Novak-Leonard, Jennifer L.; Brown, Alan S.
First conducted in 1982, the National Endowment for the Arts' (NEA's) Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) serves as the longest-standing resource for studying U.S. adult levels of arts attendance, personal arts creation and performance, and arts participation through electronic media. The environment in which arts organizations…
Welch, Vincent, Jr.; Kim, Yonghyun
This report analyzes data from the 1982, 1985, 1992, 2002, and 2008 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA). Analyses focus on differential arts participation by race/ethnicity and the effect of race/ethnicity on arts participation. Descriptive and inferential analyses explore trends in arts participation by race/ethnicity across the…
Bergevin, Paul; McKinley, John
Participation Training for Adult Education serves as a manual, guide, and resource for leaders and participants interested in establishing a program of adult learning called group-participation training. Goals emphasize participants learning about themselves as learners, how they relate to and can help others, and exploring the dynamics of a…
Rabkin, Nick; Hedberg, E. C.
The Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPAs), conducted for the National Endowment for the Arts, have shown a steady decline in the rates of adult attendance at most "benchmark" arts events--specifically, classical music and jazz concerts, musical and non-musical plays, opera, and ballet performances--as well as declines in other forms…
Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998
This issue of a quarterly newsletter on lifelong learning focuses on the theme of the arts and humanities in adult literacy education. The following articles are included: (1) "In Defense of a Practical Education" (Earl Shorris); (2) "From the Program Director" (Elizabeth Bryant McCrary); (3) "Vermont Council on the Humanities: Book Discussion…
Proposes a program that uses the methods of participant observation to improve the experiences of student interns and integrate the internship programs into the liberal arts curriculum. The program includes a pre-internship methods course, a periodic log to be submitted by the student, and a final integration paper. (SLM)
Manning, Claire; Verenikina, Irina; Brown, Ian
What can arts-based learning offer to adult, work-related education? A study was undertaken that explored the benefits of learning with the arts for professional development of an adult learner in Australia. The individual experiences of nine adults who participated in arts-based workshops to build work-related skills were examined using the…
This article examines arts participation as a context for youth to develop purpose. Two analyses were conducted of interviews with arts-involved youth to explore the relationship between their arts participation and purpose, which was defined as an "intention to accomplish something that is both meaningful to the self and contributes to the…
Lawton, Pamela Harris; La Porte, Angela M.
Quality community-based art education programs for older adults over the age of 50 should exploit the broad range of interests and cognitive abilities of participants by utilizing adult education theory, brain research, and the best practices of adult art education programs. We consider a developing paradigm on the cognitive abilities of the…
Art making has been theorized as a way for children to develop the capacity to participate in social and cultural transformation. Yet, little research has been done to examine the role of art making in children's development as participants in society. This study used ethnographic methods to investigate children's art making in elementary school.…
Written from the direct experience of a practitioner, this is an autobiographic paper by a contemporary artist that recounts and explores creative and political activism through contemporary art. This article examines the tensions around status: the status of objects, materials and production methods, and the status of people and their drive to…
James Irvine Foundation, 2015
The Exploring Engagement Fund provides risk capital for arts nonprofits to experiment with innovative ideas about how to engage diverse Californians. In order to understand the variety of Californians engaged in arts experiences, this guide is intended to support current and future Fund grantees in collecting participant information. Exploring…
Clennon, Ornette D.; Kagan, Carolyn; Lawthom, Rebecca; Swindells, Rachel
In this paper, we critically reflect, through the lens of liberation psychology, on our experiences of using participative community arts in work with young people and intergenerational groups in inner-city Manchester, UK. We used mixed methods to examine the impact of and engagement with community arts in two projects. One study was quasi…
May, Brittany Nixon; Robinson, Nicole R.
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions and attitudes of the Beverley Taylor Sorenson Arts Learning Program (BTSALP) arts specialists on arts integration. BTSALP arts specialists (N = 50) throughout the state of Utah responded to a 20-item survey. Results indicated that a majority of BTSALP arts specialists believe that arts…
Lai, Horng-Ji; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Li, Ai-Tzu
This study investigated the informal learning experiences expressed by Taiwanese adults (aged from 16 to 97) and examined their involvement related to selected socio-demographic characteristics. Data of the 2008 Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan and Fujian Area were used to look at different variables of adults' demographic…
O'Neill, Aimee; Moss, Hilary
This paper describes a community art therapy group for people living with chronic pain. Nine adults were offered 12 weekly group art therapy sessions that included art therapy activities such as guided imagery focusing on body scans followed by art responses and artistic expressions of the pain experience. This pilot group art therapy program is…
Mellard, Daryl; Patterson, Margaret Becker; Prewett, Sara
Readers' individual literacy practices involve a variety of materials such as books, newspapers, magazines, technical materials and work documents. This study explored the relationship between readership (reading as a form of communication, an advancement of culture, and the development of the individual) and readers' choice of materials for participants in adult education, whose skills varied from very low literacy to high school/General Education Development (GED) levels. In this study we reviewed adult education participants' pattern of reading materials and the frequency of usage among participants. A representative sample of 273 adult education participants was recruited from 12 Kansas adult education programs. Their literacy practices were evaluated in terms of age, education level, and reading skill levels. Our results pointed to differences based on age but not educational completion level. The implications are discussed in terms of matching curricular materials used in instruction to salient learner characteristics. Recommendations for literacy instructors are provided that could enhance the learners' persistence and success. PMID:23526865
Mellard, Daryl; Patterson, Margaret Becker; Prewett, Sara
This study extends the literature on the relation between reading practices and individual characteristics of participants in adult education who have low literacy skills. Reading practices describe individuals' reading frequency for different types of written material, such as books, newspapers, magazines, technical materials, and work documents.…
Walker, Chris; Scott-Melnyk, Stephanie
This monograph presents research recommending a broad, unconventional definition of cultural participation that encompasses the variety of artistic and cultural expression in a diverse society. It also examines how and why people participate in arts and culture. Information comes from an evaluation of Community Partnerships for Cultural…
Merriweather, Lisa R.
Arts-based adult education has been embraced by a growing number of adult educators. These educators have explored its potential in the workplace, in the community and in academia. This article contributes to this work by exploring the Spoken Word, an art form located within the genre of poetry, and its potential as a tool of arts-based adult…
Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Ainlay Anand, Susan; Avent, Lindsay Cherryl
This study evaluated the potential benefit of weekly group art therapy in groups of adult psychiatric outpatients at a university medical center. Eighteen patients participated in 4 successive 8-week groups of 6 to 8 patients each that met weekly and were led by 2 therapists (a board-certified art therapist and a psychiatry resident). The…
Laurer, Mattye; van der Vennet, Renée
This study investigated whether art production or viewing and sorting art reproductions would be more effective in reducing negative mood and anxiety for 28 adults with substance use disorders. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups and completed pre- and posttest measures of negative mood and anxiety The hypothesis that art…
Felton, Emma; Vichie, Krystle; Moore, Eloise
University participation among students from low socio-economic backgrounds in Australia is low and nationwide strategies are in place to help bridge the gap. This article presents a preliminary evaluation of a creative arts-based outreach program to raise awareness and aspiration for university study among students from low-income backgrounds.…
Pike, Amanda Alders
This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…
Mareschal, Teresa L.
The history of adult Jewish education is rich and is replete with learning opportunities for Jewish adults, and Jewish women are active participants in adult Jewish education. In this chapter, the author examines Reform Jewish women's motivations to participate in adult Jewish education. First, she provides a historical overview of Judaism and…
A study of 1097 employed Finnish adults found that 51.8% had recently participated or intended to participate in adult education. Those aged 40-44 were three times more likely to participate than ages 60-64. Participation was influenced by educational attainment and lack of know-how. Results suggested the importance of acknowledging the…
Noice, Tony; Noice, Helga; Kramer, Arthur F
This article reviews the scientific literature on the enhancement of healthy aging in older adults through active participation in the arts. Methodologies and conclusions are described for studies of dance, expressive writing, music (singing and instrumental), theatre arts, and visual arts including documentation of mental/physical improvements in memory, creativity, problem solving, everyday competence, reaction time, balance/gait, and quality of life. In addition to these gains in measures of successful aging, the article also provides (in a Supplementary Appendix) some selected examples of arts engagement for remedial purposes. Finally, it offers suggestions for expanding inquiry into this underinvestigated corner of aging research. PMID:24336875
Noice, Tony; Noice, Helga; Kramer, Arthur F.
This article reviews the scientific literature on the enhancement of healthy aging in older adults through active participation in the arts. Methodologies and conclusions are described for studies of dance, expressive writing, music (singing and instrumental), theatre arts, and visual arts including documentation of mental/physical improvements in memory, creativity, problem solving, everyday competence, reaction time, balance/gait, and quality of life. In addition to these gains in measures of successful aging, the article also provides (in a Supplementary Appendix) some selected examples of arts engagement for remedial purposes. Finally, it offers suggestions for expanding inquiry into this underinvestigated corner of aging research. PMID:24336875
Belanger, Paul, Ed.; Valdivielso, Sofia, Ed.
This book contains nine papers in which data from the Adult Education Participation Survey (a part of the International Adult Literacy Survey) are used to identify and compare trends in organized learning in seven countries. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Who Participates in Organized Adult Learning?" (Paul Belanger, Sofia…
Presents an overview of developments in the Quality of Working Life field and some links between this movement and adult education. Discusses worker participation as a strategy for mass adult education. (SK)
Cover art has long been used as a marketing device for books, particularly with books aimed at young adults (YAs) aged 12 to 18. An examination of some of the teen thrillers published by novelist Lois Duncan since the 1970s yields several discoveries about changes in cover art that come with various editions. Many covers have been resigned to…
Love, Jeffrey; Klipple, Bramble C.
This report analyzes data from the 1982, 1985, and 1992 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA). Analysis focuses on the role of race/ethnicity in arts participation. Arts participation is defined as involvement in a listed activity at least once in the past 12 months. Race is defined along categories used by the U.S. Bureau of Census.…
Murray, Gina C.
The purpose of this study was to examine the motivation and satisfaction of adult learners who participated in non-credit studio art classes. Leisure motivation has been researched by educators, philosophers, psychologists, and social scientists (Candy, 1991; Brookfield, 2005: Dewey, 1980; Knowles, 1998; Maslow, 1970; Rogers, 1961, Stebbins,…
Fujita-Starck, Pamela J.
Data from 1,142 adult students confirmed the seven-factor typology of the Educational Participation Scale. Reliability of scales was acceptable. Construct validity was tested by predicting membership in three curricular groups: arts/leisure, personal development, and professional development. Results revealed distinctive characteristics and…
Murtaugh, Leonard Paul
Using a population of adults enrolled in 1967 in the 1,123 classes of the Flint, Michigan, adult education program, this study examined the relationship between participation in these programs and the formation or changing of attitudes toward public schools. It sought to determine, among other things, which adult students (if any) actually change…
Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.
Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…
Walker (Bonnie) and Associates, Inc., Crofton, MD.
The risk of dying from fire increases substantially among older adults. This document contains a collection of fire safety information for elderly people. Information includes procedures to follow in case of fire and early warning technologies such as smoke alarms. The booklet describes potential sources of fires (smoking, home heating, kitchens,…
Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Carawan, Lena Williams; Rennick, Robyn A.
Concept mapping (a mixed qualitative-quantitative methodology) was used to describe and understand the psychosocial experiences of adults with confirmed and self-identified dyslexia. Using innovative processes of art and photography, Phase 1 of the study included 15 adults who participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews and were asked to…
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of visual arts and its impact on successful aging and older adult learners in retirement. Retirement is one of the most important economic, psychological, and social transitions in most people's lives. Longevity has increased in the last sixty years such that in 2010, the average person can…
Davies, Pat, Ed.
This book presents international perspectives on access and participation of adults in higher education in selected European countries. The book begins with an introduction by Pat Davies and includes papers detailing and providing examples of practices and policies of higher educational institutions regarding adult students in the following…
Selman, John Thomas, Jr.
Millions of Americans profess belief in God and follow a Protestant Christian belief system. However, very little research or literature explores their participation in religious adult education. Several areas within adult education are exhaustively researched such as health care, leisure, and career related courses, but studies within religion go…
MacLeod, Ann; Skinner, Mark W; Wilkinson, Fay; Reid, Heather
Employing a participatory arts-based research approach, we examined an innovative program from rural Ontario, Canada, designed to address social isolation among older people. Older socially isolated adults were matched to trained volunteers, where in dyads, the eight pairs created expressive art in their home setting over the course of 10 home visits. With thematic and narrative inquiry, we analysed the experiences and perceptions of the program leader, older participants, and older volunteers via their artistic creations, weekly logs, evaluations, and field notes. The findings reveal a successful intervention that positively influenced the well-being of older adult participants and older volunteers, especially in regards to relationships, personal development, and creating meaning as well as extending the intervention's impact beyond the program's duration. We also discuss opportunities for similar programs to inform policy and enable positive community-based health and social service responses to rural social isolation. PMID:26934547
Cookson, Peter S.
