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Sample records for adriatic seafood contamination

  1. Natural radionuclides in seafood from the central Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Desideri, D; Meli, M A; Roselli, C

    2011-02-01

    Activity concentrations of ²¹⁰Po, ²¹⁰Pb, and ⁴⁰K were measured in different samples of marine organisms from the central Adriatic Sea. The marine organisms were purchased from the local consumer market during all four seasons of the year to evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of the natural radioactivity. The concentration trend is the following: ⁴⁰K > ²¹⁰Po > ²¹⁰Pb. ⁴⁰K concentration ranged between 54.9 and 235.9 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight, and the arithmetic mean of Pb concentration for all samples is <0.7 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight. Po activity concentration ranged between 0.3 and 44.6 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight; its arithmetic mean was 5.7 ± 7.2 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight. Among the pelagic species, anchovy displayed the highest polonium concentration. The data obtained depend upon the type of marine organism and the period of sampling. Committed effective dose due to ²¹⁰Po ingestion from marine food for individuals in the two different population groups was calculated to be 95.9 and 466.4 μSv y⁻¹, respectively. PMID:21399431

  2. Two-year study of lipophilic marine toxin profile in mussels of the North-central Adriatic Sea: First report of azaspiracids in Mediterranean seafood.

    PubMed

    Bacchiocchi, Simone; Siracusa, Melania; Ruzzi, Angela; Gorbi, Stefania; Ercolessi, Manuela; Cosentino, Maria Anna; Ammazzalorso, Patrizia; Orletti, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    Since the late 1980s, the North-central Adriatic Sea has frequently experienced blooms of harmful algal species, producing marine lipophilic toxins (MLTs) which accumulate in mussels and pose a serious threat to consumer health. Here, we present a 2-year LC-MS/MS study (2012-2014) of the MLT profile in mussels from the North-central Adriatic Sea in the context of the presence of toxic phytoplankton concentrations in seawater. Okadaic acid increased in mussels from all areas during the summer and autumn-winter periods with a rising trend between 2012 and 2014. In the same periods, Dinophysis sp. increased in abundance in seawater, but the highest densities of algae did not always coincide with the highest levels of toxins in mussels. Yessotoxins (YTXs) content in mussel increased sharply in the autumn-winter periods even exceeding the legal limit; although this accumulation did not always correlated with the YTX-producers in water (such as Lingulodinium polyedrum and Protoceratium reticulatum) a massive bloom of Gonyaulax spinifera was reported in November 2013, suggesting the role of this species in YTXs shellfish contamination. Traces of Azaspiracid 2 (AZA-2) were observed often in mussels during the study period, confirming for the first time the presence of this biotoxin in Mediterranean seafood. PMID:26455996

  3. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. PMID:26123540

  4. Risks of consumption of contaminated seafood: The Quincy Bay case study

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, C.B.; Doyle, M.E. ); Kipp, K. )

    1991-01-01

    A recent EPA-sponsored study of sediment and seafood contamination in Quincy Bay revealed elevated levels of several complex organic pollutants frequently of concern in human health assessments. A seafood consumption risk assessment was conducted using data from samples collected in Quincy Bay in the methodology developed for EPA's Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection for such assessments. Results showed estimate plausible, upperbound excess cancer risks in the 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}2} range. These results are comparable to those found in other seafood contamination risk assessments for areas where consumption advisories and fishing restrictions were implemented. Regulatory response included consumption advisories for lobster tomalley (hepatopancreas) and other types of locally caught seafood. Uncertainties inherent in seafood risk assessment in general and for the Quincy Bay case are discussed, along with implications for further action.

  5. CREATION OF A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO IDENTIFY AT-RISK POPULATIONS IN NEW JERSEY AND NEW YORK FOR CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED FISH AND SEAFOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project Objective: To identify at-risk populations, particularly women of child bearing years and young children, for consumption of contaminated fish and seafood via the use of geographically and demographically defined seafood consumption patterns and fish/seafood contaminatio...

  6. Probabilistic health risk assessment for ingestion of seafood farmed in arsenic contaminated groundwater in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Lee, Jin-Jing; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2013-08-01

    Seafood farmed in arsenic (As)-contaminated areas is a major exposure pathway for the ingestion of inorganic As by individuals in the southwestern part of Taiwan. This study presents a probabilistic risk assessment using limited data for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the seafood by local residents in these areas. The As content and the consumption rate are both treated as probability distributions, taking into account the variability of the amount in the seafood and individual consumption habits. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is utilized to conduct an assessment of exposure due to the daily intake of inorganic As from As-contaminated seafood. Exposure is evaluated according to the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the FAO/WHO and the target risk based on the US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The assessment results show that inorganic As intake from five types of fish (excluding mullet) and shellfish fall below the PTWI threshold values for the 95th percentiles, but exceed the target cancer risk of 10(-6). The predicted 95th percentile for inorganic As intake and lifetime cancer risks obtained in the study are both markedly higher than those obtained in previous studies in which the consumption rate of seafood considered is a deterministic value. This study demonstrates the importance of the individual variability of seafood consumption when evaluating a high exposure sub-group of the population who eat higher amounts of fish and shellfish than the average Taiwanese. PMID:23242940

  7. Nutrient and contaminant tradeoffs: exchanging meat, poultry, or seafood for dietary protein.

    PubMed

    Yaktine, Ann L; Nesheim, Malden C; James, Cara A

    2008-03-01

    When making food choices, consumers are faced with the dilemma of reconciling differences between health benefits and exposure to potential toxins. Analyses to estimate likely intake and exposure outcomes for young children and women of child-bearing age shows that seafood, chicken, and beef, while approximately equivalent in protein, vary in key nutrients of importance as well as in levels of certain contaminants. Increasing the variety of choices among meats, poultry, and seafood and consuming them in amounts consistent with current dietary guidelines and advisories will contribute toward meeting nutritional needs while reducing exposure to any single type of contaminant. PMID:18289176

  8. Seafood Contamination after the BP Gulf Oil Spill and Risks to Vulnerable Populations: A Critique of the FDA Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Karen K.; Solomon, Gina M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The BP oil spill of 2010 resulted in contamination of one of the most productive fisheries in the United States by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs, which can accumulate in seafood, are known carcinogens and developmental toxicants. In response to the oil spill, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed risk criteria and established thresholds for allowable levels [levels of concern (LOCs)] of PAH contaminants in Gulf Coast seafood. Objectives: We evaluated the degree to which the FDA’s risk criteria adequately protect vulnerable Gulf Coast populations from cancer risk associated with PAHs in seafood. Discussion: The FDA LOCs significantly underestimate risk from seafood contaminants among sensitive Gulf Coast populations by failing to a) account for the increased vulnerability of the developing fetus and child; b) use appropriate seafood consumption rates; c) include all relevant health end points; and d) incorporate health-protective estimates of exposure duration and acceptable risk. For benzo[a]pyrene and naphthalene, revised LOCs are between two and four orders of magnitude below the level set by the FDA. Comparison of measured levels of PAHs in Gulf seafood with the revised LOCs revealed that up to 53% of Gulf shrimp samples were above LOCs for pregnant women who are high-end seafood consumers. Conclusions: FDA risk assessment methods should be updated to better reflect current risk assessment practices and to protect vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children. PMID:21990339

  9. Mercury, cadmium and lead contamination in seafood: a comparative study to evaluate the usefulness of Target Hazard Quotients.

    PubMed

    Petroczi, A; Naughton, D P

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the applicability of Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) estimations to inform on seafood hazards through metal contamination. The food recall data set was collated by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC, UK) over the period from January to November 2007. Pearson chi-square goodness of fit test, nonparametric correlation (Kendall tau) and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. Descriptive statistics and statistical analyses were computed by using Excel and SPSS 15.0. The vast majority of food alerts/recalls owing to metal contamination occur in seafood and during the summer months. Only swordfish and shark containing produce received over 10 recalls which were mainly for mercury contamination. Seafood produce originating from only 3 countries had over 10 recalls owing to metal contamination (Spain 50; France 11 and Indonesia 11). Based upon the food alert/recall system, the application of THQ estimations of risk in cases of metal contamination of seafood is questionable as THQ implies frequent if not daily exposure over a lifetime. Infrequent recalls owing to metal contamination and the absence of patterns make it highly unlikely that an individual would be subject to multiple exposures to significant levels of metal ions in seafood. PMID:19041361

  10. Mobilisation processes responsible for iron and manganese contamination of groundwater in Central Adriatic Italy.

    PubMed

    Palmucci, William; Rusi, Sergio; Di Curzio, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Iron and manganese are two of the most common contaminants that exceed the threshold imposed by international and national legislation. When these contamination occurs in groundwater, the use of the water resource is forbidden for any purposes. Several studies investigated these two metals in groundwater, but research focused in the Central Adriatic area are still lacking. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the origin of Fe and Mn contamination in groundwater and the hydrogeochemical processes that can enrich aquifers with these metals. This work is based on hydrogeochemical and multivariate statistical analysis of analytical results undertaken on soils and groundwater. Fe and Mn contamination are widespread in the alluvial aquifers, and their distribution is regulated by local conditions (i.e. long residence time, presence of peat or organic-rich fine sediments or anthropic pollution) that control redox processes in the aquifers and favour the mobilisation of these two metals in groundwater. The concentration of iron and manganese identified within soil indicates that the latter are a concrete source of the two metals. Anthropic impact on Fe and Mn contamination of groundwater is not related to agricultural activities, but on the contrary, the contribution of hydrocarbons (e.g. spills) is evident. PMID:26948970

  11. Toxic elements and speciation in seafood samples from different contaminated sites in Europe.

    PubMed

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Barbosa, Vera; Sloth, Jens J; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Tediosi, Alice; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; van den Heuvel, Fredericus H M; Kotterman, Michiel; Marques, António

    2015-11-01

    The presence of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), arsenic (TAs), inorganic arsenic (iAs), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) was investigated in seafood collected from European marine ecosystems subjected to strong anthropogenic pressure, i.e. hotspot areas. Different species (Mytilus galloprovincialis, n=50; Chamelea gallina, n=50; Liza aurata, n=25; Platichthys flesus, n=25; Laminaria digitata, n=15; and Saccharina latissima, n=15) sampled in Tagus estuary, Po delta, Ebro delta, western Scheldt, and in the vicinities of a fish farm area (Solund, Norway), between September and December 2013, were selected to assess metal contamination and potential risks to seafood consumers, as well as to determine the suitability of ecologically distinct organisms as bioindicators in environmental monitoring studies. Species exhibited different elemental profiles, likely as a result of their ecological strategies, metabolism and levels in the environment (i.e. seawater and sediments). Higher levels of Cd (0.15-0.94 mg kg(-1)), Pb (0.37-0.89 mg kg(-1)), Co (0.48-1.1 mg kg(-1)), Cu (4.8-8.4 mg kg(-1)), Zn (75-153 mg kg(-1)), Cr (1.0-4.5 mg kg(-1)) and Fe (283-930 mg kg(-1)) were detected in bivalve species, particularly in M. galloprovincialis from Ebro and Po deltas, whereas the highest content of Hg was found in P. flesus (0.86 mg kg(-1)). In fish species, most Hg was organic (MeHg; from 69 to 79%), whereas lower proportions of MeHg were encountered in bivalve species (between 20 and 43%). The highest levels of As were found in macroalgae species L. digitata and S. latissima (41 mg kg(-1) and 43 mg kg(-1), respectively), with iAs accounting almost 50% of the total As content in L. digitata but not with S. latissima nor in the remaining seafood samples. This work highlights that the selection of the most appropriate bioindicator species is a fundamental step in environmental monitoring of each contaminant

  12. Contamination of commercially available seafood by key diarrhetic shellfish poisons along the coast of China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Tan, Cai-Yun; Guo, Yi-Ping; Li, Lin; Ren, Hong-Lin; Li, Yan-Song; Hu, Pan; Gong, Sheng; Zhou, Yu; Lu, Shi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of outbreaks of food-borne diseases caused by okadaic acid (OA) and its analogue dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), two key diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) toxins, OA and DTX-1, have become a serious threat to public health and have attracted significant public attention in China. The aim of our study was to monitor OA and DTX-1 contamination in commercially available seafood and to provide references for tracking these toxins and preventing disease outbreaks. From 2010 to 2012, 40 species were collected from six coastal cities of four inland seas in China. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a lateral flow immunochromatographic (LFIC) test strip were used to analyse the samples, and the results were further confirmed using a commercially available ELISA kit. The monitoring results indicated that 23 of 40 species were positive for contamination. In addition, 14 of the positive species were determined to be inedible because the content of OA and DTX-1 was above the regulatory limit. Simultaneously, we verified that the digestive glands of shellfish tended to accumulate toxin, in contrast to the flesh. The highest concentrations of OA and DTX-1 were recorded in Scapharca broughtonii, which was collected from Qing Dao, in relation to the other analysed species. Moreover, the Arca family as well as Mytilus galloprovincialis were severely contaminated by OA and its analogue. The above results indicate that some of the commercially available seafood from the coastal cities in China may be inedible due to serious marine toxin contamination. The results of this study might play an important role in protecting consumer health and safety screening of marine products. PMID:25167824

  13. Combined cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a marine toxin and seafood contaminant metal ions (chromium and cadmium).

    PubMed

    Souid-Mensi, Ghada; Moukha, Serge; Maaroufi, Khira; Creppy, Edmond E

    2008-02-01

    Algal bloom with consequent production of marine toxins contaminating bivalves is increasing in costal regions worldwide because of sea water quality worsening. Contamination of seafood by diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins (DSP) together with metals is frequently reported, a phenomenon not fully explained yet. In this context, metal ions were assayed in clams collected from the banned area of Boughrara, Tunisia, contaminated by Gymnodinium and other algae such as Dinophysis sp, accumulated by these bivalves. The presence of toxic metals ions such as Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) in meat, shells, and water released by the clams prompted us to experiment in Caco-2 intestinal cell line toxic effects of these heavy metals ions in combination with okadaic acid, one DSP present in clams to assess the potential global toxicity. Cr and Cd produce additive effects in (i) reactive oxygen species production, (ii) cytotoxicity as assessed by the mitochondrial activity testing method (MTT test), and (iii) DNA lesions evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and acridine orange staining. Exaggerated DNA fragmentation is observed, suggesting an overloading of repair capacity of Caco-2 cells. The apoptosis suggested by a DNA fragment sizing (180-200 bp) in agarose gel and mechanisms underlying these additive effects in Caco-2 cells still need to be more comprehensively explained. PMID:18214935

  14. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jaikanlaya, Chate; Settachan, Daam; Denison, Michael S.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van den Berg, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in this country that demonstrates contamination of seafood with PCBs and determines the levels of PCBs and total dioxin like activity in mussels, oysters and shrimp, from the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Sixty pooled samples of mussels and twenty-seven pooled samples of oysters were collected from cultivation farms and twenty-one pooled samples of shrimp were collected from fisherman piers. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of 49 PCB congeners was obtained by HRGC-ECD analysis and total dioxin-like activity using the CAFLUX bioassay. Total PCB concentrations varied between three species, ranging between 19 and 1100 ng g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and the levels of PCBs in shrimp was three time higher than that in mussels and oysters. With respected to the pattern of PCB congeners, it implied that the source of PCBs exposure in this area could be from the regional contamination. The calculated CAFLUX bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) values ranged between 0.8 and 18 pg BEQ g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and showed a good relationship with the chemical-derived TEQs. Therefore, the CAFLUX bioassay can be used for effective screening of dioxin-like activity in marine species effectively. PMID:19375780

  15. Emerging Seafood Preservation Techniques to Extend Freshness and Minimize Vibrio Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Ronholm, Jennifer; Lau, Fiona; Banerjee, Swapan K.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the popularity of seafood consumption is increasing exponentially. To meet the demands of a growing market, the seafood industry has increasingly been innovating ways to keep their products fresh and safe while increasing production. Marine environments harbor several species of indigenous microorganisms, some of which, including Vibrio spp., may be harmful to humans, and all of which are part of the natural microbiota of the seafood. After harvest, seafood products are often shipped over large geographic distances, sometimes for prolonged periods, during which the food must stay fresh and pathogen proliferation must be minimized. Upon arrival there is often a strong desire, arising from both culinary and nutritional considerations, to consume seafood products raw, or minimally cooked. This supply chain along with popular preferences have increased challenges for the seafood industry. This has resulted in a desire to develop methodologies that reduce pathogenic and spoilage organisms in seafood items to comply with regulations and result in minimal changes to the taste, texture, and nutritional content of the final product. This mini-review discusses and compares several emerging technologies, such as treatment with plant derived natural compounds, phage lysis, high-pressure processing, and irradiation for their ability to control pathogenic vibrios, limit the growth of spoilage organisms, and keep the desired organoleptic properties of the seafood product intact. PMID:27047466

  16. Hexavalent chromium removal in contaminated water using reticulated chitosan micro/nanoparticles from seafood processing wastes.

    PubMed

    Dima, Jimena Bernadette; Sequeiros, Cynthia; Zaritzky, Noemi E

    2015-12-01

    Chitosan particles (CH) were obtained from seafood processing wastes (shrimp shells) and physicochemically characterized; deacetylation degree of CH was measured by Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and potentiometric titration; polymer molecular weight was determined by intrinsic viscosity measurements. Reticulated micro/nanoparticles of chitosan (MCH) with an average diameter close to 100nm were synthesized by ionic gelation of chitosan using tripolyphosphate (TPP), and characterized by SEM, size distribution and Zeta-potential. Detoxification capacities of CH and MCH were tested analyzing the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) from contaminated water, at different initial chromium concentrations. The effect of pH on adsorption capacity of CH and MCH was experimentally determined and analyzed considering the Cr(VI) stable complexes (anions) formed, the presence of protonated groups in chitosan particles and the addition of the reticulating agent (TPP). Chitosan crosslinking was necessary to adsorb Cr(VI) at pH<2 due to the instability of CH particles in acid media. Langmuir isotherm described better than Freundlich and Temkin equations the equilibrium adsorption data. Pseudo-second order rate provided the best fitting to the kinetic data in comparison to pseudo-first order and Elovich equations. Chemical analysis to determine the oxidation state of the adsorbed Cr, showed that Cr(VI) was adsorbed on CH particles without further reduction; in contrast Cr(VI) removed from the solution was reduced and bound to the MCH as Cr(III). The reduction of toxic Cr(VI) to the less or nontoxic Cr(III) by the reticulated chitosan micro/nanoparticles can be considered a very efficient detoxification technique for the treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated water. PMID:26151484

  17. Screening for petrochemical contamination in seafood by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bencsath, F Aladar; Benner, Ronald A; Abraham, Ann; Wang, Yuesong; El Said, Kathleen R; Jester, Edward L E; Plakas, Steven M

    2015-05-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS) method is described, to screen seafood for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with petrochemical taint. VOCs are extracted from the headspace of heated sample homogenates by adsorption onto a SPME fiber and desorbed for analysis by GC-MS. Targeted compounds are determined semi-quantitatively using representative calibration standards for the various classes (alkanes, alkylbenzenes, indanes/tetralins, and naphthalenes) of VOCs analyzed. Sample preparation is minimal, and the analyses are rapid and automated with a capacity of 50 samples per day. The method was optimized in terms of headspace temperature, sample heating time, extraction time, and desorption time using oyster samples fortified with target compounds. Calibrations for hydrocarbon components were linear in the range of 8.3-167 ng/g; the limit of detection ranged between 0.05 and 0.21 ng/g, and the limit of quantitation between 0.16 and 0.69 ng/g. Good precision (RSD < 10 % at 16.7 ng/g for individual VOCs) and accuracy (recovery range 89-118 % at 25 ng/g) were obtained in oyster, crab, shrimp, and finfish matrices. The trueness of the method was demonstrated by quantifying VOCs at 1-2-ppb levels in oyster fortified with certified reference material NIST SRM 1491a. Following single laboratory validation, the method was employed for the determination of VOCs in seafood exposed to oil contaminated seawater and for the determination of background VOC levels in seafood species from the Gulf of Mexico and local food stores. The method as described can be used to supplement human sensory testing for petrochemical taint in seafood. PMID:25796529

  18. Organochlorine contaminants in tissues of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Romanić, S Herceg; Holcer, D; Lazar, B; Klinčić, D; Mackelworth, P; Fortuna, C M

    2014-09-01

    Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found at higher concentrations in comparison with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in all of the analyzed tissues. Sums of six indicator congeners (Σ6PCB) constituted around 50% of the total PCB amount, while PCB-153 and PCB-138 were found to have the highest concentrations. Among the seven investigated OCPs, p,p'-DDE was found at the highest concentrations. In blubber, mean values of 22,048 and 11,310ngg(-1) wet weight were determined for ΣPCB and ΣDDT, respectively. Much lower concentrations were found in muscle samples, followed by similar concentrations in kidneys, liver and heart, while the lowest levels of organochlorine contaminants were found in lungs. The results indicate that p,p'-DDT is still being introduced in the Mediterranean region. PCB concentrations are among the highest found in this region and toxicological assessments indicate that the health of this specie is at high risk. PMID:25151654

  19. Radioactive contamination of cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea by [sup 90]Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Franic, Z.; Lokobauer, N.; Marovic, G. . Radiation Protection Unit)

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination of water samples from cisterns collecting rainwater containing fission products from roofs and other surfaces have been carried out along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea since 1968. An exponential decline of radioactivity followed the nuclear moratorium. After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, higher levels of [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr were detected again, with cistern waters being the only environmental samples in Croatia in which elevated [sup 90]Sr activities persisted for several years. For the pre-Chernobyl period, the observed mean residence time of [sup 90]Sr in cistern waters, estimated to be 6.2 [+-] 1.9 y, was similar to that calculated for fallout. Contrary, for the post-Chernobyl time, observed [sup 90]Sr mean residence time was calculated to be considerably shorter, reflecting the tropospheric mean residence time. The annual dose for the critical adult population received from [sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs by drinking cistern water was estimated to be very small, in the 1990's less than few [micro]Sv y[sup [minus]1].

  20. Seafood Allergy, Toxicity, and Intolerance: A Review.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka

    2016-04-01

    Seafood allergies have been increasing their presence in the last 2 decades. Allergic reactions to seafood can range from mild urticarial and oral allergy syndrome to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Ingestion of seafood infested with Anisakis larvae can cause a disease known as anisakiasis with symptoms similar to true seafood allergy. Furthermore, some adverse reactions to seafood including histamine fish poisoning (HFP), and intolerance to histamine can trigger clinical symptoms, which, although nonallergic in origin, are similar to true immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic reactions. Because seafood allergy usually remains a lifelong food allergy, this review focuses on the current knowledge on fish and shellfish allergens and emphasizes the importance of differentiating seafood allergy from other allergy-like reactions (anisakiasis, HFP, and intolerance to histamine). Key teaching points: • Fish and shellfish are potent allergens that can provoke serious IgE antibody-mediated adverse reactions in sensitive individuals. • Sensitization to seafood allergens can be achieved by ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. • Shellfish major allergen, tropomyosin, shares significant homology to arthropods (dust mites and cockroaches). • Accidental exposures to seafood products cross-contaminated with fish or shellfish allergens (hidden allergens) during processing may present a health risk for sensitive individuals. • Allergens of fish parasite A. simplex present common hidden allergens in seafood, particularly in raw and undercooked home-made fish dishes. • Symptoms caused by HFP, histamine intolerance, and anisakiasis are similar to true seafood allergy. PMID:26252073

  1. Chlorinated compounds in the muscle tissue of fish from the Croatian Adriatic: preliminary data on contamination and the associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Klinčić, Darija; Tičina, Vjekoslav

    2015-12-01

    Levels of 17 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the muscle tissue of 18 commercially important fish species from the eastern Adriatic Sea. PCBs [contaminants did not seem to bioaccumulate up the food web (trophic levels 3.0 to 4.5). Our findings show no risk of chronic (non-cancerous) effects on human health. PMID:26751862

  2. Adriatic coast as a microcosm for global genotoxic marine contamination--a long-term field study.

    PubMed

    Jaksić, Zeljko; Batel, Renato; Bihari, Nevenka; Micić, Milena; Zahn, Rudolf Karl

    2005-11-01

    Global changes in the marine environment and the continuing disposal of genotoxic xenobiotics are increasing the importance of environmental pollution monitoring and of biomonitoring programs. Current approaches focus on investigations at regional and local levels in an attempt to precisely define the nature and extent of any potential environmental crisis. We have initiated, for the first time, a long-term biomonitoring program focusing on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea to contribute to a more detailed understanding of marine genotoxic effects using the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam., collected along the eastern Adriatic coast over a period of five years (1998-2002), as a key test organism. The integrity of DNA in its gill homogenate was examined by the Fast Micromethod. The strand scission factor (SSF) values, as a measure of DNA integrity, DNA damage or incomplete repair have been used for the ranking of sampling sites with respect to significant genotoxic stress due to the influence or effects of genotoxic xenobiotics. The region of Split (Kastela Bay) proved to be the area with the heaviest load of genotoxic agents. The investigation of harmful effects in the ecosystem based on biomonitoring of genetic and other agents, not only on local levels but also on a wider scale, is considered as an important step in marine environmental management. PMID:15961121

  3. Mercury-nutrient signatures in seafood and in the blood of avid seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-10-15

    Dietary recommendations for seafood are confusing due to the desire to balance both benefits from nutrients and risks from contaminants. The overall health value of different fish and shellfish items depends on concentrations of multiple nutrients (e.g., selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids) and contaminants (e.g., mercury (Hg)). However, few studies have examined the connections between human exposure to multiple nutrients and contaminants and the consumption of specific types of seafood. Our goals were to compare 1) Hg, Se and omega-3 fatty acid concentrations (Hg-nutrient signatures) among common fish and shellfish items and 2) Hg-nutrient signatures in the blood of avid seafood consumers, based on seafood consumption habits. We compiled nutrient and Hg concentration data for common fish and shellfish items from the literature. We also measured blood concentrations of Hg and seafood nutrients collected from adult, avid seafood consumers on Long Island, NY. Canonical discriminant analyses revealed distinct Hg-nutrient signatures among seafood items, and these signatures were reflected in the blood of consumers based on different consumption habits. For example, consumers with a salmon-dominated seafood diet had relatively high percentage of omega-3 fatty acids in blood, and consumers who tend to eat top predator seafood have higher Hg, but similar blood nutrient concentrations compared to consumers who tend to eat low trophic level seafood. These results provide direct evidence of links between the ecological characteristics of the type of seafood consumed and Hg-nutrient exposure. This approach helps assess the overall human health value of specific seafood types, leads to specific diet recommendations, and can be used to characterize risk:benefit status among seafood consumers. PMID:24846746

  4. SWASV speciation of Cd, Pb and Cu for the determination of seawater contamination in the area of the Nicole shipwreck (Ancona coast, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The study reports for the first time on the heavy metal contamination of the waters surrounding a shipwreck lying on the sea floor. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry has been used for a survey of the total and dissolved Cd, Pb and Cu contents of the seawater at the site of the sinking of the Nicole M/V (Coastal Adriatic Sea, Italy). Results show that the hulk has a considerable impact as regards all three metals in the bottom water, especially for the particulate fraction concentrations, which increased by factors of ≈ 9 (Cd), ≈ 3 (Pb) and ≈ 5 (Cu). The contaminated plume extended downstream for about 2 miles. Much lower contamination was observed for dissolved bottom concentrations; nevertheless Pb (0.56 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is higher than the Italian legal limits established for 2015 and Cd (0.23 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is very close the limit of Cd will be exceeded if the hulk is not removed. PMID:21982428

  5. Herbicide contamination of live armclad rockfish, clam and pen shell by moss-control agents used in aquariums of seafood restaurants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Y-S; Agustin-Camacho, M R; Park, H-M; Lee, K-B

    2010-01-01

    Determination of simazine and diuron by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) in moss-control agents, seawater and fish in aquariums was investigated and validated. The detection limits are 0.2 (simazine) and 0.4 µg l(-1) (diuron) in blank seawater, and 0.20 (simazine) and 0.30 µg kg(-1) (diuron) in blank fish homogenate, while the recoveries ranged from 93.9% to 102.4% with a relative standard deviation ≤ 9.8% for simazine and diuron. The method was successfully used in the study of simazine and diuron contamination in live fish stored in seafood restaurant aquaria in Korea. It was found that 0.4-2.3% of simazine and <0.10-3.8% of diuron were included the in moss-control agents tested. Of the 66 sampled aquarium seawaters, simazine was found to be present in four samples (3.8-42 µg l(-1)) while diuron was detected in two samples (1.3-1.6 µg l(-1)). For fish homogenates used in a bioconcentration study, simazine content ranges from 0.17 to 1.8 mg kg(-1). PMID:24779629

  6. Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption. PMID:22690165

  7. Isolation and characterization of Aeromonas from seafoods in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Yaun, S S; Lin, L P

    1993-05-01

    A total of 124 fresh seafoods and 158 processed seafoods collected from the retail markets and supermarkets in Taipei were tested for the contamination with motile Aeromonas spp. Of the fresh seafoods analyzed, 88% displayed the presence of Aeromonas. The isolation rates of various samples were as follows: 100%, freshwater fish; 95%, seawater fish; 78%, fish fillets; 84%, shrimp and crab of the crustacea group; 83%, bivalve shellfish and 84%, non-bivalve shellfish of the mollusca group, and 100%, seaweed. Of the 158 processed seafoods, 11% were contaminated by Aeromonas. The isolation rates were as follows: 0%, canned, dried, or frozen fresh seafood; 18%, salted seafood; 30%, fish cake; 7% vacuum-packaged fish cakes; 14%, frozen seafood dumplings; 8%, cooked seafoods. One hundred and eighty-three Aeromonas strains isolated in this survey were characterized to species level and tested for their ability to produce beta-hemolysin. Ninety-eight percent (98%) of the A. hydrophila produced beta-hemolysin on 5% blood agar, 94% of the A. sobria and 33% of the A. caviae produced beta-hemolysin. Thus it is likely that fresh seafoods are potentially significant sources of the virulent Aeromonas species and may play an important role in the epidemiology of Aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis. PMID:7995079

  8. Biogenic amines in seafood: a review.

    PubMed

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Venkateswarlu, R; Mohan, C O; Gopal, T K Srinivasa

    2016-05-01

    The biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases present normally in the body with biological activity influencing important physiological functions. The physiological functions of these molecules are achieved by very low concentrations in the tissues. However, significantly high amounts of biogenic amines are produced during processing and storage of seafood as a result of microbial contamination and inadequate storage conditions. Microorganisms having decarboxylase enzyme activity convert amino acids to their respective biogenic amines. Biogenic amines in seafood have been implicated as a major causative agent of food borne illness, where intoxication results from the ingestion of foods containing higher amount of biogenic amines. Hence its identification, quantitation and awareness of this food borne toxin are important in relation to food safety and spoilage. The aim of this paper is to review the basic concepts of seafood quality and safety in relation to biogenic amines along with its control measures and future areas for research. PMID:27407186

  9. Seafood intake of US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Current federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) for health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet guidelines, particularly population subgroups. Objectives: To describe prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers,...

  10. Intervention strategies for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Li, Min; Li, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaeomolyticus, a natural inhabitant in estuarine marine water, has been frequently isolated from seafood. It has been recognized as the leading causative agent for seafoodborne illness all over the world. Numerous physical, chemical, and biological intervention methods for reducing V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood products have been investigated and practiced. Each intervention method has distinct advantages and disadvantages depending on the processing needs and consumer preference. This review provides a comprehensive overview of various intervention strategies for reducing V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood with an emphasis on the efficiency of bacterial inactivation treatments and the changes in sensory qualities of seafood. In the meantime, reported researches on alternative technologies which have shown effectiveness to inactivate V. parahaemolyticus in seawater and other food products, but not directly in seafood are also included. The successful applications of appropriate intervention strategies could effectively reduce or eliminate the contamination of V. parahaeomolyticus in seafood, and consequently contribute to the improvement of seafood safety and the reduction of public health risk. PMID:25472618

  11. [SEAFOOD ALLERGY IN ISRAEL].

    PubMed

    Rottem, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Allergy to seafood such as shrimps, crab, lobster and fish eggs is relatively infrequent in Israel compared to fish allergies and allergies to other foods. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the population and restaurants preserve and maintain Kosher food. Changes in the population eating habits, partly due to immigration, were followed by increased frequency of such sensitivities in recent years. We describe three typical cases that illustrate the characteristics of allergy to sea foods. Allergy to seafood can present as a single sensitivity or be part of an allergic tendency, atopy, with other allergic manifestations. Diagnosis by allergy skin test or laboratory evaluation by specific IgE is available for most sea foods but not for fish eggs. The current therapeutic approach is strict avoidance and all patients should be provided with and carry with them an epinephrine auto-injector. PMID:26742225

  12. Rapid quantification of Salmonella in seafood by real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2010-03-01

    A quantitative detection method for Salmonella in seafood was developed using a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay. The assay was developed using pure Salmonella DNA at different dilution levels [i.e., 1,000 to 2 genome equivalents (GE)]. The sensitivity of the real-time assay for Salmonella in seeded seafood samples was determined, and the minimum detection level was 20 CFU/g, whereas a detection level of 2 CFU/ml was obtained for pure culture in water with an efficiency of > or =85%. The real-time assay was evaluated in repeated experiments with seeded seafood samples and the regression coefficient (R(2)) values were calculated. The performance of the real-time assay was further assessed with naturally contaminated seafood samples, where 4 out of 9 seafood samples tested positive for Salmonella and harbored cells <100 GE/g, which were not detected by direct plating on Salmonella Chromagar media. Thus, the method developed here will be useful for the rapid quantification of Salmonella in seafood, as the assay can be completed within 2-3 h. In addition, with the ability to detect a low number of Salmonella cells in seafood, this proposed method can be used to generate quantitative data on Salmonella in seafood, facilitating the implementation of control measures for Salmonella contamination in seafood at harvest and post-harvest levels. PMID:20372029

  13. Arsenic speciation in manufactured seafood products.

    PubMed

    Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    1998-09-01

    The literature on the speciation of arsenic (As) in seafoods was critically reviewed. Most research has been directed toward fresh seafood products with few papers dealing with As speciation in manufactured seafoods. Predictions concerning As species made on the basis of fresh seafood products cannot be extrapolated to manufactured seafoods. Therefore, due to the numerous species of As, the scarcity of data concerning their presence in foods, the transformations each species may undergo during industrial processing and cooking, and the lack of legislation on permitted As levels in seafood products, As species in manufactured seafood products need to be determined and quantified. PMID:9766084

  14. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.
CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological

  15. Antimicrobial seafood packaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suman; Ho Lee, Myung; Park, Lnsik; Shin, Yangjai; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms are the major cause of spoilage in most seafood products; however, only few microbes, called the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), contribute to the offensive off-flavors associated with seafood spoilage. In food, microbial degradation manifests itself as spoilage, or changes in the sensory properties of a food product, rendering it unsuitable for human consumption. The use of antimicrobial substances can control the general microflora as well as specific microorganisms related to spoilage to provide products with higher safety and better quality. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures for use in seafood, especially organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins; some studies have considered inorganic compounds such as AgSiO2, zinc oxide, silver zeolite, and titanium oxide. The characteristics of some organic antimicrobial packaging systems for seafood and their antimicrobial efficiency in film structures are reviewed in this article. PMID:27478206

  16. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2010-01-08

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  17. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2008-03-26

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  18. Radiation inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood products.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christopher H; Rajkowski, Kathleen T

    2011-04-01

    Foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood is, unfortunately, a regular occurrence in the United States. Ionizing (gamma) radiation can effectively inactivate microorganisms and extend the shelf life of seafood. In this study, the ability of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens surface inoculated onto frozen seafood (scallops, lobster meat, blue crab, swordfish, octopus, and squid) was investigated. The radiation D(10)-values (the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log unit of a microorganism) for Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella inoculated onto seafood samples that were then frozen and irradiated in the frozen state (-20°C) were 0.43 to 0.66, 0.48 to 0.71, and 0.47 to 0.70 kGy, respectively. In contrast, the radiation D(10)-value for the same pathogens suspended on frozen pork were 1.26, 0.98, and 1.18 kGy for L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and Salmonella, respectively. The radiation dose needed to inactivate these foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood is significantly lower than that for frozen meat or frozen vegetables. PMID:21477481

  19. A laboratory-incubated redox oscillation experiment to investigate Hg fluxes from highly contaminated coastal marine sediments (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Emili, A; Carrasco, L; Acquavita, A; Covelli, S

    2014-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) mobility at the sediment-water interface was investigated during a laboratory incubation experiment conducted with highly contaminated sediments (13 μg g(-1)) of the Gulf of Trieste. Undisturbed sediment was collected in front of the Isonzo River mouth, which inflows Hg-rich suspended material originating from the Idrija (NW Slovenia) mining district. Since hypoxic and anoxic conditions at the bottom are frequently observed and can influence the Hg biogeochemical behavior, a redox oscillation was simulated in the laboratory, at in situ temperature, using a dark flux chamber. Temporal variations of several parameters were monitored simultaneously: dissolved Hg (DHg) and methylmercury (MeHg), O2, NH4 (+), NO3 (-) + NO2 (-), PO4 (3-), H2S, dissolved Mn(2+), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC). Under anoxic conditions, both Hg (665 ng m(2) day(-1)) and MeHg (550 ng m(2) day(-1)) fluxed from sediments into the water column, whereas re-oxygenation caused concentrations of MeHg and Hg to rapidly drop, probably due to re-adsorption onto Fe/Mn-oxyhydroxides and enhanced demethylation processes. Hence, during anoxic events, sediments of the Gulf of Trieste may be considered as an important source of DHg species for the water column. On the contrary, re-oxygenation of the bottom compartment mitigates Hg and MeHg release from the sediment, thus acting as a natural "defence" from possible interaction between the metal and the aquatic organisms. PMID:24122269

  20. Nonthermal and advanced thermal processing technologies for improving the safety and shelf-life of aquaculture raised seafood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The volume of seafood raised by aquaculture has increased in recent years. This seafood can occasionally become contaminated with foodborne pathogens resulting in foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls. In recent years a number of nonthermal and advanced thermal technologies have been devel...

  1. Seafood Products Course Lecture Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, John Wingo, Ed.; And Others

    This consumer's guide offers practical information about the characteristics and uses of seafoods. It covers both finfish and shellfish, including crabs, lobsters, shrimp, oysters, clams, and scallops. It describes the characteristics, important species, fishing methods, market forms, and consumer inspection tips. It also gives such information as…

  2. Analysis of norovirus contamination of seafood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of human norovirus (NoVs) replication in vitro would be a highly useful tool to virologists and immunologists. For this reason, we have searched for new approaches to determine viability of noroviruses in food samples (especially sea food). Our research team has multiple years of experie...

  3. A community-based assessment of seafood consumption along the lower James River, Virginia, USA: potential sources of dietary mercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Holloman, Erica L; Newman, Michael C

    2010-04-01

    The use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods to conduct environmental exposure assessments provides valuable insight about disparities in seafood consumption and contaminant exposure. Ninety-five community-specific seafood consumption surveys were administered to low-income African-American women (ages 16-49) residing in the Southeast community of Newport News, VA, USA, for the purpose of assessing potential dietary mercury exposure. Only the results of the seafood consumption surveys are presented in this manuscript. Approximately 65% of the women surveyed do not fish; however, 83% had consumed seafood within the last 7 days. Whiting, shrimp, and canned tuna were the three items most frequently consumed. Ninety-three percent of the women surveyed stated that grocery/seafood markets were the main sources of the seafood items generally consumed. The mean seafood consumption rate for the women surveyed was 147.8 g/day (95% CI: 117.6-185.8), a rate substantially higher than the mean seafood consumption rate reported for US women (1.8 g/day 95% CI: 1.51-2.04). Shrimp, croaker, and blue crab were the top three seafood items with the highest summed amount (g/day) consumed. There was no significant association between demographic variables (age, income, education, and weight) and total number of seafood items listed, ingestion rate (g/meal), exposure frequency (meals/year), and seafood consumption rate (g/day). By using CBPR to assess seafood consumption in this community, we learned that even though women in Southeast Newport News, Virginia are not subsistence fishers, they consume seafood at a subsistence fisher rate. Of the three seafood items most frequently consumed, canned tuna potentially plays a significant role in dietary mercury exposure for women in this community. Future work includes determining mercury concentrations in seafood items consumed and generating community-specific statements of dietary mercury risks. PMID:20129605

  4. Federal seafood safety response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, Gina M; Krahn, Margaret M; Dickhoff, Walton W; Stein, John E; Walker, Calvin C; Lassitter, Cheryl L; Garrett, E Spencer; Desfosse, Lisa L; Mitchell, Karen M; Noble, Brandi T; Wilson, Steven; Beck, Nancy B; Benner, Ronald A; Koufopoulos, Peter N; Dickey, Robert W

    2012-12-11

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, petroleum-related compounds and chemical dispersants were detected in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood in the region. Federal and Gulf Coast State agencies worked together on a sampling plan and analytical protocols to determine whether seafood was safe to eat and acceptable for sale in the marketplace. Sensory and chemical methods were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dispersant in >8,000 seafood specimens collected in federal waters of the Gulf. Overall, individual PAHs and the dispersant component dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate were found in low concentrations or below the limits of quantitation. When detected, the concentrations were at least two orders of magnitude lower than the level of concern for human health risk. Once an area closed to fishing was free of visibly floating oil and all sensory and chemical results for the seafood species within an area met the criteria for reopening, that area was eligible to be reopened. On April 19, 2011 the area around the wellhead was the last area in federal waters to be reopened nearly 1 y after the spill began. However, as of November 9, 2011, some state waters off the Louisiana coast (Barataria Bay and the Delta region) remain closed to fishing. PMID:22315401

  5. Federal seafood safety response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Ylitalo, Gina M.; Krahn, Margaret M.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Stein, John E.; Walker, Calvin C.; Lassitter, Cheryl L.; Garrett, E. Spencer; Desfosse, Lisa L.; Mitchell, Karen M.; Noble, Brandi T.; Wilson, Steven; Beck, Nancy B.; Benner, Ronald A.; Koufopoulos, Peter N.; Dickey, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, petroleum-related compounds and chemical dispersants were detected in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. As a result, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood in the region. Federal and Gulf Coast State agencies worked together on a sampling plan and analytical protocols to determine whether seafood was safe to eat and acceptable for sale in the marketplace. Sensory and chemical methods were used to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dispersant in >8,000 seafood specimens collected in federal waters of the Gulf. Overall, individual PAHs and the dispersant component dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate were found in low concentrations or below the limits of quantitation. When detected, the concentrations were at least two orders of magnitude lower than the level of concern for human health risk. Once an area closed to fishing was free of visibly floating oil and all sensory and chemical results for the seafood species within an area met the criteria for reopening, that area was eligible to be reopened. On April 19, 2011 the area around the wellhead was the last area in federal waters to be reopened nearly 1 y after the spill began. However, as of November 9, 2011, some state waters off the Louisiana coast (Barataria Bay and the Delta region) remain closed to fishing. PMID:22315401

  6. Exposure assessment for methyl and total mercury from seafood consumption in Korea, 2005 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sang-Jo; Park, Hyejin; Jung, Yun Sun; Lee, Suuggyu; Kim, Yun-Hee; Choi, Minkyu

    2011-09-01

    Reports on the occurrence and intake assessment of mercury for Korean seafood are currently not available. This is the first report to estimate the intake of methyl (Me-Hg) and total mercury (T-Hg) from seafood consumption in Korea. The concentrations of Me-Hg and T-Hg in seafood ranged from 1.02 to 780 (mean: 55.6) ng g(-1) wet weight and 4.89 to 1008 (mean: 100) ng g(-1) wet weight, respectively. The residue levels of Me-Hg and T-Hg in Korean seafood were moderate compared with those found in other countries. The methylation ratios of fish, cephalopods and crustaceans were similar, but shellfish had lower values compared with other species. The intakes of Me-Hg and T-Hg from seafood consumption for the general population were estimated to be 38.8 and 73.8 ng kg(-1) body weight per day, respectively. Mackerel, tuna and squid made the highest contributions to the total intake of these contaminants. Among eight age groups, 30-49 year and 3-6 year age groups had the highest exposure to Me-Hg and T-Hg. The concentrations and intakes of Me-Hg and T-Hg from Korean seafood were less than the allowable residue levels and threshold intake levels suggested by Korean and international authorities. The present study may be useful for risk management of mercury in Korean seafood. PMID:21847486

  7. Brominated flame retardants and seafood safety: a review.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rebeca; Cunha, Sara C; Casal, Susana

    2015-04-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), frequently applied to industrial and household products to make them less flammable, are highly persistent in the environment and cause multi-organ toxicity in human and wildlife. Based on the review of BFRs presence in seafood published from 2004 to 2014, it is clear that such pollutants are not ideally controlled as the surveys are too restricted, legislation inexistent for some classes, the analytical methodologies diversified, and several factors as food processing and eating habits are generally overlooked. Indeed, while a seafood rich diet presents plenty of nutritional benefits, it can also represent a potential source of these environmental contaminants. Since recent studies have shown that dietary intake constitutes a main route of human exposure to BFRs, it is of major importance to review and enhance these features, since seafood constitutes a chief pathway for human exposure and biomagnification of priority environmental contaminants. In particular, more objective studies focused on the variability factors behind contamination levels, and subsequent human exposure, are necessary to support the necessity for more restricted legislation worldwide. PMID:25700249

  8. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Seafood wastewater treatment in constructed wetland: tropical case.

    PubMed

    Sohsalam, Prapa; Englande, Andrew Joseph; Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud

    2008-03-01

    A series of investigations were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetlands to remove pollutants from seafood processing wastewater. Six emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia spp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia deabata J. Fraser were planted in surface flow wetland. They were fed with seafood wastewater that was 50% diluted with treated seafood wastewater from an aerated lagoon. All macrophytes were found to meet satisfying treatment efficiency (standard criteria for discharged wastewater) at 5 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). While C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia met acceptable treatment efficacy at 3 days HRT. Nutrient uptake rate of these species was observed in the range of 1.43-2.30 g Nitrogen/m(2)day and 0.17-0.29 g Phosphorus/m(2)day, respectively at 3 days HRT. The highest treatment performances were found at 5 days HRT. Average removal efficiencies were 91-99% for BOD(5), 52-90% for SS, 72-92% for TN and 72-77% for TP. Plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were experienced to be most satisfactory for C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia. Lower HRTs affected contaminant removal efficiency for all species. C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia can remove all contaminants efficiently even at the lowest hydraulic retention time (1 day). PMID:17383179

  10. Interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beg Paklar, Gordana; Sepic, Jadranka; Grbec, Branka; Dzoic, Tomislav; Kovac, Zarko; Ivatek-Sahdan, Stjepan

    2016-04-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was implemented in order to reproduce interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation. Simulations and model result analysis were performed for a three-year period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2013. ROMS model run was forced with realistic atmospheric fields obtained from meteorological model Aladin, climatological river discharges, tides and Mediterranean circulation imposed at the southern open boundary. Atmospheric forcing included momentum, heat and water fluxes calculated interactively from the Aladin surface fields during ROMS model simulations. Model results were compared with available CTD and ADCP measurements and discussed in the light of the climatological circulation and thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea and its coastal areas. Interannual variability in the Adriatic circulation is related to the prevailing atmospheric conditions, changes in the hydrological conditions and water mass exchange at the Otranto Strait. Basic features of the Adriatic circulation - basin-wide cyclonic circulation with several embedded smaller cyclonic gyres around main pits - are well reproduced by ROMS model. Modelled temperatures and salinities are within corresponding seasonal intervals, although measured profiles generally indicate stronger stratification than modelled ones. Summer circulation in 2011 with current reversal obtained along the eastern Adriatic coast was related to the sampling results of the early fish stages as well as to ARGO drifter movements. Simulated fields from the Adriatic scale model were used to prescribe the initial and open boundary conditions for the interannual simulation in the middle Adriatic coastal domain.

  11. A Review of Seafood Safety after the Deepwater Horizon Blowout

    PubMed Central

    Doke, Dzigbodi; Tipre, Meghan; Leader, Mark; Fitzgerald, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Deepwater Horizon (DH) blowout resulted in fisheries closings across the Gulf of Mexico. Federal agencies, in collaboration with impacted Gulf states, developed a protocol to determine when it is safe to reopen fisheries based on sensory and chemical analyses of seafood. All federal waters have been reopened, yet concerns have been raised regarding the robustness of the protocol to identify all potential harmful exposures and protect the most sensitive populations. Objectives: We aimed to assess this protocol based on comparisons with previous oil spills, published testing results, and current knowledge regarding chemicals released during the DH oil spill. Methods: We performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journal articles and government documents concerning seafood contamination and oil spills and consulted with academic and government experts. Results: Protocols to evaluate seafood safety before reopening fisheries have relied on risk assessment of health impacts from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures, but metal contamination may also be a concern. Assumptions used to determine levels of concern (LOCs) after oil spills have not been consistent across risk assessments performed after oil spills. Chemical testing results after the DH oil spill suggest PAH levels are at or below levels reported after previous oil spills, and well below LOCs, even when more conservative parameters are used to estimate risk. Conclusions: We recommend use of a range of plausible risk parameters to set bounds around LOCs, comparisons of post-spill measurements with baseline levels, and the development and implementation of long-term monitoring strategies for metals as well as PAHs and dispersant components. In addition, the methods, results, and uncertainties associated with estimating seafood safety after oil spills should be communicated in a transparent and timely manner, and stakeholders should be actively involved in developing a long

  12. Mercury speciation in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Kotnik, Jože; Horvat, Milena; Ogrinc, Nives; Fajon, Vesna; Žagar, Dušan; Cossa, Daniel; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-07-15

    Mercury and its speciation were studied in surface and deep waters of the Adriatic Sea. Several mercury species (i.e. DGM – dissolved gaseous Hg, RHg – reactive Hg, THg – total Hg, MeHg – monomethyl Hg and DMeHg – dimethylmercury) together with other water parameters were measured in coastal and open sea deep water profiles. THg concentrations in the water column, as well as in sediments and pore waters, were the highest in the northern, most polluted part of the Adriatic Sea as the consequence of Hg mining in Idrija and the heavy industry of northern Italy. Certain profiles in the South Adriatic Pit exhibit an increase of DGM just over the bottom due to its diffusion from sediment as a consequence of microbial and/or tectonic activity. Furthermore, a Hg mass balance for the Adriatic Sea was calculated based on measurements and literature data. PMID:26013591

  13. Seafood Manual for School Food Service Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Carol S.; Webb, Anita H.

    Seafood information pertinent to the needs of school food service personnel is presented. Each of five sections contains information considered important by school food service managers and supervisors as indicated in a national survey (1977). Provided in section one are a narrative section, graph, and chart on seafood nutritive value. The next…

  14. Improved Method for Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Nishina, Tokuhiro; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hasegawa, Junko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new, effective procedure for detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods using enrichment and plating onto a chromogenic agar medium. Samples were cultured in salt Trypticase soy broth, which is a nonselective medium, and then a portion of the culture was cultured with salt polymyxin broth, which is a selective medium for V. parahaemolyticus. This two-step enrichment was more effective than the one-step enrichment in salt polymyxin broth alone. The enrichment cultures were then plated onto a new chromogenic agar containing substrates for beta-galactosidase. The V. parahaemolyticus colonies developed a purple color on this growth medium that distinguished them from other related bacterial strains. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated more frequently from naturally contaminated seafood samples using the chromogenic agar than thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar medium, which is currently used for the isolation of V. parahaemolyticus. Our findings suggest that this new enrichment and isolation scheme is more sensitive and accurate for identifying V. parahaemolyticus in seafood samples than previously used methods. PMID:11722939

  15. Rapid Determination of Mercury in Seafood in an Introductory Environmental Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeanette K.; Jenkins, J. David; Manley, A. Citabria; Sorel, Eric; Smith, C. Jimmy

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is described which allows easy, rapid determination of mercury levels in commercially seafood samples from a contaminated area. Students gain experience in the preparation of a calibration curve, the determination of unknown concentrations, and risk assessment based on experimentally determined data.

  16. Elevated blood Hg at recommended seafood consumption rates in adult seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure from seafood continues to be a public health concern due to health effects from elevated exposure, increasing worldwide seafood consumption, and continued Hg inputs into the environment. Elevated Hg exposure can occur in populations with specialized diets of sport-caught freshwater fish. However, we need a better understanding of Hg exposure from seafood, the most common exposure source, and from specific seafood types. We examined Hg exposure in avid seafood consumers, and the seafood items and consumption frequency that confer the largest Hg exposure. Adult, avid seafood consumers, in Long Island, NY, USA, with blood total Hg concentrations predicted to exceed the USEPA reference concentration that is considered safe (5.8 μg L(-1)), were eligible for the study; 75% of self-reported avid seafood consumers were eligible to participate. We measured blood total Hg concentrations and seafood consumption in 285 participants. We examined relationships between Hg and seafood consumption using multiple linear regression. Seafood consumption rate for our population (14.4 kg yr(-1)) was >2 times that estimated for the U.S. (6.8 kg yr(-1)), and lower than the worldwide estimate (18.4 kg yr(-1)). Mean blood Hg concentration was 4.4 times the national average, and 42% of participants had Hg concentrations exceeding 5.8 μg L(-1). Elevated Hg exposures occurred at all seafood consumption frequencies, including the recommended frequency of 2 meals per week. Blood Hg concentrations were positively associated with weekly tuna steak or sushi intake (β=6.30 change in blood Hg, μg L(-1)) and monthly (β=2.54) or weekly (β=9.47) swordfish, shark or marlin intake. Our findings show that seafood consumers in this population have elevated Hg exposures even at relatively low seafood consumption rates that are at or below current dietary recommendations. Further study should examine health risks and benefits of avid seafood consumption, and consider modifying

  17. Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety.

    PubMed

    Tediosi, Alice; Fait, Gabriella; Jacobs, Silke; Verbeke, Wim; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Diogene, Jorge; Reuver, Marieke; Marques, António; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel. PMID:26146050

  18. Seafood Consumption and Components for Health

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, in developed countries and around the world, lifestyle-related diseases have become a serious problem. Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that diet is one of the major factors that influence susceptibility to lifestyle-related diseases, especially the middle-senile state. Studies examining dietary habits have revealed the health benefits of seafood consumption. Seafood contains functional components that are not present in terrestrial organisms. These components include n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexsaenoic acid, which aid in the prevention of arteriosclerotic and thrombotic disease. In addition, seafood is a superior source of various nutrients, such as protein, amino acids, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. This review focuses on the components derived from seafood and examines the significant role they play in the maintenance and promotion of health. PMID:22980234

  19. Seafood consumption among Chinese coastal residents and health risk assessment of heavy metals in seafood.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Yan, Shuangshuang; Liu, Min; Wang, Bi; Hu, Dong; Guo, Dongbei; Wang, Juan; Xu, Wanting; Fan, Chun

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to obtain the seafood dietary patterns of coastal residents, to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, and to evaluate the possible health risks caused by seafood intake. The daily food intakes of 24 types of seafood were collected from 738 participants from Xiamen, a southern Chinese coastal city, using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and dietary history method. One hundred and fifty-six samples of 14 types of highest intake seafood were collected from local markets for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) determination. Health risks via seafood consumption were evaluated by calculating the target hazard quotient (THQ) and the total hazard index (HI) for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the seafood daily intake of Xiamen residents was 61.5 (2.14, 115) g/day. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in seafood were ND-0.45 mg/kg, ND-0.19 mg/kg, ND-0.80 mg/kg, ND-0.70 mg/kg, and 0.32-16.9 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of Cd and As in some samples were higher than national limitation standards. Consumption of 14 common types of seafood would not pose non-carcinogenic risk. However, some types, such as sparuslatus, oyster, and porphyra tenera, would form a carcinogenic risk. Regardless of a carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risk, As posed the highest risk on humans. The observed HI value for non-carcinogenic effect of all metals in all seafood reached 0.69-2.20, and the metal orders of risk can be listed as As > Hg > Cr > Cd > Pb, reiterating the risk of As is a matter of concern in seafood from Xiamen markets. PMID:27194017

  20. Sediment dispersal in the northwestern Adriatic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, C.K.; Sherwood, C.R.; Signell, R.P.; Bever, A.J.; Warner, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment dispersal in the Adriatic Sea was evaluated using coupled three-dimensional circulation and sediment transport models, representing conditions from autumn 2002 through spring 2003. The calculations accounted for fluvial sources, resuspension by waves and currents, and suspended transport. Sediment fluxes peaked during southwestward Bora wind conditions that produced energetic waves and strengthened the Western Adriatic Coastal Current. Transport along the western Adriatic continental shelf was nearly always to the south, except during brief periods when northward Sirocco winds reduced the coastal current. Much of the modeled fluvial sediment deposition was near river mouths, such as the Po subaqueous delta. Nearly all Po sediment remained in the northern Adriatic. Material from rivers that drain the Apennine Mountains traveled farther before deposition than Po sediment, because it was modeled with a lower settling velocity. Fluvial sediment delivered to areas with high average bed shear stress was more highly dispersed than material delivered to more quiescent areas. Modeled depositional patterns were similar to observed patterns that have developed over longer timescales. Specifically, modeled Po sediment accumulation was thickest near the river mouth with a very thin deposit extending to the northeast, consistent with patterns of modern sediment texture in the northern Adriatic. Sediment resuspended from the bed and delivered by Apennine Rivers was preferentially deposited on the northern side of the Gargano Peninsula, in the location of thick Holocene accumulation. Deposition here was highest during Bora winds when convergences in current velocities and off-shelf flux enhanced delivery of material to the midshelf. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Survey of lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in seafood purchased in Campania, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Teresa; Fasano, Evelina; Viscardi, Viviana; Arnese, Antonio; Amodio-Cocchieri, Renata

    2010-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic were surveyed in fresh catch, farmed and frozen marine fish, cephalopods and mussels marketed in Campania (Italy), and the population's weekly intake from seafood was assessed. A total of 162 specimens of fish and cephalopods and 30 pools of mussels were analyzed. Pb levels in fresh catch species ranged between <20 and 689 ng/g; in farmed from <20 to 438 ng/g and in frozen from <20 to 541 ng/g. Cd values ranged in fresh catch seafood from <0.8 to 19.8 ng/g; in farmed from <0.8 to 42.3 ng/g; in frozen from <0.8 to 93.1. Hg levels ranged 8-339 ng/g in wild seafood; <5-226 ng/g in farmed and <5-313 ng/g in frozen. In fresh catch seafood, As values ranged <10-231 ng/g; in farmed from 12-310 ng/g and in frozen 12-272 ng/g. Cd and Hg concentrations were below the EU limits in all species; two samples of farmed European seabass and two frozen samples exceeded EU limits for Pb. The median weekly dietary intake could affect the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of Pb by 2% (range 0.5-16.5%), Cd PTWI by 0.9% (range 0.1-8.0%), Hg PTWI by 9.6% (range 0.6-41.0%) and the As PTWI by 3.6% (range 0.4-12.5%). Considering the upper values in the ranges, seafood represents a non-negligible contribution to Pb weekly intake (16.5%), but mainly to the weekly intake of Hg (41.0%) for high seafood consumers and those consuming the most contaminated species. PMID:24785313

  2. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine seafood.

    PubMed

    Branch, Trevor A; DeJoseph, Bonnie M; Ray, Liza J; Wagner, Cherie A

    2013-03-01

    Ocean acidification is a series of chemical reactions due to increased CO(2) emissions. The resulting lower pH impairs the senses of reef fishes and reduces their survival, and might similarly impact commercially targeted fishes that produce most of the seafood eaten by humans. Shelled molluscs will also be negatively affected, whereas cephalopods and crustaceans will remain largely unscathed. Habitat changes will reduce seafood production from coral reefs, but increase production from seagrass and seaweed. Overall effects of ocean acidification on primary productivity and, hence, on food webs will result in hard-to-predict winners and losers. Although adaptation, parental effects, and evolution can mitigate some effects of ocean acidification, future seafood platters will look rather different unless CO(2) emissions are curbed. PMID:23122878

  3. Geochemistry of sediments in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lazzari, A.; Rampazzo, G.; Pavoni, B.

    2004-03-01

    Major, minor and trace elements, loss of ignition, specific surface area, quantities of calcite and dolomite, qualitative mineralogical composition, grain-size distribution and organic micropollutants (PAH, PCB, DDT) were determined on surficial marine sediments sampled during the 1990 ASCOP (Adriatic Scientific Cooperative Program) cruise. Mineralogical composition and carbonate content of the samples were found to be comparable with data previously reported in the literature, whereas geochemical composition and distribution of major, minor and trace elements for samples in international waters and in the central basin have never been reported before. The large amount of information contained in the variables of different origin has been processed by means of a comprehensive approach which establishes the relations among the components through the mathematical-statistical calculation of principal components (factors). These account for the major part of data variance loosing only marginal parts of information and are independent from the units of measure. The sample descriptors concerning natural components and contamination load are discussed by means of a statistical model based on an R-mode Factor analysis calculating four significant factors which explain 86.8% of the total variance, and represent important relationships between grain size, mineralogy, geochemistry and organic micropollutants. A description and an interpretation of factor composition is discussed on the basis of pollution inputs, basin geology and hydrodynamics. The areal distribution of the factors showed that it is the fine grain-size fraction, with oxides and hydroxides of colloidal origin, which are the main means of transport and thus the principal link between chemical, physical and granulometric elements in the Adriatic.

  4. A content analysis of Internet resources about the risks of seafood consumption.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Heather C; Hong, Jie; Friedman, Daniela B; Porter, Dwayne E; Halfacre, Angela C; Scott, Geoffrey I; Lead, Jamie R

    2016-08-01

    Seafood consumption is a main source of human exposure to certain environmental contaminants. Therefore, it is valuable to assess the online health risk messages focused on this topic, as people in the US are increasingly accessing the Internet for health-related information. Previous research indicates that online health information tends to be written at a reading level that is more advanced than ability of the general population. The purpose of this research was to examine the content and readability of Internet resources targeted toward consumers in the US regarding the health risks from consumption of contaminated seafood. Sources for analysis were gathered through a targeted search of state and national government websites, as well as through a Google search. The overall mean readability level was Grade 9.21, which is slightly above the average reading level of US adults. Future research should evaluate the accuracy of the health risk messages, as well as consumer perceptions of risk. PMID:26775549

  5. Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation, or marination can increase the levels of BAs in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of BAs, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of BAs are also reported for potential application in seafood industries. PMID:22675321

  6. Seafood Products: Food Service Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Anita H.; And Others

    The nine lessons and supplementary activities included in this seafood food service program guide are intended for use in secondary and postsecondary occupational home economics food service programs. Material covers nutrition, therapeutic diets, harvesting methods, quality assessment, fish cuts and forms, inspection, dressing, storage,…

  7. Microbiological Quality of Seafood Marketed in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hin-Chung; Jiang, Huai-Yu; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Wang, Yu-Ting

    2015-11-01

    Seafood is often associated with foodborne illnesses, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common pathogen implicated in outbreaks in Taiwan. In this study, the microbiological quality of 300 raw or mixed ready-to-eat (RTE) and other cooking-needed seafood samples was examined. The total aerobic and coliform counts of the RTE samples were significantly higher than those of other cooking-needed samples. On average, 55.8 and 29.7% of the RTE samples failed to meet the local microbiological standards for total aerobic (5 log CFU/g) and coliform (3 log most probable number [MPN] per g), counts respectively; the corresponding percentages for the RTE samples from Taipei City were 9.1 and 18.2%, respectively. The total aerobic and coliform counts in the RTE samples from supermarkets and chain restaurants were significantly lower than those from traditional restaurants. The Vibrio species were more frequently identified in the cooking-needed samples than in RTE samples. Low incidences of V. parahaemolyticus (1.4%), V. vulnificus (1.9%), and V. cholerae (0%) were detected in most RTE samples. High densities of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (1,200 MPN/g) were detected in a few RTE samples, only one of which contained toxigenic (tdh(+)) V. parahaemolyticus. The results of this investigation reveal that better hygiene of seafood providers such as chain restaurants, supermarkets, and traditional restaurants in Taipei City would effectively improve the microbiological quality of the seafood. The results will facilitate the establishment of measures for controlling the risks associated with seafood in Taiwan. PMID:26555520

  8. Enzymes in Fish and Seafood Processing.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes have been used for the production and processing of fish and seafood for several centuries in an empirical manner. In recent decades, a growing trend toward a rational and controlled application of enzymes for such goals has emerged. Underlying such pattern are, among others, the increasingly wider array of enzyme activities and enzyme sources, improved enzyme formulations, and enhanced requirements for cost-effective and environmentally friendly processes. The better use of enzyme action in fish- and seafood-related application has had a significant impact on fish-related industry. Thus, new products have surfaced, product quality has improved, more sustainable processes have been developed, and innovative and reliable analytical techniques have been implemented. Recent development in these fields are presented and discussed, and prospective developments are suggested. PMID:27458583

  9. Enzymes in Fish and Seafood Processing

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes have been used for the production and processing of fish and seafood for several centuries in an empirical manner. In recent decades, a growing trend toward a rational and controlled application of enzymes for such goals has emerged. Underlying such pattern are, among others, the increasingly wider array of enzyme activities and enzyme sources, improved enzyme formulations, and enhanced requirements for cost-effective and environmentally friendly processes. The better use of enzyme action in fish- and seafood-related application has had a significant impact on fish-related industry. Thus, new products have surfaced, product quality has improved, more sustainable processes have been developed, and innovative and reliable analytical techniques have been implemented. Recent development in these fields are presented and discussed, and prospective developments are suggested. PMID:27458583

  10. New Alternatives in Seafood Restructured Products.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Helena M; Herranz, Beatriz; Pérez-Mateos, Miriam; Sánchez-Alonso, Isabel; Borderías, Javier A

    2016-01-01

    A general overview, focusing on new trends in the different techniques used in restructured seafood product processing has been described in this work. Heat-induced gelation has been more widely studied in scientific literature than cold gelation technology. This latter technology includes the use of hydrocolloids (alginates and glucomannan) or enzymes (microbial transglutaminase) for making both raw and cooked restructured products. In restructuration processes, fortification processing with some functional ingredients is studied, giving as a result extra value to the products as well as increasing the variety of new seafood products. The process of alleviating heavy metals and organic pollutants from the raw material used has also been reviewed in the present paper. PMID:25000341

  11. The geography of mercury and PCBs in North Carolina's local seafood.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Amy; Sohn, Nari; Hooper, Mark; Rittschof, Dan

    2012-07-01

    Mercury and PCBs are used by non-governmental organizations and federal agencies to inform seafood safety recommendations. Pollution dynamics suggest recommendations on the national scale may be too large to be accurate. We tested softshell and hardshell blue crab, white and pink shrimp, oysters, clams, spot, and mullet from fishers in each of the three North Carolina fishery districts. We measured mercury using EPA method 7473 and PCBs using a commercially available ELISA kit. Over 97% of samples were below the Environmental Protection Agency levels of concern for both mercury and PCBs. Mercury and PCBs have different spatial dynamics, but both differ significantly by water body, suggesting that seafood safety recommendations should occur by water body instead of at the national scale. This finding supports previous research suggesting that differences in water chemistry, terrestrial influence, and flushing time in a particular water body control the contaminant load in locally resident species. PMID:22658912

  12. A sea of worms: polychaete checklist of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Mikac, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The checklist of polychaetes of the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean) based on bibliographic sources published from 1840 to 2014, as well as on novel data, with 49 new records for the area, is herein presented. The Adriatic Sea polychaete fauna comprises at present of 764 species in 360 genera and 62 families. The richest family is the Syllidae, with 112 species (c.a. 15% of the all taxa). Eight families account for as much as 50% of the diversity (Syllidae, Serpulidae, Sabellidae, Phyllodocidae, Spionidae, Polynoidae, Terebellidae and Nereididae). Among the three Adriatic sectors (Northern, Central and Southern Adriatic), the Northern Adriatic is the richest one, whereas the composition of the most diverse families is very similar in all sectors. Data on endemisms (6), aliens (29) and valid species with the type locality in the Adriatic Sea (90) are also discussed. The list of all relevant papers citing each species in the Adriatic is included, allowing future detailed information retrievals for distinct purposes. Results suggest that the number of species will keep increasing in the future, as new surveys will be undertaken, so regular updates of the present list will be necessary. PMID:25947537

  13. Biomonitoring of organochlorine compounds and trace metals along the Eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia) using Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Kljaković-Gaspić, Zorana; Herceg-Romanić, Snjezana; Kozul, Darija; Veza, Jere

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the results of monitoring trace organic contaminants (17 PCBs and 7 OCPs) and 6 trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) in the coastal waters of the eastern Adriatic in 2006 using Mytilus galloprovincialis as indicator species. OCPs were found in all samples (0.07-14.3 ng g(-1)d.wt.), while in positive samples concentrations of PCBs ranged between 0.16 and 20.5 ng g(-1)d.wt. The α-HCH/γ-HCH and DDE/DDT ratios indicated recent input of γ-HCH and DDT. Spatial distributions of HCB, PCBs, DDTs and Hg were significantly correlated with population density. Although elevated concentrations of all trace metals and organic contaminants were recorded in the densely populated and industrialized areas, overall data point to relatively low level of contamination of the eastern Adriatic coast. Evaluation of the risks to human health associated with consumption of the mussels suggested that there is no health risk for moderate shellfish consumers. PMID:20696441

  14. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of methylmercury from seafood commonly consumed in North America: In vitro and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Siedlikowski, Maia; Bradley, Mark; Kubow, Stan; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2016-08-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global contaminant of concern and human exposures are largely realized via seafood consumption. While it is assumed that 95-100% of the ingested MeHg from seafood reaches systemic circulation, recent in vitro studies have yielded results to suggest otherwise. Of the published studies to have characterized the bioaccessibility or bioavailability of MeHg from seafood, only a handful of seafood species have been characterized, there exists tremendous variability in data within and across species, few species of relevance to North America have been studied, and none of the in vitro studies have adapted results to an epidemiology study. The objective of the current study was two-fold: (a) to characterize in vitro MeHg bioaccessibility and bioavailability from ten commonly consumed types of seafood in North America; and (b) to apply the bioaccessibility and bioavailability data from the in vitro study to an existing human MeHg exposure assessment study. Raw seafood samples (cod, crab, halibut, salmon, scallop, shrimp, tilapia, and three tuna types: canned light, canned white, fresh) were purchased in Montreal and their MeHg concentrations generally overlapped with values reported elsewhere. The bioaccessibility of MeHg from these samples ranged from 50.1±19.2 (canned white tuna) to 100% (shrimp and scallop) of the amount measured in the raw undigested sample. The bioavailability of MeHg from these samples ranged from 29.3±10.4 (crab) to 67.4±9.7% (salmon) of the value measured in the raw undigested sample. There were significant correlations between the initial MeHg concentration in seafood with the percent of that Hg that was bioaccessible (r=-0.476) and bioavailable (r=-0.294). When the in vitro data were applied to an existing MeHg exposure assessment study, the estimated amount of MeHg absorbed into systemic circulation decreased by 25% and 42% when considering bioaccessibility and bioavailability, respectively. When the in vitro data

  15. Contemporary issues in food allergy: seafood toxin-induced disease in the differential diagnosis of allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Chegini, Soheil; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2005-01-01

    Seafood, including fish, shrimp, lobster, crab, crayfish, mussel, and clam are among the most frequent causes of food allergy. Seafood poisoning, including reactions to natural toxins, frequently masquerades as an allergic reaction on presentation. Ingestion of contaminated shellfish results in a wide variety of symptoms, depending on the toxins present, their concentrations in the shellfish, and the amount of contaminated shellfish consumed. Five types of shellfish poisoning have been identified clearly including paralytic, neurotoxic, diarrhetic, amnestic, and azaspiracid shellfish poisonings. Based on the presence or absence of the toxin at the time of capture, fish poisoning can be considered conceptually in two categories. In ciguatera and puffer fish poisoning, the toxin is present in live fish, whereas in scombroid, it is produced only after capture, in the fish flesh, by contaminating bacteria because of improper refrigeration. Most shellfish-associated illness is infectious in nature (bacterial or viral), with the Norwalk virus accounting for most cases of gastroenteritis. PMID:16119031

  16. Microbiological Spoilage of Fish and Seafood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gram, Lone

    Fish and seafood products are some of the most important protein sources in human nutrition. At the same time, these products are perishable and, if left unpreserved, spoil rapidly. Some fish products are heavily cured (salted, dried) and shelf stable at ambient temperature. An increasing number of fish products are preserved by low levels of salt, cooling, packaging in modified atmosphere, and/or addition of low levels of preservatives. The microflora of these products is often complex; however, spoilage is mostly caused by microbial action.

