Stupp, Emma Gonzalez, Comp.; Gage, Jennifer, Comp.
This bibliography is a collection of 51 entries concerning adult basic education for non-English speakers. Each entry contains an abstract describing the contents of the material. Information is also provided regarding availability, as well as indexing terms. (AMH)
Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.
The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…
Kellogg, E. P., Jr.
Five research projects concerning the Romanization of the Hebrew alphabet and its effect on the progress of adult English speakers learning Hebrew as a second language are reviewed. The hypotheses, subjects, procedures, results, conclusions, and validity of each study are summarized. The studies dealt with the Hebrew alphabet, spelling, plural…
Lulich, Steven M.; Morton, John R.; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S.; Leung, Gary K. F.; Alwan, Abeer
This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24 yr. The corpus contains 17 500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [ɹ] in various CVC contexts. Only monophthongs are analyzed in this paper. Speaker height and age were also recorded. Findings include (1) normative data on the frequency distribution of SGRs for young adults, (2) the dependence of SGRs on height, (3) the lack of a correlation between SGRs and formants or the fundamental frequency, (4) a poor correlation of the first SGR with the second and third SGRs but a strong correlation between the second and third SGRs, and (5) a significant effect of vowel category on SGR frequencies, although this effect is smaller than the measurement standard deviations and therefore negligible for practical purposes. PMID:23039452
Lulich, Steven M; Morton, John R; Arsikere, Harish; Sommers, Mitchell S; Leung, Gary K F; Alwan, Abeer
This paper presents a large-scale study of subglottal resonances (SGRs) (the resonant frequencies of the tracheo-bronchial tree) and their relations to various acoustical and physiological characteristics of speakers. The paper presents data from a corpus of simultaneous microphone and accelerometer recordings of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words embedded in a carrier phrase spoken by 25 male and 25 female native speakers of American English ranging in age from 18 to 24 yr. The corpus contains 17,500 utterances of 14 American English monophthongs, diphthongs, and the rhotic approximant [[inverted r
Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Wolk, Lesley; Slavin, Dianne
The purpose of this study was to assess possible gender differences in the prevalence of vocal fry in the voices of young male college students. Results were compared with previously published findings derived from a matched sample of female speakers. Thirty-four male college students, native American English speakers, produced speech samples in two speaking conditions: (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) reading task. Data analyses included perceptual evaluations by two licensed speech-language pathologists. Results showed that vocal fry was perceived significantly more frequently in sentences than in isolated vowel productions. When vocal fry occurred in sentences, it was detected significantly more often in sentence-final position than in initial- and/or mid-sentence position. Furthermore, the prevalence of vocal fry in sentences was significantly lower for male speakers than has previously been reported for female speakers. Possible physiological and sociolinguistic explanations are discussed. PMID:24315658
Gouveia-Whitehead, Maureen M.
This qualitative phenomenological study explored and describes the lived experiences of faulty members who instruct and prepare adult nonstandard English-speaking students while employed at a technical education institution in the Southeast. Ten faculty members (5 males and 5 females) participated in sharing his or her perception (through…
Broward County Schools, Fort Lauderdale, FL.
This curriculum guide outlines courses in English as a Second Language (ESL) offered by the Broward County (Florida) adult education program. An introductory section outlines the general student needs on which the curricula are based, program policies for placement and promotion, instructional delivery, and student progression, and the…
US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007
This paper was developed to help teachers teach English to adult students while introducing basic concepts about the environment and individual environmental responsibility. These concepts can help the newly-arrived be part of cleaner and healthier communities by understanding and practicing the "3Rs" of solid waste management: reduce, reuse, and…
This study aimed at looking at perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English to determine if perception problems are the source of production problems. In particular, first, this study looked at the possible first language effect on the perception of English palatal codas. Second, a possible perceptual source of vowel epenthesis after English palatal codas was investigated. In addition, individual factors, such as length of residence, TOEFL score, gender and academic status, were compared to determine if those affected the varying degree of the perception accuracy. Eleven adult Korean speakers of English as well as three native speakers of English participated in the study. Three sets of a perception test including identification of minimally different English pseudo- or real words were carried out. The results showed that, first, the Korean speakers perceived the English codas significantly worse than the Americans. Second, the study supported the idea that Koreans perceived an extra /i/ after the final affricates due to final release. Finally, none of the individual factors explained the varying degree of the perceptional accuracy. In particular, TOEFL scores and the perception test scores did not have any statistically significant association.
Drawing upon two research projects, this paper analyses changes affecting the in-service training of adult literacy, numeracy and teachers of English for Speakers of Other Languages in England. There are many issues raised in this paper, particularly how in-service teacher education programmes in England can meet the diversity of learner need, how…
Lauper, Julie Ann
A study analyzed patterns in one speech act, that of refusal, in 60 native English speakers (responding in English only) and 120 native Spanish speakers (60 responding in English and 60 in Spanish). Native English speakers were college students in the United States and Spanish speakers were students in Spain. A questionnaire was used to elicit…
Wayland, Ratree; Landfair, David; Li, Bin; Guion, Susan G.
The influence of syllabic structure, lexical class and stress patterns of known words on the acquisition of the English stress system was investigated in ten native Thai speakers. All participants were adult learners of English with an average length of residence in the US of 1.4 years. They were asked to produce and give perceptual judgments on…
Liker, Marko; Gibbon, Fiona E.
This paper provides a more detailed description of normal tongue palate contact patterns for the occlusion phase of velar stops than currently exists. The study used electropalatography (EPG) to record seven normally speaking adults' contact patterns of voiceless velar stops in nine VkV contexts. A variety of EPG indices measured: per cent…
Shafer Willner, Lynn
When participating in threaded discussions, under what conditions might non¬native speakers of English (NNSE) be at a comparative disadvantage to their classmates who are native speakers of English (NSE)? This study compares the threaded discussion perspectives of closely-matched NNSE and NSE adult students having different levels of threaded…
Casillas, Joseph V.; Simonet, Miquel
This study investigates how fluent second-language (L2) learners of English produce and perceive the /ae/-/?/ vowel contrast of Southwestern American English. Two learner groups are examined: (1) early, proficient English speakers who were raised by Spanish-speaking families but who became dominant in English during childhood and, as adults, lack…
Choi, Yeon Hee
Examines text structure of argumentative writing in English by Korean speakers as compared with native speakers'(NS) writing in Korean and NS writing in English. Interactive text analysis showed English essays had a clear structural pattern that the Korean essays lacked. Sample essays and questionnaires are included in Appendix. (Author/LMO)
Due to the global momentum of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), Anglophones may perceive that there is less urgency for them to learn other languages than for speakers of other languages to learn English. The monolingual expectations of English speakers are evidenced not only in Anglophone countries but also abroad. This study reports on the…
... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers... § 247.13 Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. (a) What must State and local agencies do to ensure that non-English or limited-English speaking persons are aware of their rights...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers... § 247.13 Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. (a) What must State and local agencies do to ensure that non-English or limited-English speaking persons are aware of their rights...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers... § 247.13 Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. (a) What must State and local agencies do to ensure that non-English or limited-English speaking persons are aware of their rights...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers... § 247.13 Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. (a) What must State and local agencies do to ensure that non-English or limited-English speaking persons are aware of their rights...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers... § 247.13 Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. (a) What must State and local agencies do to ensure that non-English or limited-English speaking persons are aware of their rights...
Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.
This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…
Thomson, Ron I.
One of the most influential models of second language (L2) speech perception and production [Flege, Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience (York, Baltimore, 1995) pp. 233-277] argues that during initial stages of L2 acquisition, perceptual categories sharing the same or nearly the same acoustic space as first language (L1) categories will be processed as members of that L1 category. Previous research has generally been limited to testing these claims on binary L2 contrasts, rather than larger portions of the perceptual space. This study examines the development of 10 English vowel categories by 20 Mandarin L1 learners of English. Imitation of English vowel stimuli by these learners, at 6 data collection points over the course of one year, were recorded. Using a statistical pattern recognition model, these productions were then assessed against native speaker norms. The degree to which the learners' perception/production shifted toward the target English vowels and the degree to which they matched L1 categories in ways predicted by theoretical models are discussed. The results of this experiment suggest that previous claims about perceptual assimilation of L2 categories to L1 categories may be too strong.
Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Adult Education.
This study guide was prepared to assist trained teachers of English to speakers of other languages (ESOL) who work with students at the beginning and intermediate levels. These teachers have had graduate courses in descriptive linguistics, phonology, syntax, morphology, and methodology of teaching English to speakers of other languages. The guide…
Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Thomas Lee
Six adult, second language (L2) English learners were observed over a period of one year to explore the development of lexical bundles (i.e., bigrams) in naturally produced, oral English. Total bigrams produced by the L2 learners over the year of observation that were shared with native speakers were compared using a frequency index to explore L2…
Pennington, Martha C.; Ellis, Nick C.
Reviews the nature and functions of prosody, and contrasts English and Cantonese for this feature of language as background for two experimental studies. Thirty Cantonese advanced speakers of English were tested for their recognition memory of English sentences in which prosody-cued meaning contrasts in otherwise identical sentence pairs. Results…
This handbook is designed for native English speakers who are preparing to teach English in China. The contents of the handbook are selected based on the findings of face-to-face interviews and a questionnaire survey conducted by the author with experienced native English teachers to China as the partial fulfillment of her Master's in TESOL…
Kersten, Alan W.; Meissner, Christian A.; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L.; Albrechtsen, Justin S.; Iglesias, Adam
Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual…
Wolk, Lesley; Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Slavin, Dianne
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of vocal fry in young adult Standard American-English (SAE) speakers. This was a preliminary attempt (1) to determine the prevalence of the use of this register in young adult college-aged American speakers and (2) to describe the acoustic characteristics of vocal fry in these speakers. Subjects were 34 female college students. They were native SAE speakers aged 18-25 years. Data collection procedures included high quality recordings of two speaking conditions, (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) sentence reading task. Data analyses included both perceptual and acoustic evaluations. Results showed that approximately two-thirds of this population used vocal fry and that it was most likely to occur at the end of sentences. In addition, statistically significant differences between vocal fry and normal register were found for mean F(0) minimum, F(0) maximum, F(0) range, and jitter local. Preliminary findings were taken to suggest that use of the vocal fry register may be common in some adult SAE speakers. PMID:21917418
Gut, Ulrike; Pillai, Stefanie
Various researchers have shown that second language (L2) speakers have difficulties with marking information structure in English prosodically: They deviate from native speakers not only in terms of pitch accent placement (Grosser, 1997; Gut, 2009; Ramírez Verdugo, 2002) and the type of pitch accent they produce (Wennerstrom, 1994, 1998) but also…
Kisser, Jason E; Wendell, Carrington R; Spencer, Robert J; Waldstein, Shari R
Relatively little is known about differences in English-administered, clinical neuropsychological test performance between native versus non-native English speakers, with prior literature yielding mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of native and non-native English speakers with similar age and educational backgrounds on a variety of cognitive tests. Participants were 153 university students (115 native and 38 non-native English speakers) who completed a neuropsychological battery during two testing sessions. Multiple regression analyses examined relations of native language to cognitive performance after adjustment for age, education, sex, and depressive symptomatology. Results showed that native English speakers outperformed non-native English speakers on several language-mediated tasks-Letter and Category Fluency and the Cognitive Estimation Test-as well as Trails A (p's < .05). The two groups performed similarly on tests of executive functions, perceptuo-motor speed, verbal memory, and visuospatial abilities. These results suggest that non-native English language may have a negative influence predominantly on language-dependent tasks. PMID:22985952
Mai, Ziyin; Yuan, Boping
This article reports an empirical study investigating L2 acquisition of the Mandarin Chinese "shì…de" cleft construction by adult English-speaking learners within the framework of the Feature Reassembly Hypothesis (Lardiere, 2009). A Sentence Completion task, an interpretation task, two Acceptability Judgement tasks, and a felicity…
WEXLER, PAUL, ED.
THE EDITOR DESCRIBES THIS BOOK AS "A PRELIMINARY DESCRIPTION OF THE RUDIMENTS OF AYMARA GRAMMAR" RATHER THAN A DEFINITIVE GRAMMAR AND TEXT BOOK. THE MATERIAL FOR THIS BOOK WAS TAKEN FROM THE SPEECH OF EDUCATED URBAN SPEAKERS BILINGUAL IN SPANISH AND THE AUTHOR POINTS OUT THAT MUCH FURTHER FIELD WORK WITH RURAL MONOLINGUAL SPEAKERS SHOULD BE DONE…
Abuom, Tom O.; Shah, Emmah; Bastiaanse, Roelien
For this study, sentence comprehension was tested in Swahili-English bilingual agrammatic speakers. The sentences were controlled for four factors: (1) order of the arguments (base vs. derived); (2) embedding (declarative vs. relative sentences); (3) overt use of the relative pronoun "who"; (4) language (English and Swahili). Two theories were…
Lawrence, Winston, Comp.
