An ethnographic study investigated four adult beginning reading (ABR) classes in several adult learning centers in order to determine the effect of an adult's age and developmental phase on his or her behavior and attitudes in the learning-to-read process. For 9 months, a four-member research team conducted on-site observations, compiled extensive…
Ray, Robert O.
Although research has identified leisure as a significant factor of individual well-being in different stages of adult life, there is little insight into how leisure behaviors and attitudes are acquired. A cross-sectional sample of 300 rural adults was interviewed. Leisure attitudes were assessed on a leisure ethic scale, and well-being was…
Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria
Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products, and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young-old (age 50-69) and old-old group (age 70 or above). The mean age is 67.93 ± 10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is, they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young-old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old-old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young-old and old-old. Young-old group and old-old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational program concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young-old and old-old groups. PMID:24575397
Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria
Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products, and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young–old (age 50–69) and old–old group (age 70 or above). The mean age is 67.93 ± 10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is, they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young–old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old–old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young–old and old–old. Young–old group and old–old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational program concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young–old and old–old groups. PMID:24575397
Brosvic, Gary M; Taylor, Jodi N; Dihoff, Roberta E
The effects of thyroid hormone depletion and enhancement on litter size, survival, body mass, ambulation, quadrant crossing, home orientation, day of eye opening, and free serum T3 and T4 levels were examined in Study 1. In Study 2, the effects of the timing of prenatal insult and the level of thyroid hormone depletion on litter size, survival, body mass, and free serum T3 and T4 levels were examined. Upon the completion of Study 1, randomly selected pups were maintained on ad-libitum water and food for 2 years, and performance was evaluated on fixed and variable ratio schedules, fixed and variable interval schedules, and probability and reversal learning tasks (Study 3). In Study 4, human subjects diagnosed with and treated for either congenital hypothyroidism or congenital hyperthyroidism were tested on the operant procedures used in Study 3, as well as on a series of simple reaction time, serial timing, and conjunctive and disjunctive search tasks. Dose-dependent decreases in survival and delays in the presentation of early motor and exploratory skills were observed following thyroid hormone depletion; dose-dependent accelerations in the presentation of early motor and exploratory skills were observed following thyroid hormone enhancement. Pups that had been prenatally exposed to propylthiouracil (PTU) 1-2 years after the return of thyroid hormones to baseline levels were significantly less accurate at timing on fixed and variable interval schedules, demonstrated an inability to allocate responding on probability tasks, and committed more errors during original learning (OL) and on each reversal problem. Similar deficits were observed in follow-up tests with humans diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism, as were deficits in serial timing and visual searching. Collectively, the present results demonstrate that the pervasive and negative effects of prenatal thyroid deficiency on early behavior are also expressed during adult operant performance. PMID:12020735
Maddi, Salvatore R.
In order to give the psychological conception of alienation greater cogency relative to the influence of sociological alienation, research is needed that ties alienation attitudes to individual personal behavior. It was hypothesized that the stronger the alienation attitudes of people, the weaker will be their exploratory behavior. Thus,…
Metaxas, A; Willems, R; Kooijman, E J M; Renjaän, V A; Klein, P J; Windhorst, A D; Donck, L Ver; Leysen, J E; Berckel, B N M van
Although both the onset of schizophrenia and human phencyclidine (PCP) abuse typically present within the interval from adolescence to early adulthood, the majority of preclinical research employing the PCP model of schizophrenia has been conducted on neonatal or adult animals. The present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical sequelae of subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence. Male 35-42-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously administered either saline (10 ml · kg(-1) ) or PCP hydrochloride (10 mg · kg(-1) ) once daily for a period of 14 days (n = 6/group). The animals were allowed to withdraw from treatment for 2 weeks, and their social and exploratory behaviors were subsequently assessed in adulthood by using the social interaction test. To examine the effects of adolescent PCP administration on the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), quantitative autoradiography was performed on brain sections of adult, control and PCP-withdrawn rats by using 20 nM (3) H-MK-801. Prior subchronic exposure to PCP in adolescence had no enduring effects on the reciprocal contact and noncontact social behavior of adult rats. Spontaneous rearing in response to the novel testing arena and time spent investigating its walls and floor were reduced in PCP-withdrawn animals compared with control. The long-term behavioral effects of PCP occurred in the absence of persistent deficits in spontaneous locomotion or self-grooming activity and were not mediated by altered NMDAR density. Our results document differential effects of adolescent PCP administration on the social and exploratory behaviors of adult rats, suggesting that distinct neurobiological mechanisms are involved in mediating these behaviors. PMID:24953757
Schaefer, Isabel C; Siebel, Anna M; Piato, Angelo L; Bonan, Carla D; Vianna, Mônica R; Lara, Diogo R
The assessment of shoaling in adult zebrafish is technically difficult, but important, given their social nature. The present study aimed to characterize a new protocol using simple automated tracking software to evaluate general behavior and social interaction simultaneously. To this end, we used a single tank with a central transparent glass division and placed one zebrafish on each side for 5 min. This strategy allows fish to interact visually at the same time that individual automated evaluation of behavior can be easily performed. Our results showed that, when two fish are placed side-by-side, there is an increase in their height in the tank compared with isolated fish and they remain close to each other. The pharmacological treatments with benzodiazepines (bromazepam and clonazepam) and the serotonergic drugs buspirone, fluoxetine, and escitalopram did not affect locomotion at the concentrations tested, except for the highest concentration of buspirone. Nevertheless, benzodiazepines increased interfish distance (i.e. reduced shoaling behavior) and serotonergic drugs elevated height in the tank. These results support the use of the side-by-side exploratory test for behavioral studies with the zebrafish, including high-throughput behavioral screening for antidepressants and anxiolytics. PMID:26061352
Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M
Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed. PMID:23098273
Bowen, G. M.
For curriculum content-related reasons, inquiry activities can be difficult in classrooms unless the activities are approached in a manner that makes variations among student group findings understandable in the context of the study. Studies of individual animals and plant reactions to stimuli, such as insect exploratory behavior, allow the…
Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F
The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally. PMID:25082078
Crawley, J N
Parameters of exploratory behaviors responsive to anti-anxiety drugs are reviewed with respect to their sensitivity and specificity for anxiolytics in mice. Mouse models appear to rest on a disinhibition of natural exploratory tendencies by anxiolytic treatments. Analysis of agonists of the brain benzodiazepine binding site, such as chlordiazepoxide and diazepam, significantly increase exploration of a hole-board, of a two-chambered light in equilibrium dark apparatus, increase social interaction under high levels of illumination, increase consumption of a novel food in an unfamiliar environment, and increase punished crossings in a footshock conflict paradigm. These tests detect anxiolytic responses at doses of benzodiazepines well within the clinically effective range. Pharmacological specificity was established for the hole-board and light in equilibrium transition tests, showing that non-anxiolytic categories of psychoactive drugs did not produce false positives. Open field behaviors and isolation-induced aggression were reduced by anxiolytics, at doses which may be within the sedative-hypnotic range. Analysis of antagonists of the brain benzodiazepine binding site did not show active antagonist properties in the light in equilibrium transitions model, although the antagonist Ro-15-1788 appeared to have partial agonist properties in the open field test, suggesting that rat models may be more sensitive to anxiogenic compounds than are mouse models. The wide separation between anxiolytic and sedative doses in mouse models recommend these exploration paradigms as good predictive screens for the testing of novel anxiolytic compounds. PMID:2858080
Varner, Kaitlin M; Dopkins, Stephen; Philbeck, John W
The present research examined the effect of encoding from multiple viewpoints on scene recall in a group of younger (18-22 years) and older (65-80 years) adults. Participants completed a visual search task, during which they were given the opportunity to examine a room using two sets of windows that partitioned the room differently. Their choice of window set was recorded, to determine whether an association between these choices and spatial memory performance existed. Subsequently, participants were tested for spatial memory of the domain in which the search task was completed. Relative to younger adults, older adults demonstrated an increased tendency to use a single set of windows as well as decreased spatial memory for the domain. Window-set usage was associated with spatial memory, such that older adults who relied more heavily on a single set of windows also had better performance on the spatial memory task. These findings suggest that, in older adults, moderation in exploratory behavior may have a positive effect on memory for the domain of exploration. PMID:26758675
Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.
Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…
Vostal, Brooks R.; Lee, David L.
Adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often fail to master literacy skills, in part because disruptive behaviors interfere with task engagement and persistence. The theory of behavioral momentum explains the persistence of behavior in the face of changing environmental conditions. The current exploratory study examined…
Describes a pilot project with two objectives: 1) to develop measures of curiosity and exploration applicable to preschool children, and 2) to investigate the relationship between variations in exploratory behavior and other aspects of emotional and cognitive growth. (WY)
Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.
Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience. PMID:23045644
Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.
Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128
Kalagher, Hilary; Jones, Susan S.
Adults vary their haptic exploratory behavior reliably with variation both in the sensory input and in the task goals. Little is known about the development of these connections between perceptual goals and exploratory behaviors. A total of 36 children ages 3, 4, and 5 years and 20 adults completed a haptic intramodal match-to-sample task.…
Isaki, Emi; Harmon, Mary Towle
This exploratory Intergenerational Program (IGP) focused on reading to determine whether it affects mood and communication in older adults with mild dementia and neurocognitive deficits, and if it influences school-aged children's perceptions of older adults over time. Six older adults with cognitive-communication deficits and 12 school-aged…
Burch, J.D.; Craib, K.J.; Choi, B.C.; Miller, A.B.; Risch, H.A.; Howe, G.R.
An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies.
McLagan, Patricia A.
The paper proposes that when behavior change is the major target of an adult education program, the designer must consider three factors: (1) the four basic targets for behavior change efforts (behavior goals and plans, basic knowledge and skills needed for successful performance, physical environment, reinforcers of behavior); (2) individual…
Hawkinson, Kaitlyn; Zamboni, Brian D
This internet-based study provided descriptive information and exploratory analyses on 1,795 male and 139 female members of the Adult Baby/Diaper Lover (ABDL) community. Based on prior research, some research questions focused on the degree to which ABDL behavior was associated with negative mood states, parental relationships, and attachment style. Based on clinical experience, a second research question focused on discerning two possible subgroups within the ABDL community: persons focused on role play behavior and persons who were primarily interested in sexual arousal in their ABDL behavior. The results showed modest support for the former research questions, but notable support for the last research question. Because of some overlap between the two hypothesized subgroups, additional subgroups may exist. Males in the ABDL community identified their ABDL interests earlier than females and these males may be more focused on sexual aspects of ABDL practices. Both males and females perceived being dominated as important in their ABDL behavior. Most participants were comfortable with their ABDL behavior and reported few problems. ABDL behavior may represent a sexual subculture that is not problematic for most of its participants. PMID:24473941
Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.
Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…
Van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Franse, Rooske K.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.
In this paper, we introduce the Exploratory Behavior Scale (EBS), a quantitative measure of young children's interactivity. More specifically, the EBS is developed from the psychological literature on exploration and play and measures the extent to which preschoolers explore their physical environment. A practical application of the EBS in a…
Rowe, Melissah; Pierson, Kasey L; McGraw, Kevin J
Recently, carotenoid pigments have received considerable attention as modulators of animal health and performance. While studies show that elevated carotenoid intake and accumulation can influence activities like parental care and escape-flight performance, little is known of how carotenoid status influences the expression of animal personality traits, which can be energy-demanding and entail survival costs but also rewarding in the context of foraging and mating. We experimentally investigated the effects of carotenoid availability on exploratory behavior and activity level, using adult males and females of two species of waterfowl: mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta). We assessed behavior using a novel-environment test designed to measure an individual's response to novel objects and a potential predator threat (fox urine scent). We found that carotenoid availability was positively associated with some aspects of exploratory behavior: birds with higher concentrations of circulating carotenoids entered the test arena sooner and approached and entered predator-scented bedding material more frequently than birds with low carotenoid concentrations. These results suggest that the availability of carotenoid resources can influence personality traits in waterfowl, and we discuss putative physiological mechanisms underlying this effect. PMID:25898784
Mun, Ho-Suk; Lipina, Tatiana V.; Roder, John C.
While rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are known to vary with anticipation of an aversive vs. positive stimulus, little is known about USVs in adult mice in relation to behaviors. We recorded the calls of adult C57BL/6J male mice under different environmental conditions by exposing mice to both novel and familiar environments that varied in stress intensity through the addition of bright light or shallow water. In general, mouse USVs were significantly more frequent and of longer duration in novel environments. Particularly, mice in dimly-lit novel environments performed more USVs while exhibiting unsupported rearing and walking behavior, and these calls were mostly at high frequency. In contrast, mice exhibited more low frequency USVs when engaging in supported rearing behavior in novel environments. These findings are consistent with data from rats suggesting that low-frequency calls are made under aversive conditions and high-frequency calls occur in non-stressful conditions. Our findings increase understanding of acoustic signals associated with exploratory behaviors relevant to cognitive and motivational aspects of behavior. PMID:26696847
Mun, Ho-Suk; Lipina, Tatiana V; Roder, John C
While rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are known to vary with anticipation of an aversive vs. positive stimulus, little is known about USVs in adult mice in relation to behaviors. We recorded the calls of adult C57BL/6J male mice under different environmental conditions by exposing mice to both novel and familiar environments that varied in stress intensity through the addition of bright light or shallow water. In general, mouse USVs were significantly more frequent and of longer duration in novel environments. Particularly, mice in dimly-lit novel environments performed more USVs while exhibiting unsupported rearing and walking behavior, and these calls were mostly at high frequency. In contrast, mice exhibited more low frequency USVs when engaging in supported rearing behavior in novel environments. These findings are consistent with data from rats suggesting that low-frequency calls are made under aversive conditions and high-frequency calls occur in non-stressful conditions. Our findings increase understanding of acoustic signals associated with exploratory behaviors relevant to cognitive and motivational aspects of behavior. PMID:26696847
Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph
The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…
Schwartz, Seth J.; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.
This article, using a controlled design, reports the results of an exploratory study to investigate the impact of two types of intervention strategies (cognitively vs. emotionally focused) on two types of identity processes (self-construction and self-discovery) in a culturally diverse sample of 90 emerging adult university students. A…
Selman, John Thomas, Jr.
Millions of Americans profess belief in God and follow a Protestant Christian belief system. However, very little research or literature explores their participation in religious adult education. Several areas within adult education are exhaustively researched such as health care, leisure, and career related courses, but studies within religion go…
Quirke, Thomas; O'Riordan, Ruth
Exploratory behavior in the wild is fundamentally linked to an animal's survival and natural life history. The ability to gather information about their environment, establish territories, assert dominance, communicate information regarding reproductive status and locate mates are closely associated with a range of exploratory behaviors. Understanding how these behaviors are performed within the captive setting is crucial in order to create a captive environment in which these behaviors can be expressed, and their function conserved. The objective of this research was to highlight the factors of captive husbandry and management that influence the occurrence of exploratory behaviour of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity. One hundred and twelve cheetahs in 88 enclosures across nine zoological institutions in five countries were the subjects of this study. The presence of raised areas, number of movements between enclosures, group composition, sex and an interaction between group composition and the ability to view cheetahs in adjacent enclosures, all significantly influenced the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. The presence of raised areas and an increasing number of movements between enclosures significantly increased the probability of observing exploratory behaviour, while this probability was significantly decreased for female cheetahs, when cheetahs were able to view conspecifics in adjacent enclosures, and were maintained in groups. A number of recommendations are discussed in relation to promoting exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. PMID:25557735
Foulk, Mariko A; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit; Kavanagh, Janet; Robinson, Elizabeth; Kales, Helen C
An 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) group for older adults with depression and/or anxiety is described. This article is based on an exploratory study of this therapeutic approach and changes in participants' symptoms associated with participation. Pre-post data from 5 MBCT groups showed significant improvements in reported anxiety, ruminative thoughts, and sleep problems and a reduction in depressive symptoms. Case examples are presented to illustrate these symptom changes. Findings showed that this nonpharmacological intervention is acceptable to older adults and is associated with positive changes. Suggestions are provided for both practitioners and researchers interested in using MBCT with older adults. PMID:24329497
Suskind, Dana; Leffel, Kristin R.; Hernandez, Marc W.; Sapolich, Shannon G.; Suskind, Elizabeth; Kirkham, Erin; Meehan, Patrick
A child's early language environment is critical to his or her life-course trajectory. Quantitative linguistic feedback utilizes the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) technology as a tool to analyze verbal interactions and reinforce behavior change. This exploratory pilot study evaluates the feasibility and efficacy of a novel…
Friedman, Daniela; Tanwar, Manju; Yoho, Deborah W.; Richter, Jane V. E.