  17. Sediment dynamics in the Adriatic Sea investigated with coupled models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Carniel, Sandro; Cavaleri, Luigi; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Das, Himangshu; Doyle, James D.; Harris, Courtney K.; Niedoroda, Alan W.; Perkins, Henry; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Pullen, Julie; Reed, Christopher W.; Russo, Aniello; Sclavo, Mauro; Signell, Richard P.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Warner, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Several large research programs focused on the Adriatic Sea in winter 2002-2003, making it an exciting place for sediment dynamics modelers (Figure 1). Investigations of atmospheric forcing and oceanic response (including wave generation and propagation, water-mass formation, stratification, and circulation), suspended material, bottom boundary layer dynamics, bottom sediment, and small-scale stratigraphy were performed by European and North American researchers participating in several projects. The goal of EuroSTRATAFORM researchers is to improve our ability to understand and simulate the physical processes that deliver sediment to the marine environment and generate stratigraphic signatures. Scientists involved in the Po and Apennine Sediment Transport and Accumulation (PASTA) experiment benefited from other major research programs including ACE (Adriatic Circulation Experiment), DOLCE VITA (Dynamics of Localized Currents and Eddy Variability in the Adriatic), EACE (the Croatian East Adriatic Circulation Experiment project), WISE (West Istria Experiment), and ADRICOSM (Italian nowcasting and forecasting) studies.

  18. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in Water and Seafood, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Nicole; Kahler, Amy M.; Jones, Jessica L.; Bopp, Cheryl A.; Marano, Nina; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Garrett, Nancy M.; Boncy, Jacques; Henry, Ariel; Gómez, Gerardo A.; Wellman, Michael; Curtis, Maurice; Freeman, Molly M.; Turnsek, Maryann; Benner, Ronald A.; Dahourou, Georges; Espey, David; DePaola, Angelo; Tappero, Jordan W.; Handzel, Tom; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    During the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, water and seafood samples were collected to detect Vibrio cholerae. The outbreak strain of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was isolated from freshwater and seafood samples. The cholera toxin gene was detected in harbor water samples. PMID:22099121

  19. 78 FR 66916 - Alaskan Seafood Processing Effluent Limitations Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... and Preserved Seafood Processing Point Source Category, 40 CFR Part 408, on June 26, 1974 (39 FR 23134), and December 1, 1975 (40 FR 55770). The seafood processing ELGs created two groups of subcategories... 15, 1980). 45 FR 32675 (May 19, 1980). EPA noted that processing plants in Anchorage, Cordova,...

  20. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of bacterial community and metabolites profiles in Korean traditional seafood fermentation: a flatfish-fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Lee, Se Hee; Jin, Hyun Mi; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community and metabolites were analyzed in a flatfish jeotgal, a Korean fermented seafood. Inverse relationship of pH and 16S rRNA gene copy number was identified during fermentation. Lactobacillus was the predominant bacterial genus. Increase of Firmicutes was a common characteristic shared by other fermented seafood. Fructose, glucose, and maltose were the major metabolites. PMID:25035997

  1. Selenium Content in Seafood in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yumiko; Yamashita, Michiaki; Iida, Haruka

    2013-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans, and seafood is one of the major selenium sources, as well as red meat, grains, eggs, chicken, liver and garlic. A substantial proportion of the total amount of selenium is present as selenium containing imidazole compound, selenoneine, in the muscles of ocean fish. In order to characterize the selenium content in seafood, the total selenium levels were measured in the edible portions of commercially important fish and shellfish species. Among the tested edible portions, alfonsino muscle had the highest selenium levels (concentration of 1.27 mg/kg tissue). High levels of selenium (1.20–1.07 mg/kg) were also found in the salted ovary products of mullet and Pacific herring. In other fish muscles, the selenium levels ranged between 0.12 and 0.77 mg/kg tissue. The selenium levels were closely correlated with the mercury levels in the white and red muscles in alfonsino. The selenium content in spleen, blood, hepatopancreas, heart, red muscle, white muscle, brain, ovary and testis ranged between 1.10 and 24.8 mg/kg tissue in alfonsino. PMID:23434904

  2. Mercury and selenium content of Taiwanese seafood.

    PubMed

    Fang, G C; Nam, D H; Basu, N

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is avid in Taiwan (and other Asian nations), but little is known about the mercury and selenium content in local seafood. This paper reports on total mercury, methylmercury and selenium levels from 14 commonly consumed seafood items obtained from Taichung, Taiwan. Mean total mercury concentrations varied nearly 100-fold across species. Fifty per cent of the marlins sampled and 35% of the sharks exceeded the 0.3 µg g(-1) US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline. Methylmercury comprised a majority of the total mercury in all species. In all species studied there was a molar excess of selenium over mercury. The rank order of mean selenium-mercury molar ratios was red tilapia (166.8) > abura (87.9) > river prawn (82.4) > whiteleg shrimp (64.2) > butterfish (44.6) > milkfish (37.0) > tuna (15.6) > grouper (13.9) > ayu (13.4) > coral hind (13.0) > weever (11.8) > saury (9.0) > shark (7.8) > marlin (4.2). PMID:24786009

  3. Seafood: nutritional benefits and risk aspects.

    PubMed

    Oehlenschläger, Jörg

    2012-06-01

    Seafood, such as fish, crustacean and molluscan shellfish, and echinoderms, provides in the edible part (e. g., filet, abdominal muscle) many nutritional components beneficial for the human diet like n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids (PUFAs), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), essential elements such as selenium and iodine, high potassium and low sodium concentrations, and the vitamins D, A, E, and B(12), as well as taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) among others. Its protein is highly digestible due to low connective tissue content, and cholesterol content is also low in fish. Lean fish species are extremely low in fat content (<1 %), while fatty species are extremely rich in PUFAs. However, being subject to environmental influences from its habitat, seafood also entails water-borne health risks such as organic pollutants, toxins, parasites, and heavy metals. Nevertheless, the vast majority of experimental and epidemiological studies have proven that the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks even for vulnerable consumer groups. PMID:23258397

  4. Modeling the drift of plastics in the Adriatic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Lecci, Rita; Creti, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Recently, plastic pollution at sea has become widely recognized as an acute environmental problem. Distribution of plastics in the marine environment is controlled by (1) locations and time-varying intensity of inputs; (2) the dynamics of the upper mixed layer of the ocean, where the majority of plastics float; and (3) the sinks of plastics. In the present work, we calculate the plastic concentrations at the sea surface and fluxes onto the coastline (2009-2015) that originated from terrestrial and maritime inputs. We construct a Markov chain model based on coupling the MEDSLIK-II model (De Dominicis et al., 2013) with the daily Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS) ocean currents simulations (1/45° horizontal resolution) (Guarneri et al., 2010) and ECMWF surface wind analyses (0.25° horizontal and 6-h temporal resolutions). We assume that the coastline is the main sink of plastics in the Adriatic Sea (Liubartseva et al., 2015). Our calculations have shown that the mean particle half-life in the basin approximately equals 43.7 days, which allows us to define the Adriatic Sea as a highly dissipative system with respect to floating plastics. On long-term time-mean scales, the most polluted sea surface area (more than 10 g/km2 floating plastics) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. That corresponds to the spatial distributions of plastic inputs, and indicates a tight connection with patterns of the general Adriatic circulation, including the Western Adriatic Coastal Current and the South Adriatic gyre. On seasonal time-mean scales, we indicate the winter plastics' expansion into the basin's interior, spring trapping in the northern Adriatic, summer cleansing the middle and southern Adriatic and autumn spreading into the southeastern Adriatic. Distinctive coastal "hot spot" is found on the Po Delta coastline that receives a plastic flux of 70 kg/(kmṡday). Complex source-receptor relationships

  5. Development of a Florida Seafood Program Using a Multi-Disciplinary Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeels, Holly; Fluech, Bryan; Krimsky, Lisa; Saari, Brooke; Shephard, Elizabeth; Zamojski, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    The seafood industry in Florida is complex, with more than 80 varieties of Florida seafood commodities and an increasing number of imported products. This variety increases consumer confusion, especially with the growing concern about the origin, sustainability, and safety of seafood products. The objective of the Florida Seafood At Your…

  6. Connecting Mercury Science to Policy: from Sources to Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Celia Y.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Mason, Robert P.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant whose presence in the biosphere has been increased by human activity, particularly coal burning/energy production, mining, especially artisanal scale gold mining, and other industrial activities. Mercury input to the surface ocean has doubled over the past century leading governments and organizations to take actions to protect humans from the harmful effects of this toxic element. Recently, the UN Environmental Program led 128 countries to negotiate and sign a legally binding agreement, the 2013 Minimata Convention, to control Hg emissions and releases to land and water globally. In an effort to communicate science to this emerging international policy, the Dartmouth Superfund Research Program formed the Coastal and Marine Mercury Ecosystem Research Collaborative (C-MERC) in 2010 that brought together more than 70 scientists and policy experts to analyze and synthesize the science on Hg pollution in the marine environment from Hg sources to MeHg in seafood. The synthesis of the science revealed that the sources and inputs of Hg and their pathways to human exposure are largely determined by ecosystem spatial scales and that these spatial scales determine the organizational level of policies. The paper summarizes the four major findings of the report. PMID:26820177

  7. Connecting mercury science to policy: from sources to seafood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Celia Y; Driscoll, Charles T; Lambert, Kathleen F; Mason, Robert P; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2016-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant whose presence in the biosphere has been increased by human activity, particularly coal burning/energy production, mining, especially artisanal scale gold mining, and other industrial activities. Mercury input to the surface ocean has doubled over the past century leading governments and organizations to take actions to protect humans from the harmful effects of this toxic element. Recently, the UN Environmental Program led 128 countries to negotiate and sign a legally binding agreement, the 2013 Minimata Convention, to control Hg emissions and releases to land and water globally. In an effort to communicate science to this emerging international policy, the Dartmouth Superfund Research Program formed the Coastal and Marine Mercury Ecosystem Research Collaborative (C-MERC) in 2010 that brought together more than 70 scientists and policy experts to analyze and synthesize the science on Hg pollution in the marine environment from Hg sources to MeHg in seafood. The synthesis of the science revealed that the sources and inputs of Hg and their pathways to human exposure are largely determined by ecosystem spatial scales and that these spatial scales determine the organizational level of policies. The paper summarizes the four major findings of the report. PMID:26820177

  8. Demographic Profiles, Mercury, Selenium, and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Avid Seafood Consumers on Long Island, NY.

    PubMed

    Monastero, Rebecca; Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Meliker, Jaymie

    2016-02-01

    Seafood consumption is known to confer nutritional benefits and risks from contaminant exposure. Avid seafood consumers are neither well-characterized with regard to their demographic profile nor their underlying risk-benefit profile. Contaminants [e.g., mercury (Hg)] and nutrients [e.g., selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids] are prevalent in some seafood. Participants (N = 285) recruited on Long Island, NY, completed food frequency and health questionnaires and received blood draws analyzed for Hg, omega-3s, and Se. Participants were categorized based on frequency and type of seafood consumption. Logistic regression analyses evaluated relationships between seafood consumption and demographics, and were age- and sex-adjusted. t tests assessed relationships between seafood consumption patterns and biomarkers Hg, omega-3s, and Se. Consumption of both tuna and salmon was associated with older age: those aged 55-75 and over 75 years old were more likely than participants aged 18-34 to eat tuna and salmon (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.05, 4.89 and OR 3.67; 95% CI 1.20, 11.20, respectively). Males were less likely than females to eat fish other than tuna or salmon (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.34, 0.97). Caucasians were more likely to consume tuna (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.10, 0.96) or salmon and tuna (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.12, 0.91), while non-Caucasians were more likely to consume other fish types (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.45, 5.12). Total blood Hg was associated with weekly consumption of any type of fish (p = 0.01) and with salmon and tuna consumption (p = 0.01). Salmon was associated with plasma omega-3s (p = 0.01). Se was not associated with fish intake categories. Risk communicators can use these findings to influence seafood preferences of different demographic groups. PMID:26318872

  9. Tocopherols in Seafood and Aquaculture Products.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Cláudia; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Nunes, Leonor; Cardoso, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Fish products contain various nutritionally beneficial components, namely, ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA), minerals, and vitamins. Particularly, tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol) can be provided by seafood and aquaculture products. Hence, this review shows the various aspects of tocopherols in seafood and aquaculture products. For tocopherol determination in these products, HPLC methods coupled with diode array detection in the UV area of the spectrum or fluorescence detection have been shown as sensitive and accurate. These newest methods have helped in understanding tocopherols fate upon ingestion by seafood organisms. Tocopherols pass through the intestinal mucosa mainly by the same passive diffusion mechanism as fats. After absorption, the transport mechanism is thought to consist of two loops. The first loop is dietary, including chylomicrons and fatty acids bound to carrier protein, transporting lipids mainly to the liver. The other is the transport from the liver to tissues and storage sites. Moreover, tocopherol levels in fish organisms correlate with diet levels, being adjusted in fish body depending on diet concentration. For farmed fish species, insufficient levels of tocopherols in the diet can lead to poor growth performance or to nutritional disease. The tocopherol quantity needed as a feed supplement depends on various factors, such as the vitamer mixture, the lipid level and source, the method of diet preparation, and the feed storage conditions. Other ingredients in diet may be of great importance, it has been proposed that α-tocopherol may behave as a prooxidant synergist at higher concentrations when prooxidants such as transition metals are present. However, the antioxidant action of tocopherols outweighs this prooxidant effect, provided that adequate conditions are used. In fact, muscle-based foods containing higher levels of tocopherol show, for instance, higher lipid stability. Besides, tocopherols are important not

  10. Vaccination and consumer perception of seafood quality.

    PubMed

    Engelstad, M

    2005-01-01

    Unlike other segments of international food production, finfish aquaculture has so far not been associated with major food scandals. However, because of increased focus on food safety, the seafood industry and associated businesses have to respond to and document all aspects related to their products and processes. Consumers have a right to know, and need knowledge and information to be able to make qualified choices. In aquaculture good management and environmental attention is essential for both product quality and economic sustainability. One of the main challenges in all farming activities is efficient fish health management, which is crucial for maintaining and further developing the industry. In all biological production, and also in aquaculture, diseases have been, are, and will continue to present a challenge. When dealing with disease incidents, environmental, ethical, biological and economic issues must be taken into account. In animal health management there is a common understanding that prevention is better than treatment, so also in aquaculture. In many segments of industrial fish farming, vaccines have proved a good management tool to control diseases and to reduce both mortality and the use of chemotherapeutics. As seen in a recent Norwegian consumer survey, this might unfortunately look somewhat different from a consumer point of view. The perception of vaccines as foreign substances, visible vaccine lesions or pigment, words about genetically produced vaccines, and a general lack of knowledge may fuel scepticism. Even when experts are giving good and well-documented information, consumers still stick to their original perception of food, including seafood. Given this background, this papers discusses the aquaculture industry's priorities regarding vaccines and vaccination strategies, and its information policy towards the customer. PMID:15962487

  11. Plasma levels of pollutants are much higher in loggerhead turtle populations from the Adriatic Sea than in those from open waters (Eastern Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Bucchia, Matteo; Camacho, María; Santos, Marcelo R D; Boada, Luis D; Roncada, Paola; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we determined the levels of 63 environmental contaminants, including organic (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and PAHs) and inorganic (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn) compounds in the blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from two comparable populations that inhabit distinct geographic areas: the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean basin) and the Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). All animals were sampled at the end of a period of rehabilitation in centers of wildlife recovery, before being released back into the wild, so they can be considered to be in good health condition. The dual purpose of this paper is to provide reliable data on the current levels of contamination of this species in these geographic areas, and secondly to compare the results of both populations, as it has been reported that marine biota inhabiting the Mediterranean basin is exposed to much higher pollution levels than that which inhabit in other areas of the planet. According to our results it is found that current levels of contamination by organic compounds are considerably higher in Adriatic turtles than in the Atlantic ones (∑PCBs, 28.45 vs. 1.12ng/ml; ∑OCPs, 1.63 vs. 0.19ng/ml; ∑PAHs, 13.39 vs. 4.91ng/ml; p<0.001 in all cases). This is the first time that levels of PAHs are reported in the Adriatic loggerheads. With respect to inorganic contaminants, although the differences were not as great, the Adriatic turtles appear to have higher levels of some of the most toxic elements such as mercury (5.74 vs. 7.59μg/ml, p<0.01). The results of this study confirm that the concentrations are larger in turtles from the Mediterranean, probably related to the high degree of anthropogenic pressure in this basin, and thus they are more likely to suffer adverse effects related to contaminants. PMID:25863507

  12. Cadmium and lead in selected tissues of two commercially important fish species from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Gaspić, Z Kljaković; Zvonarić, T; Vrgoc, N; Odzak, N; Barić, A

    2002-12-01

    Baseline levels of cadmium and lead were determined in muscle tissue and liver of hake (Merluccius merluccius) and red mullet (Mullus barbatus), two commercially important fish species from the eastern Adriatic. Concentrations of trace metals in liver (Cd: 6-183 microg kg(-1) w. wt. ; Pb: 39-970 microg kg(-1) w. wt.) were within the range of recently published data for the Mediterranean. In the muscle tissue, cadmium concentrations (4.1-29 microg kg(-1) w. wt.) were among the lowest reported values for the Mediterranean, whereas lead levels (49-158 microg kg(-1) w. wt.) were within the range of values reported for various coastal areas of the Mediterranean. Presented data on cadmium and lead content in the studied fish species provide no proof of the general pollution of the Adriatic. Obtained data were tested in relation to fish length. Metal concentrations in liver decreased with the increase in fish size, whereas no significant correlation was found between trace metal levels in the muscle tissue and the length of both species. Relationships between metal concentrations and sex were also tested, but they gave no significant results. A comparison of contaminant concentrations in the edible tissue of hake and red mullet with the Croatian legislation shows that the consumption of their meat is not harmful for humans, not even for the most endangered population from the coastal region. PMID:12448550

  13. QUINAULT INDIAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TRIBAL SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION SURVEY SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quinault Indian Nation needed to determine appropriate seafood consumption rates for development of their water quality standards. EPA Region 10 and EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory had been collaborating on computer assisted personal inter...

  14. How to Determine the Geographical Origin of Seafood?

    PubMed

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Montet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Traceability of seafood is a much needed service for the seafood industry. Current ways of tracing seafood are minimal while tracing of shellfish is nearly nonexistent. Tracing fish and shellfish are necessary for indicating where the fish and shellfish were fished from, farmed and packed from. This study reviews history of traceability of aquaculture and analytical approaches to verify the origin of seafood. It then describes the new molecular technique of the traceability by using PCR-DGGE to discriminate the geographical origin of fish (cases studies of Pangasius fish from Viet Nam and Sea bass fish from France) by analysis the DNA fragments of microorganisms (bacteria) on fish. This method is based on the assumption that the microbial communities of food are specific to a geographic area. PMID:24834835

  15. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  16. Relationship between microbial communities and mercury species in the seawater of the Central Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivkovic, Igor; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Joze; Fajon, Vesna; Solic, Mladen; Kanduc, Tjasa

    2016-04-01

    The structure of the microbial food web and its role in biogeochemical processes in marine ecosystems may vary noticeably and depend on environmental trophic status. Importance of picoplankton makes them an essential component for understanding the food web dynamics in marine systems. These small organisms dominate the photosynthetic biomass and primary production in oligotrophic waters like the Adriatic Sea. One of the hypotheses of research is that the factors that enable scavenging nutrients at low concentrations also promote accumulation of contaminants in the biomass of microorganisms. Biologically mediated reactions can transform mercury species and facilitate their entrance into the marine food web in which it bioaccumulates in the form of methylmercury (MeHg). In order to establish relationship between Hg and microbial species, we performed samplings in the Central Adriatic Sea. Samplings were conducted during oceanographic cruises aboard the research vessel Bios Dva from March 2014 to December 2015. Research was constrained to transect from the island of Vis to the Bay of Kastela. Non-filtered water samples were collected for determination of methylmercury (MeHg), total mercury (THg), dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM), and microbial species in Adriatic coastal and open waters. In the pristine environment of the island of Vis, THg concentrations are the lowest and range from 0.14-1.10 ng/L. Mercury contamination from chlor-alkali industrial waters in the Bay of Kastela is observed through the highest THg concentrations (up to 5.58 ng/L). DGM always shows higher values in more contaminated areas (31.8-351 pg/L) than in the pristine environment (22.1-245 pg/L). MeHg concentrations vary, but the highest values are usually found in the Bay of Kastela (up to 34.3 pg/L). Number of picoeukaryotes is the highest in the Bay of Kastela (0.44×106-31.8×106/L) which has been affected by industrial and civil effluents from the surrounding cities. The lowest number is

  17. Hepatotoxic Seafood Poisoning (HSP) Due to Microcystins: A Threat from the Ocean?

    PubMed Central

    Vareli, Katerina; Jaeger, Walter; Touka, Anastasia; Frillingos, Stathis; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Sainis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are a major and growing problem for freshwater ecosystems worldwide that increasingly concerns public health, with an average of 60% of blooms known to be toxic. The most studied cyanobacterial toxins belong to a family of cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins, called microcystins. The microcystins are stable hydrophilic cyclic heptapeptides with a potential to cause cell damage following cellular uptake via organic anion-transporting proteins (OATP). Their intracellular biologic effects presumably involve inhibition of catalytic subunits of protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) and glutathione depletion. The microcystins produced by cyanobacteria pose a serious problem to human health, if they contaminate drinking water or food. These toxins are collectively responsible for human fatalities, as well as continued and widespread poisoning of wild and domestic animals. Although intoxications of aquatic organisms by microcystins have been widely documented for freshwater ecosystems, such poisonings in marine environments have only occasionally been reported. Moreover, these poisonings have been attributed to freshwater cyanobacterial species invading seas of lower salinity (e.g., the Baltic) or to the discharge of freshwater microcystins into the ocean. However, recent data suggest that microcystins are also being produced in the oceans by a number of cosmopolitan marine species, so that Hepatotoxic Seafood Poisoning (HSP) is increasingly recognized as a major health risk that follows consumption of contaminated seafood. PMID:23921721

  18. Dolomite as a tracer for sediment transport and deposition on the northwestern Adriatic continental shelf (Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravaioli, Mariangela; Alvisi, Francesca; Vitturi, Laura Menegazzo

    2003-09-01

    Surface sediments of the Northern and Middle Adriatic shelf were studied during five cruises, from 1977 to 1990, in order to map the distribution of Ca and Mg carbonates in bottom sediments of the Adriatic Sea. The aim of this work was to trace the preferential depositional areas of sediments derived from Italian rivers by distinguishing among the contributions from northeastern Italian rivers, the Po and Apenninic streams. The pattern distribution of dolomite concentration proved to be a good tracer of the alongshore transport of particulate material from the Northern toward the Middle and Southern Adriatic. Moreover, dolomite and textural sedimentary parameters such as grain size distributions discriminate between local, recent sources, and regional, older sources of bottom sedimentary material. The analysis of the main pathways of sediment transfer between different shelf compartments shows that a huge amount of material is transferred from north to south. This occurs in two main shelf sectors: along the Romagna coast, sediments moving inside the belt delimited by the 20 m isobaths are influenced by the local river input and minor coastal gyres, whereas offshore sediments, coming from the northern Adriatic Sea, are transported southward by the Northern Adriatic Coastal Current (NACC); along the Marche and Abruzzo coasts, the "local" belt extends offshore on the outer shelf. In order to obtain a quantitative estimate of sediment accumulation of fine sediments of Northern Adriatic origin along the shelf sectors, a mass budget was calculated for bulk sediments and for dolomite contributions. The budget shows that the amount of sediment transferred between adjacent boxes is always of the order of 50% of the fluvial input to the sea.

  19. February 2003 marine atmospheric conditions and the bora over the northern Adriatic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorman, C.E.; Carniel, S.; Cavaleri, L.; Sclavo, M.; Chiggiato, J.; Doyle, J.; Haack, T.; Pullen, J.; Grbec, B.; Vilibic, I.; Janekovic, I.; Lee, C.; Malacic, V.; Orlic, M.; Paschini, E.; Russo, A.; Signell, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    A winter oceanographic field experiment provided an opportunity to examine the atmospheric marine conditions over the northern Adriatic. Mean February winds are from a northeasterly direction over most of the Adriatic and a more northerly direction along the western coast. Wind speeds are fastest in jets over the NE coast during bora events and weakest in the mid-northwestern Adriatic. Diurnal air temperature cycles are smallest on the NE coast and largest in the midwestern Adriatic. The maximum sea-air difference is +10??C on the eastern coast and near zero on the midwestern Adriatic. Boras are northeasterly (from) wind events that sweep off Croatia and Slovenia, bringing slightly colder and drier air over the northern Adriatic. The main bora season is December to March. Winter 2002-2003 was normal for bora events. Synoptic-scale temporal variations are correlated over the northern Adriatic. Fastest Bora winds and highest wind stress over the northern Adriatic is concentrated in four topographically controlled jets. The strongest is the Senj Jet, while the Trieste Jet extends across the entire northern Adriatic. Between each two jets is a weak wind zone. The greatest mean net heat loss is in bora jets in the NE Adriatic, where it was -438 W m-2 and is weakest in the midwestern northern Adriatic, where it was near zero. Wind stress is concentrated over the NE half of Adriatic in four bora jets, while wind stress is weak in the NW Adriatic. There is significant variation in wind stress mean and standard deviation structure over the northern Adriatic with each bora event. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Microplastics in seafood: Benchmark protocol for their extraction and characterization.

    PubMed

    Dehaut, Alexandre; Cassone, Anne-Laure; Frère, Laura; Hermabessiere, Ludovic; Himber, Charlotte; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Rivière, Gilles; Lambert, Christophe; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud; Duflos, Guillaume; Paul-Pont, Ika

    2016-08-01

    Pollution of the oceans by microplastics (<5 mm) represents a major environmental problem. To date, a limited number of studies have investigated the level of contamination of marine organisms collected in situ. For extraction and characterization of microplastics in biological samples, the crucial step is the identification of solvent(s) or chemical(s) that efficiently dissolve organic matter without degrading plastic polymers for their identification in a time and cost effective way. Most published papers, as well as OSPAR recommendations for the development of a common monitoring protocol for plastic particles in fish and shellfish at the European level, use protocols containing nitric acid to digest the biological tissues, despite reports of polyamide degradation with this chemical. In the present study, six existing approaches were tested and their effects were compared on up to 15 different plastic polymers, as well as their efficiency in digesting biological matrices. Plastic integrity was evaluated through microscopic inspection, weighing, pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and Raman spectrometry before and after digestion. Tissues from mussels, crabs and fish were digested before being filtered on glass fibre filters. Digestion efficiency was evaluated through microscopical inspection of the filters and determination of the relative removal of organic matter content after digestion. Five out of the six tested protocols led to significant degradation of plastic particles and/or insufficient tissue digestion. The protocol using a KOH 10% solution and incubation at 60 °C during a 24 h period led to an efficient digestion of biological tissues with no significant degradation on all tested polymers, except for cellulose acetate. This protocol appeared to be the best compromise for extraction and later identification of microplastics in biological samples and should be implemented in further monitoring studies to ensure

  1. Factors favouring phytoplankton blooms in the northern Adriatic: towards the northern Adriatic empirical ecological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, R.; Supić, N.; Precali, R.

    2016-01-01

    Influenced by one of the largest Mediterranean rivers, Po, the northern Adriatic (NA) production is highly variable seasonally and interannually. The changes are especially pronounced between winters and seemingly reflect on total Adriatic bioproduction of certain species (anchovy). We analysed the long-term changes in the phytoplankton production in the region, as derived from monthly oceanographic cruises, in relation to concomitant geostrophic currents distribution in the area and to Po River discharge rates in days preceding the cruises. In winter and early spring the phytoplankton abundances depended on existing circulation fields, in summer and autumn they were related to Po River discharge rates 1-15 days earlier and on concomitant circulation fields, while in late spring phytoplankton abundances increased 1-3 days after high Po River discharge rates regardless of the circulation fields. During the entire year the phytoplankton abundances were dependent on forcing of the previous 1-12 months of surface fluxes and/or Po River rates. The role of wind was uncertain but that was partly due to unmatched sampling time frames between meteorological and sea data. Low evaporation rates in November reflected significantly on the next February circulation pattern and, although with somewhat lower significance, on large phytoplankton blooms in the same month. We showed that the role of wind in evaporative flux enhancements is not straightforward as evaporative fluxes are highly dependent on other factors, e.g. air-sea temperature difference. Wind-induced vertical mixing was only sporadically related to phytoplankton abundances. From 1990 to 2004 a shift towards large winter bioproduction induced by circulation changes appeared. The investigations performed represent the preliminary actions in the construction of an empirical ecological model of the NA which can be used in the sustainable economy of the region, as well as for validation of the numerical ecological model

  2. Evidence of butyltin biomagnification along the Northern Adriatic food-web (Mediterranean Sea) elucidated by stable isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Fortibuoni, Tomaso; Noventa, Seta; Rampazzo, Federico; Gion, Claudia; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Berto, Daniela; Raicevich, Saša

    2013-04-01

    The biomagnification of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT), and total butyltins (ΣBT) was analyzed in the Northern Adriatic food-web (Mediterranean) considering trophodynamic interactions among species and carbon sources in the food-web. Although it is acknowledged that these contaminants bioaccumulate in marine organisms, it is still controversial whether they biomagnify along food-webs. A wide range of species was considered, from plankton feeders to top predators, whose trophic level (TL) was assessed measuring the biological enrichment of nitrogen stable isotopes (δ(15)N). Carbon isotopic signature (δ(13)C) was used to trace carbon sources in the food-web (terrestrial vs marine). At least one butyltin species was detected in the majority of samples, and TBT was the predominant contaminant. A significant positive relationship was found between TL and butyltin concentrations, implying food-web biomagnification. Coherently, the Trophic Magnification Factor resulted higher than 1, ranging between 3.88 for ΣBT and 4.62 for DBT. A negative but not significant correlation was instead found between δ(13)C and butyltin concentrations, indicating a slight decreasing gradient of contaminants concentrations in species according to the coastal influence as carbon source in their diet. However, trophodynamic mechanisms are likely more important factors in determining butyltin distribution in the Northern Adriatic food-web. PMID:23465397

  3. Historical pattern and mass balance of trace metals in sediments of the northwestern Adriatic Sea Shelf.

    PubMed

    Romano, Stefania; Langone, Leonardo; Frignani, Mauro; Albertazzi, Sonia; Focaccia, Paola; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Ravaioli, Mariangela

    2013-11-15

    In view of the recent action in Marine Strategy Framework Directive, reconstructing the history of anthropogenic metal inputs and calculating the budgets for the northwestern part of the Italian Adriatic basin can provide a benchmark for comparison with new evidences and enlighten recent environmental changes. Among the metals, the attention was focused on Pb and Zn, as they provide the most significant anthropogenic signals. In 1988, areal distributions clearly identified the Po, Adige and Brenta rivers as the main sources of contaminants. The study area was divided in three compartments. The area in front of the Po delta represented a sink for metals but the accumulation of Zn and Pb integrated over the entire study area suggests an effective export throughout southern boundary. Most concentration-depth/year profiles in cores showed an upward increase from the Italian Unification (1861), with a still significant anthropogenic supply at the time of sampling. PMID:24119313

  4. A long and winding road: Skeletonema sp transport by Northern Adriatic Dense Waters to the Southern Adriatic Pit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Bernardy Aubry, Fabrizio; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Boldrin, Alfredo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Finotto, Stefania; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The semi enclosed Adriatic Sea is a sub basin of the Mediterranean Sea located in its northeastern part; it has a shallow northern part (average depth of 40 m) and a deep Southern Adriatic Pit (SAP) that reaches 1200m. The presence of a wide continental shelf exposed to strong heat and momentum fluxes during winter months makes the Northern Adriatic a formation site of dense waters, generally referred to as Northern Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW). Once produced, it moves south as a quasi-geostrophically adjusted vein , flowing along the Italian coast and enters the SAP giving origin to descent and cascading dense shelf water bringing into the deep layers oxygen, nutrients and organic compound. In February 2012 a long and intense cold air outbreak, with strong Bora winds, interested the northern part of the Adriatic sea causing a drop in water temperature to less than 6 °C and an increase in density to values as high as 1030.2 kg/m3 (likely the maximum values since 1929). This resulted in a massive production of NAdDW. In order to study the behavior of the NAdDW vein, a rapid response 2 legs cruise (ODW2012) was organized in the southern Adriatic. During the cruise, along with physical and chemical measurements, water and phytoplankton samples were collected at different depths. Usual abundance and distribution with a general decrease in phytoplankton abundance from the surface to the bottom were found in all stations with one exception. The bottom sample of a station located roughly 40 km at 120 m depth in front of Gargano showed a significantly high dominance (40%) of the small diatom Skeletonema sp whose flowering is typical in the surface waters of the northern Adriatic in late winter. The physical parameters of the water column showed signs of the passage of the dense water vein (lower temperature and higher dissolved oxygen concentrations) hence it was hypothesized that those diatoms were actively transported by the NAdDW near-bottom stream. A further

  5. Microbial processes and organic priority substances in marine coastal sediments (Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Dellisanti, Walter; Lungarini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Stefano; Patrolecco, Luisa; Langone, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    PERSEUS EU FP7 Project aims to identify the interacting patterns of natural and human-derived pressures to assess their impact on marine ecosystems and, using the objectives and principles of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) as a vehicle, to design an effective and innovative research governance framework based on sound scientific knowledge. In the frame of this Project (subtask 1.3.3 ADREX: Adriatic and Ionian Seas Experiment), monitoring surveys were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) in order to study the variation of structural and functional characteristics of native bacterial communities and the occurrence of selected classes of organic priority substances in sediments. The study area represents a good natural laboratory sensitive to climate variability and human pressure, owing to the semi-enclosed nature of the Adriatic Sea and to the increasing trend of human activities in the coastal regions. During the cruise ADRI-13 (November 2013) and ADRI-14 (October 2014) we sampled several coastal sites from the mouth of the Po River to the Otranto strait. Surface sediments were collected in all areas, while sediment cores were sampled in selected sites. Microbes associated with marine sediments play an important role in the C-flux being responsible for the transformation of organic detritus (autochthonous and allochthonous) into biomass. The sediment bacterial abundance was determined by epifluorescence microscopy and the rate of bacterial carbon production by measuring the 3H-leucine uptake rates. The community respiration rate was estimated by the measurement of the electron transport system (ETS) activity. The sediment contamination level was determined by measuring the concentration of contaminants included in the list of organic priority substances: PAHs, bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols (APs). The extraction/clean-up of PAHs, BPA and APs was performed by ultrasonic bath with the appropriate solvents, followed by analytical determination with

  6. Biocomplexity in Populations of European Anchovy in the Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Occhipinti, Giulia; Fioravanti, Tatiana; Santojanni, Alberto; Leonori, Iole; De Felice, Andrea; Arneri, Enrico; Procaccini, Gabriele; Catanese, Gaetano; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Bonanno, Angelo; Nisi Cerioni, Paola; Giovannotti, Massimo; Grant, William Stewart; Caputo Barucchi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The sustained exploitation of marine populations requires an understanding of a species' adaptive seascape so that populations can track environmental changes from short- and long-term climate cycles and from human development. The analysis of the distributions of genetic markers among populations, together with correlates of life-history and environmental variability, can provide insights into the extent of adaptive variation. Here, we examined genetic variability among populations of mature European anchovies (n = 531) in the Adriatic (13 samples) and Tyrrhenian seas (2 samples) with neutral and putative non-neutral microsatellite loci. These genetic markers failed to confirm the occurrence of two anchovy species in the Adriatic Sea, as previously postulated. However, we found fine-scale population structure in the Adriatic, especially in northern areas, that was associated with four of the 13 environmental variables tested. Geographic gradients in sea temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen appear to drive adaptive differences in spawning time and early larval development among populations. Resolving adaptive seascapes in Adriatic anchovies provides a means to understand mechanisms underpinning local adaptation and a basis for optimizing exploitation strategies for sustainable harvests. PMID:27074008

  7. Biocomplexity in Populations of European Anchovy in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Paolo; Splendiani, Andrea; Occhipinti, Giulia; Fioravanti, Tatiana; Santojanni, Alberto; Leonori, Iole; De Felice, Andrea; Arneri, Enrico; Procaccini, Gabriele; Catanese, Gaetano; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Bonanno, Angelo; Nisi Cerioni, Paola; Giovannotti, Massimo; Grant, William Stewart; Caputo Barucchi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The sustained exploitation of marine populations requires an understanding of a species' adaptive seascape so that populations can track environmental changes from short- and long-term climate cycles and from human development. The analysis of the distributions of genetic markers among populations, together with correlates of life-history and environmental variability, can provide insights into the extent of adaptive variation. Here, we examined genetic variability among populations of mature European anchovies (n = 531) in the Adriatic (13 samples) and Tyrrhenian seas (2 samples) with neutral and putative non-neutral microsatellite loci. These genetic markers failed to confirm the occurrence of two anchovy species in the Adriatic Sea, as previously postulated. However, we found fine-scale population structure in the Adriatic, especially in northern areas, that was associated with four of the 13 environmental variables tested. Geographic gradients in sea temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen appear to drive adaptive differences in spawning time and early larval development among populations. Resolving adaptive seascapes in Adriatic anchovies provides a means to understand mechanisms underpinning local adaptation and a basis for optimizing exploitation strategies for sustainable harvests. PMID:27074008

  8. Evaluation of culture media for selective enrichment and isolation of Salmonella in seafood.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, Poothuvallil K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Seafood, including fish, shrimp, clam, crab, mussel, oyster, lobster, squid, octopus, and cuttlefish samples, was used to compare the recovery of Salmonella serovars by different selective enrichment and isolation media. The samples were selectively enriched in Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) broth and tetrathionate broth (TT), followed by selective isolation on Hektoen enteric (HE) agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD) agar, bismuth sulfite (BS) agar, and Brilliant Green (BG) agar media. Of 443 seafood samples analyzed, 108 were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The role of selective enrichment in Salmonella spp. recovery with RV medium was distinctly high (70%) compared to TT broth (30%). The selective enrichment in RV broth followed by selective isolation on XLD, HE, BS, and BG agar recovered Salmonella at levels of 56, 41, 28, and 16%, respectively. Similarly, after enrichment in TT broth, XLD and HE agars recovered 27 and 23% respectively. The recovery of Salmonella with enrichment in TT followed by isolation on BS and BG was abysmally low at 4.6 and 5%, respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the recovery of Salmonella using the combinations of XLD and HE media with selective enrichment in RV broth. However, performance difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the recovery when BS and BG with RV, and XLD, HE, BS, and BG agars with TT broth were used. The present study showed that the combination of RV with XLD was the most efficient media for isolation of Salmonella from seafood when compared to other isolation media combinations. PMID:21140659

  9. Mercury Levels in Pregnant Women, Children, and Seafood from Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Niladri; Tutino, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Cantonwine, David E.; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Somers, Emily C.; Rodriguez, Lauren; Schnaas, Lourdes; Solano, Maritsa; Mercado, Adriana; Peterson, Karen; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a global contaminant of concern though little is known about exposures in México. Objectives To characterize mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and commonly consumed seafood samples. Methods Use resources of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohorts to measure total mercury levels in archived samples from 348 pregnant women (blood from three trimesters and cord blood), 825 offspring (blood, hair, urine) and their mothers (hair), and 91 seafood and canned tuna samples from Mexico City. Results Maternal blood mercury levels correlated across three trimesters and averaged 3.4μg/L. Cord blood mercury averaged 4.7μg/L and correlated with maternal blood from trimester 3 (but not trimesters 1 and 2). In children, blood, hair and urine mercury levels correlated and averaged 1.8μg/L, 0.6μg/g, and 0.9μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury was 0.5μg/g in mothers and correlated with child's hair. Mean consumption of canned tuna, fresh fish, canned sardine, and shellfish was 3.1, 2.2, 0.5, and 1.0 times per month respectively in pregnant women. Mean mercury content in 7 of 23 seafood species and 5 of 9 canned tuna brands purchased exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance value of 0.3 μg/g. Conclusions Mercury exposures in pregnant women and children from Mexico City, via biomarker studies, are generally 3-5 times greater than values reported in population surveys from the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere. In particular, mercury levels in 29-39% of the maternal participants exceeded the biomonitoring guideline associated with the U.S. EPA reference dose for mercury. PMID:25262076

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission. PMID:27010163

  11. Toxin Levels and Profiles in Microalgae from the North-Western Adriatic Sea—15 Years of Studies on Cultured Species

    PubMed Central

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Guerrini, Franca; Pezzolesi, Laura; Riccardi, Manuela; Vanucci, Silvana; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell’Aversano, Carmela; Forino, Martino; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Tartaglione, Luciana; Milandri, Anna; Pompei, Marinella; Cangini, Monica; Pigozzi, Silvia; Riccardi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Adriatic Sea is the area of the Mediterranean Sea where eutrophication and episodes related to harmful algae have occurred most frequently since the 1970s. In this area, which is highly exploited for mollusk farming, the first occurrence of human intoxication due to shellfish consumption occurred in 1989, nearly 10 years later than other countries in Europe and worldwide that had faced similar problems. Until 1997, Adriatic mollusks had been found to be contaminated mostly by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) that, along with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., saxitoxins), constitute the most common marine biotoxins. Only once, in 1994, a toxic outbreak was related to the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the Adriatic coastal waters. Moreover, in the past 15 years, the Adriatic Sea has been characterized by the presence of toxic or potentially toxic algae, not highly widespread outside Europe, such as species producing yessotoxins (i.e., Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax spinifera and Lingulodinium polyedrum), recurrent blooms of the potentially ichthyotoxic species Fibrocapsa japonica and, recently, by blooms of palytoxin-like producing species of the Ostreopsis genus. This review is aimed at integrating monitoring data on toxin spectra and levels in mussels farmed along the coast of the Emilia-Romagna region with laboratory studies performed on the species involved in the production of those toxins; toxicity studies on toxic or potentially toxic species that have recently appeared in this area are also reviewed. Overall, reviewed data are related to: (i) the yessotoxins producing species P. reticulatum, G. spinifera and L. polyedrum, highlighting genetic and toxic characteristics; (ii) Adriatic strains of Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii and Prorocentrum lima whose toxic profiles are compared with those of strains of different geographic origins; (iii) F

  12. Jabuka island (Central Adriatic Sea) earthquakes of 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herak, Davorka; Herak, Marijan; Prelogović, Eduard; Markušić, Snježana; Markulin, Željko

    2005-04-01

    We present analyses of one of the strongest earthquake sequences ever recorded within the Adriatic microplate, which occurred near the Jabuka island in the very centre of the Adriatic Sea. The mainshock (29 March 2003, 17:42, ML=5.5) was preceded by over 150 foreshocks, and followed by many aftershocks, over 4600 of which were recorded on the closest station HVAR (about 90 km to the east). As the epicentre was in the open sea and due to the absence of nearby stations, we were able to confidently locate only 597 events. Hypocentral locations were computed by a grid-search algorithm after seven iterations of refining hypocentres and adjusting station corrections. Epicentres lie in a well-defined area of about 300 km 2, just to the W and NW of the Jabuka island. The vertical cross-sections reveal that hypocentres dip to the NE, closely matching faults from the Jabuka-Andrija fault system, as identified on the available reflection profiles in the area. The fault-plane solution of the main shock based on the first-motion polarity readings agrees well with the CMT solutions and indicates faulting caused by a S-N directed tectonic pressure, on a reverse, dip-slip fault. This is in very good agreement with the seismotectonic framework of the area. These earthquakes are important as they identify the Jabuka-Andrija fault system as an active one, which can significantly influence seismic hazard on the islands in the central Adriatic archipelago and on the Croatian coast between Zadar and Split. Along with several other sequences which occurred in the last two decades, they force us to change our notion of Adria as nearly aseismic, compact and rigid block. In fact, it turns out that recent seismicity of the Central Adriatic Sea is comparable to the seismicity of several well known earthquake-prone areas in the circum-Adriatic region.

  13. [Fish and seafood as a source of human exposure to methylmercury].

    PubMed

    Mania, Monika; Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Rebeniak, Małgorzata; Postupolski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Fish and seafood are recommended diet constituents providing high quality protein, vitamins, minerals and omega-3 fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, these foodstuffs can also be the major source ofmethylmercury intake in humans. In general, more than 90% of the mercury in fish is found as methylmercury, but contents of methylmercury can vary considerably between species. Predatory species that are at the top of the food chain and live a long time, may accumulate higher levels of methylmercury. This paper contains information about sources of human exposure to organic compounds of mercury, toxicity, metabolism and transformation of mercury in the environment. Assessment of methylmercury by international risk assessment bodies such as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and U.S. National Research Council (NRC) were presented. Climate changes and their influence on the mercury cycle in the environment especially mercury methylation and concentrations of methylmercury in marine species were also presented. Consumer advice prepared by European Commission and Member States as regards consumption of predatory fishes such as swordfish, tuna, shark, marlin and pike, taking into account the most vulnerable groups of population e.g. women planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding women and children were presented. Mercury and methylmercury contamination of fishes and seafood on the basis of the literature references as well as intake of mercury with fish and fish products in Poland and other European country were discussed. The role of selenium as a factor which counteracts methylmercury toxicity and protects against some neurological effects of methylmercury exposure in humans, as well as information on potential etiological factors connected with autism disorder were also described. Attention has also been drawn to increasing number of notifications to Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed

  14. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage

    PubMed Central

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Hélène Desmonts, Marie; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota. PMID:25333463

  15. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Desmonts, Marie Hélène; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-05-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota. PMID:25333463

  16. Concentration of selected trace elements and PCBs in sediments from the Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, S W; Hamilton, T F; Coquery, M; Villeneuve, J-P; Horvat, M

    2000-07-26

    A broad baseline study of the levels and distributions of trace metals and PCB compounds in sediments has been undertaken. PCB concentrations in surface sediments reflect the source of these contaminates in the region. The highest PCB concentrations as Aroclor 1260 (approximately 10 ng g{sup -1}) were found in sediments near the outflow of the Po river. The lowest concentrations (1.5 ng g{sup -1} dry) were associated with the sediments from the Jabuka Pit in the Middle Adriatic. These values are quite similar to total PCBs (<1.0-17) measured in surface sediments sampled off the coast of Croatia in 1977-78. Thus, based on the limited amount of new data available, it appears that there has been little, if any, decrease in PCB loading in Adriatic sediments over the past 15 years. Downcore profiles of PCBs in sediment cores are also discussed from a pollution history standpoint. Likewise, total mercury in surface sediments was also highest at stations off the Po (403-499 ng g{sup -1} dry) and lowest (67-224 ng g{sup -1}) in the Jabuka Pit. In one core located just south of the Po outflow, total Hg concentrations at all depths were relatively high decreasing gradually from approximately 400 ng g{sup -1} in the top 4 cm to roughly 200 ng g{sup -1} at a depth of 32 cm. Using a {sup 210}Pb-derived sedimentation rate of 0.26 em Y{sup -1} for this station, it appears that anthropogenic inputs of mercury may have been responsible for the gradual increase in total mercury noted over the last 125 years.

  17. Development of a geotechnical and pile driving database, Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Carpaneto, R.; Paoletti, L.; Guaita, P.; Pratico, A.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a geotechnical and pile driving data base relevant to offshore installations in the Adriatic Sea. The paper discusses sources of information, structure, content, and engineering applications of the data base. Data available from Agip`s platform installations in the Adriatic was reviewed, and 20 representative platforms were chosen. Two relational data bases were created, for geotechnical and installation data respectively. The data bases provide a comprehensive and organized source of information about past experience in the area. Such experience is now quickly available for geotechnical engineering activities. As a main application of the data bases, information was processed to make data sets for training Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict pile driveability. It is envisioned that the data bases will also be used in ongoing installation program design.

  18. Parasite communities of Adriatic cage-reared fish.

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Ivona

    2005-04-01

    From June 2001 to March 2002, 7 semi-offshore facilities in the Adriatic Sea rearing sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, sea bream Sparus aurata, sharpsnout bream Diplodus puntazzo and red sea bream Pagellus bogaraveo aged 1+, were monitored for the presence of protozoan and metazoan parasites. Obtained data sets of abundance and prevalence were used to evaluate the structure and dynamic of infra- and component parasite communities. In all hosts, except the red sea bream, dominant parasites were monogenean specialists, showing clear seasonality. Average infracommunity richness was very low, ranging from 1 to 3 parasites per fish, while at component community level, values ranged from 3 to 8, depending on host species. Based on low diversity indices and a moderate to high similarity coefficient between different facilities, it can be concluded that the parasitofauna of Adriatic cage-reared fish is a stable and impoverished stochastic assemblage, with monogeneans as the predominant parasitic group. PMID:15900691

  19. Adriatic Sea Decision Support System (ADRI-DSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppini, Giovanni; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Pinardi, Nadia; Montanari, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Attilio; Serra, Stefano; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2010-05-01

    The Adriatic Sea decision support system (ADRI-DSS) consists of an on-line service built upon a set of integrated operational oceanography products. ADRI-DSS integrates the Adriatic Sea monitoring and forecasting system (AFS) with local in-situ observations and is built to support the Emilia-Romagna coastal monitoring system for marine environment and ecosystem health. The target user is the Regional Environment Prevention Agency from Emilia-Romagna (Italy) called ARPA-EMR. Specifically ADRI-DSS will support the daily action of the oceanographic section of ARPA-EMR called ARPA-DAPHNE providing all the available products (forecast, observations, simulations) from Adriatic Forecasting System. The product is shaped as required by the user and moreover ADRI-DSS also integrates with the routinely observations that the user carry out on a weekly basis. The system has been designed through the interaction with ARPA-DAPHNE and consists of a online portal containing simulation and forecast for the relevant north Adriatic region. Moreover the model products are compared with in-situ observations of temperature and salinity collected by the ARPA-DAPHNE itself. In the coming future also satellite observations and indicators will be made available by ADRI-DSS. The final aim of ADRI-DSS is to integrate selected products from the AFS with the insitu and satellite observation to support the monitoring activities of ARPA-DAPNHE and to improve ARPA-DAPHNE capabilities for the Emilia-Romagna marine environment status assessment. ADRI-DSS has been developed within ECOOP project (European COastal-shelf sea OPerational Observing and forecasting system Integrated Project). ADRI-DSS is a web-based application available via internet browsers with JavaScript capability. The server part is implemented on PHP (data management) and NCL (graphics production). The NCL is NCAR Command Language, a free interpreted language designed specifically for scientific data processing and visualization, see

  20. Coflexip installs flexible water line in Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on the design, manufacture, transport and installation of a submarine pipe line network. The network would transport potable water from Yugoslavia's Dubroynil and Peljesac peninsula to the islands of Elafiti and Mljet, popular resort areas in the Adriatic Sea. The pipe line network consists of five separate 8-in. ID flexible lines, each 10 mi long. The pipe is made of thermoplastic tubing, a steel carcass and double crossword armor. The tubing is suitable for potable water service.

  1. Lithosphere model of the Pannonian-Adriatic overthrusting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šumanovac, Franjo

    2015-12-01

    A gravity model has been established at the contact of the southern part of the Pannonian basin and central Dinarides. Two-dimensional gravity modelling was carried out by means of the calibrated density set, defined at the Alp07 profile (Šumanovac, 2010), which significantly improved the resolution of the method. Gravity attraction caused by the structure in the upper mantle was analyzed in detail, which enabled construction of complete lithosphere model at the contact of the Dinarides, as a part of the Adriatic microplate, and the Pannonian basin as a segment of the Eurasian plate. Geophysical models demonstrate that overthrusting structures need to be considered in the present geological model; notably, the thrusting of the Adriatic microplate under the European plate. However, overthrusting processes cannot provide a complete explanation of the processes in the Pannonian basin. Considering that the Pannonian basin area is in fact a large geothermal anomaly, it is necessary to introduce the asthenosphere upwelling into the model. The presence of this structure is confirmed by a change in densities and seismic velocities in the uppermost mantle. This process has led to a significant thinning of the crust in the Tisia block and to the homogenization of properties as a result of the rising of the asthenosphere, and the crust can therefore be considered as a single layer. The combined effect of the push exerted by the African plate, and the rising of the asthenosphere and the thinning of the crust in the Pannonian basin caused the underthrusting of the Adriatic microplate below the Pannonian segment, thickening of the crust and steeply sinking of the Adriatic upper mantle below the Dinarides. Seismicity of the area and earthquake hypocenters enable the construction of active faults, which correlate well with the main faults at the surface and boundaries of density blocks in the crust.

  2. Haloarchaeal communities in the crystallizers of two adriatic solar salterns.

    PubMed

    Pasić, Lejla; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Crnigoj, Miha; Grabnar, Miklavz; Velikonja, Blagajana Herzog

    2007-01-01

    Solar salterns operate only for short dry periods of the year in the north shore of the Adriatic Sea because of its relatively humid and cold Mediterranean climate. In a previous paper, we showed that the NaCl precipitation ponds (crystallizers) of Northern Adriatic Secovlje salterns have different haloarchaeal populations from those typically found in dry and hot climates such as Southern Spain. To check whether there is a common pattern of haloarchaeal diversity in these less extreme conditions, diversity in crystallizers of other Adriatic solar salterns in Ston, Croatia was ascertained by molecular and culture methods. In addition, the cultivation approach was used to further describe haloarchaeal diversity in both salterns. Over the period of two solar salt collection seasons, isolates related to species of the genera Haloferax, Haloarcula, and Haloterrigena were recovered from both salterns. Within the same sampling effort, relatives of the genus Halorubrum and a Natrinema-like isolate were cultivated from Slovenian Secovlje salterns while Halobacterium related isolates were obtained from the Croatian Ston salterns. Concurrent with our previous findings, a library of Croatian saltern crystallizer PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes was dominated by sequences related to the genus Halorubrum. The microbial community structure was similar in both salterns but diversity indices showed greater values in Slovenian salterns when compared with Croatian salterns. PMID:17496945

  3. Atmospheric and oceanologic conditions favouring large bioproduction of northern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Romina; Lučić, Davor; Njire, Jakica; Djakovac, Tamara; Precali, Robert; Supić, Nastjenjka

    2016-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study based on long term data collected in the northern Adriatic relieved winter period to be crucial for the total annual zooplankton production in the region. Namely, yearly averages of some investigated zooplankton species in the 2000-2007 interval were highly related to their February and/or March abundances. The large winter zooplankton abundances appeared in winters of the "A type", in which freshened waters from the Po River spread over the region. Also, the production of phytoplankton was in winters of the "A type" higher than in winters of the "B type", in which these waters are restricted to the coastal areas and do not impact the open sea. That was presumably due to increase in nutrients. In fact, the total inorganic nitrogen and ortophosphate concentration in eastern part reached maximal February values in the 1990-2007 interval in winters of the "A type". Spreading of the Po River water across the northern Adriatic and appearance of the two winter types depends on the existing geostrophic circulation patterns and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions in the preceding months, thus enabling forecast. Obtained results are basis for the future theoretical ecological model which can explain long term changes in bioproduction in the region and be used in planning future environment actions aimed to sustained development, especially as winter phytoplankton and zooplankton production seems to reflect on annual catch of small pelagic fish important for Adriatic fishery, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus).

  4. Accumulation of organotins in seafood leads to reproductive tract abnormalities in female rats.

    PubMed

    Podratz, Priscila L; Merlo, Eduardo; Sena, Gabriela C; Morozesk, Mariana; Bonomo, Marina M; Matsumoto, Silvia T; da Costa, Mércia B; Zamprogno, Gabriela C; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Miguel, Emilio de C; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Graceli, Jones B

    2015-11-01

    Organotins (OTs) are environmental contaminants used as biocides in antifouling paints that have been shown to be endocrine disrupters. However, studies evaluating the effects of OTs accumulated in seafood (LNI) on reproductive health are particularly sparse. This study demonstrates that LNI leads to impairment in the reproductive tract of female rats, as the estrous cycle development, as well as for ovary and uterus morphology. Rats were treated with LNI, and their reproductive morphophysiology was assessed. Morphophysiological abnormalities, such as irregular estrous cycles, abnormal ovarian follicular development and ovarian collagen deposition, were observed in LNI rats. An increase in luminal epithelia and ERα expression was observed in the LNI uteri. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that LNI are toxic for reproductive morphophysiology, which may be associated with risks to reproductive function. PMID:26050607

  5. Prevalence of Pandemic Thermostable Direct Hemolysin-Producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 in Seafood and the Coastal Environment in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Sugiyama, Kanji; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Chowdhury, Ashrafuzzaman; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Ohtomo, Yoshimitsu; Saito, Akinobu; Nagano, Hidetoshi; Nishina, Tokuhiro; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Konuma, Hirotaka; Miyahara, Michiko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    Although thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus has caused many infections in Asian countries, the United States, and other countries, it has been difficult to detect the same pathogen in seafoods and other environmental samples. In this study, we detected and enumerated tdh gene-positive V. parahaemolyticus in Japanese seafoods with a tdh-specific PCR method, a chromogenic agar medium, and a most-probable-number method. The tdh gene was detected in 33 of 329 seafood samples (10.0%). The number of tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus ranged from <3 to 93/10 g. The incidence of tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus tended to be high in samples contaminated with relatively high levels of total V. parahaemolyticus. TDH-producing strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from 11 of 33 tdh-positive samples (short-necked clam, hen clam, and rock oyster). TDH-producing strains of V. parahaemolyticus were also isolated from the sediments of rivers near the coast in Japan. Representative strains of the seafood and sediment isolates were examined for the O:K serovar and by the PCR method specific to the pandemic clone and arbitrarily primed PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques. The results indicated that most O3:K6 tdh-positive strains belonged to the pandemic O3:K6 clone and suggested that serovariation took place in the Japanese environment. PMID:12839757

  6. Molecular fingerprinting of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica derby isolated from tropical seafood in South India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2008-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby strains isolated from different seafood were genotyped by PCR-ribotyping and ERIC-PCR assays. This study has ascertained the genetic relatedness among serovars prevalent in tropical seafood. PCR-ribotyping exhibited genetic variation in both Salmonella serovars, and ribotype profile (II) was most predominant, which was observed in 10/18 of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and 7/17 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby isolates. Cluster analysis of ERIC-PCR for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium strains exhibited nine different banding patterns and four strains showed >95% genetic homology within the cluster pairs. ERIC-PCR produced more genetic variations in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium; nevertheless, both methods were found to be comparable for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby isolates. Discrimination index of PCR-ribotyping for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium isolates was obtained at 0.674 and index value 0.714 was observed for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby strains. Molecular fingerprinting investigation highlighted the hypothesis of diverse routes of Salmonella contamination in seafood as multiple clones of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby were detected in same or different seafood throughout the study period. PMID:18480975

  7. Impact of winter oceanographic conditions on zooplankton abundance in northern Adriatic with implications on Adriatic anchovy stock prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Romina; Supić, Nastjenjka; Lučić, Davor; Njire, Jakica

    2015-12-01

    Anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus (L.), is commercially one of the most important Adriatic small pelagic fish. Despite the prevailing oligotrophication trend in the northern Adriatic (NA), the anchovy catch increased after 2000, coinciding with an increased number of the winter type A occurrences, when Po River waters are favoured to spread across the NA. Namely, winter type A is characterised by conditions resulting with Po River waters spreading across the NA along with salinity decrease. On the contrary, in winters of type B, salinity is high. We hypothesized in previous paper, based on correlation between circulation patterns and phytoplankton with anchovy catch, that excess feeding of anchovy in this winter pre-spawning period (February) can lead to increased amounts of the anchovy eggs two months later and subsequently to the total fish catch of the same year. In this paper, we investigate in more details and based on longer time series the relation between anchovy catch and winter circulation patterns of the NA. Additionally, we studied the association between anchovy catch and zooplankton, as anchovy is predominantly zooplanktivorous. We found that zooplankton abundances in winters of A type enhance and that ciliates play an important role in the NA anchovy food web and enrichment of the region with anchovy. Finally, the results of our investigation might in time represent the basics for a sustainable anchovy management in the Adriatic Sea as they enable the development of prediction models of the anchovy stock.

  8. Enzymes from Seafood Processing Waste and Their Applications in Seafood Processing.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, V

    2016-01-01

    Commercial fishery processing results in discards up to 50% of the raw material, consisting of scales, shells, frames, backbones, viscera, head, liver, skin, belly flaps, dark muscle, roe, etc. Besides, fishing operations targeted at popular fish and shellfish species also result in landing of sizeable quantity of by-catch, which are not of commercial value because of their poor consumer appeal. Sensitivity to rapid putrefaction of fishery waste has serious adverse impact on the environment, which needs remedial measures. Secondary processing of the wastes has potential to generate a number of valuable by-products such as proteins, enzymes, carotenoids, fat, and minerals, besides addressing environmental hazards. Fishery wastes constitute good sources of enzymes such as proteases, lipases, chitinase, alkaline phosphatase, transglutaminase, hyaluronidase, acetyl glycosaminidase, among others. These enzymes can have diverse applications in the seafood industry, which encompass isolation and modification of proteins and marine oils, production of bioactive peptides, acceleration of traditional fermentation, peeling and deveining of shellfish, scaling of finfish, removal of membranes from fish roe, extraction of flavors, shelf life extension, texture modification, removal of off-odors, and for quality control either directly or as components of biosensors. Enzymes from fish and shellfish from cold habitats are particularly useful since they can function comparatively at lower temperatures thereby saving energy and protecting the food products. Potentials of these applications are briefly discussed. PMID:27452165

  9. Infections related to the ingestion of seafood. Part II: parasitic infections and food safety.

    PubMed

    Butt, Adeel A; Aldridge, Kenneth E; Sanders, Charles V

    2004-05-01

    Parasites are responsible for a substantial number of seafood-associated infections. The factor most commonly associated with infection is consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. People with underlying disorders, particularly liver disease, are more susceptible to infection. In the first part of this review, published last month, we discussed the viral and bacterial agents associated with consumption of seafood. In part II, we discuss the parasites commonly associated with seafood consumption. Parasites readily identifiable from both consumable seafood and infected human beings include nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, and protozoa. The salient features associated with seafood-related parasite infestations are discussed. To provide a safe product for consumers, the seafood industry and the government in the USA have undertaken specific measures, which include good manufacturing practices and hazards analysis and critical control points implemented by the government and regulatory agencies. Consumers should take common precautions including obtaining seafood from reputable sources especially if the seafood is to be consumed uncooked. Adequate cooking of seafood is the safest way of preventing related infections. PMID:15120346

  10. Qualified temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen climatologies in a changing Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipizer, M.; Partescano, E.; Rabitti, A.; Giorgetti, A.; Crise, A.

    2014-10-01

    An updated climatology, based on a comprehensive data set (1911-2009) of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, has been produced for the whole Adriatic Sea with the variational inverse method using the DIVA (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis) software. Climatological maps were produced at 26 levels and validated with ordinary cross-validation and with a real vs. synthetic temperature-salinity diagram intercomparison. The concept of climatology-observation misfit (COM) has been introduced as an estimate of the physical variability associated with the climatological structures. In order to verify the temporal stability of the climatology, long-term variability has been investigated in the Middle Adriatic and the South Adriatic pits, regarded as the most suitable records of possible long-term changes. Compared with previous climatologies, this study allows a clear identification of the seasonal dynamic of the southern Adriatic, where a clear oxygen minimum is typically observed in the centre of the South Adriatic Gyre. New and better resolved features emerged from this analysis: (1) below 100 m all properties profoundly differ between the central and the southern Adriatic and seem characterized by different biogeochemical dynamics; (2) the South Adriatic Pit clearly shows the remote effects of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient, while no effect is observed in the Middle Adriatic Pit; (3) the deepest part of the southern Adriatic seems now to be significantly saltier (+0.18 psu since the period 1910-1914, with an increase of +0.018 decade-1 since the late 1940s) and warmer (+0.54 °C since 1910-1914) even though a long-term temperature trend could not be statistically demonstrated; (4) the Middle Adriatic Pit shows a long-term increase in apparent oxygen utilization (+0.77 mL L-1 since 1910-1914, with a constant increase of +0.2 mL L-1 decade-1 after the 1970s).

  11. Qualified temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen climatologies in a changing Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipizer, M.; Partescano, E.; Rabitti, A.; Giorgetti, A.; Crise, A.

    2014-02-01

    An updated climatology, based on a comprehensive dataset (1911-2009) of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, has been produced for the whole Adriatic Sea with the Variational Inverse Method using the DIVA software. Climatological maps were produced at 26 levels and validated with Ordinary Cross Validation and with real vs. synthetic Temperature-Salinity diagram intercomparison. The concept of Climatology-Observation Misfit (COM) has been introduced as an estimate of the physical variability associated with the climatological structures. In order to verify the temporal stability of the climatology, long-term variability has been investigated in the Mid Adriatic and the South Adriatic Pits, regarded as the most suitable records of possible long-term changes. Compared with previous climatologies, this study reveals a surface temperature rise (up to 2 °C), a clear deep dissolved oxygen minimum in the South Adriatic Gyre and a bottom summer oxygen minimum in the North Adriatic. Below 100 m all properties profoundly differ between the Middle and the South Adriatic. The South Adriatic Pit clearly shows the remote effects of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient, while no effect is observed in Middle Adriatic Pits. The deepest part of the South Adriatic seems now to be significantly saltier (+0.18 since the period 1911-1914, with an increase of +0.018 decade-1 since the late 1940s) and warmer (+0.54 °C since 1911-1914), even though a long-term temperature trend could not be statistically demonstrated. Conversely, the Middle Adriatic Pits present a long-term increase in apparent oxygen utilisation (+0.77 mL L-1 since 1911-1914, with a constant increase of +0.2 mL L-1 decade-1 after the 1970s).