This publication contains a collection of writings by New York City adult learners enrolled in English for Speakers of Other Languages programs. The writings focus on their feelings about and experiences with the World Trade Center attacks of September 11, 2001. Some of the titles include: "Why?"; "Sad Feeling"; "A Day of Remembrance"; "I Want to…
Cartei, Valentina; Cowles, Heidi Wind; Reby, David
Background The frequency components of the human voice play a major role in signalling the gender of the speaker. A voice imitation study was conducted to investigate individuals' ability to make behavioural adjustments to fundamental frequency (F0), and formants (Fi) in order to manipulate their expression of voice gender. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-two native British-English adult speakers were asked to read out loud different types of text (words, sentence, passage) using their normal voice and then while sounding as ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ as possible. Overall, the results show that both men and women raised their F0 and Fi when feminising their voice, and lowered their F0 and Fi when masculinising their voice. Conclusions/Significance These observations suggest that adult speakers are capable of spontaneous glottal and vocal tract length adjustments to express masculinity and femininity in their voice. These results point to a “gender code”, where speakers make a conventionalized use of the existing sex dimorphism to vary the expression of their gender and gender-related attributes. PMID:22363628
Holt, Yolanda Feimster; Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen
Purpose Atypical duration of speech segments can signal a speech disorder. This study examined variation in vowel duration in African American English (AAE) relative to White American English (WAE) speakers living in the same dialect region in the South in order to characterize the nature of systematic variation between the two groups. The goal was to establish whether segmental durations in minority populations differ from the well-established patterns in mainstream populations. Method Participants were 32 AAE and 32 WAE speakers differing in age who, in their childhood, attended either segregated (older speakers) or integrated (younger speakers) public schools. Speech materials consisted of 14 vowels produced in hVd-frame. Results AAE vowels were significantly longer than WAE vowels. Vowel duration did not differ as a function of age. The temporal tense-lax contrast was minimized for AAE relative to WAE. Female vowels were significantly longer than male vowels for both AAE and WAE. Conclusions African Americans should be expected to produce longer vowels relative to White speakers in a common geographic area. These longer durations are not deviant but represent a typical feature of AAE. This finding has clinical importance in guiding assessments of speech disorders in AAE speakers. PMID:25951511
This dissertation is concerned with Chinese speakers' acquisition of telicity in L2 English. Telicity is a semantic notion having to do with whether an event has an inherent endpoint or not. Most existing work on L2 telicity is conceptualized within an L1-transfer framework and examines learning situations where L1 and L2 differ on whether…
This study investigated the effects of first language prosodic transfer on the perception and production of English lexical stress and the relation between stress perception and production by second language learners. To test the effect of Thai tonal distribution rules and stress patterns on native Thai speakers' perception and production of…
Explores the potential of the use of voice-recognition technology with second-language speakers of English. Involves the analysis of the output produced by a small group of very competent second-language subjects reading a text into the voice recognition software Dragon Systems "Dragon NaturallySpeaking." (Author/VWL)
ROBINETT, BETTY WALLACE; AND OTHERS
THE CONTENTS OF THIS SERIES (A COMPILATION OF PAPERS READ AT THE TEACHERS OF ENGLISH TO SPEAKERS OF OTHER LANGUAGES (TESOL) CONFERENCE, NEW YORK CITY, MARCH 17-19, 1966) ARE GROUPED ACCORDING TO GENERAL SUBJECT (AND AUTHORS)--(1) TESOL AS A PROFESSIONAL FIELD (S. OHANNESSIAN, A.H. MARCKWARDT, G. CAPELLE, D. GLICKSBERG), (2) REPORTS ON SPECIAL…
Robinett, Betty Wallace, Ed.
The contents of this series (a compilation of papers read at the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Conference, New York City, March 17-19, 1966) are grouped according to general subject and authors--(1) TESOL as a Professional Field, by S. Ohannessian, A.H. Marckwardt, G. Capelle, D. Glicksberg; (2) Reports on Special Programs, by…
Given the rising prominence of nonstandard varieties of English around the world (Jenkins 2007), learners of English as a second language are increasingly called on to communicate with speakers of both native and non-native nonstandard English varieties. In many classrooms around the world, however, learners continue to be exposed only to…
Flege, J E; MacKay, I R; Meador, D
This study examined the production and perception of English vowels by highly experienced native Italian speakers of English. The subjects were selected on the basis of the age at which they arrived in Canada and began to learn English, and how much they continued to use Italian. Vowel production accuracy was assessed through an intelligibility test in which native English-speaking listeners attempted to identify vowels spoken by the native Italian subjects. Vowel perception was assessed using a categorial discrimination test. The later in life the native Italian subjects began to learn English, the less accurately they produced and perceived English vowels. Neither of two groups of early Italian/English bilinguals differed significantly from native speakers of English either for production or perception. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis of the speech learning model [Flege, in Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Theoretical and Methodological Issues (York, Timonium, MD, 1995)] that early bilinguals establish new categories for vowels found in the second language (L2). The significant correlation observed to exist between the measures of L2 vowel production and perception is consistent with another hypothesis of the speech learning model, viz., that the accuracy with which L2 vowels are produced is limited by how accurately they are perceived. PMID:10573909
Pae, Hye K.; Greenberg, Daphne
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between receptive and expressive language skills characterized by the performance of nonnative speakers (NNSs) of English in the academic context. Test scores of 585 adult NNSs were selected from Form 2 of the Pearson Test of English Academic's field-test database. A correlated…
Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Su, Jui-Ju; Lee, Chao-Yang; O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.
Chinese and English speakers seem to hold different conceptions of time which may be related to the different codings of time in the two languages. Employing a sentence-picture matching task, we have investigated this linguistic relativity in Chinese-English bilinguals varying in English proficiency and found that those with high proficiency…
Ionin, Tania; Zubizarreta, Maria Luisa; Philippov, Vadim
This paper examines article use in the L2-English of adult and child speakers of Russian, an article-less language. In earlier work on articles in adult L2-English, Ionin, Ko and Wexler (2004) proposed that speakers of article-less L1s fluctuate between dividing English articles on the basis of definiteness vs. specificity, as a result of direct…
Choi, Lee Jin
This qualitative study of English Korean bilinguals explores the ways in which they legitimize themselves as "good" bilinguals in relation to the discourse of native-speakerism. I first survey the essentialist discourse of native speakerism still prevalent in the field of English language teaching and learning despite the growing…
Foreign-accented speakers are generally regarded as less educated, less reliable and less interesting than native speakers and tend to be associated with cultural stereotypes of their country of origin. This discrimination against foreign accents has, however, been discussed mainly using accented English in English-speaking countries. This study…
Kuo, Christina; Weismer, Gary
This study examined acoustic variation of vowels within speakers across speech tasks. The overarching goal of the study was to understand within-speaker variation as one index of the range of normal speech motor behavior for American English vowels. Ten male speakers of American English performed four speech tasks including citation form sentence reading with a clear-speech style (clear-speech), citation form sentence reading (citation), passage reading (reading), and conversational speech (conversation). Eight monophthong vowels in a variety of consonant contexts were studied. Clear-speech was operationally defined as the reference point for describing variation. Acoustic measures associated with the conventions of vowel targets were obtained and examined. These included temporal midpoint formant frequencies for the first three formants (F1, F2, and F3) and the derived Euclidean distances in the F1-F2 and F2-F3 planes. Results indicated that reduction toward the center of the F1-F2 and F2-F3 planes increased in magnitude across the tasks in the order of clear-speech, citation, reading, and conversation. The cross-task variation was comparable for all speakers despite fine-grained individual differences. The characteristics of systematic within-speaker acoustic variation across tasks have potential implications for the understanding of the mechanisms of speech motor control and motor speech disorders. PMID:27475161
The author, a teacher educator, explains that because of a lack of training in language studies, many teachers do not view language as linguists do. She identifies three misconceptions (and the implications they have for English language learners) that still persist in education: Standard English is the best and most correct form of English,…
Nero, Shondel J.
The language of English-speaking Caribbean immigrant students in the United States is examined, and it is argued that conventional English-as-a-Second-Language classes and curricula do not address the linguistic needs of these students. Background information on the evolution and sociocultural patterns of English-based vernaculars, or Creoles, of…
Olson, Susan M.
A study investigated patterns of usage of "can" and "may" (e.g., "May/Can I go to the bathroom?") among native speakers and non-native speakers of English. A questionnaire was administered to 25 native English-speakers, most aged 19-26 and the remainder over age 45, and 56 non-native speakers taking advanced English-as-a-Second-Language classes.…
The idea of a language-specific articulatory setting (AS), an underlying posture of the articulators during speech, has existed for centuries [Laver, Historiogr. Ling. 5 (1978)], but until recently it had eluded direct measurement. In an analysis of x-ray movies of French and English monolingual speakers, Gick et al. [Phonetica (in press)] link AS to inter-speech posture, allowing measurement of AS without interference from segmental targets during speech, and they give quantitative evidence showing AS to be language-specific. In the present study, ultrasound and Optotrak are used to investigate whether bilingual English-French speakers have two ASs, and whether this varies depending on the mode (monolingual or bilingual) these speakers are in. Specifically, for inter-speech posture of the lips, lip aperture and protrusion are measured using Optotrak. For inter-speech posture of the tongue, tongue root retraction, tongue body and tongue tip height are measured using optically-corrected ultrasound. Segmental context is balanced across the two languages ensuring that the sets of sounds before and after an inter-speech posture are consistent across languages. By testing bilingual speakers, vocal tract morphology across languages is controlled for. Results have implications for L2 acquisition, specifically the teaching and acquisition of pronunciation.
This article speaks to teachers who have been paired with native speakers (NSs) who have never taught before, and the feelings of frustration, discouragement, and nervousness on the teacher's behalf that can occur as a result. In order to effectively tackle this situation, teachers need to work together with the NSs. Teachers in this scenario…
Allen, Virginia French, Ed.
The contents of this volume, a compilation of papers read at the first conference of TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages), are grouped according to general subject and authors: (1) TESOL as a Professional Field--A.H. Marckwardt, F.J. Colligan, W.F. Marquardt; (2) Reports on Special Programs--J.E. Officer, R.B. Long, M.C.…
Kreidler, Carol J., Ed.
The papers in this volume, read at the second national TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) conference, are grouped by general subject as follows: (1) TESOL as a Professional Field--C.H. Prator, J.M. Cowan, T.W. Russell, J.E. Alatis; (2) Reports on Special Programs--H. Thompson, A.D. Nance, D. Pantell, P. Rojas, R.F. Robinett,…
For nonnative English speakers, taking a standardized English proficiency test seems inevitable, because the scores achieved play an important role in such life events as admission to a school, gaining a scholarship, or securing a job. Considering their importance, it is imperative that such tests be not only valid and reliable, but also fair.…
Wu, Wen-Chi; Marek, Michael
Because there are few native speakers of English in Taiwan, students of English in Taiwan are often poorly motivated, having few opportunities to develop their skills and learn about American culture outside of class. Recent advancements in distance education allow live audio and video teleconferences via the Internet, a technology that has the…
Nero, Shondel J.
A study investigated how four anglophone Caribbean students enrolled in an American college perceive their own language and writing in standard English, the morphosyntactic and semantic features that emerge when they write in standard English, and the extent to which discourse features revealed in their writing are attributable to Creole…
Gao, Yuan; Low, Renae; Jin, Putai; Sweller, John
Using a cognitive load theory approach, we investigated the effects of speaker variability when individuals are learning to understand English as a foreign language (EFL) spoken by foreign-accented speakers. The use of multiple, Indian-accented speakers was compared to that of a single speaker for Chinese EFL learners with a higher or lower…
Jacobson, Rodolfo, Ed.
Suggesting that America should strive for linguistic and cultural pluralism, this special issue gathers in one place the latest thoughts of scholars on topics related to the concept of cultural pluralism, i.e., English to speakers of other languages (ESOL) and standard English to speakers of a nonstandard dialect (SESOD). Kenneth Croft, James Ney,…
McDonald, Janet L.; Heilenman, Kathy L.
Investigates the determinants of adult usage of various syntactic and semantic cues in sentence interpretation. Native French speakers and advanced English/French bilinguals were tested for the strength of usage of word order, clitic pronoun agreement, verb agreement, and noun animacy cues in the assignment of the role in French sentences. (46…
Kaan, Edith; Barkley, Christopher M; Bao, Mingzhen; Wayland, Ratree
Background Tone languages such as Thai and Mandarin Chinese use differences in fundamental frequency (F0, pitch) to distinguish lexical meaning. Previous behavioral studies have shown that native speakers of a non-tone language have difficulty discriminating among tone contrasts and are sensitive to different F0 dimensions than speakers of a tone language. The aim of the present ERP study was to investigate the effect of language background and training on the non-attentive processing of lexical tones. EEG was recorded from 12 adult native speakers of Mandarin Chinese, 12 native speakers of American English, and 11 Thai speakers while they were watching a movie and were presented with multiple tokens of low-falling, mid-level and high-rising Thai lexical tones. High-rising or low-falling tokens were presented as deviants among mid-level standard tokens, and vice versa. EEG data and data from a behavioral discrimination task were collected before and after a two-day perceptual categorization training task. Results Behavioral discrimination improved after training in both the Chinese and the English groups. Low-falling tone deviants versus standards elicited a mismatch negativity (MMN) in all language groups. Before, but not after training, the English speakers showed a larger MMN compared to the Chinese, even though English speakers performed worst in the behavioral tasks. The MMN was followed by a late negativity, which became smaller with improved discrimination. The High-rising deviants versus standards elicited a late negativity, which was left-lateralized only in the English and Chinese groups. Conclusion Results showed that native speakers of English, Chinese and Thai recruited largely similar mechanisms when non-attentively processing Thai lexical tones. However, native Thai speakers differed from the Chinese and English speakers with respect to the processing of late F0 contour differences (high-rising versus mid-level tones). In addition, native speakers of
Investigated the relationship among identity, affective variables, and achievement in English as a foreign language (EFL). Participants were 135 native Hebrew speakers and 53 native Russian speakers studying advanced EFL at an Israeli university. Results showed that ethnolinguistic identity was a greater predictor of achievement than any of the…
Iverson, Paul; Pinet, Melanie; Evans, Bronwen G.