A study examined the effects of adult education participation together with educational attainment and work experience on three variables: (1) individual modernity, (2) adoption of modern business practices, and (3) occupational achievement. Survey of 60 Mexican-American shopkeepers indicated participation contributed directly to the first two…
Hughes, Jaime M; Martin, Jennifer L
Addressing sleep disturbance can help to slow functional decline, delay nursing home admission, and improve overall health among older adults; however, sleep is not widely studied in high-risk older adults such as Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants. Sixty-eight ADHC participants were interviewed for sleep disturbance using a 28-item screening questionnaire. More than two thirds (n = 48, 70.6%) reported one or more characteristics of poor sleep, and 38% of participants met basic criteria for insomnia. Individuals with insomnia attended ADHC less frequently, reported worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration, and were more likely to endorse trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up too early (ps < 0.001). Research is needed to better understand perceptions, predictors, and outcomes of sleep disturbance within ADHC participants. PMID:24654988
Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John
Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872
Bynum, Julie PW; Barre, Laura; Reed, Catherine; Passow, Honor
Background Some elderly people receive tests or interventions from which they have low likelihood of benefit or for which the goal is not aligned with their values. Engaging these patients in the decision process is one potential approach to improve the individualization of care. Yet some clinicians perceive and some survey data suggest that older adults prefer not to participate in the decision-making process. Those preferences, however, may be formed based on an experience in which factors, such as communication issues, were barriers to participation. Our goal was to shed light on the experience of very old adults in healthcare decision-making from their own point of view to deepen our understanding of their potentially modifiable barriers to participation. Design and Methods Semi-structured interviews of participants aged 80 and older (n=29, 59% women and 21% black) were analyzed using the constant comparative method in a grounded theory approach to describe decision-making in clinic visits from the patient’s perspective. Results Average age of participants was 84 (range 80–93) and each described an average of 6.4 decision episodes. Active participation was highly variable among subjects. Marked differences in participation across participants and by type of decision -- surgery, medications, diagnostic procedures, and routine testing for preventive care -- highlighted barriers to greater participation. The most common potentially modifiable barriers were the perception that there were no options to consider, low patient activation, and communication issues. Conclusions The experience of very old adults highlights potentially modifiable barriers to greater participation in decision-making. To bring very old patients into the decision process, clinicians will need to modify interviewing skills and spend additional time eliciting their values, goals, and preferences. PMID:24106235
Cookson, Peter S.
Proposed is a comprehensive, multivariate, multirealm theoretical framework with which to integrate and advance the theory and research of adult education participation. This article describes elements of the framework that have already been investigated and those for which there are gaps in the literature. Suggestions for further research to…
LONDON, JACK; WENKERT, ROBERT
WITH THE INCREASING LEISURE TIME OF BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS, CONCERN IS GROWING OVER THEIR LOW PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MYTHS ABOUT BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS WHICH STAND IN THEIR WAY INCLUDE--LOWER CLASS APATHY, INCAPABILITY OF SUSTAINED INTELLECTUAL EFFORT, AND LACK OF APPRECIATION OF THE VALUE OF EDUCATION. OBSTACLES INHERING IN SOCIAL…
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation of adults. 227.43 Section 227.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation of adults. 227.43 Section 227.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Participation of adults. 227.43 Section 227.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Participation of adults. 227.43 Section 227.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Participation of adults. 227.43 Section 227.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...
MacRae, Cathi Dunn
Discusses youth participation (YP) and adult mentorship in public libraries and Voice of Youth Advocates (VOYA), highlighting teen writing opportunities in VOYA: book reviews; annual poetry contest; an occasional column relating teen culture to books, information, entertainment, media, and identity; and occasional lists of favorite teen music,…
The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…
Villar, Feliciano; Triado, Carme; Pinazo, Sacramento; Celdran, Montserrat; Sole, Carme
This study examined the reasons expressed by older adults for attending a university program in Barcelona (Spain). Results were based on the responses of 36 elders to questions from a semistructured interview. These were (a) reasons for joining a university course and (b) factors that prevent enrolling in that course. Participants mentioned more…
Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill
This article examines the relationship between the participation of older adult learners in educational activities and successful aging. In partnership with seniors' organizations, focus-group interviews were conducted on seniors' involvement in learning and their perceptions of its influence on successful aging. Successful aging is defined in…
Byrne, Marie E.; And Others
The relationship between oral and written language skills was explored in this study involving 97 participants in an adult literacy program. Analysis of pragmatic language skills identified behaviors likely to detract from communicative effectiveness. A test of metalinguistic/semantic skills correlated with reading levels of subjects. Follow-up…
Alt, Merilyn; Beatty, Dianne
A project identified strategies to increase participation by community members who traditionally have not used adult and community education (ACE) in Australia. Methodology included a focus group, literature research, and interviews with 70 people. Government-supported ACE was seen as having a broad role in supporting lifelong learning. ACE…
Halperin, Ronnie; Kessler, Suzanne; Braunschweiger, Dana
Educational achievement has been shown to be negatively correlated with recidivism among those released from prison (Nuttall, Hollmen, and Staley, 2003). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a prison art rehabilitation program, Rehabilitation Through the Arts (RTA), on inmate participation in voluntary educational programs. RTA…
Robinson, John P.; And Others
The primary purpose of this report was to compare data obtained from the 1982 and 1985 "Survey of Public Participation in the Arts." Comparisons of core questions and responses indicate that: (1) 1985 results are very close to those obtained in 1982; (2) there was a statistically significant decline in musical theater performance attendance; and…
Liddle, Jeannine L M; Parkinson, Lynne; Sibbritt, David W
The fourth age, as the last stage of life, represents a final challenge to find personal meaning in the face of changing capacities, illness and disability. Participation in valued activities is important for sustaining interest in life and has been associated with enhanced health and well-being. Art and craft activities are a popular form of participation amongst women in late life with growing international interest in the potential for these types of activities to maintain health and well-being and address problems of social isolation. Drawing on open text comments from 114 women enrolled in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health and in-depth interviews with 23 women all aged in their eighties, this paper explores the nature of older women's participation in art and craft activities and conceptualises links between participation in these activities and health and well-being in late life. Participation in art and craft activities is complex and dynamic, comprising cognitive and physical processes infused with emotion and occurs in the context of social relationships, physical spaces, physical ailments and beliefs about the value of the activities. By participating in art and craft activities, older women find purpose in their lives, contributing to their subjective well-being whilst helping and being appreciated by others. They develop a self view as enabled and as such take on new art and craft challenges, continue to learn and develop as art and craft makers and remain open to new possibilities. PMID:24300053
Schlenk, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Diana; Stilley, Carol S.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Olshansky, Ellen
The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to examine reasons for participation in clinical research among older adults with mobility limitation. A purposive sample of 20 men and 20 women aged 70 years or older was recruited. Data were collected by audiotaped telephone interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and transcribed verbatim. Participants expect privacy, professionalism by research staff, and respectful treatment. Benefits to protocol adherence include personal education, comparison of their health status with that of others, opportunity to maintain vitality, and altruism. Barriers to protocol adherence are apprehension, in particular a negative impact on their health care, randomization to the control group, and experimental drugs; and inconvenience. Factors promoting study completion are obligation, reciprocity, receipt of test results, health promotion, and socialization. Implications include meeting expectations, providing health education and study results to participants, reducing barriers to participation, and presenting opportunities for interaction with others. PMID:19692549
Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu
This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374
Young, Denise Y.
The purpose of this study was to explore the association between persistence at the University of Dallas, a private liberal arts university, and participation in a study abroad program. Students who participate in the study abroad program at the University of Dallas spend one semester (typically during the sophomore year) at the Rome campus of the…
Objectives. We compared sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), alcohol, and other caloric beverage (juice and milk) consumption of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants with that of low-income nonparticipants. Methods. We used 1 day of dietary intake data from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 4594 adults aged 20 years and older with household income at or below 250% of the federal poverty line. We used bivariate and multivariate methods to compare the probability of consuming and the amount of calories consumed for each beverage type across 3 groups: current SNAP participants, former participants, and nonparticipants. We used instrumental variable methods to control for unobservable differences in participant groups. Results. After controlling for observable characteristics, SNAP participants were no more likely to consume SSBs than were nonparticipants. Instrumental variable estimates showed that current participants consumed fewer calories from SSBs than did similar nonparticipants. We found no differences in alcoholic beverage consumption, which cannot be purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions. SNAP participants are not unique in their consumption of SSBs or alcoholic beverages. Purchase restrictions may have little effect on SSB consumption. PMID:25033141
Zanata, Régia Luzia
The primary objective of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) is to reduce the indication of tooth extraction by means of a low-cost technique. Considering the difficulties of Brazilian public services to meet the demand of care of the low-income population, with lack of care to the adult population, which usually receives only emergency care, the aim of this study is to assess the performance of high-viscosity glass ionomer cements accomplished by the modified atraumatic restorative treatment in one- and multiple-surface cavities, compared to the conventional restorative approach. It will be analyzed the clinical performance of the materials; cost (material and human resources); patient satisfaction with the treatment received; and preventive effect of treatment. PMID:19089083
Martin, Debbra Louise
llinois K-12 public education administrators' attitudes about, participation in and support of the fine arts were investigated to determine what impact those experiences might have on the inclusion of fine arts in the schools they lead. A secondary consideration was if attitudes toward the fine arts played a role in the inclusion of the fine…
Elias, Willem, Ed.; And Others
The following papers are included: "Values in the Arts and Education" (Jones); "Conditions of Art Confrontations" (Wijdenes, Haanstra); "Arts, Aesthetics and Values in Adult Education" (Greene); "Arts for All" (Milton); "Importance of Culture as Mirrored in the Arts" (Debra); "Arthur Lismer, Canada's Artist/Adult Educator" (Barer-Stein); "Cultural…
... MMWR ) MMWR Share Compartir QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants,* by Selected Diagnoses † — National Study ... which is the estimated number of enrolled adult day services center participants in the United States on ...
Fisher, Jane RW; Hammarberg, Karin; Baker, HW Gordon; McBain, John C
Background Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to treat infertility have been available for nearly three decades. There have been a number of systematic comparisons of the health and development of ART-conceived with spontaneously-conceived (SC) children. Data are equivocal, some finding no differences and others that there are more health and developmental problems in the ART group. It is agreed that perinatal mortality and morbidity are worse after assisted than spontaneous conception and the impact of the hormonally altered intrauterine environment on puberty and later fertility of offspring are unknown. To date however, there has been no investigation of the health and development of ART-conceived young adults, including from the world's few prospective cohorts of ART conceived children. Obtaining these data requires contact to be made with people at least twenty years after discharge from the treating service. Given the ethical difficulties of approaching families to participate in research up to two decades after cessation of treatment, the aim of this exploratory qualitative investigation was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of approaching mothers treated for infertility prior to 1988, and their recall of the health and development of their ART-conceived young adult children. Methods Mothers treated for infertility at the Royal Women's Hospital Reproductive Biology Unit in Melbourne, Australia prior to 1988 were approached by a senior clinician and invited to participate in individual semi-structured interviews which could include their partners and/or young adult children if they wished. Recruitment continued until theoretic saturation had been reached. Results Ten mothers, two of their husbands and five young adults participated in interviews, and the health and development of 15 ART-conceived young adults were described. The experience of conception, pregnancy, birth and the health and development of the children were recalled vividly and
The 1982 and 1985 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) produced a national audience profile for classical ballet and explored factors that predispose participation in this art form. This monograph analyzed data from these surveys in terms of: (1) audience size and composition for live ballet performances; (2) television's role in…
Clover, Darlene E.
Increasingly, practices of collective arts-based learning are being used by adult educators and community organizations as creative and participatory ways to respond to contemporary social or environmental issues. Investigating the potential contributions of arts-based learning to cross-cultural and antiracisms adult education was the aim of this…
Williams Carawan, Lena; Nalavany, Blace
Reflexive photography for individual interviews and the use of art with focus groups provides a valuable method for exploring the psychosocial issues encountered by adults with dyslexia. Reflexive photography and art is particularly appropriate when interviewing adults with dyslexia who may have difficulty expressing and focusing on what they want…
Twemlow, Stuart W.; Biggs, Bridget K.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stephen W.
This study evaluated the Gentle Warrior Program, a traditional martial arts-based intervention to reduce aggression in children, as it was implemented in three elementary schools. The sample consisted of 254 children in grades 3, 4, and 5 who participated in the Gentle Warrior Program as part of a larger school violence intervention. Results…
Phillips, Niki; Fragoulis, Iosif
The use of Art for educational reasons has been recently developing in Greece both in formal education and in Adult Education. Relevant theoretical texts and studies, (Dewey, 1934. Gardner, 1990. Perkins, 1994) pin point that training through the Arts can contribute to an integrated learning, since through systematic observation of works of art,…
Becker, Emily; Dusing, Stacey
Typically developing children frequently participate in community recreation activities that enhance their social/emotional and physical development. The inclusion of children with developmental disabilities in these activities continues to be a challenge. This case report investigated the feasibility of including a child with Down syndrome in a community performing arts program. The participant is an 11-year-old female with Down syndrome and mild cognitive impairment. The participant was enrolled in a 14-week performing arts session that included a combination of acting, voice, and dance instruction. She participated in the program with the support of a one-on-one assistant who was a physical therapy student. The assistant facilitated learning the choreography, appropriate socialization, and positioning on the stage. Peer helpers were used to allow for greater independence toward the end of the session and for the final performance. The participant completed the final performance without the one-on-one assistant. The participant's mother completed the PedsQL before and after the performance, and the participant's scaled scores increased in all subsets except for emotional function and the total scales score increased from 51 to 57. With appropriate modifications and the right child/program fit, children with developmental disabilities such as Down syndrome can successfully be included in community programs. Physical therapists can assist families and community programs to make developmentally appropriate modifications to enhance participation. PMID:20397862
Background Use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) continues to increase, yet little is known of the longer term health of ART conceived offspring. There are some adverse birth outcomes associated with ART conception but the subsequent developmental trajectory is unclear. Undertaking research in this area is challenging due the sensitive nature of the topic and the time elapsed since birth of the ART conceived young adults. The aim of this report is to describe a research protocol, including design and ethical considerations, used to compare the physical and psychosocial health outcomes of ART conceived young adults aged 18-28 years, with their spontaneously conceived peers. Design This is a retrospective cohort study of mothers who conceived with ART in Victoria, Australia and gave birth to a singleton child between 1982 and 1992. A current address for each mother was located and a letter of invitation to participate in the study was sent by registered mail. Participation involved completing a telephone interview about her young adult offspring’s health and development from birth to the present. Mothers were also asked for consent for the researcher to contact their son/daughter to invite them to complete a structured telephone interview about their physical and psychosocial health. A comparison group of women living in Victoria, Australia, who had given birth to a spontaneously conceived singleton child between 1982 and 1992 was recruited from the general population using random digit dialling. Data were collected from them and their young adult offspring in the same way. Regression analyses were used to evaluate relationships between ART exposure and health status, including birth defects, chronic health conditions, hospital admissions, growth and sexual development. Psychosocial wellbeing, parental relationships and educational achievement were also assessed. Factors associated with the age of disclosure of ART conception were explored with the ART
Sezaki, Shinya; Bloomgarden, Joan
Addresses art therapy for homebound people, giving special attention to the set of needs for this environment; the desired personality traits of the in-home therapist; the structure of the therapeutic relationship; and appropriate art therapy goals. Presents two case studies of home-bound art therapy which demonstrate the complexities and…
Johnson, R J; Herring, C
This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions. PMID:12316383
Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell; Milana, Marcella
The purpose of this booklet is to document cross-national patterns of adult learning, and in particular the unequal chances to participate in adult learning. In so doing, an effort is made to identify important motivating factors for participating in adult learning. The specific objectives of the booklet are to: (1) make available the…
Dincer, N. Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayca; Askar, Petek
The aim of this study is to identify the determinants of participation in adult education in Turkey. The analysis is conducted using the Adult Education Survey (AES), conducted by TurkStat. The results indicate that economic growth in the sector of employment significantly and positively affects the odds for adult education participation. The data…
Noice, Helga; Noice, Tony
A theatrically-based intervention was given to 122 older adults who took acting lessons twice a week for 4 weeks. The training consisted of multi-modal activities (cognitive-affective-physiological) typically employed in college acting classes. Comparison groups consisted of no-treatment controls and participants instructed in a different performing art, singing. Assessment of effectiveness was performed using a battery of 11 cognitive/affective test measures that included word recall, prose comprehension/recall, word generation, digit-span ability, and problem-solving. It was found that the acting group improved significantly from pretest to posttest over both other groups. Digit-span was the only measure that failed to improve. No aspects of the intervention supplied specific training or practice on the test measures. Previous versions of the intervention with community-dwelling adults had produced similar findings but the current participants were older, less well-educated, and lived in subsidized, primarily low-income, retirement homes. PMID:18686051
Allender, Steven; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie
Qualitative research may be able to provide an answer as to why adults and children do or do not participate in sport and physical activity. This paper systematically examines published and unpublished qualitative research studies of UK children's and adults' reasons for participation and non-participation in sport and physical activity. The…
Millions of adults volunteer as research participants annually at research institutions across the nation. This research explored the attitudes, beliefs, and norms of rurally situated, adult research participants at a large research university. This systematic exploration of research participant experiences gathered information to inform the…
McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine
Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…
Cavanaugh, John C.