Being prepared with accurate, credible, and timely information during a disaster can help individuals make informed decisions about taking appropriate actions. Unfortunately, many people have difficulty understanding health and risk-related resources. This exploratory, mixed methods study assessed disaster information seeking behaviors and…
Tanaś, Łukasz; Ostaszewski, Paweł; Iwan, Anna
Adverse early experience is generally regarded as a risk factor for both externalizing and internalizing behavioral disorders in humans. It can be modeled in rats by a post-weaning social isolation procedure. Effects of social isolation might possibly be ameliorated by environmental enrichment. In the current study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided post-weaning into four rearing conditions: control, environmental enrichment (EE), social isolation (SI) and a combination of the two experimental conditions; (EE+SI). Two observations of the effects of rearing conditions on the rate of social and object interactions were conducted during the juvenile and post-pubertal stages of development. The SI condition led to a marked increase of social interactions during the juvenile phase, but did not affect object interactions. The EE condition increased the level of social interactions during both the juvenile and post-pubertal measurements. The effects of early rearing conditions on adult exploratory behavior were less clear, with a significant difference between the groups obtained in one of three behavioral tests. Results suggest a general robustness in the development of adult exploratory behavior and anxiety when rats were exposed to early social isolation and provided brief opportunities for social play during the juvenile period. Further studies, aimed at distinguishing play-related protective factors serving against long-term adverse effects of juvenile social isolation, are suggested. PMID:25856524
Buschert, Jens; Sakalem, Marna E; Saffari, Roja; Hohoff, Christa; Rothermundt, Matthias; Arolt, Volker; Zhang, Weiqi; Ambrée, Oliver
Adverse environmental factors including prenatal maternal infection are capable of inducing long-lasting behavioral and neural alterations which can enhance the risk to develop schizophrenia. It is so far not clear whether supportive postnatal environments are able to modify such prenatally-induced alterations. In rodent models, environmental enrichment influences behavior and cognition, for instance by affecting endocrinologic, immunologic, and neuroplastic parameters. The current study was designed to elucidate the influence of postnatal environmental enrichment on schizophrenia-like behavioral alterations induced by prenatal polyI:C immune stimulation at gestational day 9 in mice. Adult offspring were tested for amphetamine-induced locomotion, social interaction, and problem-solving behavior as well as expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and associated molecules, microglia density and adult neurogenesis. Prenatal polyI:C treatment resulted in increased dopamine sensitivity and dopamine D2 receptor expression in adult offspring which was not reversed by environmental enrichment. Prenatal immune activation prevented the effects of environmental enrichment which increased exploratory behavior and microglia density in NaCl treated mice. Problem-solving behavior as well as the number of immature neurons was affected by neither prenatal immune stimulation nor postnatal environmental enrichment. The behavioral and neural alterations that persist into adulthood could not generally be modified by environmental enrichment. This might be due to early neurodevelopmental disturbances which could not be rescued or compensated for at a later developmental stage. PMID:26776071
Henry, Brook L.; Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W.; Paulus, Martin P.; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William
Alterations in exploratory behavior are a fundamental feature of bipolar mania, typically characterized as motor hyperactivity and increased goal-directed behavior in response to environmental cues. In contrast, abnormal exploration associated with schizophrenia and depression can manifest as prominent withdrawal, limited motor activity, and inattention to the environment. While motor abnormalities are cited frequently as clinical manifestations of these disorders, relatively few empirical studies have quantified human exploratory behavior. This article reviews the literature characterizing motor and exploratory behavior associated with bipolar disorder and genetic and pharmacological animal models of the illness. Despite sophisticated assessment of exploratory behavior in rodents, objective quantification of human motor activity has been limited primarily to actigraphy studies with poor cross-species translational value. Furthermore, symptoms that reflect the cardinal features of bipolar disorder have proven difficult to establish in putative animal models of this illness. Recently, however, novel tools such as the Human Behavioral Pattern Monitor provide multivariate translational measures of motor and exploratory activity, enabling improved understanding of the neurobiology underlying psychiatric disorders. PMID:20398694
Cozad, Dana Everett
The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…
Van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.
The present study fills a gap in existing visitor research by focusing on the preschool age group. The study explores relationships between parent explanation, children's exploratory behavior, and their domain-specific learning in a shadow exhibition. In addition, the effect of a preceding theater show on child and parent behaviors is examined. In…
Kniss, Darrel Dean; Akagi, Cynthia G.
This exploratory study measured the sexuality education and HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of young adults (n = 410), ages 18-21, who recently graduated from public high schools in a midwestern state. Based on the participants' responses to specific questions, students were placed into one of three groups: students who received no…
In Sprague-Dawley rats by means of in vivo microdialysis combined with HPLC analysis, it was shown that presentation to rats during exploratory activity of a tone previously pared with footshock inhibited the exploration and prevented the exploration-induced increase in extracellular levels of citrulline (an NO co-product) in the medial n. accumbens. Intra-accumbal infusions of 20 μM bicuculline, a GABA(A)-receptor antagonist, firstly, partially restored the exploration-induced increase of extracellular citrulline levels in this brain area, which was inhibited by presentation of the tone, previously paired with foot-shock and, secondly, prevented the inhibition of exploratory behavior produced by this sound signal of danger. The data obtained indicate for the first time that signals of danger inhibit exploratory behavior and exploration-induced activation of the accumbal nitrergic system via GABA(A)-receptor mechanisms. PMID:25508395
Saul'skaia, N V; Terekhova, E A
In Sprague-Dawley rats by means of in vivo microdialysis combined with HPLC analysis, it was shown that presentation to rats during exploratory activity of a tone previously pared with footshock inhibited the exploration and prevented the exploration-induced increase in extracellular levels of citrulline (an NO co-product) in the medial n. accumbens. Intra-accumbal infusions of 20 μM bicuculline, a GABA(A)-receptor antagonist, firstly, partially restored the exploration-induced increase of extracellular citrulline levels in this brain area, which was inhibited by presentation of the tone, previously paired with foot-shock and, secondly, prevented the inhibition of exploratory behavior produced by this sound signal of danger. The data obtained indicate for the first time that signals of danger inhibit exploratory behavior and exploration-induced activation of the accumbal nitrergic system via GABA(A)-receptor mechanisms. PMID:25464764
Muench, Frederick J.; Lee, Rufina; Pena, Juan; Hail, Lisa
Background. Normative feedback (NF), or receiving information about one’s drinking compared to peer drinking norms, is one of the most widely used brief interventions for prevention and intervention for hazardous alcohol use. NF has demonstrated predominantly small but significant effect sizes for intention to change and other drinking related outcomes. Identifying mechanisms of action may improve the effectiveness of NF; however, few studies have examined NF’s mechanisms of action, particularly among adults. Objective. This study is an exploratory analysis of two theorized mechanisms of NF: discrepancy (specifically personal dissonance—the affective response to feedback) and belief in the accuracy of feedback. Method. Using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, 87 men (n = 56) and women (n = 31) completed an online survey during which they were asked about their perceptions about their drinking and actual drinking behaviors. Then participants were provided tailored NF and evaluated for their reactions. Severity of discrepancy was measured by the difference between one’s estimated percentile ranking of drinking compared to peers and actual percentile ranking. Surprise and worry reported due to the discrepancy were proxies for personal dissonance. Participants were also asked if they believed the feedback and if they had any plans to change their drinking. Mediation analyses were implemented, exploring whether surprise, worry, or belief in the accuracy of feedback mediated severity of discrepancy’s impact on plan for change. Results. Among this sample of adult drinkers, severity of discrepancy did not predict plan for change, and personal dissonance did not mediate severity of discrepancy. Severity of discrepancy was mediated by belief in the accuracy of feedback. In addition, viewing one’s drinking as a problem prior to feedback and post-NF worry both predicted plan for change independently. Conclusions. Results revealed that NF may not work to create personal
Brooks, Johnell O.; Mossey, Mary E.; Tyler, Peg; Collins, James C.
Research examining driver training for young adults with intellectual disabilities has been limited since the 1970s. The current pilot and exploratory study investigated teaching pre-driving skills (i.e. lane keeping and speed maintenance) to young adults with intellectual disabilities using an interactive driving simulator to provide dynamic and…
Minuchin, Patricia P.
In a follow-up study of curiosity and exploratory behavior, subjects were 18 disadvantaged inner-city black children who had been observed at age four in their first year of a Head Start program, and who were now finishing first grade. Data were obtained from teachers, observations in the classrooms, and an individual session with each child. Each…
Sawhney, Rupy; Chason, Stewart
Currently available Lean tools such as Lean Assessments, Value Stream Mapping, and Process Flow Charting focus on system requirements and overlook human behavior. A need is felt for a tool that allows one to baseline personnel, determine personnel requirements and align system requirements with personnel requirements. Our exploratory model--The…
Shade, Daniel David
The purpose of this exploratory study was to measure the impact of a specific style of parent education on parental behavior with their children. Six families, chosen by invitation from among parents participating in the Carbon County, Utah parent education programs, participated in the study. A BAB-ABBA single case experimental design was…
Curtis, Deborah A.; Araki, Cheri J.
The purpose of this research was to analyze recent statistics textbooks in the behavioral sciences in terms of their coverage of exploratory data analysis (EDA) philosophy and techniques. Twenty popular texts were analyzed. EDA philosophy was not addressed in the vast majority of texts. Only three texts had an entire chapter on EDA. None of the…
Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; And Others
A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior; however, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also found. Information regarding group home sexuality…
Examines national trends in the consequence of youth and adult behavior in four areas: violent crime arrests, violent deaths, total births, and alcohol-indicated fatal traffic crashes. Statistics indicate that youth mirror parents and society, responding better to measures which reduce problem behavior in both youth and adults. (SM)
Hunt, H T; Gervais, A; Shearing-Johns, S; Travis, F
A questionnaire was developed to assess adult recall for a range of transpersonal experiences throughout childhood and adolescence (mystical experience, out-of-body experience, lucid dreams, archetypal dreams, ESP), as well as nightmares and night terrors as indicators of more conflicted, negative states. In two exploratory studies this questionnaire was administered to subjects with high estimated levels of early transpersonal experiences and practising meditators, with respective undergraduate controls. A cognitive skills/precocity model of early transpersonal experience was contrasted with a vulnerability of self model by comparisons of these groups on questionnaire categories, imaginative absorption, neuroticism, and visual-spatial skills, with some support found for both models depending on experience type, age of estimated recall, and adult meditative practice. PMID:1484777
Clark, Roger N.; And Others
"Vandalism, theft, littering, rule violation, and nuisance behaviors were studied in 3 campgrounds during 1968 using participant observation techniques. Information was gathered on the extent and character of such behaviors and factors associated with their occurrence." Nuisance acts were most common (50%) followed by legal violations (37%) and…
Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola; Okon, Marvin; Huber, Robert; Nathaniel, Thomas I
Functional and evolutionary conservation of neural circuits of reward seeking >is a symbol of survival. It is found in most animals from insects to humans. Exploration is a component of a wide range of drug-elicited behaviors that reflects an appetitive motivational state when animals seek natural rewards such as food, water, and shelter for survival. Not only does the characterization of exploratory behaviors indicate the specific components of appetitive motor patterns, it also reveals how exploratory behavioral patterns are implemented via increased incentive salience of environmental stimuli. The current work demonstrates that novel stimuli appear to directly augment exploration in crayfish, while injections of morphine directly into the brain of crayfish enhanced robust arousal resulting in increased locomotion and exploration of the environment. Elimination of morphine suppressed exploratory motor patterns. Crayfish displayed atypical behavioral changes evident of withdrawal-like states when saline is injected into the brain. With proven evidence of rewarding to the exposure to mammalian drugs of abuse, modularly organized and experimentally accessible nervous system makes crayfish exceptionally suitable for characterizing the central workings of addiction at its key behavioral and neuroanatomic locations. PMID:24512767
Slater, Christopher W.
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of cognitive curiosity through the development and validation of items that identify specific-epistemic, diversive-epistemic, specific-perceptual, and diversive-perceptual factors of curiosity. The instrument was based on existing research that identifies each of the four hypothesized…
Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon
Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…
Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan
Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…
Rana, Brinda K.; Darst, Burcu F.; Bloss, Cinnamon; Shih, Pei-an Betty; Depp, Colin; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Allison, Matthew; Parsons, J. Kellogg; Schork, Nicholas; Jeste, Dilip V.
Objective Optimism and resilience promote health and well-being in older adults, and previous reports suggest that these traits are heritable. We examined the association of selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with optimism and resilience in older adults. Design Candidate gene association study that was a follow-on at the University of California, San Diego sites of two NIH-funded multi-site longitudinal investigations: Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and SELenium and vitamin E Cancer prevention Trial (SELECT). Participants 426 Women from WHI older than age 50, and 509 men older than age 55 (age 50 for African-American men) from SELECT. Measurements 65 candidate gene SNPs that were judged by consensus, based on a literature review, as being related to predisposition to optimism and resilience, and 31 ancestry informative marker SNPs, genotyped from blood-based DNA samples and self-report scales for trait optimism, resilience, and depressive symptoms. Results Using a Bonferroni threshold for significant association (p=0.00089), there were no significant associations for individual SNPs with optimism or resilience in single-locus analyses. Exploratory multi-locus polygenic analyses with a p-value of <.05, showed an association of optimism with SNPs in MAO-A, IL10, and FGG genes, and an association of resilience with a SNP in MAO-A gene. Conclusions Correcting for Type I errors, there were no significant associations of optimism and resilience with specific gene SNPs in single-locus analyses. Positive psychological traits are likely to be genetically complex, with many loci having small effects contributing to phenotypic variation. Our exploratory multi-locus polygenic analyses suggest that larger sample sizes and complementary approaches involving methods such as sequence-based association studies, copy number variation analyses, and pathway-based analyses could be useful for better understanding the genetic basis of these positive psychological traits
Lima, Camila Astolphi; Soares, Wuber Jefferson de Souza; Bilton, Tereza Loffredo; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Ferrioll, Eduardo; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) imposes a wide range of adverse health-related outcomes in older people, such as disability, which impair everyday activities and may increase the risk of fall. Few studies have explored EDS in Brazilian older people living in the community who are typically cared in primary health services. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of EDS and its sociodemographic, physical and mental health correlates among community-dwelling older adults. This is an exploratory, population-based study derived from Frailty in Brazilian Older Adults (FIBRA) study including adults aged 65 years and older. Participants with a score ≥ 11 points on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were considered as having excessive daytime sleepiness. A structured, multidimensional questionnaire was used to investigate sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and self-rated health variables. The sample was composed of 776 older adults, of whom 21% (n = 162) presented excessive daytime sleepiness. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that EDS is associated with obesity (OR = 1.50; 95%CI 1.02 - 2.20), urinary incontinence (OR = 1.53; 95%CI 1.01 - 2.31), poor self-rated health (OR = 1.54; 95%CI 1.06 - 2.24), and depression symptoms (OR = 1.49; 95%CI 1.00 - 2.20). Our results suggest that healthcare professionals should identify older adults with EDS and implement intervention strategies to minimize the negative impact of the co-occurrence of this condition with obesity, depression and urinary incontinence over health and quality of life. PMID:26247185
Discusses staff behavioral problems that prove difficult for successful library management. Suggests that reasonable expectations for behavior need to be established in such areas as common courtesies, environmental issues such as temperature and noise levels, work relationships and values, diverse work styles and ways of communicating, and…
Ambrée, Oliver; Klassen, Irene; Förster, Irmgard; Arolt, Volker; Scheu, Stefanie; Alferink, Judith
Chemokines and their receptors are key regulators of immune cell trafficking and activation. Recent findings suggest that they may also play pathophysiological roles in psychiatric diseases like depression and anxiety disorders. The CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and its two ligands, CCL17 and CCL22, are functionally involved in neuroinflammation as well as anti-infectious and autoimmune responses. However, their influence on behavior remains unknown. Here we characterized the functional role of the CCR4-CCL17 chemokine-receptor axis in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior, locomotor activity, and object exploration and recognition. Additionally, we investigated social exploration of CCR4 and CCL17 knockout mice and wild type (WT) controls. CCR4 knockout (CCR4(-/-)) mice exhibited fewer anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze, diminished locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, and social exploration, while their recognition memory was not affected. In contrast, CCL17 deficient mice did not show an altered behavior compared to WT mice regarding locomotor activity, anxiety-related behavior, social exploration, and object recognition memory. In the dark-light and object recognition tests, CCL17(-/-) mice even covered longer distances than WT mice. These data demonstrate a mechanistic or developmental role of CCR4 in the regulation of locomotor and exploratory behaviors, whereas the ligand CCL17 appears not to be involved in the behaviors measured here. Thus, either CCL17 and the alternative ligand CCL22 may be redundant, or CCL22 is the main activator of CCR4 in these processes. Taken together, these findings contribute to the growing evidence regarding the involvement of chemokines and their receptors in the regulation of behavior. PMID:27469058
Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.
The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and…
Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.
The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from…
Muessig, L; Hauser, J; Wills, T J; Cacucci, F
Place cells are hippocampal pyramidal cells that are active when an animal visits a restricted area of the environment, and collectively their activity constitutes a neural representation of space. Place cell populations in the adult rat hippocampus display fundamental properties consistent with an associative memory network: the ability to 1) generate new and distinct spatial firing patterns when encountering novel spatial contexts or changes in sensory input ("remapping") and 2) reinstate previously stored firing patterns when encountering a familiar context, including on the basis of an incomplete/degraded set of sensory cues ("pattern completion"). To date, it is unknown when these spatial memory responses emerge during brain development. Here, we show that, from the age of first exploration (postnatal day 16) onwards, place cell populations already exhibit these key features: they generate new representations upon exposure to a novel context and can reactivate familiar representations on the basis of an incomplete set of sensory cues. These results demonstrate that, as early as exploratory behaviors emerge, and despite the absence of an adult-like grid cell network, the developing hippocampus processes incoming sensory information as an associative memory network. PMID:27282394
Muessig, L.; Hauser, J.; Wills, T. J.; Cacucci, F.