  12. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafoods from Lake Timsah.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gamal A

    2002-03-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrpcarvons (PAHs) in some seafoods caught from Lake Timsah were determined. The tested samples were tilapia fish (Oreochromis aureus), crabs (Portuns pelagicus), bivalves (Venerupis decussata), clams (Strombus tricornis) and gastropods (Munes Sp.). Where these seafoods are locally and favorite consumed foods in the area around the lake (Ismailia governorate). Results showed that crabs contained significantly higher concentrations of both total and carcinogenic PAHs ranging from 1318.6 to 3767.4 and 1230.3 to 3442.2 microg kg(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, clams contained significantly lower levels with mean value of 28.4 microg kg(-1) for total and 24.4 microg kg(-1) for carcinogenic PAHs. The most frequently detected PAHs in the tested samples were indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene followed by benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene which are characterized as carcinogenic compounds. PMID:11970818

  13. Evaluation of Potential Risk of Botulism from Seafood Cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Lerke, Peter

    1973-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum E could not be detected in 35 samples of commercial seafood cocktails, ranging in pH from 4.10 to 4.85. At 30 C, toxinogenesis in homogenates acidified with a citric-acetic acid mixture was prevented at pH 4.86 or lower for crabmeat and at 5.03 or lower for shrimp. Measurements of the rate of acid penetration into the centers of large pieces of flesh indicated that the already small risk of botulism from seafood cocktails could be completely eliminated by using a cocktail sauce at a maximum pH of 3.70 and by cooling the final product to at least 10 C for 24 h. PMID:4577180

  14. Trends in mercury concentrations in the hair of women of Nome, Alaska - Evidence of seafood consumption or abiotic absorption?

    SciTech Connect

    Lasorsa, B.

    1992-06-01

    Eighty samples of hair from women of child-bearing age from Nome, Alaska, and seven control samples from women living in Sequim, Washington, were analyzed for mercury concentration by segmental analysis in an effort to determine whether seasonal fluctuations in mercury concentration in the hair samples can be correlated to seasonal seafood consumption. Full-length hair strands were analyzed in 1.1-cm segments representing 1 month`s growth using a strong acid digestion and cold vapor atomic fluorescence analysis. It was assumed that the concentration of mercury in each segment is an indicator of the mercury body burden during the month in which the segment emerged from the scalp. Eighteen of the samples show seasonal variability, with five of the controls and one Nome resident showing winter highs while all Nome residents show summer highs. Twenty-six of the samples show an increase in mercury concentration toward the distal end of the strand regardless of month of growth. The trend of increasing mercury concentrations toward the distal end of the hair strand regardless of month of emergence, and the documented presence of elevated levels of elemental mercury in the Nome area suggest that these elevated levels may actually be due to external contamination of the hair strands by adsorption and not due to ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs such as seafood.

  15. Trends in mercury concentrations in the hair of women of Nome, Alaska - Evidence of seafood consumption or abiotic absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Lasorsa, B. )

    1992-06-01

    Eighty samples of hair from women of child-bearing age from Nome, Alaska, and seven control samples from women living in Sequim, Washington, were analyzed for mercury concentration by segmental analysis in an effort to determine whether seasonal fluctuations in mercury concentration in the hair samples can be correlated to seasonal seafood consumption. Full-length hair strands were analyzed in 1.1-cm segments representing 1 month's growth using a strong acid digestion and cold vapor atomic fluorescence analysis. It was assumed that the concentration of mercury in each segment is an indicator of the mercury body burden during the month in which the segment emerged from the scalp. Eighteen of the samples show seasonal variability, with five of the controls and one Nome resident showing winter highs while all Nome residents show summer highs. Twenty-six of the samples show an increase in mercury concentration toward the distal end of the strand regardless of month of growth. The trend of increasing mercury concentrations toward the distal end of the hair strand regardless of month of emergence, and the documented presence of elevated levels of elemental mercury in the Nome area suggest that these elevated levels may actually be due to external contamination of the hair strands by adsorption and not due to ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs such as seafood.

  16. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Drewery, M L; Gaitán, A V; Thaxton, C; Xu, W; Lammi-Keefe, C J

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8-12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  17. Heavy Metals in Seafood and Farm Produce from Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orisakwe, Orish E.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Ajaezi, Godwin C.; Edet, Ukeme W.; Uwana, Patrick U.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to obtain representative data on the levels of heavy metals in seafood and farm produce consumed by the general population in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, a region known for the exploration and exploitation of crude oil. Methods: In May 2012, 25 food items, including common types of seafood, cereals, root crops and vegetables, were purchased in Uyo or collected from farmland in the region. Dried samples were ground, digested and centrifuged. Levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt and chromium) were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Average daily intake and target hazard quotients (THQ) were estimated. Results: Eight food items (millet, maize, periwinkle, crayfish, stock fish, sabina fish, bonga fish and pumpkin leaf) had THQ values over 1.0 for cadmium, indicating a potential health risk in their consumption. All other heavy metals had THQ values below 1.0, indicating insignificant health risks. The total THQ for the heavy metals ranged from 0.389 to 2.986. There were 14 items with total THQ values greater than 1.0, indicating potential health risks in their consumption. Conclusion: The regular consumption of certain types of farm produce and seafood available in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is likely adding to the body burden of heavy metals among those living in this region. PMID:26052462

  18. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lammi-Keefe, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  19. Morphometric Analysis of Major Catchments Draining the Adriatic Indenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Topography and relief in collisional orogens such as the European Alps result from the interplay of uplift driven by plate convergence and crustal shortening, and erosional surface processes that act along evolving topographic gradients and counteract topography formation. Due to ongoing indentation of the Adriatic indenter into the Eastern Alps, the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter is one of the tectonically most active zones of the Central Mediterranean region. The region is characterized by numerous earthquakes, distinct spatial gradients in recent uplift rates and exhumation level, and active faulting. However, the predominance of carbonaceous lithology hindered low-temperature thermochronology and cosmogenic nuclide dating, so that timing, rates and drivers of south-alpine topography development are still not well constrained. Further on, a systematic morphometric analysis of rivers draining the south-alpine indenter is still missing. In this study we fill this gap and investigate the interplay of tectonics and climate by a morphometric analysis of drainage systems of the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter. We systematically extract a variety of characteristic channel metrics of four major drainage systems (Adige, Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento) of this domain and interpret the morphometric results in terms of (a) lithological effects such as erodibility contrasts and karstification, (b) spatially variable uplift rates, (c) base level lowering caused by glacial erosion and possible Messinian preconditioning, and (d) the migration of drainage divides. We find a clear correlation between the normalized steepness index (ksn) and bedrock type. ksn - values are systematically increased whenever rivers incise into the basement of the south-alpine indenter. However, the outcrop of the basement indicates a high level of exhumation and thus the highest overall uplift of the domain such that both increased uplift rates and low rock erodibility may be

  20. Mercury and selenium intake by seafood from the Ionian Sea: A risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Copat, Chiara; Vinceti, Marco; D'Agati, Maria Grazia; Arena, Giovanni; Mauceri, Valeria; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Ferrante, Margherita

    2014-02-01

    The subject of the present study is the evaluation of the concentrations of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) in fish and shellfish from the Gulf of Catania (Ionian Sea) and the assessment of related risk-based consumption limits per single contaminant in adults and children. In contrast to the potential harm from Hg, Se is an essential element that is normally found in high levels in seafood. If the amount of Hg is high enough, it could bind Se and irreversibly inhibit selenium-dependent enzymes. Thus, adequate levels of Se need to be available to replace the amount of Se lost to Hg sequestration, thereby maintaining normal selenoprotein synthesis. Hg analysis was conducted using a flow injection analysis system coupled with an atomic adsorption spectrometer, and Se analysis was conducted using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the trace elements investigated, only Hg has a limit set by the European Community for human consumption, and this was never exceeded. Nevertheless, based on Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) over 1, and on the Estimated Daily Intake per meal (EDIm) higher than the Provisional Tolerable Intake (PTI) suggested by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive (JECFA), Hg oral exposure derived from consumption of the benthonic fish and of the bigger pelagic fish species analyzed, could follow the occurrence of systemic effects. Se was found always in molar excess respect to Hg in all pelagic fish and in the shellfish, nearly equimolar in the benthonic fish. Determining the evidence that foods, such as pelagic fish, with high molar excess of Se, could contribute to replace the amount of Se bound to Hg and thereby maintaining normal selenoprotein synthesis, is useful for a better understanding of the seafood safety. PMID:24433795

  1. A Quantitative Synthesis of Mercury in Commercial Seafood and Implications for Exposure in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Timothy P.; Fisher, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that presents public health risks through fish consumption. A major source of uncertainty in evaluating harmful exposure is inadequate knowledge of Hg concentrations in commercially important seafood. Objectives: We examined patterns, variability, and knowledge gaps of Hg in common commercial seafood items in the United States and compared seafood Hg concentrations from our database to those used for exposure estimates and consumption advice. Methods: We developed a database of Hg concentrations in fish and shellfish common to the U.S. market by aggregating available data from government monitoring programs and the scientific literature. We calculated a grand mean for individual seafood items, based on reported means from individual studies, weighted by sample size. We also compared database results to those of federal programs and human health criteria [U.S. Food and Drug Administration Hg Monitoring Program (FDA-MP), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Results: Mean Hg concentrations for each seafood item were highly variable among studies, spanning 0.3–2.4 orders of magnitude. Farmed fish generally had lower grand mean Hg concentrations than their wild counterparts, with wild seafood having 2- to12-fold higher concentrations, depending on the seafood item. However, farmed fish are relatively understudied, as are specific seafood items and seafood imports from Asia and South America. Finally, we found large discrepancies between mean Hg concentrations estimated from our database and FDA-MP estimates for most seafood items examined. Conclusions: The high variability in Hg in common seafood items has considerable ramifications for public health and the formulation of consumption guidelines. Exposure and risk analyses derived from smaller data sets do not reflect our collective, available information on seafood Hg concentrations. PMID:22732656

  2. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk and serum collected from lactating mothers in the northern Adriatic area of Yugoslavia

    SciTech Connect

    Krauthacker, B. )

    1991-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent contaminants of the environment. Owing to their lipophilic properties they are primarily stored in fat-rich tissues and fluids of humans and animals. The results of a monitoring study on levels of the DDT-complex, HCH-group of isomers, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB in human milk and serum are presented in this paper. Samples were collected in the northern Adriatic area for which no data have so far been available. Sample donors were chosen from rural and small urban locations where mediterranean eating habits are still maintained. The previous studies were conducted in an industrialized continental town of Croatia.

  3. Marine conservation and accession: the future for the Croatian Adriatic.

    PubMed

    Mackelworth, Peter; Holcer, Draško; Jovanović, Jelena; Fortuna, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    The European Union (EU) is the world's largest trading bloc and the most influential supra-national organisation in the region. The EU has been the goal for many eastern European States, for Croatia accession remains a priority and underpins many of its national policies. However, entry into the EU requires certain commitments and concessions. In October 2003 the Croatian parliament declared an ecological and fisheries protection zone in the Adriatic. Under pressure the zone was suspended, finally entering into force in March 2008 exempting EU States. There are other marine conflicts between Croatia and the EU, particularly the contested maritime border with Slovenia, and the development of the Croatian fishing fleet in opposition to the Common Fisheries Policy. Conversely, attempts to harmonise Croatian Nature Protection with the EU Habitats Directive, facilitated by pre-accession funding, has galvanised conservation policy. Since 2005 two marine protected areas have been declared, significantly increasing the marine ecosystem under protection. Finally, the development of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the latest EU attempt to integrate environmental policy in the maritime realm. This will have an effect not only on member States but neighbouring countries. For marine nature protection to be effective in the region the Adriatic Sea needs to be viewed as a mutually important shared and limited resource not a bargaining chip. Negotiations of the EU and Croatia have been watched closely by the other Balkan States and precedents set in this case have the potential to affect EU expansion to the East. PMID:20221828

  4. Marine Conservation and Accession: The Future for the Croatian Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackelworth, Peter; Holcer, Draško; Jovanović, Jelena; Fortuna, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    The European Union (EU) is the world's largest trading bloc and the most influential supra-national organisation in the region. The EU has been the goal for many eastern European States, for Croatia accession remains a priority and underpins many of its national policies. However, entry into the EU requires certain commitments and concessions. In October 2003 the Croatian parliament declared an ecological and fisheries protection zone in the Adriatic. Under pressure the zone was suspended, finally entering into force in March 2008 exempting EU States. There are other marine conflicts between Croatia and the EU, particularly the contested maritime border with Slovenia, and the development of the Croatian fishing fleet in opposition to the Common Fisheries Policy. Conversely, attempts to harmonise Croatian Nature Protection with the EU Habitats Directive, facilitated by pre-accession funding, has galvanised conservation policy. Since 2005 two marine protected areas have been declared, significantly increasing the marine ecosystem under protection. Finally, the development of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the latest EU attempt to integrate environmental policy in the maritime realm. This will have an effect not only on member States but neighbouring countries. For marine nature protection to be effective in the region the Adriatic Sea needs to be viewed as a mutually important shared and limited resource not a bargaining chip. Negotiations of the EU and Croatia have been watched closely by the other Balkan States and precedents set in this case have the potential to affect EU expansion to the East.

  5. Climatology of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen in a changing Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipizer, Marina; Crise, Alessandro; Partescano, Elena; Rabitti, Anna; Giorgetti, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    A new climatology, based on a comprehensive dataset (1911-2009) of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, is presented for the whole Adriatic Sea, by using Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA). Climatological maps were produced at 26 levels and validated with Ordinary Cross Validation. The approximation error and the uncertainty degree associated to the updated climatology have been estimated in order to provide information on the reliability of the products obtained. The concept of Climatology-Observation Misfit (COM) has been introduced as an estimate of the uncertainty of the patterns revealed in the climatology, which is induced by the dynamical variability associated with the climatological structures. The uncertainty associated with the climatology, higher in the upper layer and in the northern and shallower part of the basin, underlines the importance of mesoscale processes in the Adriatic Sea. Lastly, in order to identify possible temporal trends, long-term variability has been investigated in the Mid Adriatic and the South Adriatic Pits. New or better resolved features emerged from this analysis: (1) below 100 m all properties profoundly differ between the Middle and the South Adriatic and seem characterized by different biogeochemical dynamics; (2) the South Adriatic Pit clearly shows the remote effects of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient, while no effect is observed in Middle Adriatic Pits; (3) the deepest part of the South Adriatic seems now to be significantly saltier (+0.18 since the period 1910-1914, with an increase of +0.018 decade-1 since the late 1940s) and warmer (+0.54°C since 1910-1914),; (4) the Middle Adriatic Pits present a long-term increase in Apparent Oxygen Utilisation (+0.77 ml l-1 since 1910-1914, with a constant increase of +0.2 ml l-1 decade-1 after the 1970s).

  6. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  7. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  8. Occurrences of igneous rocks in the Adriatic Sea: a possible indicator of the Paleozoic supercontinent disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrna Prašek, Marko; Petrinec, Zorica; Balen, Dražen

    2014-05-01

    Islands of the Adriatic Sea are part of the Mesozoic Adriatic Dinaridic Carbonate Platform (ADCP) and so are mostly comprised of limestones. Occurrences of igneous rocks inside ADCP are in general extremely rare, with the exception of two small islands, Jabuka and Brusnik, which are completely igneous in origin. Small outcrops of igneous rocks can also be found on the island of Vis. Samples used in this research where gathered on a diving expedition of the islands Jabuka and Brusnik and a previously unknown and unexplored underwater (14-25 m b.s.l.) locality - Brusnik Shoal. Samples are mostly hypidiomorphic holocrystalline medium-grained rocks with a massive, locally ophitic texture. Mineral composition is dominated by clinopyroxene and weakly zoned polysynthetic twins of plagioclase. Subordinate are secondary aggregates of amphibole (uralite), chlorite, sericite, biotite, apatite and fine-grained opâque minerals while microfissures are filled with non-oriented needles of prehnite and calcite. Petrographically, all samples are determined as gabbro to gabbro-diorite. Major and trace element signature, characterized by low content of MgO (2.43-5.01 wt. %), low magnesium number (34-53), low content of Ni and Cr (6-12 and 6-61 ppm, respectively) is typical for calc-alkaline to tholeiitic gabbros and shows that the parental magma was not primitive by nature. Trace element patterns, high LILE/HSFE and chondrite-normalized LREE/HREE ratios (LaN/YbN: 3.27 - 5.26), Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*: 0.75 - 0.93), low Nb (2.2 - 3.8 ppm) and high Pb (2 - 18 ppm), together with elevated P, Zr, Ti, U, Th, K concentrations studied in this research point to an active marginal setting with significant contribution from the recycled continental crust. Observed geochemical characteristics point to a single igneous event that led to the formation of all studied samples. At the same time, different degrees of crustal contamination, fractionation of pyroxene and plagioclase and/or development of

  9. Seafood-Associated Shellfish Allergy: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Khora, Samanta S

    2016-08-01

    Shellfish are diverse, serve as main constituents of seafood, and are extensively consumed globally because of their nutritional values. Consequently, increase in reports of IgE-mediated seafood allergy is particularly food associated to shellfish. Seafood-associated shellfish consists of crustaceans (decapods, stomatopods, barnacles, and euphausiids) and molluskans (gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods) and its products can start from mild local symptoms and lead to severe systemic anaphylactic reactions through ingestion, inhalation, or contact like most other food allergens. Globally, the most commonly causative shellfish are shrimps, crabs, lobsters, clams, oysters, and mussels. The prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated to be 0.5-2.5% of the general population but higher in coastal Asian countries where shellfish constitute a large proportion of the diet. Diversity in allergens such as tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, and sarcoplasmic binding protein are from crustaceans whereas tropomyosin, paramyosin, troponin, actine, amylase, and hemoyanin are reported from molluskans shellfish. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between shellfish and other invertebrates, within crustaceans, within molluskans, between crustaceans vs. molluskans as well as between shellfish and fish. Allergenicity diagnosis requires clinical history, in vivo skin prick testing, in vitro quantification of IgE, immunoCAP, and confirmation by oral challenge testing unless the reactions borne by it are life-threatening. This comprehensive review provides the update and new findings in the area of shellfish allergy including demographic, diversity of allergens, allergenicity, their cross-reactivity, and innovative molecular genetics approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-threatening as well as life-long disease. PMID:27404324

  10. Cancer and Noncancer Mortality Among American Seafood Workers

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric S.; Faramawi, Mohammed F; Sall, Macodu; Choi, Kyung-Mee

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated mortality in seafood workers worldwide, and no such study has been conducted in the United States. The objective of this study was to investigate mortality in American seafood workers. Methods The study population was derived from 4 states and consisted of 4116 subjects who worked mainly in seafood processing plants. They were followed up from 1966 to 2003. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) were estimated, using the US general population for comparison. Results About 45% of the cohort was born after 1949. A total of 788 deaths were recorded; 53% of the decedents were female, and 88% were white. The SMRs for stomach cancer and disorders of the thyroid gland in the cohort as a whole were 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–3.8) and 6.1 (95% CI 1.3–18.0), respectively. The SMRs for breast cancer, and occlusion/stenosis of the pre-cerebral/cerebral arteries in the cohort as a whole were 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3–0.9) and 0.5 (95% CI, 0.2–0.8), respectively. The SMR for ischemic heart disease in white females was 0.8 (95% CI, 0.6–0.9). Conclusions This cohort had excess deaths from stomach cancer and disorders of the thyroid gland, and deficit of deaths from breast cancer, stroke and ischemic heart disease. The significance of these findings is unknown, especially as less than 20% of the cohort were deceased. Nevertheless, the cohort is unique and important, and further follow-up may shed more light on mortality patterns in this occupational group. PMID:21467730

  11. JV Task - 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

    2009-03-30

    Continuing studies under these three funded projects - (JV Task 77 The Health Implications of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, JV Task 96 Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, and JV Task 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue) - were performed to determine the effects of different levels of dietary mercury and selenium on the growth and development of test animals, and related tissue analyses, to understand the protective benefits of dietary selenium in reference to low-level exposure to mercury. Maternal exposure to methylmercury from seafood has been found to cause neurodevelopmental harm in children. However, significant nutritional benefits will be lost if fish consumption is needlessly avoided. The results of these studies support the hypothesis that intracellular Se itself is the physiologically important biomolecule and that the harm of mercury toxicity arises when Hg abundance becomes great enough to bind a significant portion of intracellular Se in vulnerable tissues such as the brain. Formation of HgSe limits bioavailability of Se for synthesis of Se-dependent enzymes, particularly in brain tissues. When production of these enzymes is impaired, the loss of their numerous essential functions results in the signs and symptoms of Hg toxicity. The finding that one mole of Se protects against many moles of Hg indicates that its beneficial effect is not due to sequestration of mercury as HgSe but rather due to the biological activity of the Se. Therefore, the selenium content of seafoods must be considered along with their methylmercury contents in evaluating the effect of dietary exposure to mercury.

  12. Numerical modelling of sediment transport in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, A.; Souza, A. J.; Pinardi, N.; Traykovski, P.

    2014-06-01

    A new sediment transport model, considering currents, tides and waves is presented for the Adriatic Sea basin. The simulations concentrate on the winter of 2002-2003 because of field data availability and interesting intermittent processes occurrence. A process oriented analysis is performed to investigate the impact that Sirocco and Bora wind regimes have on sediment transport. The comparisons of the simulations with the observed data show that the model is capable to capture the main dynamics of sediment transport along the Italian coasts and the sediment concentration within the water column. This latter can reach values up to several g L-1, especially within the first centimetres above the bottom. The sediments are transported mainly southwards along the Italian coasts, consistently with the known literature results, except during Sirocco wind events, which can be responsible for reversing the coastal circulation in the northern area of the basin, and consequently the sediment transport. The resuspension of sediments is also related to the specific wave regimes induced by Bora and Sirocco, the former inducing resuspension events near the coasts while the latter causing a more diffused resuspension regime in the Northern Adriatic basin. Beside the realistic representation of short timescales resuspension/deposition events due to storms, the model was also used to investigate persistent erosion or deposition areas in the Adriatic Sea. Two main depocenters were identified: one, very pronounced, in the surroundings of the Po river delta, and another one a few kilometres off the coast in front of the Ancona promontory. A third region of accumulation, even if less intense, was found to be offshore the southernmost limit of the Gargano region. On the contrary the whole western coast within a distance of a few kilometres from the shore was found to be subject to prevailing erosion. The comparison with observed accumulation and erosion data shows that the model captures

  13. Distribution of phosphorus in the eastern Adriatic Sea sediments (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijević, Slavica; Bogner, Danijela; Kušpilić, Grozdan; Veža, Jere

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is very important nutrient for the eastern Adriatic Sea owing to its limiting role in the primary production. Orthophosphate concentrations are low (median HPO42- value: 0.039 µmol dm-3) as a consequence of relatively small number of freshwater inflows and cyclonic circulation of oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean water masses. Due to anthropogenic influence in coastal areas such as bays, estuaries and channel waters, P concentrations increment occurred leading to the formation of trophic gradient from the open sea towards the coast. As marine sediment presents the ultimate sink for particulate organic P from the water column, as well as for inorganic P forms, knowledge about distribution of different sediment P species is of great importance for understanding the burial, diagenesis and environmental geochemical significance of P. This paper presents results of P distribution at the eastern Adriatic sites of different trophic status (open sea, channel, estuary, semi-enclosed bay under the anthropogenic influence and fish farms) during 2002-2012. In the water column dissolved and particulate inorganic and organic P were analyzed. In all sediments total phosphorus (organic and inorganic P) was determined, while at certain sites beside organic P, inorganic P forms were examined using modified SEDEX methods (P in biogenic - P-FD; authigenic - P-AUT and in detrital apatite - P-DET; phosphorus bound to iron oxides and hydroxides - P-Fe). Various geochemical variables in the water column and sediment (HPO42- concentration, sediment redox potential, granulometric composition, carbonate content, iron, organic carbon and total nitrogen content) were also investigated. Results proved total P concentrations range between 3 and 161 µmol g-1, with highest values at sites under the strong anthropogenic impact including fish farms, estuaries and bay areas. Major inorganic P species in the eastern Adriatic was P-Fe form. Fish debris P species P-FD, prevailed in

  14. Chemical properties of surimi seafood nutrified with ω-3 rich oils.

    PubMed

    Pietrowski, Brittney N; Tahergorabi, Reza; Matak, Kristen E; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    Surimi-based seafood products are widely accepted and enjoyed worldwide. The US consumption increased in 1980s; however, it leveled thereafter. Food products nutrified with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are in increasing demand due to demonstrated health benefits. Currently, surimi seafood is not nutrified with ω-3 PUFAs. In the present study, surimi seafood was nutritionally-enhanced with ω-3 PUFAs-rich oils (flaxseed, algae, menhaden, krill, and blend). The objectives were (1) chemical characterization of FA composition and oxidation, and (2) determination of physicochemical properties (colour and texture) of the nutritionally-enhanced surimi seafood. Oil addition resulted in increased (P<0.05) concentration of total ω-3 FAs in surimi seafood; however, the concentration of α-linolenic (ALA, 18:3ω-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω-3) acids depended on which oil was added. Although the ω-3 PUFAs nutrification resulted in increased (P<0.05) susceptibility of surimi seafood to lipid oxidation, it was within ranges acceptable to consumers. Texture analysis (texture profile analysis, Kramer shear and torsion test) showed that ω-3 PUFAs nutrification did not affect texture. Colour properties of ω-3 PUFAs nutrified surimi seafood were generally improved except when krill oil or blend was added. This study demonstrates that nutritional value of surimi seafood can be enhanced with concurrent improvement of colour and without affecting texture. PMID:25212318

  15. 78 FR 66899 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Commercial Fisheries Seafood Processor Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...; Commercial Fisheries Seafood Processor Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... collection. The objective of the survey is to collect information on seafood plant characteristics, plant... information collected in this survey will be used to provide information on ] potential impacts of...

  16. World Foods. Fish and Seafood - The Present and Future Use in World Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in the study of fish and seafood and their contribution in the present and future to feeding the world's people. The guide's one unit provides an overview of the various uses of fish and seafood in various cuisines, their nutritional qualities, their various classifications and forms, and the…

  17. Applications of remote sensing for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Vitiello, F.; Borfecchia, F.; De Cecco, L.; Martini, S.

    1997-08-01

    The paper shows the remote sensing activities that ENEA is carrying out for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions and their modifications over the last fifteen years. The activities were requested by the Italian Research Ministry to gain knowledge of the circulation model of the Adriatic Sea and to understand what caused algae blooms in some of the last years. The Adriatic Sea is a high environmental risk sea, because its depth is low and a strong pollutant charge is coming into the sea from the Po river and from many other rivers of the NE coast of Italy. Processing of satellite images has covered the period from 1980 up to now and has allowed the reconstruction of modifications of the environmental conditions of the sea. The paper shows the first results obtained by remote sensing images processing that will be utilized for the database of the Adriatic Sea.

  18. A High Throughput Method for Measuring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seafood Using QuEChERS Extraction and SBSE.

    PubMed

    Pfannkoch, Edward A; Stuff, John R; Whitecavage, Jacqueline A; Blevins, John M; Seely, Kathryn A; Moran, Jeffery H

    2015-01-01

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Method NMFS-NWFSC-59 2004 is currently used to quantitatively analyze seafood for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, especially following events such as the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that released millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This method has limited throughput capacity; hence, alternative methods are necessary to meet analytical demands after such events. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an effective technique to extract trace PAHs in water and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction strategy effectively extracts PAHs from complex food matrices. This study uses SBSE to concentrate PAHs and eliminate matrix interference from QuEChERS extracts of seafood, specifically oysters, fish, and shrimp. This method provides acceptable recovery (65-138%) linear calibrations and is sensitive (LOD = 0.02 ppb, LOQ = 0.06 ppb) while providing higher throughput and maintaining equivalency between NOAA 2004 as determined by analysis of NIST SRM 1974b mussel tissue. PMID:25873967

  19. A High Throughput Method for Measuring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seafood Using QuEChERS Extraction and SBSE

    PubMed Central

    Pfannkoch, Edward A.; Stuff, John R.; Whitecavage, Jacqueline A.; Blevins, John M.; Seely, Kathryn A.; Moran, Jeffery H.

    2015-01-01

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Method NMFS-NWFSC-59 2004 is currently used to quantitatively analyze seafood for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, especially following events such as the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that released millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This method has limited throughput capacity; hence, alternative methods are necessary to meet analytical demands after such events. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an effective technique to extract trace PAHs in water and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction strategy effectively extracts PAHs from complex food matrices. This study uses SBSE to concentrate PAHs and eliminate matrix interference from QuEChERS extracts of seafood, specifically oysters, fish, and shrimp. This method provides acceptable recovery (65–138%) linear calibrations and is sensitive (LOD = 0.02 ppb, LOQ = 0.06 ppb) while providing higher throughput and maintaining equivalency between NOAA 2004 as determined by analysis of NIST SRM 1974b mussel tissue. PMID:25873967

  20. Synthetic musk in seafood products from south Europe using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction method.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, M; Cavalheiro, J; Lanceleur, L; Monperrus, M

    2016-06-01

    This study aims at developing a method for the determination of 9 synthetic musk compounds in seafood products by combining the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and determination by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). Method detection limits (MDL) ranging between 0.001 and 1.94 ng g(-1) were obtained. The linearity is higher than 0.9899 in the range MDL - 100 ng g(-1) with precision below 18% and recoveries between 46% and 120% were obtained. The method was applied to quantify musk compounds in seafood products from the European southwest coast (oysters, mussels, salmon organs, glass eels). Galaxolide and Tonalide exhibited the highest concentration levels ranging between MDL - 96.4 ng g(-1) and MDL - 6.85 ng g(-1), respectively. Contamination levels observed for the two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) are significantly lower ranging between MDL - 0.6 ng g(-1) and MDL - 0.09 ng g(-1), respectively. Analysis of different organs of salmons showed higher concentrations in liver and gonad than in muscle tissues. PMID:26830596

  1. Adriatic indentation of the Eastern Alps - nature vs. analogue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, S.; Scharf, A.; Schuster, R.; Handy, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Alps underwent late Oligocene-Miocene indentation by the Adriatic microplate, followed by rapid Miocene exhumation in the Tauern Window and orogen-parallel escape. Analogue models of indentation in the Eastern Alps indicate that exhumation of orogenic crust in front of the Adriatic indenter was coeval, with faults and post-nappe folds forming an asymmetrical conjugate pattern in front of the indenting block (Ratschbacher et al 1991, Rosenberg et al 2007). The amount and rate of exhumation is greatest at this location, but decrease laterally towards an unconfined boundary of the models that represents the retreating Carpathian subduction orogen. In nature, however, isotopic age patterns of deeply buried and exhumed basements rocks in the Tauern Window of the Eastern Alps indicate that cooling and possibly also exhumation were diachronous along strike of the orogen. In the westernmost Tauern Window, previous thermal modeling of fission-track ages (Fügenschuh et al 1997) revealed that rapid exhumation (≥ 1mm/a) lasted from 20-13 Ma and appears to have been triggered by sinistral transpression along the Guidicarie Belt beginning in Late Oligocene time. Rapid cooling (≥25°C/Ma) from 550 to 270°C lasted from 18-12 Ma (von Blanckenburg et al 1989; Fügenschuh et al 1997). In the easternmost part, however, rapid cooling from a similar peak temperature lasted from 23-20 Ma and ended no later than 17 Ma. Thus, rapid exhumation cannot have begun later than 23-21 Ma. Cooling patterns in the eastern central part of the Tauern Window are more complex and reflect the combined effects of doming and extensional exhumation. New Rb-Sr mica ages in post-nappe basement domes generally decrease from NW (muscovite: 26 Ma; biotite: 22 Ma) to SE (muscovite: 22 Ma; biotite: 18 Ma). We interpret these trends to show that doming began in the south-central part of the Tauern Window and then migrated to the SE while the entire basement nappe pile underwent orogen

  2. Variability of PAHs and trace metals in the sediments in relation to environmental characteristics of the bottom layer in the middle Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Federica; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Campanelli, Alessandra; Guicciardi, Stefano; Marini, Mauro; Marasovic, Ivona; Grbec, Branka; Skejić, Sanda; Ujević, Ivana; Lušić, Jelena

    2015-04-01

    towards the Italian coast. The total PAHs concentrations (sum of 16 PAH priority pollutant - US EPA) recorded in the marine sediments during the cruise in April 2013 showed a higher level of PAH contamination in the pits, especially in the central pit (28.5 ng/g d.w.), in comparison to others analyzed samples. The corresponding bottom water in the central pit is characterized by a temperature of 10.9°C, density of 29.6 kg/m3, salinity of 38.6 and low values of DIN (0.55 μmol•l-1). The linear regression between DIN and PAHs showed a significant negative relationship (p ≤ 0.05). This feature implies a possible accumulation of PAHs very likely due to a lower microbial activity as demonstrated by Xu et al. (2014). The physical and chemical characteristics of the bottom layer in these areas could influence the PAHs contamination of the deep sediments. Bibliography: Grbec, B. and Morović, M. (1997): Seasonal thermohaline fluctuations in the middle Adriatic Sea. Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di Fisica C-Geophysics & Space Physics. 20(4): 561-576. Grilli F., Marini M., Book J. W., Campanelli A., Paschini E., Russo A., 2013. Flux of nutrients between the middle and southern Adriatic Sea (Gargano-Split section). Marine Chemistry 153,1-14. Marini, M., Russo, A., Paschini, E., Grilli, F., Campanelli, A., 2006. Short-term physical and chemical variations in the bottom water of middle Adriatic depressions. Climate Research 31, 227-237. Meiying Xu, Qin Zhang, Chunyu Xia, Yuming Zhong, Guoping Sun, Jun Guo, Tong Yuan, Jizhong Zhou and Zhili He, 2014. Elevated nitrate enriches microbial functional genes for potential bioremediation of complexly contaminated sediments. The ISME Journal 8, 1932-1944 | doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.42 Marasović I., Grbec B. & Morović M., 1995. Long term production changes in the Adriatic. Neth. J. of Sea Res. 34 (4): 267-273. Vilibić I., Grbec B. and Supić N., 2004. Dense water generation in the north Adriatic in 1999 and its recirculation along

  3. Levels and distribution of methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plant and soil samples surrounding a seafood processing factory and a seafood market.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Liu, Jiyan; Liu, Yanwei; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) along with hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were found in plant and soil samples collected surrounding a seafood processing factory and a seafood market in China. The profiles of MeO-PBDE congeners were different between seafood processing factory and seafood market. The detection frequency and concentration of 6-OH-BDE-47 were lower than that of MeO-PBDEs. Near seafood processing factory, a decreasing trend of analyte concentrations in plants was found downstream the river where factory wastewater was discharged. Concentrations of ΣMeO-PBDEs in plant and soil samples showed difference as root > soil > leaf. However, at seafood market, the concentrations of ΣMeO-PBDEs were much higher in leaves than those in soil. The concentration of ΣMeO-PBDEs in leaves showed a remarkable difference between Calystegia soldanella (Linn.) R. Br. and Setaira viridis (L.) Beauv. PMID:23416744

  4. Health risk assessment of hazardous metals for population via consumption of seafood from Ogoniland, Rivers State, Nigeria; a case study of Kaa, B-Dere, and Bodo City.

    PubMed

    Nkpaa, K W; Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, K C; Wegwu, M O; Essien, E B

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the human health risk through consumption of seafood from contaminated sites in Kaa, B-Dere, and Bodo City all in Ogoniland. The potential non-carcinogenic health risk for consumers were investigated by assessing the estimated daily intake and target hazard quotients for Cr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Mn, and Fe while carcinogenic health effect from Cr, Cd, and Pb was also estimated. The estimated daily intake from seafood consumption was below the threshold values for Cr, Mn, and Zn while they exceeded the threshold for Cd, Pb, and Fe. The target hazard quotients for Zn and Cr were below 1. Target hazard quotients values for Cd, Pb, Mn, and Fe were greater than 1 except for Fe level in Liza falcipinis from Kaa. Furthermore, estimation of carcinogenic risk for Cr in all samples under study exceeded the accepted risk level of 10E-4. Also, Cd carcinogenic risk level for L. falcipinis and Callinectes pallidus collected from B-Dere and C. pallidus collected from Bodo City was 1.1E-3 which also exceeded the accepted risk level of 10E-4 for Cd. Estimation of carcinogenic risk for Pb was within the acceptable range of 10E-4. Consumers of seafood from these sites in Ogoniland may be exposed to metal pollution. PMID:26635021

  5. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer. PMID:24651928

  6. Nematofauna in the Adriatic Sea: review and check-list of free-living nematode species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travizi, Ana; Vidaković, Jasna

    1998-02-01

    The present paper presents a collection and synthesis of data found in numerous publications on Adriatic Sea nematofauna, as well as unpublished, data mentioned in annotations. For this purpose, a chronological order of investigations and a general survey of the species that occurred in the Adriatic Sea are given. In all, 281 free-living nematode species comprised in 133 genera and 34 families were discerned and listed in a taxonomic review, according to their spatial distribution. In special cases, descriptions of habitat features were noted. The position of species characterized by high population densities, their importance, and contribution to the faunistic composition of certain parts of the Adriatic were also discussed. The summary of the results, of prevailing research on free-living marine nematodes serves as a tool for making distinctions concerning the research level and state of nematofauna knowledge in different parts of the Adriatic Sea. Northern Adriatic nematofauna has been considerably more intensively investigated than that of the Central and South Adriatic.

  7. Mapping of decadal middle Adriatic oceanographic variability and its relation to the BiOS regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihanović, Hrvoje; Vilibić, Ivica; Dunić, Natalija; Å epić, Jadranka

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed long-term time series of temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations collected along the Palagruža Sill transect (middle Adriatic) between 1952 and 2010. The data have been mostly collected on seasonal basis, allowing for extraction of seasonal signal from the series. By applying Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method, a kind of unsupervised neural network method, the processes on a decadal time scale emerged as the most relevant for changes of oceanographic properties in the middle Adriatic area. Sensitivity studies revealed that oceanographic patterns obtained by SOM were not sensitive to shortening of time series, to removal of data from one station or to removal of DO from the analysis. Simultaneous SOM-based mapping of sea surface heights in the northern Ionian Sea, with these heights serving as a proxy for the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS), revealed asymmetry between anticyclonic and cyclonic BiOS patterns and correlated the decadal oscillations in the middle Adriatic with the reversals in the BiOS circulation regimes. These reversals are found to either rapidly change oceanographic properties in the middle Adriatic (e.g., during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient) or to change them with a time lag of 2-3 years. The mapped connections may be used for a short-time (a few years) forecasting of the Adriatic oceanographic properties or for mapping future climate decadal oscillations as seen by ocean climate models.

  8. Inorganic arsenic in seafood: does the extraction method matter?

    PubMed

    Pétursdóttir, Ásta H; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Nine different extraction methods were evaluated for three seafood samples to test whether the concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) determined in seafood is dependent on the extraction method. Certified reference materials (CRM) DOLT-4 (Dogfish Liver) and TORT-2 (Lobster Hepatopancreas), and a commercial herring fish meal were evaluated. All experimental work described here was carried out by the same operator using the same instrumentation, thus eliminating possible differences in results caused by laboratory related factors. Low concentrations of iAs were found in CRM DOLT-4 (0.012±0.003mgkg(-1)) and the herring fish meal sample (0.007±0.002mgkg(-1)) for all extraction methods. When comparing the concentration of iAs in CRM TORT-2 found in this study and in the literature dilute acids, HNO3 and HCl, showed the highest extracted iAs wheras dilute NaOH (in 50% ethanol) showed significantly lower extracted iAs. However, most other extraction solvents were not statistically different from one another. PMID:24360462

  9. Vulnerability to shocks in the global seafood trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Rovenskaya, Elena; Dieckmann, Ulf; Pace, Michael L.; Brännström, Åke

    2016-03-01

    Trade can allow countries to overcome local or regional losses (shocks) to their food supply, but reliance on international food trade also exposes countries to risks from external perturbations. Countries that are nutritionally or economically dependent on international trade of a commodity may be adversely affected by such shocks. While exposure to shocks has been studied in financial markets, communication networks, and some infrastructure systems, it has received less attention in food-trade networks. Here, we develop a forward shock-propagation model to quantify how trade flows are redistributed under a range of shock scenarios and assess the food-security outcomes by comparing changes in national fish supplies to indices of each country’s nutritional fish dependency. Shock propagation and distribution among regions are modeled on a network of historical bilateral seafood trade data from UN Comtrade using 205 reporting territories grouped into 18 regions. In our model exposure to shocks increases with total imports and the number of import partners. We find that Central and West Africa are the most vulnerable to shocks, with their vulnerability increasing when a willingness-to-pay proxy is included. These findings suggest that countries can reduce their overall vulnerability to shocks by reducing reliance on imports and diversifying food sources. As international seafood trade grows, identifying these types of potential risks and vulnerabilities is important to build a more resilient food system.

  10. Theoretical dietary modelling of Australian seafood species to meet long-chain omega 3 fatty acid dietary recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Grieger, Jessica A.; McLeod, Catherine; Chan, Lily; Miller, Michelle D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several agencies recommend seafood to be consumed 2–3 times per week. In Australia, there is a lack of nutrient composition data for seafood species and it is not known whether including different seafood species in a diet would provide sufficient long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LC n–3 PUFA) to meet various national recommendations. Objective To utilise recent nutrient composition data for major Australian seafood groups (n=24) with the addition of two tuna options (total n=26) to: (1) determine whether including these species into a diet based on the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) will achieve LC n–3 PUFA recommendations [Adequate Intake (AI: 160 mg/d men, 90 mg/d women)], Suggested Dietary Target (SDT), 500 mg/d Heart Foundation (HF) recommendation and (2) determine the weekly number of servings of seafood to meet recommendations using either lower fat (n=23, <10% total fat) or higher fat (n=3, ≥10% total fat) seafood. Design Two simulation models incorporated all 26 species of seafood or only lower fat seafood into a diet based on the AGHE. Two further models identified the number of servings of lower or higher fat seafood required to meet recommendations. Results Including 2 and 3 servings/week of any seafood would enable 89% of women and 66% of men to meet the AI. Including only lower fat seafood would enable 83% of women and 47% of men to meet the AI. Half a serving/week of higher fat seafood would enable 100% of men and women to meet the AI. Conclusions Including the recommended 2–3 servings of seafood/week requires at least some higher fat seafood to be consumed in order for most men and women to meet the AI. Further messages and nutrition resources are needed which provide options on how to increase intake of LC n–3 PUFA, specifically through consumption of the higher fat seafood. PMID:24179469

  11. Assessment of PCB and chlorinated pesticide accumulation in mussels at Kaštela Bay (Eastern Adriatic).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Grgas, Dijana; Dragičević, Tibela Landeka

    2016-08-15

    The biological response of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, resident and transplanted to cages, to contamination with anthropogenic pollutants from Kaštela Bay, located in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast, was investigated. The main purpose of this paper is to trace the accumulation of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides (HCB, lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, p,p'-DDTs) as a direct measure of potential contaminant availability to organisms, in a period from 2000 to 2011. In order to do so, cultured mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the same size and age were transplanted from the unpolluted Mali Ston Bay to the Kaštela Bay. Sampling was performed bimonthly, and the level of target contaminants in whole soft tissue was determined. After two months of exposure, the concentration of PCBs in transplanted mussels increased on average 6.5-times, and of DDTs 2-times, while the intensity of changes for HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin was negligible. Seasonal variation of pesticide content was similar without a significant change throughout the experimental period, while that of PCBs was somewhat different showing increased accumulation in summer. Seasonal and spatial variation of organochlorines in the Kaštela Bay was likely the result of prevailing environmental rather than biological parameters. In accordance with prevailing hydrodynamic cycling, contaminant concentration decreased in acyclonic direction towards the exit of the Bay. Measurement of target contaminants in resident mussels sampled from the most contaminated area of the Bay exhibited decreasing concentrations of lindane, aldrin and p,p'-DDTs. However, PCBs exhibited statistically significant increasing concentrations in relation to the slightly increasing concentrations of HCB. With regard to human health, organochlorine (OC) levels in the mussel tissue were below prescribed limits for human consumption. PMID:27096632

  12. From Reef to Table: Social and Ecological Factors Affecting Coral Reef Fisheries, Artisanal Seafood Supply Chains, and Seafood Security.

    PubMed

    Kittinger, John N; Teneva, Lida T; Koike, Haruko; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, Daniela S; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Conklin, Eric; Gomes, Mahana; Wilcox, Bart; Friedlander, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide critical fisheries, coastal protection, and cultural benefits to communities worldwide, but these services are diminishing due to local and global threats. In response, place-based strategies involve communities and resource users in management have proliferated. Here, we present a transferable community-based approach to assess the social and ecological factors affecting resource sustainability and food security in a small-scale, coral reef fishery. Our results show that this small-scale fishery provides large-scale benefits to communities, including 7,353 ± 1547 kg yr(-1) (mean ± SE) of seafood per year, equating to >30,000 meals with an economic value of $78,432. The vast majority of the catch is used for subsistence, contributing to community food security: 58% is kept, 33.5% is given away, and 8.5% is sold. Our spatial analysis assesses the geographic distribution of community beneficiaries from the fishery (the "food shed" for the fishery), and we document that 20% of seafood procured from the fishery is used for sociocultural events that are important for social cohesion. This approach provides a method for assessing social, economic, and cultural values provided by small-scale food systems, as well as important contributions to food security, with significant implications for conservation and management. This interdisciplinary effort aims to demonstrate a transferable participatory research approach useful for resource-dependent communities as they cope with socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental change. PMID:26244910

  13. From Reef to Table: Social and Ecological Factors Affecting Coral Reef Fisheries, Artisanal Seafood Supply Chains, and Seafood Security

    PubMed Central

    Kittinger, John N.; Teneva, Lida T.; Koike, Haruko; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; Kittinger, Daniela S.; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Conklin, Eric; Gomes, Mahana; Wilcox, Bart; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide critical fisheries, coastal protection, and cultural benefits to communities worldwide, but these services are diminishing due to local and global threats. In response, place-based strategies involve communities and resource users in management have proliferated. Here, we present a transferable community-based approach to assess the social and ecological factors affecting resource sustainability and food security in a small-scale, coral reef fishery. Our results show that this small-scale fishery provides large-scale benefits to communities, including 7,353 ± 1547 kg yr-1 (mean ± SE) of seafood per year, equating to >30,000 meals with an economic value of $78,432. The vast majority of the catch is used for subsistence, contributing to community food security: 58% is kept, 33.5% is given away, and 8.5% is sold. Our spatial analysis assesses the geographic distribution of community beneficiaries from the fishery (the “food shed” for the fishery), and we document that 20% of seafood procured from the fishery is used for sociocultural events that are important for social cohesion. This approach provides a method for assessing social, economic, and cultural values provided by small-scale food systems, as well as important contributions to food security, with significant implications for conservation and management. This interdisciplinary effort aims to demonstrate a transferable participatory research approach useful for resource-dependent communities as they cope with socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental change. PMID:26244910

  14. The good, the bad, and the ugly: weighing the risks and benefits of seafood consumption.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    The health benefits that long chain omega-3 fatty acids contribute in the reduction of coronary heart disease are well established through a number of scientific publications. A number of studies are also examining their potential role in mitigating other diseases and health conditions such as Alzheimer's and mental disorders. Some of the latest research have shown the importance of omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid in cognitive development in infants. Extensive scientific research and recommendations to consume fish regularly from professional societies, health organizations, and government agencies consistently support dietary guidance to consume fish regularly. Nevertheless, increasingly consumers are being warned to eliminate or minimize their consumption of certain species. The warnings, which have been issued due to risks associated with chemical contaminates such as mercury, PCB, and dioxin in fish, have received extensive coverage in news articles and stories in popular magazines. There have been a series of mixed messages to the consumer about the benefits or risks in eating seafood. In some cases, the warnings have been issued by government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration and Environmental Protection Agency's Joint Fish Advisory on methylmercury. In other cases, the warnings have come from advocacy groups and others. Unfortunately, the advice is often miscommunicated and misunderstood by consumers. The emerging news about the benefits and risks of fish consumption will be discussed in the context of their impacts on consumer's health and well-being. PMID:16859182

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the survival of pathogens in kwamegi, a traditional Korean semidried seafood.

    PubMed

    Chawla, S P; Kim, D H; Jo, C; Lee, J W; Song, H P; Byun, M W

    2003-11-01

    Kwamegi (semidried raw Pacific saury) is traditional seafood available in Korea. It has water activity in the range of 0.90 to 0.95. Spoilage and the growth of most pathogenic bacteria is retarded because of low water activity, low temperature, and packaging. However, it is contaminated with bacteria of public health significance and poses a hazard to the consumer because it is consumed raw without any cooking. The effectiveness of these hurdles in preventing the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli and the efficacy of irradiation treatment in eliminating these bacteria from kwamegi using inoculated pack studies was examined. Radiation sensitivity of S. aureus, B. cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and E. coli in kwamegi was investigated. D10-values of these organisms in kwamegi were 590 +/- 13.6, 640 +/- 14.9, 560 +/- 45.4, and 550 +/- 8.6 Gy, respectively. The growth of all four test organisms inoculated into these foods during 4 weeks of storage at an ambient winter temperature (ranging from -5 degrees C to +5 degrees C) was recorded. All four pathogens (inoculated at 10(6) CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 4 kGy. These studies unequivocally demonstrate that irradiation, with a combination of low water activity and low temperature, results in microbiologically safe kwamegi. PMID:14627288

  16. Isolation and characterization of Arcobacter spp. from fresh seafood and the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Laishram, Martina; Rathlavath, Srinu; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Kumar, Sanath; Nayak, Binaya Bhusan

    2016-09-01

    Arcobacter is an emerging pathogen associated with foods of animal origin. Members of the genus Arcobacter are increasingly being isolated from fish, shellfish and the aquatic environment. In the present study, we analyzed fish, shellfish and water samples for the presence of Arcobacter spp. by conventional isolation as well as by direct PCR on the enrichment broth. Of 100 samples comprising of 42 finfish, 34 shellfish and 24 water samples analyzed, Arcobacter spp. was isolated from 8 (19%) finfish, 5 (14.7%) shellfish and 5 (20.8%) water samples. Arcobacter DNA was detected in 24 (24%) samples by direct PCR on the enrichment broth. Based on m-PCR specific to different Arcobacter spp. and 16S rRNA sequence analyses, majority (19) of the isolates were identified as Arcobacter butzleri, while two isolates were Arcobacter mytili. All Arcobacter butzleri isolates harbored putative virulence genes cadF, ciaB, mviN, pldA, tlyA and cj1349. The two isolates of A. mytili harbored mviN and cj1349 genes only. The study highlights emerging problem of the contamination of aquatic environment and fresh seafood with potentially pathogenic Arcobacter spp. PMID:27261768

  17. Advanced glycation endproducts in 35 types of seafood products consumed in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zhenxing; Pavase, Ramesh Tushar; Lin, Hong; Zou, Long; Wen, Jie; Lv, Liangtao

    2016-08-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been recognized as hazards in processed foods that can induce chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the AGEs contents of 35 types of industrial seafood products that are consumed frequently in eastern China. Total fluorescent AGEs level and Nɛ-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) content were evaluated by fluorescence spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The level of total fluorescent AGEs in seafood samples ranged from 39.37 to 1178.3 AU, and was higher in canned and packaged instant aquatic products that were processed at high temperatures. The CML content in seafood samples ranged from 44.8 to 439.1 mg per kg dried sample, and was higher in roasted seafood samples. The total fluorescent AGEs and CML content increased when seafood underwent high-temperature processing, but did not show an obvious correlation. The present study suggested that commonly consumed seafood contains different levels of AGEs, and the seafood processed at high temperatures always displays a high level of either AGEs or CML.

  18. Use of DNA barcoding to reveal species composition of convenience seafood.

    PubMed

    Huxley-Jones, Elizabeth; Shaw, Jennifer L A; Fletcher, Carly; Parnell, Juliette; Watts, Phillip C

    2012-04-01

    Increased education of consumers can be an effective tool for conservation of commercially harvested marine species when product labeling is accurate and allows an informed choice. However, generic labeling (e.g., as white fish or surimi) and mislabeling of seafood prevents this and may erode consumer confidence in seafood product labels in general. We used DNA barcoding to identify the species composition of two types of convenience seafood (i.e., products processed for ease of consumption): fish fingers (long pieces of fish covered with bread crumbs or batter, n = 241) and seafood sticks (long pieces of cooked fish, n = 30). In products labeled as either white fish or surimi, four teleost species were present. Less than 1.5% of fish fingers with species-specific information were mislabeled. Results of other studies show substantially more mislabeling (e.g., >25%) of teleost products, which likely reflects the lower economic gains associated with mislabeling of convenience seafood compared with whole fillets. In addition to species identification, seafood product labels should be required to contain information about, for example, harvesting practices, and our data indicate that consumers can have reasonable confidence in the accuracy of the labels of convenience seafood and thus select brands on the basis of information about current fisheries practice. PMID:22268756

  19. Advanced glycation endproducts in 35 types of seafood products consumed in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zhenxing; Pavase, Ramesh Tushar; Lin, Hong; Zou, Long; Wen, Jie; Lv, Liangtao

    2016-05-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been recognized as hazards in processed foods that can induce chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the AGEs contents of 35 types of industrial seafood products that are consumed frequently in eastern China. Total fluorescent AGEs level and Nɛ-carboxymethyl- lysine (CML) content were evaluated by fluorescence spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The level of total fluorescent AGEs in seafood samples ranged from 39.37 to 1178.3 AU, and was higher in canned and packaged instant aquatic products that were processed at high temperatures. The CML content in seafood samples ranged from 44.8 to 439.1 mg per kg dried sample, and was higher in roasted seafood samples. The total fluorescent AGEs and CML content increased when seafood underwent high-temperature processing, but did not show an obvious correlation. The present study suggested that commonly consumed seafood contains different levels of AGEs, and the seafood processed at high temperatures always displays a high level of either AGEs or CML.

  20. Variability of PAHs and trace metals in the sediments in relation to environmental characteristics of the bottom layer in the middle Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Federica; Frapiccini, Emanuela; Campanelli, Alessandra; Guicciardi, Stefano; Marini, Mauro; Marasovic, Ivona; Grbec, Branka; Skejić, Sanda; Ujević, Ivana; Lušić, Jelena

    2015-04-01

    towards the Italian coast. The total PAHs concentrations (sum of 16 PAH priority pollutant - US EPA) recorded in the marine sediments during the cruise in April 2013 showed a higher level of PAH contamination in the pits, especially in the central pit (28.5 ng/g d.w.), in comparison to others analyzed samples. The corresponding bottom water in the central pit is characterized by a temperature of 10.9°C, density of 29.6 kg/m3, salinity of 38.6 and low values of DIN (0.55 μmol•l-1). The linear regression between DIN and PAHs showed a significant negative relationship (p ≤ 0.05). This feature implies a possible accumulation of PAHs very likely due to a lower microbial activity as demonstrated by Xu et al. (2014). The physical and chemical characteristics of the bottom layer in these areas could influence the PAHs contamination of the deep sediments. Bibliography: Grbec, B. and Morović, M. (1997): Seasonal thermohaline fluctuations in the middle Adriatic Sea. Nuovo Cimento della Societa Italiana di Fisica C-Geophysics & Space Physics. 20(4): 561-576. Grilli F., Marini M., Book J. W., Campanelli A., Paschini E., Russo A., 2013. Flux of nutrients between the middle and southern Adriatic Sea (Gargano-Split section). Marine Chemistry 153,1-14. Marini, M., Russo, A., Paschini, E., Grilli, F., Campanelli, A., 2006. Short-term physical and chemical variations in the bottom water of middle Adriatic depressions. Climate Research 31, 227-237. Meiying Xu, Qin Zhang, Chunyu Xia, Yuming Zhong, Guoping Sun, Jun Guo, Tong Yuan, Jizhong Zhou and Zhili He, 2014. Elevated nitrate enriches microbial functional genes for potential bioremediation of complexly contaminated sediments. The ISME Journal 8, 1932-1944 | doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.42 Marasović I., Grbec B. & Morović M., 1995. Long term production changes in the Adriatic. Neth. J. of Sea Res. 34 (4): 267-273. Vilibić I., Grbec B. and Supić N., 2004. Dense water generation in the north Adriatic in 1999 and its recirculation along

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of potentially pathogenic halophilic vibrios isolated from seafood.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, D; Bacchiocchi, I; Masini, L; Leoni, F; Carraturo, A; Giammarioli, M; Sbaraglia, G

    2001-08-01

    Susceptibility patterns to 27 antimicrobial agents and beta-lactamase production were investigated in potentially pathogenic halophilic vibrios from seafood. The effect of salinity on the response to the drugs in vitro was also studied. All isolates were uniformly sensitive to choramphenicol, imipenem, meropenem but resistant to lincomycin. All were highly sensitive to oxolinic acid, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, doxycycline, flumequine, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Some strains of V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus apparently had mechanisms of resistance to several beta-lactam antibiotics other than by the production of beta-lactamases. Sixty-nine strains produced penicillinase but a low correlation between beta-lactamase activity and resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was noted. The salt concentration affected the in vitro susceptibility of halophilic vibrios and the effect of salinity depended on both the individual strains and the antimicrobial tested. PMID:11516936

  2. Recovery of astaxanthin from seafood wastewater utilizing fish scales waste.

    PubMed

    Stepnowski, P; Olafsson, G; Helgason, H; Jastorff, B

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents basic data on astaxanthin adsorption from fisheries wastewater to fish scales. This process has been proposed to be applicable in fisheries and shrimp waste management [Helgason, Recovery of compounds using a natural adsorbent, Patent WO 01/77230, 2001]. The innovative feature of the method is the application of a solid waste (fish scales) as a natural adsorbent for a carotenoid pigment (astaxanthin) from the seafood industry wastewater. The model investigations were performed with pure synthetic carotenoids to exclude the role of matrix in which astaxanthin is present in the wastewater. Under the experimental conditions used, the maximum loading capacity of astaxanthin onto the scales is 360 mg kg(-1) dry wt. Studies of the thus formed value added product indicated that drying causes significant loss of astaxanthin activity. Due to the effective filtration characteristics of the studied sorption material, we suggest the scale/astaxanthin sorption process to be suitable for treatment of wastewater from different industries. PMID:14575754

  3. Sustainable Multi-Product Seafood Production Planning Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanjuntak, Ruth; Sembiring, Monalisa; Sinaga, Rani; Pakpahan, Endang J.; Mawengkang, Herman

    2013-04-01

    A multi-product fish production planning produces simultaneously multi fish products from several classes of raw resources. The goal in sustainable production planning is to meet customer demand over a fixed time horizon divided into planning periods by optimizing the tradeoff between economic objectives such as production cost, waste processed cost, and customer satisfaction level. The major decisions are production and inventory levels for each product and the number of workforce in each planning period. In this paper we consider the management of small scale traditional business at North Sumatera Province which performs processing fish into several local seafood products. The inherent uncertainty of data (e.g. demand, fish availability), together with the sequential evolution of data over time leads the sustainable production planning problem to a nonlinear mixed-integer stochastic programming model. We use scenario generation based approach and feasible neighborhood search for solving the model.

  4. Operational ocean models in the Adriatic Sea: a skill assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiggiato, J.; Oddo, P.

    2006-12-01

    In the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System project (MFS) sub-regional and regional numerical ocean forecasting systems performance are assessed by mean of model-model and model-data comparison. Three different operational systems have been considered in this study: the Adriatic REGional Model (AREG); the AdriaROMS and the Mediterranean Forecasting System general circulation model (MFS model). AREG and AdriaROMS are regional implementations (with some dedicated variations) of POM (Blumberg and Mellor, 1987) and ROMS (Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) respectively, while MFS model is based on OPA (Madec et al., 1998) code. The assessment has been done by means of standard scores. The data used for operational systems assessment derive from in-situ and remote sensing measurements. In particular a set of CTDs covering the whole western Adriatic, collected in January 2006, one year of SST from space born sensors and six months of buoy data. This allowed to have a full three-dimensional picture of the operational forecasting systems quality during January 2006 and some preliminary considerations on the temporal fluctuation of scores estimated on surface (or near surface) quantities between summer 2005 and summer 2006. In general, the regional models are found to be colder and fresher than observations. They eventually outperform the large scale model in the shallowest locations, as expected. Results on amplitude and phase errors are also much better in locations shallower than 50 m, while degraded in deeper locations, where the models tend to have a higher homogeneity along the vertical column compared to observations. In a basin-wide overview, the two regional models show some dissimilarities in the local displacement of errors, something suggested by the full three-dimensional picture depicted using CTDs, but also confirmed by the comparison with SSTs. In locations where the regional models are mutually correlated, the aggregated mean-square-error has

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood from the Gulf of Alaska following a major crude oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Saxton, W.L.; Newton, R.T.; Rorberg, J.; Sutton, J.; Johnson, L.E. )

    1993-10-01

    More than ten million gallons of Prudo Bay crude oil spilled into Prince William Sound, Alaska, when the supertanker EXXON VALDEZ ran aground March 1989. The oil spread over thousands of square miles of prime commercial fishing waters, causing State and Federal agencies to initiate immediate controls to ensure that seafood contaminated with this crude oil did not enter commercial channels. Consequently, the 1989 herring fishery was closed for the season, and other fisheries were closely monitored. Whenever there was visible evidence of oil in an area, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG) closed that area to commercial fishing. Salmon harvested from open areas during the remainder of that season were screened organoleptically as they were being off-loaded from the vessels. PAHs were selected for analysis because they are constituents of crude oil and some are carcinogenic. During the 1990 herring fishing season, ADFG collected samples at the various catch sites prior to the season opening. Only when there was no evidence of oil contamination was the herring fishery allowed to open. In addition, samples were collected during the course of the harvest season and similarly analyzed. The 1990 salmon fishery was controlled in a like manner. After the fishery was allowed to open, catches continued to be monitored organoleptically by ADEC and FDA investigators. Negative organoleptic samples continued to be sent to the ADEC, Palmer Laboratory, selective tissue portions removed and sent to the FDA laboratory where they were further analyzed for PAH levels by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Changes in the Adriatic oceanographic properties induced by the Eastern Mediterranean Transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilibić, I.; Matijević, S.; Šepić, J.; Kušpilić, G.

    2012-06-01

    Long-term time series of physical and chemical parameters collected between 1960 and 2010 along the Palagruža Sill transect, Middle Adriatic Sea, have been investigated in terms of average water properties and their variability. Nutrients, especially orthophosphates, reached rather high levels of concentration below the euphotic zone between 1991 and 1998, the highest levels in the investigated period. Simultaneously, the N:P ratio, which is normally higher than 25:1, decreased to values less than 16:1 in the euphotic zone, indicating a switch from typical phosphorus to nitrogen- limited preconditioning for the primary production. Higher-than-usual nutrient levels peaking in the mid-1990s, coupled with lower-than-usual temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH values, are presumably related to the flow of the nutrient richer Western Mediterranean waters to the Adriatic below the euphotic layer. These waters, which keep their footprint in the N:P ratio, enter the Adriatic during the anticyclonic phase of the Bimodal Adriatic-Ionian Oscillation (BiOS), which has been uniquely strengthened by the Eastern Mediterranean Transient occurring in the early 1990s. This hypothesis should be confirmed through targeted research and modelling exercises, as it is highly relevant for the biogeochemistry of the Adriatic Sea.

  7. The Occurrence of Internal Tides along the Italian Coast of the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Pinardi, Nadia; Dobricic, Srdjan; Guarnieri, Antonio; Oddo, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of internal tides along the Italian coast of the Adriatic Sea during stratification season is revealed by a high-resolution, state-of-the-art, three-dimensional primitive-equation baroclinic tidal ocean model of the Adriatic Sea. The NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) model is implemented in the Adriatic Sea with a horizontal resolution of 1°/48 and 120 vertical layers. Tidal components important for the Adriatic, including four major semi-diurnal and three major diurnal tides, are simulated by imposing tidal elevations and velocities along the model domain's southern boundary, which is in the northern Ionian Sea. Effects of atmospheric pressure and wind stress are simulated as well. The co-tidal charts of both semi-diurnal and diurnal tides are well reproduced by the model, suggesting that the hydrodynamics key to tidal processes in the Adriatic (Kelvin, Poincare, and topographic waves) are correctly represented. Compared against tide gauge observations, tidal harmonic analysis shows that the averaged error of modelled amplitudes and phases at eight stations along the Italian coast are 15% and 5%, respectively. Vertical oscillations of isotherms near diurnal frequencies are evident at sites along the Italian coast during stratification season. Such oscillations are absent when the tidal forcings are removed from the model. The occurrence of internal tides is readily explained by the supercritical slope theory.

  8. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in cultured mussels from the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Herceg-Romanić, Snježana; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Klinčić, Darija; Ujević, Ivana

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigated the distribution of 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 17 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners in the edible tissue of the blue mussels (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) collected at 15 shellfish breeding farms and 1 harvesting area along the Croatian Adriatic coast. All analyzed OCPs were found in all samples (0.011-1.47 ng g(-)(1) w.wt.). Concentrations of PCB congeners in positive samples ranged between 0.007 and 7.66 ng g(-)(1) w.wt. The most abundant compounds were γ-HCH, PCB-138 and PCB-153. Overall levels of PCBs and OCPs were in the lower end of the concentration ranges reported in literature. Significant differences of all contaminants were recorded between seasons, with higher values in the warmer part of the year. Results of the evaluation of the risks to human health associated with consumption of the mussels containing organic contaminants suggest that the levels of these compounds in mussels do not pose any threat for consumers of cultivated mussels. PMID:25113185

  9. Triassic oils and related hydrocarbon kitchens in the Adriatic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, L.; Demaison, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Without exception, the oils from both the Abruzzi basin and Albanian foredeep are of lower Liassic to Upper Triassic origin. This is demonstrated by biological marker-based correlations between the oils and stratigraphically controlled, carbonate-rich source rocks. The biomarker studies also provided proof to conclude that many of the oils possess low API gravities and high sulfur contents because they are immature rather than biodegraded. Following the geochemical investigations, a computer-aided, basinwise maturation simulation of the hydrocarbon kitchens was carried out, with backstripping in geologic time. The simulations, performed with the Tissot-Espitalie kinetic model, used basin-specific kerogen activation energies obtained by the optimum method. These simulated values were calibrated with observed values in deep wells. Two characteristics diverge from normal petroleum basin situations (e.g., the North Sea basin): sulfur-rich kerogens in the source rocks, featuring relatively low activation energy distributions, and low geothermal gradients in the subsurface. The geographic outlines of simulated Triassic-lower Liassic hydrocarbon kitchens closely coincide with the zones of petroleum occurrence and production in the Adriatic basin. Furthermore, API gravities of the oils are broadly predicted by the mathematical simulations. This methodology has once again shown its ability to rationally high-grade the petroleum-rich sectors of sedimentary basin while identifying those areas where chances of success are extremely low regardless of the presence of structures.

  10. A nonstationary analysis for the Northern Adriatic extreme sea levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, Marinella; Lamberti, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    The historical data from the Trieste, Venice, Porto Corsini, and Rimini tide gauges have been used to investigate the spatial and temporal changes in extreme high water levels in the Northern Adriatic. A detailed analysis of annual mean sea level evolution at the three longest operating stations shows a coherent behavior both on a regional and global scale. A slight increase in magnitude of extreme water elevations, after the removal of the regularized annual mean sea level necessary to eliminate the effect of local subsidence and sea level rise, is found at the Venice and Porto Corsini stations. It seems to be mainly associated with a wind regime change occurred in the 1990s, due to an intensification of Bora wind events after their decrease in frequency and intensity during the second half of the 20th century. The extreme values, adjusted for the annual mean sea level trend, are modeled using a time-dependent GEV distribution. The inclusion of seasonality in the GEV parameters considerably improves the data fitting. The interannual fluctuations of the detrended monthly maxima exhibit a significant correlation with the variability of the large-scale atmospheric circulation represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation indices. The different coast exposure to the Bora and Sirocco winds and their seasonal character explain the various seasonal patterns of extreme sea levels observed at the tide gauges considered in the present analysis.