Describes a freshman liberal arts honors course on adult development and aging. Contains suggestions for selecting and using readings, films, music, and television shows. Provides examples of how to make connections between these materials and the scientific literature. (DSK)
Green, Nancy H.
Article sought the sources and manifestations of parent interference with children's artistic development and described some educational techniques that the teacher of art at the adult level can use to cope with blocks to artistic development. (Author/RK)
By combining museum education with art therapy, museums can make significant contributions to healthcare. The Creative Aging program at The Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C., unites these fields, using artworks and art-making as catalysts to explore feelings, invite self-exploration, and build community. The program fosters an interest in…
Harlan, Jane E.
This guide is intended to help agencies serving older adults with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities in setting up a relatively inexpensive creative art program. The first section presents a rationale for creative art experiences for this population and then provides specific information on program development, including…
The utility of definitions and descriptions applied to adult learning can be effectively measured only by direct application to a specific field of learning, in this case, fine arts. Based on the author's 12 years of experience as an art educator, the article provides a conceptual framework for those who are at the beginning of their pedagogical…
Trends and issues related to arts and humanities in adult and continuing education can be categorized in three ways: ways of knowing, informal sites of learning, and cultural pluralism. The arts and humanities are vehicles for critical reflection, and they present paths to the individual construction of knowledge that are intuitive, relational,…
Clover, Darlene E.; Bell, Lorraine
Public art galleries and museums have been mandated to become more relevant and useful to the lived experiences of the broad communities they claim to serve. Adult education has long been part of the work of these institutions, although historically the relationship has been uneasy, and they seldom feature in the adult education literature. To…
Fisher, James C.
A study identified distinguishing characteristics of active older adults who participate in educational activities and measured factors that motivated participation. The dependent variables were participation and nonparticipation; independent variables were educational attainment, anomie, life satisfaction, and certain learning-related factors. A…
The "problem-posing" education model of Paulo Freire takes as its departure point the life experience of the learner, rather than the teacher's knowledge. Ursuline College (Cleveland, Ohio) created several courses for returning adult students that were based on Freire's ideas. One course called "Humanities Focus on Life" is for adults who are new…
Whiting, Peggy; Bradley, Loretta J.
The authors examine the concepts of ego integrity, life review, and narrative reconstruction as cornerstones of theory that inform counseling practice with aging adults. Contemporary theories of grief reconciliation are proposed as useful models for understanding and creatively addressing the needs of adults who are 60 years and older.
Oliveira, Michelli Faria de; Murrel, Ben; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Vargas, Milenka; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Smith, Davey M.; Woods, Steven Paul; Gianella, Sara
Older HIV-infected adults have a higher risk of neurocognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the associations between levels of HIV DNA in peripheral blood, soluble markers of inflammation and cellular trafficking in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neurocognitive functioning among 18 younger (22–40 years) and 26 older (50–71 years) HIV-infected subjects, who were administered a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Older HIV-infected individuals presented higher levels of inflammation in CSF and blood compared to younger individuals, but no difference was observed in HIV DNA levels. Among older participants, higher HIV DNA levels were significantly associated with more severe neurocognitive impairment (p = 0.005), particularly in the Executive Functions domain (p = 0.004). No association was observed between HIV DNA and neurocognition among younger individuals. Despite significantly increased inflammation observed in the older group, none of the inflammatory markers were associated with neurocognitive impairment among older HIV+ individuals (p > 0.05). Our study supports the involvement of peripheral HIV DNA reservoir in the pathogenesis of neurocognitive disorder during suppressive ART. Correlates of neurocognitive impairment might differ between younger and older adults, suggesting that future treatment and prevention strategies for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders likely need to be tailored based on age. PMID:26603568
Rayfield, William W., III
The purpose of this study is to answer the call of the National Endowment for the Arts (2011), and various other arts-related organizations, for extensive research on the ability of the fine and performing arts to improve the quality of life for those who participate in them. Guided by C. Robert Pace's theory of quality of student effort,…
Ndirangu, Murugi; Sztam, Kevin; Sheriff, Muhsin; Hawken, Mark; Arpadi, Stephen; Rashid, Juma; Deckelbaum, Richard; El-Sadr, Wafaa
Malnutrition coexists with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Food supplementation is recommended for food-insecure, HIV-positive individuals. This study was part of a larger six-month food supplementation program for adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in central Kenya. We conducted 10 focus group interviews with program participants to examine the perceptions of participants regarding the food supplementation program. Focus group transcripts were analyzed for themes and six were identified. These were perception of food insecurity and the health of the participants, the benefits of participating, use of the food, coping strategies after the program ended, suggestions for improving the program, and sustainability of the benefits. Participants perceived that the food improved their health and ART adherence, and reduced stigma. The improvements were not always sustained. Sharing with people beyond the immediate family was very common, depleting the food available to the participants. Interventions with sustainable effects for food-insecure, HIV-positive individuals and their families are needed. PMID:25418241
Stephenson, Raquel Chapin
This article describes a community art therapy program that was designed to promote health and well-being in old age. Observations of diverse participant interactions in the nondirective therapy studio over the course of 6 years revealed the benefits of art making and how it may influence well-being during the process of advancing age. Program…
Alders, Amanda; Levine-Madori, Linda
This article presents the results of a pilot study investigating the efficacy of art therapy to enhance cognitive performance in a sample of 24 elderly Hispanic/Latino members of a community center who participated in a weekly structured thematic therapeutic arts program. A 12-week, quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest, nonrandomized, controlled…
Sam, Ann M.; Reszka, Stephanie S.; Boyd, Brian A.; Pan, Yi; Hume, Kara; Odom, Samuel L.
The ability for a child to engage in the classroom is associated with better academic outcomes. Yet, there is limited information on how child characteristics of autism and adult behavior impact engagement. This study examined (1) the pattern of adult participation and child engagement in preschool classrooms that serve children with ASD, (2) the associations between child engagement and adult participation, and (3) how characteristics of ASD (autism severity, language ability, and challenging behavior) moderate the relationship between adult participation and child engagement. Overall, children were less likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. Moderators impacted this relationship. Children with higher levels of autism severity were more likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. Similarly, children with lower language abilities were more likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. Finally, children with higher levels of challenging behaviors were less likely to be engaged when adults were actively or passively participating with them. These findings have important implications for how adults can best support the engagement of children with ASD. PMID:27006829
Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Deitz, Jean; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Eadie, Tanya; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar
Purpose: This study examined satisfaction with communicative participation as reported by adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). Method: Eight community-dwelling adults with MS participated in semi-structured interviews. They were asked to discuss their satisfaction with their communication in a variety of situations. Interviews were analyzed using…
Yelich Biniecki, Susan M.
The purpose of this interpretive research study was to explore how adult learners perceive they construct knowledge in connection to their participation in nonformal world affairs programs. The study context involved the exploration of 12 adult learners' perceptions of their knowledge construction as participants in world affairs programs held in…
Peinovich, Paula E.
Many researchers have investigated the factors that keep adults from participating in continuing education or "lifelong learning." Most of the studies have identified factors--previous educational experience, race, ethnic group, and others--that make adults less likely to be participants in schooling. However, the barriers may actually be more…
Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…
Broek, Simon; Hake, Barry J.
This article contains an analysis of policies aimed at increasing the participation of adults in higher education (HE) in seven countries (NL, DK, SE, UK, BE Flanders, DE and the state of California in the USA). In order to maintain their economic competitiveness, many countries have developed policies to increase the participation of adults in…
Wallner, Scott David
The purpose of the study was to identify reasons and motivation of adult stakeholders that influence participation in adult community education enrichment classes in the St. Cloud Public School District, St. Cloud, Minnesota. The study also examined the perceptions about adult learners held by leaders, planners, and facilitators of these programs,…
Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna
This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education…
Virta, Maarit; Vedenpaa, Anita; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti
Objective: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective nonpharmacological treatments of adult ADHD. The authors present results from a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychological group rehabilitation for adult ADHD. Method: A total of 29 adults with ADHD participated. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 or 11 weekly sessions.…
Azevedo, Nair Rios; Goncalves, Maria Jose
Especially in a time of economic and social crisis, besides poverty and social segregation, immigrants face an additional difficulty to get integrated in a new society: lack of oral and written knowledge of the language of the country they are now living in. This paper describes an on-going research project--Writing and Reading with Art (WRAP)…
Haas, Kaaren; Costley, Debra; Falkmer, Marita; Richdale, Amanda; Sofronoff, Kate; Falkmer, Torbjörn
Recruiting adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into research poses particular difficulties; longitudinal studies face additional challenges. This paper reports on a mixed methods study to identify factors influencing the participation in longitudinal autism research of adults with ASD, including those with an intellectual disability, and their carers. Common and differentiating factors influencing the research participation of participants are identified and discussed. Factors influencing participation were found to differ both between and within participant categories. We propose a dichotomy whereby factors influencing research participation can be classified as those arising from a participant's values, which act as either a motivator or a deterrent; and those based on convenience, which act as either an enabler or inhibitor. These findings are applicable to research studies that seek to recruit adults with ASD as participants. PMID:26810436
Rasmussen, Marilyn F.
Survey responses from 68 civic and community organizations in South Dakota indicated that one-fourth currently had some level of youth participation. Service/community, religious, 4-H/scout leaders, and youth center/after-school programs, but none of the government or business organizations, indicated that youth participated in decision making.…
Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K.; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Fox, Allison J.; Chohan, Mariam Zahid; Beck, Aaron T.
Although individuals who attempt suicide have poor compliance rates with treatment recommendations, the nature and degree of participation bias in clinical treatment research among these individuals is virtually unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine participation bias by comparing the demographic and diagnostic characteristics of adult…
Taschow, Horst G.
In a study of the way adult basic education (ABE) students answer different kinds of questions about what they read, 221 students were asked to read ten passages during a ten-week period and to answer ten questions about each passage immediately after reading it. Each set of questions included three dealing with facts, three dealing with word…
Jung, Jong-Chul; Cervero, Ronald M.; Valentine, Thomas
Composite state-level data from four national sets were used to compare 1991 and 1997 higher education participation of adults over 24. Variations in state structural factors significantly affected participation variance. Factors at one point in time substantially affected future participation. State policymakers had an influence on access and…
Quigley, B. Allan
Although a considerable body of research has been developed in recent years on participation in adult education, little has been done from the standpoint of social policy and its impact on participation. To assist investigation of this aspect of participation, three social policy models are presented: market models, progressive-liberal-welfare…
McClosky, Mildred; Kleinbard, Peter
Nine programs chosen for the ways in which they involved adolescents in significant pursuits, either in solving their own problems or in helping adults solve theirs, are described. The programs serve as models for other attempts to aid adolescents toward feeling that they can make a difference in the world around them. Obstacles for youth enroute…
Malhotra, Naveen K.; Shapero, Morris; Sizoo, Steve; Munro, Tom
As institutions of higher learning have seen the aging of American college students, they have been increasingly concerned about helping them overcome what deters their reentry. Adult perception of deterrents is identified in this study. Analysis and the factor structure underlying these deterrents is examined in the Situational, Institutional,…
Powell, David V.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of environmental conditions of adult literacy and demographics prevalent during infancy and early childhood on mathematics and language arts literacy scores on eighth grade achievement tests. This study collected published scores for eighth grade math and language literacy from public schools…
Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.
This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on language arts is divided into six topics. The topics included are Dictionary Usage, Vocabulary, Speech, Poetry, Writing, and Literature Analysis. Competency statements and performance…
Johnson, Angela Beumer; Ciancio, Stacey
Advocates three ways of engaging students with literature to develop critical literacy: incorporating young adult literature, responding through the arts, and addressing issues and themes (even the controversial ones). Argues that accessible literature, thought-provoking artistic methods, and genuine, higher-level questions encourage in-depth…
The Liberal Arts Program described in this report is the largest and most stable of the projects of the Institute of Study for Older Adults (ISOA) at New York City Technical College. The report deals with the program's activities and emphases during 1979-80. After introductory material on the ISOA's growth, activities, funding, and outreach model,…
Zeng, Yi; Gu, Danan; George, Linda K.