Place cells are hippocampal pyramidal cells that are active when an animal visits a restricted area of the environment, and collectively their activity constitutes a neural representation of space. Place cell populations in the adult rat hippocampus display fundamental properties consistent with an associative memory network: the ability to 1) generate new and distinct spatial firing patterns when encountering novel spatial contexts or changes in sensory input (“remapping”) and 2) reinstate previously stored firing patterns when encountering a familiar context, including on the basis of an incomplete/degraded set of sensory cues (“pattern completion”). To date, it is unknown when these spatial memory responses emerge during brain development. Here, we show that, from the age of first exploration (postnatal day 16) onwards, place cell populations already exhibit these key features: they generate new representations upon exposure to a novel context and can reactivate familiar representations on the basis of an incomplete set of sensory cues. These results demonstrate that, as early as exploratory behaviors emerge, and despite the absence of an adult-like grid cell network, the developing hippocampus processes incoming sensory information as an associative memory network. PMID:27282394
A study examined what type of communication behaviors best friends use when they talk about their relationship (meta-relate), or discuss the nature of talk within the friendship (meta-talk). Questionnaire data collected from middle-aged adults and young college students indicated that the respondents discussed their friendships more than their…
Daniel, Sarah I F
Different types of client attachment insecurity may affect the psychotherapeutic process in distinct ways. This exploratory study compared the in-session discourse of clients with dismissing and preoccupied attachment states of mind on Adult Attachment Interviews conducted prior to therapy in the context of a randomized clinical trial of psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. In a subsample of six sessions from each of eight therapy dyads, preoccupied clients were found to talk more and have longer speaking turns than dismissing clients, who in turn generated more pauses. Using the Narrative Processes Coding System, preoccupied clients were found to show more narrative initiative; whereas, differences in terms of narrative process modes were not as clearly interpretable. Contrary to expectations, the two insecure states of mind were equally different in the relationship-focused psychoanalytic therapy and in the symptom-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy. Suggestions for further investigations of the in-session discourse of clients with different attachment states of mind are given. PMID:21110406
Vail-Smith, Karen; Maguire, Rachel L.; Brinkley, Jason; Burke, Sloane
The transition from high school to college offers adolescents more freedom that may result in increased risky sexual behaviors. This exploratory study examines sexual behaviors of freshmen. Half of participants completed a questionnaire during the first week of college and the other half during the last week of their freshmen year. Significant…
Sammels, M; Vandesande, J; Vlaeyen, E; Peerlinck, K; Milisen, K
Falls are a particular risk in persons with haemophilia (PWH) because of damaged joints, high risk of bleeding, possible impact on the musculoskeletal system and functioning and costs associated with treatment for these fall-related injuries. In addition, fall risk increases with age and PWH are increasingly entering the over 65 age group. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of falls during the past year and to explore which fall risk factors are present in community-dwelling PWH. Dutch speaking community-dwelling adults were included from the age of 40 years with severe or moderate haemophilia A or B, independent in their mobility and registered at the University Hospitals Leuven. They were asked to come to the haemophilia centre; otherwise a telephone survey was conducted. Demographic and social variables, medical variables, fall evaluation and clinical variables were queried. From the 89 PWH, 74 (83.1%) participated in the study. Twenty-four (32.4%) fell in the past year, and 10 of them (41.7%) more than once with an average of four falls. Living conditions, physical activity, avoidance of winter sports due to fear of falling, orthopaedic status, urinary incontinence and mobility impairments are potential fall risk factors in adult PWH. This exploratory study indicates that PWH are attentive to falling since they are at higher risk for falls and because of the serious consequences it might have. Screening and fall prevention should be stimulated in the daily practice of haemophilia care. PMID:25354771
Kitanaka, Junichi; Kitanaka, Nobue; Hall, F Scott; Fujii, Mei; Goto, Akiko; Kanda, Yusuke; Koizumi, Akira; Kuroiwa, Hirotoshi; Mibayashi, Satoko; Muranishi, Yumi; Otaki, Soichiro; Sumikawa, Minako; Tanaka, Koh-ichi; Nishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Uhl, George R; Takemura, Motohiko
In the present study, the effects of morphine were examined on tests of spatial memory, object exploration, locomotion, and anxiety in male ICR mice. Administration of morphine (15 or 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) induced a significant decrease in Y-maze alternations compared to saline vehicle-treated mice. The reduced Y-maze alternations induced by morphine were completely blocked by naloxone (15 mg/kg) or β-funaltrexamine (5 mg/kg) but not by norbinaltorphimine (5 mg/kg) or naltrindole (5 mg/kg), suggesting that the morphine-induced spatial memory impairment was mediated predominantly by μ-opioid receptors (MOPs). Significant spatial memory retrieval impairments were observed in the Morris water maze (MWM) in mice treated with morphine (15 mg/kg) or scopolamine (1 mg/kg), but not with naloxone or morphine plus naloxone. Reduced exploratory time was observed in mice after administration of morphine (15 mg/kg), in a novel-object exploration test, without any changes in locomotor activity. No anxiolytic-like behavior was observed in morphine-treated mice in the elevated plus maze. A significant reduction in buried marbles was observed in morphine-treated mice measured in the marble-burying test, which was blocked by naloxone. These observations suggest that morphine induces impairments in spatial short-term memory and retrieval, and reduces exploratory behavior, but that these effects are not because of overall changes in locomotion or anxiety. PMID:25987850
Kurth, Florian; Luders, Eileen; Wu, Brian; Black, David S.
Background Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have previously been associated with structural gray matter changes in normal healthy adults. However, it remains unknown if standardized MBIs can induce similar changes in older adults and those with health complaints as well. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effect of a standardized MBI on the gray matter tissue of older adults with sleep disturbances. Methods This exploratory single-group pilot longitudinal study examined local gray matter changes over a six-week MBI period. Participants included six older adult community volunteers (M=66.5 years of age, SD=5.5, range=58–75; 66% female) with sleep disturbances recruited through advertisement in local newspapers/flyers posted at a university medical center and affiliated clinics in Los Angeles, CA. The MBI was delivered as a weekly, two-hour, six-session, group-based course in mindfulness meditation. Gray matter was measured voxel-wise pre- and post-intervention. Results A significant gray matter increase was identified within the precuneus, possibly implicating meditation-induced changes of the default mode network. In contrast, observed significant gray matter decreases may have been driven by MBI-related remediation of brain architecture subserving sleep complaints. Conclusions Exploratory findings suggest that mindfulness meditation practice is associated with a detectable alteration of cerebral gray matter in older adults. PMID:25632405
Alexopoulou, Peggy E-mail: email@example.com; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library’s good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.
Alexopoulou, Peggy; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia
Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library's good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.
Caruso, M.J.; McClintock, M.K.; Cavigelli, S.A.
Adolescence is a period of significant behavioral and physiological maturation, particularly related to stress responses. Animal studies that have tested the influence of adolescent social experiences on stress-related behavioral and physiological development have led to complex results. We used a rodent model of neophobia to test the hypothesis that the influence of adolescent social experience on adult behavior and adrenocortical function is modulated by preadolescent temperament. Exploratory activity was assessed in 53 male Sprague-Dawley rats to classify temperament and then they were housed in one of three conditions during postnatal days (PND) 28-46: (1) with familiar kin, (2) with novel social partners, or (3) individually with no social partners. Effects on adult adrenocortical function were evaluated from fecal samples collected while rats were individually-housed and exposed to a 1-hour novel social challenge during PND 110-114. Adolescent-housing with novel or no social partners led to reduced adult glucocorticoid production compared to adolescent-housing with familiar littermates. Additionally, highly-exploratory pre-weanling rats that were housed with novel social partners during adolescence exhibited increased exploratory behavior and a more rapid return to basal glucocorticoid production in adulthood compared to those housed with familiar or no social partners during adolescence and compared to low-exploratory rats exposed to novel social partners. In sum, relatively short-term adolescent social experiences can cause transient changes in temperament and potentially longer-term changes in recovery of glucocorticoid production in response to adult social challenges. Furthermore, early temperament may modulate the influence of adolescent experiences on adult behavioral and adrenocortical function. PMID:25066485
Harding, Trevor S; Carpenter, Donald D; Finelli, Cynthia J; Passow, Honor J
Previous research indicates that students in engineering self-report cheating in college at higher rates than those in most other disciplines. Prior work also suggests that participation in one deviant behavior is a reasonable predictor of future deviant behavior. This combination of factors leads to a situation where engineering students who frequently participate in academic dishonesty are more likely to make unethical decisions in professional practice. To investigate this scenario, we propose the hypotheses that (1) there are similarities in the decision-making processes used by engineering students when considering whether or not to participate in academic and professional dishonesty, and (2) prior academic dishonesty by engineering students is an indicator of future decisions to act dishonestly. Our sample consisted of undergraduate engineering students from two technically-oriented private universities. As a group, the sample reported working full-time an average of six months per year as professionals in addition to attending classes during the remaining six months. This combination of both academic and professional experience provides a sample of students who are experienced in both settings. Responses to open-ended questions on an exploratory survey indicate that students identify common themes in describing both temptations to cheat or to violate workplace policies and factors which caused them to hesitate in acting unethically, thus supporting our first hypothesis and laying the foundation for future surveys having forced-choice responses. As indicated by the responses to forced-choice questions for the engineering students surveyed, there is a relationship between self-reported rates of cheating in high school and decisions to cheat in college and to violate workplace policies; supporting our second hypothesis. Thus, this exploratory study demonstrates connections between decision-making about both academic and professional dishonesty. If better
Kalemenev, S V; Zubareva, O E; Frolova, E V; Sizov, V V; Lavrentyeva, V V; Lukomskaya, N Ya; Kim, K Kh; Zaitsev, A V; Magazanik, L G
Cognitive impairment in six-week -old rats has been studied in the lithium-pilocarpine model of adolescent temporal lobe epilepsy in humans. The pilocarpine-treated rats (n =21) exhibited (a) a decreased exploratory activity in comparison with control rats (n = 20) in the open field (OP) test and (b) a slower extinction of exploratory behavior in repeated OP tests. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) test showed that the effect of training was less pronounced in the pilocarpine-treated rats, which demonstrated disruption of predominantly short-term memory. Therefore, our study has shown that lithium-pilocarpine seizures induce substantial changes in exploratory behavior and spatial memory in adolescent rats. OP and MWM tests can be used in the search of drugs reducing cognitive impairments associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26335964
Gaykema, Ronald P A; Goehler, Lisa E
Immune challenges can lead to marked behavioral changes, including fatigue, reduced social interest, anorexia, and somnolence, but the precise neuronal mechanisms that underlie sickness behavior remain elusive. Part of the neurocircuitry influencing behavior associated with illness likely includes viscerosensory nuclei located in the caudal brainstem, based on findings that inactivation of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) can prevent social withdrawal. These brainstem nuclei contribute multiple neuronal projections that target different components of autonomic and stress-related neurocircuitry. In particular, catecholaminergic neurons in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and DVC target the hypothalamus and drive neuroendocrine responses to immune challenge, but their particular role in sickness behavior is not known. To test whether this catecholamine pathway also mediates sickness behavior, we compared effects of DVC inactivation with targeted lesion of the catecholamine pathway on exploratory behavior, which provides an index of motivation and fatigue, and associated patterns of brain activation assessed by immunohistochemical detection of c-Fos protein. LPS treatment dramatically reduced exploratory behavior, and produced a pattern of increased c-Fos expression in brain regions associated with stress and autonomic adjustments paraventricular hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), central amygdala (CEA), whereas activation was reduced in regions involved in exploratory behavior (hippocampus, dorsal striatum, ventral tuberomammillary nucleus, and ventral tegmental area). Both DVC inactivation and catecholamine lesion prevented reductions in exploratory behavior and completely blocked the inhibitory LPS effects on c-Fos expression in the behavior-associated regions. In contrast, LPS-induced activation in the CEA and BST was inhibited by DVC inactivation but not by catecholamine lesion. The findings support the idea that parallel pathways from
Polcin, Douglas L.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.; Bond, Jason
Background General population studies have shown that pressure from others to change drinking can come from different sources. Receipt of informal pressure (IP) and formal pressure (FP) is known to vary by quantity and consequences of drinking, but less is known about how pressure varies among subgroups of the population. Method This exploratory study utilizes data from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1995–2010 (N=26,311) and examines associations between receipt of pressure and subgroups of drinkers. Results Increased relative risk of receiving IP and FP were observed for individuals reporting an arrest for driving after drinking and illicit drug use while poverty and lack of private health insurance increased risk of receipt of formal pressures. Regular marijuana use increased IP. Conclusion The subgroups that were studied received increased pressures to change drinking behavior, though disentangling the societal role of pressure and how it may assist with interventions, help seeking, and natural recovery is needed. PMID:25346550
Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon
Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…
Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Katz, Sheba P.; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.
The respective roles of social cognitive career theory and cognitive information processing in career exploratory behavior were analyzed. A verified path model shows cognitive information processing theory's negative career thoughts inversely predict social cognitive career theory's career problem-solving self-efficacy, which predicts career…
Kubota, Carole A.; Olstad, Roger G.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between (a) novelty and exploratory behavior, (b) novelty and cognitive learning, and (c) exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in science museums. Sixty-four sixth-grade public school students participated in a posttest-only control group design. The control group received a treatment designed to decrease the novelty of a field trip setting through a vicarious exposure while the placebo group received an informative but not novelty-reducing treatment. Both groups then visited the field site where they were videotaped. Statistical analyses were conducted on both dependent variables with socioeconomic status and academic achievement as covariates, novelty-reducing preparation as the independent variable, and gender as moderator variable. Exploratory behavior was shown to be positively correlated with cognitive learning. Significant differences were detected for exploratory behavior. For both dependent variables, gender by treatment group interaction was significant with novelty-reducing preparation shown to be highly effective on boys but having no effect on girls.
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E; Makuch, Renee A; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R
This study aims to extend the definition of quality of life (QoL) for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 180, ages 23-60) by: (1) characterizing the heterogeneity of normative outcomes (employment, independent living, social engagement) and objective QoL (physical health, neighborhood quality, family contact, mental health issues); and (2) identifying predictors of positive normative outcomes and good objective QoL. Findings of an exploratory latent class analysis identified three groups of adults with ASD-Greater Dependence, Good Physical and Mental Health, and Greater Independence. Findings indicate that better daily living skills, better executive function, and more maternal warmth are associated with assignment to better outcome groups. Findings have implications for interventions designed to enhance achievement of normative outcomes and objective QoL. PMID:27207091
Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah
Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to <30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53), with ≥ secondary education (OR=1.96), had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88) and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are
Frumkin, Lara A.; Koutsoubou, Maria
There is evidence that ethnic minority learners in further education in England either under-achieve or are under-represented because they face various inhibitors connected to their ethnicity. Motivators may be in place, however, which increase attainment specifically for some ethnic groups. This exploratory study intends to examine what works and…
Straccia, Claudio; Baggio, Stéphanie; Barisnikov, Koviljka
Little is known about the behavioral characteristics of adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychopathology and social behavior among adults with DS compared to adults with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). Thirty-four adults with DS were individually matched with 34…
Maneeton, Narong; Maneeton, Benchalak; Suttajit, Sirijit; Reungyos, Jirayu; Srisurapanont, Manit; Martin, Stephen D
mean end point scores between LDX- and placebo-treated groups also had a significant difference (SMD [95% CI] of −0.97 [−1.15, −0.78], I2=18%). The pooled response rates for adult ADHD between the two groups had a significant difference (RR [95% CI] of 1.99 [1.50, 2.63], I2=0%). Based on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Adult version (BRIEF-A), the pooled end point mean scores for the Global Executive Composite (GEC) for the LDX-treated groups was greater than that of placebo-treated groups (MD [95% CI] of −9.20 [−14.11, −4.29], I2=34%). The pooled overall discontinuation rates between the two groups had no significant difference (RR [95% CI] of 0.82 [0.59, 1.14], I2=0%). Similarly, the pooled discontinuation rates due to adverse events between the two groups was not significantly different (RR [95% CI] of 1.77 [0.71, 4.40], I2=0%). Conclusion The number of included studies was limited (five RCTs), but based on this meta-analysis, LDX is efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment of adult ADHD. Additionally, it also improved the executive function deficits in this population. However, its acceptability is no higher than placebo. These findings should be carefully interpreted and considered as preliminary outcomes. To confirm these results, further studies are warranted. LDX is a viable alternative psychostimulant for adult ADHD. PMID:25336914
Davis, Ann M.; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Gillette, Meredith Dreyer; Patton, Susana
Objective The current study presents results of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) in a sample of rural children with overweight and obesity. Relationships between mealtime behavior and health outcomes are also explored. Methods EFA was used to assess the fit of the BPFAS in a group of 160 treatment-seeking children (Mage = 9.11, SD = 1.77) living in rural Midwest communities. Correlations were also computed between factor scores and select health variables (child body mass index z-score and diet variables). Results The EFA identified a 5-factor solution as the best fitting model (Tucker–Lewis Index = .96, root mean square error of approximation = .05), although several items (i.e., 7 of 25) did not load on any factor. 2 factors were correlated with health variables of interest. Conclusion Study results suggest that certain items on the BPFAS may not be appropriate for use with rural children with pediatric overweight or obesity. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:24326908
These studies were conducted to assess the effects of lead toxicity on exploratory behavior and running. Effects of lead on exploratory behavior and running speed in the shrew, Blarina brevicauda (Insectivora).
Punzo, F; Farmer, C
These studies were conducted to assess the effects of lead toxicity on exploratory behavior and running speed in the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda. Shrews from the experimental group received 25 mg/kg/day of lead acetate in their drinking water for a period of 90 days. Control subjects received sodium acetate. Exploratory behavior was determined using a computerized activity chamber where movements of test subjects broke infrared beams projected onto the floor of the apparatus. Time spent (sec) in exploration was recorded over eight 6-min intervals. Running speed (km/hr) was measured in a microprocessor-controlled rectangular racetrack fitted with photocell timers. With respect to time spent in exploration, there were significant differences between lead-exposed (20.5-23.9 sec per 6-min testing session) and control subjects (6.8-8.1 sec) after the sixth testing interval in the activity chamber. With respect to maximal running speed, control subjects ran significantly faster (mean: 14.8 km/hr) than their lead-exposed counterparts (5.83 km/hr). Lead-exposed animals exhibited hyperactivity and increased random locomotor movements. They would frequently bump into the walls and their movements were more random. Controls typically ran along the racetrack in a straight line. These results represent the first data for the effects of lead exposure on exploratory behavior and running speed for shrews. PMID:15248655
Irwin, Carol; Symons, Cynthia W.; Kerr, Dianne L.