  11. The arsenic content in marketed seafood and associated health risks for the residents of Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing; Gao, Mi; Wang, Lei; Luo, Yongju; Bi, Ran; Li, Lixia; Xie, Lingtian

    2014-04-01

    Seafood is considered as the main source of arsenic in the human diet. In this study, we quantified the total arsenic content in 200 samples of 22 species collected from eight cities in Shandong, China. Subsequently, we evaluated the health risks associated with seafood consumption for three consumption scenarios based on the quantification of inorganic arsenic in three commonly consumed seafood species. The bivalves had the highest total arsenic concentrations in three categories of seafood (fish, shrimp, and bivalves) and the mean total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.037 μg/g ww in fish to 3.4 μg/g in bivalves. The results suggested that organisms which had a closer relationship with sediments may accumulate more arsenic. Bivalves were the major contributor for the arsenic intakes in the seafood consumers. The margins of exposure (MOEs) estimated in the present work showed that there existed a health risk for the consumers. The carcinogen risks exceeded the acceptable range for life cancer risk. Our results suggested that more attention should be paid to the safety of seafood consumption, especially of benthic economic species and for special consumers. PMID:24530733

  12. Long-term climate variability of the Adriatic Sea thermohaline properties using an ensemble of regional ocean hindcast simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunic, Natalija; Vilibic, Ivica; Sepic, Jadranka; Sevault, Florence; Somot, Samuel; Waldman, Robin; Jorda, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea has a substantial impact on dynamical properties and thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean, through a large freshwater input and dense water formation processes that drive the thermohaline circulation of the Adriatic-Ionian basin. Together with Bimodal Adriatic-Ionian Oscillation (BiOS), it represents the major driving process of interannual and decadal variations in thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea and Central/Eastern Mediterranean. Recent findings, extracted from the long-term observations, implicate a change in driving Adriatic climate processes, which might be important for future climate of the whole Eastern Mediterranean. The reproduction of these processes may be challenging for climate models, as occurring over limited areas and over daily timescales at the most. For that reason, an ensemble of NEMOMED regional ocean hindcast simulations with different spatial (10 and 6 km) and vertical (43 and 75 z-levels) resolutions, atmosphere (50 and 12 km resolution) and freshwater (from 8 to 43 river mouths in the basin) forcing have been analyzed, focusing on their representativeness for the Adriatic Sea dynamics. Furthermore, new Adriatic river climatology, developed recently within short-term oceanographic studies, has been imposed to the hindcast simulations with an aim to lower model biases. Half-centurial time series of temperature and salinity collected at the Palagruža Sill transect, and at the Jabuka and South Adriatic Pits known to be collectors of the Adriatic dense waters, were used for verification of models. The analyses focused on the reproduction of the Adriatic interannual and decadal variations, including their governing processes, dense water formation and BiOS for the 1980-2012 time period. Once becoming reliably reproduced, it will allow for an assessment of their importance and changes in future climate.

  13. Estimation of the Adriatic Sea water turnover time using fallout 90Sr as a radioactive tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franić, Zdenko

    2005-08-01

    Systematic, long-term measurements, starting in 1963, of 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water have been performed at four locations (cities of Rovinj, Rijeka, Split and Dubrovnik) along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea. In addition, fallout samples were collected in the city of Zadar. 90Sr activity concentrations are in good correlation with the fallout activity, the coefficient of correlation being 0.72. After the nuclear moratorium on atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in 1960s, 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water exponentially dropped from 14.8 ± 2.4 Bq m -3 in 1963 to 2.0 ± 0.3 Bq m -3 in 2003. In the same period, the total annual 90Sr land surface deposit in Zadar fell by three orders of magnitude, from 713.3 Bq m -2 in 1963 to 0.4 Bq m -2 in 2003. Using strontium sea water and fallout data, a mathematical model was developed to describe the rate of change of 90Sr activity concentrations in the Adriatic Sea water and estimate its mean residence time in the Adriatic. By fitting the experimental data to a theoretically predicted curve, the mean residence time of 90Sr in the Adriatic Sea water was estimated to be approximately 3.4 ± 0.4 years, standard deviation being calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. As in physical oceanography 90Sr can be used as effective radioactive tracer of water mass transport, this value also reflects the upper limit for turnover time of the Adriatic Sea water. The turnover time of 3.4 years for the Adriatic Sea water is in reasonable agreement with the value which was estimated, by studying water flows through the Strait of Otranto, to be on the order of 1 year.

  14. Effects of winter convection on the deep layer of the Southern Adriatic Sea in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensi, M.; Cardin, V.; Rubino, A.; Notarstefano, G.; Poulain, P. M.

    2013-11-01

    We analyze aspects concerning the thermohaline changes observed in the near-bottom layer of the Southern Adriatic Pit (SAP), in the Eastern Mediterranean, after the arrival of abundant and exceptionally dense water (σθ > 30 kg m-3) produced in the shallow Northern Adriatic Sea during winter 2012. For this purpose, we use temperature (T), salinity (S), and current time series collected at the E2M3A deep-ocean observatory of the Southern Adriatic, and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth data obtained both in the Southern and Middle Adriatic from freely drifting profiling floats. The dense water produced in the Northern Adriatic arrived in the central and deepest part of the SAP as a series of individual pulses starting on 10 March 2012; while, a stronger and prolonged signal that significantly modified the local deep water stratification arrived after 10 April 2012. As a consequence, T and S suddenly decreased (≈0.15°C and ≈0.015), thus interrupting positive T and S bottom trends observed during the previous 5 years and producing a density increase of ≈0.02 kg m-3. Such variability has been rarely observed in the area. We ascribe its occurrence to the concomitance of exceptionally harsh and long-lasting Bora wind, scarce precipitation, and low river discharge over the Northern Adriatic during winter 2011/2012. Eventually, this newly formed AdDW reached the Strait of Otranto during July 2012. Its characteristics profoundly differed from those observed in the previous decade. Hence, a noticeable variability in structure and circulation of the abyssal layers of the Ionian basin is likely to occur in the near future.

  15. Long-term variability of the southern Adriatic circulation in relation to North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabrang, L.; Menna, M.; Pizzi, C.; Lavigne, H.; Civitarese, G.; Gačić, M.

    2016-02-01

    The interannual variability of the South Adriatic Gyre and its relation to the wind vorticity and the large-scale climatic pattern (North Atlantic Oscillation - NAO) was studied using the time series of satellite altimetric data and ocean surface wind products. The cyclonic circulation observed in the southern Adriatic area was partly sustained by the local wind forcing, as suggested by the positive correlation between the rate of change of the current vorticity and the wind-stress vorticity. Nevertheless, the influence of vorticity advection from the adjacent area (northern Ionian Sea) cannot be ignored and it is more significant during the anticyclonic phase of Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillation System. The geostrophic current vorticities of the southern Adriatic and northern Ionian seas are correlated with a time lag of 14 months, which approximately corresponds to an advection speed of ˜ 1 cm s-1. The different wind patterns observed during two NAO phases in the winter revealed a stronger positive vorticity during the negative NAO phase. Conversely, during the wintertime positive NAO phase the wind vorticity is characterized by lower positive or slightly negative values. Despite a statistically significant negative correlation between the NAO index and the wind vorticity, no unequivocal relationship between large climatic system and the interannual variability of the South Adriatic Gyre intensity was found due to additional effects of the vorticity advection from the Ionian. This can be explained by the fact that the Ionian circulation mode does not depend on the NAO variations. Therefore, the main result of this study is that the interannual variability of the southern Adriatic cyclonic circulation is a result of the combined influence of the vorticity advection from the Ionian and the local wind-curl effect.

  16. Determination of four paraben-type preservatives and three benzophenone-type ultraviolet light filters in seafoods by LC-QqLIT-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Xia, Biqi; Chen, Xiangzhun; Shen, Jincan; Miao, Qian; Shen, Yan

    2016-03-01

    For the first time, an efficient and sensitive analytical method based on liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of four paraben-type preservatives and three benzophenone-type ultraviolet light filters in both plant (Sargassum fusiforme, porphyra, kelp) and animal (hairtail, yellow croaker, shrimp) seafood. The samples were extracted in methanol by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and the extracts were then cleaned up by mixed-mode cationic exchange (MCX) solid-phase extraction cartridges. Both isotope-labeled internal standards and matrix-matched calibration standards were used to alleviate and correct for the matrix effects, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 10.0μg kg(-1) for all target compounds. The average recoveries were in the range of 80.6-107.8% at three spiked concentration levels (10, 50 and 100μgkg(-1)) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8.5%. The results suggest that very limited contamination of these seven emerging contaminants, mainly associated with PCPs, occurred in these common seafoods. PMID:26471672

  17. Tephrostratigraphy of the last 170 ka in sedimentary successions from the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calanchi, Natale; Dinelli, Enrico

    2008-10-01

    In this study are discussed new SEM-EDS analyses performed on glass shards from five cores collected in the Central Adriatic Sea and two cores recovered from the South Adriatic Sea. A total of 26 tephra layers have been characterized and compared with the geochemical features of terrestrial deposits and other tephra archives in the area (South Adriatic Sea and Lago Grande di Monticchio, Vulture volcano). The compositions are compatible with either a Campanian or a Roman provenance. The cores, located on the Central Adriatic inner and outer shelf, recorded tephra referred to explosive events described in the literature: AP3 (sub-Plinian activity of the Somma-Vesuvius, 2710 ± 60 14C years BP); Avellino eruption (Somma-Vesuvius, 3548 ± 129 14C years BP); Agnano Monte Spina (Phlegrean Fields, 4100 ± 400 years BP); Mercato eruption (Somma-Vesuvius, 8010 ± 35 14C years BP; Agnano Pomici Principali eruption (Phlegrean Fields, 10,320 ± 50 14C years BP); Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (Phlegrean Fields, 12,100 ± 170 14C years BP). Some of these layers were also observed in the South Adriatic core IN68-9 in addition to younger ( AP2, sub-Plinian eruption, Somma-Vesuvius, 3225 ± 140 14C years BP), and older layers ( Pomici di Base eruption, Somma-Vesuvius, 18,300 ± 150 14C years BP). Significant is the tephra record of core RF95-7 that, for the first time in the Adriatic Sea, reports the occurrence of tephra layers older than 60 ka: the well known Mediterranean tephra layers X2 (ca. 70 ka), W1 (ca. 140 ka) and V2 (Roman origin, ca. 170 ka) as well as other tephra layers attributed, on the basis of geochemistry and biostratigraphy, to explosive eruptions occurred at Vico (138 ± 2 and 151 ± 3 ka BP) and Ischia (147-140 ka BP). Previous tephra correlations performed on other cores in the Central Adriatic Sea were also critically revised according to new available data, and integrated with the results of this study for a correlation at a regional scale. The most important key

  18. Possible observation of horizontal roll vortices over the Adriatic Sea during bora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusic, Danijel; Vecenaj, Zeljko; LeMone, Margaret

    2015-05-01

    We report a possible occurrence of horizontal roll vortices over the Adriatic Sea during the bora wind. The National Center for Atmospheric Research Electra aircraft measured the turbulence structure above the Adriatic on 07 November 1999 during the Mesoscale Alpine Program. The data indicate that horizontal roll vortices are generated by the strong cold-air outbreak associated with bora. The rolls have a horizontal wavelength of about 1 km and an aspect ratio of approximately 1.5. There is no indication of the presence of cloud streets typically associated with the rolls, which is a consequence of the dry air advection in the lower troposphere resulting from the downslope flow.

  19. Occurrence and role of lactic acid bacteria in seafood products.

    PubMed

    Françoise, Leroi

    2010-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fish flesh has long been disregarded because the high post-mortem pH, the low percentage of sugars, the high content of low molecular weight nitrogenous molecules and the low temperature of temperate waters favor the rapid growth of pH-sensitive psychrotolerant marine Gram-negative bacteria like Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Photobacterium. In seafood packed in both vacuum (VP) and modified atmosphere (MAP) packaging commonly CO(2) enriched, the growth of the Gram-negative aerobic bacteria group (predominantly pseudomonads) is effectively inhibited and the number reached by LAB during storage is higher than that achieved in air but always several log units lower than the trimethylamine oxide (TMA-O) reducing and CO(2)-resistant organisms (Shewanella putrefaciens and Photobacterium phosphoreum). Accordingly, LAB are not of much concern in seafood neither aerobically stored nor VP and MAP. However, they may acquire great relevance in lightly preserved fish products (LPFP), including those VP or MAP. Fresh fish presents a very high water activity (aw) value (0.99). However, aw is reduced to about 0.96 when salt (typically 6% WP) is added to the product. As a result, aerobic Gram-negative bacteria are inhibited, which allows the growth of other organisms more resistant to reduced aw, i.e. LAB, and then they may acquire a central role in the microbial events occurring in the product. Changes in consumers' habits have led to an increase of convenient LPFP with a relative long shelf-life (at least 3 weeks) which, on the other hand, may constitute a serious problem from a safety perspective since Listeria monocytogenes and sometimes Clostridium botulinum (mainly type E) may able to grow. In any case the LAB function in marine products is complex, depending on species, strains, interaction with other bacteria and the food matrix. They may have no particular effect or they may be responsible for spoilage and, in certain cases, they may even exert

  20. Effects of repeated seafood consumption on urinary excretion of arsenic species by volunteers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung-Sun; Choi, Seong-Jin; Kim, Dong-Won; Huang, Mingai; Kim, Na-Young; Park, Kyung-Su; Kim, Choong-Yong; Lee, Hyo-Min; Yum, Young-Na; Han, Eui-Sik; Kang, Tae-Seok; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a known human carcinogen and widely distributed in the environment. The main route of As exposure in the general population is through food and drinking water. Seafood harvested in Korea contains high-level organoarsenics such as arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, and arsenosugars, which are much less harmful than inorganic arsenics. However, for those who eat large amounts of seafood it is important to understand whether seafood consumption affects urinary levels of inorganic As metabolites such as arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). In this study we investigated urinary As metabolites (inorganic As, MMA[V], DMA[V]) and some biological indexes such as AST, GSH, GPX, lipid peroxidation, and uric acid in volunteer study subjects (seven males and nine females). Total urinary As metabolites were analyzed by the hydride generation method, followed by arsenic speciation using HPLC with ICP-mass spectrometry. Study subjects refrained from eating seafood for 3 days prior to the first urine collection and then ingested seafood daily for 6 consecutive days. The first voided urine of the morning was collected from each subject the first day of the consecutive 6 days of seafood ingestion but prior to the first seafood meal. The first voided urine of the morning was also collected on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14 after seafood ingestion. The daily mean intake of total As was 6.98 mg, comprised of 4.71 mg of seaweed (67%), 1.74 mg of flat fish (25%), and 0.53 mg of conch (8%). We observed a substantial increase in total urinary As metabolites for subjects consuming seafood from day 1, which recovered to control level at day 10. The increase in total urinary As metabolites was attributed to the increase in DMA, which is a more harmful metabolite than organoarsenics. However, no significant changes in response biological indexes were observed. These results suggest that it is necessary to evaluate As metabolism when

  1. A North Adriatic centenarian: The marine research station at Rovinj

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodnik, D.

    1995-03-01

    The institute in Rovinj was founded in 1891 as the field station of the Berlin Aquarium. It soon gained in scientific importance. From 1911, it was governed by various scientific bodies, such as the ‘Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften’, the ‘Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano’, and the ‘Jugoslavenska Akademija znanosti i umjetnosti’. At present, it is a department of the ‘Ruđer Bo\\vsković’ Institute, called the ‘Center for Marine Research Rovinj’. In the past hundred years, the Rovinj station experienced several ascents and declines in its development: both in the First and Second World Wars the station's scientific equipment, research vessels, library and reference collections were dispersed, and from 1945 1948 the station was closed. But in “happier” periods, rich support by the state and international bodies favoured the increase in research facilities and promoted interest among visiting scientists. The station has always been involved in studies of the Adriatic Sea, especially in its northern part. It contributed much to general knowledge of oceanography, of the physics and chemistry of the sea, but its paramount contribution is to various disciplines of marine biological sciences. Applied research, however, was most oriented to fisheries biology, especially shellfish culture, to resource studies, and, recently, to toxicology, bacteriology, eutrophication and pollution monitoring. The international approach in science and applied research was always favoured. At present, the Center is well equipped for complex coastal and offshore field- and laboratory research, and maintains facilities for graduate and postgraduate teaching. Scientific dissemination is also promoted by the public aquarium and professional meetings.

  2. Karstification, Caves and Karst Aquifers on the Adriatic Islands (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasic, M.; Terzic, J.

    2009-04-01

    This article deals with the Adriatic karst island aquifers especially from the point of view of karstification and how karst phenomena influence the accumulation of groundwater, its movements inside the system and its outflow. Flow through karst channels has been separated from flow through fractures within the rock mass regarding the scale of study. Although it is usually understood that groundwater flow in karst aquifers is usually turbulent, it has been shown that this phenomenon should also be taken into consideration regarding the scale. Turbulent flows are present in karst channels, but on most islands the majority of flow is happening through the network of fractures and joints within the rock mass, and that flow is predominantly laminar proven by statistic processing of step-drawdown pumping test. It has been shown how extensive and systematical research of karst aquifers must cover both phenomena. The most significant method of karst channel flows research as well as for disintegrated fault zones tracing is pointed out. On the other hand, while rock mass behaves according to the Darcy's law to a certain extent, hydraulic parameters can be used for description of such an aquifer. Still, in karst terrains all hydraulic values should be taken only as approximations. Based on all known findings it is possible to conclude that karstification processes are very important for hydrogeologic research on the Adriatic islands. In order to understand those processes, besides the karstification process, it is also important to know about the changes in sea level during recent geologic past - especially in Holocene. Karst phenomena from earlier karstification phases also exist and participate in the whole hydrogeologic setting, but because of the latter processes, they don't have the significance of recent ones which are still hydrogeologically active. Due to karstification and the presence of dissolution cavities, channels, and speleological objects, a very

  3. Toxicology evaluation of Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Bryan Lee; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto; Gagnon, Graham A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out an acute aquatic toxicity assessment on select effluent samples from Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plants. Raw effluent acute aquatic toxicity for the flatfish and salmon effluents was assessed using the acute lethality test and Microtox test. The effectiveness of dissolved air flotation treatment (DAF) in removing acute toxicity from these effluents was evaluated using the Microtox test. The salmon effluent failed the acute lethality test using rainbow trout while the flatfish effluent showed acute toxicity in the Microtox test with a 50% inhibiting concentration (IC(50)) of 38.84%. Subsequent treatment by DAF of the flatfish and salmon effluents increased IC(50) values by 20% and 26% respectively. The findings of this study indicate that all of the processing effluents sampled showed characteristics that could potentially degrade effluent receiving waters and acute toxicity was demonstrated in the two raw finfish effluents. Application of DAF treatment was successful in significantly increasing Microtox IC(50) values, thereby reducing acute toxicity, but failed to entirely remove acute toxicity. PMID:19283858

  4. An investigation of biodiesel production from wastes of seafood restaurants.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Hamdy, A; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  5. Kocuria koreensis sp. nov., isolated from fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jin; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Mi-Ja; Shin, Kee-Sun; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2010-01-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile and coccoid actinobacterium, designated P31(T), was isolated from a traditional, fermented seafood. The strain was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells grew in the presence of 0-15.0 % (w/v) NaCl, and at pH 5-10 and 15-37 degrees C. Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). Strain P31(T) contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain P31(T) was 65.2 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain P31(T) was most closely related to Kocuria kristinae DSM 20032(T), with 96.9 % similarity, and these two strains clustered together in constructed phylogenetic trees. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain P31(T) and K. kristinae DSM 20032(T) was 21.1 %. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it is suggested that strain P31(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria koreensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P31(T) (=KCTC 19595(T)=JCM 15915(T)). PMID:19648328

  6. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Hamdy, A.; Abu Amr, Salem S.

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst. PMID:25400665

  7. Collaborative study on determination of mono methylmercury in seafood.

    PubMed

    Valdersnes, Stig; Fecher, Peter; Maage, Amund; Julshamn, Kaare

    2016-03-01

    Eight laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory method-performance (collaborative) study of a method for the determination of mono methylmercury (MMHg) in foodstuffs of marine origin by gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-IDMS) after dissolution, derivatisation and extraction of the species. The method was tested on seven seafood products covering both a wide concentration range and variations in the MMHg concentrations as well as matrix compositions. The samples were mussel tissue, squid muscle, crab claw meat, whale meat, cod muscle, Greenland halibut muscle and dogfish liver (NRCC DOLT-4), with MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.035 to 3.58mg/kg (as Hg) dry weight. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) for MMHg ranged from 2.1% to 8.7%. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 5.8% to 42%. All samples showed HorRat value below 1.0, except for the sample with the lowest MMHg content, mussel tissue, with a HorRat value of 1.6. PMID:26471575

  8. Factors affecting the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products.

    PubMed

    Rocha, R A; de la Fuente, B; Clemente, M J; Ruiz, A; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2013-09-01

    Fluoride is considered important for health because of its beneficial effect on the prevention of dental caries and on bone development in the child population. However, excessive intake has negative effects. The main pathway for exposure is oral, through consumption of drinking water, and some food products. Therefore its bioaccessibility (quantity of the element solubilized during the digestive process) is a parameter to be considered when estimating the risk/benefit associated with this element. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the digestion phase, gastrointestinal digestion factors (pH, pepsin and bile salt concentrations) and the presence of cations on the bioaccessibility of fluoride from seafood products. The results show that the solubilization of fluoride takes place entirely during the gastric phase. Its bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by conditions that favor the formation of insoluble complexes of fluoride with other elements present in the matrix. The factors that are most influential in reducing its bioaccessibility are the increase in pH in the gastric phase, the presence of cations, especially in the intestinal phase, and a low concentration of bile salts. PMID:23747712

  9. Kocuria atrinae sp. nov., isolated from traditional Korean fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Jung, Mi-Ja; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2010-04-01

    A novel actinobacterium, strain P30(T), was isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood. Cells were aerobic, Gram-positive, non-motile and coccoid. Optimal growth occurred at 30-37 degrees C, at pH 8-9 and in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain P30(T) was phylogenetically closely related to Kocuria carniphila, Kocuria gwangalliensis, Kocuria rhizophila, Kocuria marina, Kocuria rosea and K. varians with levels of similarity of 98.6, 98.2, 98.1, 97.4, 97.3 and 97.3 %, respectively, to the type strains of these species. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain P30(T) and the type strains of K. carniphila, K. rhizophila, K. marina, K. rosea and K. varians were 37, 43, 37, 25 and 17 %, respectively. The predominant menaquinone of strain P30(T) was MK-7. Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain P30(T) was 70.2 mol%. Based on these data, strain P30(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria atrinae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P30(T) (=KCTC 19594(T)=JCM 15914(T)). PMID:19661502

  10. Seafood Intake and Urine Concentrations of Total Arsenic, Dimethylarsinate and Arsenobetaine in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo

    2010-01-01

    Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ≥6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ≥2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake. PMID:21093857

  11. Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus detected in seafood products from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Coly, Ignace; Sow, Amy Gassama; Seydi, Malang; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2013-12-01

    The detection of pathogenic Vibrio in seafood from Senegal has generated five food alerts in the European Union. To investigate the presence and abundance Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood and coastal and estuarine waters, 123 seafood samples and 52 water samples were collected during 2007-2009 from two large seafood markets in Dakar, and from different oceanic and estuarine areas of the country. V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 30.1% of seafood samples, whereas presence of V. cholerae was only found in 1.6%. In water samples, V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae were detected in 28.8% and 5.7% of the samples, respectively. Abundance of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood from the fishing areas ranged from <0.3 to 7.5 most probable number (MPN) per gram. In samples from markets, densities of V. parahaemolyticus showed higher values ranging from 0.61 to >110 MPN/g. Densities of V. cholerae in the two positive seafood samples reached values of 0.36 and 0.61 MPN/g, repectively. V. parahaemolyticus strains were found to possess tlh, but not tdh and trh by polymerase chain reaction, and all the strains of V. cholerae were non-O1 or non-O139. These results suggest that the prevalence of high salinities in coastal and estuarine environments of Senegal limits the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae, despite warmer temperatures prevailing in seawater environments throughout the year. Furthermore, temperature abuse driven by a deficient cold chain over the distribution and retail sales may represent a major risk due to the postharvest multiplication of these Vibrio pathogens. PMID:24147655

  12. Matching oceanography and genetics at the basin scale. Seascape connectivity of the Mediterranean shore crab in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schiavina, M; Marino, I A M; Zane, L; Melià, P

    2014-11-01

    Investigating the interactions between the physical environment and early life history is crucial to understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic structure of marine populations. Here, we assessed the genetic differentiation in a species with larval dispersal, the Mediterranean shore crab (Carcinus aestuarii) in the Adriatic Sea (central Mediterranean), and we investigated the role of oceanic circulation in shaping population structure. To this end, we screened 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 431 individuals collected at eight different sites. We found a weak, yet significant, genetic structure into three major clusters: a northern Adriatic group, a central Adriatic group and one group including samples from southern Adriatic and Ionian seas. Genetic analyses were compared, under a seascape genetics approach, with estimates of potential larval connectivity obtained with a coupled physical-biological model that integrates a water circulation model and a description of biological traits affecting dispersal. The cross-validation of the results of the two approaches supported the view that genetic differentiation reflects an oceanographic subdivision of the Adriatic Sea into three subbasins, with circulation patterns allowing the exchange of larvae through permanent connections linking north Adriatic sites and ephemeral connections like those linking the central Adriatic with northern and southern locations. PMID:25294324

  13. Activity concentrations of (137)Caesium and (210)Polonium in seafood from fishing regions of New Zealand and the dose assessment for seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine activity concentrations for (134)Caesium, (137)Caesium and (210)Polonium in New Zealand seafood, and establish if activity concentrations varied with respect to species/ecological niche and coastal region. Thirty seafood samples were obtained from six fishing regions of New Zealand along with a further six samples of two commercially important species (hoki and arrow squid) with well-defined fisheries. (134)Caesium was not detected in any sample. (137)Caesium was detected in 47% of samples, predominantly in pelagic fish species, with most activities at a trace level. Detections of (137)Caesium were evenly distributed across all regions. Activity concentrations were consistent with those expected from the oceanic inventory representing residual fallout from global nuclear testing. (210)Polonium was detected above the minimum detectable concentration in 33 (92%) of the analysed samples. Molluscs displayed significantly elevated activity concentrations relative to all other species groups. No significant regional variation in activity concentrations were determined. Two dose assessment models for high seafood consumers were undertaken. Dose contribution from (137)Caesium was minimal and far below the dose exemption limit of 1 mSv/year. Exposure to (210)Polonium was significant in high seafood consumers at 0.44-0.77 mSv/year (5th-95th percentile). (137)Caesium is concluded to be a valuable sentinel radionuclide for monitoring anthropogenic releases, such as global fallout and reactor releases, in the marine environment. (210)Polonium is of importance as a natural radionuclide sentinel due to its high contribution to dietary committed dose in seafood consumers. PMID:26272653

  14. Evaluation of genetic diversity and root traits of sea beet accessions of the Adriatic Sea coast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty nine sea beet [Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang.] accessions of the Adriatic coast were screened genetically and for their adaptive morpho-functional root traits in order to identify new sources of abiotic resistances for sugar beet breeding programs. Genetic diversity was evaluat...

  15. Comparative growth and toxin profile of cultured Ostreopsis ovata from the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Franca; Pezzolesi, Laura; Feller, Andrea; Riccardi, Manuela; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Tartaglione, Luciana; Dello Iacovo, Emma; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Forino, Martino; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2010-01-01

    Massive blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata Fukuyo have recently occurred along the whole Italian coastlines, both Tyrrhenian and Adriatic, resulting sometimes in benthonic biocenosis sufferings and, occasionally, in human health problems. In this work, two strains of O. ovata collected in 2006 along the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coastlines and grown in culture were studied to characterize their growth and toxin profile. The two strains showed different cell volumes, the Adriatic strain being nearly twice bigger than the Tyrrhenian, but they had similar slow growth rates. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses indicated that both strains produce putative palytoxin (pPLTX) and ovatoxin-a (OVTX-a), a palytoxin-like compound presenting 2 oxygen atoms less than palytoxin. Toxin content was determined at the end of the stationary and exponential growth phases and reached the highest value in the Adriatic strain at the end of the stationary phase, with concentrations of 353.3 microg l(-1) for OVTX-a and 30.4 microg l(-1) for pPLTX. Toxin released in the growth medium was also measured and resulted to be the highest at the end of the stationary phase, suggesting that a long lasting bloom could enhance the toxin content in the water and cause toxic effects in people inhaling the aerosol. PMID:19638281

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the western Adriatic Sea: Sources, historical trends and inventories.

    PubMed

    Combi, Tatiane; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Guerra, Roberta

    2016-08-15

    Sources, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in sediments collected in five transects along the north-south axis of the western Adriatic Sea. The concentration of total PCBs (∑28 PCBs) ranged from Adriatic Sea. This is further corroborated by the estimated inventories of PCBs, which were ~4-7 times higher in the Po River prodelta (256ngcm(-2)) in comparison to the middle and southern Adriatic, respectively, and about 100 times higher than the in the deep Adriatic Sea. PMID:27110972

  17. Fukushima radionuclides in the NW Pacific, and assessment of doses for Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-03-01

    Variations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs) in seawater and biota offshore Fukushima and in the NW Pacific Ocean were investigated and radiation doses to the Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood contaminated by Fukushima radionuclides were estimated and compared with those from other sources of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. The total effective dose commitment from ingestion of radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweed caught in coastal waters off Fukushima was estimated to be 0.6 +/- 0.4 mSv/y. The individual effective dose commitment from consumption of radioactive-contaminated fish caught in the open Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.07 +/- 0.05 mSv/y. These doses are comparable or much lower than doses delivered from the consumption of natural 210Po in fish and in shellfish (0.7 mSv/y). The estimated individual doses have been below the levels when any health damage of the Japanese and world population could be expected.

  18. Fukushima radionuclides in the NW Pacific, and assessment of doses for Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood

    PubMed Central

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Variations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs) in seawater and biota offshore Fukushima and in the NW Pacific Ocean were investigated and radiation doses to the Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood contaminated by Fukushima radionuclides were estimated and compared with those from other sources of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. The total effective dose commitment from ingestion of radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweed caught in coastal waters off Fukushima was estimated to be 0.6 ± 0.4 mSv/y. The individual effective dose commitment from consumption of radioactive-contaminated fish caught in the open Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.07 ± 0.05 mSv/y. These doses are comparable or much lower than doses delivered from the consumption of natural 210Po in fish and in shellfish (0.7 mSv/y). The estimated individual doses have been below the levels when any health damage of the Japanese and world population could be expected. PMID:25761420

  19. Flow cytometric detection of DNA cell cycle alterations in hemocytes of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) off the Adriatic coast, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Nevenka; Micić, Milena; Batel, Renato; Zahn, Rudolf K

    2003-07-16

    Studies were carried out to determine the alteration in DNA cell cycle characteristics of hemocytes of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis collected at 17 different locations (146 individuals) along the Adriatic coast, Croatia. In order to connect possible genomic manifestation to urban and/or industrial waste flow cytometry was used. We studied incidence of altered DNA profile reflective of chromosomal fragmentation phenomena or aneuploid mosaicism, coefficient of variation (CV) in DNA fluorescence as a measure of intraindividual genome size variability and DNA index (DI) as a measure of ploidy. The different classes of DNA cell cycle alterations found in this study mirror either acute or cumulative genotoxic effects of the surrounding environment on mussel hemocyte DNA. These are intraindividual genome size variability (CV>8, seven individuals from four sites), aneuploidy (altered DNA profile and DI<0.9, 45 individuals from 14 sites) and accidental apoptotic processes (altered DNA profile and presence of apoptotic cells, two individuals from two sites). Normal cell cycle DNA profiles were obtained for 89 (60.9%) individuals from all 17 sites and for 146 examined samples polyploids were absent. Flow cytometry proved to be a powerful technique for the determination of alterations in cell cycle characteristics in mussel hemocyte DNA. Therefore, it may be used in pollution control measurements to distinguish affected or vulnerable populations from healthy populations living in the presence of a wide variety of marine environmental contaminants. PMID:12799105

  20. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helen H

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends. PMID:17049949

  1. Life Cycle Considerations for Improving Sustainability Assessments in Seafood Awareness Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that improving the sustainability of seafood production requires efforts to reverse declines in global fisheries due to overfishing and to reduce the impacts to host ecosystems from fishing and aquaculture production technologies. Reflective of on-going dialogue amongst participants in an international research project applying Life Cycle Assessment to better understand and manage global salmon production systems, we argue here that such efforts must also address the wider range of biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic impacts stemming from the material and energetic throughput associated with these industries. This is of particular relevance given the interconnectivity of global environmental change, ocean health, and the viability of seafood production in both fisheries and aquaculture. Although the growing popularity of numerous ecolabeling, certification, and consumer education programs may be making headway in influencing Western consumer perceptions of the relative sustainability of alternative seafood products, we also posit that the efficacy of these initiatives in furthering sustainability objectives is compromised by the use of incomplete criteria. An emerging body of Life Cycle Assessment research of fisheries and aquaculture provides valuable insights into the biophysical dimensions of environmental performance in alternative seafood production and consumption systems, and should be used to inform a more holistic approach to labeling, certifying, and educating for sustainability in seafood production. More research, however, must be undertaken to develop novel techniques for incorporating other critical dimensions, in particular, socioeconomic considerations, into our sustainability decision-making.

  2. Early diagenesis and nutrient benthic fluxes in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnoli, F.; Frascari, F.; Marcaccio, M.; Bergamin, M. C.

    2003-04-01

    Early diagenesis processes and dissolved nutrient benthic fluxes of Northern and Central Adriatic Sea bottom sediments were investigate in order to know different sedimentary environmental settings. The study was carried out in 12 stations by means of an integrated analysis of pore water and solid phase composition. In each station one core, about one meter long, was collected. In the solid phase the following parameters were determined: grain size, mineralogy, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Al, S, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total P. In pore waters nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, alkalinity, sulphate, Fe, Mn and silica were analysed. Benthic fluxes were measured in situ, by benthic chamber, and calculated by modelisation of pore waters. In each station also the chemical-physical parameters of water column were measured. The area North of the Po River is characterised mainly by carbonate sediments, by low phosphate fluxes towards water column, in some cases even negative, due to authigenic apatite precipitation and by low ammonia fluxes for low reactive organic matter inputs. Near Tagliamento and Adige-Brenta river mouths sediments are higher in organic matter contents in comparison with offshore areas. In these environments pore water nutrient regeneration takes place in the uppermost centimetres of sediment by oxic and suboxic organic matter degradation (Adige-Brenta prodelta sediments) or at higher depth by organic matter degradation, mainly anoxic, via sulphate reduction (Tagliamento prodelta area). Fluxes of phosphate and TCO2 in these two areas are slowly higher than other North Po River areas. The Po River proximal prodelta area is characterised by high ammonia, phosphate and TCO2 fluxes due to high organic matter and silicate inputs, degrading mainly in anoxic conditions by sulphate reduction. When bottom water column reach anoxic conditions in these areas also Fe, Mn and phosphate fluxes increase for dissolution of Fe and Mn oxi-hydroxide surface layer. South

  3. Regional prospectivity of Mesozoic and Tertiary in the eastern Adriatic and adjacent area

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Dolan, P.; Lunn, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Post-Hercynian deposits in the eastern Adriatic and the adjacent external zones of the Dinarides and Albanian Hellenides may be subdivided into four facies groups. (1) Permian-Lower Triassic clastics and carbonates with some evaporites, (2) Middle Triassic-lower Tertiary carbonate platform facies with associated continental margin deeper marine sequences, (3) Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary flysch, and (4) middle Tertiary molasse and postorogenic Neogene sediments. The Permian to lower Tertiary section was deposited during the complex Alpine cycle, while the upper Tertiary section is the product of post-Alpine deposition. This depositional history during markedly different tectonic regimes creates two groups of petroleum plays in the eastern Adriatic: (1) Alpine cycle plays in the Permian to lower Tertiary in the thrust-faulted and folded foreland of Adria and (2) post-Alpine plays in upper Tertiary postorogenic or late synorogenic basins. Around the Adriatic, the post-Alpine plays have so far proved the most successful. Major production occurs in the onshore Po basin and its extension beneath the Adriatic. Some of this production is from deep Alpine-cycle reservoirs, but the bulk is from the upper Tertiary-Quaternary. Similar horizons produce onshore and offshore the central-southern Adriatic coast of Italy. Major Tertiary production also occurs to the northeast in the Pannonian basin of Yugoslavia and Hungary from Miocene and younger sequences. Onshore Albania produces significant quantities of hydrocarbons; although data are scarce, much of this production is presumably from upper Tertiary molasse or lower Tertiary flysch.

  4. Seafood traceability: current needs, available tools, and biotechnological challenges for origin certification.

    PubMed

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Pimentel, Tânia; Ricardo, Fernando; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Market globalization and recurring food safety alerts have resulted in a growing consumer awareness of the need for food traceability. This is particularly relevant for seafood due to its perishable nature and importance as a key protein source for the population of the world. Here, we provide an overview of the current needs for seafood origin traceability, along with the limitations and challenges for its implementation. We focus on geochemical, biochemical, and molecular tools and how they should be optimized to be implemented globally and to address our societal needs. We suggest that seafood traceability is key to enforcing food safety regulations and fisheries control, combat fraud, and fulfill present and future expectations of conscientious producers, consumers, and authorities. PMID:25865857

  5. Determination of Fluopicolide in Livestock Products and Seafood by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Sakai, Naoko; Kamijo, Kyoko; Otani, Harunori; Hayashi, Masaki; Koike, Hiroshi; Baba, Itoko; Sasamoto, Takeo; Nemoto, Satoru; Shindo, Tetsuya; Takano, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of fluopicolide in livestock products and seafood was developed using LC-MS/MS. Sodium chloride was added to livestock products and seafood samples and fluopicolide was extracted twice with acetone after acidification with formic acid. The fat from the crude extract was removed using a macroporous diatomaceous earth column, followed by purification with a combination of mini-columns of GC (graphite carbon) and PSA (ethylenediamine-N-propyl silylation silica gel). The average recovery (n=5) of fluopicolide from 10 types of livestock products and seafood (cattle fat, cattle liver, cattle muscle, chicken, eel, egg, freshwater clam, honey, milk and salmon) spiked at the MRLs or at the uniform limit (0.01 ppm) was 96-100%, with a relative standard deviation of 2.3-6.2%. The limit of quantitation of the developed method was calculated to be 0.01 mg/kg. PMID:27558226

  6. Identification of shark species in seafood products by forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS).

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; Pérez-Martín, R I; Sotelo, C G

    2008-11-12

    The identification of commercial shark species is a relevant issue to ensure the correct labeling of seafood products, to maintain consumer confidence in seafood, and to enhance the knowledge of the species and volumes that are at present being captured, thus improving the management of shark fisheries. The polymerase chain reaction was employed to obtain a 423 bp amplicon from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The sequences from this fragment, belonging to 63 authentic individuals of 23 species, were analyzed using a genetic distance method. Nine different samples of commercial fresh, frozen, and convenience food were obtained in local and international markets to validate the methodology. These samples were analyzed, and sequences were employed for species identification, showing that forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) is a suitable technique for identification of processed seafood containing shark as an ingredient. The results also showed that incorrect labeling practices may occur regarding shark products, probably because of incorrect labeling at the production point. PMID:18831561

  7. High pressure processing as an intervention for raw virus-contaminated shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 7 years, the USDA ARS Seafood Safety Laboratory has evaluated the potential use of high pressure processing (HPP) as a processing strategy for virus-contaminated shellfish. HPP can inactivate hepatitis A virus, (HAV), the human norovirus surrogates feline calicivirus and murine norovi...

  8. Mercury exposure and a shift toward oxidative stress in avid seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms of mercury (Hg) toxicity at low doses from seafood consumption, the most common exposure route, are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that seafood Hg exposure is related to a shift in redox status, indicated by a decrease in the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) in blood, or increase in redox potential (Eh). We also examined whether key seafood nutrients (selenium (Se), omega-3 fatty acids) confound or modify this shift. We measured blood concentrations of total Hg, Se, GSH, GSSG, and the Omega-3 Index (% omega-3s of total fatty acids in red blood cell membranes) in seafood consumers in Long Island, NY. We examined relationships between Hg, GSH:GSSG ratio and Eh. Elevated blood Hg (>5.8µgL(-1)) was associated with lower GSH:GSSG (β=-116.73, p=0.01), with no evidence of confounding by Se or Omega-3 Index. However, in models stratified by Omega-3 Index levels, Hg-GSH:GSSG associations were weakened among those with high Omega-3 Index levels (>6% of fatty acids, β=-63.46, p=0.28), and heightened among those with low Omega-3 Index (β=-182.53, p<0.01). We observed comparable patterns for Eh in relation to Hg. These results support the hypothesis that Hg exposure from seafood is linked to a shift in redox status toward oxidative stress, modified by omega-3 fatty acids in this population. Further work should examine the role of different seafood nutrients and Hg-induced shifts in redox status in the diverse health effects associated with elevated Hg exposure. PMID:26745733

  9. Presence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in waters and seafood from the Tunisian Sea.

    PubMed

    Khouadja, Sadok; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Spagnoletti, Matteo; Croci, Luciana; Colombo, Mauro M; Amina, Bakhrouf

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of the hemolysin genes, tdh and trh, in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from environmental samples collected from various exported seafood products comprising of fishes and shellfish (Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas) or seawater, was studied. Eight strains were confirmed as V. parahaemolyticus by toxR -based polymerase chain reaction and only one strain out of these 8 strains was positive for tdh and trh genes. Toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates are present in Tunisian coastal areas and they may also be present in Tunisian exported seafood products. PMID:23430717

  10. Consumers' health risk-benefit perception of seafood and attitude toward the marine environment: Insights from five European countries.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Pieniak, Zuzanna; De Henauw, Stefaan; Maulvault, Ana Luisa; Reuver, Marieke; Fait, Gabriella; Cano-Sancho, German; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    This research classifies European consumers into segments based on their health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. The profiling variables of these segments are seafood consumption frequency, general attitude toward consuming fish, confidence in control organizations, attitude toward the marine environment, environmental concern and socio-demographics. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample of 2824 participants. A cluster analysis was performed based on risk-benefit perception related to seafood and the profiles of the segments were determined by a robust 2-way ANOVA analysis accounting for country effects. Although this study confirms consumers' positive image of consuming seafood, gradients are found in health risk-benefit perception related to seafood consumption. Seafood consumption frequency is mainly determined by country-related traditions and habits related to seafood rather than by risk-benefit perceptions. Segments with a higher benefit perception, irrespective of their level of risk perception, show a more positive attitude toward consuming seafood and toward the marine environment; moreover, they report a higher concern about the marine environment and have a higher involvement with seafood and with the marine environment. Consequently, information campaigns concentrating on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise the involvement with seafood and the marine environment as this is associated with a higher environmental concern. This research underpins that in such information campaigns a nationally differentiated rather than a pan-European or international information strategy should be aimed for because of significant cultural differences between the identified segments. PMID:25864933

  11. Observed and modeled surface Lagrangian transport between coastal regions in the Adriatic Sea with implications for marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Daniel F.; Griffa, Annalisa; Zambianchi, Enrico; Suaria, Giuseppe; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Russo, Aniello; Bellomo, Lucio; Mantovani, Carlo; Celentano, Paolo; Molcard, Anne; Borghini, Mireno

    2016-04-01

    Surface drifters and virtual particles are used to investigate transport between seven coastal regions in the central and southern Adriatic Sea to estimate the degree to which these regions function as a network. Alongshore coastal currents and cyclonic gyres are the primary circulation features that connected regions in the Adriatic Sea. The historical drifter observations span 25 years and, thus, provide estimates of transport between regions realized by the mean surface circulation. The virtual particle trajectories and a dedicated drifter experiment show that southeasterly Sirocco winds can drive eastward cross-Adriatic transport from the Italian coast near the Gargano Promontory to the Dalmatian Islands in Croatia. Southeasterly winds disrupt alongshore transport on the west coast. Northwesterly Mistral winds enhanced east-to-west transport and resulted in stronger southeastward coastal currents in the western Adriatic current (WAC) and export to the northern Ionian Sea. The central Italian regions showed strong connections from north to south, likely realized by alongshore transport in the WAC. Alongshore, downstream transport was weaker on the east coast, likely due to the more complex topography introduced by the Dalmatian Islands of Croatia. Cross-Adriatic connection percentages were higher for east-to-west transport. Cross-Adriatic transport, in general, occurred via the cyclonic sub-gyres, with westward (eastward) transport observed in the northern (southern) arms of the central and southern gyres.

  12. Salimicrobium jeotgali sp. nov., isolated from salted, fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Jin; Jin, Hyun Mi; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Che Ok

    2014-11-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, motile bacterium, designated strain MJ3(T), was isolated from myeolchi-jeot (anchovy jeotgal), a traditional fermented seafood in South Korea. Cells were non-endospore-forming cocci showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Growth of strain MJ3(T) was observed at 15-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 1-24% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 10% NaCl). Phylogenetic inference based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ3(T) formed a tight phyletic lineage with members of the genus Salimicrobium. Strain MJ3(T) was related most closely to Salimicrobium salexigens 29CMI(T), Salimicrobium album DSM 20748(T), Salimicrobium flavidum ISL-25(T), Salimicrobium luteum BY-5(T) and Salimicrobium halophilum DSM 4771(T), with similarities of 98.8%, 98.7%, 98.6%, 98.4% and 98.3%, respectively. However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain MJ3(T) (KF732837) and S. salexigens DSM 22782(T), S. album DSM 20748(T), S. flavidum DSM 23127(T), S. luteum KCTC 3989(T) and S. halophilum JCM 12305(T) were 60 ± 5.4%, 58.5 ± 6.5%, 43.6 ± 5.5%, 37.2 ± 5.8% and 16.7 ± 0.2%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic data (sole isoprenoid quinone, MK-7; major cell-wall type, meso-diaminopimelic acid; major cellular fatty acids, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0; major polar lipids, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; DNA G+C content, 46.3 mol%) also supported the affiliation of strain MJ3(T) with the genus Salimicrobium. Therefore, strain MJ3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Salimicrobium, for which the name Salimicrobium jeotgali sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ3(T) ( = KACC 16972(T) = JCM 19758(T)). PMID:25070217

  13. Coupled Air-ocean Nested Modeling Studies Of The Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, J.; Doyle, J.; Hodur, R.; Cummings, J.

    We have conducted simulations of the Adriatic Sea using the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), with surface forcing provided by the atmospheric component of the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). Our aim is to document and investigate the response pattern of the Adriatic to the complex combined forcing of the bora winds and strong Po River run-off. Separate three- dimensional multivariate optimum interpolation (MVOI) analysis techniques are used to generate the initial conditions for both COAMPS and NCOM. First, we used a 6-km NCOM grid over the entire Mediterranean Sea, with forcing supplied by sur- face stresses from a 27-km COAMPS grid, also covering the entire Mediterranean Sea area. Both the atmospheric and ocean fields produced were part of independent 12-hour incremental data assimilation cycles over the time period of interest. The re- sulting NCOM forecasts were then used as lateral boundary conditions for a series of higher resolution (2 km) NCOM forecasts of the Adriatic Sea. In these forecasts, a set of surface stress fields from COAMPS, using a nested 4 km grid centered over the Adriatic Sea, were used to force the NCOM high-resolution ocean nest. In addition, the 2 km Adriatic Sea model is forced by observed daily river discharge values from the Po River. We have focused on the time period of winter and spring 2001 when there were several bora wind events documented by the pilot program observations taken in preparation for the fall and winter 2002-2003 Adriatic Current Experiment (ACE). In addition, we analyze results from a multi-month simulation in fall/winter 1999 to establish circu- lation patterns that may appear during the upcoming observational season. The ACE observations will include ADCP's, moored buoys, CTD sections, and radar sites. The observational programs will generate much data about the circulation of this shallow sea subjected to river floods and strong bora wind events. The main goals of our work are to

  14. Spatial data integration for analyzing the dynamics of Albanian Adriatic shoreline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arapi, Luan; Nikolli, Pal; Kovaçi, Sander

    2016-04-01

    Shoreline mapping and shoreline change detection are critical subjects for coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection and sustainable coastal development and planning. Coastal changes are attracting more focus since they are important environmental indicators that directly impact coastal economic development and land management. Changes in the shape of shoreline may essentially affect the environment of the coastal zone. These may be caused by natural processes and human activities. The undertaken work focuses on analyzing the Adriatic shoreline dynamics, using spatial temporal data, by taking advantage of Geographic Informatin System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). Shoreline mapping focuses on some specific issues such as mapping methods used to acquire shoreline data, models and database design used to represent shoreline in the spatial database and shoreline -change analysis methods. The study area extends from the mouth of Buna River in the north to Vlora Bay in the south covering a total length of about 220 km. Detection and future assessment of Albanian Adriatic shoreline spatial position is carried out through integration of multi scale resolution of spatial temporal data and different processing methods. We have combined topographic maps at different scales (1:75 000, 1918; 1:50 000, 1937; 1:25 000, 1960, 1986 and 1:10 000, 1995), digital aerial photographs of 2007 year, satellite images of Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+ and field observed GIS data. Generation of spatial data is carried out through vectorization process and image processing. Monitoring the dynamics of shoreline position change requires understanding the coastal processes as well as coastal mapping methods. The net rates of variations in the position of the shoreline are calculated according to transects disposed perpendicularly to the baseline and spaced equally along the coast. Analysis of the relative impact of the natural factors and human activities, it is fundamental

  15. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seafood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Mastovska, Katerina; Sorenson, Wendy R; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to determine selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their relevant alkyl homologs in seafood matrixes using a fast sample preparation method followed by analysis with GC/MS. The sample preparation method involves addition of (13)C-PAH surrogate mixture to homogenized samples and extraction by shaking with a water-ethyl acetate mixture. After phase separation induced by addition of anhydrous magnesium sulfate-sodium chloride (2 + 1, w/w) and centrifugation, an aliquot of the ethyl acetate layer is evaporated, reconstituted in hexane, and cleaned up using silica gel SPE. The analytes are eluted with hexane-dichloromethane (3 + 1, v/v), the clean extract is carefully evaporated, reconstituted in isooctane, and analyzed by GC/MS. To allow for the use of various GC/MS instruments, GC columns, silica SPE cartridges, and evaporation techniques and equipment, performance-based criteria were developed and implemented in the qualification phase of the collaborative study. These criteria helped laboratories optimize their GC/MS, SPE cleanup, and evaporation conditions; check and eliminate potential PAH contamination in their reagent blanks; and become familiar with the method procedure. Ten laboratories from five countries qualified and completed the collaborative study, which was conducted on three seafood matrixes (mussel, oyster, and shrimp) fortified with 19 selected PAH analytes at five different levels of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranging from 2 to 50 μg/kg. Each matrix had a varying mixture of three different BaP levels. The other studied PAHs were at varying levels from 2 to 250 μg/kg to mimic typical PAH patterns. The fortified analytes in three matrixes were analyzed as blind duplicates at each level of BaP and corresponding other PAH levels. In addition, a blank with no added PAHs for each matrix was analyzed singly. Eight to 10 valid results were obtained for the majority of determinations. Mean recoveries of all

  16. Readily available sources of long-chain omega-3 oils: is farmed Australian seafood a better source of the good oil than wild-caught seafood?

    PubMed

    Nichols, Peter D; Glencross, Brett; Petrie, James R; Singh, Surinder P

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C₂₀) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and barramundi (Lates calcifer), have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%-50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1). Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health. PMID:24618601

  17. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion. PMID:25641876

  18. Investigating the northern Adriatic Sea ecosystem state with a very high resolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattia, Gelsomina; Zavatarelli, Marco; Lovato, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea ecosystem dynamics is simulated using the coupling of the BFM (Biogeochemical Flux Model) with the NEMO (Nucleus for European Models of the Ocean) model. The modeling system is implemented at very high horizontal (~800 m) and vertical (95 z-level) resolution and is nested with a coarser scale Adriatic/Mediterranean model. Simulation in hindcast and projection mode are being executed and are aimed to evaluate the ecosystem attributes (vigor, organization, resilience), in order to understand the ecosystem state of the basin with respect to the so-called "Good Ecosystem State" (GES) as defined by the EU-MSF9 Directive. Skill of the model in replicating integrated environmental indices such as the EU-EEACS1023+ is also investigated. Finally the model is also open to an off-line coupling with an higher trophic level (HTL) model.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Central Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Arianna; Tavoloni, Tamara; Bastari, Eleonora; Lestingi, Carmela; Romanelli, Sara; Saluti, Giorgio; Moretti, Simone; Galarini, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    One-hundred and thirty-four samples of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along Central Adriatic Sea in 2013 were examined to determine the levels of fifteen congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The purified samples were analysed by gas-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) applying the isotopic dilution. Only four congeners (PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 49 and PBDE 100) were present above the established limits of quantification with mean concentrations equal to 73, 30, 19 and 18 pg g(-1), respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs (sum) ranged from 27 to 386 pg g(-1), with the highest levels around the coastal area of Ancona town. The here found levels were comparable to those measured in mussels collected along Southern Adriatic Sea. PMID:26497256

  20. Underwater noise assessment in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) using an MSFD approach.

    PubMed

    Codarin, Antonio; Picciulin, Marta

    2015-12-30

    In the marine environment, underwater noise is one of the most widespread input of man-made energy. Recently, the European Commission has stressed the necessity of establishing threshold levels as a target for the descriptor 11.2.1 "Continuous low frequency sounds" in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In 2012, a monthly underwater noise monitoring programme was conducted in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy); the collected acoustic samples (frequency range: 10-20,000 Hz) were analysed in the 1/3 octave bands. The stations have been further clustered following the 63 and 125 Hz bands noise levels. Average SPL levels resulted similar to those previously computed for proximate areas, indicating that the Adriatic Sea sub-region experiences high noise pressure in the marine waters. In its turn this claims for a scientific and technical international cooperation, as requested by the EU programme. No seasonal variation in local noise levels has been found. PMID:26506026

  1. Arsenic in the human food chain, biotransformation and toxicology--Review focusing on seafood arsenic.

    PubMed

    Molin, Marianne; Ulven, Stine Marie; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Fish and seafood are main contributors of arsenic (As) in the diet. The dominating arsenical is the organoarsenical arsenobetaine (AB), found particularly in finfish. Algae, blue mussels and other filter feeders contain less AB, but more arsenosugars and relatively more inorganic arsenic (iAs), whereas fatty fish contain more arsenolipids. Other compounds present in smaller amounts in seafood include trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), trimethylarsoniopropionate (TMAP), dimethylarsenate (DMA), methylarsenate (MA) and sulfur-containing arsenicals. The toxic and carcinogenic arsenical iAs is biotransformed in humans and excreted in urine as the carcinogens dimethylarsinate (DMA) and methylarsonate (MA), producing reactive intermediates in the process. Less is known about the biotransformation of organoarsenicals, but new insight indicates that bioconversion of arsenosugars and arsenolipids in seafood results in urinary excretion of DMA, possibly also producing reactive trivalent arsenic intermediates. Recent findings also indicate that the pre-systematic metabolism by colon microbiota play an important role for human metabolism of arsenicals. Processing of seafood may also result in transformation of arsenicals. PMID:25666158

  2. A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Seafood Processing Training Sessions in the Galveston Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Robert F.

    A cost-benefit study was conducted to determine the economic viability of continuing to offer training sessions for seafood processors through the College of the Mainland in Texas. Data for the study were collected from both primary and secondary sources, including the college and local company participating in the program, federal and state…

  3. 78 FR 20092 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Fish and Seafood Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Fish and... collection. Under the authority of the Fish and Seafood Promotion Act of 1986, information collected under this program is used to promote domestically-produced fish products. The information...

  4. Characterization of aerosols above the Northern Adriatic Sea: Case studies of offshore and onshore wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzola, J.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Canepa, E.; Tedeschi, G.; Prati, P.; Zarmpas, P.; Bastianini, M.; Missamou, T.; Cavaleri, L.

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol particles in coastal areas result from a complex mixing between sea spray aerosols locally generated at the sea surface by the wind-waves interaction processes and a continental component resulting from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. This paper presents a physical and chemical analysis of the aerosol data acquired from May to September 2014 in the Adriatic Sea. Aerosol distributions were measured on the Acqua Alta platform located 15 km off the coast of Venice using two Particle Measuring System probes and a chemical characterization was made using an Ion Chromatography analysis (IC). Our aim is to study both the sea-spray contribution and the anthropogenic influence in the coastal aerosol of this Mediterranean region. To this end, we focus on a comparison between the present data and the aerosol size distributions measured south of the French Mediterranean coast. For air masses of marine origin transported by southern winds on the French coast and by the Sirocco in the Adriatic, we note a good agreement between the concentrations of super-micrometer aerosols measured in the two locations. This indicates a similar sea surface production of sea-spray aerosols formed by bubble bursting processes in the two locations. In contrast, the results show larger concentrations of submicron particles in the North-Western Mediterranean compared to the Adriatic, which result probably from a larger anthropogenic background for marine conditions. In contrast, for a coastal influence, the chemical analysis presented in the present paper seems to indicate a larger importance of the anthropogenic impact in the Northern Adriatic compared to the North-Western Mediterranean.

  5. Bacterial diversity in the South Adriatic Sea during a strong, deep winter convection year.

    PubMed

    Korlević, M; Pop Ristova, P; Garić, R; Amann, R; Orlić, S

    2015-03-01

    The South Adriatic Sea is the deepest part of the Adriatic Sea and represents a key area for both the Adriatic Sea and the deep eastern Mediterranean. It has a role in dense water formation for the eastern Mediterranean deep circulation cell, and it represents an entry point for water masses originating from the Ionian Sea. The biodiversity and seasonality of bacterial picoplankton before, during, and after deep winter convection in the oligotrophic South Adriatic waters were assessed by combining comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The picoplankton communities reached their maximum abundance in the spring euphotic zone when the maximum value of the chlorophyll a in response to deep winter convection was recorded. The communities were dominated by Bacteria, while Archaea were a minor constituent. A seasonality of bacterial richness and diversity was observed, with minimum values occurring during the winter convection and spring postconvection periods and maximum values occurring under summer stratified conditions. The SAR11 clade was the main constituent of the bacterial communities and reached the maximum abundance in the euphotic zone in spring after the convection episode. Cyanobacteria were the second most abundant group, and their abundance strongly depended on the convection event, when minimal cyanobacterial abundance was observed. In spring and autumn, the euphotic zone was characterized by Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteroidetes clades NS2b, NS4, and NS5 and the gammaproteobacterial SAR86 clade were detected to co-occur with phytoplankton blooms. The SAR324, SAR202, and SAR406 clades were present in the deep layer, exhibiting different seasonal variations in abundance. Overall, our data demonstrate that the abundances of particular bacterial clades and the overall bacterial richness and diversity are greatly impacted by strong winter convection. PMID:25548042

  6. Links between Sea Level in the northern Adriatic sea and large scale patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, L.; Lionello, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study analyzes the link between Northern Adriatic sea level (SL) and three variables: sea level pressure over European and North-Atlantic area (SLP), Mediterranean sea surface temperature (SST) and Mediterranean sea surface salinity (SSS). Sea level data are provided by monthly values recorded at 7 tide gauges stations distributed along the north-Italian and Croatian coasts (available at the PSMSL Permanent Service of Mean Sea Level). SLP data are provided by the EMULATE data set. Mediterranean SST and SSS data are extracted from the MEDATLAS/2002 database. The study shows that annual sea level variations at Northern Adriatic stations are very coherent so that the northern Adriatic sea level can be reconstructed since 1905 on the basis of only two stations: Venice and Trieste, whose data cover almost the entire 20th century (whereas Croatian data cover only the second half of the century). The inverse barometric, thermosteric and halosteric effects provide the physical basis for a local relation of SL with SLP, SST, SSS implying, if other effects are absent, a sea level increase for increasing temperature and decreasing atmospheric pressure and salinity. However, the statistical model used to quantify the link between SL and these three forcings shows that they have produced no important trend and they cannot explain the observed trend of Northern Adriatic Sea level during the second half of the 20th century. The observed trend can therefore be interpreted as the superposition of land movement and a remote cause. Using SLP, SST and SSS from climate model simulations, no trend is obtained during the 20th century, as well. The same model simulations, considering their continuations for the 21st century show that local effects (mainly warming of water masses) are likely to produce an increase of about 10cm (with a large uncertainty) at the end of the century. The global signal and the regional land movements have to be added to this result to obtain the actual

  7. Characterization of aerosols above the Northern Adriatic Sea: Case studies of offshore and onshore wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzola, J.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Canepa, E.; Tedeschi, G.; Prati, P.; Zarmpas, P.; Bastianini, M.; Missamou, T.; Cavaleri, L.

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol particles in coastal areas result from a complex mixing between sea spray aerosols locally generated at the sea surface by the wind-waves interaction processes and a continental component resulting from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. This paper presents a physical and chemical analysis of the aerosol data acquired from May to September 2014 in the Adriatic Sea. Aerosol distributions were measured on the Acqua Alta platform located 15 km off the coast of Venice using two Particle Measuring System probes and a chemical characterization was made using an Ion Chromatography analysis (IC). Our aim is to study both the sea-spray contribution and the anthropogenic influence in the coastal aerosol of this Mediterranean region. To this end, we focus on a comparison between the present data and the aerosol size distributions measured south of the French Mediterranean coast. For air masses of marine origin transported by southern winds on the French coast and by the Sirocco in the Adriatic, we note a good agreement between the concentrations of super-micrometer aerosols measured in the two locations. This indicates a similar sea surface production of sea-spray aerosols formed by bubble bursting processes in the two locations. In contrast, the results show larger concentrations of submicron particles in the North-Western Mediterranean compared to the Adriatic, which result probably from a larger anthropogenic background for marine conditions. In contrast, for a coastal influence, the chemical analysis presented in the present paper seems to indicate a larger importance of the anthropogenic impact in the Northern Adriatic compared to the North-Western Mediterranean.

  8. Bacterial Diversity in the South Adriatic Sea during a Strong, Deep Winter Convection Year

    PubMed Central

    Korlević, M.; Pop Ristova, P.; Garić, R.; Amann, R.

    2014-01-01

    The South Adriatic Sea is the deepest part of the Adriatic Sea and represents a key area for both the Adriatic Sea and the deep eastern Mediterranean. It has a role in dense water formation for the eastern Mediterranean deep circulation cell, and it represents an entry point for water masses originating from the Ionian Sea. The biodiversity and seasonality of bacterial picoplankton before, during, and after deep winter convection in the oligotrophic South Adriatic waters were assessed by combining comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The picoplankton communities reached their maximum abundance in the spring euphotic zone when the maximum value of the chlorophyll a in response to deep winter convection was recorded. The communities were dominated by Bacteria, while Archaea were a minor constituent. A seasonality of bacterial richness and diversity was observed, with minimum values occurring during the winter convection and spring postconvection periods and maximum values occurring under summer stratified conditions. The SAR11 clade was the main constituent of the bacterial communities and reached the maximum abundance in the euphotic zone in spring after the convection episode. Cyanobacteria were the second most abundant group, and their abundance strongly depended on the convection event, when minimal cyanobacterial abundance was observed. In spring and autumn, the euphotic zone was characterized by Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteroidetes clades NS2b, NS4, and NS5 and the gammaproteobacterial SAR86 clade were detected to co-occur with phytoplankton blooms. The SAR324, SAR202, and SAR406 clades were present in the deep layer, exhibiting different seasonal variations in abundance. Overall, our data demonstrate that the abundances of particular bacterial clades and the overall bacterial richness and diversity are greatly impacted by strong winter convection. PMID:25548042

  9. Long Waves Perturbations to Astronomical Tides in Adriatic and Tyrrenian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2008-01-03

    Portable tide gauges have been made with ultrasonic detectors with acquisition rate of 100 data per minute. With them we measured mean sea level variations in different locations of Adriatic and Tyrrenian sea around latitude 42 deg. N. Several long term variations are superimposed to astronomical tide, ranging from 4 to 60 minutes. Their nature of seiches or edge waves and their identification with transversal oscillations of the whole sea are discussed.

  10. Offshore Adriatic marginal gas fields: An approach to the technique of reservoir development

    SciTech Connect

    Montanari, A.; Bolelli, V.; Piccoli, G.

    1986-01-01

    The application of accelerated gas blowdown and wire line techniques in reservoir development and exploitation is presented for an off-shore Adriatic marginal gas field. The approach discussed in this paper utilizes selective completion, very low reserves/production ratio, sequential production, Through Tubing Bridge Plug and Through Tubing Perforation techniques to avoid the use of costly workover rigs and to allow economically convenient exploitation of a structure which otherwise would have been abandoned.

  11. Eutrophication in the northern Adriatic Sea: Benthic fluxes and nutrient budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Berelson, W.M.; Hammond, D.E. ); Giordani, P. )

    1990-01-09

    The northern Adriatic Sea has been plagued by problems of eutrophication. This area is relatively shallow (maximum depth = 60m), becoming stratified during the summer months which inhibits oxygen transport to bottom waters. Anthropogenic nutrient loading in rivers entering the northern Adriatic has increased nutrient input to this system and stimulated algai growth. Five stations in the western Adriatic (south of the Po River Delta) were occupied during September, 1988 and benthic flux chambers used to measure nutrient fluxes. These sites included 3 stations previously studied in 1982. Flux measurements of dissolved silica, nitrate, oxygen, ammonia, phosphate, CO[sub 2], alkalinity and radon were made during 24 hour incubations of flux chambers (area covered - 0.07 m[sup 2], volume = [approximately]81) that were continuously stirred and sampled periodically. Nutrient fluxes measured were generally consistent with the fluxes measured previously in June, 1982 except for radon fluxes which were 203 times greater in the earlier field season. There was a general trend in nutrient fluxes to decrease offshore, a pattern probably controlled by the sedimentation patterns because fine grained, organic matter-rich sediment are concentrated in a zone near shore. Average regional fluxes were (in mmol m[sup -2]d[sup -1], negative values indicate flux into sediment): Oxygen (-12), CO[sub 2] (19), Alkalinity (4), Silica (3.3), Ammonia (1.5), Phosphate (0.1) and Nitrate (0.3). The carbon/ammonia flux ratio is about twice the C/N ratio in marine phytoplankton, suggesting that large amounts of denitrification may be occuring in these sediments. Comparisons of benthic fluxes and sediment burial rates indicate that 50-90% of the carbon, silica, phosphorus and nitrogen arriving at the sediment-water interface is recycled before burial. The nutrient input to the water column from NW Adriatic sediments is about equal to the input from coastal rivers.

  12. Severe flooding along the eastern Adriatic coast: the case of 1 December 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Međugorac, Iva; Pasarić, Miroslava; Orlić, Mirko

    2015-06-01

    This paper addresses an extraordinary storm surge in the Northern Adriatic that was more pronounced on the eastern than on the western shore. On 1 December 2008, Adriatic monitoring stations detected exceptionally high sea levels; the oldest Croatian tide gauge station recorded the highest water level in its operating history at the time. Apart from the Northern Adriatic, large portion of the Dalmatian Coast was also exposed to high water levels, while Venice experienced a less-dramatic event. This marine storm was different from the capital storm of 4 November 1966 during which the surge had the highest impact ahead of Venice and along the north-western coastline. The 2008 event is studied here in detail, and the mechanisms that resulted in the different flooding of the two shores are identified. The study is based on hourly sea level, air pressure and wind data measured along both basin sides together with ECMWF reanalysis fields. Four components of sea-level evolution are identified: the storm surge, tide, Adriatic seiche and, low-frequency variability. The 2008 event was the outcome of a fine interplay between the first three components, which were all superimposed on the raised sea level due to low-frequency variability. The marine storm differed from the 1966 storm in the atmospheric forcing and relative timing of all contributing processes. The 2008 flooding of the eastern coast was mainly due to the Sirocco-wind shear, whereas the 1966 flooding of the western coast was due to the combined effect of almost uniform Sirocco and bottom slope.

  13. Incidence and prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Odeyemi, Olumide A

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important seafood borne human pathogen worldwide due to it occurrence, prevalence and ability to cause gastrointestinal infections. This current study aim at investigating the incidence and prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood using systematic review-meta-analysis by exploring heterogeneity among primary studies. A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of peer reviewed primary studies reported between 2003 and 2015 for the occurrence and prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood was conducted using "isolation", "detection", "prevalence", "incidence", "occurrence" or "enumeration" and V. parahaemolyticus as search algorithms in Web of Science (Science Direct) and ProQuest of electronic bibliographic databases. Data extracted from the primary studies were then analyzed with fixed effect meta-analysis model for effect rate to explore heterogeneity between the primary studies. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot. A total of 10,819 articles were retrieved from the data bases of which 48 studies met inclusion criteria. V. parahaemolyticus could only be isolated from 2761 (47.5 %) samples of 5811 seafood investigated. The result of this study shows that incidence of V. parahaemolyticus was more prevalent in oysters with overall prevalence rate of 63.4 % (95 % CI 0.592-0.674) than other seafood. Overall prevalence rate of clams was 52.9 % (95 % CI 0.490-0.568); fish 51.0 % (95 % CI 0.476-0.544); shrimps 48.3 % (95 % CI 0.454-0.512) and mussels, scallop and periwinkle: 28.0 % (95 % CI 0.255-0.307). High heterogeneity (p value <0.001; I (2) = 95.291) was observed mussel compared to oysters (I (2) = 91.024). It could be observed from this study that oysters harbor V. parahaemolyticus based on the prevalence rate than other seafood investigated. The occurrence and prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus is of public health importance, hence, more studies involving seafood such as mussels need to be

  14. Veterinary drug residues in seafood inspected by the European Union, United States, Canada, and Japan from 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Rodman, Sarah; Neff, Roni A; Nachman, Keeve E

    2011-09-01

    Veterinary drugs are used to treat or prevent a wide array of production-related diseases in aquaculture. Residues of these drugs in seafood products may pose risks to consumers, prompting governments to set drug residue tolerance levels and inspect seafood for violations of these standards. This study characterizes veterinary drug inspection policies and violations among four inspecting bodies (European Union (E.U.), United States (U.S.), Canada, and Japan), using government-collected veterinary drug violation data from 2000 to 2009. Most veterinary drug violations were detected in species that are commonly farm-raised. Asian seafood products, including shrimp and prawns, catfish (or fish sold as catfish), crab, tilapia, eel, and Chilean salmon were most frequently in violation of veterinary drug residue standards. Vietnam had the greatest number of violations among exporting countries. Concentrations of most veterinary drugs in seafood found in violation did not differ between inspecting bodies that reported drug concentrations. Transparency in seafood inspection reporting varied widely among inspecting bodies. Estimation of violations in the untested fraction of seafood was precluded by a lack of information from inspecting bodies regarding the distinction between targeted and random sampling. Increased transparency could facilitate a more rigorous characterization of public health risks from consuming imported seafood. PMID:21797221

  15. The carbon budget in the northern Adriatic Sea, a winter case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, G.; Azzaro, M.; Bastianini, M.; Bellucci, L. G.; Bernardi Aubry, F.; Bianchi, F.; Burca, M.; Cantoni, C.; Caruso, G.; Casotti, R.; Cozzi, S.; Del Negro, P.; Fonda Umani, S.; Giani, M.; Giuliani, S.; Kovacevic, V.; La Ferla, R.; Langone, L.; Luchetta, A.; Monticelli, L. S.; Piacentino, S.; Pugnetti, A.; Ravaioli, M.; Socal, G.; Spagnoli, F.; Ursella, L.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a winter carbon budget for the northern Adriatic Sea, obtained through direct measurements during two multidisciplinary cruises and literature data. A box model approach was adopted to integrate estimates of stocks and fluxes of carbon species over the total area. The oligotrophy at the basin scale and the start of primary productivity well before the onset of spring stratification were observed. In winter, the system underwent a complete reset, as the mixing of water masses erased any signal of previous hypoxia or anoxia episodes. The northern Adriatic Sea was phosphorus depleted with respect to C and N availability. This fact confirms the importance of mixing with deep-sea water for P supply to biological processes on the whole. Despite the abundant prokaryotic biomass, the microbial food web was less efficient in organic C production than phytoplankton. In the upper layer, the carbon produced by primary production exceeded the fraction respired by planktonic community smaller than 200 µm. On the contrary, respiration processes prevailed in the water column below the pycnocline. The carbon budget also proved that the northern Adriatic Sea can be an effective sink for atmospheric CO2 throughout the entire winter season.