This study examined whether high-variability auditory training on natural speech can benefit experienced second-language English speakers who already are exposed to natural variability in their daily use of English. The subjects were native French speakers who had learned English in school; experienced listeners were tested in England and the less…
Slark, Julie; Bateman, Harold
A study was conducted in 1980-81 at Santa Ana College (SAC) to collect data on the English communication skills of non-native English speakers and to determine if a relationship existed between these skills and student's educational success. A sample of 22 classes, with an enrollment of at least 50% non-native English speakers and representing a…
Among various study topics of advanced second language (L2) learners, mental lexicon shares a unique significance. This paper will introduce a comparative experiment between advanced Chinese English as a Second Language (CESL) learners and English as first language (EL1) speakers. The research question of the study is whether advanced CESL…
Basham, Charlotte; Fathman, Ann
This paper focuses on how latent knowledge of an ancestral or heritage language affects subsequent acquisition by adults. The "latent speaker" is defined as an individual raised in an environment where the ancestral language was spoken but who did not become a speaker of that language. The study examines how attitudes, latent knowledge and…
He, Deyuan; Zhang, Qunying
This article explores the question of whether the norms based on native speakers of English should be kept in English teaching in an era when English has become World Englishes. This is an issue that has been keenly debated in recent years, not least in the pages of "TESOL Quarterly." However, "China English" in such debates has been given lesser…
Andrade, Maureen S.
The cultural, ethnic, and linguistic diversity of today's tertiary students necessitates exploring a variety of approaches to support learning. This study reports on a university's efforts to understand the teaching and learning of its diverse students--international students who are nonnative English speakers (NNESs). Faculty were surveyed to…
Argaman, Osnat; Abu-Rabia, Salim
Examined the influence of language anxiety as measured by a questionnaire on achievements in English writing and reading comprehension tasks. Subjects were native speakers of Hebrew, aged 12-13 years, learning English as a second language.(Author/VWL)
Bountress, Nicholas G.
To investigate speech-language clinicians' attitudes regarding treatment goal setting for children who were speakers of Black English, questionnaires based on W. Wolfram and R. Fasold's conceivable goals in teaching standard English to speakers of nonstandard dialects were distributed to 103 clinicians. (Author/CL)
English uses the horizontal spatial metaphors to express time (e.g., the good days ahead of us). Chinese also uses the vertical metaphors (e.g., "the month above" to mean last month). Do Chinese speakers, then, think about time in a different way than English speakers? Boroditsky [Boroditsky, L. (2001). "Does language shape thought? Mandarin and…
Non-native speakers of English often experience problems in pronunciation as they are learning English, many such problems persisting even when the speaker has achieved a high degree of fluency. Research has shown that for a non-native speaker to sound most natural and intelligible in his or her second language, the speaker must acquire proper…
Zhang, Yanhong; Nissen, Shawn L.; Francis, Alexander L.
Native speakers of Mandarin Chinese have difficulty producing native-like English stress contrasts. Acoustically, English lexical stress is multidimensional, involving manipulation of fundamental frequency (F0), duration, intensity and vowel quality. Errors in any or all of these correlates could interfere with perception of the stress contrast, but it is unknown which correlates are most problematic for Mandarin speakers. This study compares the use of these correlates in the production of lexical stress contrasts by 10 Mandarin and 10 native English speakers. Results showed that Mandarin speakers produced significantly less native-like stress patterns, although they did use all four acoustic correlates to distinguish stressed from unstressed syllables. Mandarin and English speakers’ use of amplitude and duration were comparable for both stressed and unstressed syllables, but Mandarin speakers produced stressed syllables with a higher F0 than English speakers. There were also significant differences in formant patterns across groups, such that Mandarin speakers produced English-like vowel reduction in certain unstressed syllables, but not in others. Results suggest that Mandarin speakers’ production of lexical stress contrasts in English is influenced partly by native-language experience with Mandarin lexical tones, and partly by similarities and differences between Mandarin and English vowel inventories. PMID:18537399
Young, Ray; Faux, William V., II
This study illustrated the perceptions of native English speakers about difficult conversations with non-native English speakers. A total of 114 native English speakers enrolled in undergraduate communication courses at a regional state university answered a questionnaire about a recent difficult conversation the respondent had with a non-native…
Abuom, Tom O; Shah, Emmah; Bastiaanse, Roelien
For this study, sentence comprehension was tested in Swahili-English bilingual agrammatic speakers. The sentences were controlled for four factors: (1) order of the arguments (base vs. derived); (2) embedding (declarative vs. relative sentences); (3) overt use of the relative pronoun "who"; (4) language (English and Swahili). Two theories were tested: the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH; [Grodzinsky, Y. (1995). A restrictive theory of agrammatic comprehension. Brain and Language, 50, 27-51]) that assumes a representational deficit in agrammatic aphasia and the Derived Order Problem Hypothesis (DOP-H; Bastiaanse & Van Zonneveld, 2005), which is a processing account. Both theories have the same predictions for sentences in derived order. The difference is that the TDH predicts chance level performance for sentences in which the arguments are not in base order, whereas the DOP-H predicts poorer performance when processing demands increase. The results show that word order influences performance, in that sentences in which the arguments are in derived order are harder to comprehend than sentences in which the arguments are in base order. However, there is a significant interaction with the factor "embedding": sentences with an embedding are harder to comprehend than simple declaratives and this influence is larger in derived order sentences. There is no effect of language nor of the use of a relative pronoun. These results are correctly accounted for by the DOP-H. PMID:23635336
Roberson, Debi; Hanley, J Richard; Pak, Hyensou
Categorical perception (CP) is said to occur when a continuum of equally spaced physical changes is perceived as unequally spaced as a function of category membership (Harnad, S. (Ed.) (1987). Psychophysical and cognitive aspects of categorical perception: A critical overview. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). A common suggestion is that CP for color arises because perception is qualitatively distorted when we learn to categorize a dimension. Contrary to this view, we here report that English speakers show no evidence of lowered discrimination thresholds at the boundaries between blue and green categories even though CP is found at these boundaries in a supra-threshold task. Furthermore, there is no evidence of different discrimination thresholds between individuals from two language groups (English and Korean) who use different color terminology in the blue-green region and have different supra-threshold boundaries. Our participants' just noticeable difference (JND) thresholds suggest that they retain a smooth continuum of perceptual space that is not warped by stretching at category boundaries or by within-category compression. At least for the domain of color, categorical perception appears to be a categorical, but not a perceptual phenomenon. PMID:19619872
OBJECTIVES: English has become the most frequently used language for scientific communication in the biomedical field. Therefore, scholars from all over the world try to publish their findings in English. This trend has a number of advantages, along with several disadvantages. METHODS: In the current article, the most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers of English are reviewed. RESULTS: The most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers may include: Overlooking, either unintentionally or even deliberately, the most important local health problems; failure to carry out groundbreaking research due to limited medical research budgets; violating generally accepted codes of publication ethics and committing research misconduct and publications in open-access scam/predatory journals rather than prestigious journals. CONCLUSIONS: The above mentioned disadvantages could eventually result in academic establishments becoming irresponsible or, even worse, corrupt. In order to avoid this, scientists, scientific organizations, academic institutions, and scientific associations all over the world should design and implement a wider range of collaborative and comprehensive plans. PMID:25968115
The German /r/ sound is one of the most difficult sounds for American English (AE) speakers who are learning German as a foreign language to produce. The standard German /r/ variant [/R/] and dialectal variant [R] are achieved by varying the tongue constriction degree, while keeping the place of articulation constant [Schiller and Mooshammer…
Stricker, L. J.
The purpose of this study was to replicate previous research on the construct validity of the paper-based version of the TOEFL and extend it to the computer-based TOEFL. Two samples of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test-takers were used: native speakers of English specially recruited to take the computer-based TOEFL, and ESL…
This paper explores the apparent contradiction between the valuing and promoting of diverse literacies in most UK HEIs, and the discursive construction of spoken native-speaker English as the medium of good grades and prestige academic knowledge. During group interviews on their experiences of university internationalisation, 38 undergraduate…
Cons, Andrea M.
This study explores the following research question: How do secondary English learners (ELs) and Re-designated fluent English proficient students (RFEPs) use academic words in analytical writing in comparison to native English speakers (NESs)? It highlights previously overlooked differences in academic word use in the writing of students who are…
Abdalla, Fauzia; Robb, Michael P.; Al-Shatti, Tareq
The purpose of this study was to test whether the content and function word dichotomy of speech disfluency found in English-speaking adults who stutter (AWS) was evident in a language other than English. A group of adult Arabic-speaking AWS were sampled across spontaneous speaking, oral reading, and single-word naming tasks. Moments of disfluency…
Snow Andrade, Maureen; Evans, Norman W.; Hartshorn, K. James
Higher education institutions in English-speaking nations host significant populations of non-native English speakers (NNES), both international and resident. English language proficiency is a critical factor to their success. This study reviews higher education practices in the United States related to this population. Findings indicate…
Ortego, Philip D.
Attesting to the cruciality of the problems involved in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages is an introductory listing of national and international organizations created and committed to the study of TESOL: the English Teaching Information Centre of the British Council, the British Association of Teachers of English as a…
Kibishi, Hiroshi; Hirabayashi, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Seiichi
In this paper, we propose a statistical evaluation method of pronunciation proficiency and intelligibility for presentations made in English by native Japanese speakers. We statistically analyzed the actual utterances of speakers to find combinations of acoustic and linguistic features with high correlation between the scores estimated by the…
Chakraborty, Rahul; Goffman, Lisa; Smith, Anne
Purpose: To examine how age of immersion and proficiency in a 2nd language influence speech movement variability and speaking rate in both a 1st language and a 2nd language. Method: A group of 21 Bengali-English bilingual speakers participated. Lip and jaw movements were recorded. For all 21 speakers, lip movement variability was assessed based on…
Montrul, Silvina; Sanchez-Walker, Noelia
We report the results of two studies that investigate the factors contributing to non-native-like ability in child and adult heritage speakers by focusing on oral production of Differential Object Marking (DOM), the overt morphological marking of animate direct objects in Spanish. In study 1, 39 school-age bilingual children (ages 6-17) from the…
Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Stucky, Brian D; Lee, Jessica Y; Rozier, R Gary; Bender, Deborah E
Objective The intent of the study was to develop and validate a comparable health literacy test for Spanish-speaking and English-speaking populations. Study Design The design of the instrument, named the Short Assessment of Health Literacy—Spanish and English (SAHL-S&E), combined a word recognition test, as appearing in the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and a comprehension test using multiple-choice questions designed by an expert panel. We used the item response theory (IRT) in developing and validating the instrument. Data Collection Validation of SAHL-S&E involved testing and comparing the instrument with other health literacy instruments in a sample of 201 Spanish-speaking and 202 English-speaking subjects recruited from the Ambulatory Care Center at the University of North Carolina Healthcare System. Principal Findings Based on IRT analysis, 18 items were retained in the comparable test. The Spanish version of the test, SAHL-S, was highly correlated with other Spanish health literacy instruments, Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-Speaking Adults (r=0.88, p<.05) and the Spanish Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) (r=0.62, p<.05). The English version, SAHL-E, had high correlations with REALM (r=0.94, p<.05) and the English TOFHLA (r=0.68, p<.05). Significant correlations were found between SAHL-S&E and years of schooling in both Spanish- and English-speaking samples (r=0.15 and 0.39, respectively). SAHL-S&E displayed satisfactory reliability of 0.80 and 0.89 in the Spanish- and English-speaking samples, respectively. IRT analysis indicated that the SAHL-S&E score was highly reliable for individuals with a low level of health literacy. Conclusions The new instrument, SAHL-S&E, has good reliability and validity. It is particularly useful for identifying individuals with low health literacy and could be used to screen for low health literacy among Spanish and English speakers. PMID:20500222
Larrotta, Clarena; Serrano, Arlene F.
This qualitative study reports the findings implementing a pen pal letter exchange project between adult English language learners and volunteer native English speakers. The pen pal project was implemented using a holistic and socio-cultural approach to English literacy development. This article presents pen pal writing as an authentic language…
Liu, Hua; And Others
Examines patterns of transfer in the sentence processing strategies displayed by Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals. Results indicate that late bilinguals display strong evidence for forward transfer: late Chinese-English bilinguals transfer animacy-based strategies to English sentences; late Chinese-English bilinguals transfer…
Li, Chi-Nin; So, Connie K.
Studies have shown that talkers can improve the intelligibility of their speech when instructed to speak as if talking to a hearing-impaired person. The improvement of speech intelligibility is associated with specific acoustic-phonetic changes: increases in vowel duration and fundamental frequency (F0), a wider pitch range, and a shift in formant frequencies for F1 and F2. Most previous studies of clear speech production have been conducted with native speakers; research with second language speakers is much less common. The present study examined the acoustic properties of non-native English vowels produced in a clear speaking style. Five female Cantonese speakers and a comparison group of English speakers were recorded producing four vowels (/i u ae a/) in /bVt/ context in conversational and clear speech. Vowel durations, F0, pitch range, and the first two formants for each of the four vowels were measured. Analyses revealed that for both groups of speakers, vowel durations, F0, pitch range, and F1 spoken clearly were greater than those produced conversationally. However, F2 was higher in conversational speech than in clear speech. The findings suggest that female non-native English speakers exhibit acoustic-phonetic patterns similar to those of native speakers when asked to produce English vowels clearly.