This research examines the association of religious participation with mortality using a longitudinal data set collected from 9,017 oldest-old aged 85+ and 6,956 younger elders aged 65 to 84 in China in 2002 and 2005 and hazard models. Results show that adjusted for demographics, family/social support, and health practices, risk of dying was 24% (p < 0.001) and 12% (p < 0.01) lower among frequent and infrequent religious participants than among nonparticipants for all elders aged 65+. After baseline health was adjusted, the corresponding risk of dying declined to 21% (p < 0.001) and 6% (not significant), respectively. The authors also conducted hazard models analysis for men versus women and for young-old versus oldest-old, respectively, adjusted for single-year age; the authors found that gender differentials of association of religious participation with mortality among all elderly aged 65+ were not significant; association among young-old men was significantly stronger than among oldest-old men, but no such significant young-old versus oldest-old differentials in women were found. PMID:22448080
Haas, Kaaren; Costley, Debra; Falkmer, Marita; Richdale, Amanda; Sofronoff, Kate; Falkmer, Torbjörn
Recruiting adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into research poses particular difficulties; longitudinal studies face additional challenges. This paper reports on a mixed methods study to identify factors influencing the participation in longitudinal autism research of adults with ASD, including those with an intellectual disability, and…
Baylor, Carolyn; Burns, Michael; Eadie, Tanya; Britton, Deanna; Yorkston, Kathryn
Purpose: To explore the similarities and differences in self-reported restrictions in communicative participation across different communication disorders in community-dwelling adults. Method: Interviews were conducted with 44 adults representing 7 different medical conditions: spasmodic dysphonia, multiple sclerosis, stroke, stuttering,…
Lowden, Kevin; And Others
A project investigated the extent to which the current adult basic education (ABE) provision was meeting the needs of participants in Northern Ireland. Interviews were conducted with key individuals from 22 agencies providing adult literacy and numeracy support, selected tutors and managers of ABE (n=62), and 55 ABE students. Students had a…
Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.
This article presents a case study of an adult with severe, multiple disabilities and discusses issues affecting meaningful life participation. Emphasis is placed on the role of functional mobility skills to increase active engagement in age-appropriate activities and opportunities to make informed choices. MOVE for Adults (Mobility Opportunities…
Yanowitz, Karen L.; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.
The goal of this research was to examine adults' and children's perceptions of participating in a family science night event, especially in the context of parental belief about children's science abilities. Family science nights are becoming increasingly popular and are used in a wide range of settings. During family science nights, adults and…
Blair, Amy; And Others
A study examined adults' experiences regarding participation, guidance, and progression in various formal educational settings across Scotland. In-depth interviews were conducted with 50 adult returners to the different parts of the education system (higher, further, and community education and local schools). Data from the interviews were…
Boeren, Ellen; Holford, John
To encourage adult participation in education and training, contemporary policy makers typically encourage education and training provision to have a strongly vocational (employment-related) character, while also stressing individuals' responsibility for developing their own learning. Adults' motivation to learn is not, however, purely…
Saar, Ellu; Täht, Kadri; Roosalu, Triin
This study focuses on institutional barriers that adult learners experience while participating in higher education programmes. We developed a holistic measure of diversification, accessibility, flexibility and affordability of higher education for adults. Based on pre-economic-crisis data across Europe we then explored the impact of macro-level…
This study examines the perceptions of identity of a category of students that has rarely been studied in the context of higher education. These are adults who have participated in GED preparation or English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) courses in Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs. A college education is increasingly necessary for…
Manifold, Marjorie Cohee
In this article, the art developmental progression of adolescents and young adults within the cultural context of an interest-based community is described; the role of narrative and sociocultural community to the art development of adolescents and young adults is highlighted. Artistic development begins in response to an aesthetic phenomenon, is…
Cole, Meredith Amanda
Walter Smith is a relatively unknown historical figure in the art world, but he is essential to defining adult education's past. present. and future in the area of visual art. His artistic endeavors in America sparked facets of the way art education is practiced today. However, along the way we have lost the tenets of social change which he sought…
Mansour, Marianne; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Sudmalis, David
This study explored the role of student (e.g., age, language background, gender), home (e.g., parent/caregiver education), and school (e.g., school type, size) socio-demographic factors in students' school (e.g., in-school arts tuition, arts engagement), home (e.g., parent/caregiver-child arts interaction), and community (e.g., arts attendance,…
Baylor, Carolyn; Burns, Michael; Eadie, Tanya; Britton, Deanna; Yorkston, Kathryn
Purpose To explore the similarities and differences in self-reported restrictions in communicative participation across different communication disorders in community-dwelling adults. Methods Interviews were conducted with 44 adults representing seven different medical conditions: spasmodic dysphonia, multiple sclerosis, stroke, stuttering, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and laryngectomy. This paper represents a secondary analysis of qualitative data collected in cognitive interviews during development of the Communicative Participation Item Bank. The data were analyzed to identify themes in participants’ experiences related to communicative participation. Results Participants described many situations in which they experienced interference in communicative participation. Two themes emerged from the data. The first theme was Interference is both “functional” and “emotional” in which participants defined interference as limitations in accomplishing tasks and emotional consequences. The second theme was “It depends” - Sources of interference in which participants described many variables that contribute to interference in participation. Participants had limited control of some variables such as symptoms and environmental contexts, but personal decisions and priorities also influenced participation. Conclusions Despite different impairments and activity limitations, participants described similar communicative participation restrictions. These similarities may have theoretical and clinical implications in terms of how we assess, treat and study the participation restrictions associated with communication disorders. PMID:21813820
Thomas, M. Kathleen; Singh, Priyanka; Klopfenstein, Kristin; Henry, Thomas
There is renewed interest in the role of arts education in the curriculum of U.S. public schools not only because of the intrinsic value of the arts and its believed impact on achievement, but because cultivating creativity is thought to promote innovation and fuel economic growth. Still, we know little about basic access to arts education. Using…
Ponce, María Soledad Herrera; Rosas, Raúl Pedro Elgueta; Lorca, María Beatriz Fernández
OBJECTIVE To examine factors associated with social participation and their relationship with self-perceived well-being in older adults. METHODS This study was based on data obtained from the National Socioeconomic Characterization (CASEN) Survey conducted in Chile, in 2011, on a probability sample of households. We examined information of 31,428 older adults living in these households. Descriptive and explanatory analyses were performed using linear and multivariate logistic regression models. We assessed the respondents’ participation in different types of associations: egotropic, sociotropic, and religious. RESULTS Social participation increased with advancing age and then declined after the age of 80. The main finding of this study was that family social capital is a major determinant of social participation of older adults. Their involvement was associated with high levels of self-perceived subjective well-being. We identified four settings as sources of social participation: home-based; rural community-based; social policy programs; and religious. Older adults were significantly more likely to participate when other members of the household were also involved in social activities evidencing an intergenerational transmission of social participation. Rural communities, especially territorial associations, were the most favorable setting for participation. There has been a steady increase in the rates of involvement of older adults in social groups in Chile, especially after retirement. Religiosity remains a major determinant of associativism. The proportion of participation was higher among older women than men but these proportions equaled after the age of 80. CONCLUSIONS Self-perceived subjective well-being is not only dependent upon objective factors such as health and income, but is also dependent upon active participation in social life, measured as participation in associations, though its effects are moderate. PMID:25372164
Boice, Mike; And Others
This document contains the following papers, which were developed during a project in which barriers to participation in adult education in rural England were examined through case studies of the historical/geographical, economic/social, and political/public/administrative barriers to participation in four regions of England (East Sussex,…
White, Thomas R.
The objectives of this project were (1) to develop participant feedback materials that can be used by local adult vocational education (AVE) administrators for program planning, implementation, and evaluation and (2) to determine why participants enroll in AVE programs. A follow-up survey which contained key items from the follow-through system…
Badia, M.; Orgaz, M. B.; Verdugo, M. A.; Ullan, A. M.
Background: People with developmental disabilities are at high risk for a limited participation in leisure activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the participation in, preference for and interest in leisure activities of young and adults with developmental disabilities, and to examine the factors associated with leisure activity.…
Faith-based organizations, particularly churches, have embraced education. Historically, churches, synagogues, and temples have been the sites for educational programming. Yet, a great concern among religious institutions is participation in educational activities. Many studies have identified barriers to participation in adult education among…
Canadian Career Development Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).
This booklet is designed for participants in "The Leading Edge: A Career Development Workshop Series for Young Adults." It provides the 27 participant handouts for the six workshops in the series. The first in the series, "Setting the Stage: The Changing World of Work," is a workshop to clarify what is occurring in the world of work and apply that…
Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill
Representatives from Manitoba seniors' organizations and the University of Manitoba collaborated on a proposal to examine the participation of older adults in learning activities. The initiative led to a series of studies on this theme, including an exploration of participation at a seniors' centre (Sloane-Seale & Kops, 2004), a comparison of…
Emery, Charles F.; Blumenthal, James A.
Examined effects of aerobics on functioning of 101 older adults. Subjects participated in either aerobics group, yoga group, or waiting list group for 16 weeks. Aerobic and yoga participants perceived positive changes in several significant life areas; perceived improvement was more closely related to objective improvement for physiological…
Perin, Dolores; Flugman, Bert; Spiegel, Seymour
In a case study of four urban adult basic education programs in a northeastern state, large increases in the participation of 16- to 20-year-old students were found. Many of these students were reading below the fifth-grade level despite aspiring to the General Education Development (GED) diploma. Reasons for youth participation included increased…
Van Mechelen, M. C.; Verhoef, M.; Van Asbeck, F. W. A.; Post, M. W. M.
The aim of this study was to: (1) assess work participation among young adults with spina bifida, (2) identify problems perceived in finding employment, and (3) examine which determinants are related to work participation. This cross-sectional study was a follow-up study to the Adolescents with SPina bifida In the Netherlands (ASPINE) study. Data…
Schmitt, Eva M.; Sands, Laura P.; Weiss, Sara; Dowling, Glenna; Covinsky, Kenneth
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between Adult Day Health Center (ADHC) participation and health-related quality of life. Design and Methods: Case-controlled prospective study utilizing the Medical Outcomes Survey Form 36 (SF-36) to compare newly enrolled participants from 16 ADHC programs with comparable…
McDonald, Katherine E.; Keys, Christopher B.; Henry, David B.
Researchers and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members' attitudes influence scientific knowledge about individuals with intellectual disability. We recruited 260 intellectual disability researchers and IRB members to develop a measure of attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability, the Participation in…
Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna
This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education (GRALE) observed that a gender gap in the participation in adult learning and education still persisted in 2009. This is especially remarkable with regard to the impact of CONFINTEA V in 1997, because it focused on the issue of women's participation and gender equality. A review of the CONFINTEA VI programme elements and the national reports prepared by UNESCO Member States in 2008 reveals that gender issues have to some extent moved from the centre of attention to the periphery. This article therefore tries to explore how gender principles are acknowledged in CONFINTEA VI and its follow-up.