  16. Essential Oils from Anthemis maritima Flowers: Infraspecific Variability along the Adriatic Coast (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Daniela; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pistelli, Luisa

    2016-05-01

    The hydrodistilled essential oils (EOs) from flowers of five Adriatic populations of Anthemis maritima were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Anthemis maritima is a psammophilous plant living generally on coastal sand dunes but occasionally on sea cliffs and shingle beaches. A total of 163 chemical compounds were identified, accounting for 90.5% of the oils. The main classes of compounds represented in the EOs were monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and terpene esters.The multivariate chemometric techniques, in particular cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis, used to classify the samples, highlighted three different chemotypes linked to a geographic origin. One group living in northern Italy was characterized by the highest content of β-pinene, γ-terpinene, and β-caryophyllene, a second chemotype was in central Italy with the highest amount of trans-chrysanthenyl acetate and a third group living in southern Italy with a more heterogeneous volatile profile was characterized by the highest values of cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, trans-chrysanthenyl isobutyrate, cis-carveol propionate, α-zingiberene, and cubenol. Moreover, the comparison of the Adriatic populations with the Tyrrhenian samples, analyzed in a previous research, showed that cubenol (absent in all the Tyrrhenian populations) and (E)-β-farnesene (absent in all the Adriatic samples) play a crucial role in discriminating the Italian populations. PMID:27114258

  17. Modelling the formation of dense water in the northern Adriatic: Sensitivity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilibić, Ivica; Mihanović, Hrvoje; Janeković, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to document the effects of imposing different river runoff forcing and tidal forcing to the dense water formation (DWF) rates and dynamics in a semi-enclosed sea. An extreme DWF episode that occurred in the winter of 2012 in the shallow northern Adriatic Sea during a prolonged cold bora wind outbreak event has been reproduced using a one-way coupled atmosphere-ocean modelling system comprised of the atmospheric Aladin/HR mesoscale model and ocean ROMS model. Three different river runoff forcing and tides/no tides scenarios were imposed on the model. The introduction of tides and river climatology instead of real rivers did not substantially change the modelled DWF transports and volumes, whereas the simulation using the old Raicich climatology resulted in a substantial freshening of the entire Adriatic that reduced or prevented the DWF at sites in the northern and northeastern Adriatic. The necessity of using an up-to-date river runoff climatology to properly reproduce the DWF in semi-enclosed seas is emphasised.

  18. Modelling origin and transport fate of waste materials on the south-eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.; Janeković, I.

    2014-12-01

    The south-eastern parts of the Adriatic Sea coastline were severely polluted by large amounts of accumulated waste material in the second half of November 2010. The waste, reported by major news agencies, accumulated dominantly during 21 November 2010 by favourable wind - ocean current transport system. In the study we analysed meteorological and oceanographic conditions that lead to the waste deposition using available in situ measurements, remote sensing data as well numerical models of the ocean and the atmosphere. The measured data reveal that an intensive rainfall event from 7 till 10 November 2010, over the parts of Montenegro and Albania, was followed by a substantial increase of the river water levels indicating flash floods that possibly splashed the waste material into a river and after to the Adriatic Sea. In order to test our hypothesis we set a number of numerical drifter experiments with trajectories initiated off the coast of Albania during the intensive rainfall events following their faith in space and time. One of the numerical drifter trajectory experiment resulted with drifters reached right position (south-eastern Adriatic coast) and time (exactly by the time the waste was observed) when initiated on 00:00 and 12:00 UTC of 10 November 2010 during the mentioned flash flood event.

  19. Three Anisakis spp. isolated from toothed whales stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Kristina; Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Đuras, Martina; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge concerning cetacean ecology in the Mediterranean is limited but important for sustainable planning and enforcement of appropriate conservation measures. Any information that might help to elucidate their ecology is essential. We explored the population and genetic structures of Anisakis spp. nematodes isolated from four toothed whale species - bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) and Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) - stranded along the eastern Adriatic Sea coast (1990-2012) to reveal more information on host ecological patterns. Lower parasite prevalence was observed in resident dolphin species compared with occasionally occurring species, as well as in young compared with adult dolphins, indicating different feeding habits related to age. No unequivocal relationship between the biological traits of a host (age, body length, body mass and blubber depth) and Anisakis population parameters was observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new geographical record of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (1.96%) and Anisakis physeteris (1.31%) in the Adriatic Sea in addition to resident Anisakis pegreffii (96.73%). In an assessment of the Adriatic Sea and oceans worldwide, the genetic structure of Anisakis revealed that A. pegreffii populations do not differ among various final host species but do differ with respect to geographical location in contrast to previously accepted Anisakis panmixia. PMID:25449948

  20. Rhabdomyolysis After Cooked Seafood Consumption (Haff Disease) in the United States vs China

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Haff disease is a syndrome of myalgia and rhabdomyolysis that occurs after eating cooked seafood. Methods For this descriptive analytical article, a literature search identified the scientific articles on Haff disease and/or rhabdomyolysis after eating cooked seafood in the United States and China. Analysis of those articles focused on identifying the seafood vectors of Haff disease, describing the most commonly recurring clinical and laboratory manifestations of Haff disease, and comparing the Haff disease toxidrome with other similar seafood-borne toxidromes. Statistically significant differences were determined using unpaired t tests and Fisher exact tests. Results Twenty-nine confirmed cases of Haff disease were identified in the United States, and 60 cases were identified in China during 1984-2014. Most of the US cases followed consumption of buffalo fish, and most of the Chinese cases followed consumption of freshwater pomfret. However, Haff disease also followed consumption of the same species of boiled crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in the United States (n=9) and China (n=6). US patients with crayfish-transmitted Haff disease reported significantly more nausea with and without vomiting, chest pain, body and back pain, dyspnea, and diaphoresis than the Chinese patients and were more frequently misdiagnosed as having myocardial infarctions. Conclusion The bioaccumulation of a new, heat-stable freshwater and/or brackish/saltwater algal toxin, similar to palytoxin but primarily myotoxic and not neurotoxic, is suspected of causing Haff disease. At present, only the rapid identification of the seafood vectors of Haff disease will limit disease outbreaks and prevent further cases. PMID:26130980

  1. Seafood Consumption and Blood Mercury Concentrations in Jamaican Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Chen, Zhongxue; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Bloom, Kari; Pearson, Deborah A.; Lalor, Gerald C.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal shown to have harmful effects on human health. Several studies have reported high blood mercury concentrations as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), while other studies have reported no such association. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations in children and ASDs. Moreover, we investigated the role of seafood consumption in relation to blood mercury concentrations in Jamaican children. Based on data for 65 sex- and age-matched pairs (2–8 years), we used a General Linear Model to test whether there is an association between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. After controlling for the child’s frequency of seafood consumption, maternal age, and parental education, we did not find a significant difference (P = 0.61) between blood mercury concentrations and ASDs. However, in both cases and control groups, children who ate certain types of seafood (i.e., salt water fish, sardine, or mackerel fish) had significantly higher (all P <0.05) geometric means blood mercury concentration which were about 3.5 times that of children living in the US or Canada. Our findings also indicate that Jamaican children with parents who both had education up to high school are at a higher risk of exposure to mercury compared to children with at least one parent who had education beyond high school. Based on our findings, we recommend additional education to Jamaican parents regarding potential hazards of elevated blood mercury concentrations, and its association with seafood consumption and type of seafood. PMID:22488160

  2. A Self-Organizing Maps approach to assess the wave climate of the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbariol, Francesco; Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Scotton, Carlotta; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The assessment of wave conditions at sea is fruitful for many research fields in marine and atmospheric sciences and for the human activities in the marine environment. To this end, in the last decades the observational network, that mostly relies on buoys, satellites and other probes from fixed platforms, has been integrated with numerical models outputs, which allow to compute the parameters of sea states (e.g. the significant wave height, the mean and peak wave periods, the mean and peak wave directions) over wider regions. Apart from the collection of wave parameters observed at specific sites or modeled on arbitrary domains, the data processing performed to infer the wave climate at those sites is a crucial step in order to provide high quality data and information to the community. In this context, several statistical techniques has been used to model the randomness of wave parameters. While univariate and bivariate probability distribution functions (pdf) are routinely used, multivariate pdfs that model the probability structure of more than two wave parameters are hardly managed. Recently, the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) technique has been successfully applied to represent the multivariate random wave climate at sites around the Iberian peninsula and the South America continent. Indeed, the visualization properties offered by this technique allow to get the dependencies between the different parameters by visual inspection. In this study, carried out in the frame of the Italian National Flagship Project "RITMARE", we take advantage of the SOM technique to assess the multivariate wave climate over the Adriatic Sea, a semi-enclosed basin in the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea, where winds from North-East (called "Bora") and South-East (called "Sirocco") mainly blow causing sea storms. By means of the SOM techniques we can observe the multivariate character of the typical Bora and Sirocco wave features in the Adriatic Sea. To this end, we used both observed and

  3. Impacts of maintenance channel dredging in a northern Adriatic coastal lagoon. II: Effects on macrobenthic assemblages in channels and ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, Massimo; Pasteris, Andrea; Guerra, Roberta; Abbiati, Marco

    2009-10-01

    Coastal lagoons are ephemeral habitats whose conservation requires human intervention, such as maintenance dredging of inner channels. Dredging can reduce the abundance of benthic species due to the removal of individuals with the sediment, modify sediment properties, and resuspend fine sediment, nutrients and pollutants, which can lead to eutrophication, hypoxic events and increasing toxicity. Both direct effects in the dredged channel and possible indirect effects in surrounding shallow areas could be expected. This study assesses the effects of the channel maintenance dredging, performed between October 2004 and August 2005, on the invertebrate assemblages both in channels and adjacent ponds in the northern Adriatic coastal lagoon of Pialassa Baiona. The lagoon is affected by eutrophication, chemical and thermal pollution from wastewater treatment and power plants. Three impacted sites were located in the dredged channel and three in the adjacent interconnected shallow water ponds, while three non-impacted sites were located in a channel and in a pond far from the dredged area. Replicate samples were collected from each site one time before and one time after the dredging operations. Despite the extent of the intervention, effects of the dredging on macrobenthic assemblages were detected only within the dredged channel, while in the surrounding ponds no clear and unequivocal effects were found. In particular the dredging could have promoted the increase of the abundance of the polychaete Streblospio shrubsolii in the southern and central parts of the dredged channel and the increase in abundance of the amphipod Corophium insidiosum in the northern side, compared to the controls. Instead, species diversity was reduced in the central and northern parts of the dredged channel. These effects on the macrobenthic invertebrate assemblages could be related to the observed changes of sediment characteristics, contamination and toxicity. Overall, direct effects on benthic

  4. Gradients of benthic pelagic coupling and carbon budgets in the Adriatic and Northern Ionian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordani, P.; Helder, W.; Koning, E.; Miserocchi, S.; Danovaro, R.; Malaguti, A.

    2002-06-01

    The Adriatic sea is generally viewed as a long bay in the Central Mediterranean, stretching SE to NW for 800 km, from the Strait of Otranto to the Gulf of Venice, with an extremely long, geometrically complex coastline, creating a high diversity of hydrodynamic and sedimentary environments. The seafloor slopes down from the North shallow shelf (mean depth 35 m) through the middle Adriatic depression (250 m depth in the Pomo Pit) to the bathyal reached in the Southern Adriatic pit (1260 m). Typical physiographic and climatic features strongly influence biological productivity. The productivity of the Northern Adriatic is among the highest in the Mediterranean, while it becomes lower in the offshore waters of the Central and Southern subbasins, defining clear oligotrophic and benthic-pelagic coupling gradients from the Northern to the Southern edge of the basin. Assessing the benthic response to particulate fluxes of organic matter from the photic layer was a target of the EU-MATER Project. The applied methodological strategy involved measurements of primary production by 14C in situ incubation technique, of particulate fluxes through the water column by moored sediment traps, of sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) by in situ and on-deck incubations, and of carbon burial fluxes at three sites in the Southern Adriatic (A1), the Otranto Strait (O2) and the Ionian sea (I1), along the main pathway of outflowing water masses. In this paper, yearly budget calculations of carbon are presented for stations, selected as being representative of wider areas in the three subbasins, to give a picture of the Adriatic basin as a whole. Data from the Northern basin, obtained by the same methodology, come from previous research programmes carried out in the framework of EU Marine projects (STEP/Adria and MTP 1/Euromarge AS). The carbon fraction reaching the seafloor was quantified as the sum of SCOC and burial fluxes and was compared to 14C primary production measurements in

  5. Historical demography of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Adriatic drainage including the putative S. letnica endemic to Lake Ohrid.

    PubMed

    Susnik, Simona; Snoj, Ales; Wilson, Iain F; Mrdak, Danilo; Weiss, Steven

    2007-07-01

    We explore the historical demography of the Adriatic lineage of brown trout and more explicitly the colonization and phylogenetic placement of Ohrid trout, based on variation at 12 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region. All Adriatic basin haplotypes reside in derived positions in a network that represents the entire lineage. The central presumably most ancestral haplotype in this network is restricted to the Iberian Peninsula, where it is very common, supporting a Western Mediterranean origin for the lineage. The expansion statistic R2, Bayesian based estimates of demographic parameters, and star-like genealogies support expansions on several geographic scales, whereas application of pairwise mismatch analysis was somewhat ambiguous. The estimated time since expansion (155,000 years ago) for the Adriatic lineage was supported by a narrow confidence interval compared to previous studies. Based on microsatellite and mtDNA sequence variation, the endemic Ohrid trout represents a monophyletic lineage isolated from other Adriatic basin populations, but nonetheless most likely evolving from within the Adriatic lineage of brown trout. Our results do not support the existence of population structuring within Lake Ohrid, even though samples included two putative intra-lacustrine forms. In the interests of protecting the unique biodiversity of this ancient ecosystem, we recommend retaining the taxonomic epithet Salmo letnica for the endemic Ohrid trout. PMID:17046289

  6. Combined effects of the herbicide terbuthylazine and temperature on different flagellates from the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Emanuela; Mazzotti, Matilde; Guerrini, Franca; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2013-03-15

    The triazinic herbicide terbuthylazine (TBA) is becoming an emergent contaminant in Italian rivers and in coastal and groundwater. A preliminary analysis of the sensitivity of marine flagellates to TBA was performed by monitoring the photosynthetic efficiency of nine species (belonging to the Dinophyceae or Raphidophyceae class) isolated from the Adriatic Sea. Different sensitivity levels for each flagellate were observed and the most sensitive microalgae, based on PSII inhibition, were: Gonyaulax spinifera>Fibrocapsa japonica>Lingulodinium polyedrum while the most resistant were two species belonging to the Prorocentrum genus. Then the response of two microalgae to drivers, such as temperature and terbuthylazine, applied in combination was also investigated. Two potentially toxic flagellates, Prorocentrum minimum and G. spinifera, were exposed, under different temperature conditions (15, 20 and 25°C), to TBA concentrations that did not completely affect PSII. For both flagellates, effects of TBA on algal growth, measured through cell density and carbon analysis, as well as on the photosynthetic activity are reported. All parameters analyzed showed a negative effect of TBA from the exponential phase. TBA effect on algal growth was significantly enhanced at the optimal temperature conditions (20 and 25°C), while no difference between control and herbicide treatments were detected for G. spinifera grown at 15°C, which represented a stress condition for this species. The maximum inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency was found at 20°C for both organisms. Both flagellates increased cell carbon and nitrogen content in herbicide treatments compared to the control, except G. spinifera grown at 15°C. Chlorophyll-a production was increased only in G. spinifera exposed to 5 μg L(-1) of TBA and the effect was enhanced with the increase of temperature. Herbicide-induced variations in cellular components determined changes in cellular carbon:nitrogen (C:N) and

  7. Organochlorine chemicals in seafood: occurrence and health concerns.

    PubMed

    Smith, A G; Gangolli, S D

    2002-06-01

    The cheap availability of chlorine gas, together with the development of industrial chlorinating procedures in the 20th century, led to the production of a wide range of organochlorine compounds many with a variety of commercial applications, including usage as insecticides and defoliants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) used as coolants in electricity supply transformers. However, it was soon found that many of these technologically valuable chemicals suffered from a major disadvantage in that they resisted biodegradation and that the continued use of these compounds would lead to their persistence and accumulation in the environment and thus enter the human food chain. Despite regulatory bans or strict limits on usage being imposed on organochlorine pesticides in most countries, these compounds continue to be detected in measurable amounts in the eco-system including marine life. In general, organochlorine levels in fish intended for human consumption are low and probably below levels likely to adversely affect human health. Populations at higher risk than most people are those subsisting largely on fish and other marine life. Additionally, fish oils obtained from contaminated fish, if consumed in substantial quantities by infants and young children, might present potential health problems if levels are not continually regulated. Behavioral and neurological effects have been reported in children and ascribed to the consumption of PCB contaminated diet including fish. Another current major human health concern, yet to be resolved, about organochlorine contaminants in the human diet relates to the potential ability of many of these chemicals at low doses to act as "endocrine disruptors". PMID:11983271

  8. Burried MIS 5 abrasion platforms in the Bay of Koper (Gulf of Trieste, Northern Adriatic) confirm long-term subsidence of the Northern Adriatic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trobec, Ana; Šmuc, Andrej; Poglajen, Sašo; Vrabec, Marko

    2016-04-01

    The youngest seafloor sediments of the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic) are represented by an up to several 100 meters thick succession of Pliocene to Quaternary continental and shallow-marine deposits recording numerous transgressive-regressive cycles. These sediments are separated from older lithologies (mainly Eocene flysch) by an erosional unconformity. Previous geophysical campaigns conducted in the Italian part of the Gulf of Trieste revealed a complex undulating morphology of the unconformity characterised by numerous morphological steps in the flysch appearing between 40 and 200 m below sea level. From correlation with onshore well data from the Friuli and Veneto area it is assumed that the highest system of these unconformities located at approximately 40 mbsl represents a marine abrasion platform formed during the MIS 5 period sea-level highstand. We present the first observations of these abrasion platforms in the Bay of Koper in the southern (Slovenian) part of the Gulf of Trieste. A series of perpendicular sub-bottom sonar profiles with a spacing of 250-500 meters was acquired in the Bay of Koper between 2009 and 2012 with the Innomar parametric sediment echo sounder SES-2000. Along the northern coast of the bay several acoustic facies were resolved, including the top erosional unconformity surface of the flysch. On this surface we located platforms at 35 ms (platform A), 40 ms (platform B) and 50 ms (platform C) of two-way-travel time. The top of abrasion platform B coincides with the top of a sediment progradational wedge which overlies abrasion platform C. No progradational wedge is developed at the top of platform A. Due to signal attenuation and multiples sub-bottom profiles could not be interpreted below 53 ms TWT time. We used a sound velocity of 1650 m/s for the time to depth conversion, which places the platforms at the depth of 28, 33 and 41 mbsl, respectively. Assuming that the abrasion platforms are a remnant of the MIS 5 highstand, this

  9. A short food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood and n-3 supplements: validation with biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. Methods The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OH)D in serum. Results Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001) and with 25(OH)D (r = 0.37, p < 0.01). Mean level of marine n-3 and of 25(OH)D were 232 ± 65 μg/g erythrocytes and 73 ± 33 nmol/L serum, respectively. Conclusion The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OH)D and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults. PMID:22099052

  10. Preliminary exposure assessment for Kuwaiti consumers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, T.; Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hashash, H.; Al-Bahloul, M.

    1995-08-01

    Levels of PAHs in seafood from Kuwaiti market were determined. Results showed that most of the samples contained significant amounts of total PAHs. Naphthalene constituted the highest PAH burden of the samples. Nuwaibi had the highest level of total PAHs (472.6 {mu}g/kg, dry wt). Others ranged from 0.86 to 55.96 {mu}g/kg dry wt. The results of exposure assessment for the average consumer indicated a daily intake of 0.231 {mu}g of total PAH from seafood. BaP equivalent intake was calculated to be 0.0167 {mu}g/d. For the above average consumer, total PAH intake was 0.326 {mu}g/d; and BaP equivalents were 0.025 {mu}g/d. These daily intake levels were quite comparable with those reported for the average American consumer. 18 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Utilization of a saltwater-marsh ecosystem for the management of seafood-processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    The report presents the results of a cooperative study that examined the potential for using a saltwater wetland to manage seafood-processing wastewater. An irregularly flooded black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh located at Point aux Pins in coastal Alabama was selected for the study. The study determined that the application of seafood-processing wastewater to the marsh affected a number of the marsh's water-quality characteristics in direct relation to the wastewater loading rate. However, monitoring of the marsh flora and fauna showed virtually no impact at any of the experimental loading rates. As a result of the study a number of design and loading criteria are suggested for any future projects involving wastewater discharges to saltwater wetlands.

  12. Impact of processing on the taurine content in processed seafood and their corresponding unprocessed raw materials.

    PubMed

    Dragnes, Bjørn T; Larsen, Rune; Ernstsen, Marita Holm; Mæhre, Hanne; Elvevoll, Edel O

    2009-03-01

    Processing of foods can lead to losses of water-soluble components, and some of these may have beneficial health effects. Taurine has lately attracted attention due to its suggested strong contribution to the health-promoting effects of seafood. The lack of systematic information on the content of conditionally essential nutrients, such as taurine, has led to this study. The taurine concentrations in a variety of common marine dinners and spreads, and their corresponding raw materials, have been determined. Losses of taurine in processed products ranged up to 100% when compared with the taurine content of freshly caught specimens. Products soaked in brines or products subjected to rough processing conditions such as mincing and washing had greater loss compared with products with more intact muscle. Levels of taurine in processed seafood vary according to product type and brand, showing a potential for the industry to take measures in preventing losses of taurine and other water-soluble components. PMID:18608559

  13. PCR-based assessment of shellfish traceability and sustainability in international Mediterranean seafood markets.

    PubMed

    Galal-Khallaf, Asmaa; Ardura, Alba; Borrell, Yaisel J; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome oxidase COI and 16S rDNA) were employed for species identification of commercial shellfish from two Mediterranean countries. New COI Barcodes were generated for six species: Pleoticus robustus, Metapenaeopsis barbata, Parapenaeus fissuroides, Hymenopenaeus debilis, Metapenaeus affinis and Sepia aculeata. Biodiversity of the seafood species analyzed was greater in Egypt, with nine crustacean and two cephalopod species found compared with only three crustaceans and three cephalopods in Spain. In total, 17.2% and 15.2% products were mislabeled in Egypt and Spain, respectively. Population decline is a problem for some of the substitute species. Others were exotic and/or invasive in exporters' regions. This study offers the first comparable study of shellfish traceability in these Mediterranean markets. The PCR-based method used in this study proved to be reliable, effective and, therefore, could be employed for routine seafood analysis. PMID:26920298

  14. Extreme winter 2012 in the Adriatic: an example of climatic effect on the BiOS rhythm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gačić, M.; Civitarese, G.; Kovačević, V.; Ursella, L.; Bensi, M.; Menna, M.; Cardin, V.; Poulain, P.-M.; Cosoli, S.; Notarstefano, G.; Pizzi, C.

    2014-02-01

    Adriatic and Ionian Seas are Mediterranean sub-basins linked through the Bimodal Oscillating System mechanism responsible for decadal reversals of the Ionian basin-wide circulation. Altimetric maps showed that the last cyclonic mode started in 2011 but unexpectedly in 2012 reversed to anticyclone. We related this "premature" inversion to extremely strong winter in 2012, which caused the formation of very dense Adriatic waters, flooding Ionian flanks in May and inverting the bottom pressure gradient. Using Lagrangian float measurements, the linear regression between the sea surface height and three isopycnal depths suggests that the southward deep-layer flow coincided with the surface northward geostrophic current and the anti-cyclonic circulation regime. Density variations at depth in the north-western Ionian revealed the arrival of Adriatic dense waters in May and maximum density in September. Comparison between the sea level height in the north-western Ionian and in the basin centre showed that in coincidence with the arrival of the newly formed Adriatic dense waters the sea level lowered in the north-western flank inverting the surface pressure gradient. Toward the end of 2012, the density gradient between the basin flanks and its centre went to zero, coinciding with the weakening of the anticyclonic circulation and eventually with its return to the cyclonic pattern. Thus, the premature and transient reversal of Ionian surface circulation originated from the extremely harsh winter in the Adriatic, resulting in the formation and spreading of highly dense bottom waters. The present study highlights the remarkable sensitiveness of the Adriatic-Ionian BiOS to climatic forcing.

  15. Extreme winter 2012 in the Adriatic: an example of climatic effect on the BiOS rhythm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gačić, M.; Civitarese, G.; Kovačević, V.; Ursella, L.; Bensi, M.; Menna, M.; Cardin, V.; Poulain, P.-M.; Cosoli, S.; Notarstefano, G.; Pizzi, C.

    2014-06-01

    Adriatic and Ionian seas are Mediterranean sub-basins linked through the Bimodal Oscillating System mechanism responsible for decadal reversals of the Ionian basin-wide circulation. Altimetric maps showed that the last cyclonic mode started in 2011 but unexpectedly in 2012 reversed to anticyclonic. We related this "premature" inversion to the extremely strong winter in 2012, which caused the formation of very dense Adriatic waters, flooding Ionian flanks in May and inverting the bottom pressure gradient. Using Lagrangian float measurements, the linear regression between the sea surface height and three isopycnal depths suggests that the southward deep-layer flow coincided with the surface northward geostrophic current and the anticyclonic circulation regime. Density variations at depth in the northwestern Ionian revealed the arrival of Adriatic dense waters in May and maximum density in September. Comparison between the sea level height in the northwestern Ionian and in the basin centre showed that in coincidence with the arrival of the newly formed Adriatic dense waters the sea level was lowered in the northwestern flank, inverting the surface pressure gradient. Toward the end of 2012, the density gradient between the basin flanks and its centre went to zero, coinciding with the weakening of the anticyclonic circulation and eventually with its return to the cyclonic pattern. Thus, the premature and transient reversal of Ionian surface circulation originated from the extremely harsh winter in the Adriatic, resulting in the formation and spreading of highly dense bottom waters. The present study highlights the remarkable sensitiveness of the Adriatic-Ionian BiOS to climatic forcing.

  16. Long-term oceanographic variability of the South Adriatic Gyre (Mediterranean Sea) and a large-scale climate pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabrang, Laleh; Menna, Milena; Pizzi, Cinzia; Lavigne, Heloise; Civitarese, Giuseppe; Gacic, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    The interannual variability of the South Adriatic Gyre and its relation to the wind vorticity and the large climatic pattern (North Atlantic Oscillation - NAO), has been studied using the time series of satellite altimetry data and ocean surface wind products. The Adriatic Sea is a source of main component of the dense water for the entire Eastern Mediterranean - Eastern Mediterranean) Deep water. The cyclonic circulation observed in the South Adriatic area is mainly sustained by the wind forcing, as suggested by the positive correlation between the rate of change of the current vorticity and the wind stress vorticity. Nevertheless, the influence of vorticity advection from the adjacent area (North Ionian Sea) cannot be ignored and it is more significant during the anticyclonic phase of Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillation System. The geostrophic current vorticities of the South Adriatic and North Ionian Seas are correlated with a time lag of 15 months, which corresponds to an advection speed of ~1 cm/sec. The different wind configuration, observed during the positive (NAO+) and negative (NAO-) NAO states, induces the stronger vorticity during NAO- and vice versa. Moreover, the positive correlation between the NAO index and the frequency of the cold and dry Northerly wind suggests the strengthening of the winter convection, and of the consecutive deep water formation, during the NAO+ states. Southern Adriatic area, being subject to the winter convection, is characterized by the late winter/early spring algal bloom. Spatially averaged surface chorophyll concentrations were correlated with the northerly wind frequencies and it was shown that the two biological productivity regimes likely exist: the subpolar one and the subtropical one depending on the frequency of windy days. We also show that the bloom timing is a linear function of the wind frequency and it can vary within the range of almost two months.

  17. Preliminarily comparison of nutritional composition of some fresh and processed seafood.

    PubMed

    Aberoumand, Ali

    2012-10-01

    Processing made fish less susceptible to spoilage. Fish are rich in protein content but the protein content is reduced with processing gave a better result when long-time preservation was carried out. Aim of this study was comparison of proximate analysis of some fresh and processed seafoods. Raw materials and processed seafoods (canned mackerel tuna, frozen Sea-Bream and Pressed caviar) were obtained from different firms and analyzed. Analysis carried out according AOAC methods. Moisture, protein and fat values of tuna fish were estimated to be 51, 23.9 and 21.4%, respectively. In this study, moisture content of pressed caviar was 36%, protein content was 34.4% and fat content was 16.7%, carbohydrate and energy values were 4.9% and 316 kcal/100 g, respectively. Pressed and smoked seafoods contained lower amount of moisture but higher amounts of the other components than raw materials (p < 0.05). Canned mackerel tuna, frozen sea bream and pressed caviar also contained higher amounts of fat, carbohydrate and energy, respectively (p < 0.05) than raw material. Except canning with water, all processing technologies decreased the moisture content but increased energy values (p < 0.05) of the fish. It is concluded that processed seafoods are rich in chemical components and very nutritive. Canned tuna with salted water may be advised for low-calorie diets. Caviar pressed was one the best sea foods that was produced in Iran. Since fishes are consumed as a major protein source in food, it is very important that the protein content should not be compromised during table preparation. PMID:24159693

  18. Levels and toxigenicity of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens from retail seafood.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, T; Labbe, R

    2008-06-01

    For the period 1990 through 2003, seafood was the most commonly identified food linked to foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Fish as a commodity has rarely been examined for the presence of Bacillus cereus in particular. For the present study, 347 fresh and processed retail seafood samples were examined for the presence of Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, and B. cereus. The presence of C. botulinum was not confirmed in any of the isolates, but C. perfringens was confirmed in 17 samples. One of the C. perfringens isolates possessed the enterotoxin gene, as determined by PCR. In contrast, 62 confirmed B. cereus isolates were obtained from separate samples at levels ranging from 3.6 to > 1,100 CFU/g. Thirty (48%) of 62 isolates produced both the hemolysin BL (HBL) and nonhemolytic (NHE) enterotoxins, and 58 (94%) and 31 (50%) produced NHE or HBL toxins, respectively. The presence of at least one of the three genes of the NHE complex was detected in 99% of the isolates; 69% of the isolates possessed all three genes. In contrast, 71% of the isolates possessed at least one of the three genes of the HBL complex, and 37% possessed all three HBL gene components. Fifty of the 62 B. cereus isolates were from imported seafood, and 19 (38%) of these samples were at levels > 100 CFU/g. Twelve of the 14 highest enterotoxin assay results were from isolates from imported food. Only one B. cereus isolate possessed the cereulide synthetase gene, ces; this isolate also possessed the genes for the three-component HBL and NHE complexes. A majority of enterotoxin-producing isolates were resistant to 2 of 10 antibiotics tested, ceftriaxone and clindamycin. Our results demonstrate the potential of seafood as a vehicle for foodborne illness caused by B. cereus, in particular the enterotoxin-producing genotype. PMID:18592743

  19. Genome Sequence of Extracellular-Protease-Producing Alishewanella jeotgali Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaejoon; Chun, Jongsik

    2012-01-01

    Alishewanella jeotgali MS1T (= KCTC 22429T = JCM 15561T) was isolated from a traditional Korean fermented seafood, gajami sikhae (jeotgal), and has been reported as a novel species. A. jeotgali was proven to have extracellular proteolytic activity, which may play an important role in the fermentation environment of food containing fish flesh. Here, we present the genome sequence of Alishewanella jeotgali MS1T as the first sequenced strain in the genus Alishewanella and its taxonomic relatives. PMID:22461542

  20. Genome sequence of extracellular-protease-producing Alishewanella jeotgali isolated from traditional Korean fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Chun, Jongsik; Park, Woojun

    2012-04-01

    Alishewanella jeotgali MS1(T) (= KCTC 22429(T) = JCM 15561(T)) was isolated from a traditional Korean fermented seafood, gajami sikhae (jeotgal), and has been reported as a novel species. A. jeotgali was proven to have extracellular proteolytic activity, which may play an important role in the fermentation environment of food containing fish flesh. Here, we present the genome sequence of Alishewanella jeotgali MS1(T) as the first sequenced strain in the genus Alishewanella and its taxonomic relatives. PMID:22461542

  1. Genome Sequence of Lentibacillus jeotgali GrbiT, Isolated from Traditional Korean Salt-Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mi-Ja; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Min-Soo; Whon, Tae Woong; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Lentibacillus jeotgali GrbiT, isolated from a traditional Korean salt-fermented seafood, is a strictly aerobic, Gram-positive, nonmotile, endospore-forming, moderately halophilic bacterium belonging to the family Bacillaceae in the phylum Firmicutes. Here, the draft genome sequence of L. jeotgali GrbiT (3,775,822 bp with a G+C content of 42.5%) is reported. This is the first reported genome sequence from a Lentibacillus species. PMID:22038972

  2. A high resolution Adriatic-Ionian Sea circulation model for operational forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Oddo, Paolo; Vukicevic, Tomislava; Lecci, Rita; Verri, Giorgia; Kumkar, Yogesh; Creti', Sergio

    2015-04-01

    A new numerical regional ocean model for the Italian Seas, with focus on the Adriatic-Ionian basin, has been implemented within the framework of Technologies for Situational Sea Awareness (TESSA) Project. The Adriatic-Ionian regional model (AIREG) represents the core of the new Adriatic-Ionian Forecasting System (AIFS), maintained operational by CMCC since November 2014. The spatial domain covers the Adriatic and the Ionian Seas, extending eastward until the Peloponnesus until the Libyan coasts; it includes also the Tyrrhenian Sea and extends westward, including the Ligurian Sea, the Sardinia Sea and part of the Algerian basin. The model is based on the NEMO-OPA (Nucleus for European Modeling of the Ocean - Ocean PArallelise), version 3.4 (Madec et al. 2008). NEMO has been implemented for AIREG at 1/45° resolution model in horizontal using 121 vertical levels with partial steps. It solves the primitive equations using the time-splitting technique for solving explicitly the external gravity waves. The model is forced by momentum, water and heat fluxes interactively computed by bulk formulae using the 6h-0.25° horizontal-resolution operational analysis and forecast fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) (Tonani et al. 2008, Oddo et al. 2009). The atmospheric pressure effect is included as surface forcing for the model hydrodynamics. The evaporation is derived from the latent heat flux, while the precipitation is provided by the Climate Prediction Centre Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data. Concerning the runoff contribution, the model considers the estimate of the inflow discharge of 75 rivers that flow into the Adriatic-Ionian basin, collected by using monthly means datasets. Because of its importance as freshwater input in the Adriatic basin, the Po River contribution is provided using daily average observations from ARPA Emilia Romagna observational network. AIREG is one-way nested into the Mediterranean Forecasting

  3. Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Analytical Methods, Toxicology, and Risk Assessment Research: Seafood Safety after a Petroleum Spill as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Overton, Edward; Frickel, Scott; Howard, Jessi; Wilson, Mark; Simon, Bridget; Echsner, Stephen; Nguyen, Daniel; Gauthe, David; Blake, Diane; Miller, Charles; Elferink, Cornelis; Ansari, Shakeel; Fernando, Harshica; Trapido, Edward; Kane, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are abundant and widespread environmental chemicals. They are produced naturally and through man-made processes, and they are common in organic media, including petroleum. Several PAHs are toxic, and a subset exhibit carcinogenic activity. PAHs represent a range of chemical structures based on two or more benzene rings and, depending on their source, can exhibit a variety of side modifications resulting from oxygenation, nitrogenation, and alkylation. Objectives: Here we discuss the increasing ability of contemporary analytical methods to distinguish not only different chemical structures among PAHs but also their concentrations in environmental media. Using seafood contamination following the Deepwater Horizon accident as an example, we identify issues that are emerging in the PAH risk assessment process because of increasing analytical sensitivity for individual PAHs, and we describe the paucity of toxicological literature for many of these compounds. Discussion: PAHs, including the large variety of chemically modified or substituted PAHs, are naturally occurring and may constitute health risks if human populations are exposed to hazardous levels. However, toxicity evaluations have not kept pace with modern analytic methods and their increased ability to detect substituted PAHs. Therefore, although it is possible to measure these compounds in seafood and other media, we do not have sufficient information on the potential toxicity of these compounds to incorporate them into human health risk assessments and characterizations. Conclusions: Future research efforts should strategically attempt to fill this toxicological knowledge gap so human health risk assessments of PAHs in environmental media or food can be better determined. This is especially important in the aftermath of petroleum spills. Citation: Wickliffe J, Overton E, Frickel S, Howard J, Wilson M, Simon B, Echsner S, Nguyen D, Gauthe D, Blake D, Miller C

  4. Down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages at Panzano Bay, an impacted area in the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselmair, Alexandra; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Stachowitsch, Michael; Tomasovych, Adam; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We use a historical ecology approach to shed light on the environmental history of the northern Adriatic Sea over the last hundreds to thousands of years. We focus on down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages, which serve as proxies for ecological shifts over time. The northern Adriatic Sea is particularly suited to study ecosystem modification under human pressure because it is among the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide. We chose a sampling station in Panzano Bay, close the Isonzo River mouth and not far from the major industrial harbours of Trieste (Italy) and Koper (Slovenia), and traced down-core changes in molluscan community structure in correlation to major anthropogenic impacts that occurred here during the last centuries. Five sediment cores (1.5 m in length and diameters of 90 and 160 mm) were taken at a water depth of 12 m. We analysed grain size composition, the concentration of heavy metals and organic pollutants, and radiometrically dated the sediment using 210Pb. Furthermore, we dated shells of the abundant bivalve species Corbula gibba using 14C calibrated amino acid-racemisation (AAR). The whole molluscan community in the cores was analysed for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity, evidence for ecological interactions (i.e., frequencies of drilling predation) and taphonomic conditions of shells. The granulometric analysis shows that silt and clay dominate equally throughout the cores. Radiometric sediment dating revealed an average sedimentation rate of 2.5 mm/yr during the last 120 years. Shell dating points to a comparable overall core age, with only a few shell specimens being older than 500 years in the deepest core layer. In total, 10,452 mollusc individuals were analysed and 104 species identified. The most abundant bivalve species are Kurtiella bidentata, Corbula gibba and Abra nitida. Turritella communis and Nassarius pygmaeus are the most frequent gastropod species. Down-core changes in species composition

  5. Detection of noroviruses in shellfish and semiprocessed fishery products from a Belgian seafood company.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Stals, Ambroos; Tang, Qing-Juan; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    Shellfish have been implicated in norovirus (NoV) infection outbreaks worldwide. This study presents data obtained from various batches of shellfish and fishery products from a Belgian seafood company over a 6-month period. For the intact shellfish (oysters, mussels, and clams), 21 of 65 samples from 12 of 34 batches were positive for NoVs; 9 samples contained quantitative NoV levels at 3,300 to 14,300 genomic copies per g. For the semiprocessed fishery products (scallops and common sole rolls with scallop fragments), 29 of 36 samples from all eight batches were positive for NoVs; 17 samples contained quantitative NoV levels at 200 to 1,800 copies per g. This convenience study demonstrated the performance and robustness of the reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection and interpretation method and the added value of NoV testing in the framework of periodic control of seafood products bought internationally and distributed by a Belgian seafood processing company to Belgian food markets. PMID:25198595

  6. Iron is an essential cause of fishy aftertaste formation in wine and seafood pairing.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Yumiko; Okubo, Toshiyuki; Takata, Ryoji; Konno, Tomonori

    2009-09-23

    Fishy aftertaste is sometimes perceived in wine with fish and seafood pairing. However, what component of wine clashes with seafood or what compound contributes to the unpleasant fishy aftertaste in the mouth remains an open problem. First, intensities of unpleasant fishy aftertaste of wine and dried scallop pairings were rated by sensory analysis. Second, components of the wines were analyzed. Strong positive correlations were found between the intensity of fishy aftertaste and the concentration of both total iron and ferrous ion. Moreover, the intensity of fishy aftertaste was increased by the addition of ferrous ion in model wine and suppressed by the chelation of ferrous ion in red wine. Third, potent volatile compounds of fishy aftertaste, such as hexanal, heptanal, 1-octen-3-one, (E,Z)-2,4-heptadienal, nonanal, and decanal, were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in dried scallop soaked in red wine. The formations of these compounds depended on the dose of ferrous ion in the model wine. These results suggest that ferrous ion is a key compound of the formation of fishy aftertaste in wine and seafood pairing within the concentration range commonly found in wine. PMID:19708656

  7. Simultaneous detection of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 and its antibiotic resistance genes from seafood.

    PubMed

    Deekshit, Vijaya Kumar; Kumar, Ballamoole Krishna; Rai, Praveen; Rohit, Anusha; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2013-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars are virulent pathogens of humans and animals with many strains possessing multiple drug resistance traits. They have been found to carry resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline (ACSSuT-resistant). A rapid and sensitive multiplex PCR (mPCR)-based assay was developed for the detection of Salmonella serovars from seafood. Six sets of primers which are one primer pair targeting Salmonella specific gene invA (284 bp), two Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) genes ssaT (780 bp) and sseF (888 bp) and three antibiotic resistance genes floR (198 bp), sul1 (425 bp), tetG (550 bp) were used for the study. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were tested by spiking shrimp/fish/clam homogenate with viable cells of Salmonella. This assay allows for the cost effective and reliable detection of pathogenic Salmonella enterica from seafood. The mPCR developed in the present study proved to be a potent analytical tool for the rapid identification of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serovars from seafood. PMID:23545447

  8. High mercury seafood consumption associated with fatigue at specialty medical clinics on Long Island, NY

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Shivam; Kruse, Danielle; Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Gursoy, Nurcan; Jaber, Raja; Roppelt, Heidi; Awan, Rina; Gold, Avram; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between seafood consumption and symptoms related to potential mercury toxicity in patients presenting to specialty medical clinics at Stony Brook Medical Center on Long Island, New York. We surveyed 118 patients from April–August 2012 about their seafood consumption patterns, specifically how frequently they were eating each type of fish, to assess mercury exposure. We also asked about symptoms associated with mercury toxicity including depression, fatigue, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Of the 118 adults surveyed, 14 consumed high mercury seafood (tuna steak, marlin, swordfish, or shark) at least weekly. This group was more likely to suffer from fatigue than other patients (p = 0.02). Logistic regression confirmed this association of fatigue with frequent high mercury fish consumption in both unadjusted analysis (OR = 5.53; 95% CI: 1.40–21.90) and analysis adjusted for age, race, sex, income, and clinic type (OR = 7.89; 95% CI: 1.63–38.15). No associations were observed between fish intake and depression, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Findings suggest that fatigue may be associated with eating high mercury fish but sample size is small. Larger studies are needed to determine whether fish intake patterns or blood mercury tests warrant consideration as part of the clinical work-up in coastal regions. PMID:26844152

  9. Lead, nickel and vanadium in seafood: an exposure assessment for Kuwaiti consumers.

    PubMed

    Bu-Olayan, A H; al-Yakoob, S

    1998-11-10

    Human exposure to lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) through the ingestion of six species of fish and two species of shrimp in Kuwait are determined. The study on seafood consumed by the Kuwaiti residents was analyzed by conducting a survey in five districts of the country, namely, Kuwait city (Capital), Farwaniya, Jahra, Hawaly and Ahmedi. Samples consisting of fish and shrimp were purchased from the local fish market during November 1995 and June 1996. Based on the survey, three major factors were investigated: (i) Pb, Ni and V concentration in the fish of locally consumed fish and shrimp; (ii) daily dietary intake of these elements in humans through consumption of seafood; and (iii) characterizing potential health risks associated with the estimated daily intakes. The risk associated with Pb, Ni and V in seafood was estimated based on a Hazard Index (HI). Although the highest HI (using the 95th percentiles of the daily intake of the element as the dose of concern) was observed for zobaidy, hamoor and shrimp, it is always < 1. This indicated that no serious health threats are associated with oil-related elements in fish and shrimp. PMID:9861729

  10. Cadmium and lead in seafood from the Aratu Bay, Brazil and the human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    da Araújo, Cecilia Freitas Silva; Lopes, Mariângela Vieira; Vasquez, Mirian Rocha; Porcino, Thiago Santos; Ribeiro, Amanda Santos Vaz; Rodrigues, Juliana Lima Gomes; Oliveira, Sérgio Soares do Prado; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in seafood and perform a risk assessment based on individual food consumption frequency of inhabitants of the Aratu Bay, Brazil. From December 2013 to November 2014, ready-to-market seafood, including fish [pititinga (Lile piquitinga) and small green eel (Gobionellus oceanicus)], mollusks [mussel (Mytella guyanensis) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae)], and crustaceans [white shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti) and blue crab (Callinectes exasperatus)], were purchased bimonthly from a local artisanal shellfish harvester. Metal levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Based on the volunteer' seafood consumption, estimates of the non-carcinogenic target hazard quotients (THQs) were calculated. The annual concentrations (μg/g, w/w) of Cd were 0.007 (±0.001) in crustaceans, 0.001 (±0.0003) in fish, and 0.446 (±0.034) in mollusks. Lead levels were

  11. Long-chain omega-3 from low-trophic-level fish provides value to farmed seafood

    PubMed Central

    Bibus, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    Low-trophic-level fish are a crucial source of long-chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids for farmed fish and humans. Many farm-raised fish species have a clear need for these nutrients. Farmed fish deposit the LC omega-3s in their flesh and transfer them up the food chain. However, the content of LC omega-3s in farm-raised seafood continues to decline, while the content of shorter-chain plant-sourced omega-3s, and pro-inflammtory omega-6s continue to increase. This reduces its nutritional worth. The value of low-trophic-level fish is often viewed merely as its price at the dock. Some reports and metrics steer public attention towards the mass balance between quantities of low-trophic-level fish and farmed seafood. However, the the nutritional value of seafood is more important than its mere quantities. The role of low-trophic-level fish in human nutrition, health, and wellbeing is a fundamental component of its economic value to society. PMID:26097289

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Vibrio, salmonella, and Aeromonas isolates from various uncooked seafoods in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Woodring, Joseph; Srijan, Apichai; Puripunyakom, Paksathorn; Oransathid, Wilawan; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Mason, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Uncooked seafood samples were collected from open markets and supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand, and were examined for the presence of Vibrio, Salmonella, and Aeromonas species from January to February 2008. From 120 samples, 272 bacterial isolates were identified through biochemical testing. Of all sea bass, shrimp, oyster, and blood cockle samples (30 of each) that were processed for culture, 114 (95%) samples had at least one detectable isolate of Vibrio, Salmonella, or Aeromonas, leaving only 6 (5%) samples free of them. All oyster sample (100%) had at least one pathogen, followed by sea bass (97%), blood cockles (97%), and shrimp (90%). Overall, 111 (92%) of all samples had detectable Vibrio spp., 32 (27%) had detectable Aeromonas spp., and 25 (21%) had detectable Salmonella enterica. There was no overall difference between positive samples collected from fresh markets versus supermarkets (relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.05). Resistance to ampicillin among isolated pathogens was relatively high (56%), while resistance to 12 other antibiotics, including azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was relatively low (0, 0, and 3%, respectively). Study results indicate that uncooked seafood in Bangkok, Thailand, commonly harbors enteric pathogens and that consumption of uncooked seafood should be avoided to reduce foodborne illnesses. PMID:22221354

  13. Cadmium and lead in seafood from the Aratu Bay, Brazil and the human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Silva da Araújo, Cecilia Freitas; Lopes, Mariângela Vieira; Vaz Ribeiro, Mirian Rocha; Porcino, Thiago Santos; Vaz Ribeiro, Amanda Santos; Rodrigues, Juliana Lima Gomes; do Prado Oliveira, Sérgio Soares; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in seafood and perform a risk assessment based on individual food consumption frequency of inhabitants of the Aratu Bay, Brazil. From December 2013 to November 2014, ready-to-market seafood, including fish [pititinga (Lile piquitinga) and small green eel (Gobionellus oceanicus)], mollusks [mussel (Mytella guyanensis) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae)], and crustaceans [white shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti) and blue crab (Callinectes exasperatus)], were purchased bimonthly from a local artisanal shellfish harvester. Metal levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Based on the volunteer’ seafood consumption, estimates of the non-carcinogenic target hazard quotients (THQs) were calculated. The annual concentrations (μg/g, w/w) of Cd were 0.007 (±0.001) in crustaceans, 0.001 (±0.0003) in fish, and 0.446 (±0.034) in mollusks. Lead levels were

  14. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles in Salmonella serovars associated with tropical seafood of India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2009-06-01

    A total of 256 Salmonella strains consisting of 29 Salmonella serovars isolated from seafood of Cochin (India) were analyzed for resistance to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary medicines as therapeutic agents. The 10 most predominant Salmonella serovars in seafood were also characterized for presence of plasmids using the alkaline lysis method. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies highlighted a comparatively high resistance in Salmonella isolates to sulfamethizol and carbenicillin, and moderate resistance to nalidixic acid and oxytetracycline. Nevertheless, antimicrobial resistance was not observed against ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and kanamycin in different Salmonella serovars. Fifty percent of the Salmonella isolates, comprising 16 Salmonella serovars, were resistant to sulfamethizol followed by 39% resistant to carbenicillin and 14% resistant to oxytetracycline. Multidrug resistance was detected in 39.4%, 14.4%, 12.1%, and 1.5% of Salmonella isolates towards two drugs (sulfamethizol and carbenicillin), three drugs (sulfamethizol, carbenicillin, and oxytetracycline), four drugs (sulfamethizol, carbenicillin, oxytetracycline, and nalidixic acid), and five drugs (sulfamethizol, carbenicillin, oxytetracycline, nalidixic acid, and streptomycin), respectively. Plasmid profiling highlighted the presence of nine plasmid profiles in Salmonella serovars and plasmids that were not detected in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Weltevreden, Salmonella Rissen, Salmonella Bareilly, Salmonella Irumu, Salmonella Ohio, Salmonella Oslo, and Salmonella Typhi isolated from seafood. PMID:19422307

  15. High mercury seafood consumption associated with fatigue at specialty medical clinics on Long Island, NY.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Shivam; Kruse, Danielle; Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Gursoy, Nurcan; Jaber, Raja; Roppelt, Heidi; Awan, Rina; Gold, Avram; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between seafood consumption and symptoms related to potential mercury toxicity in patients presenting to specialty medical clinics at Stony Brook Medical Center on Long Island, New York. We surveyed 118 patients from April-August 2012 about their seafood consumption patterns, specifically how frequently they were eating each type of fish, to assess mercury exposure. We also asked about symptoms associated with mercury toxicity including depression, fatigue, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Of the 118 adults surveyed, 14 consumed high mercury seafood (tuna steak, marlin, swordfish, or shark) at least weekly. This group was more likely to suffer from fatigue than other patients (p = 0.02). Logistic regression confirmed this association of fatigue with frequent high mercury fish consumption in both unadjusted analysis (OR = 5.53; 95% CI: 1.40-21.90) and analysis adjusted for age, race, sex, income, and clinic type (OR = 7.89; 95% CI: 1.63-38.15). No associations were observed between fish intake and depression, balance difficulties, or tingling around the mouth. Findings suggest that fatigue may be associated with eating high mercury fish but sample size is small. Larger studies are needed to determine whether fish intake patterns or blood mercury tests warrant consideration as part of the clinical work-up in coastal regions. PMID:26844152

  16. Australian seafood compositional profiles: A pilot study. Vitamin D and mercury content.

    PubMed

    Padula, David; Greenfield, Heather; Cunningham, Judy; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine

    2016-02-15

    Given the scarcity of comprehensive nutritional data for Australia's >400 commercially produced seafood species a pilot study was undertaken to collect and analyse 22 species of wild and aquaculture seafood in order to develop a model for future comprehensive surveys. The species analysed were: Atlantic salmon, Australian sardine, prawn (six species), barramundi, abalone (three species), blue sprat, burrowing blackfish, gummy shark, oyster (four species), ocean trout and yellowtail kingfish. The analyses undertaken in this pilot study were: moisture, protein, total fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins A and D, and 21 mineral elements (including total mercury and methyl mercury). The data reported here are for vitamin D and mercury only. Comprehensive data have already been published elsewhere. Issues identified that should be addressed prior to undertaking a more extensive and representative study of the remaining major edible commercial Australian seafood species include: choice of samples and nutrients for analysis, facilities for sample handling and storage, data management and scrutiny, and laboratory quality control. PMID:26433295

  17. Self-Organizing Maps method in recent Adriatic Sea environmental studies: applications and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihanovic, H.; Vilibic, I.

    2014-12-01

    Herein we present three recent oceanographic studies performed in the Adriatic Sea (the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea), where Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method, an unsupervised neural network method capable of recognizing patterns in various types of datasets, was applied to environmental data. The first study applied the SOM method to a long (50 years) series of thermohaline, dissolved oxygen and nutrient data measured over a deep (1200 m) Southern Adriatic Pit, in order to extract characteristic deep water mass patterns and their temporal variability. Low-dimensional SOM solutions revealed that the patterns were not sensitive to nutrients but were determined mostly by temperature, salinity and DO content; therefore, the water masses in the region can be traced by using no nutrient data. The second study encompassed the classification of surface current patterns measured by HF radars over the northernmost part of the Adriatic, by applying the SOM method to the HF radar data and operational mesoscale meteorological model surface wind fields. The major output from this study was a high correlation found between characteristic ocean current distribution patterns with and without wind data introduced to the SOM, implying the dominant wind driven dynamics over a local scale. That nominates the SOM method as a basis for generating very fast real-time forecast models over limited domains, based on the existing atmospheric forecasts and basin-oriented ocean experiments. The last study classified the sea ambient noise distributions in a habitat area of bottlenose dolphin, connecting it to the man-made noise generated by different types of vessels. Altogether, the usefulness of the SOM method has been recognized in different aspects of basin-scale ocean environmental studies, and may be a useful tool in future investigations of understanding of the multi-disciplinary dynamics over a basin, including the creation of operational environmental forecasting systems.

  18. Towards integrated assessment of the northern Adriatic Sea sediment budget using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramelli, A.; Filipponi, F.; Valentini, E.; Zucca, F.; Gutierrez, O. Q.; Liberti, L.; Cordella, M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the factors influencing sediment fluxes is a key issue to interpret the evolution of coastal sedimentation under natural and human impact and relevant for the natural resources management. Despite river plumes represent one of the major gain in sedimentary budget of littoral cells, knowledge of factors influencing complex behavior of coastal plumes, like river discharge characteristics, wind stress and hydro-climatic variables, has not been yet fully investigated. Use of Earth Observation data allows the identification of spatial and temporal variations of suspended sediments related to river runoff, seafloor erosion, sediment transport and deposition processes. Objective of the study is to investigate sediment fluxes in northern Adriatic Sea by linking suspended sediment patterns of coastal plumes to hydrologic and climatic forcing regulating the sedimentary cell budget and geomorphological evolution in coastal systems and continental shelf waters. Analysis of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) product, derived from 2002-2012 MERIS time series, was done to map changes in spatial and temporal dimension of suspended sediments, focusing on turbid plume waters and intense wind stress conditions. From the generated multi temporal TSM maps, dispersal patterns of major freshwater runoff plumes in northern Adriatic Sea were evaluated through spatial variability of coastal plumes shape and extent. Additionally, sediment supply from river distributary mouths was estimated from TSM and correlated with river discharge rates, wind field and wave field through time. Spatial based methodology has been developed to identify events of wave-generated resuspension of sediments, which cause variation in water column turbidity, occurring during intense wind stress and extreme metocean conditions, especially in the winter period. The identified resuspension events were qualitatively described and compared with to hydro-climatic variables. The identification of spatial and

  19. A numerical study of the interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea (2000-2002).

    PubMed

    Oddo, Paolo; Pinardi, Nadia; Zavatarelli, Marco

    2005-12-15

    A free-surface, three-dimensional finite-difference numerical model based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been implemented in order to simulate the interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation. The implementation makes use of an interactive surface momentum and heat flux computation that utilizes the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 6-h analyses and the model predicted sea surface temperatures. The model is also nested at its open boundary with a coarse-resolution Mediterranean general circulation model, utilizing the same surface forcing functions. The simulation and analysis period spans 3 years (1 Jan 2000 to 31 Dec 2002) coinciding with the "Mucilage in the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian" (MAT) Project monitoring activities. Model results for the simulated years show a strong interannual variability of the basin averaged proprieties and circulation patterns, linked to the atmospheric forcing variability and the Po river runoff. In particular, the years 2000 and 2002 are characterized by a weak surface cooling (with respect to the climatological value) and well-marked spring and autumn river runoff maxima. Conversely, 2001 is characterized by stronger wind and heat (autumn cooling) forcings but no river runoff autumn peak, even though the total amount of water inflow during winter and spring is sustained. The circulation is characterized by similar patterns in 2000 and 2002 but very different structures in 2001. During the latter, deep water is not formed in the northern Adriatic. A comparison with the observed data shows that the major model deficiencies are connected to the low salinity of the waters, probably connected to the missed inflow of salty Ionian waters of Aegean origin and to the numerical overestimation of the vertical mixing processes. PMID:16257438

  20. Molluscan shell communities: a window into the ecological history of the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Tomasovych, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The historical ecology approach used in the present study sheds light on the younger ecological history of the northern Adriatic Sea, targeting the period of the last 500 to 1500 years. We focus on down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages, where differences between community structures serve as a proxy for ecological shifts over time. The northern Adriatic Sea, with its densely populated shoreline, is among the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide and is therefore particularly suited to study ecosystem modification under human pressure. Multiple cores of 1.5 m length and diameters of 90 and 160 mm were taken at seven sampling stations throughout the northern Adriatic Sea, covering different sediment types, nutrient conditions and degrees of exploitation. For the mollusc analyses, the cores were sliced into smaller subsamples and analysed for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity, evidence for ecological interactions (i.e., frequencies of drilling predation) and taphonomic condition of shells. Sediment analyses include granulometry and radiometric sediment dating using Pb 210. Sediment age analysis revealed one-order-of-magnitude differences in sedimentation rates between stations (34 mm/yr at the Po delta, Italy, 1.5 mm/yr at Brijuni islands, Croatia). In total, 114 bivalve and 112 gastropod species were recorded. Bivalve assemblages showed significant interregional differences that are strongly correlated with sedimentation rates and sediment composition. Down-core changes in molluscan communities are conspicuous in all cores, particularly in the uppermost core sections. This information, together with radiometric shell dating for selected species, helps to specify the timing of major ecological changes in the past and define pristine benthic communities as references for future conservation and management efforts.

  1. Sedimentological, biogeochemical and mineralogical facies of Northern and Central Western Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnoli, Federico; Dinelli, Enrico; Giordano, Patrizia; Marcaccio, Marco; Zaffagnini, Fabio; Frascari, Franca

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to identify sedimentary facies, i.e. facies having similar biogeochemical, mineralogical and sedimentological properties, in present and recent fine sediments of the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea with their spatial and temporal variations. Further aims were to identify the transportation, dispersion and sedimentation processes and provenance areas of sediments belonging to the facies. A Q-mode factor analysis of mineralogical, granulometric, geochemical (major and trace elements) and biochemical (organic carbon and total nitrogen) properties of surficial and sub-surficial sediments sampled in the PRISMA 1 Project has been used to identify the sedimentary facies. On the whole, four facies were identified: 1) Padanic Facies, made up of fine siliciclastic sediments which reach the Adriatic Sea mainly from the Po River and are distributed by the Adriatic hydrodynamic in a parallel belt off the Italian coast. Southward, this facies gradually mixes with sediments from the Apennine rivers and with biogenic autochthonous particulate; 2) Dolomitic Facies, made up of dolomitic sediments coming from the eastern Alps. This facies is predominant north of the Po River outfalls and it mixes with Padanic Facies sediments in front of the Po River delta; 3) Mn-carbonate Facies, made up of very fine sediments, rich in coccolithophores and secondary Mn-oxy-hydroxides resulting from the reworking of surficial fine sediments in shallow areas and subsequent deposition in deeper areas; 4) Residual Facies, made up of coarse siliciclastic sediments and heavy minerals resulting from the action of waves and coastal currents; this facies is present mainly in inshore areas. The zoning of the facies, resulting from this study, will make possible the identification, through further investigation, on a greater scale, of more accurate facies borders and the recognition of sub-facies, resulting from secondary or weaker biogeochemical processes.

  2. Measurements of storm and nonstorm circulation in the northern Adriatic: October 2002 Through April 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Book, J.W.; Signell, R.P.; Perkins, H.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen bottom-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers were deployed from October 2002 through April 2003 in the northern Adriatic Sea. Average transport from the portion of the Western Adriatic Current (WAC) along the Italian slope was 0.1470 ?? 0.0043 Sv, punctuated by bursts of more than twice that amount during storm events. Monthly means were calculated with times of strong wind-driven circulation excluded. These suggest a 2002/2003 seasonal separation consisting of October, December through February, and March through April. An extreme Po River flood influenced November conditions making seasonal categorization difficult. October generally had more kinetic energy and more vertical structure than other months, and near-inertial waves were more frequent in April and October. The Eastern Adriatic Current (EAC)/WAC (i.e. inflow/outflow) system was clearly present in the means for all months. The cyclonic gyre north of the Po River was present October through February. Generally, in the WAC, over 50% of kinetic energy came from vertically uniform monthly mean flows. Elsewhere, eddy kinetic energy was stronger than mean kinetic energy with 10-40% contributions for vertically uniform monthly mean flows, 40-60% for vertically uniform monthly varying flows, and 10-30% for vertically varying monthly varying flows. Mean currents for bora storms indicate enhancement of the EAC/WAC and the cyclonic northern gyre, a shift toward Kvarner Bay in EAC direction, a circulation null point south of the Po, and double-gyre bifurcation of flow at Istria. Strengthening of both the EAC and WAC also occurs during sirocco storms. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. An algorithm for the detection of the white-tide ('mucilage') phenomenon in the Adriatic Sea using AVHRR data

    SciTech Connect

    Tassan, S. )

    1993-06-01

    An algorithm using AVHRR data has been set up for the detection of a white tide consisting of algae secretion ('mucilage'), an event occurring in the Adriatic Sea under particular meteorological conditions. The algorithm, which includes an ad hoc procedure for cloud masking, has been tested with reference to the mucilage map obtained from the analysis of contemporary Thematic Mapper data, as well as by comparing consecutive AVHRR scenes. The main features of the exceptional mucilage phenomenon that took place in the northern basin of the Adriatic Sea in summer 1989 are shown by a time series of maps.

  4. Paleozoic to modern marine ecological shift displayed in the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Frank K.; Hageman, Steven J.

    2006-10-01

    One of the major changes in the history of life was the decline from abundant sedentary, suspension-feeding animals living on the seafloor during the Paleozoic to their relative scarcity afterward, while animal life within the sediment burgeoned after the end-Paleozoic extinction. In the northern Adriatic Sea there is a quantitative change from abundant exposed sedentary suspension feeders in eastern oligotrophic water to their virtual absence under western higher-nutrient waters, where prolific animal life occurs within sediments. This geographic gradient supports the hypothesis that an increase in neritic nutrients drove—and continues to drive—the Paleozoic to post-Paleozoic marine ecological transition.

  5. Po River plume and Northern Adriatic Dense Waters: a modeling and statistical approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Sclavo, Mauro; Carniel, Sandro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bonaldo, Davide; Barbariol, Francesco; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    The semi enclosed Adriatic Sea, located in the North-Eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, is a small regional sea strongly influenced by riverine inputs. In its northern shallow sub-basin both the physical and biogeochemical features are strongly influenced by the Po River (together with some other minor ones) through its freshwater plume, by buoyancy changes and nutrients and sediments loads. The major outcomes of this interaction are on primary production, on the rising of hypoxic and anoxic bottom water conditions, on the formation of strong salinity gradients (that influence the water column structure and both coastal and basinwide circulation) and on the formation processes of the Northern Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW). The NAdDW is a dense water mass that is formed during winter in the shallow Northern Adriatic under buoyancy loss conditions; it then travels southwardly along the Italian coasts reaching the Southern Adriatic after a few months. The NAdDW formation process is mostly locally wind driven but it has been proved that freshwater discharges play an important preconditioning role, starting since the summer previous to the formation period. To investigate the relationship between the Po plume (as a preconditioning factor) and the subsequent dense water formation, the results obtained by a numerical simulation with the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) have been statistically analyzed. The model has been implemented over the whole basin with a 2 km regular grid, and surface fluxes computed through a bulk fluxes formulation using an high resolution meteorological model (COSMO I7). The only open boundary (the Otranto Strait) is imposed from an operational Mediterranean model (MFS) and main rivers discharges are introduced as a freshwater mass fluxes measured by river gauges closest to the rivers' mouths. The model was run for 8 years, from 2003 to 2010. The Po plume was analysed with a 2x3 Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and two major antithetic patterns

  6. Multidecadal variability of atmospheric pressure and wind contribution to storm surges in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicich, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea is very sensitive to sea level changes since most of the coastal areas is low and subject to floods. In addition to natural subsidence, the northwestern Adriatic coast, including the Venice Lagoon and the area around Marina di Ravenna, has been affected by anthropogenic subsidence due to the extraction of underground water and gas, particularly during the 1930-1970 period. In this work we will study the time variability of Adriatic sea level using daily means, trying to identify the different contributions of atmospheric pressure and wind to storm surges in the northern basin. A storm surge event corresponds to a positive peak in the time series of daily mean sea level; secondary peaks within ±2 days from the main peak are discarded since they are attributed to the same storm. Daily sea level variability is studied using Empirical Orthogonal Functions and is connected with atmospheric pressure from NCEP reanalyses and wind stress from NCEP reanalyses and scatterometer data. Different sea level data sets are analysed, varying the number of sea level stations and/or the time series span, since the data coverage is uneven in space and time. The EOF analysis of the various data sets provides coherent results with regard to the two main modes, that together explain between 70 and 85% of total variance. The first mode explains 55-69% of total variance and consists of uniform sea level variability all over the basin, correlated with atmospheric pressure through the inverted barometer effect. The second mode explains 14-16% of variance and accounts for an along-basin sea level gradient, which is correlated with the meridional wind stress component. The first two Principal Components are used as proxies to pressure- and wind-induced components of storm surges in the northern Adriatic. The frequency of the most remarkable events is analysed, choosing the 1%, 5% and 10% highest daily mean sea level to represent events of decreasing strength (on

  7. Intense air-sea exchange and heavy rainfall: impact of the northern Adriatic SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocchi, P.; Davolio, S.

    2016-02-01

    Over the northern Adriatic basin, intense air-sea interactions are often associated with heavy precipitation over the mountainous areas surrounding the basin. In this study, a high-resolution mesoscale model is employed to simulate three severe weather events and to evaluate the effect of the sea surface temperature on the intensity and location of heavy rainfall. The sensitivity tests show that the impact of SST varies among the events and it mainly involves the modification of the PBL characteristics and thus the flow dynamics and its interaction with the orography.