Zhao, Huafang; Maina, Nyambura
This is one of several studies conducted by the Office of Shared Accountability that evaluated students identified as eligible for English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) services in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS). This study has two major purposes: (1) to examine English proficiency levels and progress in English…
This study examines how English speakers address, and are addressed by, their Japanese colleagues in Japan, and the deciding factors and motivation for the choice of address-forms in a given context. The local norms of English and Japanese are also examined through interviews with 15 British and 15 Japanese office workers in their home countries,…
Language learners' language experience is predicted to display a significant effect on their accurate perception of foreign language sounds (Flege, 1995). At the superasegmental level, there is still a debate regarding whether tone language speakers are better able to perceive foreign lexical tones than non-tone language speakers (i.e Lee et al.,…
Muftah, Muneera; Rafik-Galea, Shameem
The present study analyses errors on present simple tense among adult Arab English language learners. It focuses on the error on 3sg "-s" (the third person singular present tense agreement morpheme "-s"). The learners are undergraduate adult Arabic speakers learning English as a foreign language. The study gathered data from…
Zhang, Jie; Anderson, Richard C.; Wang, Qiuying; Packard, Jerome; Wu, Xinchun; Tang, Shan; Ke, Xiaoling
Knowledge of compound word structures in Chinese and English was investigated, comparing 435 Chinese and 258 Americans, including second, fourth, and sixth graders, and college undergraduates. As anticipated, the results revealed that Chinese speakers performed better on a word structure analogy task than their English-speaking counterparts. Also,…
Penrose, John M.
Students who are nonnative speakers of English are both a major component of today's diverse student population and also a special constituency in business communication classrooms. They may be foreign students or resident students who have primary languages other than English. Business communication instructors face major challenges conducting…
This study investigates the nature of the acoustic variation in sequences of identical affricates produced by Polish learners of English. In both English and Polish sequences of identical affricates occur across word boundaries, but only in Polish do such sequences also occur root internally and across morpheme boundaries. In Polish sequences of identical affricates are manifested variably both by rearticulation of both affricates and by articulation of a single affricate but with lengthened duration of either the stop or the fricative. To investigate their English, the subjects performed two tasks: repetition of 12 English sentences and orally responding to 17 multiple choice questions. The task produced significant cross-speaker differences in the phonetics of the geminates, differences correlated with differences in their proficiency levels in English. The more Polish-like singly articulated long affricates were produced by 22% of the intermediate speakers but by 48% of the advanced speakers, the opposite of what one might expect. The intermediate speakers appear to have paid more attention to the phonetics of the English cues, thus producing more fully rearticulated affricates; the more advanced speakers appear to have paid less attention to the phonetics of the cues, thus reverting more to the norms of Polish pronunciation.
Conrad, Jo Ann; Reinecke, Hank
This student workbook is designed to help Micronesian adults learn everyday English. Its ten chapters move from simple one-word picture labeling to more abstract ideas in a spiraled fashion, reiterating the essential elements of the English language in different, more complicated ways. Subjects covered include names for everyday objects and…
The goal of this study was to examine whether listeners bilingual in Spanish and English would have difficulty in the discrimination of English vowel contrasts. An additional goal was to estimate the correlation between their discrimination and production of these vowels. Participants (40 bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking and 40 native monolingual English-speaking college students, 23-36 years of age) participated (M age = 25.3 yr., Mdn = 25.0). The discrimination and production of English vowels in real and novel words by adult participants bilingual in Spanish and English were examined and their discrimination was compared with that of 40 native monolingual English-speaking participants. Stimuli were presented within triads in an ABX paradigm. Novel words were chosen to represent new words when learning a new language and to provide a more valid test of discrimination. Bilingual participants' productions of vowels were judged by two independent listeners to estimate the correlation between discrimination and production. Discrimination accuracy was significantly greater for native English-speaking participants than for bilingual participants for vowel contrasts and novel words. Significant errors also appeared in the bilingual participants' productions of certain vowels. Earlier age of acquisition, absence of communication problems, and greater percentage of time devoted to communication contributed to greater accuracy in discrimination and production. PMID:15560332
Edmonds, Lisa A.; Donovan, Neila J.
Purpose: There is a pressing need for psychometrically sound naming materials for Spanish/English bilingual adults. To address this need, in this study the authors examined the psychometric properties of An Object and Action Naming Battery (An O&A Battery; Druks & Masterson, 2000) in bilingual speakers. Method: Ninety-one Spanish/English…
Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.
Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English "wh"-subject-extractions and "wh"-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject-versus…
Background: Politeness strategies vary from language to language and within each society. At times the wrong strategies can have disastrous effects. This can occur when languages are used by non-native speakers or when they are used outside of their own home linguistic context. Purpose: This study of spoken language compares the politeness…
Raman, Ilhan; Weekes, Brendan S.
The Turkish script is characterised by completely transparent bidirectional mappings between orthography and phonology. To date, there has been no reported evidence of acquired dyslexia in Turkish speakers leading to the naive view that reading and writing problems in Turkish are probably rare. We examined the extent to which phonological…
Considering the complicating effect of cultural differences in writing conventions, this study examines discourse tradition as influenced by Confucian/Taoist precepts and those of U.S. academic environments, the latter requiring rational argumentation, justification, and proof. Pedagogical implications of native-speaker and nonnative-speaker…
McNaughton, Stephanie; McDonough, Kim
This exploratory study investigated second language (L2) French speakers' service encounters in the multilingual setting of Montreal, specifically whether switches to English during French service encounters were related to L2 speakers' willingness to communicate or motivation. Over a two-week period, 17 French L2 speakers in Montreal submitted…
Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton
The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…
Schafer, Martina; Robb, Michael P.
The purpose of this study was to examine stuttering behavior in German-English bilingual people who stutter (PWS), with particular reference to the frequency of stuttering on content and function words. Fifteen bilingual PWS were sampled who spoke German as the first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Conversational speech was…
The author went to the United States to study applied linguistics. Although he was there for nine months, his English proficiency did not improve as much as he had hoped, considering that he was using English almost exclusively every day. After his time in the United States, he spent 10 months in Australia working and traveling on a working…
British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.
This annotated bibliography lists books useful for teaching or learning English as a second language. Most of the books were published since 1965, and the majority were published in England. Prices are listed. The contents include sections on reference books and dictionaries; linguistics; grammar of English; vocabulary; language learning and…
This paper serves as a theoretical commentary on the debate regarding native and non-native speaker teachers of English as it draws from the discussions in the literature, as well as from personal experience. The author, a nonnative English teacher himself, points out the possible pros and cons of being a native and non-native speaker teacher of…
This case study aims to reveal how conceptualization of native speakership was constructed and reinforced in a South Korean university classroom of English as a foreign language (EFL). In addition, it examines how this conceptualization positions native speakers, a non-native EFL teacher, and learners, and what learning opportunities were provided…
Noiray, Aude; Cathiard, Marie-Agnès; Ménard, Lucie; Abry, Christian
The modeling of anticipatory coarticulation has been the subject of longstanding debates for more than 40 yr. Empirical investigations in the articulatory domain have converged toward two extreme modeling approaches: a maximal anticipation behavior (Look-ahead model) or a fixed pattern (Time-locked model). However, empirical support for any of these models has been hardly conclusive, both within and across languages. The present study tested the temporal organization of vocalic anticipatory coarticulation of the rounding feature from [i] to [u] transitions for adult speakers of American English and Canadian French. Articulatory data were synchronously recorded using an Optotrak for lip protrusion and a dedicated Lip-Shape-Tracking-System for lip constriction. Results show that (i) protrusion is an inconsistent parameter for tracking anticipatory rounding gestures across individuals, more specifically in English; (ii) labial constriction (between-lip area) is a more reliable correlate, allowing for the description of vocalic rounding in both languages; (iii) when tested on the constriction component, speakers show a lawful anticipatory behavior expanding linearly as the intervocalic consonant interval increases from 0 to 5 consonants. The Movement Expansion Model from Abry and Lallouache [(1995a) Bul. de la Comm. Parlée 3, 85–99; (1995b) Proceedings of ICPHS4, 152–155.] predicted such a regular behavior, i.e., a lawful variabilitywith a speaker-specific expansion rate, which is not language-specific. PMID:21303015
Nozawa, Takeshi; Frieda, Elaina M.; Wayland, Ratree
Native speakers of Japanese identified American English vowels /i, I, ɛ, æ, squflg, squflg/ produced by four female native speakers of American English in /CVC/ contexts. Native speakers of American English served as the control group, and they outperformed the Japanese subjects in identifying all the English vowels in every /CVC/ context. In another experiment the Japanese subjects equated these English vowels with Japanese vowels. In general, English vowels were equated with phonetically close Japanese vowels, but significant talker effect was observed. The /i/ tokens equated with the Japanese long high front vowel /ii/ were much more correctly identified as /i/ than those equated with the Japanese short high front vowel /i/. These tokens were more often misidentified as /I/. The /squflg/ and /squflg/ tokens were predominantly equated with the Japanese low vowel /a/. The percent-correct identification of /squflg/ and /squflg/ was low in most of the /CVC/ contexts, and these two vowels were often misidentified as each other, and the Japanese subjects' latency before they decided what vowel they had heard was longer when /squflg/ or /squflg/ tokens were presented. The Japanese subjects do not seem to have salient cues to differentiate /squflg/ and /squflg/.
This dissertation measured the acoustic properties of the English fricatives and affricates produced by native and Chinese L2 speakers of English to identify the phonetic basis and sources of a foreign accent and to explore the mechanism involved in L2 speech production and L2 phonological acquisition at the segmental level. Based on a Network…
This dissertation explores the second language acquisition of Mandarin Chinese tones by speakers of non-tonal languages within the framework of Optimality Theory. The effects of three L1s are analyzed: American English, a stress-accent language; Tokyo Japanese, a lexical pitch accent language; and Seoul Korean, a non-stress and non-pitch accent…
Kuhnert, Barbara; Hoole, Phil
A simultaneous EPG/EMA study of tongue gestures of five speakers was conducted to investigate the kinematic events accompanying alveolar stop reductions in the context of a velar plosive /k/ and in the context of a laryngeal fricative /h/ in two languages, English and German. No systematic language differences could be detected. Alveolar…
Presents a follow-up of a study of the perceptual acquisition of Thai laryngeal contrasts by native speakers of English, which found that subjects performed better on contrasts in voice than aspiration. This study further investigated possible task effects by examining the discrimination and categorization of the same stimuli in various…
Pittman, Ramona T.; Joshi, R. Malatesha; Carreker, Suzanne
The purpose of this eight week study was to provide explicit instruction to improve spelling to 124 sixth grade students who are speakers of African American English (AAE). Two classroom teachers taught 14 different language arts class sections. The research design was a pretest/posttest/posttest design using wait-list-control. The treatment group…
The linguistic relativity hypothesis proposes that speakers of different languages perceive and conceptualize the world differently, but do their brains reflect these differences? In English, most nouns do not provide linguistic clues to their categories, whereas most Mandarin Chinese nouns provide explicit category information, either…
A consortium program for Advanced Study in the Teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages, funded by the U.S. Office of Education and sponsored by the N.Y. Board of Education in cooperation with the Research Foundation of City University of New York, was held in the summer of 1968 in four local colleges: (1) Brooklyn College of City…
Chrabaszcz, Anna; Winn, Matthew; Lin, Candise Y.; Idsardi, William J.
Purpose: This study investigated how listeners' native language affects their weighting of acoustic cues (such as vowel quality, pitch, duration, and intensity) in the perception of contrastive word stress. Method: Native speakers (N = 45) of typologically diverse languages (English, Russian, and Mandarin) performed a stress identification…
Adopting a decompositional approach to items in the lexicon, this article reports on an empirical study investigating Chinese speakers' second language (L2) acquisition of English "wh-on-earth" questions (i.e. questions with phrases like what on earth or "who on earth"). An acceptability judgment task, a…
Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min
We investigated language variation and score variation in the testing of English language learners, native Spanish speakers. We gave students the same set of National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics items in both their first language and their second language. We examined the amount of score variation due to the main and interaction…
This study investigated the acquisition of the Spanish clitic se by English native speakers in passive, middle, and impersonal constructions. Little research has been done on this topic in SLA within a UG framework (Bayona, 2005; Bruhn de Garavito, 1999). VanPatten (2004) proposed the Processing Instruction (PI) model arguing for the necessity of…
Curry, Mary Jane
This paper examines how semiotic analysis may be useful in teaching media literacy to nonnative speakers of English (NNSs), including both immigrants and international students who plan to return to their countries. It focuses on two television shows. The first show, "Friends," covers issues and problems of contemporary urban life for members of…
Gallois, Cynthia; Callan, Victor J.
Two studies examined Anglo-Australians attitudes toward male and female Australian and immigrant speakers using English. Results support view that foreign or ethnic accent is sufficient cue to elicit ethnic stereotypes, that such stereotypes are salient to Anglo-Australians, and that accent can combine with other vocal cues to social group…
McDonough, Kim; Crowther, Dustin; Kielstra, Paula; Trofimovich, Pavel
This exploratory study investigated whether joint attention through eye gaze was predictive of second language (L2) speakers' responses to recasts. L2 English learners (N = 20) carried out communicative tasks with research assistants who provided feedback in response to non-targetlike (non-TL) forms. Their interaction was audio-recorded and their…
Kiely, Richard; Davis, Matt
This article explores teacher learning in the UK English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) context. We draw on data from a continuing professional development (CPD) initiative to understand how learning is shaped by collaborative discussion with others and by reading from the language classroom research literature. The CPD programme--designed…
This study investigates how native-speaker English teachers working at Japanese universities use the Internet in their classes. In 2008, 50 instructors completed a survey about their teaching-related use of the Internet; another group of 50 was polled in 2012. The respondents were asked about their teaching situations, whether they used…
Weigle, Sara Cushing
This paper reports on a test that is being used to fulfill a university writing examination requirement for non-native speakers of English. The test, which requires students to read two passages, write short-answer comprehension and synthesis questions, and write an argument essay on a topic related to the passages, replaces a test that was based…
Hansen, Jette G.