Damen, Marie-Louise; Nagel, Ineke; Haanstra, Folkert
In 1999, the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science introduced a new kind of compulsory arts education in secondary school aimed at stimulating cultural participation among Dutch youth. This article examines whether the course, called "Cultural and Artistic Education," succeeds in doing so. Data on 3,851 secondary school students (ages…
Martin, Andrew J.; Mansour, Marianne; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory A. D.; Sudmalis, David
This longitudinal study draws on positive youth development frameworks and ecological models to examine the role of school-, home- and community-based arts participation in students' academic (e.g., motivation, engagement) and nonacademic (e.g., self-esteem, life satisfaction) outcomes. The study is based on 643 elementary and high school students…
Hawkins, Amy; Evangeli, Michael; Sturgeon, Kate; Le Prevost, Marthe; Judd, Ali
Due to the success of antiretroviral (ART) medications, young people living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV+) are now surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding factors influencing ART non-adherence in this group is important in developing effective adherence interventions. Most studies of ART adherence in HIV-positive populations assess differences in adherence levels and adherence predictors between participants, over a period of time (global adherence). Many individuals living with HIV, however, including PHIV+ young people, take medication inconsistently. To investigate this pattern of adherence, a within-participants design, focussing on specific episodes of adherence and non-adherence, is suitable (episodic adherence). A within-participants design was used with 29 PHIV+ young people (17 female, median age 17 years, range 14-22 years), enrolled in the UK Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV cohort study. Participants were eligible if they could identify one dose of medication taken and one dose they had missed in the previous two months. For each of the two episodes (one adherent, one non-adherent), behavioural factors (whom they were with, location, routine, day, reminders) and psychological factors at the time of the episode (information about medication, adherence motivation, perceived behavioural skills to adhere to medication - derived from the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model - and affect) were assessed in a questionnaire. Non-adherence was significantly associated with weekend days (Friday to Sunday versus Monday to Thursday, p = .001), lack of routine (p = .004), and being out of the home (p = .003), but not with whom the young person was with or whether they were reminded to take medication. Non-adherence was associated with lower levels of behavioural skills (p < .001), and lower positive affect (p = .005). Non-adherence was not significantly associated with negative affect
Hawkins, Amy; Evangeli, Michael; Sturgeon, Kate; Le Prevost, Marthe; Judd, Ali
ABSTRACT Due to the success of antiretroviral (ART) medications, young people living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV+) are now surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding factors influencing ART non-adherence in this group is important in developing effective adherence interventions. Most studies of ART adherence in HIV-positive populations assess differences in adherence levels and adherence predictors between participants, over a period of time (global adherence). Many individuals living with HIV, however, including PHIV+ young people, take medication inconsistently. To investigate this pattern of adherence, a within-participants design, focussing on specific episodes of adherence and non-adherence, is suitable (episodic adherence). A within-participants design was used with 29 PHIV+ young people (17 female, median age 17 years, range 14–22 years), enrolled in the UK Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV cohort study. Participants were eligible if they could identify one dose of medication taken and one dose they had missed in the previous two months. For each of the two episodes (one adherent, one non-adherent), behavioural factors (whom they were with, location, routine, day, reminders) and psychological factors at the time of the episode (information about medication, adherence motivation, perceived behavioural skills to adhere to medication – derived from the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model – and affect) were assessed in a questionnaire. Non-adherence was significantly associated with weekend days (Friday to Sunday versus Monday to Thursday, p = .001), lack of routine (p = .004), and being out of the home (p = .003), but not with whom the young person was with or whether they were reminded to take medication. Non-adherence was associated with lower levels of behavioural skills (p < .001), and lower positive affect (p = .005). Non-adherence was not significantly associated with
Martin, James Leonard
The goal of this study was to construct from the available data a model for integrating the interrelated variables of participation into a consistent, theoretical framework which explained who participated in which activities and why they participated. The author sought to attain the goal by establishing two variable relationships to determine the…
Background The practice of tattooing and piercing has expanded in western society. In order to verify young adults' knowledge of the risk and practices related to body art, an investigation was conducted among freshmen of the University of Bari in the region of Apulia, Italy. Methods The study was carried out in the Academic Year 2009-2010 through an anonymous self-administered written questionnaire distributed to 1.656 freshmen enrolled in 17 Degree Courses. Results Of the 1.598 students included in the analysis, 78.3% believe it is risky to undergo piercing/tattoo practices. AIDS was indicated as a possible infection by 60.3% of freshmen, hepatitis C by 38.2%, tetanus by 34.3% and hepatitis B by 33.7% of the sample. 28.1% of freshmen were not aware that there are also non-infectious complications. 29% of the sample had at least one piercing or tattoo (this percentage does not include earlobe piercing in women). Of those with body art, the decision to undergo body art was made autonomously in 57.9% of the participants. 56.3% of freshmen undergoing body art had taken less than a month to decide. With regard to the reasons that led the sample to undergo body art, 28.4% were unable to explain it, 23.8% answered to improve their aesthetic aspect, 18.4% to distinguish themselves from others, 12.3% for fashion; 17.1% for other reasons. 25.4% of the sample declared that they had a piercing (79.8% female vs 20.2% male; ratio M/F 1:4.0). The average age for a first piercing was 15.3 years (range 10-27; SD ± 2.9). 9.6% of the sample declared that they have a tattoo (69.9% female vs 30.1% male; ratio M/F 1:2.3). The average age for a first tattoo was 17.5 years (range 10-26, SD ± 2.4). Conclusions Most of the freshmen knew about AIDS-related risks but not other potential risks. Body art is fairly common among young adults (especially women). The decision is often not shared with the family and is undertaken mostly without a specific reason or for the improvement of
Mackin, Melissa Lehan; Herr, Keela; Bergen-Jackson, Kimberly; Fine, Perry; Forcucci, Chris; Sanders, Sara
The purpose of this article is to elaborate on barriers to research participation by older adults at end of life. We focus on the hospice setting and classify barriers to research participation into six domains: societal attitudes toward death, research procedures, health care organizations, agency staff, patients' families and caregivers, and patient characteristics. We characterize particular participation issues, uncertainties in participation for individuals with advanced illness, and infringements on patient self-determination, as well as potential solutions to these research challenges. Our observation of the complex palliative context includes the realization that a singular change will not have large enough impact on participation. We conclude that, along with the responsibility to expand the research base addressing the needs of dying individuals, there is also a need to understand the challenges of implementing research projects with older adults at end of life. PMID:20078006
Arviso, Kathern; And Others
Designed as a helpful guide and "how-to-do-it" outline for those on the Navajo Reservation who work with children, this guide is arranged to offer quick reference and simple projects requiring the minimum of materials. The projects are designed to meet the Navajo child's art needs based on the belief that the art program of the elementary school…
This survey represents a preliminary step toward demonstrating the diversity of motivations and circumstances that characterize cultural participation. This report examines only live attendance. The evidence presented in this report indicates the pressing need for additional analyses that make diversity a central facet of examining other…
Sanford, S L; Cash, S H; Nelson, C
The purpose of this study was to gain insight into one small aspect of occupational therapy: the use of arts and crafts in the rehabilitation of the adult burn patient. While burn care literature is plentiful, that related specifically to occupational therapy treatment of burn patients is scarce. A survey was mailed to occupational therapists in 165 burn units across the United States. Responses to survey questions indicate that a majority of respondents (73%%) do not use arts and crafts in the rehabilitation of adult burn patients, while 26%% do use these modalities. Those respondents who do use arts and crafts stated that they use leatherwork, painting, and woodworking most frequently. Therapists who do not use arts and crafts indicated that their primary reasons for not doing so were the acutely ill status of the patients and wound drainage/sterility issues. The entire scope of occupational therapy treatment of burn patients deserves greater attention as it is a challenging and rapidly-evolving area of practice. PMID:23947587
Cosden, Merith; Koch, Lauren M
Behavioral changes for 76 adults and 115 children from 62 families participating in a Family Treatment Drug Court (FTDC), in either residential or outpatient settings, were studied. Improvements in psychosocial functioning were calculated using a reliable change index (RCI) for family, adult, and child measures. Among outcomes, significant improvements in family functioning were noted and associated with improvements in child development and the likelihood of reunification. Support for FTDCs and implications for future practice and research are discussed. PMID:26827466
Irani, Elliane; Richmond, Therese S.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons adult patients seeking emergency department care for minor injuries agree to participate in clinical research and to identify their reservations about participating in a research study. Design and Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from a longitudinal cohort study of 275 adults who sought emergency department care for physical injury and were followed over 12 months. At the final interview, participants were asked open-ended short-answer questions about their perception of participating in the study. Free text responses were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Findings The final sample of 214 participants was equally males and females, predominately Black (54%) and White (42%), with a mean age of 41 years. Six themes about reasons for participation emerged from free text responses: being asked, altruism, potential for personal benefit, financial gain, curiosity, and valuing and/or knowledge of research. Most did not report reservations. Those reservations identified included: time constraints, confidentiality, and whether patients felt well suited to fulfill the study requirements. Conclusion Although injured patients are identified by the research community as vulnerable, they are willing to participate in research studies for diverse reasons and their participation is commonly associated with positive experiences. PMID:25599886
Kohn, Marlana; Belza, Basia; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Miyawaki, Christina E
This study examines the expected and experienced benefits among participants in Enhance®Fitness (EF), an evidence-based group physical activity program for older adults. We also describe the implications for program dissemination (reach, implementation, and maintenance) within the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted with EF participants enrolled from 2005 to 2012. Interviews were digitally recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using a deductive approach. Participants were motivated to join EF for expected physical benefits and the social environment of a group-based class. Actualized benefits of participation included physical, social, functional, and improved self-image/sense of well-being. Participants valued the practical application of class exercises to daily activities that support independent living, such as lifting objects and completing household chores. Organizations looking to implement EF or improve existing EF classes can improve program reach, implementation, and maintenance by incorporating participants' expressed motivations and valued benefits in program marketing and by improving organizational support to meet participant needs. EF class instructors can tailor their classes to engage participants based on their motivations. Understanding participants' motivations and valued benefits can improve EF dissemination by meeting participant needs with tailored class offerings and organizational needs informed by participant insights that aid program sustainability. PMID:27178496
Scala, Marisa A.
Interviews with 191 older adults attending college (131 females, 60 males) revealed that gender, educational attainment, employment status, and degree-seeking behavior were important sources of differences in motivation for participating. Personal or family health problems were most frequently cited for stopping attendance. (SK)
Throughout contemporary literature, participants in adult education courses have been reported to acquire knowledge and skills, develop understanding and enhance self-confidence, parameters that induce changes in their personal lives, while enabling them to play a more active role in their family, community or work. In this vein, a large-scale,…
Devlin, Lawrence E.
Based on analysis of differences among four groups of 40 males each, this study investigated the relationship between recent (within the past five years) adult education participation and occupational mobility. A 119 item questionnaire covering demographic background, early education, occupational history, amount of continuing education, attitudes…
This literature review is specifically interested in empirical research addressing the relationship between adolescent participation in extracurricular activities and adult political engagement. Relevant research is found in political science, psychology, education and sociology. In order to capture the literature most directly related to the main…
Kurubacak, Gulsun; Yuzer, T. Volkan
Interactive Radio Programs (IRPs) forge effective participations between adults (communicational and pedagogical workers and parents) and at-risk youth (jeopardizing their present and future adjustments) to explore their engagements with community activism engaging in building their communities. IRPs are vital for them to be engaged citizens,…
Changing socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic forces have caused educational nonparticipation among adults to be treated as a social issue. Recent research has attempted to combine dispositional, situational, and environmental factors into composite models of participation. These models have suggested the following categories of deterrence…
Smith, M. Cecil; Smith, Thomas J.
This study investigated informal learning activities among low-education adults, using data from the 2005 National Household Education Survey. Survey respondents were asked about their participation in six types of informal learning activities, from reading books to using computers to attending conventions. Respondents with the lowest educational…
Cooper, Karena J.; Browder, Diane M.
Three adults with severe disabilities received instructional support to make purchases in fast food restaurants. During intervention, participants were prompted to make five distinct choices during the community routine. This prompting resulted not only in increased choice making, but also in collateral increases in the performance of the…
Carter, Erik W.; Kleinert, Harold L.; LoBianco, Tony F.; Sheppard-Jones, Kathleen; Butler, Laura N.; Tyree, Milton S.
Supporting people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) to thrive requires careful consideration of multiple avenues of community involvement. Yet little attention has focused on the place of faith community participation in the lives of adults with IDD. We examined attendance at religious services using National Core Indicator…
Verona, Edelyn; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie
Childhood abuse was investigated as a potential mediator of the intergenerational transmission of externalizing behaviors (EXT) in adulthood among a large general population sample drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey. Community participants (N = 5,424) underwent diagnostic and psychosocial interviews and reported on their own adult symptoms…
Bureau of the Census (DOC), Washington, DC. Data User Services Div.
The "Participation in Adult Education" machine-readable data file (MRDF) is prepared triennially for the Center for Education Statistics (CES) by the Bureau of the Census, as a supplement to its regular "Current Population Survey" (sponsored by the Bureau of Labor Statistics). Previous specialized surveys in this series have been conducted in…
Martin, James L.
This paper reports on attempts by the author to construct a theoretical framework of adult education participation using a theory development process and the corresponding multivariate statistical techniques. Two problems are identified: the lack of theoretical framework in studying problems, and the limiting of statistical analysis to univariate…
Lau, Chiu Ming; Chen, Qijie
The study examined how attitudes and subjective norms could be used to predict participation intention of adults in continuing education. In this research, attitudes comprised the two variables of positive attitude and negative attitude and subjective norms included normative belief and motivation to comply. Structural equation modeling using a…
Kohn, Marlana; Belza, Basia; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Miyawaki, Christina E.