Background: Discriminatory behavior toward the obese is ubiquitous, which can lead to psychological conditions that exacerbate physical repercussions. Purpose: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study examined the link between college students' behavioral intention and self-reported behavior toward the obese. Possible connections…
Hrubá, L; Schutová, B; Šlamberová, R
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of prenatal and postnatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure on behavior and anxiety in adult male and female rats. Mothers were daily exposed to injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline (S): prior to impregnation and throughout gestation and lactation periods. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered so that each mother raised 6 saline-exposed pups and 6 MA-exposed pups. Based on the prenatal and postnatal exposure 4 experimental groups (S/S, S/MA, MA/S, MA/MA) were tested in the Open field (OF) and in the Elevated plus maze (EPM) in adulthood. Locomotion, exploration, immobility and comforting behavior were evaluated in the OF, while anxiety was assessed in the EPM. While prenatal MA exposure did not affect behavior and anxiety in adulthood, postnatal MA exposure (i.e. MA administration to lactating mothers) induced long-term changes. Specifically, adult female rats in diestrus and adult males postnatally exposed to MA via breast milk (S/MA and MA/MA) had decreased locomotion and exploratory behavior in the OF and showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM when compared to female rats in diestrus or males postnatally exposed to saline (S/S and MA/S). In adult females in proestrus, postnatal exposure to MA affected only exploratory behavior in the OF when compared to rats in proestrus postnatally exposed to saline. Thus, the present study shows that postnatal exposure to MA via breast milk impairs behavior in unfamiliar environment and anxiety-like behavior of adult male and female rats more than prenatal MA exposure. PMID:21884713
Zheng, Robert; Spears, Jeffrey; Luptak, Marilyn; Wilby, Frances
The current study examined factors related to older adults' perceptions of Internet use. Three hundred ninety five older adults participated in the study. The factor analysis revealed four factors perceived by older adults as critical to their Internet use: social connection, self-efficacy, the need to seek financial information, and the need to…
Mill, Jonathan; Fernandes, Cathy; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Reichenberg, Abraham
Background Accumulating evidence from epidemiological research has demonstrated an association between advanced paternal age and risk for several psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia and early-onset bipolar disorder. In order to establish causality, this study used an animal model to investigate the effects of advanced paternal age on behavioural deficits in the offspring. Methods C57BL/6J offspring (n = 12 per group) were bred from fathers of two different ages, 2 months (young) and 10 months (old), and mothers aged 2 months (n = 6 breeding pairs per group). Social and exploratory behaviors were examined in the offspring. Principal Findings The offspring of older fathers were found to engage in significantly less social (p = 0.02) and exploratory (p = 0.02) behaviors than the offspring of younger fathers. There were no significant differences in measures of motor activity. Conclusions Given the well-controlled nature of this study, this provides the strongest evidence for deleterious effects of advancing paternal age on social and exploratory behavior. De-novo chromosomal changes and/or inherited epigenetic changes are the most plausible explanatory factors. PMID:20041141
Bakchine, E; Pham-Delegue, M H; Kaiser, L; Masson, C
A method of quantification of the exploratory behavior of small animals stimulated by an odorant in a four-choice olfactometer, taking into account the interindividual variability of responses, was developed: individual tracks were time sampled according to the animal's walking speed and its positions were recorded according to the X-Y coordinates of the grid set underneath the device, the mesh of the grid suiting the animal's body size. A software, written in BASIC APPLESOFT on an APPLE IIe computer, allowed us to analyze the coordinates either of a single individual or of an experimental sample, leading to: a) the quantification of the insect distribution all over the experimental chamber, expressed in a table numbered according to the grid, where the percentage of position per square either for a given time fraction or the total observation period were reported, b) a graphic representation of the data according to several levels of greys, expressing the frequentation for each square for a given duration of observation. An analysis per time fraction allowed the chronological setup of events to appreciate. c) The collection of the positions among each flow field of the olfactometer for each individual of the experimental sample, for a given duration, was translated as the percentage of time spent in each flow field. Data files gathered these percentages for further statistical treatments. This computer method, which requires little equipment and appears to be easily adaptable to the study of biological models of various size and speed such as honeybees, trichogrammas and varroas mites, is a powerful tool for behavioral studies of small organisms tested in restricted areas. PMID:2236268
Hamel, Johanna; De Beukelaer, Sophie; Kraft, Antje; Ohl, Sven; Audebert, Heinrich J.; Brandt, Stephan A.
Diverse cognitive functions decline with increasing age, including the ability to process central and peripheral visual information in a laboratory testing situation (useful visual field of view). To investigate whether and how this influences activities of daily life, we studied age-related changes in visual exploratory behavior in a natural scene setting: a driving simulator paradigm of variable complexity was tested in subjects of varying ages with simultaneous eye- and head-movement recordings via a head-mounted camera. Detection and reaction times were also measured by visual fixation and manual reaction. We considered video computer game experience as a possible influence on performance. Data of 73 participants of varying ages were analyzed, driving two different courses. We analyzed the influence of route difficulty level, age, and eccentricity of test stimuli on oculomotor and driving behavior parameters. No significant age effects were found regarding saccadic parameters. In the older subjects head-movements increasingly contributed to gaze amplitude. More demanding courses and more peripheral stimuli locations induced longer reaction times in all age groups. Deterioration of the functionally useful visual field of view with increasing age was not suggested in our study group. However, video game-experienced subjects revealed larger saccade amplitudes and a broader distribution of fixations on the screen. They reacted faster to peripheral objects suggesting the notion of a general detection task rather than perceiving driving as a central task. As the video game-experienced population consisted of younger subjects, our study indicates that effects due to video game experience can easily be misinterpreted as age effects if not accounted for. We therefore view it as essential to consider video game experience in all testing methods using virtual media. PMID:23801970
Rapoport, Mark J; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Naglie, Gary; Tuokko, Holly; Myers, Anita; Crizzle, Alexander; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Vrkljan, Brenda; Bédard, Michel; Porter, Michelle M; Mazer, Barbara; Gélinas, Isabelle; Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Marshall, Shawn
We hypothesized that changes over time in cognitive performance are associated with changes in driver perceptions, attitudes, and self-regulatory behaviors among older adults. Healthy older adults (n = 928) underwent cognitive assessments at baseline with two subsequent annual follow-ups, and completed scales regarding their perceptions, attitudes, and driving behaviours. Multivariate analysis showed small but statistically significant relationships between the cognitive tests and self-report measures, with the largest magnitudes between scores on the Trails B cognitive task (seconds), perceptions of driving abilities (β = -0.32), and situational driving avoidance (β = 0.55) (p < 0.05). Cognitive slowing and executive dysfunction appear to be associated with modestly lower perceived driving abilities and more avoidance of driving situations over time in this exploratory analysis. PMID:27021848
Peter, Beate; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.
Purpose: To investigate processing speed as a latent dimension in children with dyslexia and children and adults with typical reading skills. Method: Exploratory factor analysis (FA) was based on a sample of multigenerational families, each ascertained through a child with dyslexia. Eleven measures--6 of them timed--represented verbal and…
Trent, Katherine; Spitze, Glenna
The authors use data from the National Survey of Families and Households to examine a range of sociability behaviors for adults who grew up with and without siblings. Compared with adults who grew up with siblings, adults who grew up without siblings have less frequent social activities with relatives, and the difference is greater among those who…
Taylor, Stephen S.; Jahns, Irwin R.
It has been the experience of most adult basic education teachers that their students are apprehensive about taking tests. The study evaluates the effects of training adult basic education teachers in behavioral attending skills. Two basic questions were investigated: (1) Would the training of instructors in the use of behavior attending skills…
Clemson, Lindy; Manor, Debra; Fitzgerald, Maureen H.
A study of behavior patterns, actions, and habits that contribute to older adults falling in public places identified such factors as lack of familiarity, health, overexertion, environmental influences/hazards, eyesight and mobility behaviors, and pace. Prevention interventions should employ strategies that actively engage adults in critical…
Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Patrick, Kristina E.; Brinckman, Danielle D.; Schultheis, Maria T.
This pilot study investigated driving history and driving behaviors between adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as compared to non-ASD adult drivers. Seventy-eight licensed drivers with ASD and 94 non-ASD comparison participants completed the Driver Behavior Questionnaire. Drivers with ASD endorsed significantly lower ratings of…
McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Dhital, Deepa; Ireland, Susan
Recovery-oriented care acknowledges the unique journey that consumers lead with the aim of regaining control of their lives in order to live a good life. Recovery has become a dominant policy-directed model of many mental health care organizations, but in older-adult acute mental health inpatient settings, nurses do not have a clear description of how to be recovery-oriented. The aims of this study were to determine the extent to which elements of existing nursing practice resemble the domains of recovery-oriented care and provide a baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented mental health care provision. An exploratory, qualitative research design was used to meet the research aims. A purposive sample of mental health nurses (N = 12) participated in focus groups in three older-adult inpatient settings in Australia. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the qualitative data. The mental health nurses in this study readily discussed aspects of their current practice within the recovery domains. They described pragmatic ways to promote a culture of hope, collaborative partnerships, meaningful engagement, autonomy and self-determination, and community participation and citizenship. Nurses also discussed challenges and barriers to recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute mental health settings. This study identified a reasonable baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented older-adult mental healthcare provision. A concerted drive focused on recovery education is required to effectively embed a recovery-orientated paradigm into older-adult mental health settings. PMID:25263738
Helms, Stephen; Avery, Leon; Stephens, Greg; Shimizu, Tom
Animal behavior emerges from many layers of biological organization--from molecular signaling pathways and neuronal networks to mechanical outputs of muscles. In principle, the large number of interconnected variables at each of these layers could imply dynamics that are complex and hard to control or even tinker with. Yet, for organisms to survive in a competitive, ever-changing environment, behavior must readily adapt. We applied quantitative modeling to identify important aspects of behavior in chromadorean nematodes ranging from the lab strain C. elegans N2 to wild strains and distant species. We revealed subtle yet important features such as speed control and heavy-tailed directional changes. We found that the parameters describing this behavioral model varied among individuals and across species in a correlated way that is consistent with a trade-off between exploratory and exploitative behavior.
Erlyana, Erlyana; Acosta-Deprez, Veronica; O'Lawrence, Henry; Sinay, Tony; Ramirez, Jeremy; Jacot, Emmanuel C; Shim, Kyuyoung
The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of Internet users who seek health insurance information online, as well as factors affecting their behaviors in seeking health insurance information. Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from the 2012 Pew Internet Health Tracking Survey. Of 2,305 Internet user adults, only 29% were seeking health insurance information online. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test differences in characteristics of those who seek health insurance information online and those who do not. A logistic regression model was used to determine significant predictors of health insurance information-seeking behavior online. Findings suggested that factors such as being a single parent, having a high school education or less, and being uninsured were significant and those individuals were less likely to seek health insurance information online. Being a family caregiver of an adult and those who bought private health insurance or were entitled to Medicare were more likely to seek health insurance information online than non-caregivers and the uninsured. The findings suggested the need to provide quality health insurance information online is critical for both the insured and uninsured population. PMID:26369232
Moison, Lisa M.
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in determining the personal and educational needs of adult learners in higher education. This may be due to the rise in the number of students age 25 and over who have been returning to college (NCES, 2012). The purpose of this study was to survey adult learners on their personal and…
Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil
The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on true and false memory in adults and children were investigated. Both adults and children encoded lists of associated words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm followed by a test of recognition memory. Just prior to retrieval, participants were asked to engage in 30 s of bilateral…
Harman, Marsha J.; Arbona, Consuelo
Compares Hispanic adult children of alcoholics with Hispanic adult children of nonalcoholics on Diagnostic Inventory of Personality and Symptoms. Finds significantly higher scores in Somatoform Disorders and Psychological Factors Affecting Physical Conditions scales among children of alcoholics. Women displayed higher scores than men on Affective…
Gerolimatos, Lindsay A.; Gould, Christine E.; Edelstein, Barry A.
Among young adults and clinical populations, perceived inability to control internal and external events is associated with anxiety. At present, it is unclear what role perceived anxiety control plays in anxiety among older adults. The Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was developed to assess one's perceived ability to cope with anxiety-related…
Clark, Christina A.; Baldwin, Kathleen L.; Tanner, Amanda E.
Although there are numerous ways to obtain accurate information about sexuality, research suggests that many American adults do not have accurate sexuality and sexual health knowledge. This research investigated selected sexual knowledge and attitudes of adults in Indiana. A representative sample of men (n = 158) and women (n = 340) aged 18 to 89…
Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Oberle, Virginia
Condoms are considered a highly effective form of sexually transmitted infection prevention for heterosexual sex. Black American women (BAW) have been and are at elevated risk for heterosexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because they have been and continue to be less likely to negotiate condom use with a partner that supports them financially. However, BAW who have made tremendous educational gains may still encounter challenges regarding the distribution of power that can affect condom use and negotiation. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the reasons that highly educated, emerging, adult BAW reported for using condoms. One hundred twenty-seven emerging adult BAW (ages 18-29 years) completed a mixed-methods online survey during the spring of 2013 (January-May). Approximately 80% of the women were in college or college graduates. They had a high rate of previous HIV testing (68.5%). Through the use of an interpretive paradigm and grounded theory, three themes emerged regarding the reasons that the participants in this sample used condoms as their primary form of protection: (1) the reliable "standard," (2) pregnancy prevention, and (3) cost effective and "easily accessible." Findings are discussed in terms of their public health significance for this seemingly lower-risk population. PMID:26327468
Bradley, Graham; Wildman, Karen
Studied risk and reckless behavior in 375 emerging adults using self-report measures and a cross-sectional design. Risk behaviors were found to be reliably predicted by sensation seeking, but not by antisocial peer pressure, while the reverse pattern was more true in relation to "reckless" behaviors. (SLD)
Trahan, Maranda A.; Kahng, SungWoo; Fisher, Alyssa B.; Hausman, Nicole L.
It is estimated that 1 in 10 adults aged 65 years and older have been diagnosed with dementia, which is associated with numerous behavioral excesses and deficits. Despite the publication of a special section of the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" ("JABA") on behavioral gerontology (Iwata, 1986), there continues to be a paucity of…
Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Arciero, Paul J.; Westen, Sarah C.; Nimon, Joseph; Zimmerman, Earl
Objective This quasi-experimental exploratory study investigated neuropsychological effects of exercise among older adults with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with adults without diabetes (non-DM), and it examined the feasibility of using a stationary bike exergame as a form of exercise for older adults with and without diabetes. It is a secondary analysis that uses a small dataset from a larger randomized clinical trial (RCT) called the Cybercycle Study, which compared cognitive and physiological effects of traditional stationary cycling versus cybercycling. Methods In the RCT and the secondary analysis, older adults living in eight independent living retirement facilities in the state of New York were enrolled in the study and assigned to exercise five times per week for 45 min per session (two times per week was considered acceptable for retention in the study) by using a stationary bicycle over the course of 3 months. They were randomly assigned to use either a standard stationary bicycle or a “cybercycle” with a video screen that displayed virtual terrains, virtual tours, and racing games with virtual competitors. For this secondary analysis, participants in the RCT who had type 2 DM (n = 10) were compared with age-matched non-DM exercisers (n = 10). The relationship between exercise and executive function (i.e., Color Trials 2, Digit Span Backwards, and Stroop C tests) was examined for DM and non-DM patients. Results Older adults with and without diabetes were able to use cybercycles successfully and complete the study, so the feasibility of this form of exercise for this population was supported. However, in contrast with the larger RCT, this small subset did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in executive function between the participants who used cybercycles and those who used stationary bikes with no games or virtual content on a video screen. Therefore, the study combined the two groups and called them “exercisers” and
Gross, Amy C.; Fuqua, Wayne; Merritt, Todd A.
Approximately 5% of older adults have a dementia diagnosis, and language deterioration is commonly associated with this disorder (Kempler, 2005). Several instruments have been developed to diagnose dementia and assess language capabilities of elderly adults. However, none of these instruments take a functional approach to language assessment as…
Vasil'eva, E V; Salimov, R M; Kovalev, G I
Exploratory behavior, locomotor activity, and anxiety in inbred mice of C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains subchronically treated with placebo or various types of nootropic (cognition enhancing) drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, semax, pantogam, nooglutil) have been evaluated using the exploratory cross-maze test. It was found that BALB/c mice in comparison to C57BL/6 mice are characterized by greater anxiety and lower efficiency of exploratory behavior in the previously unfamiliar environment. All tested drugs clearly improved the exploratory behavior in BALB/c mice only. In BALB/c mice, piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, and semax also reduced anxiety, while phenotropil additionally increased locomotor activity. Thus, the nootropic drugs displayed clear positive modulation of spontaneous orientation in the mice strain with initially low exploratory efficiency (BALB/c) in the cross-maze test. Some drugs (pantogam, nooglutil) exhibited only nootropic properties, while the other drugs exhibited both nootropic effects on the exploratory activity and produced modulation of the anxiety level (piracetam, fenotropil, noopept, semax) and locomotor activity (fenotropil). PMID:23025044
Ronca, April E.
The NASA Decadal Survey (2011) emphasized the importance of long duration rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at Ames Research Center. Here we present a video-based behavioral analysis of ten C57BL6 female adult mice exposed to a total of 37 days in space compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight and Control mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including feeding, drinking, exploratory behavior, grooming, and social interactions. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice. Spontaneous, organized circling or race-tracking behavior emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. I will summarize qualitative observations and quantitative comparisons of mice in microgravity and 1g conditions. Behavioral phenotyping revealed important insights into the overall health and adaptation of mice to the space environment, and identified unique behaviors that can guide future habitat development and research on rodents in space.
Discusses a broad spectrum of role expectations and negative assumptions thrust upon the communications consultant hired to teach business communication to adult employees of companies. Suggests useful tactics to deal with these behaviors. (SR)
Kuo, Yu-Chun; Belland, Brian R.