Investigated the acquisition of English syllable codas by speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Three participants' naturalistic production of syllable codas were studied and analyzed through VARBRUL and descriptive statistics to determine accuracy orders and production modifications of codas by length at two data collection times with a time span of 6…
Selvi, Ali Fuad
Parallel to the growing recognition of English as an international language, the fundamental premises of the TESOL discipline (e.g., the ownership of the language, native speakers as a goal and model of competence for learning and teaching, linguistic standards and language variety/ies to be taught, monolingual/monocultural approach to teaching)…
Heinzen, Christina Carolyn
The current study employed behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures to investigate brain plasticity associated with second-language (L2) phonetic learning based on an adaptive computer training program. The program utilized the acoustic characteristics of Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) to train monolingual American English-speaking listeners to perceive Mandarin lexical tones. Behavioral identification and discrimination tasks were conducted using naturally recorded speech, carefully controlled synthetic speech, and non-speech control stimuli. The ERP experiments were conducted with selected synthetic speech stimuli in a passive listening oddball paradigm. Identical pre- and post- tests were administered on nine adult listeners, who completed two-to-three hours of perceptual training. The perceptual training sessions used pair-wise lexical tone identification, and progressed through seven levels of difficulty for each tone pair. The levels of difficulty included progression in speaker variability from one to four speakers and progression through four levels of acoustic exaggeration of duration, pitch range, and pitch contour. Behavioral results for the natural speech stimuli revealed significant training-induced improvement in identification of Tones 1, 3, and 4. Improvements in identification of Tone 4 generalized to novel stimuli as well. Additionally, comparison between discrimination of across-category and within-category stimulus pairs taken from a synthetic continuum revealed a training-induced shift toward more native-like categorical perception of the Mandarin lexical tones. Analysis of the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses in the ERP data revealed increased amplitude and decreased latency for pre-attentive processing of across-category discrimination as a result of training. There were also laterality changes in the MMN responses to the non-speech control stimuli, which could reflect reallocation of brain resources in processing pitch patterns
Tran, Cho Van
English phrases with Cantonese translations are presented under the following headings: coping with the language barrier, useful forms of etiquette, giving information about yourself, recognizing signs, dealing with money, dealing with time, locating things, describing things and people, doing things, going places, conveying information, health,…
Kamhi-Stein, Lía D.
It has been almost 20 years since what is known as the non-native English-speaking (NNES) professionals' movement--designed to increase the status of NNES professionals--started within the US-based TESOL International Association. However, still missing from the literature is an understanding of what a movement is, and why non-native English…
Pritchard, Rosalind M.
Investigates how the intonation of French differs from that of English and discusses French intonation under the headings of stress, rhythm, and intonation patterns. Outlines a program to teach the rudiments of French intonation based upon the theoretical analyzing of French notation presented in the first part of this paper. (SED)
This paper discusses the use of games, role playing, and simulation to teach English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners, particularly to reinforce new knowledge or expand emerging knowledge and skills. An introductory section looks at game theory and the ways in which it can inform the construction of classroom activities. Distinctions are made…
Hwang, Sun Hee
This study investigated the L2 acquisition of Korean plural marking by English-speaking learners within a feature-reassembly approach--a formal feature-based approach suggesting that native-like attainment of L2 morphosyntactic knowledge is determined by whether learners can reconfigure the formal features assembled in functional categories and…
The large-scale ongoing migration of Anglophone Caribbean natives to North America, particularly to New York City, in the last two decades, has brought an influx of Caribbean English (CE)-speaking students into US and Canadian schools and colleges. This article discusses the extent to which such students, who publicly identify themselves as native…
The ability of Mandarin learners to express emotion in Mandarin has received little attention. This study examines how English L1 users express emotions in Mandarin and how this expression differs from that of Mandarin L1 users. Scenarios were adopted to elicit joy, anger, sadness, fear, and neutrality. Both groups articulated anger, joy, and fear…
Explores features of Aboriginal English discourse that appear to be associated with some distinctive roles played by schemas in processing and formation of discourse by Aboriginal children. Examines the complexity of intercultural communication between Australian aborigines and the dominant class of white Australians. (Author/VWL)
Goldstein, Brian A., Ed.
With the increasing number of Spanish-English bilingual children in the U.S., both SLPs and researchers must understand speech and language developments in these children--and SLPs also need reliable assessment and intervention approaches for serving bilingual children with language disorders. This comprehensive text is one of the few to offer…
Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun; Chen, Chia-Tsen
The goal of this study was to examine durations of American English vowels produced by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers and the effects of vowel duration on vowel intelligibility. Twelve American English vowels were recorded in the /hVd/ phonetic context by native speakers and non-native speakers. The English vowel duration patterns as a function of vowel produced by non-native speakers were generally similar to those produced by native speakers. These results imply that using duration differences across vowels may be an important strategy for non-native speakers' production before they are able to employ spectral cues to produce and perceive English speech sounds. In the intelligibility experiment, vowels were selected from 10 native and non-native speakers and vowel durations were equalized at 170 ms. Intelligibility of vowels with original and equalized durations was evaluated by American English native listeners. Results suggested that vowel intelligibility of native and non-native speakers degraded slightly by 3-8% when durations were equalized, indicating that vowel duration plays a minor role in vowel intelligibility. PMID:25102608
Roberts, Greg; Bryant, Diane
This study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Kindergarten Class of 1998 –1999, to (a) estimate mathematics achievement trends through 5th grade in the population of students who are English-language proficient by the end of kindergarten, (b) compare trends across primary language groups within this English-language proficient group, (c) evaluate the effect of low socioeconomic status (SES) for English-language proficient students and within different primary language groups, and (d) estimate language-group trends in specific mathematics skill areas. The group of English-language proficient English-language learners (ELLs) was disaggregated into native Spanish speakers and native speakers of Asian languages, the 2 most prevalent groups of ELLs in the United States. Results of multilevel latent variable growth modeling suggest that primary language may be less salient than SES in explaining the mathematics achievement of English-language proficient ELLs. The study also found that mathematics-related school readiness is a key factor in explaining subsequent achievement differences and that the readiness gap is prevalent across the range of mathematics-related skills. PMID:21574702
Ingvalson, Erin M.; McClelland, James L.; Holt, Lori L.
This study tested the predictions of the Speech Learning Model (SLM, Flege, 1988) on the case of native Japanese (NJ) speakers’ perception and production of English /ɹ / and /l/. NJ speakers’ degree of foreign accent, intelligibility of /ɹ –l/ productions, and ability to perceive natural speech /ɹ –l/ were assessed as a function of length of residency in North America, age of arrival in North America, years of student status in an English environment, and percentage of Japanese usage. Additionally, the extent to which NJ speakers’ utilized the F3 onset cue when differentiating /ɹ –l/ in perception and production was assessed, this cue having previously been shown to be the most reliable indicator of category membership. As predicted, longer residencies predicted more native English-like accents, more intelligible productions, and more accurate natural speech identifications; however, no changes were observed in F3 reliance, indicating that though performance improves it does so through reliance on other cues. PMID:22021941
Baker, Rachel Elizabeth
This dissertation examines Mandarin and Korean speakers' acquisition of English focus marking, which is realized by accenting particular words within a focused constituent. It is important for non-native speakers to learn how accent placement relates to focus in English because appropriate accent placement and realization makes a learner's English more native-like and easier to understand. Such knowledge may also improve their English comprehension skills. In this study, 20 native English speakers, 20 native Mandarin speakers, and 20 native Korean speakers participated in four experiments: (1) a production experiment, in which they were recorded reading the answers to questions, (2) a perception experiment, in which they were asked to determine which word in a recording was the last prominent word, (3) an understanding experiment, in which they were asked whether the answers in recorded question-answer pairs had context-appropriate prosody, and (4) an accent placement experiment, in which they were asked which word they would make prominent in a particular context. Finally, a new group of native English speakers listened to utterances produced in the production experiment, and determined whether the prosody of each utterance was appropriate for its context. The results of the five experiments support a novel predictive model for second language prosodic focus marking acquisition. This model holds that both transfer of linguistic features from a learner's native language (L1) and features of their second language (L2) affect learners' acquisition of prosodic focus marking. As a result, the model includes two complementary components: the Transfer Component and the L2 Challenge Component. The Transfer Component predicts that prosodic structures in the L2 will be more easily acquired by language learners that have similar structures in their L1 than those who do not, even if there are differences between the L1 and L2 in how the structures are realized. The L2
Unlu, Elena Antonova; Hatipoglu, Ciler
The current research investigated the acquisition of the copula "be" in Present Simple Tense (PST) in English by native speakers of Russian. The aim of the study was to determine whether or not Russian students with different levels of English proficiency would encounter any problems while using the copula "be" in PST in English. The study also…
Bigelow, Martha; Schwarz, Robin Lovrien
Adult English language learners who lack print literacy or experience with formal education encounter a unique set of challenges in their lives and their efforts to learn English. Educators and policymakers are similarly challenged by how best to help these adults acquire English literacy. This paper reviews a variety of research, including that…
Nishi, Kanae; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Kubo, Rieko; Strange, Winifred
This study explored acoustic similarities/differences between Japanese (J) and American English (AE) vowels produced by native J speakers and compared production patterns to their perceptual assimilation of AE vowels [Strange et al., J. Phonetics 26, 311-344 (1998)]. Eight male native J speakers who had served as listeners in Strange et al. produced 18 Japanese (J) vowels (5 long-short pairs, 2 double vowels, and 3 long-short palatalized pairs) and 11 American English (AE) vowels in /hVbopena/ disyllables embedded in a carrier sentence. Acoustical parameters included formant frequencies at syllable midpoint (F1/F2/F3), formant change from 25% to 75% points in syllable (formant change), and vocalic duration. Results of linear discriminant analyses showed rather poor acoustic differentiation of J vowel categories when F1/F2/F3 served as input variables (60% correct classification), which greatly improved when duration and formant change were added. In contrast, correct classification of J speakers' AE vowels using F1/F2/F3 was very poor (66%) and did not improve much when duration and dynamic information were added. J speakers used duration to differentiate long/short AE vowel contrasts except for mid-to-low back vowels; these vowels were perceptually assimilated to a single Japanese vowel, and are very difficult for Japanese listeners to identify.
Hernandez, Alberto; Melnick, Susan L.
This learning module is designed to provide the prospective teacher of English as second language with a contrastive overview of the syntactic structures of Spanish and English and to enable him to: (a) state the English language patterns that are difficult for a Puerto Rican Spanish-speaker, (b) explain the specific causes for indications of…
Nagore, Mary Louise
This book "represents an effort to present in simply and readily understood terms some of the sounds in English that create problems for the Spanish speaker learning English." Each of the 18 chapters teaches a specific consonant through a comparison of the Spanish and English pronunciations, facial diagrams, explanations of articulation, minimal…
Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn; Hernandez, Ana
This article examines the language proficiency and achievement outcomes of Latino students enrolled in a dual language programme who varied by language proficiency (Native English speakers, Current English Language Learners--ELLs, Fluent English Proficient/Previous ELLs). Most previous research has not disaggregated Latino students, especially…
It is well known to anyone involved in teaching English to Finnish students that it is difficult for Finns to distinguish between English /ptk/ and /bdg/. This second volume in a series on a Finnish-English contrastive project reports on a study which attempted to obtain more concrete knowledge about the ability of speakers of Finnish to use the…
Mori, Yoko; Hori, Tomoko; Erickson, Donna
This study investigates acoustic correlates of English rhythmic patterns for 20 American English speakers (AS) and 42 Japanese learners of English (JS). The results indicate that for AS in an English sentence where monosyllabic content and function words alternate, the vowels in content words are over twice as long as those in function words, resulting in alternating long-short vowels. In contrast, the JS show no stress-related duration control and realize a similar rhythmic pattern mostly through recursive high-low fundamental frequency (F0). In a sentence with a sequence of content words in which 4 stressed syllables occur successively, the AS show recursion of strong-weak syllables by means of F0, intensity and first formant, whereas JS show inconsistent stress patterns. These results indicate that the AS apply different strategies for implementing rhythmic alternation depending on sentence stress patterns, and these strategies are different from those of JS. PMID:25227394
Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna
We explore the relationship between accentedness and intelligibility, and investigate how listeners' beliefs about nonnative speech interact with their accentedness and intelligibility judgments. Native German speakers and native English learners of German produced German sentences, which were presented to 12 native German speakers in accentedness…
Reports the findings of a study in which transfer of verb properties was investigated via syntactic data elicited from second language learners. The performance of Hindi-Urdu speakers on tests of English causatives was compared with that of Vietnamese speakers, because there are five significant differences between causativization patterns in…
Nero, Shondel J.