  8. Genetic identification of a rare record of Ommastrephes Bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) from the Eastern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Franjević, Damjan; Skaramuca, Daria; Katavić, Vedran; Rajević, Nives; Skaramuca, Boško

    2015-01-01

    The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii Lesueur, 1821 belongs to the Ommastrephidae, Cephalopoda family. The family Ommastrephidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) includes many commercially important species, dispersed around the world. The Ommastrephidae family is conventionally divided into three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae, and Ommastrephinae). We report a specimen of neon flying squid caught in the winter 2013 at Luka Šipanska, Island of Šipan, Croatia and identified at the genetic level using the standard mitochondrial COI barcode region. This record represents the first genetic identification of a neon flying squid from the Adriatic Sea. PMID:26103681

  9. The alpine paleo-arcs in the Adriatic plate margin (Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Silvana; Vigano', Alfio; Macera, Patrizia

    2010-05-01

    The North-eastern Italy (Adriatic paleo-margin) is a laboratory to study past orogenetic processes. The paleo-margin was involved in the subduction of the Mesozoic Tethys lithosphere with development of (a) an early magmatic belt, (b) a typical fore-arc crust, (c) a back-arc crust and (d) a collisional paleo-arc. Early alpine magmatic belt. This is represented by the Re di Castello, Central Adamello, Mt. Marser and Corno Alto plutons of ultrabasic to intermediate composition, the Mt. Ospedale diorite dykes, and other ultrabasic to andesitic dykes distributed in the Southern Alps basement and cover. The ages of these magmatic rocks span between Upper Cretaceous (Northern Calcareous Alps and Dolomites), Paleocene (Val Camonica and Valtellina) and Middle Eocene (Adamello). Volcanics of Middle Eocene age are widespread in the Western Trentino and in the Southern Lombardy sedimentary sequences. In Trentino they crop out in a very restricted zone because of the transpressive deformation and shortening of the Giudicarie fault zone. Adriatic fore-arc crust. This is represented by the high-grade Austroalpine Tonale nappe and the Lombardian Edolo/Morbegno basements which show evidence of a pervasive crustal deformation. These basements show swarms of pseudotachylytes often associated to mylonites, testifying crustal deformation at a critical depth in the Adriatic paleo-margin during the alpine subduction/collision. Adriatic back-arc crust. This is testified by Paleocene to Oligocene ultrabasic to basic dykes and volcanics in the Venetian region. These volcanic rocks show HIMU-DM-OIB geochemical features, ascribed to deep mantle upwelling after a possible failure of the slab. Collisional paleo-arc. Subduction was followed by a collisional to post-collisional magmatism at Oligocene, characterized by intrusion of large tonalite to quartz-diorite plutons (e.g., Western Adamello, Presanella, Ries, Rensen), apophyses, dykes and volcanics, very common in the Southern Alps and in

  10. Post-collisional and intraplate Cenozoic volcanism in the rifted Apennines/Adriatic domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, G.; Beccaluva, L.; Siena, F.

    2008-02-01

    The distinctive tectono-magmatic characteristics of rift volcanism in the Apennines/Adria domains are discussed focussing attention on the nature of mantle sources, stress regimes, and conditions of magma generation. Post-collisional intensive lithospheric rifting and tectonic collapse of the Apennines generate large amounts of Pliocene-Quaternary orogenic magmas which overlie a nearly vertical subducted slab along the peri-Tyrrhenian border. This magmatism includes the Roman Magmatic Province sensu lato (RMP-s.l.) and the Internal Apennines Volcanism (IAV), and consists of high-K calcalkaline, potassic (shoshonitic) and ultrapotassic (leucitites, leucite basanite and minor lamproites and kamafugites) products. Integrated petrological and geochemical studies of these rocks (and associated mantle xenoliths) indicate that most of them could have been generated by a restricted partial melting range ( F ≤ 5-10%) of extremely inhomogeneous phlogopite-veined lithospheric mantle sources, resulting from subduction related K-metasomatic processes. Moreover, the presence of both intermediate anorogenic and subduction related geochemical features in Mt. Vulture magmas support the existence of a slab window beneath the central-southern Apennines, which could have allowed inflow of subduction components to intraplate mantle sources. This slab discontinuity may mark the transition between the already collisioned Adriatic and the still subducting Ionian lithospheric slabs. By contrast, the Paleogene intraplate magmatism of the Adriatic foreland (i.e., the Veneto Province (VVP) and the minor Mt. Queglia and Pietre Nere magmatic bodies) is characterized by small volumes of basic magmas, varying from tholeiitic to strongly Na-alkaline in composition. This magmatism appears to be related to a limited extensional regime typical of the low volcanicity rifts. Petrogenetic modelling of the intraplate Adriatic foreland magmas indicates that their composition is remarkably depth

  11. Influence of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in water and sediments on edible seafoods within Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ololade, Isaac A; Lajide, Labunmi; Olumekun, Victor O; Ololade, Olusola O; Ejelonu, Benjamin C

    2011-01-01

    The bioconcentration levels of 3 non-essential elements (Pb, Cd and Ni) have been investigated in three different seafoods; Fish (Tilapia zilli), Crab (Callinectes sapidus) and periwinkle (Littorina littorea), to investigate the ecosystem health status in Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria. The seafood samples were chosen based on their popularity as a food source and the potential of the species to contain high levels of metals based on past research results. Metal concentrations in the biota showed marked interspecific differences with C. sapidus recording the highest concentrations of all the metals. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) showed that C. sapidus and T. zilli have the greatest potential to concentrate Cd (BCF = 3-10) and Pb (BCF = 11-84) respectively. Lead uptake from both water and sediment (BCF ≈ BSAF: 0.003-0.018) were abysmally low in L. littorea as compared with other organisms. The high concentrations of Pb in fish species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd in species of crab and periwinkles, as well as very high BSAF of Ni found in species of crab indicated a strong influence from anthropogenic pollutant source on the biotic community. Oil pollution appears to be a major source of bioavailable metal contaminants for the selected biota. The study shows that C. sapidus and L. littorea can effectively compartmentalize potentially toxic metals such as Cd, Pb and Ni within their tissues. In terms of toxicity, C. sapidus had Cd concentrations greater than the 3,000 ng/g limit set by the Commission of the European Communities while Pb concentration exceeded their limits in both C. sapidus and T. zilli. All levels of Ni were below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action levels for these metals in fish, crustaceans and shellfish. The study revealed anthropogenic enrichment of the metals studied which can possibly pose potential threats to the ecology of the area. PMID:21714630

  12. Significance of urinary arsenic speciation in assessment of seafood ingestion as the main source of organic and inorganic arsenic in a population resident near a coastal area.

    PubMed

    Soleo, Leonardo; Lovreglio, Piero; Iavicoli, Sergio; Antelmi, Annarita; Drago, Ignazio; Basso, Antonella; Di Lorenzo, Luigi; Gilberti, Maria Enrica; De Palma, Giuseppe; Apostoli, Pietro

    2008-09-01

    In order to characterize the different sources of exposure to arsenic (As), urinary excretion of total As, the sum of inorganic As+MMA+DMA determined by the hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique, and the species As3, As5, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and arsenobetaine were determined in 49 workers at a steel foundry, with presumed occupational exposure to As, and 50 subjects from the general population, all males. No evidence of occupational exposure to As resulted from environmental monitoring performed in the foundry, although the analysis of minerals used as raw materials showed the presence of As, particularly in fossils and fine ores. The urinary concentrations of As3, MMA, DMA, the sum of inorganic As+MMA+DMA and total As were not different in the two groups, while arsenobetaine appeared significantly higher in the controls than in the workers. The different species of urinary As were all significantly correlated. Urinary excretion of As3 was associated with the consumption of mineral water and with residence in an industrial zone, while MMA, DMA, arsenobetaine, the sum of inorganic As+MMA+DMA and total As urinary excretion were associated with the consumption of crustaceans and/or shellfish 3 days or less before urine collection. Multiple regression analysis confirmed these results. In conclusion, in populations with a high consumption of seafood, living in areas characterized by coastal/marine As pollution, only speciation of As can identify a prevalent role of environmental sources, like the consumption of seafood contaminated by As, in determining urinary As excretion, and exclude an occupational origin of the exposure. PMID:18657289

  13. Host range and in vitro lysis of Listeria monocytogenes seafood isolates by bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Arachchi, Geevika J Ganegama; Cruz, Cristina D; Dias-Wanigasekera, Beatrice M; McIntyre, Lynn; Billington, Craig; Hudson, Andrew; Flint, Steve H; Mutukumira, Anthony N

    2014-12-01

    Listeria-infecting bacteriophages (listeriaphages) can be used to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry. However, the sensitivity of many of seafood-borne Listeria strains to phages has not been reported. This research investigated the host ranges of three listeriaphages (FWLLm1, FWLLm3 and FWLLm5) by the formation of lytic zones and plaques on host lawns and in vitro lysis kinetics of listeriaphage FWLLm3. The study also predicted the phage titres required to lyse host cells. The host ranges of the phages were determined using 50 L. monocytogenes strains, of which 48 were isolated from the seafood industry and two from clinical cases. Of the 50 strains, 36 were tested at 25 and 30 ℃ and the remainder (14) at 15 and 25 ℃. Based on the formation of either discrete plaques or lytic zones (host kill zones), the host ranges of FWLLm1, FWLLm3 and FWLLm5 were about 87%, 81% and 87%, respectively, at 25 ℃. Six L. monocytogenes strains from the seafood environment were insensitive to all three phages, while the other seafood strains (42) were phage-sensitive. The adsorption rate constant (k value) of listeriaphage FWLLm3 was between 1.2 × 10(-9) and 1.6 × 10(-9 )ml/min across four host strains in tryptic soy broth at 25 ℃. The cultures (at 3-4 log colony-forming unit (CFU/ml) were completely lysed (<1 log CFU/ml) when cultures were infected with FWLLm3 at > 8.7 log phage-forming units (PFU/ml) for 30 min. Re-growth of phage-infected cultures was not detected after 24 h. The effective empirical phage titre was similar to the calculated titre using a kinetic model. Results indicate the potential use of the three phages for controlling L. monocytogenes strains in seafood processing environments. PMID:23908393

  14. Selenium and mercury in widely consumed seafood from South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kehrig, Helena A; Seixas, Tércia G; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M; Malm, Olaf

    2013-07-01

    The growing ingestion of predatory fish by humans has increased their exposure to toxic chemicals. Mercury (Hg) is an exogenous and harmful trace-element that accumulates in all marine organisms. Selenium (Se) is nutritionally important as a micronutrient, but is potentially harmful at intakes above 1mg per day. Se:Hg molar ratios in excess of 1:1 are thought to counteract the adverse effects of Hg, protecting against Hg toxicity. Evaluation of the health risk posed by Hg exposure from seafood consumption requires concurrent consideration of Se content in the same individuals. This study evaluated the Se and Hg concentrations in the edible tissues of 652 individual samples of commonly consumed varieties of carnivorous and planktivorous fish, squid, mussel, shrimp and crab collected from south-eastern Brazil. The Se:Hg molar ratios showed significant variation among and within tropical seafood. All organisms presented Se concentration in muscle of less than 2.0µgg(-1), the maximum allowed selenium concentrations. Only seven individuals of a carnivorous fish species presented Hg in muscle above the maximum permissible limit of 0.5µgg(-1) established by WHO and Brazilian legislation for human consumption of most aquatic species. These same individuals also showed Se:Hg molar ratio of less than 1:1. Se:Hg molar ratios were found to decline with increasing fish length, potentially reducing Se-dependent protection. As a result of their rich Se, low Hg contents and Se:Hg molar ratios exceeding 1:1, nearly all species included in this study provide benefits for human consumption. Two popular seafoods in the region, the carnivorous fish Centropomus undecimalis (common snook) and Micropogonias furnieri (Atlantic croaker), had the most favorable Se:Hg molar ratio values of 33 and 21, respectively. Among the invertebrates, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (seabob shrimp) and Loligo sanpaulensis (squid) had the most favorable Se:Hg molar ratio values, higher than 20. A selenium health

  15. Framing Scientific Analyses for Risk Management of Environmental Hazards by Communities: Case Studies with Seafood Safety Issues

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Nancy L.; Drew, Christina H.; Acharya, Chetana; Mitchell, Todd A.; Donatuto, Jamie L.; Burns, Gary W.; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2005-01-01

    Risk management provides a context for addressing environmental health hazards. Critical to this approach is the identification of key opportunities for participation. We applied a framework based on the National Research Council’s (NRC) analytic–deliberative risk management dialogue model that illustrates two main iterative processes: informing and framing. The informing process involves conveying information from analyses of risk issues, often scientific, to all parties so they can participate in deliberation. In the framing process, ideas and concerns from stakeholder deliberations help determine what and how scientific analyses will be carried out. There are few activities through which affected parties can convey their ideas from deliberative processes for framing scientific analyses. The absence of participation results in one-way communication. The analytic–deliberative dialogue, as envisioned by the NRC and promoted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), underscores the importance of two-way communication. In this article we present case studies of three groups—an Asian and Pacific Islander community coalition and two Native American Tribes—active in framing scientific analyses of health risks related to contaminated seafood. Contacts with these organizations were established or enhanced through a regional NIEHS town meeting. The reasons for concern, participation, approaches, and funding sources were different for each group. Benefits from their activities include increased community involvement and ownership, better focusing of analytical processes, and improved accuracy and appropriateness of risk management. These examples present a spectrum of options for increasing community involvement in framing analyses and highlight the need for increased support of such activities. PMID:16263503

  16. Ingestion of marine debris by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Bojan; Gračan, Romana

    2011-01-01

    We examined the occurrence of marine debris in the gastrointestinal tract of 54 loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) found stranded or incidentally captured dead by fisheries in the Adriatic Sea, with a curved carapace length of 25.0-79.2 cm. Marine debris was present in 35.2% of turtles and included soft plastic, ropes, Styrofoam and monofilament lines found in 68.4%, 42.1%, 15.8% and 5.3% of loggerheads that have ingested debris, respectively. The dry mass of debris per turtle was low, ranging from <0.01 to 0.71 g, and the ingestion was not significantly affected by sex or body size (all p>0.05). Marine debris averaged 2.2 ± 8.0% of dry mass of gut content, with a maximum of 35% found in a juvenile turtle that most likely died due to debris ingestion. Considering the relatively high occurrence of debris intake and possible sub-lethal effects of even small quantities of marine debris, this can be an additional factor of concern for loggerheads in the Adriatic Sea. PMID:21036372

  17. Humic acids contribution to sedimentary organic matter on a shallow continental shelf (northern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giani, M.; Rampazzo, F.; Berto, D.

    2010-12-01

    The shallow northern Adriatic Sea receives large river runoff, predominantly from the Po River, which is the main allochthonous source of nutrients and organic matter. The origin and quality of organic matter deposited in the sediments can influence the degradation processes and oxygen consumption in the bottom waters as well as the fate of many pollutants. Therefore the humic acids (HA) were quantified in surface and sub-surface sediments collected in an area of the north-western Adriatic platform south of Po River. HA showed to have a relevant contribution to sedimentary organic matter. HA content in sediments were positively correlated with the organic carbon concentration and negatively with redox potential and pH, particularly in sub-surface reduced sediments, suggesting their important role in the diagenetic processes taking place in anoxic conditions. Elemental composition of HA extracted from surface and sub-surface sediments showed a wide range of variation of the C org/N ratios which could be due to a mixed (terrestrial and marine) origin and/or an elevated bacteria degradation of nitrogen during diagenesis processes in sediments. The spectroscopic ratios A 2/A 4 and A 4/A 6 of HA confirmed a mixed origin with a high degree of condensation of the HA extracted from sediments.

  18. Waterspouts of the Adriatic, Ionian and Aegean Sea and their meteorological environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis V.; Keul, Alexander G.

    2007-02-01

    The synoptic and mesoscale conditions associated with waterspout occurrence in the Adriatic, Ionian and Aegean Sea are examined in an attempt to quantitatively assess the meteorological environment favourable to the development of waterspouts. For this study, synoptic circulation patterns have been examined for 28 waterspout events in the central-eastern Mediterranean. The waterspouts were reported within the summer and fall of 2002, from July to November, a period of unusually high whirlwind activity. The Adriatic was most active during July, August and September and the Ionian and Aegean during September, October and November. Of the examined waterspout cases, 13 out of the total of 28 were found to be fair-weather waterspouts, while 15 represent tornadic events. For waterspout days, the frequency and distribution of four basic synoptic types, namely, south-west flow (SW), long-wave trough (LW), closed low (CLOSED) and short-wave trough (SWT), were investigated. The particular synoptic features that contributed to the development of waterspout activity were examined, based on five selected waterspout case studies. The mesoscale environment was explored using thermodynamic indices, moisture and wind parameters as derived by operational soundings from the nearest sites (preferably upwind) and closest in time to the waterspout occurrences. The results present an analysis of waterspout types in conjunction to thermodynamic and wind parameters for the purpose of determining synoptic patterns and mesoscale conditions most relevant to waterspout occurrences in these sea areas of the Mediterranean.

  19. Investigation on tsunami effects in the central Adriatic Sea during the last century - a contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maramai, A.; Graziani, L.; Tinti, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present the result of a study aimed at examining the Italian earthquake sequences that occurred in the area of the central Adriatic sea with the purpose of understanding whether some of them were accompanied by tsunami effects. The motivation for this research was the update and enrichment of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue. The result was that evidence was found for two new cases of earthquake-induced tsunamis: these are the August 1916 Rimini and the October 1930 Ancona events. The bulk of the present research consisted in collecting all the available data on the earthquakes that affected the selected area in the past century and in identifying those potentially capable of generating tsunamis. During the study all the available material was gathered, which includes specific monographs and scientific papers, articles available in contemporary chronicles and in local and national newspapers. The final result of this research will improve our knowledge of the tsunamigenic activity of the central Adriatic sea and contribute to the assessment of the tsunami hazard and risk along these coasts, that especially in the peak season form one of the most densely populated areas of the Italian peninsula with flat and large beaches and water front resorts crowded of tourists.

  20. Large-scale distribution and production of bacterioplankton in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallina, Alessandra A.; Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola

    2011-08-01

    Two oceanographic cruises encompassing the whole Adriatic Sea were carried out during February and October 2008. Selected stations were sampled at several depths to determine total prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria abundance using epifluorescence microscopy, and to estimate prokaryotic carbon production by 3H-leucine incorporation. Biological data were related to physical parameters including temperature, salinity and fluorescence, and an attempt to associate bacterial dynamics to water mass characteristics was performed. In both seasons prokaryotic distribution and production showed a decreasing latitudinal gradient likely dependent on riverine inputs highlighted by a strong negative correlation with salinity ( P < 0.001). A vertical gradient with higher cell numbers at the surface and lower values at the bottom layer was also always detected. In the southern basin in February, however, picocyanobacteria were retrieved also in deep waters, probably linked to higher nutrient loads carried by the Levantine Intermediate Waters and/or the deep water ventilation known to occur in this area. From an oceanographic point of view, we sampled within four different water types, but no relationship between these water types and bacterioplankton abundances was found. The present work contributes to the acquisition of a more holistic overview of prokaryotic distribution and production in the Adriatic Sea, both on a spatial and temporal scale.

  1. Zooplankton community and hydrographical properties of the Neretva Channel (eastern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidjak, Olja; Bojanić, Natalia; Kušpilić, Grozdan; Ninčević Gladan, Živana; Tičina, Vjekoslav

    2007-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of micro and mesozooplankton was studied in 1998 and 1999 at four stations in the Neretva Channel area influenced by the Neretva river and the open waters of the south Adriatic Sea. The area is orthophosphate limited, but an excessive accumulation of land derived nitrogen is prevented by phytoplankton uptake and the general circulation pattern. Microzooplankton was dominated by ciliates, with average abundances comparable to other Adriatic channel areas (122 543 ind. l-1). Non-loricate ciliates (NLC) generally peaked in the warmer periods, but a winter increase was evident towards the inner part of the channel. Tintinnid abundances generally increased in autumn. A significant relationship with temperature was not recorded for either protozoan group. An inverse relationship between NLC and salinity might be indirectly caused by their preference for the food abundant surface layer. Mesozooplankton was dominated by copepods, with distinct summer maxima throughout the area and pronounced winter maxima of >10,000 ind. m-3 at the inner stations. The community was predominantly neritic but the open sea waters were important in structuring the mesozooplankton assemblage at all stations during the autumn winter period. Although temperature regulated the seasonal dynamics of most metazoans and the species succession in the copepod community, small omnivorous copepods ( Oncaea media complex, Oithona nana and Euterpina acutifrons) dominated regardless of the season. A trophic link between copepods and ciliates was evident in winter during low phytoplankton biomass.

  2. Trichoptera biodiversity of the Aegean and Adriatic sea basins in the republic of Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Gashi, Agim; Grapci-Kotori, Linda

    2014-01-01

    We present the first preliminary inventory of Trichoptera taxa in the Aegean and Adriatic Sea basins in Kosovo that have previously received poor and fragmentary attention. Adult caddisflies were collected using ultraviolet (UV) light traps in 13 stations in areas of the Aegean Sea and Adriatic Sea drainage basins in Kosovo. Nineteen species out of 82, reported in this article, are first records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna. Five genera are recorded for the first time in Kosovo: Brachycentrus, Ecclisopteryx, Psilopteryx, Thremma, and Oecetis. During this investigation, we found several Southeastern European endemic and rare species whose previous known distribution was limited to particular areas of this region, as well as other species whose distribution is considerably enlarged by this investigation: Polycentropus ierapetra, Polycentropus irroratus, Chaetopteryx stankovici, Drusus schmidi, Drusus tenellus, Potamophylax goulandriourum, Oecetis notata, and Notidobia melanoptera. Even though this article is a result of a limited sampling effort, it increases the number of Trichoptera taxa recorded for the Republic of Kosovo to 131. PMID:25434031

  3. Insights on continental collisional processes from GPS data: Dynamics of the peri-Adriatic belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métois, M.; D'Agostino, N.; Avallone, A.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Rabaute, A.; Duni, L.; Kuka, N.; Koci, R.; Georgiev, I.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new GPS velocity field covering the peri-Adriatic tectonically active belts and the entire Balkan Peninsula. From the velocities, we calculate consistent strain rate and interpolated velocity fields. Significant features of the crustal deformation include (1) the eastward motion of the northern part of the Eastern Alps together with part the Alpine foreland and Bohemian Massif toward the Pannonian Basin, (2) shortening across the Dinarides, (3) a clockwise rotation of the Albanides-Hellenides, and (4) a southward motion south of 44°N of the inner Balkan lithosphere between the rigid Apulia and Black Sea, toward the Aegean domain. Using this new velocity field, we derive the strain rate tensor to analyze the regional style of the deformation. Then, we devise a simple test based on the momentum balance equation, to investigate the role of horizontal gradients of gravitational potential energy in driving the deformation in the peri-Adriatic tectonically active mountain belts: the Eastern Alps, the Dinarides, the Albanides, and the Apennines. We show that the strain rate fields observed in the Apennines and Albanides are consistent with a fluid, with viscosity η ˜ 3×1021 Pa s, deforming in response to horizontal gradients of gravitational potential energy. Conversely, both the Dinarides and Eastern Alps are probably deforming in response to the North and North-East oriented motion of the Adria-Apulia indenter, respectively, and as a consequence of horizontal lithospheric heterogeneity.

  4. Survey of Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, S; Magnabosco, C; Civettini, M; Boffo, L; Mingarelli, G; Buratti, P; Giovanardi, O; Fortuna, C M; Arcangeli, G

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of larval Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae in anchovies and sardines from the North Adriatic Sea has been estimated. Anisakis pegreffii and Hysterothylacium aduncum were reported, with low prevalence values. In brief, a total amount of 7650 fish specimens collected between September 2011 and 2012 were analysed using three different inspection analyses: a visual inspection of the coelomic cavity, an examination of the viscera exploiting the positive hydro-tropism of the larvae (modified Baermann technique) and enzymatic digestion of muscular tissue pools. Low level of infestation was reported for Anisakis sp. in both in anchovies and sardines, while higher values were reported for Hysterothylacium sp. Subsamples of nematodes collected were characterized at species level using the molecular diagnostic key based on ITS nuclear ribosomal region, and A. pegreffii and H. aduncum were identified. The low prevalence of Anisakis sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea could be related to the peculiar distribution of cetaceans and carnivorous zooplankton in the investigated region and could be used as a potential tag to define oily fishes from this specific fishing area as at low-risk for anisakiasis. PMID:25662709

  5. Bacterial diversity of polluted surface sediments in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Korlević, Marino; Zucko, Jurica; Dragić, Mirjana Najdek; Blažina, Maria; Pustijanac, Emina; Zeljko, Tanja Vojvoda; Gacesa, Ranko; Baranasic, Damir; Starcevic, Antonio; Diminic, Janko; Long, Paul F; Cullum, John; Hranueli, Daslav; Orlić, Sandi

    2015-05-01

    Samples were collected from sea sediments at seven sites in the northern Adriatic Sea that included six sites next to industrial complexes and one from a tourist site (recreational beach). The samples were assayed for alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The composition of the hydrocarbon samples suggested that industrial pollution was present in most cases. A sample from one site was also grown aerobically under crude oil enrichment in order to evaluate the response of indigenous bacterial populations to crude oil exposure. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed varying microbial biodiversity depending on the level of pollution--ranging from low (200 detected genera) to high (1000+ genera) biodiversity, with lowest biodiversity observed in polluted samples. This indicated that there was considerable biodiversity in all sediment samples but it was severely restricted after exposure to crude oil selection pressure. Phylogenetic analysis of putative alkB genes showed high evolutionary diversity of the enzymes in the samples and suggested great potential for bioremediation and bioprospecting. The first systematic analysis of bacterial communities from sediments of the northern Adriatic Sea is presented, and it will provide a baseline assessment that may serve as a reference point for ecosystem changes and hydrocarbon degrading potential--a potential that could soon gain importance due to plans for oil exploitation in the area. PMID:25857844

  6. Bio-irrigation impacts on benthic-pelagic coupling in the Northern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capet, Arthur; Solidoro, Cosimo; De Vittor, Cinzia; Cibic, Tamara; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-04-01

    In the process of setting up a 3D benthic-pelagic coupled model for the northern Adriatic Sea, the 1D diagenetic OMEXDIA model was used to analyze pore-water profiles and in-situ flux data through model calibration. We tested two approach to represent bioirrigation in the model: the enhanced-biodiffusive formalism (initially used in OMEXDIA) and the non-local exchange formalism. Solutes profiles depicted shapes that could not be rendered by the biodiffusive formalism. Furthermore, calibration procedures stressed that only the non-local exchange formalism allows to render simultaneously the pore water solute profiles and the fluxes measured at the sediment water interface when carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphate dynamics are considered jointly. While the enhanced-biodiffusive formalism is convenient in empirical studies comparing diffusive and total benthic fluxes for a single variable (derived from solutes profiles and incubation chambers respectively), it is not suited for multivariate modelling purposes. We evidence that the modeled impact of bioirrigation on benthic-pelagic coupling strongly differ following the adopted formalism, in particular in terms of the N:P ratio of remineralized fluxes. Calibrated parameters obtained for various stations are used to assess how bioirrigation impacts on benthic-pelagic coupling in the northern Adriatic.

  7. Microbial respiration and trophic regimes in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Maurizio; Maimone, Giovanna

    2006-08-01

    Remineralization in the Northern Adriatic Sea has been examined by studying the respiratory rates, through electron transport system activity, in four systems identified on the basis of different salinities, caused by riverine outflows, and different productivity regimes measured by apparent oxygen utilization. The sea waters influenced by river discharges were characterized by high respiratory activity while in fully marine waters respiration fell close to the typical value for the surface pelagic Mediterranean waters. A speculative approach to quantify the trophic balance in the examined sub-systems was adopted and the following ratios were computed: Primary Production/Respiration (PP/R); Primary Production/(Bacterial Production + Respiration) [PP/(BP + R)]; (Dissolved Organic Carbon + Particulate Organic Carbon)/Respiration [(DOC + POC)/R], using the data generated at the same time from the same multidisciplinary cruises. High variability of these metabolic ratios in the described subsystems occurred, so that shifting autotrophy and heterotrophy patterns through summer-winter and cross-productivity front trends occurred. Episodic heterotrophy has been found to happen in the North Adriatic Sea, although this is normally considered a productive ecosystem.

  8. Recent changes in the marine ecosystems of the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giani, Michele; Djakovac, Tamara; Degobbis, Danilo; Cozzi, Stefano; Solidoro, Cosimo; Umani, Serena Fonda

    2012-12-01

    This review of studies on long term series on river discharges, oceanographic features, plankton, fish and benthic compartments, collected since the 1970s revealed significant changes of mechanisms and trophic structures in the northern Adriatic ecosystems. A gradual increase of eutrophication pressure occurred during the 1970s until the mid 1980s, followed by a reversal of the trend, particularly marked in the 2000s. This trend was ascribed to the combination of a reduction of the anthropogenic impact, mainly due to a substantial decrease of the phosphorus loads, and of climatic modifications, resulting in a decline of atmospheric precipitations and, consequently, of the runoff in the northern Adriatic Sea. Significant decreases of the phytoplankton abundances were observed after the mid 1980s, concurrently with changes in the species composition of the communities, with an evident shift toward smaller cells or organism sizes. Moreover, changes in the zooplankton community were also observed. A decrease of demersal fishes, top predators and small pelagic fishes was ascribed to both overfishing and a demise of eutrophication. Macrozoobenthic communities slowly recovered in the last two decades after the anoxia events of the 1970s and 1980s. An increasing number of non-autochthonous species has been recorded in the last decades moreover the increasing seawater temperature facilitated the spreading of thermophilic species.

  9. Northern Adriatic meteorological tsunamis: Assessment of their potential through ocean modeling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Å epić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Fine, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    Potential for generation of meteotsunami waves via open ocean resonance has been documented for the shallow northern Adriatic, based on a set of barotropic numerical modeling experiments. Model simulations were forced by a bell-shaped traveling atmospheric (air pressure, wind) disturbance, with shape and propagation parameters chosen in accordance with measurements done during several observed northern Adriatic meteotsunamis. Air pressure disturbances were found to generate much larger meteotsunami waves than wind disturbances, with wind disturbances having a limited influence in the very coastal and shallow areas only. Numerical simulations reveal that the most important factor for generation of large meteotsunami waves is matching between the speed of the atmospheric disturbance and the speed of long-ocean waves. Already a small (˜10%) deviation from resonant conditions stops the wave growth and dramatically decreases height of predicted waves. A train of atmospheric disturbances can significantly increase maximum wave heights at selected locations at which multiple reflections and superimpositions of meteotsunami waves occur. Sensitivity of model simulations to resonant conditions and limited cross-propagation width of atmospheric disturbance explain the localization of destructive meteotsunami waves in a limited area during destructive historic events. Mapping of maximum predicted wave heights indicates places with large meteotsunami hazard potential, matching the locations where real events were observed, and may be a useful tool for assessing vulnerability and risks in coastal areas during extreme sea level events.

  10. The Istria yo-yo - evidence for millennial seismic cycle in the northern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Vrabec, Marko; Székely, Balázs

    2014-05-01

    The Istria Peninsula in the northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia and Slovenia) is considered to be a nearly aseismic part of the Adriatic microplate, as opposed to the seismically active frontal ranges of the highly active Dinaric orogen. New archaeoseismological data from the Medieval Eufrasius cathedral in Poreč on the west coast of Istria demonstrate two, previously unknown major earthquakes, which occured approx. a millennium apart. Evidence for slow coastal uplift alternating with rapid subsidence allows to identify the seismic cycle. A marine notch, otherwise an excellent marker of sea level, extends along a 240 km segment of the northern Adriatic rocky coast, from Trieste to Zadar. We interpret the following history of vertical displacements: (1) Slow uplift, evidenced by the 1-2 m high, roofed marine notch oversized with respect to the microtidal regime of the Adriatic Sea. 0.5-1 m deep notches were etched into the coast between ~3000 BC until the 4-6th century AD (Faivre et al., 2010). (2) Rapid submergence of the notch to 1-2 m depth below sea level, dated by the construction of successive cathedrals of Poreč built on increasingly higher ground at the seaside (4-6th century AD); submergence of Cissa town on Pag island in 361 AD. (3) Slow uplift of less than 2 m between the construction of the last, Eufrasius cathedral in the 4-6th century AD and the ~1440 AD earthquake. No conspicuous notch were etched in the rocky shore during this period. (4) Rapid submergence of terrestrial sediments below sea level after 1400 AD (Faivre et al., 2011). Major earthquake damage in Poreč cathedral just before 1440 AD. (5) Slow uplift after 1440 AD, corroborated by three decades of high-precision levelling and recent GPS data (Rezo et al., 2010). No conspicuous notch etched in the rocky shore during this period. (6) Next major earthquake with subsidence on land and uplift in the sea with tsunami... when? In our interpretation of the seismic cycle, Istria is slowly raised

  11. The AdriaX Campaign: Meteo-Hydrological forecast and multi-radar observation in Central Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiello, Ida; Ferretti, Rossella

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the IPA Adriatic Cross-Border Cooperation Programme the ADRIARadNet project planned a field campaign held during September-December 2014 for the western Adriatic regions (Marche and Abruzzo- Central Adriatic Operational, CAO) and to be held on January-March for the eastern side (Croatia and Albania - Southern Adriatic Operational, SAO). For the CAO region the X-band mini Radars recently installed in Tortoreto (Abruzzo) and Cingoli (Marche) have been operationally tested and used for studying special events occurred during the campaign. Moreover, in the framework of this project a dedicated model chain (coupling meteo and hydro) has been developed and implemented for the two areas CAO and SAO; specifically WRF-ARW (Weather Research Forecast meteorological model) high resolution output has been used to force CHyM (CETEMPS Hydrological Model). Several intensive observation periods (IOP) have been launched and among them the most relevant in terms of impact at the ground are presented in this study. During the IOPs radars data, measurements from surface stations and satellite data were collected together with operational forecast output to the aim of both verifying model performance and eventually to understand model failure and to study physical processes. The impact of the radars data assimilation on the precipitation forecast will be tested for a case of the CAO region by using 3DVAR data assimilation for WRF-ARW. The results for the CHyM hydrological simulation will be also discussed.

  12. Upper mantle structure of the Alpine and Adriatic regions unraveled by high-resolution P-wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Paul, Anne; Malusà, Marco G.; Xu, Xiaobing; Zheng, Tianyu; Solarino, Stefano; Guillot, Stéphane; Schwartz, Stéphane; Dumont, Thierry; Salimbeni, Simone; Aubert, Coralie; Pondrelli, Silvia; Wang, Qingchen; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-04-01

    The upper mantle structure beneath the Alpine and Adriatic regions is only partly resolved by available geophysical data, leaving many geological and geodynamical issues widely open. Here, we present a new high-resolution tomography model based on P-wave data from 527 broadband seismic stations, which provides much denser and more evenly distributed coverage than any previous work. The new model provides an improved image of the upper mantle structure in the Alpine and Adriatic region, and fundamental pin-points for the analysis of Cenozoic magmatism, (U)HP metamorphism and Alpine topography. Our results document the lateral continuity of the European slab from the Western to the Central Alps, and the down-dip slab continuity beneath the Central Alps, ruling out the hypothesis of slab breakoff. The steep European slab gets flatter at ~400 km beneath the Po Plain, where it lays below a low-velocity anomaly at mid-upper mantle depth. Another low velocity anomaly extending down to the mantle transition zone is observed beneath the highest peaks of the Western Alps, pointing to dynamic topography effects. A NE-dipping Adriatic slab, consistent with Dinaric subduction, is observed beneath the Eastern Alps, whereas the laterally continuous Adriatic slab of the Northern Apennines shows major gaps at the boundary with the Southern Apennines, and becomes near vertical in the Alps-Apennines transition zone. Tear faults accommodating opposite-dipping subductions during Alpine convergence may represent reactivated lithospheric faults inherited from Tethyan extension.

  13. Bivalve molluscs as vectors of marine biotoxins involved in seafood poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ciminiello, P; Fattorusso, E

    2006-01-01

    Molluscs of many sorts, which are high in protein and trace minerals, have always been a substantial portion of the human diet. A great variety of mollusc species are therefore of commercial importance throughout the world. Episodes of poisoning occasionally happen to the consumers of molluscs, the main hazard being represented by bivalve molluscs. These organisms are filter-feeders, feeding mainly on a wide range of phytoplankton species. Among the thousands of species of microscopic algae at the base of the marine food chain, there are a few dozen which produce potent toxins. One major category of impact occurs when toxic phytoplankton are filtered from the water as food by shellfish, which then accumulate the algal toxins to levels which can be lethal to humans. Incidences of poisoning related to marine algal toxins come under the main categories of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), depending upon the toxins and the symptoms that they cause. Since the beginning of the 1990s, a research program has been initiated to examine the toxin profiles in mussels from the Adriatic Sea. Since then, a number of polyether toxins have been isolated and characterized, some of which represent new additions to the DSP class of biotoxins. During this investigation, new types of toxins have also been isolated. The recent application of LC-MS methods for the detection of Adriatic marine biotoxins made it possible to speed up the analysis of toxic samples. PMID:17153338

  14. Adriatic and Black Sea level in the 20th century and projection to the end of the 21st century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Adriatic and Black Sea are semi-enclosed basins characterized by densely populated coasts, industrial compounds and a rich cultural and historical heritage. It appears to be crucial, for the management and the protection of their coastlines, to understand how much they will be impacted by the global sea level (SL) rise, projected by the end of this century. The aim of this work is to develop a method that allows to estimate to which extent the SL of the two basins will depart from the mean global level. The future evolution of global sea level is not a meaningful indicator at this regional scale and past deviations, due to local factors of the Adriatic and Black Sea levels from the global one, have been observed. The Adriatic Sea is the basin of the Mediterranean Sea best covered by past SL observations. In fact, for the Adriatic Sea is possible to obtain, by statistical method based on PCA and Least square Method, a seamless and long time series (from 1900 to 2009) using records of 7 mareographic stations located along the Italian and Croatian coasts (from PSMSL database). Satellite data of SL are available for the whole Mediterranean from 1993 to 2012 and they show a very high correlation (rho > 0.9) with Adriatic time series based on mareographic records. The SL time series of the 20th century in the Black Sea is computed using data of 4 stations, which are available in the PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) archive, located on the north-east coast. This time series shows a lower correlation (rho about 0.5) with satellite data than in the case of Adriatic Sea. Further it shows a higher interannual variability. All the time series are considered after the subtraction of the Inverse Barometer (IB) effect. A statistical approach, based on a multivariate linear regression model, is used to investigate the link between SL anomaly, computed as the difference between the regional SL and global SL, and three large scale climate variables (sea level pressure

  15. Multi-Meteotsunami Event in the Adriatic Sea Generated by Atmospheric Disturbances of 25-26 June 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Međugorac, Iva; Janeković, Ivica; Dunić, Natalija; Vilibić, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    A series of meteotsunamis hit a few locations in the Mediterranean and Black Seas during 22-27 June 2014. Meteotsunamis were particularly numerous on 25 and 26 June in the Adriatic Sea, where at least six harbours and bays were stricken by powerful waves: strongest events occurred in Vela Luka (Korčula Island), a known meteotsunami hot-spot, where waves reached height of ~3 m, and in Rijeka dubrovačka Bay, where strong ~5 m/s currents accompanied ~2.5 m high waves. Intensification of high-frequency sea level activity was observed at both the eastern and western Adriatic tide gauge stations, with maximum recorded wave heights reaching ~68 cm (Ortona, Italy). A series of individual air pressure disturbances characterized by pronounced rates of air pressure change (up to 2.4 hPa/5 min), limited spatial extent (~50 km) and high temporal variability, propagated over the Adriatic on 2 days in question. Numerical hydrodynamic model SCHISM forced by measured and idealised air pressure disturbances was utilised to reproduce the observed Adriatic sea level response. Several important conclusions were reached: (1) meteotsunamis occurring at various parts of the coast were generated by different atmospheric air pressure disturbances; (2) topographic influence can be removed from sea level spectra by computing spectral signal-to-background ratios; the result, being related to the external forcing, resembles atmospheric pressure spectra; (3) sea response is strongly dependant on details of atmospheric forcing; and (4) over complex bathymetries, like the middle and south Adriatic ones, numerous effects, including Proudman resonance, edge waves, strong topographical enhancement and refractions on the islands placed on the pathway of atmospheric disturbances should be taken into account to fully understand meteotsunami generation and dynamics. An in-depth numerical study is planned to supplement the latter conclusion and to quantify contribution of each process.

  16. A tri-modular model for the computation of the meteorological and oceanographic fields in the Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lionello, P.; Pernigotti, D.; Zampato, L.; Bergamasco, A.; Buzzi, A.; Malguzzi, P.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this research program is the construction of the modelling framework to describe and predict the development of the sea and of the atmosphere in the Adriatic region. There are two time scales that are considered: the medium range time scale of the weather-surge-oceanwave forecast and the interseasonal time scale of the thermohaline circulation in the Adriatic Sea. The phenomenology associated with the medium range is represented by the intense storms that take place in the Adriatic Sea, in spite of its relatively small extension, when the presence of a pressure minimum over Italy generates an intense Scirocco wind which, channeled by the mountain ridges surrounding the basin, blows along its whole length. Because of the long fetch, approximately 1,000 Km., this situation produces high ocean waves and the storm surge that is associated with the flooding of Venice. The interseasonal phenomenology is represented by the formation of dense water in the Northern part of the basin during winter. This is presumably caused by Bora, a strong South-Westerly wind, cold and dry, which produces cooling and evaporation in the shallow water coastal region of the Northern Adriatic. The complex orography surrounding the Adriatic and the short duration of this phenomena require a model framework capable of high space and time resolution on a limited area. This is the motivation for addressing these issues in a coupled model framework consisting of a limited area atmospheric circulation model, an ocean circulation model, and a ocean wave model with high resolution both in space and time.

  17. Global and regional factors contributing to the past and future sea level rise in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2013-07-01

    This study aims at discussing evolution of Sea Level (SL) in the Northern Adriatic Sea for the 20th and 21st century. A Linear Regression Model (LRM) which aims at describing the effect of regional processes, is built and validated. This LRM computes the North Adriatic mean SL variations using three predictors: the Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) in the Gulf of Venice, the mean Sea Temperature (ST) of the water column in the South Adriatic and the Upper Level Salinity (ULS) in the central part of the basin. SL data are provided by monthly values recorded at 7 tide gauges distributed along the Italian and Croatian coasts (available at the PSMSL, Permanent Service of Mean Sea Level). MSLP data are provided by the EMULATE data set. Mediterranean ST and ULS data are extracted from the MEDATLAS/2002 database. The study shows that annual SL variations at Northern Adriatic stations are very coherent, so that the Northern Adriatic SL can be reconstructed since 1905 on the basis of only two stations: Venice and Trieste. The LRM is found to be robust, very successful at explaining interannual SL variations and consistent with the physical mechanisms responsible for SL evolution. Results show that observed SL in the 20th century has a large trend, which cannot be explained by this LRM, and it is interpreted as the superposition of land movement and a remote cause (such as polar ice melting). When the LRM is used with the MSLP, ST and ULS from climate model projections for the end of the 21st century (A1B scenario), it produces an SL rise in the range from 2.3 to 14.1 cm, with a best estimate of 8.9 cm. However, results show that the behavior of the remotely forced SL rise is the main source of future SL uncertainty and extrapolating its present trend to the future would expand the range of SL uncertainty from 14 to 49 cm.

  18. Spring 2009 water mass distribution, mixing and transport in the southern Adriatic after a low production of winter dense waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Ana E.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Carniel, Sandro; Russo, Aniello; Schroeder, Katrin; Wood, Warren T.

    2013-08-01

    Enhanced mixing of North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) occurs in a strong frontal region as this cold and fresh intermediate water enters the southern Adriatic basin and meets warm and salty Modified Levantine Intermediate Water (MLIW) coming from the Ionian Sea. This study examines how NAdDW was mixed and transformed as it traveled southward from the Gargano to the Bari region and investigates the pathway and intrusion patterns of MLIW in late winter/spring 2009. Hydrographic data are analyzed to compute source water fractions via a least-squares analysis method and combined with ADCP data to compute source water volume fluxes. Results show that despite an anomalous low year for NAdDW production in the Adriatic, a warmer, fresher and lighter version of traditional NAdDW (i.e. 2009 NAdDW) endured its journey from Gargano to Bari. In the Gargano region, 2009 NAdDW (with fractions up to 80-90%) traveled southward in a non-continuous thin, dense vein between 35 m and 100 m isobaths, with diluted cores (>50%) extending to 140 m depth, and with fluxes of -0.05 Sv, to the southeast, south of Palagruz˘a Sill. Near the sill, 2009 NAdDW was further mixed and diluted with MLIW and surface water. By the time it reached the Bari region, the 2009 NAdDW fraction in the water column was reduced to about 20%. MLIW intrusions observed over the Sill and in northern sections of the study area suggest a splitting of MLIW pathways (stemming from the main South Adriatic rim pathway) towards the central Adriatic. Source water fraction results combined with velocity and seismic oceanography data show that eddies in the study area are one mechanism for the generation of MLIW intrusions towards the northwest.

  19. Eco-label conveys reliable information on fish stock health to seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Nicolás L; Valencia, Sarah R; Branch, Trevor A; Agnew, David J; Baum, Julia K; Bianchi, Patricia L; Cornejo-Donoso, Jorge; Costello, Christopher; Defeo, Omar; Essington, Timothy E; Hilborn, Ray; Hoggarth, Daniel D; Larsen, Ashley E; Ninnes, Chris; Sainsbury, Keith; Selden, Rebecca L; Sistla, Seeta; Smith, Anthony D M; Stern-Pirlot, Amanda; Teck, Sarah J; Thorson, James T; Williams, Nicholas E

    2012-01-01

    Concerns over fishing impacts on marine populations and ecosystems have intensified the need to improve ocean management. One increasingly popular market-based instrument for ecological stewardship is the use of certification and eco-labeling programs to highlight sustainable fisheries with low environmental impacts. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is the most prominent of these programs. Despite widespread discussions about the rigor of the MSC standards, no comprehensive analysis of the performance of MSC-certified fish stocks has yet been conducted. We compared status and abundance trends of 45 certified stocks with those of 179 uncertified stocks, finding that 74% of certified fisheries were above biomass levels that would produce maximum sustainable yield, compared with only 44% of uncertified fisheries. On average, the biomass of certified stocks increased by 46% over the past 10 years, whereas uncertified fisheries increased by just 9%. As part of the MSC process, fisheries initially go through a confidential pre-assessment process. When certified fisheries are compared with those that decline to pursue full certification after pre-assessment, certified stocks had much lower mean exploitation rates (67% of the rate producing maximum sustainable yield vs. 92% for those declining to pursue certification), allowing for more sustainable harvesting and in many cases biomass rebuilding. From a consumer's point of view this means that MSC-certified seafood is 3-5 times less likely to be subject to harmful fishing than uncertified seafood. Thus, MSC-certification accurately identifies healthy fish stocks and conveys reliable information on stock status to seafood consumers. PMID:22928029

  20. Eco-Label Conveys Reliable Information on Fish Stock Health to Seafood Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Nicolás L.; Valencia, Sarah R.; Branch, Trevor A.; Agnew, David J.; Baum, Julia K.; Bianchi, Patricia L.; Cornejo-Donoso, Jorge; Costello, Christopher; Defeo, Omar; Essington, Timothy E.; Hilborn, Ray; Hoggarth, Daniel D.; Larsen, Ashley E.; Ninnes, Chris; Sainsbury, Keith; Selden, Rebecca L.; Sistla, Seeta; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Stern-Pirlot, Amanda; Teck, Sarah J.; Thorson, James T.; Williams, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns over fishing impacts on marine populations and ecosystems have intensified the need to improve ocean management. One increasingly popular market-based instrument for ecological stewardship is the use of certification and eco-labeling programs to highlight sustainable fisheries with low environmental impacts. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is the most prominent of these programs. Despite widespread discussions about the rigor of the MSC standards, no comprehensive analysis of the performance of MSC-certified fish stocks has yet been conducted. We compared status and abundance trends of 45 certified stocks with those of 179 uncertified stocks, finding that 74% of certified fisheries were above biomass levels that would produce maximum sustainable yield, compared with only 44% of uncertified fisheries. On average, the biomass of certified stocks increased by 46% over the past 10 years, whereas uncertified fisheries increased by just 9%. As part of the MSC process, fisheries initially go through a confidential pre-assessment process. When certified fisheries are compared with those that decline to pursue full certification after pre-assessment, certified stocks had much lower mean exploitation rates (67% of the rate producing maximum sustainable yield vs. 92% for those declining to pursue certification), allowing for more sustainable harvesting and in many cases biomass rebuilding. From a consumer’s point of view this means that MSC-certified seafood is 3–5 times less likely to be subject to harmful fishing than uncertified seafood. Thus, MSC-certification accurately identifies healthy fish stocks and conveys reliable information on stock status to seafood consumers. PMID:22928029

  1. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Saintpaul isolated from imported seafood, pepper, environmental and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Tatsuya; Khan, Ashraf A; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Stefanova, Rossina

    2011-09-01

    A total of 39 Salmonella enterica serovar Saintpaul strains from imported seafood, pepper and from environmental and clinical samples were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes, antibiotic resistance, plasmid and plasmid replicon types. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting using the XbaI restriction enzyme and plasmid profiling were performed to assess genetic diversity. None of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Seventeen virulence genes were screened for by PCR. All strains were positive for 14 genes (spiA, sifA, invA, spaN, sopE, sipB, iroN, msgA, pagC, orgA, prgH, lpfC, sitC, and tolC) and negative for three genes (spvB, pefA, and cdtB). Twelve strains, including six from clinical samples and six from seafood, carried one or more plasmids. Large plasmids, sized greater than 50 kb were detected in one clinical and three food isolates. One plasmid was able to be typed as IncI1 by PCR-based replicon typing. There were 25 distinct PFGE-XbaI patterns, clustered to two groups. Cluster A, with 68.5% similarity mainly consists of clinical isolates, while Cluster C, with 67.6% similarity, mainly consisted of shrimp isolates from India. Our findings indicated the genetic diversity of S. Saintpaul in clinical samples, imported seafood, and the environment and that this serotype possesses several virulent genes and plasmids which can cause salmonellosis. PMID:21645810

  2. Examination of Listeria monocytogenes in Seafood Processing Facilities and Smoked Salmon in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Leong, Dara; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Zaouali, Sarah; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, a relatively rare but life-threatening disease primarily affecting immunocompromised individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the seafood processing industry in the Republic of Ireland. The occurrence of L. monocytogenes was determined by regular sampling of both food samples and processing environment swabs at eight seafood processing facilities over two calendar years. All samples were analyzed by the International Organization for Standardization 11290-1 standard method, and the isolates were characterized by PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, serotyping, and the occurrence of some genes related to survival under stress (SSI-1, Tn6188, and bcrABC). A prevalence of 2.5% in 508 samples (433 environmental swabs and 75 food samples) was found. From the isolates obtained, eight different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified, two occurring in more than one facility and one occurring in food and the environment. Five of the eight pulsotypes identified contained at least one of the three stress survival-related genes tested. The tolerance of the isolates to benzalkonium chloride, a representative quaternary ammonium compound, was also examined and ranged from 5.5 ± 0.5 to 8.5 ± 0.5 ppm of benzalkonium chloride. To evaluate the ability of smoked salmon to support the growth of L. monocytogenes, including the T4 widespread pulsotype that was isolated, a challenge test was performed on cold-smoked salmon obtained from two separate producers. The results showed clearly that both types of smoked salmon supported the growth of L. monocytogenes. Although occurrence of L. monocytogenes on seafood was low, this study showed that the smoked salmon used in this study can support the growth of L. monocytogenes; therefore, vigilance is required in the processing facilities to reduce the associated risk. PMID:26613913

  3. Global methylmercury exposure from seafood consumption and risk of developmental neurotoxicity: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Thomas A; Navas-Acien, Ana; Breysse, Patrick N; McGready, John; Fox, Mary A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine biomarkers of methylmercury (MeHg) intake in women and infants from seafood-consuming populations globally and characterize the comparative risk of fetal developmental neurotoxicity. Methods A search was conducted of the published literature reporting total mercury (Hg) in hair and blood in women and infants. These biomarkers are validated proxy measures of MeHg, a neurotoxin found primarily in seafood. Average and high-end biomarkers were extracted, stratified by seafood consumption context, and pooled by category. Medians for average and high-end pooled distributions were compared with the reference level established by a joint expert committee of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Findings Selection criteria were met by 164 studies of women and infants from 43 countries. Pooled average biomarkers suggest an intake of MeHg several times over the FAO/WHO reference in fish-consuming riparians living near small-scale gold mining and well over the reference in consumers of marine mammals in Arctic regions. In coastal regions of south-eastern Asia, the western Pacific and the Mediterranean, average biomarkers approach the reference. Although the two former groups have a higher risk of neurotoxicity than the latter, coastal regions are home to the largest number at risk. High-end biomarkers across all categories indicate MeHg intake is in excess of the reference value. Conclusion There is a need for policies to reduce Hg exposure among women and infants and for surveillance in high-risk populations, the majority of which live in low-and middle-income countries. PMID:24700993

  4. Microbiological and other hazards from seafoods with special reference to Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, G. I.

    1974-01-01

    The salient features of some of the more important microbiological health hazards to man from seafoods are reviewed briefly. They include poisoning, indirectly from toxins produced by certain marine algae or more directly by Clostridium botulinum, as well as infection with the marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Local culinary habits play a significant role in such kinds of illness, and food well cooked shortly before consumption is always preferable. Since established customs die hard, safety ultimately depends, not so much on arbitrary microbiological standards, but on hygienic production, correct storage and distribution, and on education in intelligent eating habits. PMID:4467856

  5. Membrane Bioreactor Technology for the Development of Functional Materials from Sea-Food Processing Wastes and Their Potential Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Senevirathne, Mahinda

    2011-01-01

    Sea-food processing wastes and underutilized species of fish are a potential source of functional and bioactive compounds. A large number of bioactive substances can be produced through enzyme-mediated hydrolysis. Suitable enzymes and the appropriate bioreactor system are needed to incubate the waste materials. Membrane separation is a useful technique to extract, concentrate, separate or fractionate the compounds. The use of membrane bioreactors to integrate a reaction vessel with a membrane separation unit is emerging as a beneficial method for producing bioactive materials such as peptides, chitooligosaccharides and polyunsaturated fatty acids from diverse seafood-related wastes. These bioactive compounds from membrane bioreactor technology show diverse biological activities such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antitumor, anticoagulant, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. This review discusses the application of membrane bioreactor technology for the production of value-added functional materials from sea-food processing wastes and their biological activities in relation to health benefits. PMID:24957872

  6. Comparison of a fluorogenic assay with a conventional method for rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, K; Kurusu, T; Satake, M; Shinoda, S

    1996-01-01

    A conventional method and a fluorogenic assay for the detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were compared. Among 29 seafood samples examined for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus, 17 samples harbored V. parahaemolyticus, and trypsinlike activity was noticed in 19 seafoods. The added fluorogenic substrate was cleaved in single samples of shrimp, turbo, and cuttlefish from which V. parahaemolyticus could not be isolated by the conventional method. Vibrio alginolyticus, in addition to V. parahaemolyticus, was found to exhibit intracellular trypsinlike activity. Trypsinlike activity in seafoods was observed after the most probable number for the initial density of V. parahaemolyticus-like organisms was found to have reached > 10(2) per g. A V. parahaemolyticus inoculum at 10(4) CFU/ml in arabinose-glucuronate medium was required to attain growth to 10(6) CFU/ml, which is the level necessary for the release of detectable amounts of fluorescent compound from the added substrate. PMID:8795246

  7. Pleistocene ice caps on the coastal mountains of the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, P. D.; Woodward, J. C.; van Calsteren, P. C.; Thomas, L. E.; Adamson, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    Ice caps once covered large areas of Mount Orjen (1894 m), on the Adriatic coast of Montenegro/Bosnia Herzegovina/Croatia. The largest ice cap covered an area of c. 165 km 2 and reached a maximum ice thickness of c. 450 m, in some areas reaching down to 500 m above modern sea level. U-series dating of secondary carbonates within moraines indicates that the most extensive glaciation occurred during the Middle Pleistocene, correlating with a major phase of glaciation in Greece to the south during MIS 12 (c. 480-430 ka). Later, less extensive, glaciations are also recorded in the cirques and valleys and correlate with glaciations during MIS 6 (190-130 ka) and MIS 5d-2 (110-11.7 ka). Each phase of glaciation would have required large amounts of snow accumulation. Under modern precipitation values, which at c. 5000 mm are some of the highest in Europe, mean annual temperatures would need to be only c. 5-6 °C lower in order to form similar sized glaciers today. A mean annual temperature depression of 12-13 °C would still require >1000 mm of snow accumulation (water equivalent) to balance ablation, suggesting sustained moisture supply during Pleistocene cold stages. Such sustained precipitation supply during Pleistocene cold stages is likely to have been facilitated by major temperature contrasts between the European landmass and the Mediterranean Sea, which are likely to have sustained lee-side vortices to the south of the Alps, in the Gulf of Genoa and Adriatic Sea, forming weak moisture-bearing depressions which tracked across the eastern Adriatic coastal mountains. Large ice caps on the Dinaric Alps would have blocked the inland penetration of these depressions, resulting in much drier conditions in the Balkan interior, creating favourable conditions for the deposition of thick accumulations of loess. The last glaciers on Orjen formed during the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka) and confirm the influence of North Atlantic Ocean circulation on Pleistocene climate change

  8. Verification of an ensemble prediction system for storm surge forecast in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel, Riccardo; Lionello, Piero

    2014-12-01

    In the Adriatic Sea, storm surges present a significant threat to Venice and to the flat coastal areas of the northern coast of the basin. Sea level forecast is of paramount importance for the management of daily activities and for operating the movable barriers that are presently being built for the protection of the city. In this paper, an EPS (ensemble prediction system) for operational forecasting of storm surge in the northern Adriatic Sea is presented and applied to a 3-month-long period (October-December 2010). The sea level EPS is based on the HYPSE (hydrostatic Padua Sea elevation) model, which is a standard single-layer nonlinear shallow water model, whose forcings (mean sea level pressure and surface wind fields) are provided by the ensemble members of the ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) EPS. Results are verified against observations at five tide gauges located along the Croatian and Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea. Forecast uncertainty increases with the predicted value of the storm surge and with the forecast lead time. The EMF (ensemble mean forecast) provided by the EPS has a rms (root mean square) error lower than the DF (deterministic forecast), especially for short (up to 3 days) lead times. Uncertainty for short lead times of the forecast and for small storm surges is mainly caused by uncertainty of the initial condition of the hydrodynamical model. Uncertainty for large lead times and large storm surges is mainly caused by uncertainty in the meteorological forcings. The EPS spread increases with the rms error of the forecast. For large lead times the EPS spread and the forecast error substantially coincide. However, the EPS spread in this study, which does not account for uncertainty in the initial condition, underestimates the error during the early part of the forecast and for small storm surge values. On the contrary, it overestimates the rms error for large surge values. The PF (probability forecast) of the EPS

  9. Earthquake triggering in the peri-adriatic regions induced by stress diffusion: insights from numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onza, F.; Viti, M.; Mantovani, E.; Albarello, D.

    2003-04-01

    EARTHQUAKE TRIGGERING IN THE PERI-ADRIATIC REGIONS INDUCED BY STRESS DIFFUSION: INSIGHTS FROM NUMERICAL MODELLING F. D’Onza (1), M. Viti (1), E. Mantovani (1) and D. Albarello (1) (1) Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Siena - Italy (donza@unisi.it/Fax:+39-0577-233820) Significant evidence suggests that major earthquakes in the peri-Adriatic Balkan zones may influence the seismicity pattern in the Italian area. In particular, a seismic correlation has been recognized between major earthquakes in the southern Dinaric belt and those in southern Italy. It is widely recognized that such kind of regularities may be an effect of postseismic relaxation triggered by strong earthquakes. In this note, we describe an attempt to quantitatively investigate, by numerical modelling, the reliability of the above interpretation. In particular, we have explored the possibility to explain the last example of the presumed correlation (triggering event: April, 1979 Montenegro earthquake, MS=6.7; induced event: November, 1980 Irpinia event, MS=6.9) as an effect of postseismic relaxation through the Adriatic plate. The triggering event is modelled by imposing a sudden dislocation in the Montenegro seismic fault, taking into account the fault parameters (length and average slip) recognized from seismological observations. The perturbation induced by the seismic source in the neighbouring lithosphere is obtained by the Elsasser diffusion equation for an elastic lithosphere coupled with a viscous asthenosphere. The results obtained by numerical experiments indicate that the strain regime induced by the Montenegro event in southern Italy is compatible with the tensional strain field observed in this last zone, that the amplitude of the induced strain is significantly higher than that induced by Earth tides and that this amplitude is comparable with the strain perturbation recognized as responsible for earthquake triggering. The time delay between the triggering and the induced

  10. Insights on Continental Collisional Processes from GPS Data: Dynamics of the Peri-Adriatic Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metois, Marianne; D'Agostino, Nicola; Avallone, Antonio; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Rabaute, Alain; Duni, Llambro; Kuka, Neki; Koci, Rexhep; Georgiev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in GPS technology and processing strategies make now spatial geodesy a suitable tool to image intra-continental slowly deforming areas such as collisional mountain belts and to get further insights on their kinematics and dynamics. Here, using the peri-Adriatic belts as a test case, we propose a methodology based on accurate GPS velocities to discriminate whether the current day deformation pattern over a mountain belt is controlled at the first order by gravity through gradients of gravitational potential energy. We calculate a new GPS velocity field covering the peri-Adriatic region and the entire Balkan Peninsula, taking advantage of newly available measurements coming from private networks operating since several years in this area. Based on these velocities, we derive the strain rate tensor and an interpolated velocity field using the method of Haines & Holt (1993). Opposite to the commonly accepted hypothesis considering the Balkans as part of the stable Eurasia, we show that the peninsula experiences significant compression across the Dinarides belt and extension toward the Aegean domain South of 44°N. We image a clockwise rotation of the entire peninsula around North Albania, and propose that the lithosphere under the old Scutari-Peck transform zone is weak and acts as a pivot point for this rotation since early Miocene. The Hellenic slab suction and the release of stress in the northern Hellenides subduction zone may favour the southwestward motion of the inner Balkan lithosphere, flowing between the rigid Apulia and Black sea blocks consequently. Because our velocity field is unusually dense in Slovenia and Austria, we picture the Eastern Alps deformation with great details and show that the Austrian Alps are moving eastward together with the Alpine foreland and Bohemian Promontory relative to stable Eurasia. Based on these new GPS data, we investigate the dynamics of the peri-Adriatic mountain belts, in particular of Albania and Eastern

  11. Paleohydrology reconstruction and Holocene climate variability in the South Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, G.; Magny, M.; Paterne, M.; Debret, M.; Fontugne, M.

    2012-09-01

    Holocene paleohydrology reconstruction was derived combining planktic and benthic stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and oxygen isotope composition of seawater (δ18Ow) from a high sedimentation core collected in the south Adriatic sea (SAS). Chronology of core is based on 10 AMS 14C measures on planktic foraminifera and tephra markers. Results reveal two contrasted paleohydrological periods that reflect (i) a marked lowering of δ 18Ow/salinity during the early to middle Holocene (11.5 ka to 6.3 ka), including the two-steps sapropel S1 deposition, followed during the middle to upper Holocene by (ii) a prevailed period of increased salinity and enhanced arid conditions in the south Adriatic basin. Superimposed on these trends, short-term centennial-scale hydrological events punctuated the Holocene period in the SAS. During the Early to Middle Holocene, a short-term SST cooling together with a prominent δ 18Ow/salinity lowering, more pronounced than during the sapropel S1 phase, delineates the sapropel S1 interruption. This short interval, coeval to the 8.2 ka event, is also distinguished by a resumption of deep-water convection in the SAS as indicated by stable isotope reconstruction on benthic forminifera. After 6 ka, centennial-scale δ18Ow and G. bulloides δ13C lowering, mostly centered between 3 to 0.6 ka, reflect short term hydrological changes related to a more intensive Po river runoff. These short-term events, even of lesser amplitude compared to the early to middle Holocene period, may have induced a lowering of sea surface density and consequently reduced and/or inhibited the formation of deep bottom waters in the SAS. Comparison of the emerging centennial to millennial-scale hydrological record with previous climatic records from the central Mediterranean area and north of the Alps revealed possible synchronicities (within the radiocarbon-dating uncertainty) between phases of lower salinity in SAS and periods of wetter

  12. Paleohydrology reconstruction and Holocene climate variability in the South Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, G.; Magny, M.; Paterne, M.; Debret, M.; Fontugne, M.

    2013-02-01

    Holocene paleohydrology reconstruction is derived combining planktonic and benthic stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and oxygen isotope composition of seawater (δ18Ow) from a high sedimentation core collected in the South Adriatic Sea (SAS). Core chronology is based on 10 AMS 14C measures on planktonic foraminifera and tephra layers. Results reveal two contrasted paleohydrological periods that reflect (i) a marked lowering of δ18Ow/salinity during the early to mid-Holocene (11.5 ka to 6.3 ka), including the two-step sapropel S1 deposition, followed during the mid- to upper Holocene by (ii) a prevailing period of increased salinity and enhanced arid conditions in the South Adriatic Basin. Superimposed on these trends, short-term centennial-scale hydrological events punctuated the Holocene period in the SAS. During the early to mid-Holocene, two main SST coolings together with prominent δ18Ow/salinity lowering delineate the sapropel S1 interruption and the post-sapropel phase between 7.3 to 6.3 ka. After 6 ka, centennial-scale δ18Ow and G. bulloides δ13C lowering, mostly centered between 3 to 0.6 ka, reflect short-term hydrological changes related to more intensive runoff of the Po and/or Apennine rivers. These short-term events, even of lesser amplitude compared to the early to mid-Holocene period, may have induced a lowering of sea surface density and consequently reduced and/or inhibited the formation of deep bottom waters in the SAS. Comparison of the emerging centennial- to millennial-scale hydrological record with previous climatic records from the central Mediterranean area and north of the Alps reveal possible synchronicities (within the radiocarbon-dating uncertainty) between phases of lower salinity in the SAS and periods of wetter climatic conditions around the north-central Adriatic Sea. Finally, wavelet analyses provide new clues about the potential origin of climate variability in the SAS, confirming the evidence

  13. A COMPARISON OF EXTRACTION EFFICIENCIES IN SEAFOOD MATRICES USING A SYNTHETIC STOMACH AND AN ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION APPROACH WITH IC-ICP-MS DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seafood is one of the largest sources of dietary arsenic exposure. Because most of the arsenic present is non-toxic (such as arsenobetaine [AsB]), the consumption of seafood is thought to result in a low risk or non-toxic exposure. This can be misleading for two reasons. First...

  14. Back contamination.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, G. B.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the concept and implications of back contamination and of the ways and means for its prevention. Back contamination is defined as contamination of the terrestrial biosphere with organisms or materials returned from outer space that are capable of potentially harmful terrestrial activity. Since the question of whether or not life exists on other planets may, in reality, not be answered until many samples are returned to earth for detailed study, requirements for the prevention of back contamination are necessary. A review of methods of microbiologic contamination control is followed by a discussion of the nature of back contamination and its risk levels, contamination sources and locations, and possible defenses against back contamination. The U.S. lunar back contamination program is described and shown to provide a valuable basis for further refining the technology for the control of planetary back contamination.