The study was an investigation of online adult learners' perceptions of interaction, satisfaction, and performance within an online course using the Blackboard platform. Interaction included learners' interaction with the instructor, content, and the classmates. The effect of student background variables and course-related variables on interaction…
Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kollins, Scott H.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Goodman, David
Objective: To explore dose-response effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) treatment for ADHD. Method: This was a 4-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, forced-dose titration study in adult participants, aged 18 to 55 years, meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.)…
Newman, D. W.; Beail, N.
Problem: A significant concept in psychodynamic theory and practice is that of defence mechanisms. The identifications of defences is a key task of the therapist and these are then used in the formulation and form part of the therapist's interventions. Case studies of psychotherapy with adults who have intellectual disabilities (IDs) suggest that…
This mixed methods study employed comparative, case-study methodology to explore influences affecting the development of musical interests and achievements in eight female and eight male young adults with Williams Syndrome. Components of the "Schoolwide Enrichment Model"; (Renzulli & Reis, 1997b) were used to guide the study. Caregivers completed…
Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.
Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…
Anderson, Scott; Currie, Cheryl L; Copeland, Jennifer L
Sedentary behavior is a modifiable determinant of health. Little is known about the ways in which contextual factors may influence this behavior. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the association between community belonging and adult sedentary behavior during leisure; (2) determine if this association was explained by perceived health. Data were derived from the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 11,494 adults). Multinomial regression models and 99% confidence intervals were used to examine associations between sense of community belonging and sedentary behavior, adjusting for sociodemographic variables and perceived health. On average, adults were sedentary for 20-24 h per week during leisure. More than a third of the sample reported low sedentary behavior (≤ 19 h a week). In a fully adjusted model participants who were female, in middle adulthood, married, and/or living in higher income households were less sedentary during leisure. Adults with a strong sense of community belonging were also significantly less sedentary during leisure; this association remained significant after adjustment for perceived mental and overall health. Most efforts to address sedentary behavior have focused on individual-level interventions. The present finding highlights the role that larger contextual factors may play in sedentary behavior. Sense of community belonging is a contextual determinant of health that may serve as a useful target for interventions designed to reduce adult sedentary behavior during leisure. PMID:27413688
Flores, G; Ibañez-Sandoval, O; Silva-Gómez, A B; Camacho-Abrego, I; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Morales-Medina, J C
In this study, we investigated the effect of neonatal olfactory bulbectomy (nOBX) on behavioral paradigms related to olfaction such as exploratory behavior, locomotor activity in a novel environment and social interaction. We also studied the effect of nOBX on the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors during development. The behavioral effects of nOBX (postnatal day 7, PD7) were investigated in pre- (PD30) and post-pubertal (PD60) Wistar rats. NMDA receptor activity was measured with [(125)I]MK-801 in the brain regions associated with the olfactory circuitry. A significant increase in the novelty-induced locomotion was seen in the pre-pubertal nOBX rats. Although the locomotor effect was less marked than in pre-pubertal rats, the nOBX rats tested post-pubertally failed to habituate to the novel situation as quickly as the sham- and normal- controls. Pre-pubertally, the head-dipping behavior was enhanced in nOBX rats compared with sham-operated and normal controls, while normal exploratory behavior was observed between groups in adulthood. In contrast, social interaction was increased in post-pubertal animals that underwent nOBX. Both pre- and post-pubertal nOBX rats recovered olfaction. Interestingly, pre-pubertal rats showed a significant increase in the [(125)I]MK-801 binding in the piriform cortex, dorsal hippocampus, inner and outer layers of the frontal cortex and outer layer of the cingulate cortex. At post-pubertal age, no significant differences in [(125)I]MK-801 binding were observed between groups at any of the brain regions analyzed. These results suggest that nOBX produces pre-pubertal behavioral disturbances and NMDA receptor changes that are transitory with recovery of olfaction early in adulthood. PMID:24295633
Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Logan, T. K.; Zimmerman, Rick; Lynam, Donald; Milich, Richard; Martin, Catherine; McClanahan, Karen; Clayton, Richard
Examines the relationship between substance use during adolescence and HIV risk behavior among young adults ages 19 to 21 with and without a college education. Results indicate that increased use of alcohol and marijuana at younger ages is related to riskier sexual activity as well as increased use of alcohol and marijuana as young adults.…
Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.
As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…
Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.
Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…
Wood, Sarah C.
This exploratory study considered the perceptions of parents and teachers regarding behaviors exhibited by gifted students who may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by examining their responses to the Conners 3 behavior rating scale. Statistical analysis revealed average scores in the ratings of parents and teachers in the areas…
Maisel, Jordana L
Built environment features can have varying impacts on user behavior depending on the perceptions of the opportunities and obstacles that the environments create. This study systematically evaluated the relationship between neighborhood perceptions and the specific types of self-reported walking behavior for 121 older adults who resided in urban, suburban, or rural neighborhoods. Perceptions of street connectivity, crime and traffic safety, and overall satisfaction were associated with specific types of walking behaviors, and the strength of the relationships differed by neighborhood type. Sociodemographic variables such as age and sex were associated with certain types and amounts of older adults' walking behaviors both across and within each neighborhood type. The results of this study support the importance of perceived street connectivity regardless of neighborhood type and perceived crime safety in rural neighborhoods to impact the walking behavior among older adults. PMID:26371520
Sandford, Donald A.; And Others
The Adaptive Behavior Scale was used to evaluate a three-level token economy designed to modify the behavior of 42 behaviorally disturbed young adults of borderline intelligence. Following treatment large improvements occurred in those areas that were logically related to target behaviors within the token economy. Gains were maintained at…
Mählmann, Laura; Röcke, Christina; Brand, Angela; Hafen, Ernst; Vayena, Effy
Objectives To explore attitudes of Swiss older adults towards personal genomics (PG). Methods Using an anonymized voluntary paper-and-pencil survey, data were collected from 151 men and women aged 60–89 years attending the Seniorenuniversität Zurich, Switzerland (Seniors' University). Analyses were conducted using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results One third of the respondents were aware of PG, and more than half indicated interest in undergoing PG testing. The primary motivation provided was respondents' interest in finding out about their own disease risk, followed by willingness to contribute to scientific research. Forty-four percent were not interested in undergoing testing because results might be worrisome, or due to concerns about the validity of the results. Only a minority of respondents mentioned privacy-related concerns. Further, 66% were interested in undergoing clinic-based PG motivated by the opportunity to contribute to scientific research (78%) and 75% of all study participants indicated strong preferences to donate genomic data to public research institutions. Conclusion This study indicates a relatively positive overall attitude towards personal genomic testing among older Swiss adults, a group not typically represented in surveys about personal genomics. Genomic data of older adults can be highly relevant to late life health and maintenance of quality of life. In addition they can be an invaluable source for better understanding of longevity, health and disease. Understanding the attitudes of this population towards genomic analyses, although important, remains under-examined. PMID:27047754
Saeb, Sohrab; Zhang, Mi; Karr, Christopher J; Schueller, Stephen M; Corden, Marya E; Kording, Konrad P
Background Depression is a common, burdensome, often recurring mental health disorder that frequently goes undetected and untreated. Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have an increasingly large complement of sensors that can potentially be useful in monitoring behavioral patterns that might be indicative of depressive symptoms. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the detection of daily-life behavioral markers using mobile phone global positioning systems (GPS) and usage sensors, and their use in identifying depressive symptom severity. Methods A total of 40 adult participants were recruited from the general community to carry a mobile phone with a sensor data acquisition app (Purple Robot) for 2 weeks. Of these participants, 28 had sufficient sensor data received to conduct analysis. At the beginning of the 2-week period, participants completed a self-reported depression survey (PHQ-9). Behavioral features were developed and extracted from GPS location and phone usage data. Results A number of features from GPS data were related to depressive symptom severity, including circadian movement (regularity in 24-hour rhythm; r=-.63, P=.005), normalized entropy (mobility between favorite locations; r=-.58, P=.012), and location variance (GPS mobility independent of location; r=-.58, P=.012). Phone usage features, usage duration, and usage frequency were also correlated (r=.54, P=.011, and r=.52, P=.015, respectively). Using the normalized entropy feature and a classifier that distinguished participants with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥5) from those without (PHQ-9 score <5), we achieved an accuracy of 86.5%. Furthermore, a regression model that used the same feature to estimate the participants’ PHQ-9 scores obtained an average error of 23.5%. Conclusions Features extracted from mobile phone sensor data, including GPS and phone usage, provided behavioral markers that were strongly related to depressive symptom severity. While these findings must
Şentürk, Damla; Ghosh, Samiran; Nguyen, Danh V.
Motivated by a longitudinal study on factors affecting the frequency of clinic visits of older adults, an exploratory time varying lagged regression analysis is proposed to relate a longitudinal response to multiple cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors from time varying lags. Regression relations are allowed to vary with time through smooth varying coefficient functions. The main goal of the proposal is to detect deviations from a concurrent varying coefficient model potentially in a subset of the longitudinal predictors with nonzero estimated lags. The proposed methodology is geared towards irregular and infrequent data where different longitudinal variables may be observed at different frequencies, possibly at unsynchronized time points and contaminated with additive measurement error. Furthermore, to cope with the curse of dimensionality which limits related current modeling approaches, a sequential model building procedure is proposed to explore and select the time varying lags of the longitudinal predictors. The estimation procedure is based on estimation of the moments of the predictor and response trajectories by pooling information from all subjects. The finite sample properties of the proposed estimation algorithm are studied under various lag structures and correlation levels among the predictor processes in simulation studies. Application to the clinic visits data show the effect of cognitive and functional impairment scores from varying lags on the frequency of the clinic visits throughout the study. PMID:24436504
Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Huxley, Rachel R; Al Mamun, Abdullah
Objectives To estimate the prevalence and pattern of multimorbidity in the Indonesian adult population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based survey. The sampling frame was based on households in 13 of the 27 Indonesian provinces, representing about 83% of the Indonesian population. Participants 9438 Indonesian adults aged 40 years and above. Main outcome measures Prevalence and pattern of multimorbidity by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Results The mean number of morbidities in the sample was 1.27 (SE±0.01). The overall age and sex standardised prevalence of multimorbidity was 35.7% (34.8% to 36.7%), with women having significantly higher prevalence of multimorbidity than men (41.5% vs 29.5%; p<0.001). Of those with multimorbidity, 64.6% (62.8% to 66.3%) were aged less than 60 years. Prevalence of multimorbidity was positively associated with age (p for trend <0.001) and affluence (p for trend <0.001) and significantly greater in women at all ages compared with men. For each 5-year increment in age there was an approximate 20% greater risk of multimorbidity in both sexes (18% in women 95% CI 1.14 to 1.22 and 22% in men 95% CI 1.18 to 1.26). Increasing age, female gender, non-Javanese ethnicity, and high per-capital expenditure were all significantly associated with higher odds of multimorbidity. The combination of hypertension with cardiac diseases, hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, and uric acid/gout were the most commonly occurring disease pairs in both sexes. Conclusions More than one-third of the Indonesian adult population are living with multimorbidity with women and the more wealthy being particularly affected. Of especial concern was the high prevalence of multimorbidity among younger individuals. Hypertension was the most frequently occurring condition common to most individuals with multimorbidity. PMID:26656028
Krebs, Dennis; Rosenwald, Alli
This study explored the relationship between moral reasoning and moral behavior in 31 average adults. Subjects were placed in a situation demanding low-key moral conflict. The study examined subjects' decisions and the relationship between their moral reasoning (revealed by verbal responses to Kohlberg's hypothetical dilemmas) and their behavior.…
McNeilly, D P; Burke, W J
For a significant number of retired older adults (aged 65+), gambling has become a new form of recreation and entertainment. While prevalence studies have examined the incidence of problem gambling in other age groups, little research attention has been paid to the impact of gambling on older adults since the increase in availability and accessibility of legalized gambling within the last ten years. This study investigated the prevalence of problem gambling behaviors (SOGS-R), depression (GDS-15), levels of life satisfaction (SWLS), and motivations for gambling among older adults. A total of 315 older adults completed the study questionnaire and were grouped and analyzed according to those sampled from gambling venues and those from within the community. Results of the study found the most frequent accession and spending on several types of gambling occurred among older adults who were sampled at gambling venues. Older adults who were sampled at gambling venues were also found more likely to have higher levels of disordered gambling than older adults from the community, as measured by the SOGS-R. Relaxation, boredom, passing time, and getting away for the day were also the most likely reported motivations for the older adults who were gambling patrons. These findings provide an initial profile of older adults and their attitudes, motivations and gambling behaviors. PMID:14634305
Campbell, Rebecca; Ahrens, Courtney E; Sefl, Tracy; Clark, Marcia L
Previous research has established a link between childhood sexual abuse and engaging in prostitution as an adult. The purpose of this study was to extend this literature by exploring whether being raped as an adult is associated with exchanging sex for money. Interviews with 102 rape survivors in a major metropolitan area revealed that 23.5% had engaged in prostitution post-rape. Those who had exchanged sex for money were more likely to be women of color, to have a high school education or less, to be unemployed, and to have children to support, than those who had not engaged in prostitution post-assault. The prostitution subsample also had significantly higher levels of psychological distress, physical health symptomatology, and substance use. Survivors were asked whether and how the rape was associated with engaging in prostitution: most (75%) stated that they felt it was related to the assault. The most commonly cited reason for engaging in prostitution by these survivors was that they were trying to regain some control over their lives and their bodies; exchanging sex for money was seen as one way to control men's access to them. Implications for future research on victimization and prostitution are discussed. PMID:12968660
Flatt, Jason D.; Agimi, Yll; Albert, Steve M.
A common network phenomenon, homophily, involves developing relationships with others that are similar to you. The intent of this study was to determine if older adults’ health behaviors were shared within social networks. We interviewed older adults from low-income senior housing (egos) on egocentric social network characteristics and key health behaviors for themselves and for named social ties (alters). Findings suggest strong effects for homophily, especially for those who smoked and were physically inactive. Public health interventions for older adults should consider the influence that social relationships have on personal health behaviors. Network-based interventions may be required. PMID:22929377
Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David E.
Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents…
Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Ronzio, Cynthia R.
The nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort data set was used to compare parenting behaviors of adolescent mothers (less than 19 years old), emerging adult mothers (19-25 years old), and adult mothers (greater than 25 years old) when their children were 2 years old. Regression models controlling for socioeconomic…
El-Sheikh, Mona; And Others
Investigated 34 4- and 5-year-olds and their parents to determine the children's behavioral, physiological, and verbal responses to adults' angry behavior. Findings indicate behavioral and verbal responses of distress and an increase in systolic blood pressure in response to anger. (RJC)
Responding to inappropriate student behavior is a significant challenge for many educators. Behavioral interventions and strategies are tools that teachers can use to reduce the occurrence of difficult behaviors while promoting positive alternatives. Factors that influence teacher "selection" of behavioral interventions are well-documented by the…
Sreeramareddy, C T; Majeed Kutty, N A; Razzaq Jabbar, M A; Boo, N Y
The burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in Malaysia. Insufficient Physical Activity, which is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, is less researched in Malaysia. We aimed to assess the level of physical activity and identify its correlates. An online survey was carried out during October, 2011 in the University Tunku Abdul Rahman by the opinion poll research committee. Young adults answered the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire about factors according to a socio-ecological model which was adapted from published studies. Metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours and MET-minutes were calculated. Physical activity was classified as sufficient when MET-minutes were > 840. The mean age of the 474 participants was 22.4 years (S.D. = 4.7), and 253 (53.4%) were females. Their mean and median of MET-hours of PA done during the previous seven days were 31.36 (S.D., 52.19) and 14.7 (IQR, 5.77-32.07), respectively. Physical activity done was sufficient among 242 (51.1%) participants. Using univariate analysis, being male, good self-rated health, positive intention, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, social support, and availability of facilities were associated with sufficient physical activity. Using multivariate analysis sufficient physical activity was associated with participants' intention (OR 0.75, 95% CIs 0.64, 0.88), self-efficacy (OR 0.91, 95% CIs 0.85, 0.97) and facility availability (OR 0.81, 95% CIs 0.73, 0.91). The proportion of participants with sufficient physical activity was low. Positive intention and self-efficacy associated with sufficient physical activity should be supported by availability of facilities and a safely-built environment. A nationwide survey about physical and associated socialecological factors is needed to design rational health promotion strategies. PMID:22890157
Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Partridge, Stephanie R; Roy, Rajshri
The origins of the obesogenic environment date back to the early 1980s. This means that young adults i.e., those aged 18 to 35 years, have only ever experienced a food milieu that promotes obesity. Indeed, younger generations are becoming heavier sooner than their parents in developed countries, such as the USA. Young adults demonstrate food consumption patterns and dietary behaviors implicated in an excessive gain of body fat. They are the highest consumers of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages among adult age groups and the lowest consumers of fruit and vegetables. Younger adults are meal skippers but may consume more energy from snacks than older adults. So that the gains made in stemming obesity in childhood are not undone during young adulthood, prevention programs are needed. This review highlights areas for consideration in planning such programs. PMID:26811006
Li, Chunlu; Yan, Yixiu; Cheng, Jingjing; Xiao, Gang; Gu, Jueqing; Zhang, Luqi; Yuan, Siyu; Wang, Junlu; Shen, Yi; Zhou, Yu-Dong
Abnormal approach-avoidance behavior has been linked to deficits in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system of the brain. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an important pattern-recognition receptor in the innate immune system, can be directly activated by substances of abuse, resulting in an increase of the extracellular DA level in the nucleus accumbens. We thus hypothesized that TLR4-dependent signaling might regulate approach-avoidance behavior. To test this hypothesis, we compared the novelty-seeking and social interaction behaviors of TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice in an approach-avoidance conflict situation in which the positive motivation to explore a novel object or interact with an unfamiliar mouse was counteracted by the negative motivation to hide in exposed, large spaces. We found that TLR4(-/-) mice exhibited reduced novelty-seeking and social interaction in the large open spaces. In less stressful test apparatuses similar in size to the mouse cage, however, TLR4(-/-) mice performed normally in both novelty-seeking and social interaction tests. The reduced exploratory behaviors under approach-avoidance conflict were not due to a high anxiety level or an enhanced fear response in the TLR4(-/-) mice, as these mice showed normal anxiety and fear responses in the open field and passive avoidance tests, respectively. Importantly, the novelty-seeking behavior in the large open field induced a higher level of c-Fos activation in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice. Partially inactivating the NAcSh via infusion of GABA receptor agonists restored the novelty-seeking behavior of TLR4(-/-) mice. These data suggested that TLR4 is crucial for positive motivational behavior under approach-avoidance conflict. TLR4-dependent activation of neurons in the NAcSh may contribute to this phenomenon. PMID:26898297
Sheridan, Susan M.; Warnes, Emily D.; Woods, Kathryn E.; Blevins, Carrie A.; Magee, Katie L.; Ellis, Cynthia
Pediatric school psychology is a relatively new subspecialty in the field; however, few specific, prescribed roles have been articulated, and fewer have yielded preliminary efficacy data. In this exploratory study, the acceptability and potential efficacy of conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC) as a model for linking families, schools, and…
Li, Chengzhe; Wang, Fanyan; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhou, Chengli; Yao, Jun
Tirumala limniace Cramer as an ornamental butterfly is utilized in butterfly garden, in this article we study their adult activities include flight, foraging, courtship, mating, and oviposition. We found that males spent 22.1% of its time flying, 14.1% foraging, 63.8% in courtship and mating. And females spent 30.8% of its time flying, 10.1% foraging, 57.1% in courtship and mating, and 2% ovipositing. Adults emerged from pupae when temperatures were above 23.5°C and eclosion took only ∼1 min, typically followed by a small amount of flight on the first day. Flight activity peaked from the ninth to the thirteenth day after eclosion, and there were two daily peak flight times: 10:00–13:00 and 15:00–18:00. The peak of flower-visiting activity was from the eighth to the thirteenth day after eclosion, and there were two daily peak foraging times: 11:00–12:00 and 16:00–17:00. Flight and foraging frequency and time were positively correlated and both were closely related to temperature, with very little flight or foraging below 18°C and an increase at temperatures above 22°C. Courtship and mating took place on the sixth day after eclosion, while oviposition occurred the following day. Oviposition occurred over 8 d, and the shortest time of a single oviposition was 2 s. The average life expectancy of males was 16.5 d, while that of females was 15 d. PMID:26106088
Assessing Bystander Behavior Intentions Toward Friends to Prevent Dating Violence: Development of the Bystander Behavior Intentions-Friends Scale Through Concept Mapping and Exploratory Factor Analysis.