In the last decade the United States has witnessed a significant increase in the number of immigrants from the officially English-speaking Caribbean. The fundamental question confronting educators of Caribbean students is how best to negotiate the meeting ground between the variety of English-based creoles and the school-based standard English. To…
Psychological inflexibility is a core concept in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. The primary aim of this study was to examine psychological inflexibility and depressive symptoms among Asian English speakers. A total of 900 adults in India, the Philippines, and Singapore completed some measures related to psychological inflexibility and depressive symptoms through a Web-based survey. Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher psychological inflexibility was significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms in all the samples, after controlling for the effects of gender, marital status, and interpersonal stress. In addition, the effect sizes of the changes in the R(2) values when only psychological flexibility scores were entered in the regression model were large for all the samples. Moreover, overall, the beta-weight of the psychological flexibility scores obtained by the Philippine sample was the lowest of all three samples. PMID:27086203
Sung, Chit Cheung Matthew
This paper reports on a study that investigated the perceptions of a group of bilingual speakers of English and Chinese in Hong Kong concerning issues surrounding accent, identity and English as a lingua franca (ELF). Data were primarily collected via in-depth interviews with 28 university students in Hong Kong who are also regular users of…
Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun
This study examined intelligibility of twelve American English vowels produced by English, Chinese, and Korean native speakers in quiet and speech-shaped noise in which vowels were presented at six sensation levels from 0 dB to 10 dB. The slopes of vowel intelligibility functions and the processing time for listeners to identify vowels were…
This study aimed to discover semantic and syntactic problems Persian native speakers might have while reading English and Persian texts and different strategies they use to overcome those problems. To this end, a convenient sample of 40 intermediate students studying English Literature at Shiraz University was selected. Twenty of them were asked…
This study examines the acquisition of the English laryngeal system by native speakers of (Belgian) Dutch. Both languages have a two-way laryngeal system, but while Dutch contrasts prevoiced with short-lag stops, English has a contrast between short-lag and long-lag stops. The primary aim of the article is to test two hypotheses on the acquisition…
Dussias, Paola E.; Pinar, Pilar
This study utilizes a moving window technique to investigate how individual cognitive resources (operationalized in terms of reading span scores) might modulate the extent to which native English speakers and Chinese second language (L2) learners of English utilize plausibility information to recover from an initial misparse in the processing of…
Xuan, Pham Thi Thanh
Few studies have focused on the identity formation of non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) as legitimate speakers and teachers of English. Drawing on Norton's (2000) poststructuralist theory of identity as a process of struggling and changing, this study examined whether and how Asian international students studying for a Masters in…
This paper examines the influence of age of immersion and proficiency in a second language on speech movement consistency in both a first and a second language. Ten monolingual speakers of English and 20 Bengali-English bilinguals (10 with low L2 proficiency and 10 with high L2 proficiency) participated. Lip movement variability was assessed based…
This article presents a case study of a police interrogation of a nonnative speaker (NNS) of English. I show that the high linguistic and conceptual complexity of police cautions, such as the Miranda warnings, complicates understanding of these texts even by NNSs of English with a high level of interactional competence. I argue that the U.S.…
Deemer, Holly Beth
Certain aspects of the reading process have suggested that second language reading skills are determined to some extent by native language reading skills. Some of this research is reviewed here and an experiment is described in which the reading skills in Spanish and English of three groups of Spanish speakers learning English are compared.…
Uludag, Onur; Vanpatten, Bill
The current study presents the results of an experiment investigating the effects of processing instruction (PI) and dictogloss (DG) on the acquisition of the English passive voice. Sixty speakers of Turkish studying English at university level were assigned to three groups: one receiving PI, the other receiving DG and the third serving as a…
Previous studies on second language (L2) acquisition of English dative alternation by Korean speakers (Oh and Zubizarreta, 2003, 2006a, 2006b) have shown that the acquisition of English benefactive double object (DO) (e.g. "John baked Mary a cake") lags behind that of its counterpart goal double object (e.g. "John sent Mary the letter"). This…
Yook, Cheongmin; Lindemann, Stephanie
This study investigates how the attitudes of 60 Korean university students towards five varieties of English are affected by the identification of the speaker's nationality and ethnicity. The study employed both a verbal guise technique and questions eliciting overt beliefs and preferences related to learning English. While the majority of…
Allen, Jerry L.; And Others
A study was conducted to determine the levels of communication apprehension (CA) experienced by individuals living in the United States whose native language is not English and to measure the extent to which CA varies with the interaction contexts, number of years speaking English, time living in the United States, and the speaker's sex. Subjects…
Giles, Howard; And Others
Examined the reactions of 83 Anglo-American undergraduates to Anglo- and Hispanic-American-accented speakers supporting or opposing the English-only movement in California. Results found that respondents were happier when the Anglo source argued against rather than for English exclusivity, and that respondents' happiness was not affected by…
Tsang, Wai Lan
This paper reports on a study examining the relationship between language learning and perceived language differences. Two groups of native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong, L1 Cantonese--L2 English (CE) and L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French (CEF), were asked to complete two tasks: a placement test in English (as well as in French for the CEF…
Brantmeier, Cindy; Callender, Aimee; Yu, Xiucheng; McDaniel, Mark
The present study utilizes texts from social psychology to examine the effects of textual enhancements on reading comprehension with 185 native adult Chinese speakers learning English in China. Participants read two different vignettes, either with or without an adjunct. Each adjunct consisted of a "what" question along with instructions to either…
Gallup Rodriguez, Amber
Many adult English language learners place a high value on learning grammar. Perceiving a link between grammatical accuracy and effective communication, they associate excellent grammar with opportunities for employment and promotion, the attainment of educational goals, and social acceptance by native speakers. Reflecting the disagreement that…
Kawase, Saya; Hannah, Beverly; Wang, Yue
This study examines how visual speech information affects native judgments of the intelligibility of speech sounds produced by non-native (L2) speakers. Native Canadian English perceivers as judges perceived three English phonemic contrasts (/b-v, θ-s, l-ɹ/) produced by native Japanese speakers as well as native Canadian English speakers as controls. These stimuli were presented under audio-visual (AV, with speaker voice and face), audio-only (AO), and visual-only (VO) conditions. The results showed that, across conditions, the overall intelligibility of Japanese productions of the native (Japanese)-like phonemes (/b, s, l/) was significantly higher than the non-Japanese phonemes (/v, θ, ɹ/). In terms of visual effects, the more visually salient non-Japanese phonemes /v, θ/ were perceived as significantly more intelligible when presented in the AV compared to the AO condition, indicating enhanced intelligibility when visual speech information is available. However, the non-Japanese phoneme /ɹ/ was perceived as less intelligible in the AV compared to the AO condition. Further analysis revealed that, unlike the native English productions, the Japanese speakers produced /ɹ/ without visible lip-rounding, indicating that non-native speakers' incorrect articulatory configurations may decrease the degree of intelligibility. These results suggest that visual speech information may either positively or negatively affect L2 speech intelligibility. PMID:25190408
This study demonstrates how English Programme in Korea (EPIK) is an example of Korea's active response to the globalization process through which Korea not only accommodates external demands but also strategically pursues national interests through equipping its citizens with a command of English. EPIK, affiliated with the Korean Ministry of…
Edwards, Jan R.; Rosin, Peggy
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a curriculum supplement designed to enhance awareness of Mainstream American English (MAE) in African American English- (AAE-) speaking prekindergarten children. Method: Children in 2 Head Start classrooms participated in the study. The experimental classroom received the Talking…
Lee, Alice; Browne, Una
The aim was to establish normative nasalance values for Irish English-speaking adults. Thirty men and 30 women with normal resonance read aloud 16 sentences from the Irish nasality assessment protocol, the Zoo passage, and the Rainbow passage. The speech samples were recorded using the Nasometer II 6400. Results of a mixed between-within subjects ANOVA indicated no significant gender effect on nasalance scores. The speakers showed significantly higher nasalance scores for high-pressure consonant sentences than low-pressure consonant sentences, and for the Rainbow passage than total test sentences. There was no significant difference between high-pressure consonant sentences and the Zoo passage. Compared to previous studies, the Irish young adults had lower nasalance scores than Irish children and than young adults with North American dialects. PMID:22577843
Rogers, Catherine L.; Lopez, Alexandra S.
The amount of acoustic information that native and non-native listeners need for syllable identification was investigated by comparing the performance of monolingual English speakers and native Spanish speakers with either an earlier or a later age of immersion in an English-speaking environment. Duration-preserved silent-center syllables retaining 10, 20, 30, or 40 ms of the consonant-vowel and vowel-consonant transitions were created for the target vowels ∕i, ɪ, eɪ, ε, æ∕ and ∕ɑ∕, spoken by two males in ∕bVb∕ context. Duration-neutral syllables were created by editing the silent portion to equate the duration of all vowels. Listeners identified the syllables in a six-alternative forced-choice task. The earlier learners identified the whole-word and 40 ms duration-preserved syllables as accurately as the monolingual listeners, but identified the silent-center syllables significantly less accurately overall. Only the monolingual listener group identified syllables significantly more accurately in the duration-preserved than in the duration-neutral condition, suggesting that the non-native listeners were unable to recover from the syllable disruption sufficiently to access the duration cues in the silent-center syllables. This effect was most pronounced for the later learners, who also showed the most vowel confusions and the greatest decrease in performance from the whole word to the 40 ms transition condition. PMID:18681614
Bagheri, H.; Ibrahim, N. A.; Habil, H.
Background: In many parts of the world, patients may find it difficult to visit doctors who share the same language and culture due to the intermingling of people and international recruitment of doctors among many other reasons. In these multilingual multicultural settings (MMSs), doctor-patient interactions face new communication challenges. This study aims to identify the structure of clinical consultation and its phases in an MMS where both doctors and patients are non-native speakers (NNSs) of English. Method: This study takes on a discourse analytic approach to examine the structure of clinical consultation as an activity type. 25 clinical consultation sessions between non-native speakers of English in a public healthcare centre in Malaysia were audio-recorded. Findings and Discussion: The results show that there are some deviations from the mainstream structure of clinical consultations although, in general, the pattern is compatible with previous studies. Deviations are particularly marked in the opening and closing phases of consultation. Conclusion: In almost all interactions, there is a straightforward manner of beginning medical consultations. The absence of greetings may have naturally reduced the length of talk. Hence, by directly entering medical talks, the doctors voice their concern on the curing aspects of the consultation rather than its caring facets. The preference of curing priority to caring is more goal-oriented and in alignment with the consultation as an activity type. PMID:25560336
The discrimination of English vowels in real and novel words by 40 bilingual Spanish/English participants was examined. Their discrimination was compared with that of 40 native monolingual English participants. Participants were 23-36 years of age (mean 25.3; median 25.0). Stimuli were presented within triads in an ABX paradigm. This categorial discrimination paradigm was selected to avoid labeling, allowing participants to indicate categories to which stimuli belonged. Bilingual participants' productions of vowels in real words used in the discrimination task were judged by two independent listeners. The goal was to determine the degree of correlation between discrimination and production. Vowels were studied as these segments present second language learners with more difficulty than consonants. Discrimination difficulty was significantly greater for bilingual participants than for native English participants for vowel contrasts and novel words. Significant errors also appeared in the bilingual participants' production of certain vowels. English vowels absent from Spanish presented the greatest difficulty, while vowels similar to those in Spanish presented the least difficulty. Earlier age of acquisition, absence of communication problems, and greater percentage of time devoted to communication in English contributed to greater accuracy in discrimination and production. [Work supported by PSC-CUNY.
Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.
Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject- versus object-extractions in English. However, less-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers exhibit greater processing costs on subject-extractions relative to object-extractions, similar to previously reported findings (e.g., Dussias and Piñar, forthcoming; Juffs 2005; Juffs and Harrington 1995). These findings are discussed in light of relevant research surrounding on-line processing among L2 speakers and their ability to adopt native-like processing patterns in the L2. PMID:22888175
This article reports on a study contrasting 41 native speakers (NSs) and 38 non-native speakers (NNSs) of English from two short initial teacher training courses, the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults and the Trinity College London CertTESOL. After a brief history and literature review, I present findings on teachers'…
Menn, Lise; And Others
This study examined the role of empathy in the choice of syntactic form and the degree of independence of pragmatic and syntactic abilities in a range of aphasic patients. Study 1 involved 9 English-speaking and 9 Japanese-speaking aphasic subjects with 10 English-speaking and 4 Japanese normal controls. Study 2 involved 14 English- and 6…
Conlon, Rose; And Others
One of a series of workplace education modules, this module includes assessment instruments and classroom activities for teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) in the workplace. First, an overview is provided, describing issues unique to teaching ESL in the workplace. Five levels of difficulty are then described for module activities (i.e.,…
Lesser, Lawrence M.; Wagler, Amy E.; Esquinca, Alberto; Valenzuela, M. Guadalupe
The framework of linguistic register and case study research on Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) learning statistics informed the construction of a quantitative instrument, the Communication, Language, And Statistics Survey (CLASS). CLASS aims to assess whether ELLs and non-ELLs approach the learning of statistics differently with…
A growing body of literature has provided evidence of the contribution of various metalinguistic skills to children's English literacy development; however, most of the studies focused on reading outcomes while spelling outcomes have been under-researched. Further, very few studies have been conducted to investigate if the results based on native…
Although English is now a recognized international language and the concept of native speaker is becoming more doubtful every day, the empowerment of the native speakers of English as language teaching professionals is still continuing (McKay, 2002), especially in Asian countries like China and Japan. One of the latest examples showing the…
Li, Yingli; O'Boyle, Michael W.
In this study we examine how native language, sex, and college major interact to influence accuracy and preferred strategy when performing mental rotation (MR). Native monolingual Chinese and English speakers rotated 3-D shapes while maintaining a concurrent verbal or spatial memory load. For English speakers, male physical science majors were…
Wang, Yue; Behne, Dawn M.
Second language (L2) production can be a kind of interlanguage, a relatively stable system bearing the nature of both the native language (L1) and L2. Within such a system sound components of a syllable may bear their own interlanguage characteristics and yet interact with the other component sounds. The present study investigates temporal patterns of L1-L2 interaction at the syllable level. Audio recordings were made of English stop-vowel syllables produced by native speakers of Mandarin who were fluent in English (ChE). Native English productions (AmE) of these syllables and native productions of Mandarin (ChM) stop-vowel syllables were acquired as native norms. Temporal measures included stop closure duration, voice-onset time (VOT), vowel duration, and syllable duration. Results show that the internal timing components of ChE often deviate from AmE, with the closure duration, VOT, and vowel duration being intermediate to AmE and ChM. However, at the syllable level, ChE productions tend to follow the overall patterns of AmE. Temporal deviations were often compensated by temporal compensation of other components in the syllable, maintaining a balanced consonant/vowel distribution. These findings have implications for a broader understanding of L2 productions.
