerosol data acquired from May to September 2014 in the Adriatic Sea. Aerosol distributions were measured on the Acqua Alta platform located 15 km off the coast of Venice using two Particle Measuring System probes and a chemical characterization was made using an Ion Chromatography analysis (IC). Our aim is to study both the sea-spray contribution and the anthropogenic influence in the coastal aerosol of this Mediterranean region. To this end, we focus on a comparison between the present data and the aerosol size distributions measured south of the French Mediterranean coast. For air masses of marine origin transported by southern winds on the French coast and by the Sirocco in the Adriatic, we note a good agreement between the concentrations of super-micrometer aerosols measured in the two locations. This indicates a similar sea surface production of sea-spray aerosols formed by bubble bursting processes in the two locations. In contrast, the results show larger concentrations of submicron particles in the North-Western Mediterranean compared to the Adriatic, which result probably from a larger anthropogenic background for marine conditions. In contrast, for a coastal influence, the chemical analysis presented in the present paper seems to indicate a larger importance of the anthropogenic impact in the Northern Adriatic compared to the North-Western Mediterranean.

  10. Bacterial Diversity in the South Adriatic Sea during a Strong, Deep Winter Convection Year

    PubMed Central

    Korlević, M.; Pop Ristova, P.; Garić, R.; Amann, R.

    2014-01-01

    The South Adriatic Sea is the deepest part of the Adriatic Sea and represents a key area for both the Adriatic Sea and the deep eastern Mediterranean. It has a role in dense water formation for the eastern Mediterranean deep circulation cell, and it represents an entry point for water masses originating from the Ionian Sea. The biodiversity and seasonality of bacterial picoplankton before, during, and after deep winter convection in the oligotrophic South Adriatic waters were assessed by combining comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The picoplankton communities reached their maximum abundance in the spring euphotic zone when the maximum value of the chlorophyll a in response to deep winter convection was recorded. The communities were dominated by Bacteria, while Archaea were a minor constituent. A seasonality of bacterial richness and diversity was observed, with minimum values occurring during the winter convection and spring postconvection periods and maximum values occurring under summer stratified conditions. The SAR11 clade was the main constituent of the bacterial communities and reached the maximum abundance in the euphotic zone in spring after the convection episode. Cyanobacteria were the second most abundant group, and their abundance strongly depended on the convection event, when minimal cyanobacterial abundance was observed. In spring and autumn, the euphotic zone was characterized by Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteroidetes clades NS2b, NS4, and NS5 and the gammaproteobacterial SAR86 clade were detected to co-occur with phytoplankton blooms. The SAR324, SAR202, and SAR406 clades were present in the deep layer, exhibiting different seasonal variations in abundance. Overall, our data demonstrate that the abundances of particular bacterial clades and the overall bacterial richness and diversity are greatly impacted by strong winter convection. PMID:25548042