Borsky, Amanda E; McDonnell, Karen; Rimal, Rajiv N; Turner, Monique
Bystander behavior interventions aim to reduce violence by encouraging individuals to intervene in a safe and effective manner when they hear or see circumstances that could lead to violence. This study used a participatory-based approach to develop a 9-item scale to measure bystander behaviors to prevent dating violence among friends. Predominantly, female students (N = 37) on a college campus in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States were asked to define bystander behaviors. Responses were thematically sorted and ranked according to importance in preventing dating violence and feasibility by 12 participants. Psychometric testing of intentions to perform the behavior was done based on responses from an additional 288 respondents. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine whether bystander behaviors directed at friends to prevent dating violence was a uni- or multidimensional construct, which has not been done to date in the available literature. Results demonstrated a unidimensional factor structure with strong factor loadings (above .71) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha .92); items focused on primary and secondary prevention behaviors toward friends. These findings provide a reliable and single construct scale to assess college-age women's response to witnessing the victimization of a friend. These findings can facilitate future program evaluations. PMID:26822267
Yu, Catherine H; Guarna, Giuliana; Tsao, Pamela; Jesuthasan, Jude R; Lau, Adrian NC; Siddiqi, Ferhan S; Gilmour, Julie Anne; Ladha, Danyal; Halapy, Henry; Advani, Andrew
Purpose For emerging adults with chronic medical diseases, the transition from pediatric to adult health care is often a time of great upheaval, commonly associated with unhealthy self-management choices, loss to follow-up, and adverse outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to examine the use of incentive strategies to promote positive health-related behaviors in young adults with chronic medical diseases. Methods The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were searched through June 2014. Studies of any design where an incentive was used to achieve a target behavior or outcome in a pediatric or emerging adult population (age <30 years) with chronic medical conditions including addictions, were included. Results A total of 26 studies comprising 10,880 patients met our inclusion criteria after screening 10,305 abstracts and 301 full-text articles. Of these studies, 20 examined the effects of behavioral incentives on cigarette smoking or substance abuse, including alcohol; four studies explored behavioral incentives in the setting of HIV or sexual health; and two articles studied individuals with other chronic medical conditions. Seventeen articles reported a statistically significant benefit of the behavioral incentive on one or more outcomes, although only half reported follow-up after the incentive period was terminated. Conclusion While the majority of studies reported positive outcomes, these studies focused on promoting the cessation of adverse behaviors rather than promoting positive behaviors. In addition, conclusions were limited by the high risk of bias present in the majority of studies, as well as lack of follow-up after the incentive period. Whether behavioral incentives facilitate the adoption of positive health choices in this population remains to be determined. PMID:27069356
Cooper, M. Dominic
Reviews indicate management commitment is vital to maintain behavioral safety processes. Similarly, the impact of observation frequency on safety behaviors is thought to be important. An employee-driven process which encompassed behavioral observations, goal-setting, and feedback was implemented in a paper mill with 55 workgroups using a…
Torabi, Mohammad; Thiagarajah, Krisha; Jeng, Ifeng
This study assessed the prevalence of health behaviors among non-academic staff at a Midwestern U.S. university. A sample of 627 women and 237 men completed a web survey for the study. Most of the health behaviors showed no sex difference. Health behaviors of drinking, smoking, and irregular breakfast eating were significantly associated with…
Bechard, Allison; Nicholson, Anthony; Mason, Georgia
Stereotypic behaviors are repetitive invariant behaviors that are common in many captive species and potentially indicate compromised welfare and suitability as research subjects. Adult laboratory mice commonly perform stereotypic bar-gnawing, route-tracing, and back-flipping, although great individual variation in frequency occurs. Early life factors (for example, level of maternal care received) have lasting effects on CNS functioning and abilities to cope with stress and therefore may also affect stereotypic behavior in offspring. Access to maternal resources and care are influenced by the number of pups in a litter; therefore, we examined both litter size and its potential correlate, weight at weaning, as early environmental predictors of adult stereotypic behavior in laboratory mice. Further, we assessed the effects on offspring stereotypic behavior of delaying the separation of mother and pups (weaning) beyond the standard 21 d of age. Analyzing stereotypic behavior in 3 different mouse colonies composed of 2 inbred strains (C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J) and an outbred stock (CD1[ICR]) revealed significant positive correlation between litter size and stereotypic behavior in female, but not male, mice. Weight and age at weaning did not significantly affect levels of stereotypy in either sex. Litter size therefore may be a useful indicator of individual predisposition to stereotypic behavior in female laboratory mice. PMID:23043805
VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.
Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…
Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel
This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…
Bramham, Jessica; Young, Susan; Bickerdike, Alison; Spain, Deborah; McCartan, Denise; Xenitidis, Kiriakos
Objective: A brief cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention was designed to treat comorbid anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem and self-efficacy in adults with ADHD. It was hypothesised that participants would gain knowledge about ADHD, experience a reduction in comorbid symptoms, and benefit from the supportive aspect of group…
Richards, Tracy L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Rosen, Lee A.; Barkley, Russell A.; Rodricks, Trisha
Objective: This study assesses whether anger in the context of driving is associated with the negative driving outcomes experienced by individuals with ADHD. Method: ADHD adults (n = 56) complete measures of driving anger, driving anger expression, angry thoughts behind the wheel, and aggressive, risky, and crash-related behavior. Results are…
Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8,...
Kroeze, Willemieke; Kohl, Leonie F.M.; Bolten, Laura M.; Velema, Elizabeth; Kaspers, Pam; Kremers, Stef P.J.; Brug, Johannes
Context: Multiple studies have been conducted on correlates of dietary behavior in adults, but a clear overview is currently lacking. Objective: An umbrella review, or review-of-reviews, was conducted to summarize and synthesize the scientific evidence on correlates and determinants of dietary behavior in adults. Data Sources: Eligible systematic reviews were identified in four databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Only reviews published between January 1990 and May 2014 were included. Study Selection: Systematic reviews of observable food and dietary behavior that describe potential behavioral determinants of dietary behavior in adults were included. After independent selection of potentially relevant reviews by two authors, a total of 14 reviews were considered eligible. Data Extraction: For data extraction, the importance of determinants, the strength of the evidence, and the methodological quality of the eligible reviews were evaluated. Multiple observers conducted the data extraction independently. Data Synthesis: Social-cognitive determinants and environmental determinants (mainly the social-cultural environment) were included most often in the available reviews. Sedentary behavior and habit strength were consistently identified as important correlates of dietary behavior. Other correlates and potential determinants of dietary behavior, such as motivational regulation, shift work, and the political environment, have been studied in relatively few studies, but results are promising. Conclusions: The multitude of studies conducted on correlates of dietary behavior provides mixed, but sometimes quite convincing, evidence. However, because of the generally weak research design of the studies covered in the available reviews, the evidence for true determinants is suggestive, at best. PMID:26106126
Pedersen, Eric R.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Neighbors, Clayton
Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based intervention in this heavy drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine: (1) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (2) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (3) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-same-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans’ own drinking, and (4) whether perceptions about others’ attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association on drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056
Pedersen, Eric R; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Neighbors, Clayton
Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and the resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active-duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based interventions in this heavy-drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine (a) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (b) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from the actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (c) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans' own drinking, and (d) whether perceptions about others' attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association with drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056
Wells, Brooke E.; Kelly, Brian C.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.
Though research indicates a complex link between substance use and sexual risk behavior, there is limited research on the association between sexual risk behavior and prescription drug misuse. In light of the alarming increases in prescription drug misuse and the role of demographic characteristics in sexual risk behavior and outcomes, the current study examines demographic differences (gender, sexual identity, age, relationship status, parental class background, and race/ethnicity) in sexual risk behavior, sexual behavior under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk behavior under the influence of prescription drugs in a sample of 402 young adults (18–29) who misuse prescription drugs. Nearly half of the sexually active young adult prescription drug misusers in this sample reported recent sex under the influence of prescription drugs, more than three quarters reported recent sex without a condom, and more than one-third reported recent sex without a condom after using prescription drugs. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models indicated that white race, younger age, higher parental class, and being a heterosexual man were all associated with sexual risk behavior, sex under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk under the influence of prescription drugs. Findings have implications for the targeting of prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25569204
Verret, Claudia; Guay, Marie-Claude; Berthiaume, Claude; Gardiner, Phillip; Beliveau, Louise
Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the effects of a moderate- to high-intensity physical activity program on fitness, cognitive functions, and ADHD-related behavior in children with ADHD. Method: Fitness level, motor skills, behaviors, and cognitive functions are assessed by standardized tests before and after a 10-week training…
Fetro, Joyce V.; Wood, Ralph; Drolet, Judy C.
Assessed six categories of college students' health risk behaviors. Student survey data indicated that respondents were engaging in risk behaviors that could impact educational achievement and lead to serious consequences. Youth tended to enter college with established patterns of risk. Most regularly consumed large amounts of alcohol. Differences…
Boyas, Javier F.; Brodell, Robert T.
Latino Day Laborers (LDLs) are employed in occupations where multiple work hazards exist. One such hazard is the overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation for continuous periods of time. Regular sun exposure can put individuals at increased risk of developing skin cancers, especially without adequate protection. The purpose of this cross-sectional exploratory study was to use a social cognitive framework to assess skin protective behaviors among LDLs. A community-based nonrandom and purposive sample of LDLs was recruited in two states: Mississippi and Illinois. The study sample consisted of 137 male participants, of which the majority were of Mexican ancestry (72%). The average age was 35.40 (SD = 9.89) years. Results demonstrated that a substantial number of LDLs do not adequately practice sun protection behaviors on a regular basis. The skin cancer knowledge scores were very modest. The most frequently indicated barriers towards sun protection were “inconvenient,” “forget to use,” and “not being able to reapply sunscreen.” Overall, LDLs had moderate confidence in their abilities to adopt successful sun protection strategies. This study underscores the need for intervention programs aimed at LDLs to reduce extended time in the sun and increase use of sun protective measures when working outdoors. PMID:27019656
Boyas, Javier F; Nahar, Vinayak K; Brodell, Robert T
Latino Day Laborers (LDLs) are employed in occupations where multiple work hazards exist. One such hazard is the overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation for continuous periods of time. Regular sun exposure can put individuals at increased risk of developing skin cancers, especially without adequate protection. The purpose of this cross-sectional exploratory study was to use a social cognitive framework to assess skin protective behaviors among LDLs. A community-based nonrandom and purposive sample of LDLs was recruited in two states: Mississippi and Illinois. The study sample consisted of 137 male participants, of which the majority were of Mexican ancestry (72%). The average age was 35.40 (SD = 9.89) years. Results demonstrated that a substantial number of LDLs do not adequately practice sun protection behaviors on a regular basis. The skin cancer knowledge scores were very modest. The most frequently indicated barriers towards sun protection were "inconvenient," "forget to use," and "not being able to reapply sunscreen." Overall, LDLs had moderate confidence in their abilities to adopt successful sun protection strategies. This study underscores the need for intervention programs aimed at LDLs to reduce extended time in the sun and increase use of sun protective measures when working outdoors. PMID:27019656
Bogart, Laura M; Bird, Sheryl Thorburn
Conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS have been endorsed by significant percentages of African Americans in prior research. However, almost no research has investigated the relationship of such beliefs to behaviors and attitudes relevant to HIV risk. In the present exploratory study, 71 African-American adults (aged 18-45; 61% female) in the United States participated in a national, cross-sectional telephone survey examining the relationship of HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs to sexual attitudes and behaviors. Results indicated significant associations between endorsement of a general HIV/AIDS government conspiracy and negative beliefs regarding condoms and greater numbers of sexual partners. Endorsement of HIV/AIDS treatment conspiracies was related to positive attitudes about condoms and greater condom use intentions. Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs have implications for HIV prevention in African-American communities. PMID:14651372
Hamel, Johanna; Kraft, Antje; Ohl, Sven; De Beukelaer, Sophie; Audebert, Heinrich J; Brandt, Stephan A
Patients suffering from homonymous hemianopia after infarction of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) report different degrees of constraint in daily life, despite similar visual deficits. We assume this could be due to variable development of compensatory strategies such as altered visual scanning behavior. Scanning compensatory therapy (SCT) is studied as part of the visual training after infarction next to vision restoration therapy. SCT consists of learning to make larger eye movements into the blind field enlarging the visual field of search, which has been proven to be the most useful strategy(1), not only in natural search tasks but also in mastering daily life activities(2). Nevertheless, in clinical routine it is difficult to identify individual levels and training effects of compensatory behavior, since it requires measurement of eye movements in a head unrestrained condition. Studies demonstrated that unrestrained head movements alter the visual exploratory behavior compared to a head-restrained laboratory condition(3). Martin et al.(4) and Hayhoe et al.(5) showed that behavior demonstrated in a laboratory setting cannot be assigned easily to a natural condition. Hence, our goal was to develop a study set-up which uncovers different compensatory oculomotor strategies quickly in a realistic testing situation: Patients are tested in the clinical environment in a driving simulator. SILAB software (Wuerzburg Institute for Traffic Sciences GmbH (WIVW)) was used to program driving scenarios of varying complexity and recording the driver's performance. The software was combined with a head mounted infrared video pupil tracker, recording head- and eye-movements (EyeSeeCam, University of Munich Hospital, Clinical Neurosciences). The positioning of the patient in the driving simulator and the positioning, adjustment and calibration of the camera is demonstrated. Typical performances of a patient with and without compensatory strategy and a healthy control are
Hamel, Johanna; Kraft, Antje; Ohl, Sven; De Beukelaer, Sophie; Audebert, Heinrich J.; Brandt, Stephan A.