  15. Thermohaline variability in the Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas observed from the Argo floats during 2010-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačević, Vedrana; Ursella, Laura; Gačić, Miroslav; Notarstefano, Giulio; Menna, Milena; Bensi, Manuel; Civitarese, Giuseppe; Poulain, Pierre-Marie

    2015-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea is the northernmost basin of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMed). At its southern end, the basin communicates with the adjacent Ionian Sea through the 80 km wide and 850 m deep Strait of Otranto. Due to the river discharge in the north and due to the strong winter cooling, the Adriatic is both a dilution basin and the dense water formation region. The basin-wide circulation is cyclonic. The circulation is however, energetic also at smaller spatial and temporal scales, and several circulation cells and mesoscale features are regularly observed equally along the littoral and in the open sea. The North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) formed during winter is the densest water of the whole Mediterranean Sea (up to 1060 kg/m3). It flows as a density driven bottom current from the northern shelf toward south, filling the deep layers of the middle and southern Adriatic pits. The deep open-sea area of the South Adriatic Pit (SAP, 1200 m) feels the influence of a water mass exchange through the Strait of Otranto. Specifically, it receives salty and warm surface and Levantine Intermediate Waters from the Ionian Sea. Through the open-sea winter convection that homogenizes and ventilates 400-800 m thick upper water column, this salty water contributes to the formation of the Adriatic Deep Water (AdDW, 1029.17-1029.20 kg/m3), which is not as dense as the NAdDW. Both dense waters eventually mix and spill across the sill ventilating the deep and bottom layers of the Ionian Sea, and driving the deep thermohaline cell of the EMed. Thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea vary at wide spatial and temporal scales, and this in turn affects the properties of its dense waters. The long-term scales are of a particular interest, as they are often associated with the biogeochemical and biotic variability such as intrusion of alien species into the Adriatic Sea and interconnection with the adjacent Ionian basin. Due to the extremely variable meteo- and climatic conditions

  16. Provenance of surface sediments along the southeastern Adriatic coast off Italy: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudeau, Marie-Louise S.; Grauel, Anna-Lena; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; de Lange, Gert J.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-proxy studies are necessary to understand sediment composition and related provenance on continental shelfs. Here it is shown that the spatial distribution of geochemical composition and grain size for surface sediments along the southeastern Italian coast is related to provenance and mechanisms influencing sediment pathways. A northern Adriatic/Italian provenance can be distinguished from a southern Apennine river source. This is done independent of grain size using the element ratios Ce/Ni and Zr/Cr. Furthermore, the origin of organic matter is determined using bulk carbon isotopes and the C/N ratio. Integrating these results with those from complementary studies on δ18O and δ13C of Globigerinoides ruber (white), the BIT index, stable isotopes of plant waxes and dinoflagellate cyst distribution from the same set of samples reveals that:

  17. Bioaccumulation of Arsenic Species in Rays from the Northern Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Stajnko, Anja; Falnoga, Ingrid; Lipej, Lovrenc; Mazej, Darja; Horvat, Milena; Faganeli, Jadran

    2014-01-01

    The difference in arsenic concentration and speciation between benthic (Pteromylaeus bovinus, Myliobatis aquila) and pelagic rays (Pteroplatytrygon violacea) from the northern Adriatic Sea (Gulf of Trieste) in relation to their size (age) was investigated. High arsenic concentrations were found in both groups with tendency of more efficient arsenic accumulation in benthic species, particularly in muscle (32.4 to 362 µg·g−1 of total arsenic). This was attributed to species differences in arsenic access, uptake and retention. In liver most arsenic was present in a form of arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenoipids, whereas in muscle mainly arsenobetaine was found. The good correlations between total arsenic/arsenobetaine and size reflect the importance of accumulation of arsenobetaine with age. Arsenobetaine is an analogue of glycine betaine, a known osmoregulator in marine animals and both are very abundant in mussels, representing an important source of food for benthic species P. bovinus and M. aquila. PMID:25470025

  18. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of Korcula and Peljesac islands in Adriatic Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image is of two small islands (Korcula and Peljesac) in the Adriatic Sea, southwest of Sarajevo. The scene was photographed during Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, 33rd orbit with a 300mm lens on the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real-time. Center coordinates of this frame are 42.9 degrees north latitude and 17.2 degrees east longitude. The camera was in shutter priority mode with a 1/500-second shutter speed and -2/3 exposure compensation. Digital file name is ESC03036.IMG.

  19. Spatial pattern and weight of seabed marine litter in the northern and central Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Strafella, P; Fabi, G; Spagnolo, A; Grati, F; Polidori, P; Punzo, E; Fortibuoni, T; Marceta, B; Raicevich, S; Cvitkovic, I; Despalatovic, M; Scarcella, G

    2015-02-15

    The present study analyzes spatial distribution and typology of marine litter on the seabed in the FAO Geographical Sub-Area 17 (northern and central Adriatic Sea). Two surveys were conducted during fall 2011 and 2012 and 67 stations were sampled each year. Litter items were collected using the "rapido" trawl, a modified beam trawl commonly used by the Italian fishermen to catch flat fish and other benthic species. Marine litter in the catches was sorted and classified in 6 major categories (plastic, metal, glass, rubber, wood, other). Plastic litter was further subdivided in 3 sub-categories based on its source: fishing nets, aquaculture nets and other. Plastic was dominant in terms of weight followed by metal and other categories. The highest concentration of litter was found close to the coast likely as a consequence of high coastal urbanization, river inflow and extensive navigation associated with the morphological and hydrological features of the basin. PMID:25560999

  20. Impact of fish farming on the distribution of phosphorus in sediments in the middle Adriatic area.

    PubMed

    Matijević, Slavica; Kuspilić, Grozdan; Kljaković-Gaspić, Zorana; Bogner, Danijela

    2008-03-01

    During the last decade, intensive fish farming developed along the central Croatian coast, creating a need to study and evaluate its potential influence on unaffected sites. We considered phosphorus as an indicator of the influence of fish farming and investigated the distribution of phosphorus forms in sediment from several fish farms and marine areas of different trophic status in the middle Adriatic. Analyses of samples were performed with modified SEDEX techniques. Our results indicated that authigenic apatite phosphorus showed no significant differences among the investigated stations, while organic phosphorus concentrations reflected the trophic status of the station area. Below-cage sediment was characterized by enhanced fish debris phosphorus and low detrital apatite phosphorus concentrations, while sediment from an anthropogenically influenced bay showed the highest values of iron bound phosphorus species. Among the different P fractions, fish debris phosphorus proved to be the most sensitive indicator of the influence of fish farming on marine sediment. PMID:18187162

  1. Performance analysis of coupled and uncoupled hydrodynamic and wave models in the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busca, Claudia; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Ravaioli, Mariangela; Riminucci, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    The complex dynamics of the Adriatic Sea are the result of geographical position, orography and bathymetry, as well as rivers discharge and meteorological conditions that influence, more strongly, the shallow northern part. Such complexity requires a constant monitoring of marine conditions in order to support several activities (marine resources management, naval operations, emergency management, shipping, tourism, as well as scientific ones). Platforms, buoys and mooring located in Adriatic Sea supply almost continuously real time punctual information, which can be spatially extended, with some limitations, by drifters and remote sensing. Operational forecasting systems represent valid tools to provide a complete tridimensional coverage of the area, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. The Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service of the Emilia-Romagna Environmental Agency (ARPA-SIMC, Bologna, Italy) and the Dept. of Life and Environmental Sciences of Università Politecnica delle Marche (DISVA-UNIVPM, Ancona, Italy), in collaboration with the Institute of Marine Science of the National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR, Italy) operationally run several wave and hydrodynamic models on the Adriatic Sea. The main implementations are based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), the wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of the former two models in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) system. Horizontal resolutions of the different systems range from the 2 km of AdriaROMS to the 0.5 km of the recently implemented northern Adriatic COAWST. Forecasts are produced every day for the subsequent 72 hour with hourly resolution. All the systems compute the fluxes exchanged through the interface with the atmosphere from the numerical weather prediction system named COSMO-I7, an implementation for Italy of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model, at 7 km horizontal resolution. Considering the several operational

  2. Biology and Population Dynamics of Donax trunculus L. (Bivalvia: Donacidae) in the South Adriatic Coast (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeichen, M. Manca; Agnesi, S.; Mariani, A.; Maccaroni, A.; Ardizzone, G. D.

    2002-06-01

    Biology and population dynamics of the suspension-feeding wedge clam Donax trunculus (Linnaeus, 1758) were studied for 13 months (November 1994-April 1996) along the Italian Southern Adriatic coast near the Lagoon of Lesina. Specimens were found at depths between 0 and 2 m, mainly in fine grain bottoms. The spatial coastal distribution showed an intraspecific segregation between young and adult wedge clams. A unimodal recruitment (length >4 mm) occurred in winter (December-February). Length frequency distributions were used to determine age and growth rate. Three year classes were regularly observed and their growth pattern defined. The population showed a maximum length of 37 mm and a longevity of 4 years. Analysis of seasonal variations in the reproductive cycle showed that gametogenesis occurred in spring in females. After the spawning season (March-July) females of D. trunculus remained in a resting stage from August to January.

  3. Harmful Algae Records in Venice Lagoon and in Po River Delta (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilaničovà, Dagmar; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide “updated reference conditions” for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200 cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance. PMID:24683360

  4. Regional approach to modeling the transport of floating plastic debris in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Liubartseva, S; Coppini, G; Lecci, R; Creti, S

    2016-02-15

    Sea surface concentrations of plastics and their fluxes onto coastlines are simulated over 2009-2015. Calculations incorporate combinations of terrestrial and maritime litter inputs, the Lagrangian model MEDSLIK-II forced by AFS ocean current simulations, and ECMWF wind analyses. With a relatively short particle half-life of 43.7 days, the Adriatic Sea is defined as a highly dissipative basin where the shoreline is, by construction, the main sink of floating debris. Our model results show that the coastline of the Po Delta receives a plastic flux of approximately 70 kg(km day)(-1). The most polluted sea surface area (>10 g km(-2) floating debris) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. Evident seasonality is found in the calculated plastic concentration fields and the coastline fluxes. Complex source-receptor relationships among the basin's subregions are quantified in impact matrices. PMID:26774440

  5. The bivalve Glycymeris pilosa as a multidecadal environmental archive for the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas.

    PubMed

    Peharda, Melita; Black, Bryan A; Purroy, Ariadna; Mihanović, Hrvoje

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the potential of Glycymeris pilosa as an environmental indicator for the Mediterranean region by applying sclerochronological techniques on a sample set collected from Pašman Channel in the middle Adriatic Sea. Maximal longevity of analyzed shells was 69 years. Growth increments in acetate peels of the hinge region had clear boundaries, and there was a strongly synchronous signal in growth-increment width among individuals. The final, replicated chronology spanned 1969 to 2013. Shell growth negatively correlated with local summer sea temperatures and positively with November precipitation. High correlation between shell growth and circulation patterns in the northern Ionian was also observed, with slower growth occurring during cyclonic regimes. Given its broad distribution in the region and the ability to crossdate, generate annually-resolved chronologies, and of a length that substantially overlaps with observational records, G. pilosa has considerable potential to test hypotheses relating to environmental variability and biological response in the Mediterranean. PMID:27254745

  6. Bathing water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Lolita; Murmura, Federica; Scarano, Antonio

    2015-06-15

    The quality of bathing water is fundamental, not only from an environmental point of view but also due to the economic importance of tourism. This paper examines the water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea) with reference to the microbiological parameters Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci required by Directive 2006/07 of European Commission. The water quality of 15 coastal beaches was surveyed; data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Abruzzo Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARTA) and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2010-2013). Statistical analysis was used to confirm the aspects deduced from mean values of monitoring and control data for each stretch. The data highlight critical situations in various parts of the coast; these problems can be attributed to river pollution, mainly due to the malfunctioning of the treatment plants for urban wastewater. PMID:25934432

  7. Investigating and forecasting coastal Adriatic surface currents by using neural networks (NEURAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilibic, Ivica; Zagar, Nedjeljka; Cosoli, Simone; Dadic, Vlado; Horvath, Kristian; Ivankovic, Damir; Jesenko, Blaz; Mihanovic, Hrvoje; Sepic, Jadranka; Tudor, Martina

    2014-05-01

    We present major components of the project NEURAL (www.izor.hr/neural) funded by the Unity Through Knowledge Fund (www.ukf.hr). The project aims to investigate and to build an efficient and reliable prototype of the ocean surface current forecasting system, based on high-frequency (HF) radar measurements, numerical weather prediction (NWP) model outputs and neural network algorithms (Self-Organising Maps). The Self-Organising Maps (SOM) method, a kind of neural network algorithms that performs a nonlinear smooth mapping of high-dimensional input data into the elements of a low-dimensional array, has previously been used on historical HF radar measurements and NWP Aladin/HR wind fields, which were operational in the northern Adriatic during 2008. It was found that the SOM surface currents patterns and associated SOM surface currents and winds patterns were highly correlated, indicating the predominance of the wind-driven forcing on the measured ocean currents. Therefore, a forecasting system has been proposed, that will use operational NWP products for the Adriatic region, then search for the closest SOM solutions in wind fields and finally to forecast ocean currents by using associated SOM patterns in HF radar currents. Such a prototype forecasting system will be tested on a long and quality-checked HF radar surface currents dataset available in the northern Adriatic, where the first part of the series will be used for the training of the SOM and the second part for assessing the skill performance of the surface currents hindcast. Two NWP systems will be used on the project: (1) high-resolution non-hydrostatic research WRF-ARW model based at the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of the University of Ljubljana, and (2) operational Aladin/HR NWP system of the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia. The prototype forecasting system will be also tested in the middle Adriatic after the collection of substantially long high-quality surface currents dataset

  8. Identity of Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from Istra Peninsula in Croatia (Adriatic Sea basin)

    PubMed Central

    Zupancic, Primoz; Mrakovcic, Milorad; Marcic, Zoran; Naseka, Alexander M.; Bogutskaya, Nina G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A chub of previously ambiguous identity from the Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers (south-eastern Istra Peninsula) was studied and compared with geographically close Squalius squalus, Squalius zrmanja, and Squalius janae recently described from the Dragonja River drainage in the Adriatic Sea basin in Slovenia. It was shown that the chub from the south-eastern Istra Peninsula differs from all know species of Squalius but one: Squalius janae. Three samples examined from Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers and Squalius janae from its type locality, Dragonja River, show the following characters typical for the latter species: a long head (the head length 27–32% SL); a pointed conical snout with a clearly projecting upper jaw; a long straight mouth cleft, the lower jaw length (39–45% HL) exceeding the caudal peduncle depth; a large eye; commonly 9? branched anal-fin rays; commonly 44 total vertebrae (24+20 or 25+19); bright silvery colouration, scales easily lost; iris, pectoral, pelvic and anal fin pigmentation with yellow shades. The data on the distribution of Squalius chubs in the northern Adriatic basin support the assumption that the range of Squalius janae is determined by the geology of the Trieste Flysch Basin and the Pazin Flysch Basin forming the base of the Istra Peninsula. The distribution pattern of this species does not support a simple model of fish dispersal and a complete connectivity within the whole Palaeo-Po historical drainage. Indeed, it indicates a disrupted surface palaeohydrography that was heavily fragmented by karstification in the whole Dinaric area. PMID:21594132

  9. On the analysis of an extreme Bora wind event over the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, R. R.; Pucillo, A.

    2010-09-01

    On 10th March 2010 a severe Bora wind event affected the Friuli Venezia Giulia region, northeastern Italy, in particular the gulf of Trieste area (northern Adriatic Sea). Such event has been driven by a widespread westward moving cold pool aloft, coming from the Western Asia, that brought an intense potential vorticity anomaly over the western Mediterranean Sea. It determined a deep cyclogenesis involving all the troposphere. The pressure gradient force in the lowest layers forced a northeastern wind to blow with noticeable strength over the gulf of Trieste area and the Karstic region. The mean ground wind velocity has reached values above 27 m/s (about 100 km/h) for several hours, and maximum gusts exceeded 42 m/s (about 150 km/h) over Trieste town. The northeastern sector of the Adriatic Sea is frequently affected by strong Bora events in particular during the winter semester. This is a characteristic local wind mostly influenced by the orography of the Karstic relieves to the east of Trieste town. The target of this work is to assess the climatological relevance of such an event by comparing it with the most representative events of the past. It has been possible thanks to the long term archive of meteorological observations in Trieste site (I.R. Accademia di Commercio e Nautica, Regio Comitato Talassografico Italiano, Ministero dell'Agricoltura e Foreste, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche): we have found out that this is one of the ten strongest Bora event along the 1871-2010 period. Considerations about the trend and frequency of severe Bora events have been proposed.

  10. Investigation of model capability in capturing vertical coastal processes: A case study in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKiver, William; Sannino, Gianmaria; Bellafiore, Debora

    2015-04-01

    Coastal horizontal and vertical processes play an important role in ocean dynamics. Being the interface between land and sea, they are strongly influenced by winds, river inputs, tides, heat and water fluxes, topographic features, as well as human activities. In this work we perform a set of simulations using two different models, SHYFEM and MITgcm, each employing very different numerical approaches (finite elements and finite volume respectively). This allows us to access their capability to capture a number of coastal processes, specifically considering the role of upwelling and downwelling in the Northern Adriatic Sea. We focus on the Adriatic as its topography, having a very shallow northern basin becoming deeper towards the south, as well as the local atmospheric conditions and its large number of freshwater sources (about a third of the entire Mediterranean), make it prone to dense water events, when cold north-easterly winter winds induce dense water formation in the shallow northern coastal shelf. These extreme dense water events have many complex influences and thus are particularly challenging to understand and model, though their impact on the wider ocean circulation has made them an important topic of research. In this study we focus on one particularly strong dense water formation event that occurred in the beginning of 2012. This serves as an interesting test case to assess both the models strengths and weaknesses, while giving an opportunity to understand how these events affect coastal upwelling and downwelling processes. Using the two very different models we examine the impact of different resolutions (horizontal and vertical), different preconditionings as well as assessing the importance of non-hydrostatic dynamics, in order to identify the crucial model characteristics needed to best reproduce coastal processes.

  11. Seasonal and interannual dynamics of microzooplankton abundances in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Marina; Minocci, Marco; Milani, Luisella; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2012-12-01

    Abundance and composition of microzooplankton were studied over a 15 years period (from March 1986 to December 1990 and from July 1998 to December 2010) in the Gulf of Trieste (Adriatic Sea, NE Mediterranean Sea). Sampling was conducted biweekly-monthly at the surface at the historical station C1, 200 m offshore (bottom depth 17.5 m). Aloricate ciliates dominated in both periods (median 117 and 243 ind. L-1 in the first and second period respectively) while tintinnids were more abundant in the first period (median 55 ind. L-1vs 16 ind. L-1). For heterotrophic dinoflagellates there are no data during the first period and in the second one they represented the second major group. Micrometazoans remained almost constant over time. In the first period all microzooplankton groups showed a maximum in April, while in the last period the peak has shifted to September. This is particularly evident for both aloricate ciliates and micrometazoans. Tintinnids, that in the past had the absolute maximum in spring, in the second period maintained the only, lower peak in October. Tintinnids in the first period were constituted by 27 species and dominated by the genera Tintinnopsis, Stenosemella and Salpingella. In the last 10 years we registered a dramatic decrease in abundance, paralleling an increase in species (40) with some "new entries" as well as the almost complete disappearance of genera Helicostomella, Favella, Coxiella and Steenstrupiella. The observed changes of the seasonal dynamics of microzooplankton abundance, as well as of the tintinnids composition over the long period considered in our study, might suggest a climatic forcing together with the known anthropogenic oligotrophication of the entire North Adriatic.

  12. Eutrophication in the northern Adriatic Sea: Pore water and sediment studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, D.E.; Berelson, W.M. ); Giordani, P.; Langone, L.; Frignani, M.; Ravaioli, M. )

    1990-01-09

    The northern Adriatic Sea has been plagued by problems of eutrophication. This area is relatively shallow (maximum depth = 60m), becoming stratified during the summer months which inhibits oxygen transport to bottom waters. Anthropogenic nutrient loading in rivers entering the northern Adriatic (Po River being the largest) has increased nutrient input to this system and stimulated algal growth. Cores were collected for studies of pore water and solid phase chemistry at 6 stations in this region. [sup 210]Pb was used to constrain sediment accumulation rates and a range of 0-0.5 cm/yr was determined at different stations. Excess [sup 234]Th was only found in the upper 1-2 cm, suggesting that bioturbation is largely restricted to shallow depths. Pore water profiles show evidence of irrigation, and mean diffusive fluxes for oxygen, silica phosphate and ammonia are generally 20-90% of the fluxes obtained from benthic chamber measurements. This is consistent with previous work in this area in which studies of radon fluxes indicated that irrigation plays an important role in sediment-water exchange. Pore water profiles in the northern portion of the study area (near the Po River Delta) were markedly different than profiles in the south; sediments in the north are substantially more acidic and have high concentrations of dissolved iron and phosphate. From the alkalinity vs. TCO[sub 2] relationship in sediment pore waters it appears that differences in reactions involving the reduction of iron oxides and the exchange of magnesium for iron in clays are responsible for this regional difference in pore water properties. Sediments close to the Po apparently undergo more iron-magnesium exchange, while more distal sediments are limited in their ability to do so. Other pore water observations are limited in their ability to do so. Other pore water observations and trends regarding the shape of the silica profiles (which show shallow maxima) will be discussed.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome diversity in East Adriatic sheep.

    PubMed

    Ferencakovic, M; Curik, I; Pérez-Pardal, L; Royo, L J; Cubric-Curik, V; Fernández, I; Alvarez, I; Kostelic, A; Sprem, N; Krapinec, K; Goyache, F

    2013-04-01

    Variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplotypes was analysed in nine domestic sheep breeds (159 rams) and 21 mouflon (Ovis musimon) sampled in the East Adriatic. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed a high frequency of type B haplotypes, predominantly in European breeds, and a very low frequency of type A haplotypes, which are more frequent in some Asian breeds. Mitochondrial haplotype Hmt-3 was the most frequent (26.4%), and 37.1%, 20.8% and 7.6% of rams had haplotypes one, two and three mutations remote from Hmt-3 respectively. In contrast, Y-chromosome analyses revealed extraordinary paternal allelic richness: HY-6, 89.3%; HY-8, 5.0%; HY-18, 3.1%; HY-7, 1.3%; and HY-5, 1.3%. In fact, the number of haplotypes observed is comparable to the number found in Turkish breeds and greater than the number found in European breeds so far. Haplotype HY-18 (A-oY1/135-SRYM18), identified here for the first time, provides a link between the haplotype HY-12 (A-oY1/139-SRYM18) found in a few rams in Turkey and haplotype HY-9 (A-oY1/131-SRYM18) found in one ram in Ethiopia. All mouflons had type B mtDNA haplotypes, including the private haplotype (Hmt-55), and all were paternally monomorphic for haplotype HY-6. Our data support a quite homogeneous maternal origin of East Adriatic sheep, which is a characteristic of European breeds. At the same time, the high number of haplotypes found was surprising and intriguing, and it begs for further analysis. Simultaneous analysis of mtDNA and Y-chromosome information allowed us to detect a large discrepancy between maternal and paternal lineages in some populations. This is most likely the result of breeder efforts to 'upgrade' local populations using rams with different paternal origins. PMID:22762153

  14. Technical Note: Medium-term morphodynamics in an unprotected sandy beach of the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postacchini, M.; Soldini, L.; Lorenzoni, C.; Mancinelli, A.

    2015-08-01

    In the recent years attention has been paid to the beach protection by means of soft and hard defenses. Along the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea, sandy beaches are the most common landscapes and around 70 % of the Marche-Region coasts (central Adriatic), is protected by defense structures. The longest free-from-obstacle nearshore area in the Region includes the beach of Senigallia, characterized by a multiple barred beach, frequently monitored during the last decades. The bathymetries surveyed in 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 show a good adaptation of the beach to the Dean-type equilibrium profile, though a strong short-/medium-term variability of the wave climate has been observed during the monitored periods. This suggests a slight influence of wave forcing on the long-term profiles, which seems to only depend on the sediment size. Further, the medium-term dynamics of the submerged bars and their geometric features have been related to the wave climate collected by a wave buoy located 40 km off Senigallia during the analyzed temporal windows. An overall interpretation of the complete dynamics, i.e. hydrodynamics (buoy data), sediment characteristics (equilibrium-profile A parameter) and morphodynamics (bathymetric surveys), suggests that the wave climate is fundamental for the morphodynamic changes of the beach in the medium term: waves coming from NNE/ESE are characterized by a larger/smaller steepness and induce seaward/shoreward bar migration, as well as bar smoothing/steepening. Moving southward, the bar dimension increases, while the equilibrium profile suggests a decrease of the sediment size in the submerged beach, this probably due to the presence of both harbor jetty and river mouth North of the investigated area.

  15. Defining conservation units in a stocking-induced genetic melting pot: unraveling native and multiple exotic genetic imprints of recent and historical secondary contact in Adriatic grayling

    PubMed Central

    Meraner, Andreas; Cornetti, Luca; Gandolfi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The definition of conservation units is crucial for the sustainable management of endangered species, though particularly challenging when recent and past anthropogenic and natural gene flow might have played a role. The conservation of the European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, is particularly complex in its southern distribution area, where the Adriatic evolutionary lineage is endangered by a long history of anthropogenic disturbance, intensive stocking and potentially widespread genetic introgression. We provide mtDNA sequence and microsatellite data of 683 grayling from 30 sites of Adriatic as well as Danubian and Atlantic origin. We apply Bayesian clustering and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to detect microgeographic population structure and to infer the demographic history of the Adriatic populations, to define appropriate conservation units. Varying frequencies of indigenous genetic signatures of the Adriatic grayling were revealed, spanning from marginal genetic introgression to the collapse of native gene pools. Genetic introgression involved multiple exotic source populations of Danubian and Atlantic origin, thus evidencing the negative impact of few decades of stocking. Within the Adige River system, a contact zone of western Adriatic and eastern Danubian populations was detected, with ABC analyses suggesting a historical anthropogenic origin of eastern Adige populations, most likely founded by medieval translocations. Substantial river-specific population substructure within the Adriatic grayling Evolutionary Significant Unit points to the definition of different conservation units. We finally propose a catalog of management measures, including the legal prohibition of stocking exotic grayling and the use of molecular markers in supportive- and captive-breeding programs. PMID:24834328

  16. Edible protein energy return on investment ratio (ep-EROI) for Spanish seafood products.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Villanueva-Rey, Pedro; Moreira, M Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2014-04-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has developed into a useful methodology to assess energy consumption of fishing fleets and their derived seafood products, as well as the associated environmental burdens. In this study, however, the life cycle inventory data is used to provide a dimensionless ratio between energy inputs and the energy provided by the fish: the edible protein energy return on investment (ep-EROI). The main objective was to perform a critical comparison of seafood products landed in Galicia (NW Spain) in terms of ep-EROI. The combination of energy return on investment (EROI) with LCA, the latter having standardized mechanisms regarding data acquisition and system boundary delimitation, allowed a reduction of uncertainties in EROI estimations. Results allow a deeper understanding of the energy efficiency in the Galician fishing sector, showing that small pelagic species present the highest ep-EROI values if captured using specific fishing techniques. Finally, results are expected to provide useful guidelines for policy support in the EU's Common Fisheries Policy. PMID:23918410

  17. Quantification of neurotoxin BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in seafood from Swedish markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Liying; Kiselova, Nadezda; Rosén, Johan; Ilag, Leopold L.

    2014-11-01

    The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced naturally by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates can be transferred and accumulated up the food chain, and may be a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. This study provides the first systematic screening of BMAA exposure of a large population through the consumption of seafood sold in metropolitan markets. BMAA was distinguished from known isomers by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry after acidic hydrolysis and derivatization. Using deuterium-labeled internal standard, BMAA was quantified as 0.01-0.90 μg/g wet weight of tissues in blue mussel, oyster, shrimp, plaice, char and herring, but was undetectable (<0.01 μg/g) in other samples (salmon, cod, perch and crayfish). Provided that the content of BMAA detected is relevant for intake calculations, the data presented may be used for a first estimation of BMAA exposure through seafood from Swedish markets, and to refine the design of future toxicological experiments and assessments.

  18. Quantification of neurotoxin BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in seafood from Swedish markets.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liying; Kiselova, Nadezda; Rosén, Johan; Ilag, Leopold L

    2014-01-01

    The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced naturally by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates can be transferred and accumulated up the food chain, and may be a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. This study provides the first systematic screening of BMAA exposure of a large population through the consumption of seafood sold in metropolitan markets. BMAA was distinguished from known isomers by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry after acidic hydrolysis and derivatization. Using deuterium-labeled internal standard, BMAA was quantified as 0.01-0.90 μg/g wet weight of tissues in blue mussel, oyster, shrimp, plaice, char and herring, but was undetectable (<0.01 μg/g) in other samples (salmon, cod, perch and crayfish). Provided that the content of BMAA detected is relevant for intake calculations, the data presented may be used for a first estimation of BMAA exposure through seafood from Swedish markets, and to refine the design of future toxicological experiments and assessments. PMID:25373604

  19. Managing seafood processing wastewater on the Oregon coast: A time of transition

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.D.; Miner, J.R.

    1997-12-01

    Seafood processors along the Oregon coast practice a wastewater management plan that is unique within the state. Most of these operations discharge wastewater under a General Permit issued by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) that requires only that they screen the wastewater to remove particles that will not pass through a 40 mesh screen. The General Permit was issued in February of 1992 and was scheduled to expire at the end of December, 1996. It has been extended until a replacement is adopted. Alternatives are currently under consideration by the DEQ. A second issue is the increasing competition for water within the coastal communities that are experiencing a growing tourist industry and a static water supply. Tourism and seafood processing both have their peak water demands during the summer months when fresh water supplies are most limited. Disposal of solid wastes has been simplified for many of the processors along the Lower Columbia River by a Fisheries Enhancement Program which allows processors to grind the solid waste then to discharge it into the stream under appropriate tidal conditions. There is no data which indicates water quality damage from this practice nor is there clear evidence of enhanced fishery productivity.

  20. Determination of total mercury in seafood and other protein-rich products

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, S.; Fagioli, F.; Locatelli, C.

    1992-11-01

    A previously developed wet-digestion method for the determination of total mercury in plants by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS) was extended to the analysis of seafood and other products rich in proteins. Oxidation of matrixes is accomplished by K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} in the presence of diluted H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}; a simple air condenser is used to reflux vapors released from the boiling mixture. The original procedure (A) and 2 modifications (B and C), which differ with respect to the mode of acidification and/or digestion time and the types of condensers used, were compared for precision and accuracy by means of National Institute of Standards and Technology Research Material 50 Albacore Tuna and proved to be reliable (Hg present, 0.95{plus_minus}0.1 {mu}g/g; Hg found, 0.97 {plus_minus} 0.029 {mu}g/g [A], 0.98 {plus_minus} 0.018 {mu}g/g [B], and 0.94 {plus_minus} 0.025 {mu}g/g [C]). The modified procedures were tested further in Hg recovery experiments on a variety of biological matrixes with different spiking substances and again showed good analytical characteristics (overall average recoveries = 98 {plus_minus} 5.1% for seafood and 100 {plus_minus} 3.6 for protein-rich baby foods). 22 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. Oil spill hazard from dispersal of oil along shipping lanes in the Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas.

    PubMed

    Liubartseva, S; De Dominicis, M; Oddo, P; Coppini, G; Pinardi, N; Greggio, N

    2015-01-15

    An assessment of hazard stemming from operational oil ship discharges in the Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian (SANI) Seas is presented. The methodology integrates ship traffic data, the fate and transport oil spill model MEDSLIK-II, coupled with the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) ocean currents, sea surface temperature analyses and ECMWF surface winds. Monthly and climatological hazard maps were calculated for February 2009 through April 2013. Monthly hazard distributions of oil show that the zones of highest sea surface hazard are located in the southwestern Adriatic Sea and eastern Ionian Sea. Distinctive "hot spots" appear in front of the Taranto Port and the sea area between Corfu Island and the Greek coastlines. Beached oil hazard maps indicate the highest values in the Taranto Port area, on the eastern Greek coastline, as well as in the Bari Port area and near Brindisi Port area. PMID:25455790

  2. Mass occurrence of the ctenophore Bolinopsis vitrea (L. Agassiz, 1860) in the nearshore southern Adriatic Sea (Kotor Bay, Montenegro).

    PubMed

    Lucic, Davor; Pestoric, Branka; Malej, Alenka; Lopez-Lopez, Lucia; Drakulovic, Dragana; Onofri, Vladimir; Miloslavic, Marijana; Gangai, Barbara; Onofri, Ivona; Benovic, Adam

    2012-08-01

    The ctenophore Bolinopsis vitrea has been rarely observed in the Mediterranean Sea. A bloom of B. vitrea is here reported for the first time in the southern Adriatic Sea in the spring and summer of 2009, together with its effect on the plankton of Kotor Bay. Ctenophores were found below 5 m depth only. Results of the investigation indicate that mass occurrence of B. vitrea could have a great impact on the Kotor Bay ecosystem. Their predation on copepods would reduce grazing pressure on phytoplankton, favouring an uncommon bloom of the latter. It is evident that B. vitrea are capable of altering rapidly the composition and biomass of coastal plankton communities when present in large masses. This first evidence of such events for this species may indicate changes in the functioning of marine ecosystems of the southern Adriatic. PMID:21912872

  3. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species in radioactivity monitoring of Eastern Adriatic coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Krmpotić, Matea; Rožmarić, Martina; Barišić, Delko

    2015-06-01

    Croatian Adriatic coastal waters are systematically monitored within the Mediterranean Mussel Watch Project using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species. The study includes determination of naturally occurring ((7)Be, (40)K, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U), as well as anthropogenic (137)Cs radionuclides. Activity concentrations in dry weight of mussels' soft tissue along the Croatian Adriatic coast are presented, with spatial and seasonal variations given and discussed. Samples were collected in spring and autumn for the period between 2009 and 2013. Radionuclides were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Activity concentrations of (7)Be were the highest in spring periods, especially in the areas with significant fresh water discharges. Activity concentrations of (40)K did not vary significantly with season or location. (137)Cs activities were low, while (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U activities were mostly below the detection limit of performed gamma-spectrometric measurement. PMID:25794925

  4. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion. PMID:25828676

  5. Mercury in the sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea): Sources, distribution and speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquavita, Alessandro; Covelli, Stefano; Emili, Andrea; Berto, Daniela; Faganeli, Jadran; Giani, Michele; Horvat, Milena; Koron, Neža; Rampazzo, Federico

    2012-11-01

    The existence of mining tailings in Idrija (Slovenia) and their subsequent transportation via the Isonzo River has been the primary source of mercury (Hg) in the northern Adriatic Sea for almost 500 years, making the Gulf of Trieste and the adjacent Marano and Grado Lagoon two of the most contaminated marine areas in the world. A further, more recent, contribution of Hg has been added by the operation of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the drainage basin flowing into the Lagoon. On the basis of previous research, as well as new data obtained from the "MIRACLE" project (Mercury Interdisciplinary Research for Appropriate Clam farming in a Lagoon Environment), the spatial distribution of Hg and its relationships with methylmercury (MeHg), organic matter and several geochemical parameters in surface sediments were investigated. The predominant and long-term impacts of the cinnabar-rich Isonzo River particulate matter in the Lagoon surface sediments are evident and confirmed by a decreasing concentration gradient from east (>11 μg g-1) to west (0.7 μg g-1). Hg originated from the CAP is only significant in the central sector of the Lagoon. Hg is primarily associated with fine-grained sediments (<16 μm), as a consequence of transport and dispersion from the fluvial source through littoral and tidal currents. However, speciation analyses highlighted the presence of Hg sulphides in the coarse sandy fraction of sediments from the eastern area, as expected given the origin of the sedimentary material. Unlike Hg, the distribution of MeHg (0.47-7.85 ng g-1) does not show a clear trend. MeHg constitutes, on average, 0.08% of total Hg and percentages are comparable to those obtained in similar lagoon environments. Higher MeHg concentrations in low to intermediate Hg-contaminated sediments indicate that the metal availability is not a limiting factor for MeHg occurrence, thus suggesting a major role played by environmental conditions and/or speciation. The reasonably

  6. Assessments and improvements in methods for monitoring seafood safety in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susan; DeJager, Lowri; Begley, Timothy

    2013-04-10

    As a result of the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, sensory testing protocols were established for reopening closed seafood harvest areas. In order to improve this method and quantitatively assess petrochemical taint, a new method using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and a 5975T transportable GC/MS was developed. This method can analyze 40 samples per instrument per day and could be an alternative to the human sensory panel. In seafood samples collected from supermarkets in the Washington D.C. area and the Gulf of Mexico, all compounds related to petrochemical taint were below the method detection limit (MDL) (0.14-2.6 ng/g). Additionally, to address consumer concerns regarding the presence of n-alkanes and iso-alkanes in seafood, these compounds were investigated in samples purchased in the Washington D.C. area and the Gulf of Mexico. Concentrations in Gulf of Mexico finfish ranged from 0.066 to 1.2 mg/kg, which is within the same background range of iso- and n-alkanes measured in seafood samples purchased in the Washington D.C. area (0.0072-1.6 μg/g). These automated methods provide a transportable option to obtain rapid results for compounds indicative of petroleum taint and iso- and n-alkanes in case of a future disaster. PMID:23530736

  7. Marine neurotoxins: state of the art, bottlenecks, and perspectives for mode of action based methods of detection in seafood.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Gerssen, Arjen; Bovee, Toine F H; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2014-01-01

    Marine biotoxins can accumulate in fish and shellfish, representing a possible threat for consumers. Many marine biotoxins affect neuronal function essentially through their interaction with ion channels or receptors, leading to different symptoms including paralysis and even death. The detection of marine biotoxins in seafood products is therefore a priority. Official methods for control are often still using in vivo assays, such as the mouse bioassay. This test is considered unethical and the development of alternative assays is urgently required. Chemical analyses as well as in vitro assays have been developed to detect marine biotoxins in seafood. However, most of the current in vitro alternatives to animal testing present disadvantages: low throughput and lack of sensitivity resulting in a high number of false-negative results. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of new in vitro tests that would allow the detection of marine biotoxins in seafood products at a low cost, with high throughput combined with high sensitivity, reproducibility, and predictivity. Mode of action based in vitro bioassays may provide tools that fulfil these requirements. This review covers the current state of the art of such mode of action based alternative assays to detect neurotoxic marine biotoxins in seafood. PMID:24311541

  8. COMPILATON OF REPORT AND DATA SUPPORTING THE EPA STUDY, "ASIAN AND PACIFIC ISLANDER SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION STUDY IN KING COUNTY, WASHINGTON".

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1996 and 1999, EPA published the results of a community-centered approach for documenting the seafood consumption patterns of Asian American and Pacific Islanders (API) in the King County area of Washington state. Summary statistics were included in the project reports, but n...

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF ARSENIC SPECIES SPECIFIC MASS BALANCE ON THE EVALUATION OF ARSENIC SPECIATION RESULTS IN SEAFOOD MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two predominant pathways to arsenic exposure are drinking water and dietary ingestion. A large percentage of the dietary exposure component is associated with a few food groups. For example, seafood alone represents over 50% of the total dietary exposure. From a daily dose...

  10. Genome sequence of the halotolerant Staphylococcus sp. strain OJ82, isolated from Korean traditional salt-fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jung-Suk; Chun, Jongsik; Choi, Sungjong; Park, Woojun

    2012-11-01

    Staphylococcus sp. strain OJ82 was isolated from a Korean traditional fermented squid seafood, ojingeo-jeotgal. Staphylococcus sp. OJ82 could grow and show extracellular protease and β-galactosidase activities in the presence of extremely high saline (20%). Here, we report the genome sequence of Staphylococcus sp. OJ82. PMID:23105083

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Salimicrobium sp. Strain MJ3, Isolated from Myulchi-Jeot, Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Ji Young

    2012-01-01

    Salimicrobium sp. strain MJ3 was isolated from myulchi-jeot, traditional fermented seafood made from anchovy in South Korea. Here we announce the draft genome sequence of Salimicrobium sp. MJ3 with 2,717,782 bp, which consists of 45 contigs (>500 bp in size), and provide a description of their annotation. PMID:23144427

  12. Genome Sequence of the Halotolerant Staphylococcus sp. Strain OJ82, Isolated from Korean Traditional Salt-Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jung-Suk; Chun, Jongsik; Choi, Sungjong

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus sp. strain OJ82 was isolated from a Korean traditional fermented squid seafood, ojingeo-jeotgal. Staphylococcus sp. OJ82 could grow and show extracellular protease and β-galactosidase activities in the presence of extremely high saline (20%). Here, we report the genome sequence of Staphylococcus sp. OJ82. PMID:23105083

  13. Assessing Knowledge and Attitudes of U.S. Healthcare Providers about Benefits and Risks of Consuming Seafood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doris T.; Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Morrissey, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    An online needs assessment survey of healthcare providers was developed and implemented to determine knowledge and attitudes about the benefits and risks of consuming seafood along with how this might impact patient/clientele counseling. Only 6 of the 45 knowledge items queried (13%) met the 80% subject mastery or proficiency with a total…

  14. {sup 210}Pb dating of sediments from the central and northern Adriatic Sea: deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T. F., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    Lead-210 ({sup 21O}Pb) and organic C depth distribution profiles in sediments from the northern and central Adriatic Sea were measured as part of the EEC funded project on Eutrophic Limits of the Northern Adriatic (ELNA). {sup 210}Pb derived mass-accumulation rates decrease southward from between 0.15 and 0.2 g cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} close to the Po River outflow (> 24 m, water depth) to less than 0.04 g cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} in the Jabuka Pit (246 m, water depth) in the central Adriatic Sea. The mass- accumulation rates obtained in the Jabuka Pit correspond to mean sedimentation rates of about 0.03 cm y{sup -1} (ref. porosity = 0.5) and fall between 5 to 20 times lower than rates found for north Adriatic shelf cores. Estimated sedimentation rates are considered as upper limits because of the possible effects of bioturbation and physical disturbance on the {sup 21O}Pb sedimentary record but are consistent with data from previous work. Rates of sediment accumulation and carbon burial appear to be strongly influenced by the transport of fluvial materials from land and transport of fine-grained particles. First-order estimates of organic C burial rates into surface sediment ranged from 1 to 0.028 mMol cm{sup -2}y{sup -1} between the Po delta and the Jabuka Pit regions, respectively. We estimate that a maximum of 50% of organic C preserved in surface sediment may be derived from biological production in the overlying water column.

  15. Impacts of maintenance channel dredging in a northern Adriatic coastal lagoon. I: Effects on sediment properties, contamination and toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Roberta; Pasteris, Andrea; Ponti, Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Conservation and management of coastal lagoons envisage direct human intervention. To prevent siltation and to preserve the hydrodynamics features of the lagoon system, the inner channels undergo regular maintenance dredging. Sediment properties (RDP, organic matter, grain size), trace metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, and Pb), and toxicity vs. the amphipod Corophium insidiosum and the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri, were analysed before and after dredging operations in a coastal lagoon (Pialassa Baiona, Italy). To detect the actual impacts, disturbed sites were contrasted with multiple controls in two distinct times, i.e. before and after disturbance, according to a sampling design based on Beyond BACI principles. The integrated methodology here adopted suggests that dredging operations carried out are not likely to pose dramatic effects on environmental quality of the lagoon.

  16. Diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets based on lean seafood or lean meat mixtures.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Rønnevik, Alexander; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Fjære, Even; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Liisberg, Ulrike; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    High protein diets may protect against diet-induced obesity, but little is known regarding the effects of different protein sources consumed at standard levels. We investigated how a mixture of lean seafood or lean meat in a Western background diet modulated diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet (WD) containing a mixture of lean seafood (seafood WD) for 12weeks accumulated less fat mass than mice fed a WD containing a mixture of lean meat (meat WD). Meat WD-fed mice exhibited increased fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose clearance, elevated fasting plasma insulin and increased plasma and liver lipid levels. We observed no first choice preference for either of the WDs, but over time, mice fed the seafood WD consumed less energy than mice fed the meat WD. Mice fed the seafood WD exhibited higher spontaneous locomotor activity and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) than mice fed the meat WD. Thus, higher activity together with the decreased energy intake contributed to the different phenotypes observed in mice fed the seafood WD compared to mice fed the meat WD. Comparison of the gut microbiomes of mice fed the two WDs revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the orders Bacteroidales and Clostridiales, with genes involved in metabolism of aromatic amino acids exhibiting higher relative abundance in the microbiomes of mice fed the seafood WD. PMID:27133432

  17. Fishing management scenarios to rebuild exploited resources and ecosystems of the Northern-Central Adriatic (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouzai, Nadia; Coll, Marta; Palomera, Isabel; Santojanni, Alberto; Arneri, Enrico; Christensen, Villy

    2012-10-01

    We examined various fishing management options to recover exploited marine resources and ecosystems of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea. Dynamic simulations were based on a spatial ecological model previously calibrated with time series of data. Scenarios regarding spatial management were evaluated with the establishment of two marine protected areas, respectively, in the Pomo pit and the northern region. In addition, three temporal simulations of temporary closures and overall reduction of fishing effort of demersal and pelagic fleets (bottom, mid-water trawls and purse seines) were also considered. Simulations were run for 45 years (1975-2020), including the calibration period (1975-2002), and changes in biomass and catch of marine resources were analyzed. Our results confirm that current fishing management in the Adriatic Sea does not have clear beneficial impacts for the recovery of exploited resources, which will remain depleted in 2020 if "business as usual" continues. Simulations of alternative management suggest that both protected areas could be beneficial for fish population recovery predicting an increase in the biomass of commercial fish and predatory organisms. Simulations of temporary closures and overall reduction of fishing effort also show significant benefits for several commercial resources. We argue that both management measures may be effective tools to recover exploited ecosystems of the Northern-Central Adriatic Sea and halt the decline of marine resources.

  18. Surface current patterns in the northern Adriatic extracted from high-frequency radar data using self-organizing map analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihanović, Hrvoje; Cosoli, Simone; Vilibić, Ivica; Ivanković, Damir; Dadić, Vlado; GačIć, Miroslav

    2011-08-01

    A network of high-frequency (HF) radars was installed in the northern Adriatic in the second half of 2007, aimed to measure surface currents in the framework of the North Adriatic Surface Current Mapping (NASCUM) project. This study includes a detailed analysis of current measurements from February to August 2008, a period in which three radars were simultaneously operational. Current patterns and temporal evolutions of different physical processes were extracted by using self-organizing map (SOM) analysis. The analysis focused on subtidal frequency band and extracted 12 different circulation patterns on a 4 × 3 rectangular SOM grid. The SOM was also applied on a joint data set that included contemporaneous surface wind data obtained from the operational hydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model ALADIN/HR. The strongest currents were recorded during energetic bora episodes, being recognized by several current patterns and having the characteristic downwind flow with magnitudes exceeding 35 cm/s at some grid points. Another characteristic wind, the sirocco, was represented by three current patterns, while the remaining current structures were attributed to weak winds and the residual thermohaline circulation. A strong resemblance has been found between SOM patterns extracted from HF radar data only and from combined HF radar and wind data sets, revealing the predominant wind influence to the surface circulation structures and their temporal changes in the northern Adriatic. These results show the SOM analysis being a valuable tool for extracting characteristic surface current patterns and forcing functions.

  19. Model study of the ship emissions impact on the air quality in the Adriatic/Ionian area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiannidis, Athanasios; Poupkou, Anastasia; Liora, Natalia; Dimopoulos, Spiros; Giannaros, Christos; Melas, Dimitrios; Argiriou, Athanassios

    2015-04-01

    The increase of the ship traffic for touristic and commercial purposes is one of the EU Blue Growth targets. The Adriatic/Ionian is one of the sea-basin strategic areas for this target. The purpose of the study is the examination of the impact of the ship emissions on the gaseous and particulate pollutants concentrations in the Adriatic/Ionian area for which the current scientific knowledge is limited. The impact is simulated over a domain covering the Central and Eastern Mediterranean in 10 km resolution during a summer period (July) and a winter period (January) of the year 2012. The modeling system used consists of the photochemical model CAMx off line coupled with the meteorological model WRF. The zero-out modeling method is implemented involving CAMx simulations performed while including and omitting the ship emission data. The simulations are based on the European scale anthropogenic emission inventory of The Netherlands Organisation (TNO) for the reference year 2009. Natural emissions (NMVOCs from the vegetation, sea salt, wind-blown dust), estimated with the use of the Natural Emission MOdel (NEMO) developed by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, are accounted for in the photochemical model runs. The spatial distribution of the resulting differences in the gaseous and particulate pollutant concentration fields for both emission scenarios are presented and discussed, providing an estimation of the contribution of ship emissions on the determination of the air quality in the Adriatic/Ionian countries

  20. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    SciTech Connect

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen.

  1. Synergistic effect of ionizing radiation on chemical disinfectant treatments for reduction of natural microflora on seafood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunjoo; Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Jo, Cheorun; Ha, Sang-Do

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatments would produce synergistic disinfection effects on seafood products such as mussel and squid compared with single treatments. We investigated the bactericidal effects of chlorine and ionizing radiation on the natural microflora of mussel and squid. Total aerobic bacteria initially ranged from 102 to 104 Log CFU/g. More than 100 ppm of chlorine and irradiation at 1 kGy were sufficient to reduce the total aerobic bacteria on mussel and squid to a level lower than detection limit (10 CFU/g). Synergistic effects against natural microflora were observed for all combined treatment. These results suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combine chlorine-ionizing radiation treatment against natural microflora on mussel and squid.

  2. Recognizing and Preventing Overexposure to Methylmercury from Fish and Seafood Consumption: Information for Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Silbernagel, Susan M.; Carpenter, David O.; Gilbert, Steven G.; Gochfeld, Michael; Groth, Edward; Hightower, Jane M.; Schiavone, Frederick M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish is a valuable source of nutrition, and many people would benefit from eating fish regularly. But some people eat a lot of fish, every day or several meals per week, and thus can run a significant risk of overexposure to methylmercury. Current advice regarding methylmercury from fish consumption is targeted to protect the developing brain and nervous system but adverse health effects are increasingly associated with adult chronic low-level methylmercury exposure. Manifestations of methylmercury poisoning are variable and may be difficult to detect unless one considers this specific diagnosis and does an appropriate test (blood or hair analysis). We provide information to physicians to recognize and prevent overexposure to methylmercury from fish and seafood consumption. Physicians are urged to ask patients if they eat fish: how often, how much, and what kinds. People who eat fish frequently (once a week or more often) and pregnant women are advised to choose low mercury fish. PMID:21785592

  3. Submarine landslides in the Southern Adriatic basin: good candidates for potential paleoseismic analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Valle, Giacomo; Trincardi, Fabio; Foglini, Federica; Campiani, Elisabetta; Pellegrini, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the western continental margin that surround the Southern Adriatic basin mainly consists of contourite depositional systems. The architectural stacking pattern of the contourites-linked bodies is sometimes interrupted by the presence of large-scale mass-transport complexes (MTCs). MTCs are spatially diffused along the margin and are characterized by high variability in size, morphology and geometries. In the northern sector of the margin MTCs derive from the remobilisation of upper-slope contourite drifts, whereas in the southern sector of the margin sedimentary instability involves shelf-margin, progradational deposits. The most prominent MTC of the northern sector of the margin is the Gondola Slide (GS) a large, deep-seated MTC composed of at least three distinct MTDs involving up to 40km3 of sediments. The events that have generated these MTDs have been enclosed within a robust chronological framework using sedimentary shallow piston-cores collected along the continental slope. The reconstruction of the age of these MTDs indicates that failures have repeatedly occurred along the margin during at least the last 55,000 years. Therefore, the GS case indicates that sediment instability processes can span a large portion of a sea-level cycle, pointing to triggering mechanisms that are independent from variations in the relative sea level position. The repeated GS failure events are therefore interpreted to be mainly triggered by earthquake shocks. The Southern Adriatic basin represents a seismically active area and earthquakes are generally cluster along long-lived shear zones. One of these zones, the Gondola Zone, which run across the shelf and the slope, close to the GS-MTC, has been site of paleoseismology analysis, indicating recent (younger than 5.5 kyr) tectonic deformation through E-W strike-slip faulting . Basin-scale MTDs characterize also the southern sector of the continental margin. MTDs are present both

  4. Sediment transport processes from the topset to the foreset of a crenulated clinoform (Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, P.; Ogston, A. S.; Guillén, J.; Fain, A. M. V.; Palanques, A.

    2007-02-01

    Crenulated clinoforms of complex and uncertain origin characterize large portions of the Late-Holocene prograding mud wedge in the western Adriatic continental shelf. Sediment failure was originally postulated as the most plausible mechanism for the formation of the crenulations. Subsequent work has shown that, although the origin of the crenulations may have been related to deformation processes, their maintenance through time seems to be better explained by different sediment accumulation rates in the flat and steep flanks. In order to establish relationships between active sediment dynamics, across-shelf transport and sediment accumulation in these crenulated clinoforms, two tripods and a mooring were deployed off the Pescara River during autumn and winter 2002-2003 as part of the EuroSTRATAFORM program, and in combination with the Po and Apennine Sediment Transport and Accumulation (PASTA) study. The tripods were placed on the shallow topset region and close to the clinoform roll-over point (i.e., offlap break), at 12 and 20-m water depth, respectively, and the mooring was located at 50-m depth, in the crenulated foreset region. Several sediment-resuspension events were recorded, mainly related to Bora and Sirocco storms, during which wave-orbital and current velocities increased considerably. Sediment transport in the topset region was predominantly towards the SE, following the direction of the coastal current and the bathymetry, but showing a significant offshore component at the roll-over point that was intensified during storm events. Currents at the foreset region were also directed to the SE. In mid-waters they were clearly aligned with the local bathymetry, whereas near the bottom they had an important and persistent offshore component. This current behavior seems to be associated with an intense bottom Ekman transport that causes the near-bottom current to be deflected to the left (i.e., offshore) with respect to the direction of the surface current

  5. Probabilistic estimation of earthquake-induced tsunami occurrences in the Adriatic and northern Ionian seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the EU-funded project TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region we faced the problem of assessing quantitatively the tsunami hazard in the Adriatic and north Ionian Seas. Tsunami catalogues indicate that the Ionian Sea coasts has been hit by several large historical tsunamis, some of which of local nature (especially along eastern Sicily, eastern Calabria and the Greek Ionian Islands), while others had trans-basin relevance, like those generated in correspondence with the western Hellenic Trench. In the Adriatic Sea the historical tsunami activity is indeed lower, but not negligible: the most exposed regions on the western side of the basin are Romagna-Marche, Gargano and southern Apulia, while in the eastern side the Dalmatian and Albanian coastlines show the largest tsunami exposure. To quantitatively assess the exposure of the selected coastlines to tsunamis we used a hybrid statistical-deterministic approach, already applied in the recent past to the southern Tyrrhenian and Ionian coasts of Italy. The general idea is to base the tsunami hazard analyses on the computation of the probability of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes, which is appropriate in basins where the number of known historical tsunamis is too scarce to be used in reliable statistical analyses, and the largest part of the tsunamis had tectonic origin. The approach is based on the combination of two steps of different nature. The first step consists in the creation of a single homogeneous earthquake catalogue starting from suitably selected catalogues pertaining to each of the main regions facing the Adriatic and north Ionian basins (Italy, Croatia, Montenegro, Greece). The final catalogue contains 6619 earthquakes with moment magnitude ranging from 4.5 to 8.3 and focal depth lower than 50 km. The limitations in magnitude and depth are based on the assumption that earthquakes of magnitude lower than 4.5 and depth greater than 50 km have no significant

  6. Simple analysis of total mercury and methylmercury in seafood using heating vaporization atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Keisuke; Anh, Hoang Thi Van; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Koriyama, Chihaya; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Tabata, Masaaki; Nakano, Atsuhiro; Yamamoto, Megumi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a simpler method for determining total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in biological samples by using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) in the degreasing step. The fat in the samples was extracted by MIBK to the upper phase. T-Hg transferred into the water phase. This was followed by the extraction of MeHg from the water phase using HBr, CuCl2 and toluene. The MeHg fraction was reverse-extracted into L-cysteine-sodium acetate solution from toluene. The concentrations of T-Hg and MeHg were determined by heating vaporization atomic absorption spectrometry. Certified reference materials for T-Hg and MeHg in hair and fish were accurately measured using this method. This method was then applied to determine T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in the muscle, liver and gonads of seafood for the risk assessment of MeHg exposure. The mean T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in squid eggs were 0.023 and 0.022 µg/g, and in squid nidamental glands 0.052 and 0.049 µg/g, respectively. The MeHg/T-Hg ratios in the eggs and nidamental glands of squid were 94.4% and 96.5%, respectively. The mean T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in the gonads of sea urchins were 0.043 and 0.001 µg/g, respectively, with a MeHg/T-Hg ratio of 3.5%. We developed an efficient analytical method for T-Hg and MeHg using MIBK in the degreasing step. The new information on MeHg concentration and MeHg/T-Hg ratios in the egg or nidamental glands of squid and gonads of sea urchin will also be useful for risk assessment of mercury in seafood. PMID:27432235

  7. Estimate of the uncertainty in measurement for the determination of mercury in seafood by TDA AAS.

    PubMed

    Torres, Daiane Placido; Olivares, Igor R B; Queiroz, Helena Müller

    2015-01-01

    An approach for the estimate of the uncertainty in measurement considering the individual sources related to the different steps of the method under evaluation as well as the uncertainties estimated from the validation data for the determination of mercury in seafood by using thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA AAS) is proposed. The considered method has been fully optimized and validated in an official laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply of Brazil, in order to comply with national and international food regulations and quality assurance. The referred method has been accredited under the ISO/IEC 17025 norm since 2010. The approach of the present work in order to reach the aim of estimating of the uncertainty in measurement was based on six sources of uncertainty for mercury determination in seafood by TDA AAS, following the validation process, which were: Linear least square regression, Repeatability, Intermediate precision, Correction factor of the analytical curve, Sample mass, and Standard reference solution. Those that most influenced the uncertainty in measurement were sample weight, repeatability, intermediate precision and calibration curve. The obtained result for the estimate of uncertainty in measurement in the present work reached a value of 13.39%, which complies with the European Regulation EC 836/2011. This figure represents a very realistic estimate of the routine conditions, since it fairly encompasses the dispersion obtained from the value attributed to the sample and the value measured by the laboratory analysts. From this outcome, it is possible to infer that the validation data (based on calibration curve, recovery and precision), together with the variation on sample mass, can offer a proper estimate of uncertainty in measurement. PMID:26065523

  8. Sea level rise of semi-enclosed basins: deviation of Adriatic and Baltic sea level from the mean global value.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Future sea level rise (SL), which represents today one of the major threats that are caused by climate change, will not be uniform. Regional differences are crucial for 40% of the world population, which is located in the coastal zone. To explore the mechanisms linking regional SL to climate variables is very important in order to provide reliable future projections. This study focuses on two semi-enclosed basins, the Adriatic and Baltic Sea and investigates the deviation of their SL from the mean global value. In fact, past deviations of the SL of these two basins from the global value have been observed and can be attributed to large scale factors (such as teleconnections) and regional factors, such as the inverse barometric effect, the wind stress, the thermosteric and halosteric effects. The final goal of this work is to assess to which extent the Adriatic and Baltic SL will depart from the mean global value in the next decades and at the end of 21st century. This is achieved by analyzing deviations of the mean SL of the Baltic and Adriatic Sea from the global mean SL during the 20th century and investigating which factors can explain such deviations. A multivariate linear regression model is built and used to describe the link between three large scale climate variables which are used as predictors (mean sea level pressure, surface air temperature and precipitation), and the regional SL deviation (the predictand), computed as the difference between the regional and the global SL. At monthly scale this linear regression model provides a good reconstruction of the past variability in the cold season during which it explains 60%-70% of the variance. Summer reconstruction is substantially less successful and it represents presently the main limit of the model skill. This linear regression model, forced by predictors extracted from CMIP5 multi-model simulations, is used to provide projections of SL in the Adriatic and Baltic Sea. On the basis of the projections

  9. Development of climate risk services under climate change scenarios in the North Adriatic coast (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentina, Gallina; Silvia, Torresan; Anna, Sperotto; Elisa, Furlan; Andrea, Critto; Antonio, Marcomini

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, the challenge for coastal stakeholders and decision makers is to incorporate climate change in land and policy planning in order to ensure a sustainable integrated coastal zone management aimed at preserve coastal environments and socio-economic activities. Consequently, an increasing amount of information on climate variability and its impact on human and natural ecosystem is requested. Climate risk services allows to bridge the gap between climate experts and decision makers communicating timely science-based information about impacts and risks related to climate change that could be incorporated into land planning, policy and practice. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), a participatory Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was applied for the evaluation of water-related hazards in coastal areas (i.e. pluvial flood and sea-level rise inundation risks) taking into consideration future climate change scenarios in the case study of the North Adriatic Sea for the period 2040-2050. Specifically, through the analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk and the application of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), the RRA methodology allowed to identify and prioritize targets (i.e. residential and commercial-industrial areas, beaches, infrastructures, wetlands, agricultural typology) and sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by pluvial flood and sea-level rise impacts in the same region. From the early stages of the climate risk services development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach taking into account the needs, knowledge and perspectives of local stakeholders dealing with the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), by means of questionnaires, workshops and focus groups organized within the project. Specifically, stakeholders were asked to provide their needs in terms of time scenarios, geographical scale and resolution, choice of receptors, vulnerability factors and thresholds that were considered in the

  10. Impacts of extreme weather events on highly eutrophic marine ecosystem (Rogoznica Lake, Adriatic coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciglenečki, I.; Janeković, I.; Marguš, M.; Bura-Nakić, E.; Carić, M.; Ljubešić, Z.; Batistić, M.; Hrustić, E.; Dupčić, I.; Garić, R.

    2015-10-01

    Rogoznica Lake is highly eutrophic marine system located on the Eastern Adriatic coast (43°32‧N, 15°58‧E). Because of the relatively small size (10,276 m2) and depth (15 m) it experiences strong natural and indirect anthropogenic influences. Dynamics within the lake is characterized by the extreme and highly variable environmental conditions (seasonal variations in salinity and temperature, water stratification and mixing, redox and euxinic conditions, concentrations of nutrients) which significantly influence the biology inside the lake. Due to the high phytoplankton activity, the upper part of the water column is well oxygenated, while hypoxia/anoxia usually occurs in the bottom layers. Anoxic part of the water column is characterized with high concentrations of sulfide (up to 5 mM) and nutrients (NH4+ up to 315 μM; PO43- up to 53 μM; SiO44- up to 680 μM) indicating the pronounced remineralization of the allochthonous organic matter, produced in the surface waters. The mixolimnion varies significantly within a season feeling effects of the Adriatic atmospheric and ocean dynamics (temperature, wind, heat fluxes, rainfall) which all affect the vertical stability and possibly induce vertical mixing and/or turnover. Seasonal vertical mixing usually occurs during the autumn/winter upon the breakdown of the stratification, injecting oxygen-rich water from the surface into the deeper layers. Depending on the intensity and duration of the vertical dynamics (slower diffusion and/or faster turnover of the water layers) anoxic conditions could developed within the whole water column. Extreme weather events such as abrupt change in the air temperature accompanied with a strong wind and consequently heat flux are found to be a key triggering mechanism for the fast turnover, introducing a large amount of nutrients and sulfur species from deeper parts to the surface. Increased concentration of nutrients, especially ammonium, phosphate, and silicates persisting for

  11. Historical ecology of the northern Adriatic Sea: Field methods and coring device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselmair, Alexandra; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Tomasovych, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2014-05-01

    For an ongoing study on the historical ecology of the northern Adriatic Sea, the objective was to retrieve a high number of sediment cores at seven sampling stations spread across the entire basin. One set of cores is intended for sediment analyses including radiometric Pb-sediment-dating, grain size, TOC, TAC and heavy metal analyses. The other set of cores delivered enough shelly remains of endo- or epibenthic hard part producers (e.g. molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms) to enable the reconstruction of death assemblages in core layers from top to bottom. The down-core changes of such assemblages record ecological shifts in a marine environment that has endured strong human impacts over several centuries. A 1.5 m-long core could, according to the available sedimentation data for the area, cover up to 2000 or even more years of ecological history. The coring method had to meet the following requirements: a) deliver 1.5-m-long cores from different sediment settings (mud to sand, reflecting a wide range of benthic habitats in the northern Adriatic); b) enable quick and easy deployment to ensure that multiple cores can be taken at the individual sampling stations within a short time; c) be relatively affordable and allow handling by the researchers themselves, potentially using a small vessel in order to further contain the operating costs. Two types of UWITEC™ piston corers were used to meet these requirements. A model with 90 mm of diameter (samples for sediment analysis) and another one with 160 mm, specifically designed to obtain the large amount of material needed for shell analysis, successfully delivered a total of 54 cores. The device consists of a stabilizing tripod and the interchangeable coring cylinders. It is equipped with a so-called hammer action that makes it possible, at least for the smaller cylinder, to penetrate even harder sediments. A closing mechanism of the corer retains the sediment in the cylinder upon extraction; it works either

  12. Coastal erosion impacts under climate change scenarios at the regional scale in the North Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critto, A.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Rizzi, J.; Zabeo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change is likely to pose additional pressures on coastal ecosystems by accelerating sea level rise, storms, flooding and erosion. Specifically, coastal erosion is an issue of major concern for estuarine and deltaic coastal areas and ecosystems and it is expected to increase in size and magnitude due to climate change forcing. Accordingly, the use of climate change scenarios in the assessment of coastal erosion risks could improve the development of sustainable adaptation strategies. In order to analyze the potential consequences of climate change on coastal erosion processes and evaluate the related impacts on coastal receptors (i.e. beaches, river mouths, wetlands and protected areas), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to the North Adriatic coast (Italy). Climate induced hazards were analyzed by means of regional hydrodynamic models that provide information about the main coastal erosion stressors (i.e. increases in mean sea-level, changes in wave height and variations in the extent of sediments deposition at the sea bottom) under climate change scenarios (i.e. regional climate projections). Site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. vegetation cover, geomorphology, sediment budget, protection level, population density and wetland extension) and hazard metrics were aggregated in the RRA methodology in order to develop exposure, susceptibility, risk and damage maps that identify and prioritize hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets at the regional scale. Future seasonal exposure maps of coastal erosion at the regional scale depict a worse situation in winter and autumn for the future period 2070-2100 and highlight hot-spot exposure areas surrounding the Po River Delta. Moreover, risk maps highlighted that the receptors (i.e. exposure units) at higher risk to coastal erosion are beaches, wetlands and river mouths with relevant percentages of the territory characterized by higher risk scores

  13. Changes in the northern Adriatic molluscan community from the Holocene transgression up to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Tomasovych, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea is one of the few modern, epicontinental seas comparable to typical Palaeozoic shelf environments. It has a shallow average water depth (<50 m) and was formed at the end of the last glaciation when the sea level rose. Since historical times this part of the Adriatic has been strongly influenced by human activities through multiple direct or indirect impacts (e.g. fishing, coastal building development, pollution, eutrophication, increased sedimentation), making it one of the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide. Our study was designed to reconstruct major environmental changes here since the onset of the Holocene transgression using down-core changes in death assemblages of molluscs as indicators for ecological shifts. The sediment cores were taken at three different stations (Brijuni Islands, Croatia, off Piran, Slovenia, and off Venice, Italy), each representative of specific sediment and nutrient conditions and degrees of habitat exploitation. The cores were 1.5 m long and had diameters of 90 or 160 mm. For the molluscan shell analyses, sediment subsamples were examined for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity and ecological interactions (e.g. frequencies of drilling predation). In total, 98,700 valves and shells were investigated and 113 bivalve and 178 gastropod species recorded. Sedimentation rates derived from 210Pb dating are very low, between 0.15 cm/yr at Brijuni and 0.25 cm/yr at Piran. The dating of Lucinella divaricata, Timoclea ovata and Gouldia minima shells with 14C calibrated amino-acid racemisation (AAR) revealed that the cores at all three stations cover at least 6000 to 8000 years, i.e. the whole Holocene transgression period. Time averaging is high, especially in the lower core layers of Piran station, probably due to strong bioturbation. Surface mixed-layer assemblages tend to show right-skewed postmortem age-frequency distributions, whereas subsurface assemblages show unimodal or uniform shapes

  14. Common sole in the northern and central Adriatic Sea: Spatial management scenarios to rebuild the stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarcella, Giuseppe; Grati, Fabio; Raicevich, Saša; Russo, Tommaso; Gramolini, Roberto; Scott, Robert D.; Polidori, Piero; Domenichetti, Filippo; Bolognini, Luca; Giovanardi, Otello; Celić, Igor; Sabatini, Laura; Vrgoč, Nedo; Isajlović, Igor; Marčeta, Bojan; Fabi, Gianna

    2014-05-01

    The northern and central Adriatic Sea represents an important spawning and aggregation area for common sole (Solea solea) and provides for around 20% of the Mediterranean landings. In this area, this resource is mainly exploited with rapido trawl and set nets. The stock is not yet depleted and faces a situation of growth overfishing. The comparison between the spatial distribution by age of S. solea and the geographic patterns of the rapido trawl fishing effort evidenced an overlapping of this fishing activity with the area where juveniles concentrate (age groups 0-2). The majority of spawners inhabits specific offshore areas, here defined as ‘sole sanctuaries', where high concentrations of debris and benthic communities make difficult trawling with rapido. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing spatial management regimes and potential new spatial and temporal closures in the northern and central Adriatic Sea using a simple modelling tool. Two spatial simulations were carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of complementary methods for the management of fisheries: the ban of rapido trawling from October to December within 6 nautical miles and 9 nautical miles of the Italian coast. The focus of the simulation is that the effort of the rapido trawl is moved far from the coast during key sole recruitment periods, when the juveniles are moving from the inshore nursery area toward the offshore feeding grounds. The management scenarios showed that a change in selectivity would lead to a clear increase in the spawning stock biomass and an increase in landings of S. solea in the medium-term. The rapido trawl activity could be managed by using a different logic, bearing in mind that catches and incomes would increase with small changes in the spatial pattern of the fishing effort. The present study highlights the importance of taking into account spatial dimensions of fishing fleets and the possible interactions that can occur between fleets and target

  15. Application of a toxicity test battery integrated index for a first screening of the ecotoxicological threat posed by ports and harbors in the southern Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Manzo, Sonia; Schiavo, Simona; Aleksi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Afrim

    2014-11-01

    Ports and harbors may represent a threat for coastal ecosystems due to pollutant inputs, especially those derived from maritime activities. In this study, we report a first assessment of the ecotoxicological threat posed by six ports and harbors of opposite coastal regions, Apulia and Albania, in the southern Adriatic Sea (Italy). A bioassay battery consisting of four different species representing different trophic levels, algae Dunaliella tertiolecta, bacteria Vibrio fischeri, crustacean Artemia salina, and echinoids Paracentrotus lividus, has been used to assess sediment elutriates, pore waters, and sediment suspensions. Two different approaches of toxicity data integration, worst case and integrated index, have been used to determine the most appropriate procedure for the investigated sites. All sites with the worst case approach showed high toxicity levels. The chronic test with algae was the most sensitive identifying the highest effects in the battery. This effect can be attributable to contaminants derived from antifouling paints. The sediments, evaluated with V. fischeri test, often showed toxicity not found in the aqueous matrices of the same sites and that can be mainly linked to organic compounds. The test battery used in this study allowed us to perform a preliminary screening of the ecotoxicological risk of the studied area. In fact, the species utilized for toxicity tests responded differently to the investigated samples, showing different sensitivity. The test battery integrated index did not allow highlighting the differences among the sites and showed a general high ecotoxicological risk. A larger number of tests with higher sensitivity together with a tailored attribution of weights to endpoints and matrices will improve the final site evaluation. PMID:25012145

  16. Orogenic evolution of the External Dinarides in the NE Adriatic region: a model constrained by tectonostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous to Paleogene carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbar, Tvrtko

    2009-11-01

    Mesozoic to Cenozoic evolution of the central part of the Adriatic plate (External Dinarides and Adriatic foreland) is still a matter of debate. This is expressed by opposing paleogeographic models: single carbonate platform (Adriatic or Adriatic-Dinaridic) versus two carbonate platforms (Adriatic and Dinaridic) separated by the inter-platform Budva-Cukali basin. Estimates of shortening during Adria NE subduction, that resulted in the development of the Dinaric Alps, differ substantially. The single-platform model involves minor shortening achieved by folding and faulting along steep reverse faults. The two-platform model involves significant shortening achieved mainly by thrust stacking, which resulted in almost complete underthrusting of the intervening basinal deposits. Analysis of Upper Cretaceous to Paleogene stratigraphical data from both outcrops and boreholes allows regional correlation and the interpretation of major lithostratigraphic units. As a result, a few tectonostratigraphic units are recognized. The tectonostratigraphy is used as a basis for a new model on the late Mesozoic to Cenozoic evolution of the region. Generally, Adriatic and Dinaridic segments acted as major regional crustal entities of Adria. The upper portions of the sedimentary cover were differentially affected by progressive, southwestward verging thin-skinned deformations during the Paleocene to Eocene (Miocene?). The Adriatic foreland stayed out of the deformations, and is characterized predominantly by wrench and salt tectonics. The regional tectonic map shows arcuate thrust fronts of the External Dinarides. They could be a consequence of both, differential propagation of early-orogenic thin-skinned deformations over crustal fragments separated by transversal faults, and/or differential (isostatic?) movements of the fragments. The collision zone of the Adriatic and Dinaridic segments is characterized by late-orogenic (Oligocene to Miocene) thick-skinned compressional uplift

  17. Development and validation of an extensive growth and growth boundary model for psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. in seafood and meat products.