Ease of processing of 3,969 English words for native speakers and Japanese learners was investigated using lexical decision and naming latencies taken from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al. The English Lexicon Project: A web-based repository of descriptive and behavioral measures for 40,481 English words and nonwords, 2002) and accuracy of English word translation by Japanese university students (Takashima, H. Eigo goi chishiki no keisei [The structure of English lexical knowledge of Japanese college students], 2002). Correlations among these ease-of-processing values were all significant, suggesting substantial commonalities between native English speakers and Japanese learners. Regression analyses, however, showed that some factors differentially affect ease of processing for natives and Japanese. Comparison of the predicted and the observed values of translation accuracy revealed specific differences of lexical knowledge between native speakers and Japanese learners. Loanword effect on translation accuracy and translation errors similar to dyslexic/aphasic reading errors were observed, suggesting the possibility of insufficient orthographic/phonological activation and the possibility of the use of first language phonological representations. The implications of these results for the study of second/foreign language lexical processing are discussed. PMID:19484388
Choi, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Gyung-Ho; Han, Jeong-Im
This study examines whether relative weightings of voice onset time and onset F0 in Korean tonal vs non-tonal dialects affect the production and perception of English voiced and voiceless stops. Following Shultz et al. [(2012). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, EL95-EL101], discriminant function analysis and logistic regression were conducted to calculate each speaker's relative weightings of these two cues in the production of target words and the labeling of the synthesized tokens according to these cues, respectively. The results demonstrated that the acquisition of second language (L2) contrasts is influenced by native language dialects, and production and perception are not developed in parallel in L2 acquisition. PMID:25669301
Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Boroditsky, Lera
In this paper we examine whether experience with spatial metaphors for time has an influence on people's representation of time. In particular we ask whether spatio-temporal metaphors can have both chronic and immediate effects on temporal thinking. In Study 1, we examine the prevalence of ego-moving representations for time in Mandarin speakers, English speakers, and Mandarin-English (ME) bilinguals. As predicted by observations in linguistic analyses, we find that Mandarin speakers are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English speakers. Further, we find that ME bilinguals tested in English are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English monolinguals (an effect of L1 on meaning-making in L2), and also that ME bilinguals tested in Mandarin are more likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are Mandarin monolinguals (an effect of L2 on meaning-making in L1). These findings demonstrate that habits of metaphor use in one language can influence temporal reasoning in another language, suggesting the metaphors can have a chronic effect on patterns in thought. In Study 2 we test Mandarin speakers using either horizontal or vertical metaphors in the immediate context of the task. We find that Mandarin speakers are more likely to construct front-back representations of time when understanding front-back metaphors, and more likely to construct up-down representations of time when understanding up-down metaphors. These findings demonstrate that spatio-temporal metaphors can also have an immediate influence on temporal reasoning. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the metaphors we use to talk about time have both immediate and long-term consequences for how we conceptualize and reason about this fundamental domain of experience. PMID:23630505
Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Boroditsky, Lera
In this paper we examine whether experience with spatial metaphors for time has an influence on people’s representation of time. In particular we ask whether spatio-temporal metaphors can have both chronic and immediate effects on temporal thinking. In Study 1, we examine the prevalence of ego-moving representations for time in Mandarin speakers, English speakers, and Mandarin-English (ME) bilinguals. As predicted by observations in linguistic analyses, we find that Mandarin speakers are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English speakers. Further, we find that ME bilinguals tested in English are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English monolinguals (an effect of L1 on meaning-making in L2), and also that ME bilinguals tested in Mandarin are more likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are Mandarin monolinguals (an effect of L2 on meaning-making in L1). These findings demonstrate that habits of metaphor use in one language can influence temporal reasoning in another language, suggesting the metaphors can have a chronic effect on patterns in thought. In Study 2 we test Mandarin speakers using either horizontal or vertical metaphors in the immediate context of the task. We find that Mandarin speakers are more likely to construct front-back representations of time when understanding front-back metaphors, and more likely to construct up-down representations of time when understanding up-down metaphors. These findings demonstrate that spatio-temporal metaphors can also have an immediate influence on temporal reasoning. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the metaphors we use to talk about time have both immediate and long-term consequences for how we conceptualize and reason about this fundamental domain of experience. PMID:23630505
Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Konopka, Agnieszka E.
During unscripted speech, speakers coordinate the formulation of pre-linguistic messages with the linguistic processes that implement those messages into speech. We examine the process of constructing a contextually appropriate message and interfacing that message with utterance planning in English ("the small butterfly") and Spanish ("la mariposa…
Department of State, Washington, DC. Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration.
This phrasebook with wordlist is designed for speakers of Haitian Creole who are immigrants to the United States. The English phrases presented are grouped by subject and selected for their directness, brevity, and relevance to the needs of newly-arrived residents. Most are presented in the form of brief, two-line dialogues. Phrases and…
Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel
In this article, we explore whether cross-linguistic differences in grammatical aspect encoding may give rise to differences in memory and cognition. We compared native speakers of two languages that encode aspect differently (English and Swedish) in four tasks that examined verbal descriptions of stimuli, online triads matching, and memory-based…
The central theme of this book is the ambiguities and tensions teachers face as they attempt to position themselves in ways that legitimize them as language teachers, and as English speakers. Focusing on three EFL teachers and their schools in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca, it documents how ordinary practices of language educators are…
This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has…
Li, Yingxia; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dongyu
This paper intends to investigate the effectiveness of a new course pattern--TED-motivated English Public Speaking Course in EFL teaching in China. This class framework adopts TED videos as the learning materials to stimulate students to be a better speaker. Meanwhile, it aims to examine to what extent the five aspects of language skills are…
Kieffer, Michael J.; Vukovic, Rose K.
Drawing on the cognitive and ecological domains within the componential model of reading, this longitudinal study explores heterogeneity in the sources of reading difficulties for language minority learners and native English speakers in urban schools. Students (N = 150) were followed from first through third grade and assessed annually on…
Snape, Neal; Kupisch, Tanja
An area of considerable interest in second language (L2) acquisition is the difficulties learners face with the acquisition of articles. This article examines the role of prosody in the acquisition of articles by an endstate L2 English speaker focusing on the free morphemes "the" and "a". In order to analyse the articles produced by a Turkish…
Futagi, Yoko; Deane, Paul; Chodorow, Martin; Tetreault, Joel
This paper describes the first prototype of an automated tool for detecting collocation errors in texts written by non-native speakers of English. Candidate strings are extracted by pattern matching over POS-tagged text. Since learner texts often contain spelling and morphological errors, the tool attempts to automatically correct them in order to…
This paper attempts to conceptualize identity prototypes regarding model L2 learners/users of English over the past 50 years, as embedded in research discourses. For a long time, the ideal learner was a "faithful imitator" whose L2 use and cultural conduct were strictly modeled on the native speaker (NS). With postcolonial changes around…
Leung, Yan-Kit Ingrid
This paper looks at the acquisition of articles and related nominal functional properties (the status of classifier, the singular-plural distinction) in English and French by native speakers of Hong Kong Cantonese. Two experimental studies are reported. In the generative SLA literature, there is disagreement as to which properties of the grammar…
Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad; Segaran, Kogilathah
One of the critical issues pertaining learning English as second language successfully is pronunciation, which consequently contributes to learners' poor communicative power. This situation is moreover crucial among non-native speakers. Therefore, various initiatives have been taken in order to promote effective language learning, which includes…
This study investigated the perceived use of conversation maintenance strategies during synchronous computer-mediated communication with native English speakers. I also correlated the relationships of the strategies used with students' speaking ability and comprehensive proficiency level. The research questions were: (1) how were the learners'…
Harrison, Sandra; Morgan, Roger
There is an increasing sensitivity to the challenges posed by the language of examination papers and of instruction in scientific subjects, especially for non-native speakers of English. It has been observed that in addition to technical subject-specific vocabulary, non-technical words such as instructional verbs have been sources of difficulty,…
Zhao, Huafang; Wade, Julie
The Office of Shared Accountability (OSA) in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) examined academic performance of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) students in U.S. History and Modern World History courses, as well as the course sequence in ESOL U.S. History and Modern World History. In MCPS, students who are not ESOL…
Rothlein, Liz; Vaughn, Sharon
This final report describes the objectives, activities and outcomes of a federally funded project that was designed to provide a high quality, interdisciplinary graduate degree program in Early Childhood Special Education with an emphasis on Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (ECSE/TESOL) at the University of Miami, Florida. A portion…
Botezatu, Mona R; Miller, Carol A; Misra, Maya
English monolinguals and highly proficient, but first language (L1)-dominant, Spanish-English and Chinese-English bilinguals made rhyme judgments of visually presented English word pairs while behavioral and EEG measures were being recorded. Two types of conditions were considered: rhyming and nonrhyming pairs that were orthographically dissimilar (e.g. white-fight, child-cough) and those that were orthographically similar (e.g. right-fight, dough-cough). Both native and non-native English speakers were faster and more accurate in responding to nonrhyming than rhyming targets under orthographically dissimilar conditions, although the response times of Chinese-English bilinguals differed from those of the other groups. All groups were slower and less accurate in responding to nonrhyming targets under orthographically similar conditions, with the response times and accuracy rates of Spanish-English bilinguals differing from those of the other groups. All participant groups showed more negative N450 mean amplitudes to nonrhyming compared with rhyming targets, regardless of orthographic similarity, and this rhyming effect did not differ across groups under the orthographically similar conditions. However, under orthographically dissimilar conditions, the rhyming effect was less robust in non-native speakers, being modulated by English proficiency. PMID:25569793
Rogers, Catherine L; DeMasi, Teresa M; Krause, Jean C
The ability of native and non-native speakers to enhance intelligibility of target vowels by speaking clearly was compared across three talker groups: monolingual English speakers and native Spanish speakers with either an earlier or a later age of immersion in an English-speaking environment. Talkers produced the target syllables "bead, bid, bayed, bed, bad" and "bod" in 'conversational' and clear speech styles. The stimuli were presented to native English-speaking listeners in multi-talker babble with signal-to-noise ratios of -8 dB for the monolingual and early learners and -4 dB for the later learners. The monolinguals and early learners of English showed a similar average clear speech benefit, and the early learners showed equal or greater intelligibility than monolinguals for most target vowels. The 4-dB difference in signal-to-noise ratio yielded approximately equal average intelligibility for the monolinguals and later learners. The average clear speech benefit was smallest for the later learners, and a significant clear speech decrement was obtained for the target syllable "bid." These results suggest that later learners of English as a second language may be less able than monolinguals to accommodate listeners in noisy environments, due to a reduced ability to improve intelligibility by speaking more clearly. PMID:20649235
Choi, Jiyoun; Kim, Sahyang; Cho, Taehong
This study investigated how the L1 phonetics-prosody interface transfers to L2 by examining prosodic strengthening effects (due to prosodic position and focus) on English voicing contrast (bad-pad) as produced by Korean vs English speakers. Under prosodic strengthening, Korean speakers showed a greater F0 difference due to voicing than English speakers, suggesting that their experience with the macroprosodic use of F0 in Korean transfers into L2. Furthermore, Korean speakers produced voiced stops with low F0 and short voice onset time as English speakers did, although such a cue pairing is absent in Korean, showing dissociation of cues from L1 segments for L2 production. PMID:27036291
Pruitt, John S; Jenkins, James J; Strange, Winifred
Perception of second language speech sounds is influenced by one's first language. For example, speakers of American English have difficulty perceiving dental versus retroflex stop consonants in Hindi although English has both dental and retroflex allophones of alveolar stops. Japanese, unlike English, has a contrast similar to Hindi, specifically, the Japanese /d/ versus the flapped /r/ which is sometimes produced as a retroflex. This study compared American and Japanese speakers' identification of the Hindi contrast in CV syllable contexts where C varied in voicing and aspiration. The study then evaluated the participants' increase in identifying the distinction after training with a computer-interactive program. Training sessions progressively increased in difficulty by decreasing the extent of vowel truncation in stimuli and by adding new speakers. Although all participants improved significantly, Japanese participants were more accurate than Americans in distinguishing the contrast on pretest, during training, and on posttest. Transfer was observed to three new consonantal contexts, a new vowel context, and a new speaker's productions. Some abstract aspect of the contrast was apparently learned during training. It is suggested that allophonic experience with dental and retroflex stops may be detrimental to perception of the new contrast. PMID:16583912
Vainikka, Anne; Young-Scholten, Martha
Analyzes data on the acquisition of German by Italian and Spanish speakers. Findings reveal that children learning a first language and adults learning a second language build up syntactic structure in much the same manner, and propose that the weak continuity approach of language acquisition accounts for all instances of syntactic acquisition.…
The study analyzes the formant center frequencies for the seven Cantonese vowels [i, y, u, ɛ, æ, openo, a] from 30 native speakers of Cantonese, 10 male and 10 female adults and 5 male and 5 female 9-10 year old children. Results show that the formant frequencies for the vowels are largest for the female children, followed by the male children, female adults, and male adults in decreasing order. Despite the differences, the patterns of formant frequencies for any one vowel for the different groups are similar. The difference in F-values for any one vowel between the male and female children is smaller than the difference between the male and female adults. As for individual formant frequencies, the difference in F1 between the males and females of the same age group and between the adults and children of the same gender group is smaller for the high vowels [i, y, u] than the non-high vowels [V, æ, openo, a]. The difference in F2 between the males and females of the same age group and between the adults and children of the same gender group is smaller for the high rounded vowels [y, u] than the other vowels. The paper will also present the ratios of speaker group-to-speaker group for individual formant frequencies.