This study examines the expected and experienced benefits among participants in Enhance®Fitness (EF), an evidence-based group physical activity program for older adults. We also describe the implications for program dissemination (reach, implementation, and maintenance) within the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and…
Isaac, Paulette; Rowland, Michael
Examined institutional deterrents to participation in adult education among African American Christian church members. Focus group interview data highlighted six categories of deterrents: lack of relevance, programmatic, communication, individual/personal, instructional techniques, and interpersonal. Results suggest that African American Christian…
This study examined the role of incidental focus on form (FonF) in adult English-as-a-second-language classrooms. Specifically, it explored the extent to which the amount, type, and effectiveness of FonF were related to differences in classroom participation structure, that is, the organization of classroom talk within which FonF may occur. The…
Cincinnato, Sebastiano; De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin
In this article, we address the issue of participation in adult education building on the cultural capital framework. This theoretical framework suggests that (educational) practices are affected by one's social background and, more precisely, by the cultural resources handed down in the family context. To examine the validity of this theoretical…
Howarth, Sharon; Morris, David; Newlin, Meredith; Webber, Martin
People with learning disabilities are among the most socially excluded in society. There is a significant gap in research evidence showing how health and social care workers can intervene to improve the social participation of adults with learning disabilities. A systematic review and modified narrative synthesis was used to appraise the quality…
Zorrilla, Ana Carlina
The purpose of this study was to explore the connection between art and adult education for critical consciousness through the conceptual art of Luis Camnitzer. The theoretical framework grounding this research was critical public pedagogy, influenced by both critical theory and Stuart Hall's systems of representation (1997). This framework…
Goll, Johanna C.; Charlesworth, Georgina; Scior, Katrina; Stott, Joshua
Introduction Loneliness among older adults is a major public health problem that may be associated with processes of social participation and identity. This study therefore sought to examine the relationship between social participation and identity in a sample of lonely older adults living independently in London, England. Method An inductive qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis, was employed. Results Participants commonly spoke of barriers to social participation that have been reported elsewhere, including illness/disability, loss of contact with friends/relatives, lack of a supportive community, and lack of acceptable social opportunities. However, novel findings were also derived. In particular, participants commonly minimised the difficulties they faced alone, and described attempts to avoid social opportunities. These behaviours were linked to fears about engaging in social participation opportunities, including fears of social rejection and/or exploitation, and fears of losing valued aspects of identity. Discussion It is concluded that social participation amongst lonely older people will not improve through the removal of previously reported barriers alone; instead, older peoples’ beliefs, fears and identities must be addressed. Suggestions for implementing these findings within community organisations are provided. PMID:25706933
Kaestner, Robert; Xin Xu
Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and weight of adult women some 20-25 years later. Our results indicate that adult women who were affected by Title IX and had greater opportunity to participate in athletics while young had lower body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of obesity and reported being more physically active than women who were not afforded these opportunities. However, effect sizes were quite modest. PMID:20130236
Bodde, Amy E; Seo, Dong-Chul; Frey, Georgia C; Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Lohrmann, David K
Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have low levels of physical activity and higher than average rates of related chronic health conditions. Understanding correlates of their physical activity participation may improve health promoting interventions. Forty-two adults with ID participated in a physical activity study. Physical activity knowledge and skills, awareness of recommendations and demographic characteristics were analyzed for their association with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation measured by accelerometers. Five variables were significantly correlated with MVPA. Body mass index was inversely correlated with MVPA, and gender, job location, job tasks, and place of residence were all significantly associated with MVPA. Understanding correlates of physical activity in this population will help inform disability service and health promotion professionals in future research and health intervention design. PMID:23142762
Gautam, Ramraj; Saito, Tami; Kai, Ichiro
Background Involvement in activities has been found to be beneficial for improving quality of life and successful aging for older adults. Little is known, however, about the involvement in activities and depression of older adults in Asian developing countries. This study explores whether participation in leisure social and religious activities are related to depression and satisfaction with life in older adults of Nepal. Gender differences are also explored. Methods The study sample was derived from a survey which aimed to determine the intergenerational relationships between older adults and their married sons. A cross-sectional quantitative study of older adults sixty years and over in Nepal was conducted with face-to-face interviews using structured instruments. A convenience sample of 489 community dwelling older adults, 247 men and 242 women, were included in the study. The dependent variables, depression and satisfaction with life, were measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) respectively. Age, gender, marital status, education, perceived health, financial satisfaction, social support received and provided by older adults, and social activity were independent variables in the study. Results Saying prayers (B = -2.75; p < 0.005), watching television and listening to the radio (B = -1.88; p < 0.05), and participating in physical activity (B = -1.05; p < 0.05) correlated to lower depression for older men, but only watching television and listening to the radio (B = -2.68; p < 0.005) related to lower rates of depression for women. Socializing with others (B = 1.22; p < 0.05) was related to higher satisfaction with life for men, but for women visiting friends (B = 1.29; p < 0.05), socializing with others (B = 1.45; p < 0.005), and watching television and listening to the radio (B = 0.92; p < 0.05) related to improved satisfaction with life. Activity engagement significantly improved mental health in older adults
Sharfi, Kineret; Rosenblum, Sara
Background ‘Learning disabilities’ (LD) refer to a wide group of neurological disorders caused by deficits in the central nervous system which influence the individual's ability to maintain-, process or convey information to others in an efficient way. A worldwide discussion about the definitions of LD continues while a conceptual framework for studying the diverse life outcomes of adults with LD is still missing. Objective The aim was to review the literature on the activity and participation of adults with LD based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) concepts. Methods “PsychInfo”, “Eric” and “PubMed” were searched for relevant literature according to the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). After a three-stage process, 62 articles relevant for domains of activity and participation of adults with LD were included in the review. Results Thirty-two articles focused on the domain of major life areas of education, work and employment and twelve articles focused on the domain of learning and applying knowledge. Limitations in activity and participation of the population with LD in these domains are recognized and discussed. Eighteen additional articles demonstrated that adults with LD confront difficulties in various life domains (e.g., communication, interpersonal interactions, mobility, and domestic life), however literature concerning these domains is scarce. Conclusions The ICF can be useful for further exploration of activity and participation characteristics of adults with LD in various life domains. Such exploration is required in order to gain a wider perspective of their functional characteristics and daily needs. PMID:25184315
Biedenweg, Kelly; Meischke, Hendrika; Bohl, Alex; Hammerback, Kristen; Williams, Barbara; Poe, Pamela; Phelan, Elizabeth A
Little is known about older adults' perceptions of organized programs that support exercise behavior. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 older adults residing in King County, Washington, who either declined to join, joined and participated, or joined and then quit a physical activity-oriented program. We sought to explore motivators and barriers to physical activity program participation and to elicit suggestions for marketing strategies to optimize participation. Two programs supporting exercise behavior and targeting older persons were the source of study participants: Enhance(®)Fitness and Physical Activity for a Lifetime of Success. We analyzed interview data using standard qualitative methods. We examined variations in themes by category of program participant (joiner, decliner, quitter) as well as by program and by race. Interview participants were mostly females in their early 70s. Approximately half were non-White, and about half had graduated from college. The most frequently cited personal factors motivating program participation were enjoying being with others while exercising and desiring a routine that promoted accountability. The most frequent environmental motivators were marketing materials, encouragement from a trusted person, lack of program fees, and the location of the program. The most common barriers to participation were already getting enough exercise, not being motivated or ready, and having poor health. Marketing messages focused on both personal benefits (feeling better, social opportunity, enjoyability) and desirable program features (tailored to individual needs), and marketing mechanisms ranged from traditional written materials to highly personalized approaches. These results suggest that organized programs tend to appeal to those who are more socially inclined and seek accountability. Certain program features also influence participation. Thoughtful marketing that involves a variety of messages and mechanisms is
Antoine Parker, Chantrell; Ellis, Rebecca
The purpose of this study was to determine if electronic messaging would increase min of aerobic physical activity (PA) among older adults. Participants were active older adults (n = 28; M age = 60 years, SD = 5.99, and range = 51–74 years). Using an incomplete within-subjects crossover design, participants were randomly assigned to begin the 4-week study receiving the treatment condition (a morning and evening text message) or the control condition (an evening text message). Participants self-reported min of completed aerobic PA by cell phone text. The 1-way within-subjects ANOVA showed significant group differences (p < 0.05). Specifically, when participants were in the treatment condition, they reported significantly greater average weekly min of aerobic PA (M = 96.88 min, SD = 62.9) compared to when they completed the control condition (M = 71.68 min, SD = 40.98). Electronic messaging delivered via cell phones was effective at increasing min of aerobic PA among older adults. PMID:27293891
Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori
Background Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults’ participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population–based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Results Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults’ participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future
Levasseur, Mélanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise
Background Activity limitation is one of the most frequent geriatric clinical syndromes that have significant individual and societal impacts. People living with activity limitations might have fewer opportunities to be satisfied with life or experience happiness, which can have a negative effect on their quality of life. Participation and environment are also important modifiable variables that influence community living and are targeted by health interventions. However, little is known about how quality of life, participation and environment differ according to activity level. This study examines if quality of life, participation (level and satisfaction) and perceived quality of the environment (facilitators or obstacles in the physical or social environment) of community-dwelling older adults differ according to level of activity. Methods A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 156 older adults (mean age = 73.7; 76.9% women), living at home and having good cognitive functions, recruited according to three levels of activity limitations (none, slight to moderate and moderate to severe). Quality of life was estimated with the Quality of Life Index, participation with the Assessment of Life Habits and environment with the Measure of the Quality of the Environment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Welch F-ratio indicated if the main variables differed according to activity level. Results Quality of life and satisfaction with participation were greater with a higher activity level (p < 0.001). However, these differences were clinically significant only between participants without activity limitations and those with moderate to severe activity limitations. When activity level was more limited, participation level was further restricted (p < 0.001) and the physical environment was perceived as having more obstacles (p < 0.001). No differences were observed for facilitators in the physical and social environment or for obstacles in the social
Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen
Policymakers worldwide consider participation in adult learning beneficial for employability, in particular for specific target groups. However, still little is known about the effect of adult learning pursued by low-qualified young adults on their employment prospects. On the basis of a Flemish longitudinal database, we study the determinants and…
Schneider, Joanne Kraenzle; Eveker, Ann; Bronder, Deborah Rilling; Meiner, Sue E; Binder, Ellen F
The purpose of this study was to describe the incentives and disincentives for participating in an exercise training program for community-dwelling individuals 78 and older. One hundred forty-seven women and 62 men participated in this descriptive study, and ages ranged from 78 to 95 years (mean 82.7 +/- 4.1). Individuals were interviewed by phone about their decision to participate in an exercise program. Qualitative responses were analyzed using content analysis. Three main incentive themes emerged: Health Benefits, Psychological Benefits, and Positive Program Features. Disincentive themes included Competing Commitments, Doubts about Exercise, and Negative Program Features. To better tailor an exercise program to the needs of this older age group, nurses working with older adults should keep in mind the lifestyle, age-specific obligations, and set of values affecting this cohort's participation. PMID:14528746
Mackin, Melissa Lehan; Herr, Keela; Bergen-Jackson, Kimberly; Fine, Perry; Forcucci, Chris; Sanders, Sara
The purpose of this paper is to elaborate upon barriers to research participation by older adults at end-of-life. We focus on the hospice setting and classify barriers to research participation into six domains:1) societal attitudes towards death; 2) research procedures; 3) health care organizations; 4) agency staff; 5) patients’ families and caregivers; and 6) patient characteristics. We characterize particular participation issues, uncertainties in participation for individuals with advanced illness, infringements upon patient self-determination, as well as, potential solutions to these research challenges. Our observation of the complex palliative context included the realization that a singular change would not have large enough impact. We concluded that simultaneous with the need to expand the research base addressing the needs of dying persons is a need to understand the challenges of implementing research projects with older persons at end-of-life. PMID:20078006
Vertonghen, Jikkemien; Theeboom, Marc; Pieter, Willy
To date, most studies regarding the social-psychological effects of martial arts and combat sports (MA&CS) on young people focus on measuring effects without considering mediating factors. The aim of the present study was to analyze three mediating factors that might be influential when examining outcomes of MA&CS for youth (i.e., the type of MA&CS, participants' characteristics, and social background). Young MA&CS participants (N = 477, M age = 14.0 yr., SD = 2.13) practicing judo, aikido, kick-/Thai boxing or karate, as well as their parents (N = 307), were assessed in terms of their goal orientations, aggressiveness, psychosocial behavior, and social background. It was concluded that differences exist in the characteristics and social background of participants depending on the type of MA&CS being practiced. The fact that differences in these mediating factors can be identified indicates that in future research these and possible other mediating factors should be considered when trying to determine social-psychological outcomes of MA&CS. PMID:24724512
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Concurrent Enrollment § 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Concurrent Enrollment § 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Concurrent Enrollment § 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker programs...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May youth participate in both youth and adult... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Concurrent Enrollment § 664.500 May youth participate in both youth and adult/dislocated worker...
Tang, C.S.k.; Yan, E.C.w.
Objectives:: This study aimed to explore factors relating to intention to participate in community child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Method:: A total of 1,606 Chinese adults (497 men and 1,109 women) were individually interviewed about their intention to participate in community CSA prevention…
Emery, C F; Blumenthal, J A
Data regarding perceived change were collected as part of a study of the effects of aerobic exercise training on psychological, cognitive, and physiological functioning among 101 healthy older adults. Subjects were assigned randomly to an aerobic exercise group, a yoga control group, or a waiting list group for 16 weeks, after which all subjects participated in aerobic exercise for another 16 weeks. Exercise participants perceived positive changes in a wide range of significant life areas, and perceived improvement was more closely related to objective improvement for physiological indicators than for indicators of cognitive functioning or psychological well-being. PMID:2394387
The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with brain injuries completed a series of questionnaires measuring each psychosocial variable. The structural analysis indicated a nonsignificant chi squared value and good fit indices for model two which included affect as the mediating variable. Findings indicate that affect is critical in shaping the physical activity cognitions and behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Suggestions are made on practical ways to enhance affect and subsequently physical activity participation. PMID:18955746
van Oosterhout, Joep J.; Mallewa, Jane; Kaunda, Symon; Chagoma, Newton; Njalale, Yassin; Kampira, Elizabeth; Mukaka, Mavuto; Heyderman, Robert S.
Background Stavudine is an effective and inexpensive antiretroviral drug, but no longer recommended by WHO for first-line antiretroviral regimens in resource-limited settings due to toxicity concerns. Because of the high cost of alternative drugs, it has not been feasible to replace stavudine in most adults in the Malawi ART programme. We aimed to provide policy makers with a detailed picture of stavudine toxicities in Malawians on longer-term ART, in order to facilitate prioritization of stavudine replacement among other measures to improve the quality of ART programmes. Methods Prospective cohort of Malawian adults who had just completed one year of stavudine containing ART in an urban clinic, studying peripheral neuropathy, lipodystrophy, diabetes mellitus, high lactate syndromes, pancreatitis and dyslipidemia during 12 months follow up. Stavudine dosage was 30 mg irrespective of weight. Cox regression was used to determine associations with incident toxicities. Results 253 patients were enrolled, median age 36 years, 62.5% females. Prevalence rates (95%-confidence interval) of toxicities after one year on stavudine were: peripheral neuropathy 21.3% (16.5–26.9), lipodystrophy 14.7% (2.4–8.1), high lactate syndromes 0.0% (0–1.4), diabetes mellitus 0.8% (0–2.8), pancreatitis 0.0% (0–1.5). Incidence rates per 100 person-years (95%-confidence interval) during the second year on stavudine were: peripheral neuropathy 19.8 (14.3–26.6), lipodystrophy 11.4 (7.5–16.3), high lactate syndromes 2.1 (0.7–4.9), diabetes mellitus 0.4 (0.0–1.4), pancreatitis 0.0 (0.0–0.2). Prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia increased from 12.1% to 21.1% and from 29.5% to 37.6% respectively between 12 and 24 months. 5.5% stopped stavudine, 1.3% died and 4.0% defaulted during follow up. Higher age was an independent risk factor for incident peripheral neuropathy and lipodystrophy. Conclusion Stavudine associated toxicities continued to accumulate during
Carter, Erik W; Kleinert, Harold L; LoBianco, Tony F; Sheppard-Jones, Kathleen; Butler, Laura N; Tyree, Milton S
Supporting people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) to thrive requires careful consideration of multiple avenues of community involvement. Yet little attention has focused on the place of faith community participation in the lives of adults with IDD. We examined attendance at religious services using National Core Indicator data for a sample of 12,706 adults with IDD residing in 24 states. Almost half of adults (48.3%) reported attending a religious service in the past month, and more than one third (34.6%) attended 3 or more times. Religious involvement varied considerably based on a variety of individual (e.g., race, disability type, behavioral support needs, communication mode) and contextual factors (e.g., geographic locale, residential type). Moreover, monthly involvement in religious activities was much less common than participation in other community activities (i.e., exercise, entertainment, eating out, shopping). We offer recommendations for supporting the spiritual lives of adults with IDD, as well as highlight areas for future research and practice. PMID:26618738
Swartz, Teresa Toguchi; Blackstone, Amy; Uggen, Christopher; McLaughlin, Heather
Recent scholarship and public discourse highlight an apparent waning of civic engagement in the United States. Although the welfare state is generally thought to support democracy by reducing economic inequality, it may paradoxically contribute to political disempowerment of some groups. We examine the effects of state interventions on civic participation among young adults, hypothesizing that involvement with stigmatizing social programs, such as welfare, reduces political engagement while receipt of non-stigmatizing government assistance does not dampen civic involvement. Using official voting records and survey data from the Youth Development Study (YDS), a longitudinal community sample of young adults, a series of regression models suggests that welfare recipients are less likely to vote than non-recipients, whereas recipients of non-means tested government assistance participate similarly to young adults who do not receive government help. These effects hold even when background factors, self-efficacy, and prior voting behavior are controlled. Welfare receipt is not associated, however, with suppressed participation in non-state arenas such as volunteer work. Intensive interviews with YDS welfare recipients are used to illustrate and develop the analysis. PMID:19888350
Goodridge, Donna; Lawson, Josh; Marciniuk, Darcy; Rennie, Donna
Background: Currently, one out of every seven Canadians is affected by limitations to their participation and activity. This study describes the self-reported main causes of these limitations in a national sample. Methods: The 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey was a two-phase stratified survey based on filter questions posed in the 2006 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada. Respondents to the survey represent 5 185 980 Canadian adults with activity and participation limitations. We used these data to develop a profile of our population of interest: adult Canadians with activity and participation limitations. Associations between demographic variables and self-reported causes of activity and participation limitations were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Results: One quarter of participants did not attribute their disability to any medical cause. The most prevalent medical conditions to which disabilities were attributed were musculoskeletal (46.1%), cardio/cerebrovascular (12.3%), mental health (8.4%), neurologic (6.0%), endocrine (6.0%) and respiratory (4.5%) conditions. Significant associations were noted between sociodemographic variables and participants’ attributions of medical conditions as cause of disability. Multiple logistic regression with bootstrapping showed that people who reported a medical cause for their limitation were more likely (p < 0.05) to be female, widowed, 40 years of age or older, born in Canada or white and were less likely (p < 0.05) to be in the highest income category or to be employed (i.e., to work more than 0 h/w). Interpretation: Most people living with activity and participation limitations report having a musculoskeletal disorder. However, a significant proportion of respondants did not attribute their limitations to a medical cause. PMID:21825051
To address persistent health and physical activity issues, listening to the opinions and needs of a diverse population should be at the forefront of a social justice agenda. This article examines how a participant-centered photo exhibition, as the culmination of a two-year-long visual participatory research project, provided a site of public…
Gacherieu, Dustin R.