    PubMed

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2013-10-15

    A new and extensive growth and growth boundary model for psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. was developed and validated for processed and unprocessed products of seafood and meat. The new model was developed by refitting and expanding an existing cardinal parameter model for growth and the growth boundary of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in processed seafood (O. Mejlholm and P. Dalgaard, J. Food Prot. 70. 2485-2497, 2007). Initially, to estimate values for the maximum specific growth rate at the reference temperature of 25 °C (μref) and the theoretical minimum temperature that prevents growth of psychrotolerant LAB (T(min)), the existing LAB model was refitted to data from experiments with seafood and meat products reported not to include nitrite or any of the four organic acids evaluated in the present study. Next, dimensionless terms modelling the antimicrobial effect of nitrite, and acetic, benzoic, citric and sorbic acids on growth of Lactobacillus sakei were added to the refitted model, together with minimum inhibitory concentrations determined for the five environmental parameters. The new model including the effect of 12 environmental parameters, as well as their interactive effects, was successfully validated using 229 growth rates (μ(max) values) for psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. in seafood and meat products. Average bias and accuracy factor values of 1.08 and 1.27, respectively, were obtained when observed and predicted μ(max) values of psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. were compared. Thus, on average μ(max) values were only overestimated by 8%. The performance of the new model was equally good for seafood and meat products, and the importance of including the effect of acetic, benzoic, citric and sorbic acids and to a lesser extent nitrite in order to accurately predict growth of psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. was clearly demonstrated. The new model can be used to predict growth of psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. in seafood and meat

  18. Benthic foraminifera for environmental monitoring: a case study in the central Adriatic continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Capotondi, L; Bergami, C; Orsini, G; Ravaioli, M; Colantoni, P; Galeotti, S

    2015-04-01

    A study of benthic foraminifera was carried out in sediment samples collected from the central Adriatic coast of Italy, near the Ancona harbour and the Falconara Marittima oil refinery, in order to validate and support their use as bioindicators of ecosystem quality. On the basis of a principal component analysis (PCA), three biotopes (following the bathymetric gradient) have been documented, showing that the distribution pattern of benthic foraminifera is principally related to riverine inputs, organic matter contents at the seafloor, and sediment grain size. We observed higher abundances of opportunistic, low-oxygen tolerant taxa along the coastline, thus being representative of polluted environmental conditions. Near the Falconara Marittima oil refinery, the microfaunal assemblages is characterized by the absence of living specimens and by a low diversity associated with the dominance of opportunistic species. At this site, aberrant tests were also found. The data point out that Ammonia parkinsoniana and Quinqueloculina seem to be the most sensitive taxa and can be considered as good bioindicators of environmental stress in this area. This study confirms that faunal composition and morphology of benthic foraminifera respond to human-induced environmental perturbations, making their study potentially useful for biomonitoring in coastal-marine areas. PMID:25382496

  19. Lead and cadmium content in human milk from the Northern Adriatic area of Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Frkovic, A.; Kras, M.; Alebic-Juretic, A.

    1997-01-01

    Though occupational exposure to toxic metals (lead, cadmium) is well documented, harmful effects of environmental exposure to lower levels of these two metals is still under investigation. Most toxic metals are emitted by human activities and the atmosphere is the main transport route for these elements. According to some authors, 332 358 t of lead and 7570 t of cadmium were emitted in the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources in 1983. The principle source of lead is traffic, e.g. leaded petrol, still widely used in Croatia, as well as coal combustion, iron and steal production. Volcanic activity, zinc production and waste incineration are the main sources of cadmium. Recent study indicates that traffic could also be the main source of cadmium found along busy streets. Chronic lead exposure at low levels is associated with adverse health effects especially in fetus and young children. This study examines lead and cadmium levels in breast milk from nursing women living in the Northern Adriatic area of Croatia. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Eastern Mediterranean high resolution paleoclimate investigations using south Adriatic finely laminated sediment: preliminary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Robert, Brice; Jilbert, Tom; Fhlaithearta, Shauna Ni; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Versteegh, G. J. M.; Grauel, A.; Bernasconi, S.; de Lange, G. J.

    2010-05-01

    The formation of distinct organic-rich units (sapropels) in the Medditerenean is well-known, and intensively studied , however less is known of the smaller scale variability during their formation. Multicore GeoB 107-39-03 was taken in 2006, in the central part of the straits of Otranto, south Adriatic. Over the main part of the core, fine, sub-milimetric scale laminae are found. Preliminary dating indicates a Sapropel 1 age for these sediments. The fine, laminae permit high-resolution climate variability to be studied in this area during sapropel formation. Besides conventional geochemical analyses on discrete samples (XRF, ICP-OES, organic C/N, 13C) a novel technique was used to investigate the sediment chemistry at the laminae scale: the sediment has been resin-impregnated to enable laser ablation coupled to ICP-MS analyses (LA-ICP-MS). This method recently developed (Jilbert et al., 2008) permits extremely high resolution geochemical profiling of the laminated sediment, to unravel the forcing mechanisms generating the laminae. Furthermore, in order to compare the data to modern sediment geochemistry, a series of analyses were carried out on a batch of sediment surface samples in collaboration with the MOCCHA project partners (see Posters/Talks in session OS15). This work is supported by the EUROCORES/EUROMARC Program of the European Science Foundation (NWO.817.01.002 MOCCHA project).

  1. Space and time variability of the surface color field in the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barale, Vittorio; Mcclain, Charles R.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    1986-01-01

    A time series of coastal zone color scanner images for the years 1979 and 1980 was used to observe the spatial and temporal variability of bio-optical processes and circulation patterns of the northern Adriatic Sea on monthly, seasonal, and interannual scales. The chlorophyll-like pigment concentrations derived from satellite data exhibited a high correlation with sea truth measurements performed during seven surveys in the summer of both years. Comparison of the mean pigment fields indicates a general increase in concentration values and larger scales of coastal features from 1979 to 1980. This variability may be linked to the different patterns of nutrient influx due to coastal runoff in the 2 years. The distribution of surface features is consistent with the general cyclonic circulation pattern. The pigment heterogeneity appears to be governed by fluctuations of freshwater discharge, while the dominant wind fields do not appear to have important direct effects. The Po River presents a plume spreading predominantly in a southeastern direction, with scales positively correlated with its outflow. The spatial scales of the western coastal layer, in contrast, are negatively correlated with this outflow and the plume scales. Both results are consistent with, and may be rationalized by, recent theoretical and experimental results involving a dynamical balance between nonlinear advection and bottom friction, with alternate predominance of one of the two effects.

  2. Domoic acid--a new toxin in the Croatian Adriatic shellfish toxin profile.

    PubMed

    Ujević, Ivana; Ninčević-Gladan, Zivana; Roje, Romana; Skejić, Sanda; Arapov, Jasna; Marasović, Ivona

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study that presents concentrations of domoic acid detected in the whole shellfish tissue from breeding and harvesting areas along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea during the period 2006 to 2008. Shellfish sample analyses after SAX cleaning procedures, using a UV-DAD-HPLC system, showed the presence of domoic acid in four species. The most prevalent of those species were the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), followed by European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis), Mediterranean scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) and proteus scallop (Flexopecten proteus). Domoic acid, a potentially lethal phycotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), was detected for the first time in January 2006 with the highest value of 6.5486 μg g⁻¹ in whole shellfish tissue. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. bloom events preceded these high domoic acid concentrations. According to this study, retention of domoic acid in the blue mussel M. galloprovincialis is more than 42 days. This investigation indicates the first presence of domoic acid in Croatian shellfish, but in concentrations under the regulatory limit (20 μg g⁻¹), therefore shellfish consumption was not found to endanger human health. PMID:20938398

  3. Tenacibaculum adriaticum sp. nov., from a bryozoan in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Heindl, Herwig; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2008-03-01

    A rod-shaped, translucent yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative bacterium, strain B390(T), was isolated from the bryozoan Schizobrachiella sanguinea collected in the Adriatic Sea, near Rovinj, Croatia. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated affiliation to the genus Tenacibaculum, with sequence similarity levels of 94.8-97.3 % to type strains of species with validly published names. It grew at 5-34 degrees C, with optimal growth at 18-26 degrees C, and only in the presence of NaCl or sea salts. In contrast to other type strains of the genus, strain B390(T) was able to hydrolyse aesculin. The predominant menaquinone was MK-6 and major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH and iso-C(15 : 1). The DNA G+C content was 31.6 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization and comparative physiological tests were performed with type strains Tenacibaculum aestuarii JCM 13491(T) and Tenacibaculum lutimaris DSM 16505(T), since they exhibit 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities above 97 %. These data, as well as phylogenetic analyses, suggest that strain B390(T) (=DSM 18961(T) =JCM 14633(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel species within the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum adriaticum sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:18319452

  4. High-resolution surveys for geohazards and shallow gas: NW Adriatic (Italy) and Iskenderun Bay (Turkey)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orange, D.L.; Garcia-Garcia, Ana; McConnell, D.; Lorenson, T.; Fortier, G.; Trincardi, F.; Can, E.

    2005-01-01

    The need for quantifying and understanding the distribution of shallow gas is both of academic interest and of relevance to offshore facilities. The combination of seafloor mapping, subbottom profiling, and multi-channel seismic data can provide information on regions of possible shallow gas, where the gas impacts the acoustic properties of the host material and the seafloor. In this paper, we present two case studies - one academic and one industry - that evaluate the distribution of shallow gas in two field areas in the Mediterranean. In the first case study, geophysical data from Iskenderun Bay, southeastern Turkey, indicate the presence and distribution of shallow gas. Pockmarks on the seafloor are associated with acoustic wipeout in the shallow subbottom data. Although deeper seismic data do not show bright spots or other indicators of possible gas, instantaneous frequency analysis clearly shows laterally restricted anomalies indicating gas-rich zones. The interpretation of possible shallow gas resulted in moving a proposed drilling location to a nearby area characterized by fewer (but still present) shallow gas signatures. In the second case study, cores acquired in the Po Delta, Adriatic Sea, provide quantitative ground-truthing of shallow gas - as suggested by geophysical data - and provide minimum estimates of the percentage of gas in the subsurface. Cores targeted on anomalous subbottom data yielded up to 41,000 ppm methane; cores with anomalous gas content are associated with thick recent flood deposits which may effectively isolate reactive terrigenous organic matter from biologic and physical re-working. ?? Springer 2005.

  5. Arsenic in Norway lobster (Nephrophs norvegicus L. ) from Kvarneric Bay - Northeastern Adriatic

    SciTech Connect

    Sekulic, B. ); Sapunar, J.; Bazulic, D. )

    1993-09-01

    Arsenic is of concern as environmental pollutant because it is a ubiquitous element known to give rise to adverse human health effects ranging from minor disorders to cancer and acute death. Arsenic occurrence in the environment depends on such human activities as coal burning, use of pesticides, glass industry, electric application, veterinary medicine, etc. It has long been known that marine fishery products may contain high levels of arsenic. Fortunately, mainly in the organic, non-toxic form, with the average proportion of organic form in total arsenic between 71-79% and 50-97%. According to Lawrence et al., arsenic in marine fish was identified as arsenobetaine and, in shrimp only, arsenocholine. This paper examines the levels of total arsenic in the sample of the muscle and hepatopancreas of female and male Norway lobster, Nephrophs norvegicus L. from the area of Kvarneric Bay, Northeastern Adriatic (Croatia). The average values of arsenic in muscle from female and male lobster were 13.26 mg (kg and 14.20. mg/kg), respectively. In hepatopancreas the values were 17.12 mg/kg and 13.34 mg/kg for female and male, respectively. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-01

    The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between the levels of total mercury in Norway lobster and those detected in all other species. The 25% of all samples exceeded the maximum limit fixed by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. The results show that fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish. PMID:19434348

  7. Meteoceanographic premises for structural design purposes in the Adriatic Sea: Acquisition and processing of data

    SciTech Connect

    Rampolli, M.; Biancardi, A.; Filippi, G. De

    1996-12-31

    In 1993 the leading international standards (ISO, APOI RP2A) for the design of offshore structures drastically changed the procedure for the definition of hydrodynamic forces. In particular oil companies are required to have a detailed knowledge of the weather of the areas where they operate, if they want to maintain the previous results. Alternatively, more conservative hydrodynamic forces must be considered in the design phase. Such an increase, valuable in 20--30% of total hydrodynamic force, means heavier platform structures in new projects, and more critical elements to be inspected in existing platforms. In 1992, in order to have more reliable and safe transports to and from the platforms, Agip installed a meteo-marine sensor network in Adriatic Sea, on 13 of the over 80 producing platforms. Data collected are sent to shore via radio and operators can use real time data or 12-hour wave forecast, obtained by a statistic forecasting model. Taking advantage by such existing instruments, a project was undertaken in 1993 with the purpose of determining the extreme environmental parameters to be used by structural engineers. The network has been upgraded in order to achieve directional information of the waves and to permit short term analysis. This paper describes the data acquisition system, data processing and the achieved results.

  8. Hydromorphic to subaqueous soils transitions in the central Grado lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittori Antisari, Livia; De Nobili, Maria; Ferronato, Chiara; Natale, Marco; Pellegrini, Elisa; Vianello, Gilmo

    2016-05-01

    The Grado lagoon is among the largest in the Mediterranean sea and is characterized by salt marshes, where tides influenced the development of a complex micromorphology coupled to a micromosaic of vegetation covers. This study represents the first contribution to the understanding of the main processes governing formation, development and spatial transitions between hydromorphic and subaqueous soils in an Adriatic lagoon ecosystem. Physicochemical characteristics and development of soils were investigated in three salt marshes differing for their proximity to the open sea, textural composition and age of formation. Soils of back barrier salt marshes had A/C profiles and were mostly characterized by a sandy coarse texture that allows rapid drainage and subsurface oxygen exchanges. Soil sequences from the inner salt marsh to its submerged border slope or to a brackish waterhole do not simply represent a hydrosequence, but also reflect erosion/sorting/accumulation processes. The soils in the central part of the lagoon have finer texture and in displayed transition or cambic horizons. Silty clay loam textures and low positions allowed the development of more severe anoxic conditions and accumulation of sulphides. The tide oscillation strongly contributed to formation of redoximorphic features, intensity of anaerobic conditions but also colonization by different plant communities. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify physicochemical properties which discriminate the different soils according to geo-morphological position and prevailing plants. It confirmed that differentiation of plant communities occurred according to distinct morphological and physicochemical soil properties, but also acted as a primary affecting factor of pedogenesis.

  9. Rospo Mare (Adriatic Sea) - An oil-bearing paleokarst in the Mediterranean region

    SciTech Connect

    Soudet, H.; Sorriaux, P.; Michaud, F. )

    1990-05-01

    The oil-bearing paleokarst at Rospo Mare is located in the Adriatic Sea, 20 km off the Italian coast. The reservoir lies at a depth of 1,300 m and consists of a paleokarst of Oligocene to Miocene age that developed within Cretaceous limestones, now covered by 1,200 m of Miocene-Pliocene clastics. The oil column is about 140 m. The karstic nature of the reservoir was identified through vertical cored drill holes, which allowed us to analyze the various solution features and the sedimentary infill (speleothems, terra rossa, marine clays), as well as their vertical distribution. Observations concerning the upper part of the reservoir were compared to a paleokarst of the same age, outcropping widely onshore, in quarries located nearby. Erosion morphology at the top of the karst is highly irregular, including especially paleovalleys as well as many pit-shaped sink holes. Detailed knowledge of that morphology through geophysics helped optimizing the development of the field through horizontal drilling.

  10. Italy - Adriatic Sea - Barbara - A giant gas field marked by seismic velocity anomaly - A subtle trap

    SciTech Connect

    Ianniello, A.; Bolelli, W.; Di Scala, L. )

    1990-09-01

    Barbara gas field, discovered in 1971, is located in the northern sector of the Adriatic offshore. The field is a gentle anticline involving Quaternary clastic sediments and shaped by carbonate Mesozoic morphology. The presence of shallow gas pockets at the crest of the structure distort the seismic signal to such an extent that structural reconstruction using seismic data is not possible. Moreover, time delays and ray-path anomalies do not allow the use of staking velocities for the depth conversion. Seismic attribute analysis, instead of velocities, and time delays on the isochrone maps are providing a key to the understanding of seismic anomalies and are an indirect tool for reconstructing the real structural configuration of the field. The appraisal story of the field illustrates how the previously mentioned complications influenced its delineation and how an understanding of these complications helped in upgrading the reserves from an initial value of 10 billion ECM of gas to 40 billion ECM. Additional data acquired with the development wells tend to increase the estimate. Therefore, Barbara field is the most important Italian gas field of the decade. The producing formation is composed of very thin-bedded sandstone and shale intercalations, representing the peculiarity of this reservoir. Development of the field is being achieved with six production platforms and 72 wells.

  11. Climate change impacts on marine water quality: The case study of the Northern Adriatic sea.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, J; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Zabeo, A; Brigolin, D; Carniel, S; Pastres, R; Marcomini, A

    2016-01-30

    Climate change is posing additional pressures on coastal ecosystems due to variations in water biogeochemical and physico-chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity) leading to aquatic ecosystem degradation. With the main aim of analyzing the potential impacts of climate change on marine water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic. It integrates the outputs of regional biogeochemical and physico-chemical models considering future climate change scenarios (i.e., years 2070 and 2100) with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators. Results showed that salinity and temperature will be the main drivers of changes, together with macronutrients, especially in the area of the Po' river delta. The final outputs are exposure, susceptibility and risk maps supporting the communication of the potential consequences of climate change on water quality to decision makers and stakeholders and provide a basis for the definition of adaptation and management strategies. PMID:26152856

  12. Fish and Shellfish Intake and Diabetes in a Costal Population of the Adriatic.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Rashmi D; Ollberding, Nicholas J; Missoni, Saša; Novokmet, Natalija; Sarac, Jelena; Sarić, Tena; Rao, Marepalli B; Rudan, Pavao; Deka, Ranjan

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the association between fish and shellfish intake and diabetes in an island population, and the design of the study was Cross-sectional. Two independent population-based field surveys were conducted in Hvar Island of the eastern Adriatic coast of Croatia in May 2007 and May 2008, with a total of 1,379 adult participants. In multivariable logistic regression models, total fish intake was positively associated with diabetes prevalence in the total population (OR(Q4 vs. Q1) = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.01-2.66; p-trend = 0.09). Oily fish intake also exhibited a positive association with diabetes prevalence in the total population (OR(Q4 vs. Q1) = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.35-3.64; p-trend = 0.01) and in analyses stratified by body mass index, males and those with a high waist circumference. The study suggests an association between oily fish intake and diabetes in the population of the Hvar Island in Croatia. Longitudinal studies incorporating measures of persistent organic pollutants and local cooking practices are warranted to identify factors in fatty fish that may influence the development or persistence of diabetes. PMID:26753457

  13. The Clodia database: a long time series of fishery data from the Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Sambo, Andrea; Riginella, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Long-term time series of species abundances can depict population declines and changes in communities in response to anthropogenic activities, climate changes, alterations of trophic relationships. Here we present a database of historical marine fishery landing data, covering a remarkably long time series (1945–2013) and referring to one of the most exploited areas of the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea. The database includes two time series of landing data, 1945–2013 and 1997–2013, from the official statistics of the fish market of Chioggia, where the major fishing fleet of the area operates. Comparisons between the landing data of the database and landing data from other fisheries or data from scientific surveys support the reliability of the time series in depicting changes in species abundances. The database is expected to be used by fishery biologists and ecologists interested in depicting and understanding temporal variations in species abundances and community composition, in relation to environmental and anthropogenic factors. PMID:25977775

  14. Ecosystem exploitation and trophodynamic indicators: A comparison between the Northern Adriatic Sea and Southern New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranovi, Fabio; Link, Jason S.

    2009-04-01

    In an ecosystem-based resource management context, it is crucial to assess the relationships between community structure and ecosystem function and how those relationships change with resource extraction. To elucidate how changes in resource use can affect community structure and ecosystem function, we executed a comparative analysis of two different ecosystems subjected to notable fishing pressure. We contrasted the Northern Adriatic Sea (NAS) and Southern New England (SNE) ecosystems by examining outputs from comparable steady-state models. Both ecosystems have relatively high fishing pressure and a high biomass of benthic invertebrates. The basic structure of the food webs shows differences both in the number and definition of the functional groups, as described in the models. Fisheries, on the contrary, show similarities both in terms of catches and discards. Almost all statistics summarizing the structure and flows showed values three times higher in the SNE than in the NAS ecosystem, but despite this difference the two ecosystems exhibited similar, overall properties. Biomass ratios and the Mixed Trophic Impact (MTI) analysis showed that both ecosystems are dominated by the benthic compartment. Removing the biomass effect, however, shows a clear top-down effect, with a high rank achieved by fishing activities. In general terms, the low mean trophic level of catches and the high primary production required (PPR) values result in a high overexploitation level of the ecosystem, as highlighted by the L index. We conclude by exploring how comparative studies will continue to be valuable as ecosystem-based management is further implemented.

  15. Bacterial communities of traditional salted and fermented seafoods from Jeju Island of Korea using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Eun-Jin

    2014-05-01

    Jeotgal, which is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement in Korea, is traditional type of preserved seafood that is prepared by salting and fermenting. Here, we report on the bacterial community structure and diversity of jeotgal obtained from the Korean island of Jeju, which has a subtropical climate. Two samples of Jeotgal were collected from Jeju, made from either damselfish (Chromis notata; jari-dom-jeot, J1 and J2) or silver-stripe round herring (Spratelloides gracilis; ggot-myulchi-jeot, K1 and K2). The physical characteristics (pH and salinity) were assessed and the bacterial communities characterized using 16S rRNA gene-clone library analysis and cultural isolation. No difference was found in the community composition between the J and K fermented seafoods. Both fermented seafoods had relatively high salinity (26% to 33%) and high pH values (pH 6.08 to 6.72). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the halophilic lactic-acid bacteria Tetragenococcus halophilus and T. muriaticus were observed to be dominant in the J and K fermented seafoods, accompanied by halophilic bacteria including Halanaerobium spp., Halomonas spp., and Chromohalobacter spp. When compared with 7 other types of fermented seafood from a previous study, the communities of the J and K fermented seafoods were separated by the most influential group, the genus Tetragenococcus. The results suggest that these 2 types of traditional salted fermented seafood from Jeju have distinct communities dominated by Tetragenococcus spp., which are derived from the raw ingredients and are dependent on the physical conditions. This may explain how the seafoods that are made in Jeju may differ from other jeotgals. PMID:24689962

  16. Long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (Croatia) related to eutrophication patterns in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2016-05-15

    An exploration of historical data suggested that eutrophication patterns might drive long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). The regimes of northern Italian rivers, which flow approximately 100km west of the study area, mainly modulate the eutrophication levels of the northern Adriatic Sea. A regression of Cystoseira populations from the 1970s through the 1990s corresponded to increased levels of eutrophication in the study area. During the late 1990s, the density of sea urchins, which are efficacious macroalgal predators, decreased, likely due to an intense formation of pelagic mucilage aggregates that resulted in mass mortality episodes of macrozoobenthic species. During the 2000-2013 period, an oligotrophication of the northern Adriatic formed the basis for the recovery of Cystoseira taxa, whose abundances from 2009 to 2013 were similar to those characterising the most flourishing Mediterranean Cystoseira assemblages. PMID:26975612

  17. Novel method to reduce fishy aftertaste in wine and seafood pairing using alcohol-treated yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Toshikazu; Kanai, Keiko; Yokoyama, Aki; Tamura, Takayuki; Hanamure, Kenichi; Sasaki, Kanako; Takata, Ryoji; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-06-20

    "Fishy aftertaste" is sometimes perceived in wine consumed with seafood. Iron in wine has been reported to be a key compound that produces fishy aftertaste. However, cost-effective methods to remove iron from wine have not been developed. Here, we describe a cost-effective and safe iron adsorbent consisting of alcohol-treated yeast (ATY) cells based on the observation that nonviable cells adsorbed iron after completion of fermentation. Treatment of cells with more than 40% (v/v) ethanol killed them without compromising their ability to adsorb iron. Drying the ATY cells did not reduce iron adsorption. Use of ATY cells together with phytic acid had a synergistic effect on iron removal. We term this means of removing iron the "ATY-PA" method. Sensory analysis indicated that fishy aftertaste in wine-seafood pairings was not perceived if the wine had been pretreated with both ATY cells and phytic acid. PMID:22630330

  18. Determination of Hg, Cd, Mn, Pb and Sn in seafood by solid sampling Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detcheva, A.; Grobecker, K. H.

    2006-04-01

    Direct solid sampling Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometric methods were developed and applied to the determination of mercury, cadmium, manganese, lead and tin in seafood. All elements but mercury were measured by a third generation Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry combined with an automatic solid sampler. In 3-field- and dynamic mode the calibrations concentration range was substantially extended and high amounts of analyte were detectable without laborious dilution of solid samples. The measurements were based on calibrations using certified reference materials of organic matrices. In case solid certified reference materials were not available calibration by aqueous standard solutions was proved to be an alternative. No matrix effects were observed under the optimized conditions. Results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. Solid sampling Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry proved to be a reliable, rapid and low-cost method for the control of trace elements in seafood.

  19. Genome Sequence of Kocuria atrinae C3-8, Isolated from Jeotgal, a Traditional Korean Fermented Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Lim, Seong-Il

    2012-01-01

    Kocuria is a Gram-positive coccus, catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, strictly aerobic bacterial genus in the family Micrococcaceae. Kocuria atrinae C3-8 was isolated from a traditional Korean fermented seafood. This study describes the first genome sequence of K. atrinae strain C3-8, which has a 3.19-Mbp genome and a G+C content of 63.8%. PMID:23045503

  20. Genome sequence of Kocuria atrinae C3-8, isolated from Jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Lim, Seong-Il; Park, So-Lim

    2012-11-01

    Kocuria is a Gram-positive coccus, catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, strictly aerobic bacterial genus in the family Micrococcaceae. Kocuria atrinae C3-8 was isolated from a traditional Korean fermented seafood. This study describes the first genome sequence of K. atrinae strain C3-8, which has a 3.19-Mbp genome and a G+C content of 63.8%. PMID:23045503

  1. By-Catch Impacts in Fisheries: Utilizing the IUCN Red List Categories for Enhanced Product Level Assessment in Seafood LCAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornborg, Sara; Svensson, Mikael; Nilsson, Per; Ziegler, Friederike

    2013-11-01

    Overexploitation of fish stocks causes concern not only to fisheries managers and conservation biologists, but also engages seafood consumers; more integrated product perspectives would be useful. This could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA); however, further complements of present LCA methodology are needed to assess seafood production, one being by-catch impacts. We studied the scientific rationale behind using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ for assessment of impacts relating to fish species’ vulnerability. For this purpose, the current Red List status of marine fish in Sweden was compared to the advice given in fisheries as well as key life history traits known to indicate sensitivity to high fishing pressure. Further, we quantified the amount of threatened fish (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered) that was discarded in demersal trawl fisheries on the Swedish west coast. The results showed that not only did the national Red List of marine fish have a high consistency with advice given in fisheries and indices of vulnerability, the different fishing practices studied were also found to have vastly different amounts of threatened fish discarded per kilo landing. The suggested approach is therefore promising as a carrier of aggregated information on the extent to which seafood production interferes with conservation priorities, in particular for species lacking adequate stock assessment. To enable extensive product comparisons, it is important to increase coverage of fish species by the global IUCN Red List, and to reconsider the appropriate assessment unit (species or stocks) in order to avoid false alarms.

  2. Seafood-like flavour obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein by-products of seaweed (Gracilaria sp.).

    PubMed

    Laohakunjit, Natta; Selamassakul, Orrapun; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin

    2014-09-01

    An enzymatic bromelain seaweed protein hydrolysate (eb-SWPH) was characterised as the precursor for thermally processed seafood flavour. Seaweed (Gracilaria fisheri) protein after agar extraction was hydrolysed using bromelain (enzyme activity=119,325 U/g) at 0-20% (w/w) for 0.5-24 h. Optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined using response surface methodology. The proposed model took into account the interaction effect of the enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time on the physicochemical properties and volatile components of eb-SWPH. The optimal hydrolysis conditions for the production of eb-SWPH were 10% bromelain for 3h, which resulted in a 38.15% yield and a 62.91% degree of hydrolysis value. Three free amino acids, arginine, lysine, and leucine, were abundant in the best hydrolysate. Ten volatile flavours of the best eb-SWPH were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The predominant odourants were hexanal, hexanoic acid, nonanoic acid, and dihydroactinidiolide. The thermally processed seafood flavour produced from eb-SWPH exhibited a roasted seafood-like flavouring. PMID:24731327

  3. [Development of Determination Method of Ipfencarbazone in Agricultural Products, Livestock Products and Seafood by LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Imai, Koichi; Onoue, Keiko; Ishii, Rie; Takano, Mariko; Nemoto, Satoru; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of ipfencarbazone in agricultural products, livestock products and seafood by LC-MS/MS was developed. Agricultural samples were extracted with acetone. An aliquot of crude extract was partitioned with n-hexane and sat. sodium chloride solution. Clean-up was performed using GC/PSA and C18 cartridges. In the case of livestock products and seafood, samples were extracted with a mixture of acetone and n-hexane, and the organic layer was collected. After acetonitrile-hexane partitioning, the extract was cleaned up using PAS and C18 cartridges. The gradient LC separation was performed on a C18 column with acetonitrile-water containing acetic acid as a mobile phase, and MS with positive ion electrospray ionization was used for detection. The average recoveries (n=5) of ipfencarbazone from 16 kinds of agricultural products, livestock products and seafood spiked at the MRLs or at the uniform limits (0.01 ppm) were 73-101%, and the relative standard deviations were 1.3-5.1%. The limit of quantitation of the developed method was 0.01 mg/kg for ipfencarbazone. PMID:26537650

  4. Evaluation of Chemical Analysis Method and Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Content from Seafood and Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So-Young; Lee, Jee-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate contents of 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from frequently consumed seafood and dairy products and to evaluate their chemical analysis methods. Samples were collected from markets of 9 cities in Korea chosen as the population reference and evaluated. The methodology involved saponification, extraction with n-hexane, clean-up on Sep-Pak silica cartridges and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analysis. Validation proceeded on 2 matrices. Recoveries for 8 PAHs ranged from 86.87 to 103.57%. The limit of detection (LOD) 8 PAHs was 0.04~0.20 µg/kg, and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 8 PAHs was 0.12~0.60 µg/kg. The mean concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was 0.34 µg/kg from seafood and 0.34 µg/kg from dairy products. The total PAHs concentration was 1.06 µg/kg in seafood and 1.52 µg/kg in dairy products. PMID:26483885

  5. Managing polyploidy in ex situ conservation genetics: the case of the critically endangered Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii).

    PubMed

    Congiu, Leonardo; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Forlani, Anna; Cenadelli, Silvia; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Barbisan, Federica; Galli, Andrea; Fontana, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    While the current expansion of conservation genetics enables to address more efficiently the management of threatened species, alternative methods for genetic relatedness data analysis in polyploid species are necessary. Within this framework, we present a standardized and simple protocol specifically designed for polyploid species that can facilitate management of genetic diversity, as exemplified by the ex situ conservation program for the tetraploid Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii. A critically endangered endemic species of the Adriatic Sea tributaries, its persistence is strictly linked to the ex situ conservation of a single captive broodstock currently decimated to about 25 individuals, which represents the last remaining population of Adriatic sturgeon of certain wild origin. The genetic variability of three F1 broodstocks available as future breeders was estimated based on mitochondrial and microsatellite information and compared with the variability of the parental generation. Genetic data showed that the F1 stocks have only retained part of the genetic variation present in the original stock due to the few parent pairs used as founders. This prompts for the urgent improvement of the current F1 stocks by incorporating new founders that better represent the genetic diversity available. Following parental allocation based on band sharing values, we set up a user-friendly tool for selection of candidate breeders according to relatedness between all possible parent-pairs that secures the use of non-related individuals. The approach developed here could also be applied to other endangered tetraploid sturgeon species overexploited for caviar production, particularly in regions lacking proper infrastructure and/or expertise. PMID:21483472

  6. Assessing the main threats to marine ecosystem components of the Adriatic - Ionian Region for the implementation of Maritime Spatial Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipizer, Marina

    2015-04-01

    Marine and coastal ecosystems and the related benefits they provide for humans are threatened by increasing pressures and competing usages. To address these issues, in the last decade, several EU legislations have been formulated to guarantee and promote sustainable use of the sea (e.g. Common Fishery Policy, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Maritime Spatial Planning). As a first step to implement cross-border Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) in the Adriatic - Ionian Seas, a review of the main anthropogenic pressures due to maritime activities involving the Adriatic - Ionian Region (AIR) as well as of the most relevant environmental components has been carried out. The main objective of the analysis is to better identify the spatial distribution of human uses of the sea and of the key environmental components and the ecosystem services provided. The analysis of the existing conditions includes a description of the human activities per economic sector, considering type, location, dimension and magnitude of the activity in the AIR and the spatial extent of the main environmental and ecological values present in the AIR. The environmental status has been characterized according to the descriptors proposed by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD Directive 2008/56/EC) and the most sensitive ecosystem components in the AIR have been pointed out. A qualitative analysis of the relationships between good environmental status descriptors sensu MSFD and ecosystem services in the AIR has been carried out to provide useful information for the implementation of MSP. Cross-border Maritime Spatial Planning is particularly needed in a semi-enclosed basin such as the Adriatic Sea, hosting very diverse human activities, ranging from fishery to tourism, sand extraction, commercial and passenger transport, oil and gas exploration and exploitation, which may partially overlap and severely threaten ecosystem functioning and the associated services.

  7. Towards a coastal ocean forecasting system in Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian seas based on unstructured-grid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Ivan; Oddo, Paolo; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian Forecasting System (SANIFS) operational chain is based on a nesting approach. The large scale model for the entire Mediterranean basin (MFS, Mediterranean Forecasting system, operated by INGV, e.g. Tonani et al. 2008, Oddo et al. 2009) provides lateral open boundary conditions to the regional model for Adriatic and Ionian seas (AIFS, Adriatic Ionian Forecasting System) which provides the open-sea fields (initial conditions and lateral open boundary conditions) to SANIFS. The latter, here presented, is a coastal ocean model based on SHYFEM (Shallow HYdrodynamics Finite Element Model) code, which is an unstructured grid, finite element three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (e.g. Umgiesser et al., 2004, Ferrarin et al., 2013). The SANIFS hydrodynamic model component has been designed to provide accurate information of hydrodynamics and active tracer fields in the coastal waters of Southern Eastern Italy (Apulia, Basilicata and Calabria regions), where the model is characterized by a resolution of about of 200-500 m. The horizontal resolution is also accurate in open-sea areas, where the elements size is approximately 3 km. During the development phase the model has been initialized and forced at the lateral open boundaries through a full nesting strategy directly with the MFS fields. The heat fluxes has been computed by bulk formulae using as input data the operational analyses of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Short range pre-operational forecast tests have been performed in different seasons to evaluate the robustness of the implemented model in different oceanographic conditions. Model results are validated by means of comparison with MFS operational results and observations. The model is able to reproduce the large-scale oceanographic structures of the area (keeping similar structures of MFS in open sea), while in the coastal area significant improvements in terms of reproduced structures and dynamics are

  8. Spatial variations of scavenging rates within the central and northern Adriatic Sea: Use of U-Th disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.; Heilmann, J.; Fowler, S.; Miquel, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    Dissolved and particulate concentrations of {sup 234}Th, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po were measured in surface waters of the central and northern Adriatic Sea. The half-lives and biogeochemistry of {sup 234}Th (t{sub 1/2} = 24.1 days), {sup 210}Po (t{sub 1/2} = 138.4 days) and {sup 210}Pb (t{sub 1/2} = 22.3 years) are ideal for studying particle dynamics in the upper water column. It has been observed that the residence time of dissolved {sup 234}Th with respect to removal on biogenic particles is inversely proportional to primary productivity and may be used to predict export from or new production in the euphotic zone. Model-derived {sup 234}Th fluxes can also be used to help validate sediment trap collections in the upper water column. The aim of the present study was to gain an insight into the intensity and variability of active scavenging and particle removal processes in the central and northern Adriatic Sea. This semi-enclosed sea is strongly influenced by fresh water runoff from rivers carrying large quantities of dissolved nutrients and suspended particles. These inputs of nutrients and suspended particles are expected to give rise to large biological and biogeochemical gradients across the Continental Shelf and offer a range of environments for studying particle scavenging and removal processes. The authors have examined the relationships between {sup 234}Th scavenging rates and residence times of dissolved and particulate phases as a function of other physical and biological parameters (primary productivity, POC, chlorophyll, C/N and total suspended matter). Particular reference is made to the two contrasting environments of the Adriatic--a eutrophic zone near the Po River outflow and in the largely oligotrophic waters of the Jabuka Pit.

  9. Computed and observed turbulent heat fluxes during an extreme Bora event in the Adriatic using atmosphere-ocean coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ličer, Matjaž; Smerkol, Peter; Fettich, Anja; Ravdas, Michalis; Papapostolou, Alexandros; Mantziafou, Anneta; Strajnar, Benedikt; Cedilnik, Jure; Jeromel, Maja; Jerman, Jure; Petan, Sašo; Benetazzo, Alvise; Carniel, Sandro; Malačič, Vlado; Sofianos, Sarantis

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the performances of (a) a two-way coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling system and (b) one-way coupled ocean model (forced by the atmosphere model), as compared to the available in situ measurements during and after a strong Adriatic Bora wind event in February 2012, which led to extreme air-sea interactions. The simulations span the period between January and March 2012. The models used were ALADIN (4.4 km resolution) on the atmosphere side and Adriatic setup of POM (1°/30 × 1°/30 angular resolution) on the ocean side. The atmosphere-ocean coupling was implemented using the OASIS3-MCT model coupling toolkit. Two-way coupling ocean feedback to the atmosphere is limited to sea surface temperature. We have compared modeled atmosphere-ocean fluxes (computed using modified Louis scheme) and sea temperatures from both setups to platform and CTD measurements of fluxes (computed using COARE scheme) and temperatures from three observational platforms (Vida, Paloma, Acqua Alta) in the Northern Adriatic. We show that turbulent fluxes from both setups differ up to 20% during the Bora but not significantly before and after the event. The impact of the coupling on the ocean is significant while the impact on the atmosphere is less pronounced. When compared to observations, two way coupling ocean temperatures exhibit a four times lower RMSE than those from one-way coupled system. Two-way coupling improves sensible heat fluxes at all stations but does not improve latent heat loss.

  10. VHR Reconstruction of a Portion of Late Holocene Transgressive Adriatic System Tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscon, Giorgia; Correggiari, Annamaria; Remia, Alessandro; Stefani, Cristina; Fontana, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The Adriatic Sea is an epicontinental semi-enclosed basin characterized by a very low axial gradient shelf in the northern and central part and by a steeper gradient in the southern sector. During the last sea-level cycle in the Adriatic basin were deposited 1) low-stand deposits formed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), 2) transgressive deposits formed during the last relative sea-level rise and 3) high-stand deposits confined in a narrow belt parallel to the modern shore-line. Across the low-gradient northern shelf, the stepwise, high-amplitude last relative sea-level rise favoured the deposition and in-place drowning of different generations of transgressive barrier-lagoon systems. Where present, the paralic transgressive deposits rest on a transgressive surface and are topped by a wave ravinement surface (Cattaneo and Steel, 2003). The transgressive deposits located south of the Po delta, offshore Ravenna show a dominant longshore trend similar to the modern sea-level high-stand deposits. These bodies are wreak of ancient coastal wedges drowned in place and consist in well sorted sand capped by ravinement surface and frequently drapped by a thin veneer of high-stand mud. In recent years, the study of the transgressive deposits has focused on the quality and the amount of sand for beaches nourishment. A stratigraphic characterization of one transgressive deposit at 33 m depth was carried out in order to understand its evolution before and during the last sea-level rise and define its sand content. 765 Km of very high resolution seismic profiles were acquired at 33 w.d. during NAD12 oceanographic cruise to increase the knowledge in a known shelf area. In each profiles the transgressive surface (ts) has been traced correlating the dated peat layers from published data and it has been digitized through SeisPrho which is an interactive software for processing and interpreting high-resolution seismic reflection profiles. Data processing defined a transgressive

  11. Mohorovičić Discontinuity at the Contact of the Adriatic Microplate and Pannonian Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumanovac, F.; Oreskovic, J.

    2009-12-01

    Two-dimensional seismic and gravity modellings were applied to the contact of the Dinarides and the Pannonian basin as a relation between the Adriatic microplate and Pannonian segment, as a contribution to solving structural and tectonic relations. The basic exploration was carried out on the profile Alp07, which was a part of the ALP 2002 experiment (Brückl et al., 2003). This profile stretches in Croatia from Istra to the Drava River at Hungarian-Croatian border in a WSW-ENE direction. Two-dimensional seismic modelling was carried out using tomographic inversion and ray tracing technique. The Moho depth is the greatest in the area of the Dinarides, reaching about 40 km, and is shallowest (30 to 20 km) in the Pannonian basin. In order to obtain additional constraints on the crustal structure, 2 D gravity modelling was also performed. The layer boundaries were retained from the seismic model and varying of densities in the model produced a good fit to the data. A geological model was constructed based on both geophysical models (Šumanovac et al., 2009). Three types of the crust were found along the profile: the Dinaridic and the Pannonian crusts that are separated by a relatively wide Transition zone. The Dinaridic upper crust is characterised by low seismic velocities and densities, but its lower crust has high velocities and densities. The Pannonian crust can be seen as unique layer characterised by both low seismic velocities and densities. Large lateral and vertical changes in densities and seismic velocities can be found in the Transition zone. Gravity modelling on the Alp07 profile enabled a definition of calibrated rock densities that were applied on other profiles set up in the study area, generally covering the area of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, for the purpose of determining the structural relations. This significantly improved the resolution of gravity modelling, as well. The structural units determined on the Alp07 profile (Pannonian crust

  12. Quality control of climatological time series in the province of macerata (adriatic side of central italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentilucci, Matteo; Bisci, Carlo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tognetti, Danilo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis is focused on more than 100 meteorological recording stations located in the Province of Macerata (Marche region, Adriatic side of Central Italy) and in its neighbours; it aims to check the time series of their climatological data (temperatures and precipitations), covering about one century of observations, in order to remove or rectify any errors. This small area (about 2.800Km2) features many different climate types, because of its varied topography ranging, moving westward, from the Adriatic coast to the Appennines (over 2.100m of altitude). In this irregular context, it is difficult to establish a common procedure for each sector; therefore, it has been followed the general guidelines of the WMO, with some important difference (mostly in the method). Data are classified on the basis of validation codes (VC): missing datum (VC=-1), correct or verified datum (VC=0), datum under investigation (VC=1), datum removed after the analysis (VC=2), datum reconstructed through interpolation or by estimating the errors of digitization (VC=3). The first step was the "Logical Control", consisting in the investigation of gross errors of digitization: the data found in this phase of the analysis has been removed without any other control (VC=2). The second step, represented by the "Internal Consistency Check", leads to the elimination (VC=2) of all the data out of range, estimated on the basis of the climate zone for each investigated variable. The third one is the "Tolerance Test", carried out comparing each datum with the historical record it belongs to, in order to apply this test, the normal distribution of data has been evaluated. The "Tolerance Test" usually defines only suspect data (VC=1) to be verified with further tests, such as the "Temporal Consistency" and the "Spatial Consistency". The "Temporal Consistency" allows an evaluation of the time sequence of data, setting a specified range for each station basing upon its historical records. Data out of

  13. Seasonal statistics of highest sea levels along the northwestern Adriatic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, A.; Masina, M.

    2012-04-01

    Joint spatial analyses of marine flood drivers may provide important insights into the assessment of the related impacts on the low-lying coastal areas of the northwestern Adriatic coast. Identification of seasonality in the highest sea levels represents a first step in performing the analysis. Seasonal variability is investigated in the long term tidal gauge series of Punta della Salute (Venezia), Molo Sartorio (Trieste) and Porto Corsini (Ravenna) and in the short and fragmentary one of Rimini for which the available historical information, extracted from Hydrological Annals and provided by ISPRA and the Institute of Marine Science - CNR of Trieste , includes data collected with different criteria (monthly high water levels, daily high and low tides, hourly values and ten-minutes records). Following Carter and Challenor (1981) the variability of extreme high sea levels is initially studied modelling monthly maxima separately with the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, combining them to extrapolate the distribution of annual maxima and comparing the resulting curve with that derived from the canonical approach based on annual maxima series. Monthly and annual maxima have been first declustered selecting the maximum value in a 78 hrs window and, aiming to remove the effect of sea level rise and local subsidence, detrended subtracting the regularized mean sea level. After the removal of these effects, monthly and annual maxima do not exhibit a specific multi-decadal trend. The results, expressed in terms of monthly average values, show instead a uniform behaviour for the analyzed stations, characterized by a large variability of extreme sea levels throughout a year with a systematic concentration of potential dangerous events in late autumn and winter seasons. In spite of the limited extension of the Adriatic basin, the most significant historical storms responsible of disastrous impacts on coastal areas were recorded in different years from the two

  14. Fluviokarst and classical karst: Examples from the Dinarics (Krk Island, Northern Adriatic, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benac, Čedomir; Juračić, Mladen; Matičec, Dubravko; Ružić, Igor; Pikelj, Kristina

    2013-02-01

    In order to contribute to the debate on the role of fluvial erosion in the shaping of karst, two nearby areas with different karstic landscapes were compared. Areas A and B are located relatively close to each other on the southern side of the Krk Island (Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Both areas are composed of similar limestone with a very high CaCO3 content. Area A is a typical doline or polygonal type ("classical") of karst with numerous dolines (up to 57/km2) covered with terra rossa (red soil) and Mediterranean maquis shrubland. Dolines are located in zones which correspond to the strike of the main geological structures. Dry karstic valleys are visible only on gently inclined coastal slopes bordering the karstic plateau. In contrast, area B is typical of a bare karst landscape with a strong (palaeo)fluvial imprint. The dolines are absent, and the bedrock is only sporadically covered with terra rossa. Palaeogene marls have been observed in a few elongated depressions and in the coastal zone of area B. Along steep coastal slopes, valleys (up to 460 m/km2) are cut into the carbonates. The traces of episodic surface flows are visible in some of these valleys, in contrast to the valleys in area A. Remnants of a disrupted ancient fluvial network are clearly visible on the elevated karstic plateau in area B. Differences in the recent morphology are attributed mainly to varying thicknesses of the Palaeogene impermeable marly cover, and the intensity of tectonics in the two areas.

  15. Microbial mechanisms coupling carbon and phosphorus cycles in phosphorus-limited northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Malfatti, F; Turk, V; Tinta, T; Mozetič, P; Manganelli, M; Samo, T J; Ugalde, J A; Kovač, N; Stefanelli, M; Antonioli, M; Fonda-Umani, S; Del Negro, P; Cataletto, B; Hozić, A; Ivošević Denardis, N; Zutić, V; Svetličić, V; Mišić Radić, T; Radić, T; Fuks, D; Azam, F

    2014-02-01

    The coastal northern Adriatic Sea receives pulsed inputs of riverine nutrients, causing phytoplankton blooms and seasonally sustained dissolved organic carbon (DOC) accumulation-hypothesized to cause episodes of massive mucilage. The underlying mechanisms regulating P and C cycles and their coupling are unclear. Extensive biogeochemical parameters, processes and community composition were measured in a 64-day mesocosms deployed off Piran, Slovenia. We followed the temporal trends of C and P fluxes in P-enriched (P+) and unenriched (P-) mesocosms. An intense diatom bloom developed then crashed; however, substantial primary production was maintained throughout, supported by tightly coupled P regeneration by bacteria and phytoplankton. Results provide novel insights on post-bloom C and P dynamics and mechanisms. 1) Post-bloom DOC accumulation to 186 μM remained elevated despite high bacterial carbon demand. Presumably, a large part of DOC accumulated due to the bacterial ectohydrolytic processing of primary productivity that adventitiously generated slow-to-degrade DOC; 2) bacteria heavily colonized post-bloom diatom aggregates, rendering them microscale hotspots of P regeneration due to locally intense bacterial ectohydrolase activities; 3) Pi turnover was rapid thus suggesting high P flux through the DOP pool (dissolved organic phosphorus) turnover; 4) Alpha- and Gamma-proteobacteria dominated the bacterial communities despite great differences of C and P pools and fluxes in both mesocosms. However, minor taxa showed dramatic changes in community compositions. Major OTUs were presumably generalists adapted to diverse productivity regimes.We suggest that variation in bacterial ectohydrolase activities on aggregates, regulating the rates of POM→DOM transition as well as dissolved polymer hydrolysis, could become a bottleneck in P regeneration. This could be another regulatory step, in addition to APase, in the microbial regulation of P cycle and the coupling

  16. Foraminiferal assemblages and trophic state in coastal sediments of the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, Anna; Bonatto, Sonia; Bianchelli, Silvia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto; Negri, Alessandra

    2012-12-01

    The environmental variables that influence the abundance and biodiversity of foraminifera in shallow-water settings are poorly understood. In order to help address this problem, we investigated abundance, biomass and biodiversity of living (as Rose-Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera together with the quantity and biochemical composition (in terms of phytopigment, protein, lipid, carbohydrate and biopolymeric carbon) of the organic matter in coastal sediments of the Central Adriatic Sea. Sediment samples were collected in the Portonovo Bay in May, July and October 2008 and February 2009, and the organic matter quantity and biochemical composition and benthic foraminiferal abundance and assemblage composition were analysed in the top 1 cm. Uni- and multi-variate analyses of variance revealed clear temporal variability of all the investigated variables as well as relationships between the composition of the foraminiferal assemblages and the quantity and quality of the food sources. The foraminiferal abundance and species composition changed significantly between the four sampling periods, reflecting the temporal (seasonal) variability in the quantity and nutritional quality of the food sources. Lipids, among all other organic compounds, explain significant portions of the variance of both foraminiferal abundance and biomass. In winter, a strong phytoplankton bloom led to an increased quantity of nutritionally available organic matter on the sea floor, which in turn was associated with a bloom of Leptohalysis scottii and Psammophaga sp. 1. These two foraminiferal species thus displayed an opportunistic behaviour in response to the pulse of organic carbon of high nutritional quality. We suggest that these species can be used as indicators of benthic eutrophication in shallow waters.

  17. Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

  18. Benthic activity in sediments of the northwestern Adriatic Sea: sediment oxygen consumption, macro- and meiofauna dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moodley, Leon; Heip, Carlo H. R.; Middelburg, Jack J.

    1998-12-01

    Benthic activity was examined at three stations (18 m water depth) in the northwestern Adriatic Sea. Carbon mineralisation rates, as based on sediment oxygen consumption rates, ranged from 54 to 89 g C m -2 y -1. The relatively high carbon mineralisation rates, large macrofaunal biomass (9 to 16 g C m -2) and macrofaunal production (11 to 19 g C m -2 y -1) provide evidence of high organic-matter input and intense benthic-pelagic coupling. This is further supported by the high dominance of the suspension-feeding bivalve Corbula gibba, which accounts for 52 to 63% of the total annual macrofaunal biomass production. Although the infaunal distribution of total macrofauna showed a sharp decline in densities and biomass with depth into the sediment, different patterns within the dominant taxa were observed. Whilst the bivalve Corbula gibba and the amphipod Ampelisca sp. were restricted to the surface layer, other species such as the dominant bivalve Mysella sp. and the gastropod Hyala sp. were not confined to a specific depth level and the majority of the populations occurred deeper than 5 cm into the sediment. Bioturbation, based on the occurrence of macrofauna, extended to at least 20 cm. Nematodes and foraminifera together formed 80 to 90% of the meiofaunal community in the upper 5 cm of the sediment. Annual mean densities ranged from 3.40 to 6.07×10 6 ind. m -2. Maximum abundance of meiofauna was not encountered at the station where maximum macrofaunal activity was recorded, and this could reflect the negative effect of biological interaction on meiofaunal densities in areas that have a high food supply.

  19. Dynamics of a nearshore bar system in the northern Adriatic: A video-based morphological classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaroli, Clara; Ciavola, Paolo

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to define a simplified morphodynamic classification suitable for low energy beaches exposed to microtidal conditions. The study site is located in the northern Adriatic (in Italy), it is an almost 2 km-long rectilinear beach bordered at the northern edge by coastal structures and at the southern end by a small river inlet. The mechanisms related to the evolution of the submerged part of the beach were derived from video-monitoring using Argus technology. The morphodynamic evolution of the system was studied using an automatic procedure on images for the characterisation of nearshore bars that showed good correspondence with hand-based (visual) interpretation. To apply this automatic procedure, the bar's plan crest shape was mapped using cross-shore pixel luminosity transects traced on time-averaged video images. A careful sensitivity analysis was undertaken to determine the best spacing between transects for the correct tracing of the shape of the bar crest. The error associated to a transect spacing every 25 m resulted in being comparable with the pixel resolution in the area and with the error found comparing the video interpretation with bathymetric surveys. From the study of a four and a half year dataset (February 2003-May 2007), the submerged beach was found to be characterised by the presence of a single bar in the area next to coastal protection structures. However, moving southwards of these, inner and outer bars were present. The morphodynamics of the outer bar and its plan shape modifications were dominated by rhythmic forms. Occasionally, after high energy events, the bar became rectilinear but during the following lower energy periods rhythmicity was re-established, supporting the hypothesis of self-organization mechanisms. The cross-shore position of the bar's crests only showed limited cross-shore mobility through time.

  20. Unstructured-grid coastal ocean modelling in Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Ivan; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Oddo, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian coastal Forecasting System (SANIFS) is a short-term forecasting system based on unstructured grid approach. The model component is built on SHYFEM finite element three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The operational chain exploits a downscaling approach starting from the Mediterranean oceanographic-scale model MFS (Mediterranean Forecasting System, operated by INGV). The implementation set-up has been designed to provide accurate hydrodynamics and active tracer processes in the coastal waters of Southern Eastern Italy (Apulia, Basilicata and Calabria regions), where the model is characterized by a variable resolution in range of 50-500 m. The horizontal resolution is also high in open-sea areas, where the elements size is approximately 3 km. The model is forced: (i) at the lateral open boundaries through a full nesting strategy directly with the MFS (temperature, salinity, non-tidal sea surface height and currents) and OTPS (tidal forcing) fields; (ii) at surface through two alternative atmospheric forcing datasets (ECMWF and COSMOME) via MFS-bulk-formulae. Given that the coastal fields are driven by a combination of both local/coastal and deep ocean forcings propagating along the shelf, the performance of SANIFS was verified first (i) at the large and shelf-coastal scales by comparing with a large scale CTD survey and then (ii) at the coastal-harbour scale by comparison with CTD, ADCP and tide gauge data. Sensitivity tests were performed on initialization conditions (mainly focused on spin-up procedures) and on surface boundary conditions by assessing the reliability of two alternative datasets at different horizontal resolution (12.5 and 7 km). The present work highlights how downscaling could improve the simulation of the flow field going from typical open-ocean scales of the order of several km to the coastal (and harbour) scales of tens to hundreds of meters.

  1. Sea/land breeze climatological characteristics along the northern Croatian Adriatic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtenjak, M. Telišman; Grisogono, B.

    2007-11-01

    Climatological characteristics along the northern Croatian Adriatic coast have been examined for nine meteorological stations for the summertime sea/land breeze circulation. The stations considered are Pula-airport, Opatija, Rijeka, Senj, Malinska, Rijeka-airport, Mali Lošinj, Rab and Zadar. The hourly surface measurements at each station from June to September for the period 1991 2004 as well as the radiosoundings in Zadar (from 2002 to 2004) were used for the analysis. A dataset with the sea/land breeze days was formed according to the several criteria. The mean daily maxima of both air and sea surface temperatures were more influenced by the large scale disturbances toward north (e.g. in Rijeka or Opatija) compared to the values for e.g. Zadar. Furthermore, the influence of the large scale disturbances diminished toward the south concerning the sea land temperature difference only at the stations placed at Rijeka Bay and Velebit channel. The strongest sea breeze was found at Pula-airport and the most frequent ones at Opatija and Zadar. At Senj the rarest, the weakest and the shortest sea breeze was observed. The climatological records of wind speed and air-sea temperature difference (Δ T) showed for Opatija, Malinska and Zadar that the maximum measured wind speed is around 4.5 °C confirming the nonlinear relationship between the sea breeze speeds and the Δ T during the day. At most stations, the clockwise rotation of the hodographs prevails which is typical for the Northern hemisphere due to Coriolis force, with the exception at Senj and Malinska. While the hodographs for Pula, Rijeka-airport and Mali Lošinj display a later onset of the prevailing sea breeze because of the interaction among several sea breeze circulations, the results for Opatija, Zadar and Senj show considerably distorted hodographs because of the nearby channeling of the air flow.

  2. Seafloor morphology of the Montenegro/N. Albania Continental Margin (Adriatic Sea-Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Bianco, Fabrizio; Gasperini, Luca; Giglio, Federico; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Kljajic, Zoran; Ravaioli, Mariangela

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution multibeam morpho-bathymetric maps and a dense grid of seismic reflection profiles show relict and palimpsest geomorphologic features along the Montenegro/Northern Albanian Continental Margin. This sector of the Eastern Adriatic shelf, at the external front of the Dinarides Chain, is characterized by highly variable seafloor patterns and depositional styles, and shows a peculiar alternation of large-scale troughs and ridges, probably caused by tectonic compressive deformations. These tectonically controlled morphologies are overprinted by the result of sedimentary processes, such as progradation at river outflows, erosion, and reworking of sediments by longshore currents, as well as gravity-driven process caused by sediment loading and seismic shaking. Physiographic domains along this shelf-slope margin include (i) an inner and an outer shelf, separated by two major topographic highs, the Kotor and the Bar ridges; (ii) a drowned lobate delta formed during the last phase of sea level fall, likely fed by the Buna/Bojana drainage basin; and (iii) a continental slope affected by gravity-driven faulting and mass-wasting processes. Seafloor reflectivity maps, ground-truthed by grain-size analysis of bottom sediments, reveal that fine-grained deposits accumulate in the inner shelf, while other sectors appear starved. The effects of the last sea-level rise is testified by the presence of seabed forms diagnostic of erosion or depositional processes, such us large dunes, sediment ridges and sediment waves, which were studied to infer the effect of bottom currents under the present-day oceanographic regime and in the recent past. This paper presents a first description of geomorphologic features observed along the Montenegro/Northern Albanian Continental Margin, in the context of Late Quaternary sea-level changes.

  3. Consumption rates and prey preference of the invasive gastropod Rapana venosa in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savini, Dario; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2006-05-01

    The alien Asian gastropod Rapana venosa (Valenciennes 1846) was first recorded in 1973 along the Italian coast of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Recently, this predator of bivalves has been spreading all around the world oceans, probably helped by ship traffic and aquaculture trade. A caging experiment in natural environment was performed during the summer of 2002 in Cesenatico (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) in order to estimate consumption rates and prey preference of R. venosa. The prey items chosen were the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819), the introduced carpet clam Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve 1850), both supporting the local fisheries, and the Indo-Pacific invasive clam Anadara (Scapharca) inaequivalvis (Bruguière 1789). Results showed an average consumption of about 1 bivalve prey per day (or 1.2 g wet weight per day). Predation was species and size selective towards small specimens of A. inaequivalvis; consumption of the two commercial species was lower. These results might reduce the concern about the economical impact on the local bivalve fishery due to the presence of the predatory gastropod. On the other hand, selective predation might probably alter local community structure, influencing competition amongst filter feeder/suspension feeder bivalve species and causing long-term ecological impact. The large availability of food resource and the habitat characteristics of the Emilia-Romagna littoral makes this area an important breeding ground for R. venosa in the Mediterranean Sea, thus worthy of consideration in order to understand the bioinvasion ecology of this species and to control its likely further dispersal.

  4. Impact of mesoscale meteorological processes on anomalous radar propagation conditions over the northern Adriatic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Horvat, Igor; Tomažić, Igor; Kvakić, Marko; Viher, Mladen; Grisogono, Branko

    2015-09-01

    The impact of mesoscale structures on the occurrence of anomalous propagation (AP) conditions for radio waves, including ducts, superrefractive, and subrefractive conditions, was studied. The chosen meteorological situations are the bora wind and the sporadic sea/land breeze (SB/LB) during three selected cases over a large portion of the northern Adriatic. For this purpose, we used available radio soundings and numerical mesoscale model simulations (of real cases and their sensitivity tests) at a horizontal resolution of 1.5 km and 81 vertical levels. The model simulated the occurrences of AP conditions satisfactorily, although their intensities and frequency were underestimated at times. Certain difficulties appeared in reproducing the vertical profile of the modified refractive index, which is mainly dependent on the accuracy of the modeled humidity. The spatial distributions of summer AP conditions reveal that the surface layer above the sea (roughly between 30 and 100 m asl) is often covered by superrefractive conditions and ducts. The SB is highly associated with the formations of AP conditions: (i) in the first 100 m asl, where trapping and superrefractive conditions form because of the advection of cold and moist air, and (ii) inside the transition layer between the SB body and the elevated return flow in the form of subrefractive conditions. When deep convection occurs, all three types of AP conditions are caused by the downdraft beneath the cumulonimbus cloud base in its mature phase that creates smaller but marked pools of cold and dry air. The bora wind usually creates a pattern of AP conditions associated with the hydraulic jump and influences distribution of AP conditions over the sea surface.

  5. ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic pollutants may constitute the most widespread waste loadings into the waters of Lake Superior. There are essentially three categories of organic contaminants. The first grouping consists of those organic compounds that readily degrade biologically or chemically. The secon...

  6. Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Upjohn Company sought a solution to their problem of potential particulate contamination of sterile injectable drugs. Contamination was caused by dust particles attracted by static electrical charge, which clung to plastic curtains in clean rooms. Upjohn found guidance in NASA Tech Briefs which provided detailed information for reducing static electricity. Guidelines for setting up static free work stations, materials and equipment needed to maintain antistatic protection.

  7. Reconnaissance of 47 antibiotics and associated microbial risks in seafood sold in the United States.

    PubMed

    Done, Hansa Y; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-01-23

    Aquaculture production has nearly tripled in the last two decades, bringing with it a significant increase in the use of antibiotics. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the presence of 47 antibiotics was investigated in U.S. purchased shrimp, salmon, catfish, trout, tilapia, and swai originating from 11 different countries. All samples (n=27) complied with U.S. FDA regulations and five antibiotics were detected above the limits of detection: oxytetracycline (in wild shrimp, 7.7ng/g of fresh weight; farmed tilapia, 2.7; farmed salmon, 8.6; farmed trout with spinal deformities, 3.9), 4-epioxytetracycline (farmed salmon, 4.1), sulfadimethoxine (farmed shrimp, 0.3), ormetoprim (farmed salmon, 0.5), and virginiamycin (farmed salmon marketed as antibiotic-free, 5.2). A literature review showed that sub-regulatory levels of antibiotics, as found here, can promote resistance development; publications linking aquaculture to this have increased more than 8-fold from 1991 to 2013. Although this study was limited in size and employed sample pooling, it represents the largest reconnaissance of antibiotics in U.S. seafood to date, providing data on previously unmonitored antibiotics and on farmed trout with spinal deformities. Results indicate low levels of antibiotic residues and general compliance with U.S. regulations. The potential for development of microbial drug resistance was identified as a key concern and research priority. PMID:25449970

  8. The cost of being valuable: predictors of extinction risk in marine invertebrates exploited as luxury seafood

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Steven W.; Polidoro, Beth A.; Hamel, Jean-François; Gamboa, Ruth U.; Mercier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Extinction risk has been linked to biological and anthropogenic variables. Prediction of extinction risk in valuable fauna may not follow mainstream drivers when species are exploited for international markets. We use results from an International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List assessment of extinction risk in all 377 known species of sea cucumber within the order Aspidochirotida, many of which are exploited worldwide as luxury seafood for Asian markets. Extinction risk was primarily driven by high market value, compounded by accessibility and familiarity (well known) in the marketplace. Extinction risk in marine animals often relates closely to body size and small geographical range but our study shows a clear exception. Conservation must not lose sight of common species, especially those of high value. Greater human population density and poorer economies in the geographical ranges of endangered species illustrate that anthropogenic variables can also predict extinction risks in marine animals. Local-level regulatory measures must prevent opportunistic exploitation of high-value species. Trade agreements, for example CITES, may aid conservation but will depend on international technical support to low-income tropical countries. The high proportion of data deficient species also stresses a need for research on the ecology and population demographics of unglamorous invertebrates. PMID:24598425

  9. Organic and total lead in selected fresh and canned seafood products.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, D S; Dabeka, R W; Cléroux, C

    1991-01-01

    Various fresh and canned seafood products were examined for ionic alkyl lead, tetraalkyl lead and total lead. Dimethyl lead, diethyl lead, trimethyl lead and triethyl lead were extracted with diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) at pH 8 and 9 from enzymically hydrolysed samples. Butyl derivatives were formed by Grignard reaction prior to analysis by gas chromatography-atomic absorption spectrometry (GC-AAS). Tetraalkyl lead was extracted from the hydrolysates with hexane. Total lead was determined by reductive coprecipitation with palladium in the presence of ascorbic acid after nitric-perchloric digestion. Many of the samples contained low (less than 0.09-0.7 ng g-1) levels of trimethyl- and dimethyl lead. Triethyl lead was found at similar levels in several samples. Total lead levels were higher with values ranging from less than 5 ng g-1 to 2.9 micrograms g-1. Detection limits for the organolead and total lead methods were 0.07-0.2 and 3-19 ng Pb g-1 respectively. PMID:1806397

  10. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in Mediterranean seafood and surface sediments, intake evaluation and risk for consumers.

    PubMed

    Spada, Lucia; Annicchiarico, Cristina; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Giandomenico, Santina; Di Leo, Antonella

    2012-04-01

    Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured in sediments and marine organisms from the Taranto Gulf to understand their distribution and partitioning. Sediment concentrations ranged from 0.036 to 7.730 mg/kg (mean: 2.777 mg/kg d.w.) and from 1 to 40 μg/kg (mean: 11 μg/kg d.w.) for total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (Me-Hg), respectively. In mollusks THg ranged from n.d. to 1870 μg/kg d.w. while in fish from 324 to 1740 μg/kg d.w. Me-Hg concentrations in fish ranged from 190 to 1040 μg/kg d.w. and from n.d. to 1321 μg/kg d.w. in mollusks. THg exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission (0.5 mg/kg w.w.) only in gastropod Hexaplex t. The calculated weekly intake was in many cases over the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake established by EFSA for all edible species. These results seem to indicate that dietary consumption of this seafood implicates an appreciable risk for human health. PMID:21968333

  11. Characterization of Mobile Staphylococcus equorum Plasmids Isolated from Fermented Seafood That Confer