Mokhtarnia, Shabnam; Ghafar-Samar, Reza
This study aimed at exploring the possible differences between Iranian English and non-English major students in terms of their attitude towards native English speakers and reported self-identity change. It also attempted to investigate the possible significant relationships between these two variables. The results of the independent-sample…
Schaetzel, Kirsten; Low, Ee Ling
Adult English language learners in the United States approach the learning of English pronunciation from a wide variety of native language backgrounds. They may speak languages with sound systems that vary a great deal from that of English. The pronunciation goals and needs of adult English language learners are diverse. These goals and needs…
Schwade, Allan Jay
This thesis experimentally addresses a theoretical debate in the loanword literature concerning the validity of the perception and production approaches to adaptation. According to the perception approach, adapters who only know the borrowing language generate loans by taking a non-native auditory representation and mapping the perceived constituents to existing native categories. In the production theory, adapters who know both the source and borrowing languages generate loans by taking the categorical form of a source word and passing it through the borrowing phonological grammar. In order to evaluate the validity of each theory, Russian words containing palatalized consonants were auditorily presented to English monolingual speakers and Russian-English bilinguals who were then asked to "Americanize" the words. Since palatalization has a host of co-articulatory effects that would be familiar to bilinguals but not monolinguals, it was predicted that the palatalization would not manifest itself in bilingual borrowings but would in monolingual borrowings. The logic underlying these predictions is that co-articulation is noise which bilinguals would avoid including in their adaptations. The monolinguals, with no knowledge of what constitutes noise in the foreign words presented to them, would preserve the co-articulation in some form. The results of the study support these predictions. Bilinguals overwhelmingly adapted palatalized consonants as plain (i.e. tja > ta) while monolinguals sometimes preserved the co-articulation in a variety of expected ways (e.g. tja > ti.a, tju > tSu, etc). These results suggest that the production account is valid since bilinguals were insensitive to phonetic details and the perception account is valid since monolinguals were sensitive to them.
This study investigated whether native speakers of American English with no knowledge of Japanese could learn to perceive Japanese vowel and consonant length distinctions through auditory training with immediate feedback. One group of participants was trained to identify the number of moras in Japanese words spoken in isolation (word training), and another group in sentences (sentence training). Trained groups' pretest and post-test scores in the words-in-isolation context (word context) and the words-in-sentences context (sentence context) were compared to those of an untrained control group. The questions addressed were whether there was an overall effect of training, and whether there were differential effects of two types of training. Both trained groups showed similar improvement in their overall test scores. The results suggested that learning in one context generalized to the other. However, an advantage of sentence training over word training was found: at the post-test, there was a greater difference between the scores of the two contexts for the word-training group than for the sentence-training group. The results are discussed in terms of the factors that might contribute to the differences in second language learning between the word and the sentence contexts. .
The goal of the study reported in this article is to analyze ways students in the first course of a three-quarter college preparatory sequence in reading and writing write about their experiences in their essays. The student participants were three native speakers of English and three native speakers of Punjabi, who had lived and studied in the…
Bada, Erdogan; Genc, Bilal
The study of SLA began around the beginning of the 70s with the emergence of both theoretical and empirical studies. Undoubtedly, the acquisition of tense/aspect, besides other topics, has attracted much interest from researchers. This study investigated the use of telic and atelic verb forms in the oral production of Turkish speakers of English…
Uther, Maria; Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Iverson, Paul
The finding that hyperarticulation of vowel sounds occurs in certain speech registers (e.g., infant- and foreigner-directed speech) suggests that hyperarticulation may have a didactic function in facilitating acquisition of new phonetic categories in language learners. This event-related potential study tested whether hyperarticulation of vowels elicits larger phonetic change responses, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) and tested native and non-native speakers of English. Data from 11 native English-speaking and 10 native Greek-speaking participants showed that Greek speakers in general had smaller MMNs compared to English speakers, confirming previous studies demonstrating sensitivity of the MMN to language background. In terms of the effect of hyperarticulation, hyperarticulated stimuli elicited larger MMNs for both language groups, suggesting vowel space expansion does elicit larger pre-attentive phonetic change responses. Interestingly Greek native speakers showed some P3a activity that was not present in the English native speakers, raising the possibility that additional attentional switch mechanisms are activated in non-native speakers compared to native speakers. These results give general support for models of speech learning such as Kuhl's Native Language Magnet enhanced (NLM-e) theory. PMID:22771705
Because of a growing community of non-English speakers in British Columbia, there is an urgent need for effective teaching programs in English as a Second Language (ESL). Non-English speakers frequently face educational deprivation, difficulty in using their skills and in finding employment, dependency on government assistance, and, if children,…
Ruecker, Todd; Ives, Lindsey
Over the past few decades, scholars have paid increasing attention to the role of native speakerism in the field of TESOL. Several recent studies have exposed instances of native speakerism in TESOL recruitment discourses published through a variety of media, but none have focused specifically on professional websites advertising programs in…
Grant, Amy; Gottardo, Alexandra; Geva, Esther
This study compared variables related to reading ability in Grade 3 students learning English as a first language (L1) and second language (L2). The students learning English as an L2 came from diverse backgrounds, with different levels of bilingualism in Spanish and English or Portuguese and English before they entered school. Both within-group…
Babaie, Sherveh; Shahrokhi, Mohsen
The purpose of the present study was to compare the speech act of offering advice as realized by Iranian EFL learners and English native speakers. The study, more specifically, attempted to find out whether there was any pragmatic transfer from Persian (L1) among Iranian EFL learners while offering advice in English. It also examined whether…
Beckett, Carol; Nevin, Ann; Comella, Serena; Kane, Nancy; Romero, Priscilla; Bergquist, Glenn
This paper on meeting the needs of students with disabilities who are learning English as a second language suggests integrating principles from the Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) Standards and Data Based Instruction (DBI). The power of combining intentional language teaching with an action research process is illustrated…
Lim, Valerie P. C.; Lincoln, Michelle; Chan, Yiong Huak; Onslow, Mark
Purpose: English and Mandarin are the 2 most spoken languages in the world, yet it is not known how stuttering manifests in English-Mandarin bilinguals. In this research, the authors investigated whether the severity and type of stuttering is different in English and Mandarin in English-Mandarin bilinguals, and whether this difference was…
Paradowski, Michal B.
English today is one of the most hybrid and rapidly changing languages in the world. New users of the language are not just passively absorbing, but actively shaping it, breeding a variety of regional Englishes, as well as pidgins and English-lexified creoles. Also, as in an increasing number of countries English is becoming an element of core…
Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft; Adams, Rebecca
This book summarizes the research on adult English language learners (ELLs) reading English, offering English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers and administrators suggestions for instruction and noting areas where further research is needed. It is based on an annotated bibliography of research on reading development for adult learners of English…
Bin Mohamed Ali, Haja Mohideen
Many job advertisements seeking teachers of English to work in Japan, China, South Korea and Thailand, for instance, specify that they are looking for native speaking teachers from USA, UK, Australia and New Zealand. They do not seem to be interested even in trained non-native speaking teachers from their own countries. This situation also exists…
Nicklas, Thurston Dale
This article, the first of three in the Bureau of Indian Affairs'"Curriculum Guide Number 6," edited by Sirarpi Ohannessian and William Gage of the Center for Applied Linguistics, is an attempt "to help break the language barrier" which exists for the many Choctaw children who lack proper skill in speaking English. Some Choctaw children know no…
Stout, Steven Owen
The paper examines interpretive aspects of English non-uniformity among fifth and sixth grade Native Americans at Laguna Elementary School, Laguna, New Mexico. Speaker assessments of instances of uninflected "be" are ordered to form an implicational scale. The variability in the students' assessment pattern is compared to previous inter-ethnic…
Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Cheng, Hui-Wen
The role of written input in second language (L2) phonological and lexical acquisition has received increased attention in recent years. Here we investigated the influence of two factors that may moderate the influence of orthography on L2 word form learning: (i) whether the writing system is shared by the native language and the L2, and (ii) if the writing system is shared, whether the relevant grapheme-phoneme correspondences are also shared. The acquisition of Mandarin via the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems provides an ecologically valid opportunity to explore these factors. We first asked whether there is a difference in native English speakers' ability to learn Pinyin and Zhuyin grapheme-phoneme correspondences. In Experiment 1, native English speakers assigned to either Pinyin or Zhuyin groups were exposed to Mandarin words belonging to one of two conditions: in the “congruent” condition, the Pinyin forms are possible English spellings for the auditory words (e.g., < nai> for [nai]); in the “incongruent” condition, the Pinyin forms involve a familiar grapheme representing a novel phoneme (e.g., < xiu> for [ɕiou]). At test, participants were asked to indicate whether auditory and written forms matched; in the crucial trials, the written forms from training (e.g., < xiu>) were paired with possible English pronunciations of the Pinyin written forms (e.g., [ziou]). Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants additionally saw pictures depicting word meanings during the exposure phase, and at test were asked to match auditory forms with the pictures. In both experiments the Zhuyin group outperformed the Pinyin group due to the Pinyin group's difficulty with “incongruent” items. A third experiment confirmed that the groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish the relevant Mandarin consonants (e.g., [ɕ]) from the foils (e.g., [z]), suggesting that the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 can be attributed to
Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Cheng, Hui-Wen
The role of written input in second language (L2) phonological and lexical acquisition has received increased attention in recent years. Here we investigated the influence of two factors that may moderate the influence of orthography on L2 word form learning: (i) whether the writing system is shared by the native language and the L2, and (ii) if the writing system is shared, whether the relevant grapheme-phoneme correspondences are also shared. The acquisition of Mandarin via the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems provides an ecologically valid opportunity to explore these factors. We first asked whether there is a difference in native English speakers' ability to learn Pinyin and Zhuyin grapheme-phoneme correspondences. In Experiment 1, native English speakers assigned to either Pinyin or Zhuyin groups were exposed to Mandarin words belonging to one of two conditions: in the "congruent" condition, the Pinyin forms are possible English spellings for the auditory words (e.g., < nai> for [nai]); in the "incongruent" condition, the Pinyin forms involve a familiar grapheme representing a novel phoneme (e.g., < xiu> for [ɕiou]). At test, participants were asked to indicate whether auditory and written forms matched; in the crucial trials, the written forms from training (e.g., < xiu>) were paired with possible English pronunciations of the Pinyin written forms (e.g., [ziou]). Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants additionally saw pictures depicting word meanings during the exposure phase, and at test were asked to match auditory forms with the pictures. In both experiments the Zhuyin group outperformed the Pinyin group due to the Pinyin group's difficulty with "incongruent" items. A third experiment confirmed that the groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish the relevant Mandarin consonants (e.g., [ɕ]) from the foils (e.g., [z]), suggesting that the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 can be attributed to the effects
Tomita, Kaoru; Yamada, Jun; Takatsuka, Shigenobu
This study investigated how Japanese-speaking learners of English pronounce the three point vowels /i/, /u/, and /a/ appearing in the first and second monosyllabic words of English noun phrases, and the schwa /[image omitted]/ appearing in English disyllabic words. First and second formant (F1 and F2) values were measured for four Japanese…
Garcia-Sierra, Adrian; Ramirez-Esparza, Nairan; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Siard, Jennifer; Champlin, Craig A.
Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 10) to test pre-attentive speech discrimination in two language contexts. ERPs were recorded while participants silently read magazines in English or Spanish. Two speech contrast conditions were recorded in each language context. In the "phonemic in English"…
The aim of this study is to investigate which pronunciations of English are difficult or different from one's first language, as well as to explore which factors are crucial for communication with people from other cultures when English is used as one of the World Englishes. Ninety-one undergraduate students (85 females and 6 males) from two…
The Navajo Nation wants a 2-year Navajo language requirement for regional colleges. At the same time, literacy in academic English is required for Navajo students wishing to enter the sciences, medicine, and law. The difficulties students face as they make the transition from English to Navajo and from Navajo to English are described. Four…
Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education and Literacy.
A summary of state activities to serve the limited English proficient (LEP) adult population includes the following: (1) brief state-by-state descriptions of programs and services offered; (2) a table of educational program enrollment rates for all the states listed, the District of Columbia, and territories for July 1, 1987-June 30, 1988; (3) a…
Approximately 50% of publications in English peer reviewed journals are contributed by non-native speakers (NNS) of the language. Basic thought processes are considered to be universal yet there are differences in thought patterns and particularly in discourse management of writers with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. The study highlights some areas of potential incompatibility in native and NNS processing of English scientific papers. Principles and conventions in generating academic discourse are considered in terms of frequently occurring failures of NNS to meet expectations of editors, reviewers, and readers. Major problem areas concern organization and flow of information, principles of cohesion and clarity, cultural constraints, especially those of politeness and negotiability of ideas, and the complicated area of English modality pragmatics. The aim of the paper is to sensitize NN authors of English academic reports to problem areas of discourse processing which are stumbling blocks, often affecting acceptance of manuscripts. The problems discussed are essential for acquiring pragmalinguistic and sociocultural competence in producing effective communication. PMID:23118596
Bell-Berti, Fredericka; Yu, Yan Helen
This study investigates relations among several factors that are expected to influence vowel production in second language learning, including AoA, LoR, L2 and general education, L2 perception, and orthography. Vowel production will be examined through duration and formant frequency measurements and listener identification. The results will be analyzed in relation to educational background and language use. Among the educational factors examined are general education level, English education (in their native land and/or New York City), and sound-annotating system experiences in Mandarin (Pinyin or Zhuyin). The language-use factors include AoA, LoR, language spoken at work and at home, and perception of English vowels. The hypotheses addressed include: (1) educational background, language use, and sound-annotating system experiences in Mandarin all influence L2 English speakers perception and production of English vowels; (2) the more accurately an L2 listener discriminates a vowel contrast, the more distinctly he/she produces that contrast.