The goal of this study was to answer the question: "When ethnically diverse fourth- and fifth-grade students participate in a ten-week musical program, are there any shifts in the following: academic performance, attitude towards school, social skills, self-esteem, public speaking ability, and/or school attendance?" This study was conducted at an…
Etter, Nicole M; Van Meter, Emily M; Andreatta, Richard D
The purpose of this pilot study was to begin characterizing changes in labial vibrotactile somatosensation in healthy older adults as a foundational step in determining how changes in orofacial sensation can affect functional behaviors, such as speech and feeding. Labial vibrotactile perception capacity of healthy older adults (n = 15) was compared to a cohort of healthy young adults (n = 5). Vibrotactile inputs were delivered to the glabrous surface of the left lower lip at 5, 10, 50, and 150 Hz. A modified von Bekesy (staircase) method was used to identify participants' thresholds and response standard deviations for each test frequency. Consistent with findings in other body regions, a decrease in labial vibrotactile detection sensitivity was expected in healthy older adults. The threshold values for the 5 and 10 Hz test frequencies were higher in the older group and the differences in response standard deviations at these frequencies were statistically significant. This pilot study identified changes in labial perception among healthy older adults. PMID:24897891
Kramer, D; Stronks, K; Maas, J; Wingen, M; Kunst, A E
Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social neighborhood environment and three location-specific sports outcomes. Repeated cross-sectional data on sports participation (any type of sports, sports at indoor sports clubs, sports at outdoor sports clubs, sports on streets) were obtained from 20 600 adults using the Dutch national health survey 2006-2009. Data on neighborhood social safety and social capital were obtained using the Dutch Housing Research 2006. Over 40% of Dutch adults participated in any type of sports. Indoor sports clubs were most popular. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that neighborhood social safety was positively associated with sports at indoor sports clubs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.48), but not with the other sports outcomes. Contrary, neighborhood social capital was positively associated with sports on streets only (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.17-2.44). The results suggest that a positive social neighborhood environment enhances sports participation, but that this impact depends on the location of the sports activity. This study highlights the importance of using location-specific sports outcomes when assessing environmental determinants. PMID:24506213
Macleod, Flora; Lambe, Paul
In this paper we analyse the dynamics of adult participation in part-time education and training throughout the 90s and into the 2000s using data from 14 waves (1992-2005) of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). We study the volume (stocks) of participation and non-participation and the gross flows between states. This analysis provides a…
During the 20th century, erotic experiences between minors and adults occupied a position of increasing interest, both public as well as scientific. In this area of research, one of the most notable evolutions in how these experiences are treated has been the progressive disappearance and/or the intense redefinition of what earlier researchers called "participating victims," i.e., minors apparently interested in accepting and/or sustaining these relationships. The present work, through a comparative analysis of the literature, seeks to substantiate this transformation during the second third of the 20th century. It will also argue that this evolution can be fundamentally explained in terms of the intense emotional, moral, and ideological importance that is ascribed to these experiences in the rise of the current victimological paradigm. Finally, this study endeavors to contribute to the understanding of childhood and the scientific study of child sexuality as well as of these experiences with adults. PMID:20039115
Lowmaster, Nancy Elise
This study examines the nature of the undergraduate research experience in a liberal arts setting, specifically considering the degree to which undergraduate student researchers come to understand and participate in the community of practicing chemists, the ways the faculty research advisor facilitates the entry of these novice chemists into the community of practice, and the degree to which undergraduate researchers begin to develop identities as chemists. The study is a multimethodological case study of senior students performing undergraduate research at a small liberal arts college and the faculty who supervise them. The study focuses in particular on three undergraduate chemistry students, under the direction of the same faculty advisor, during their yearlong research projects. Data, which included qualitative surveys, semi-structured interviews, group meeting observations, and laboratory artifacts, were analyzed using constant comparative analysis and thematic methods. The study found that questions play several important roles in introducing students to the community of practice of chemistry and that the formation of an initial research question by the undergraduate researcher is a first step in the development of ownership of the project. The questions that the research supervisor uses to guide the undergraduates enable the students to be more productive and also demonstrate the nature of science, the nature of research, and the practice of the chemistry community. The student's research committee serves as a link to and a model of the community of practice as well as a check on the validity of the research experience. The study also found that the research advisor plays a number of roles, all of which are "bundled" into a single individual who balances these roles based on the needs of the particular student. Research advisors were found to use stories to communicate important lessons about the practice of chemistry. The study asserts that as
A STUDY OF THE PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A GROUP OF WOMEN WHO HAD PARTICIPATED IN SEWING CLASSES IN AN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM AND A GROUP OF THEIR FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS WHO HAD NOT PARTICIPATED IN ANY ADULT EDUCATION ACTIVITIES.
SITTS, MARVIN RALPH
IN THIS STUDY OF PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES, THE SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTOR QUESTIONNAIRE AND AN ADULT EDUCATION INTERVIEW SHEET WERE ADMINISTERED TO A GROUP OF WOMEN WHO HAD PARTICIPATED IN SEWING CLASSES OFFERED BY THE MOTT ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM OF THE FLINT, MICHIGAN, BOARD OF EDUCATION, AND TO A GROUP OF THEIR FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS WHO HAD NOT…
Increasing Rural Adults' Participation in Collegial Programs: Exemplary Programs. Proceedings of the Rural Action Conference "Programs and Activities to Overcome Barriers to Rural Adult Participation in Postsecondary Education" (Blacksburg, Virginia, June 1-3, 1987).
Sullins, W. Robert, Ed.; And Others
Approximately 85 educators from six states participated in a regional conference designed to showcase exemplary and collaborative programs to overcome many of the barriers faced by rural adults in pursuing higher education. After the keynote address, "The Role of Adult Learning in Revitalizing Rural Communities," by Cornelia Butler Flora, the…
Crump-Phillips, Maureen R.
This study assessed the plausibility of using Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB) to identify the factors that motivate adults to participate in Adult Basic Education (ABE) classes at a Southeast Wisconsin Community College. The original TPB (Ajzen, 1991) attests that planned behaviors are determined by behavioral intentions which are…
Becker, Carol-Lynne J.
Current research supports the use of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and integrated treatments show potential for enhanced symptom reduction. This pilot study developed a manualized group treatment integrating art interventions with exposure, grounding, and narrative therapy for five adults with PTSD who were…
Clover, Darlene E.
Historically, pubic art galleries and museums have a well-deserved reputation for elitism, colonialism and exclusion and they are, therefore, frequently omitted from the discourse of adult education. However, the escalating social, cultural and ecological problems of this new century have placed pressure on these public institutions to change and…
Jung, Jong-Chul; Cervero, Ronald M.
The proportion of adult undergraduates to adult populations in the 50 states was calculated. Cross-sectoral analysis identified state characteristics that correlated with participation rates. Best predictors were availability of undergraduate education, educational technology efforts, the population's level of educational attainment, budget…
The purpose of this study was to explore the motivations of adults in choosing to participate in community orchestras. This paper identifies many of those motivations and examines the reasons and implications of why the adults in the study chose to continue to play in community orchestras. The investigation was conducted in 2007 via a case study…
Wolf, Alison; Jenkins, Andrew
This paper examines the degree to which British adults participating in workplace literacy courses improved their reading comprehension skills, using longitudinal data which cover the period from enrolment until between two and three years later. Learners were tested using an instrument designed explicitly for adults, with two parallel forms. For…
Shiffman, Catherine Dunn
This article explores the connections between adult education participation and parent involvement in children's education--connections identified during an exploratory case study of parents transitioning into the workforce in compliance with welfare requirements. Data sources included interviews with parents, adult educators, and elementary…
Robins, Lauren M; Hill, K D; Day, Lesley; Clemson, Lindy; Finch, Caroline; Haines, Terry
This paper describes why older adults begin, continue, and discontinue group- and home-based falls prevention exercise and benefits and barriers to participation. Telephone surveys were used to collect data for 394 respondents. Most respondents reported not participating in group- (66%) or home-based (78%) falls prevention exercise recently. Reasons for starting group-based falls prevention exercise include health benefits (23-39%), health professional recommendation (13-19%), and social interaction (4-16%). They discontinued because the program finished (44%) or due to poor health (20%). Commonly reported benefits were social interaction (41-67%) and health (15-31%). Disliking groups was the main barrier (2-14%). Home-based falls prevention exercise was started for rehabilitation (46-63%) or upon health professional recommendation (22-48%) and stopped due to recovery (30%). Improvement in health (18-46%) was the main benefit. These findings could assist health professionals in prescribing group-based falls prevention exercise by considering characteristics of older adults who perceive social interaction to be beneficial. PMID:26539657
Tariman, Joseph D.; Doorenbos, Ardith; Schepp, Karen G.; Singhal, Seema; Berry, Donna L.