Patients suffering from homonymous hemianopia after infarction of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) report different degrees of constraint in daily life, despite similar visual deficits. We assume this could be due to variable development of compensatory strategies such as altered visual scanning behavior. Scanning compensatory therapy (SCT) is studied as part of the visual training after infarction next to vision restoration therapy. SCT consists of learning to make larger eye movements into the blind field enlarging the visual field of search, which has been proven to be the most useful strategy1, not only in natural search tasks but also in mastering daily life activities2. Nevertheless, in clinical routine it is difficult to identify individual levels and training effects of compensatory behavior, since it requires measurement of eye movements in a head unrestrained condition. Studies demonstrated that unrestrained head movements alter the visual exploratory behavior compared to a head-restrained laboratory condition3. Martin et al.4 and Hayhoe et al.5 showed that behavior demonstrated in a laboratory setting cannot be assigned easily to a natural condition. Hence, our goal was to develop a study set-up which uncovers different compensatory oculomotor strategies quickly in a realistic testing situation: Patients are tested in the clinical environment in a driving simulator. SILAB software (Wuerzburg Institute for Traffic Sciences GmbH (WIVW)) was used to program driving scenarios of varying complexity and recording the driver's performance. The software was combined with a head mounted infrared video pupil tracker, recording head- and eye-movements (EyeSeeCam, University of Munich Hospital, Clinical Neurosciences). The positioning of the patient in the driving simulator and the positioning, adjustment and calibration of the camera is demonstrated. Typical performances of a patient with and without compensatory strategy and a healthy control are illustrated in
Jansen, Sander E M; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kappers, Astrid M L
In order to acquire information concerning the geometry and material of handheld objects, people tend to execute stereotypical hand movement patterns called haptic Exploratory Procedures (EPs). Manual annotation of haptic exploration trials with these EPs is a laborious task that is affected by subjectivity, attentional lapses, and viewing angle limitations. In this paper we propose an automatic EP annotation method based on position and orientation data from motion tracking sensors placed on both hands and inside a stimulus. A set of kinematic variables is computed from these data and compared to sets of predefined criteria for each of four EPs. Whenever all criteria for a specific EP are met, it is assumed that that particular hand movement pattern was performed. This method is applied to data from an experiment where blindfolded participants haptically discriminated between objects differing in hardness, roughness, volume, and weight. In order to validate the method, its output is compared to manual annotation based on video recordings of the same trials. Although mean pairwise agreement is less between human-automatic pairs than between human-human pairs (55.7% vs 74.5%), the proposed method performs much better than random annotation (2.4%). Furthermore, each EP is linked to a specific object property for which it is optimal (e.g., Lateral Motion for roughness). We found that the percentage of trials where the expected EP was found does not differ between manual and automatic annotation. For now, this method cannot yet completely replace a manual annotation procedure. However, it could be used as a starting point that can be supplemented by manual annotation. PMID:25658703
Mitchell, Simon; Gao, Jennifer; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie
Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization) or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions. PMID:27427940
Bodkin, C D; La Salvia, T A
Currently, most AIDS education and prevention programs attempt to change the high risk behavior of injection drug users (IDU's) (e.g., sharing needles and engaging in unsafe sex) through the implementation of two distinct strategies. First, empirical-rational strategies suggest that people maximize their rational self-interest. Second, normative re-education strategies suggest that people change their individual behavior when they believe that there has been change in the sociocultural norms, values, and habits around them. Both of these strategies make assumptions about how communication changes IDU's beliefs and behavior. An empirical-rational strategy emphasizes non-personal mass communications (e.g., television, radio, newspaper); while normative re-education strategies make use of personal communications (e.g. friends, family, educational outreach workers, and group discussion). The purpose of this paper is to compare these strategies by examining the impact of AIDS communication sources on the beliefs and behaviors of IDU's. PMID:10172894
Rodriguez, James; McKay, Mary M.; Bannon, William M.
SUMMARY Racial socialization is receiving research attention because of growing evidence that it can be a protective developmental process in African American families. The present study was an exploration of the relationship of parental mental health, discipline effectiveness, monitoring and racial socialization strategies on child externalizing behaviors in a sample of 140 African American parent/caregivers. Findings indicated that certain types of racial socialization–particularly, spirituality and religious coping–in conjunction with discipline effectiveness was related to child behavior problems. Specifically, among parents who felt they used more effective discipline strategies, moderate to high rates of spiritual and religious coping were associated with a reduction of child behavior problems. These findings support the hypothesis that racial socialization is an important aspect of parenting in African American families that can be associated with the effective management of children’s behavior. Implications for parenting interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:19809535
DeLoss, Denton J.; Watanabe, Takeo; Andersen, George J.
A major problem for the rapidly growing population of older adults (age 65 and older) is age-related declines in vision, which have been associated with increased risk of falls and vehicle crashes. Research suggests that the increased risk is associated with declines in contrast sensitivity and acuity. We examined whether perceptual learning could be used to improve age-related declines in contrast sensitivity. Older and younger adults were trained over seven days using a forced-choice orientation discrimination task with stimuli that varied in contrast with multiple levels of additive noise. The results indicate that older individuals, following training, performed as well as pre-trained college-aged participants. Improvements transferred to an untrained orientation, and were not associated with changes in retinal illuminance. Improvements in far acuity in younger individuals and near acuity in older individuals were also found. These findings indicate that behavioral interventions can greatly improve visual performance for older adults. PMID:25749697
Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.
Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017
Richter, Mary Miller; Lewis, Timothy J.; Hagar, John
This study investigated key principal leadership skills associated with socially proactive school environments and examined the relationship between School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) implementation and increased evidence of those skills. Findings indicated the following: (a) certified staff members and principals from all schools rated…
The purpose of this study was to document behaviors of applied music teachers and students, as they occurred in online lessons with instructional delivery facilitated through desktop videoconferencing. The author examined the use of desktop videoconferencing in the delivery of applied music instruction to six middle school-aged band students…
Swank, Jacqueline M.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Witta, E. Lea
The authors examined the psychometric properties of the Counseling Competencies Scale (CCS; University of Central Florida Counselor Education Faculty, 2009), an instrument designed to assess trainee competencies as measured in their counseling skills, dispositions, and behaviors. There was strong internal consistency for the 4-factor model for…
Zaghlawan, Hasan Y.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.
The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine circle time activities in eight Head Start classrooms. A total of 7 h of observations occurred in eight classrooms. Songs and academic activities were the most frequently occurring activities. Challenging behavior during circle time also was examined. The three activities with the highest…
Day-Vines, Norma L.; Bryan, Julia; Griffin, Dana
The continuum of broaching behavior is a conceptual framework explicating how counselors broach or have explicit discussions about racial, ethnic, and cultural factors with their clients during treatment (Day-Vines et al., 2007). Counselors can assume 5 particular broaching orientations: avoidant, isolating, continuing/incongruent,…
Benedict, Jamie; Evans, William; Calder, Judy Conger
Examines drug use and eating behaviors of northern Nevadan adolescents (N=401). Results indicate that high-risk users less frequently ate lunch, meals at home, or with their family and ate more often at convenience stores, fast food restaurants, or with their friends. Gender differences are examined. Implications for prevention programming and…
The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…
LeFlore, Larry; Holston, Mary Ann
Examined inmate mothers' (N=120) attitudes about parenting behaviors and compared them to those of matched noncriminal mothers (N=120). Findings suggest that incarcerated mothers are as acculturated into parenting role as are noncriminal mothers. Incarcerated mothers felt very strongly about importance of mothers loving their children and guiding…
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S.; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Thein, Khin
OBJECTIVE This study compares different non-pharmacological interventions for persons with behavioral symptoms and dementia on frequency of use and perceived efficacy in terms of change in behavior and interest. METHODS Participants were 89 nursing home residents from 6 Maryland nursing homes with a mean age of 85.9 years (SD=8.6). Research assistants presented interventions tailored to the participants` needs and preferences in a pre-intervention trial phase and in an intervention phase. The impact of each intervention on behavioral symptoms and on the person’s interest was rated immediately after the intervention by a research assistant. RESULTS The most utilized interventions in both trial and treatment phases were the social intervention of one-on-one interaction, simulated social interventions such as a lifelike doll and respite video, the theme intervention of magazine, and the sensory stimulation intervention of music. In contrast, the least utilized interventions in both phases were sewing, fabric book, and flower arrangement. Interventions with the highest impact on behavioral symptoms included one-on one social interaction, hand massage, music, video, care, and folding towels. Other high impact interventions included walking, going outside, flower arranging, food or drink, sewing, group activity, book presentation ball toss, coloring or painting, walking, and family video. CONCLUSIONS The results provide initial directions for choosing specific interventions for persons with dementia and also demonstrate a methodology for increasing knowledge through ongoing monitoring of practice. PMID:25081819
Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson’s disease. Although the mechanisms behind the pathogenic effects of LRRK2 mutations are still not clear, data emerging from in vitro and in vivo models suggests roles in regulating neuronal polarity, neurotransmission, membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics and protein degradation. We created mice lacking exon 41 that encodes the activation hinge of the kinase domain of LRRK2. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of these mice up to 20 months of age, including evaluation of dopamine storage, release, uptake and synthesis, behavioral testing, dendritic spine and proliferation/neurogenesis analysis. Our results show that the dopaminergic system was not functionally comprised in LRRK2 knockout mice. However, LRRK2 knockout mice displayed abnormal exploratory activity in the open-field test. Moreover, LRRK2 knockout mice stayed longer than their wild type littermates on the accelerated rod during rotarod testing. Finally, we confirm that loss of LRRK2 caused degeneration in the kidney, accompanied by a progressive enhancement of autophagic activity and accumulation of autofluorescent material, but without evidence of biphasic changes. PMID:22647713
Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.
To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced these intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816
Gulbas, Lauren E; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M; Tyler, Tee R; Zayas, Luis H
To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal behaviors and NSSIs. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816
Aunon, Frances M; Wagner, Glenn J; Maher, Rabih; Khouri, Danielle; Kaplan, Rachel L; Mokhbat, Jacques
Male sex workers (MSW) are a particularly high-risk subset of men who have sex with men in Lebanon and report higher numbers of sex partners and lower rates of condom use. The purpose was to explore the factors influencing sexual risk behaviors and HIV testing among MSW. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 MSW living in Beirut and working in bathhouses (hammam) or as escorts; content analysis identified emergent themes. Escorts reported more consistent condom use with clients and HIV testing than hammam MSW, with influential factors including HIV risk knowledge and perceived risk susceptibility, job security, and internalized stigma and related feelings of self-worth and fatalism regarding health and HIV risk. In contrast, both groups of MSW typically opted not to condoms with nonclient sex partners, in an effort to differentiate sex for work versus pleasure. The uptake of HIV testing was limited by concerns about the confidentiality of the test results and fear of repercussions of a positive test result for their health and employment. The respondents described an insular existence within the sex work culture, in part to limit exposure to stigma, which has implications for access to support as well as the influence of peer norms regarding sexual risk behavior and health seeking behaviors such as HIV testing. Further research is needed to tailor prevention and HIV testing efforts to reflect the distinct sexual health "cultures" that distinguish these two populations of MSW in Lebanon. PMID:25950906
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a popular model for studying the pharmacology and behavior of anxiety. While there have been numerous studies documenting the anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of common drugs in zebrafish, many do not report or test for behavioral differences between the sexes. Previous studies have indicated that males and females differ in their baseline level of anxiety. In this study, we test for a sex interaction with fluoxetine and nicotine. We exposed fish to system water (control), 10 mg/L fluoxetine, or 1 mg/L nicotine for three minutes prior to being subjected to four minutes in an open-field drop test. Video recordings were tracked using ProAnalyst. Fish from both drug treatments reduced swimming speed, increased vertical position, and increased use of the top half of the open field when compared with the control, though fluoxetine had a larger effect on depth related behaviors while nicotine mostly affected swimming speed. A significant sex effect was observed where females swam at a slower and more constant speed than males, however neither drug produced a sex-dependent response.
Daly, Brian P; Nicholls, Elizabeth G; Patrick, Kristina E; Brinckman, Danielle D; Schultheis, Maria T
This pilot study investigated driving history and driving behaviors between adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as compared to non-ASD adult drivers. Seventy-eight licensed drivers with ASD and 94 non-ASD comparison participants completed the Driver Behavior Questionnaire. Drivers with ASD endorsed significantly lower ratings of their ability to drive, and higher numbers of traffic accidents and citations relative to non-ASD drivers. Drivers with ASD also endorsed significantly greater numbers of difficulties on the following subscales: intentional violations, F(1, 162) = 6.15, p = .01, η p (2) = .04; mistakes, F(1, 162) = 10.15, p = .002, η p (2) = .06; and slips/lapses, F(1, 162) = 11.33, p = .001, η p (2) = .07. These findings suggest that individuals with ASD who are current drivers may experience more difficulties in driving behaviors and engage in more problematic driving behaviors relative to non-ASD drivers. PMID:24925544
Merydith, Scott P.; Prout, H. Thompson; Blaha, John
This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL/4-18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K-7. Results from correlational and multiple regression…
Coups, Elliot J.; Stapleton, Jerod L.; Hudson, Shawna V.; Medina-Forrester, Amanda; Rosenberg, Stephen A.; Gordon, Marsha; Natale-Pereira, Ana; Goydos, James S.
Background Little skin cancer prevention research has focused on the U.S. Hispanic population. Objective This study examined the prevalence and correlates of skin cancer surveillance behaviors among Hispanic adults. Methods A population-based sample of 788 Hispanic adults residing in five southern and western states completed an online survey in English or Spanish in September 2011. The outcomes were ever having conducted a skin self-examination (SSE) and having received a total cutaneous examination (TCE) from a health professional. The correlates included sociodemographic, skin cancer-related, and psychosocial factors. Results The rates of ever conducting a SSE or having a TCE were 17.6% and 9.2%, respectively. Based on the results of multivariable logistic regressions, factors associated with ever conducting a SSE included older age, English linguistic acculturation, a greater number of melanoma risk factors, more frequent sunscreen use, sunbathing, job-related sun exposure, higher perceived skin cancer risk, physician recommendation, more SSE benefits, and fewer SSE barriers. Factors associated with ever having a TCE were older age, English linguistic acculturation, a greater number of melanoma risk factors, ever having tanned indoors, greater skin cancer knowledge, higher perceived skin cancer severity, lower skin cancer worry, physician recommendation, more TCE benefits, and fewer SSE barriers. Limitations The cross-sectional design limits conclusions regarding the causal nature of observed associations. Conclusions Few Hispanic adults engage in skin cancer surveillance behaviors. The study highlights Hispanic subpopulations that are least likely to engage in skin cancer surveillance behaviors and informs the development of culturally appropriate interventions to promote these behaviors. PMID:23182066
Smith, Jared B.; Alloway, Kevin D.
The claustrum has a role in the interhemispheric transfer of certain types of sensorimotor information. Whereas the whisker region in rat motor (M1) cortex sends dense projections to the contralateral claustrum, the M1 forelimb representation does not. The claustrum sends strong ipsilateral projections to the whisker regions in M1 and somatosensory (S1) cortex, but its projections to the forelimb cortical areas are weak. These distinctions suggest that one function of the M1 projections to the contralateral claustrum is to coordinate the cortical areas that regulate peripheral sensor movements during behaviors that depend on bilateral sensory acquisition. If this hypothesis is true, then similar interhemispheric circuits should interconnect the frontal eye fields (FEF) with the contralateral claustrum and its network of projections to vision-related cortical areas. To test this hypothesis, anterograde and retrograde tracers were placed in physiologically-defined parts of the FEF and primary visual cortex (V1) in rats. We observed dense FEF projections to the contralateral claustrum that terminated in the midst of claustral neurons that project to both FEF and V1. While the FEF inputs to the claustrum come predominantly from the contralateral hemisphere, the claustral projections to FEF and V1 are primarily ipsilateral. Detailed comparison of the present results with our previous studies on somatomotor claustral circuitry revealed a well-defined functional topography in which the ventral claustrum is connected with visuomotor cortical areas and the dorsal regions are connected with somatomotor areas. These results suggest that subregions within the claustrum play a critical role in coordinating the cortical areas that regulate the acquisition of modality-specific sensory information during exploration and other behaviors that require sensory attention. PMID:24904315
Auclair, Vickie; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin
Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach.Objectives This study aimed to review literature and investigate the efficacy of CBT, in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions such anxiety and depression for adults with ADHD, by several studies through a meta-analysis.Methods We searched the literature from 1946 through 2015 using especially MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. We used a random-effects model, Odds Ratios (OR) and Hedge's g.Results Data from 12 randomized controlled studies were included, totaling 575 subjects. The results showed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms (Hedge's g = 0.95) and comorbid anxiety (Hedge's g = 0.39) and depression (Hedge's g = 0.30) for the CBT group in comparison with controls. Following the end of treatment, ADHD symptoms continue to improve, but not the comorbid conditions.Conclusion In summary, in adults with ADHD, CBT appears to be a promising treatment. PMID:27570962
Hobbs, Jennifer A.; Towal, R. Blythe; Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.
The rat vibrissal system is an important model for the study of somatosensation, but the small size and rapid speed of the vibrissae have precluded measuring precise vibrissal-object contact sequences during behavior. We used a laser light sheet to quantify, with 1 ms resolution, the spatiotemporal structure of whisker-surface contact as five naïve rats freely explored a flat, vertical glass wall. Consistent with previous work, we show that the whisk cycle cannot be uniquely defined because different whiskers often move asynchronously, but that quasi-periodic (~8 Hz) variations in head velocity represent a distinct temporal feature on which to lock analysis. Around times of minimum head velocity, whiskers protract to make contact with the surface, and then sustain contact with the surface for extended durations (~25–60 ms) before detaching. This behavior results in discrete temporal windows in which large numbers of whiskers are in contact with the surface. These “sustained collective contact intervals” (SCCIs) were observed on 100% of whisks for all five rats. The overall spatiotemporal structure of the SCCIs can be qualitatively predicted based on information about head pose and the average whisk cycle. In contrast, precise sequences of whisker-surface contact depend on detailed head and whisker kinematics. Sequences of vibrissal contact were highly variable, equally likely to propagate in all directions across the array. Somewhat more structure was found when sequences of contacts were examined on a row-wise basis. In striking contrast to the high variability associated with contact sequences, a consistent feature of each SCCI was that the contact locations of the whiskers on the glass converged and moved more slowly on the sheet. Together, these findings lead us to propose that the rat uses a strategy of “windowed sampling” to extract an object's spatial features: specifically, the rat spatially integrates quasi-static mechanical signals across
Lawrenson, Charlotte L.; Watson, Thomas C.