Purpose/Objectives The purpose of the study was to describe the preferences for participation in decision making of older patients newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma and to explore the association between sociodemographic variables and decisional role preferences. Design Descriptive, cross sectional design Setting Subjects’ homes and two large academic cancer centers. Sample The convenience sample consisted of 20 older adults (60 years of age and above) with symptomatic myeloma diagnosed within the past 6 months. Methods The Control Preferences Scale was administered followed by an in-person one-time semi-structured interview. Main Research Variables Role preferences for participation in treatment decision-making, age, gender, race, work status, personal relationship status, education, and income. Findings 55% (n=11) of the subjects had preferred a shared role with the physician and 40% (n=8) had preferred to make the decisions after seriously considering the opinion of their physicians. Only one subject preferred to leave the decision to the doctor as long as the doctor considered the patient’s treatment preferences. Sociodemographic characteristics had no impact on preferences for participation in treatment decision-making. Conclusions The study findings indicate that older adults newly diagnosed with myeloma wanted to participate during treatment decision-making. Oncology nurses must respect the patient's desired role preference and oncology clinicians must listen to the patient and allow them to be autonomous in making treatment decisions if the patient so desire such control in the decision-making process. A culture of equipoise between the patient and the clinician during TDM must be cultivated in order to achieve the patient's desired level of participation. More studies that focus on supporting and involving patients diagnosed with myeloma in the decision-making process are needed in order to influence clinical practice and policy. Practice
Scipio, Deana Aeolani
This dissertation examines learning within an out-of-school time (OST) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) broadening participation program. The dissertation includes an introduction, three empirical chapters (written as individual articles), and a conclusion. The dissertation context is a chemical oceanography OST program for middle school students called Project COOL---Chemical Oceanography Outside the Lab. The program was a collaboration between middle school OST programming, a learning sciences research laboratory, and a chemical oceanography laboratory. Both labs were located at a research-based university in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Participants include 34 youth, 12 undergraduates, and five professional scientists. The dissertation data corpus includes six years of ethnographic field notes across three field sites, 400 hours of video and audio recordings, 40 hours of semi-structured interviews, and more than 100 participant generated artifacts. Analysis methods include comparative case analysis, cognitive mapping, semiotic cluster analysis, video interaction analysis, and discourse analysis. The first empirical article focuses on synthesizing productive programmatic features from four years of design-based research.. The second article is a comparative case study of three STEM mentors from non-dominant communities in the 2011 COOL OST Program. The third article is a comparative case study of undergraduates learning to be mentors in the 2014 COOL OST Program. Findings introduce Deep Hanging as a theory of learning in practice. Deep Hanging entails authentic tasks in rich contexts, providing access, capitalizing on opportunity, and building interpersonal relationships. Taken together, these three chapters illuminate the process of designing a rich OST learning environment and the kinds of learning in practice that occurred for adult learners learning to be mentors through their participation in the COOL OST program. In
DICKINSON, JAMES GARY
TO DETERMINE WHETHER RETENTION IN PUBLIC ADULT NIGHT SCHOOL PROGRAMS IS RELATED TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS OR TO THE LENGTH AND NATURE OF COURSES, THIS STUDY WAS MADE OF PATTERNS OF PARTICIPATION IN SUCH PROGRAMS IN WHITE ROCK, BRITISH COLUMBIA. DATA WERE DERIVED FROM 2075 REGISTRATION CARDS AND 98 COMPLETED ATTENDANCE…
Works of art have been referred to as a good source of fuel for the engagement of art museum visitors, thus art museum education researchers and practitioners have sought to create opportunities active social interactions between visitors related to the art they view in museums. However, research investigating different ways to encourage active…
Rodrigues, Rashmi J.; Antony, Jimmy; Krishnamurthy, Shubha; Shet, Anita; De Costa, Ayesha
Background India has the highest number of HIV infected persons in the world after South Africa. Much HIV related behavioral, clinical and laboratory based research is ongoing in India. Yet little is known on Indian HIV patients' knowledge of research, their processes of decision making and motives for participation. We aimed to explore these areas among HIV infected individuals to understand their reasons for participating in research. Methodology/Principal Findings This is a cross sectional survey among 173 HIV infected adults at a tertiary level hospital in Bangalore, India, done between October 2010 and January 2011. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to the participants by trained research assistants to assess their knowledge regarding research, willingness to participate, decision making and determinants of participation. Participants were presented with five hypothetical HIV research studies. Each study had a different level of intervention and time commitment. Of respondents, 103(60%), said that research meant ‘to discover something new’ and 138(80%) were willing to participate in research. A third of the respondents were unaware of their right to refuse participation. Willingness to participate in research varied with level of intervention. It was the lowest for the hypothetical study involving sensitive questions followed by the hypothetical drug trial; and was the highest for the hypothetical cross sectional questionnaire based study (p<0.0015). Individual health benefits and altruism were the primary motives for participation in research and indicate the presence of therapeutic misconception. Women were less likely to make autonomous decisions for participation in interventional studies. Conclusions/Significance Despite a majority willing to participate, over a third of respondents did not have any knowledge of research or the voluntary nature of participation. This has ethical implications. Researchers need to focus on enabling potential
Arvidsson, Patrik; Granlund, Mats; Thyberg, Mikael
Background: Self-rated participation is a clinically relevant intervention outcome for people with mild intellectual disability. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse empirical studies that explored relationships between either environmental factors or individual characteristics "and" aspects of participation in young adults with mild…
Badia, Marta; Orgaz, Begona M.; Verdugo, Miguel A.; Ullan, Ana M.; Martinez, Magdalena M.
Participation in leisure activities has been identified as a factor that favors inclusion in the community and it also contributes to a better quality of life. This study analyzed the influence of certain personal characteristics and environmental factors in the participation in leisure activities of youngsters and adults with developmental…
The purpose of this literature review is to critically examine over two decades of research concerned with study abroad participation in the United States. Research questions framing the investigation are: 1) What methodological shortcomings can be identified in assessing influences on study abroad participation for adult and higher education…
McRae, Marc P.
Objective Betaine supplementation has been shown to be an effective agent for decreasing plasma homocysteine in healthy adults. Studies in healthy volunteers show that 6 g/d of betaine lowers plasma homocysteine concentrations by 5% to 20%. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials that used daily betaine supplementation to identify the range in betaine's effects on lowering homocysteine. Methods Five randomized controlled trials published between 2002 and 2010 were identified using MEDLINE and a manual search. All 5 studies used health adult participants who were supplemented with at least 4 g/d of betaine for between 6 and 24 weeks. A meta-analysis was carried out using a random-effects model, and the overall effect size was calculated for changes in plasma homocysteine. Results The pooled estimate of effect for betaine supplementation on plasma homocysteine was a reduction of 1.23 μmol/L, which was statistically significant (95% confidence interval, − 1.61 to − 0.85; P = .01). Conclusion Supplementation with at least 4g/d of betaine for a minimum of 6 weeks can lower plasma homocysteine. PMID:23997720
Carlton, Shiela; Sargant, Naomi
Learning about the arts and crafts gives individuals the means to examine themselves and their relationship with the world around them, whether through being an appreciative audience or their own creative practice. The arts and crafts are themselves industries creating jobs both in arts forms and in their support. People want and are entitled to…
Wilkie, Ross; Blagojevic-Bucknall, Milisa; Belcher, John; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Lacey, Rosie J.; McBeth, John
Abstract In older adults, reduced social participation increases the risk of poor health-related quality of life, increased levels of inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease, and increased mortality. Older adults frequently present to primary care, which offers the potential to deliver interventions at the point of care to increase social participation. The aim of this prospective study was to identify the key modifiable exposures that were associated with reduced social participation in a primary care population of older adults. The study was a population-based prospective cohort study. Participants (n = 1991) were those aged ≥65 years who had completed questionnaires at baseline, and 3 and 6-year follow-ups. Generalized linear mixed modeling framework was used to test for associations between exposures and decreasing social participation over 6 years. At baseline, 44% of participants reported reduced social participation, increasing to 49% and 55% at 3 and 6-year follow-up. Widespread pain and depression had the strongest independent association with reduced social participation over the 6-year follow-up period. The prevalence of reduced social participation for those with widespread pain was 106% (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.72, 2.46), higher than for those with no pain. Those with depression had an increased prevalence of 82% (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.62, 2.06). These associations persisted in multivariate analysis. Population ageing will be accompanied by increasing numbers of older adults with pain and depression. Future trials should assess whether screening for widespread pain and depression, and targeting appropriate treatment in primary care, increase social participation in older people. PMID:27495019
Background Evidence has been synthesized to determine hindering and facilitating factors associated with the work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia (DD), classified according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Methods A systematic literature review has been performed. Two search strings were used to determine the population and the context of work. The ICF was expanded with two subdivisions: one that made the environmental factors more work-related and a subdivision of personal factors. For data extraction the method known as qualitative metasummary was used and the manifest frequency effect size (MFES) for each category in the ICF was calculated. Results From 33 included studies 318 factors have been extracted and classified in the ICF. In the classification the frequency of occurrences and the consistency in direction (i.e., hindering or facilitating) have been made visible. The ICF categories with the highest MFES were mental functions with factors like feelings and emotions about dyslexia; activities like reading or writing/spelling; participation with factors like acquiring and keeping a job; social relationships at work where the attitudes and support of the employer and co-workers are important; working conditions with factors like the availability of assistive technology and accommodations on the job; and personal factors like self-disclosure and coping strategies. Conclusions In the context of work DD affects nearly all domains of functioning, mostly in a negative way. Within each domain the impact of DD increases over the course of life. To overcome that negative influence, many forms of adaptation, compensation, or coping are mentioned. Also notable is the lack of positive attitudes toward DD of the participants with DD—with the exception of the attitudes of teachers with DD—as well as on the part of colleagues, supervisors, and employers. PMID:24460949
Western European Education, 1989
Examines the state of adult education in Switzerland. Contends that the army is the country's largest adult education institution. Delineates future goals of adult education, assessing the increase in new technologies and their impact on adult education. Concludes with a discussion of educational leaves for workers. (RW)
Background This article compares British and Danish promotion of well-being through participation in art activity to empower the individual. It examines the influence of national, social and political contexts on art and health community projects by comparing practice and project outcomes. Method Based on two case studies, the article draws on specific evidence in Britain and Denmark. The approach taken is one of the psychosocial inquiries allowing reflection on practice including participants’ testimonies. Results The two cases showed comparable problems with restricted resources, funding and organisational limitations to service delivery. The British case study shows a bottom-up approach in contrast to the Danish case study where the approach is top-down. Although the benefits from participation in art activities in the two countries were influenced by a complex set of different interacting factors, outcomes were typically similarly positive: finding identity, feeling a sense of well-being and increased self-confidence. Conclusion In terms of practice, policy and research and in the recognition of value of art participation, the comparison demonstrates how different stories, contexts and institutions engage in different ways to facilitate and enable service users as well as generating different challenges; recognising the benefits of developing best practice guidelines in art practice in health settings. PMID:25729410
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How many hours per week must an adult or minor... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How many hours per week must an adult or minor... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true How many hours per week must an adult or minor head... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true How many hours per week must an adult or minor head... must an adult or minor head-of-household participate in work-related activities to count in the numerator of the work participation rate? During the month, an adult or minor head-of-household...
Kömek, Emre; Yagiz, Dursun; Kurt, Murat
The purpose of this study is to analyze scientific literacy levels relevant to science and technology classes among gifted students that participate in scientific activities at science and art centers. This study investigated whether there was a significant difference in scientific literacy levels among gifted students according to the areas of…
Faber, Ardis R.
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influence first-year nonmusic majors' decisions regarding participation in music ensembles at small liberal arts colleges in Indiana. A survey questionnaire was used to gather data. The data collected was analyzed to determine significant differences between the nonmusic majors who have…
Observations of artistic activities' transformative influence in social sphere by social scientists have played an essential role in the rise of "participative art" works worldwide. Within the scope of the public relations practices performed by municipal administrations particularly in order to promote the cultural development of society,…
This paper explores a Radical Collaborative Approach in the global and centralized Rock-Art Database project to find new ways to look at rock-art by making information more accessible and more visible through public contributions. It looks at rock-art through the Key Performance Indicator (KPI), identified with the latest Australian State of the Environment Reports to help develop a better understanding of rock-art within a broader Cultural and Indigenous Heritage context. Using a practice-led approach the project develops a conceptual collaborative model that is deployed within the RADB Management System. Exploring learning theory, human-based computation and participant motivation the paper develops a procedure for deploying collaborative functions within the interface design of the RADB Management System. The paper presents the results of the collaborative model implementation and discusses considerations for the next iteration of the RADB Universe within an Agile Development Approach.
Keusch, Florian; Rao, Rohini; Chang, Lawrence; Lepkowski, James; Reddy, Pavan; Choi, Sung Won
Despite major improvements over the past several decades, many patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) continue to suffer from significant treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Clinical research studies (trials) have been integral to advancing the standard of care in HSCT. However, 1 of the biggest challenges with clinical trials is the low participation rate. Although barriers to participation in cancer clinical trials have been previously explored, studies specific to HSCT are lacking. The current study was undertaken to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of HSCT patients regarding clinical trials. As members of focus groups, participants responded to open-ended questions that assessed factors influencing decision-making about HSCT clinical trials. Suggestions for improvements in the recruitment process were also solicited among participants. Seventeen adult HSCT patients and 6 parents of pediatric HSCT patients participated in the study. The median age was 56 years (range, 18 to 70) and 44 years (range, 28 to 54) for adult patients and parents, respectively. Participants universally indicated that too much information was provided within the informed consents and they were intimidated by the medical and legal language. Despite the large amount of information provided to them at the time of study enrollment, the participants had limited knowledge retention and recall of study details. Nevertheless, participants reported overall positive experiences with clinical trial participation and many would readily choose to participate again. A common concern among participants was the uncertainty of study outcome and general lack of feedback about results at the end of the study. Participants suggested that investigators provide more condensed and easier to understand informed consents and follow-up of study findings. These findings could be used to help guide the development of improved consent documents and enhanced
Hermsen, Lotte A H; Terwee, Caroline B; Leone, Stephanie S; van der Zwaard, Babette; Smalbrugge, Martin; Dekker, Joost; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Wilkie, Ross
Objective The Keele Assessment of Participation (KAP) questionnaire measures person-perceived participation in 11 aspects of life. Participation allows fulfilment of valued life activities and social roles, which are important to older adults. Since we aimed to use the KAP in a larger Dutch cohort, we examined the measurement properties of KAP in a Dutch sample of older adults with joint pain and comorbidity. Design Cohort study. Setting A community-based sample in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and North Staffordshire, UK. Participants Participants were aged 65 years and over, had at least two chronic diseases (identified through general practice consultation) and reported joint pain on most days (questionnaire). The Dutch cohort provided baseline data (n=407), follow-up data at 6 months (n=364) and test–retest data 2 weeks after 6 months (n=122). The UK cohort provided comparable data (n=404). Outcome measures The primary outcome was person-perceived participation, as measured with the KAP. The measurement properties examined were the following: structural validity (factor analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach's α), reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients; ICC), construct validity (hypothesis testing), responsiveness (hypothesis testing and area under the curve) and cross-cultural validity (differential item functioning; DIF). Results Factor analysis revealed two domains: KAPd1: ‘participation in basic activities’ and KAPd2: ‘participation in complex activities’, with Cronbach's α of 0.74 and 0.57 and moderate test–retest reliability: ICC of 0.63 and 0.57, respectively. Further analyses of KAPd1 showed poor construct validity and responsiveness. Despite the uniform DIF in item ‘interpersonal relations’, the total KAPd1 score seemed comparable between the Dutch and UK sample. Conclusions Only KAP domain ‘participation in basic activities’ showed good internal consistency and sufficient reliability. KAPd2 lacks sufficient
BLACKBURN, DONALD J.; DOUGLAH, MOHAMMAD A.
THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE THE METHOD ORIENTATION OF ADULTS (SPECIFICALLY, 611 RESIDENTS OF PREDOMINANTLY RURAL COLUMBIA COUNTY, WISCONSIN) FOR PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION, HOBBIES AND RECREATION, ACADEMIC OR GENERAL EDUCATION, RELIGION, MORALS AND ETHICS, HOME AND FAMILY LIFE, PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT,…
Jensen, Jane; Haleman, Diana; Goldstein, Beth; Anderman, Eric
The reasons why undereducated individuals choose not to participate in adult education were examined in a comparative, qualitative case study that was conducted in eight nonmetropolitan sites (including the pilot site) in diverse economic regions across Kentucky. Data were collected from the following sources: in-depth interviews with 84 adults…