Pathways arising from the periphery that target the inferior olive [spino-olivocerebellar pathways (SOCPs)] are a vital source of information to the cerebellum and are modulated (gated) during active movements. This limits their ability to forward signals to climbing fibers in the cerebellar cortex. We tested the hypothesis that the temporal pattern of gating is related to the predictability of a sensory signal. Low-intensity electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral hindlimb in awake rats evoked field potentials in the C1 zone in the copula pyramidis of the cerebellar cortex. Responses had an onset latency of 12.5 ± 0.3 ms and were either short or long duration (8.7 ± 0.1 vs 31.2 ± 0.3 ms, respectively). Both types of response were shown to be mainly climbing fiber in origin and therefore evoked by transmission in hindlimb SOCPs. Changes in response size (area of field, millivolts per millisecond) were used to monitor differences in transmission during rest and three phases of rearing: phase 1, rearing up; phase 2, upright; and phase 3, rearing down. Responses evoked during phase 2 were similar in size to rest but were smaller during phases 1 and 3, i.e., transmission was reduced during active movement when self-generated (predictable) sensory signals from the hindlimbs are likely to occur. To test whether the pattern of gating was related to the predictability of the sensory signal, some animals received the hindlimb stimulation only during phase 2. Over ∼10 d, the responses became progressively smaller in size, consistent with gating-out transmission of predictable sensory signals relayed via SOCPs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A major route for peripheral information to gain access to the cerebellum is via ascending climbing fiber pathways. During active movements, gating of transmission in these pathways controls when climbing fiber signals can modify cerebellar activity. We investigated this phenomenon in rats during their exploratory behavior of rearing
Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi LH; Minieri, Alexandra; Oser, Carrie; Webster, J. Matthew; Havens, Jennifer; Leukefeld, Carl
Objective Rural women, particularly those involved in the criminal justice system, are at risk for HIV due to the increasing prevalence of injection drug use, as well as limited services. Research on HIV risk correlates, including drug use and mental health, has primarily focused on urban women incarcerated in prisons. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine dual HIV risk behavior by three different mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and PTSD) among drug-using women in rural jails. Methods This study involved random selection, screening, and face-to-face interviews with 136 women from rural jails in one Appalachian state. Analyses focused on the relationship between mental health and HIV risk among this sample of drug-using women. Findings Nearly 80% of women self-reported symptoms of depression, and more than 60% endorsed symptoms consistent with anxiety and PTSD symptoms. Mental health was significantly correlated with severity of certain types of drug use, as well as risky sexual activity. In addition, for women experiencing anxiety and PTSD, injection drug use moderated the relationship between mental health and risky sexual activity. Implications Based on these rates of drug use, mental health problems, and the emergence of injection drug use in rural Appalachia, the need to explore the relationships between these issues among vulnerable and understudied populations, such as rural women, is critical. Due to service limitations in rural communities, criminal justice venues such as jails provide opportune settings for screening, assessment, and intervention for drug use, mental health, and HIV education and prevention. PMID:25799305
Colas-Zelin, Danielle; Light, Kenneth; Kolata, Stefan; Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Rios, Christopher; Szalk, Kris; Matzel, Louis D.
Imposed social subordination, such as that which accompanies physical defeat or alienation, has been associated with impaired cognitive function in both human and non-human animals. Here we examined whether domain-specific and/or domain-general learning abilities (c.f. general intelligence) are differentially influenced by the imposition of social subordination. Furthermore, we assessed whether the impact of subordination on cognitive abilities was the result of imposed subordination per se, or if it reflected deficits intrinsically expressed in subjects that are predisposed to subordination. Subordinate and dominant behaviors were assessed in two groups of CD-1 male mice. In one group (Imposed Stratification), social stratification was imposed (through persistent physical defeat in a colonized setting) prior to the determination of cognitive abilities, while in the second group (Innate Stratification), an assessment of social stratification was made after cognitive abilities had been quantified. Domain-specific learning abilities were measured as performance on individual learning tasks (odor discrimination, fear conditioning, spatial maze learning, passive avoidance, and egocentric navigation) while domain-general learning abilities were determined by subjects’ aggregate performance across the battery of learning tasks. We observed that the imposition of subordination prior to cognitive testing decreased exploratory tendencies, moderately impaired performance on individual learning tasks, and severely impaired general cognitive performance. However, similar impairments were not observed in subjects with a predisposition toward a subordinate phenotype (but which had not experienced physical defeat at the time of cognitive testing). Mere colonization, regardless of outcome (i.e., stratification), was associated with an increase in stress-induced serum corticosterone (CORT) levels, and thus CORT elevations were not themselves adequate to explain the effects of
Czech, Donald A; Jacobson, Erika B; LeSueur-Reed, Kolitta T; Kazel, Melanie R
The aim of the current study was to extend investigation into possible linkage between nitric oxide (NO) and anxiety-linked behavior using a battery of tests. Effects of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) were investigated in three murine models of anxiety-the light-dark, hole-board and elevated plus-maze-in between-groups designs. Treatment groups included L-NAME (0 [vehicle, or Veh], 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) and 50 mg/kg of the inactive isomer N(G)-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (D-NAME) injected subcutaneously. Mice exhibited a robust anxiogenic-like response profile reflected by dose-related decreases in both light-dark (transitions and time in lighted area) and hole-board (head dips and time spent head dipping) test measures, reaching statistical significance at 25 and 50 mg/kg L-NAME when compared to Veh controls (P<.05 or.01; Dunnett's t test), while distance traveled and rearing showed no significant differential pattern in either model. In both models, there was a strong dissociation between nonspecific locomotion and putative exploratory behaviors. D-NAME was not significantly different from Veh condition in either model, indicating a stereospecific action and supporting NO involvement. A dose-related decrease was also observed for several traditional and ethological measures in the plus-maze; however, the effect was limited and relatively weak or absent; with the exception of open-arm and percent open-arm entries, putative anxiety-sensitive measures reached statistical significance only at the highest dose. Reductions in motor activity compromised ability to dissociate an anxiety linkage from a nonspecific motor effect in most measures. It is concluded that the hole-board and light-dark tests provide indication of anxiogenic-like action of NOS inhibition, suggesting that NO has an anxiolytic action. Data from the plus-maze are unclear, owing to a confounding motor influence in most measures. PMID:12957214
Zebrack, Brad J
Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and young adults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for young adult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. PMID:21523748
Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa
This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores. PMID:21449712
Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Tureck, Kimberly; Bamburg, Jay W.
Rates of challenging behaviors were assessed in 175 adults with intellectual disability (ID) or ID and a comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The relationship between ASD diagnosis, race, and challenging behaviors was assessed using the "Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Adults (ASD-BPA)." Those with ASD and ID were found to…
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Okoro, Catherine A.; Collins, Janet
This study examined the prevalence of selected clinical preventive health services, health status indicators, health risk behaviors, and health-promoting behaviors among adults aged 18 to 24 years in the general U.S. population. The study analyzed data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Nearly 30% of young adults lacked…
García-Romero, Maria T; Geller, Alan C; Kawachi, Ichiro
Skin cancer represents an important public health problem, and it is associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure, particularly at early ages. Unhealthy sun exposure and intentional tanning continue to be the trend among young people. Multiple interventions to raise awareness of the risks of sun exposure have been implemented, without necessarily translating into decreased unhealthy behaviors or skin cancer incidence rates. Behavioral economics adds a set of concepts and tools to potentially boost the efficacy of existing approaches to decrease unhealthy sun exposure. This paper reviews public health interventions that have been based in behavioral economics concepts and their results, and provides examples of new and creative ways physicians and health professionals can actively apply insights from behavioral economics to counsel teenagers and young adults about skin cancer prevention. PMID:26361753
Pedersen, Eric R; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Paves, Andrew P; Larimer, Mary E
Theory and empirical evidence suggest that North American-based measures of self-esteem, which measure individualistic positive self-regard, may be less applicable to Eastern cultures. In the present exploratory study, we examined how different conceptualizations of self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Collective Self-esteem (CSE) Scale, predicted drinking behavior among three groups of American college students (N=326) with varying ethnicities: White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese. Hierarchical negative binomial regression was employed to evaluate these relations. Ethnic identity was controlled for in all analyses. Findings indicated that while global self-esteem was positively associated with drinking for the whole sample, ethnicity moderated this relationship such that global self-esteem was related to drinking for White participants but not for their Chinese/Taiwanese counterparts. In addition, while CSE did not associate with drinking for the whole sample, effects emerged for specific ethnicities. Specifically, private CSE was associated with less drinking for Korean and Chinese/Taiwanese participants. Depending on specific Asian ethnicity, public CSE served as a risk (Korean participants) or a protective factor (Chinese/Taiwanese participants) for drinking. Findings suggest that above and beyond ethnic identity, differential relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior may exist among White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese young adults. Intervention and prevention programs should develop strategies to help Chinese/Taiwanese and Korean American young adults cultivate protective factors within domains of CSE. PMID:23811062
Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda
Objective To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. Results There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Conclusions Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. PMID:25157070
Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.
The article highlights the field of epigenetics and its relevance in determining the effects of maternal nurturing on behavioral patterns in offsprings. Results concluded that maternal behavior influences the offspring's behavior to stress in adulthood and the effects are transgenerational through epigenetic mechanisms.
Klugmann, Matthias; Goepfrich, Anja; Friemel, Chris M.; Schneider, Miriam
The endocannabinoid (ECB) system is strongly involved in the regulation of cognitive processing and emotional behavior and evidence indicates that ECB signaling might affect these behavioral abilities by modulations of prefrontal cortical functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the CB1 receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) on cognitive flexibility and emotional behavior. Therefore, the CB1 receptor was overexpressed by adeno-associated virus vector-mediated gene transfer specifically in the mPFC of adult Wistar rats. Animals were then tested in different anxiety-related paradigms for emotional reactivity [e.g., elevated plus maze (EPM), light/dark emergence test (EMT), social interaction] and the attentional set shift task (ASST) – an adaptation of the human Wisconsin card sorting test – for cognitive abilities and behavioral flexibility. A subtle increase in exploratory behavior was found in CB1 receptor overexpressing animals (CB1-R) compared to Empty vector injected controls (Empty) in the EMT and EPM, although general locomotor activity did not differ between the groups. During social interaction testing, social contact behavior toward the unknown conspecific was found to be decreased, whereas social withdrawal was increased in CB1-R animals and they showed an inadequate increase in exploratory behavior compared to control animals. In the ASST, impaired reversal learning abilities were detected in CB1-R animals compared to controls, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. In conclusion, upregulation of the CB1 receptor specifically in the rat mPFC induces alterations in emotional reactivity, leads to inadequate social behavior, and impairs cognitive flexibility. These findings might be relevant for neuropsychiatric disorders, since higher cortical CB1 receptor expression levels as well as similar behavioral impairments as observed in the present study have been described in schizophrenic patients. PMID:21808613
Pigeon, Wilfred R.
Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder that occurs frequently in its acute form and at a rate of approximately 10% in its chronic form. There is a high prevalence of insomnia in a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) may be employed for chronic insomnia as well as for insomnia in the context of other conditions such as chronic pain conditions. In such cases, some simple adaptations to standard CBT for insomnia are useful. This article reviews the typical assessment and CBT for adult insomnia, which have substantial empirical support for its efficacy. A case illustrates the core treatment processes and demonstrates that improving sleep in the context of conditions like chronic pain can lead to better management of such conditions. PMID:20853442
Zoellner, Jamie; Krzeski, Erin; Harden, Samantha; Cook, Emily; Allen, Kacie; Estabrooks, Paul A
Despite strong scientific data indicating associations among sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and numerous adverse health outcomes, little is known about culturally specific beliefs and potential individual-level behavioral strategies to reduce SSB intake. The primary objective of this formative study targeting adults residing in rural southwest Virginia was to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate culturally specific attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control constructs related to the consumption of SSB, water, and artificially sweetened beverages. Using a homogenous sampling strategy, eight focus groups were conducted with 54 adult participants who exceeded recommendations of <1 cup of SSB/day. An experienced moderator and co-moderator utilized a semi-structured script, grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior, to execute the focus group. All focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers independently coded meaning units to the major themes and subsequently met to gain consensus in coding. Important beverage-specific themes emerged for attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions. Across all beverages, the most notable themes included taste (n=161 meaning units), availability/convenience (n=95 meaning units), habit/addiction (n=57 meaning units), and cost (n=28 meaning units). Health consequences associated with beverages and water-quality issues also surfaced, as well as normative beliefs, including the influence of doctors and peers. The identified themes and subthemes provide critical insight into understanding culturally relevant context and beliefs associated with beverage consumption behaviors and helps inform the development and evaluation of future intervention efforts targeting SSB consumption in the health disparate region of southwest Virginia. PMID:23102176
Booms, T.L.; Schempf, P.F.; Fuller, M.R.
Radio transmitters provide data that enhance understanding of raptor biology (Walls and Kenward 2007) and are now used to answer a multitude of research questions (Meyburg and Fuller 2007). However, transmitters affect the birds that carry them (Barron et al. 2010), and it is important to document and evaluate such effects (Casper 2009). For example, decreased survival has been documented in Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus; Steenhof et al. 2006), Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis; Reynolds et al. 2004), and Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis; Paton et al. 1991) tagged with radio transmitters. However, no such effects were reported for Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus; Fuller et al. 1998, McGrady et al. 2002) and a number of other species (Kenward 2001). White and Garrott (1990) noted that in general, animals tagged with radio transmitters often altered their behaviors for 1–14 d after release during an adjustment period that included increased preening and grooming frequencies. Although more than 90 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) have been tagged with radio transmitters (e.g., Burnham 2007, McIntyre et al. 2009, T. Booms unpubl. data), the effects of transmitters on this species are not well documented. Anecdotal information suggests some Gyrfalcons might be negatively affected by radio-tagging (Booms et al. 2008). As part of a study investigating Gyrfalcon breeding biology, we conducted opportunistic, focused observations on two radio-tagged adult female Gyrfalcons and their unmarked mates. We here describe and quantify preening behavior of Gyrfalcons shortly after radio-tagging.
Hartz, Barry; Bauer, William
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of ear playing instruction on adult amateur wind instrumentalists' musical self-efficacy. Ten volunteer members of a community band in a small town in Ohio completed the "Ear Playing Profile" both prior to and following an eight-week period of instruction in playing by ear…
Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Makuch, Renee A.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.
This study aims to extend the definition of quality of life (QoL) for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 180, ages 23-60) by: (1) characterizing the heterogeneity of normative outcomes (employment, independent living, social engagement) and objective QoL (physical health, neighborhood quality, family contact, mental health issues); and…
The author explored the meaning of the Black community according to a purposeful sample of 60 Black adults in the mid-Atlantic United States. Purposeful stratified sampling resulted in equal numbers of participants along the lines of locale (Brooklyn, New York; Wilmington, Delaware; and Washington, D.C.), gender, and generational affiliation…
Wong, Chi-Sum; Wong, Ping-Man; Peng, Kelly Z.
In this study, we attempt to investigate the potential effects of parents' career interests on young adults' career interests. Using a sample of 113 freshmen in Hong Kong, results indicated that after controlling for personality, gender, general mental abilities and emotional intelligence, some of the parents' career interests were still related…
Allen, Rory; Hill, Elizabeth; Heaton, Pam
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum, in order to examine the nature of their personal experiences of music. Consistent with the literature on typically developing people's engagement with music, the analysis showed that most participants exploit music for a wide range of purposes in the…
Krzeski, Erin; Harden, Samantha; Cook, Emily; Allen, Kacie; Estabrooks, Paul A.
Despite strong scientific data indicating associations among sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and numerous adverse health outcomes, little is known about culturally specific beliefs and potential individual-level behavioral strategies to reduce SSB intake. The primary objective of this formative study targeting adults residing in rural southwest Virginia was to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to investigate culturally specific attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control constructs related to the consumption of SSB, water, and artificially sweetened beverages. Using a homogenous sampling strategy, eight focus groups were conducted with 54 adult participants who exceeded recommendations of <1 cup of SSB/day. An experienced moderator and co-moderator utilized a semi-structured script, grounded in the TPB, to execute the focus group. All focus groups were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers independently coded meaning units (MU) to the major themes and subsequently met to gain consensus in coding. Important beverage specific themes emerged for attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions. Across all beverages, the most notable themes included taste (n= 161 MU), availability/convenience (n= 95 MU), habit/addiction (n=57 MU), and cost (n= 28 MU). Health consequences associated with beverages and water quality issues also surfaced, as well as normative beliefs including the influence of doctors and peers. The identified themes and sub-themes provides critical insight into understanding culturally-relevant context and beliefs associated with beverage behaviors and helps inform the development and evaluation of future intervention efforts targeting SSB consumption in the health disparate region of southwest Virginia. PMID:23102176
Lazzari, Claudia; Egan, Sarah J.; Rees, Clare S.
Depression affects up to 25% of older adults. Underdetection and subsequent undertreatment of depression in older adults has been attributed in part to difficulties in older adults being able to access treatment. This uncontrolled pilot study, N = 3, explored the acceptability and efficacy of a brief behavioral activation treatment delivered via…
Virta, Maarit; Vedenpaa, Anita; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti
Objective: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective nonpharmacological treatments of adult ADHD. The authors present results from a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychological group rehabilitation for adult ADHD. Method: A total of 29 adults with ADHD participated. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 or 11 weekly sessions.…
Smith, Leann E.; Hong, Jinkuk; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.
The present study examined trajectories of adaptive behavior, behavior problems, psychological symptoms, and autism symptoms in adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome (n = 147) over a three-year period. Adaptive behavior significantly increased over time, particularly for adolescents, and the severity of behavior problems decreased over…
Golani, Idit; Tadmor, Hagar; Buonanno, Andres; Kremer, Ilana; Shamir, Alon
The ErbB signaling pathway has been genetically and functionally implicated in schizophrenia. Numerous findings support the dysregulation of Neuregulin (NRG) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether alterations of these pathways in the adult brain or during development are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Herein we characterized the behavioral profile and molecular changes resulting from pharmacologically blocking the ErbB signaling pathway during a critical period in the development of decision making, planning, judgments, emotions, social cognition and cognitive skills, namely adolescence. We demonstrate that chronic administration of the pan-ErbB kinase inhibitor JNJ-28871063 (JNJ) to adolescent mice elevated striatal dopamine levels and reduced preference for sucrose without affecting locomotor activity and exploratory behavior. In adulthood, adolescent JNJ-treated mice continue to consume less sucrose and needed significantly more correct-response trials to reach the learning criterion during the discrimination phase of the T-maze reversal learning task than their saline-injected controls. In addition, JNJ mice exhibited deficit in reference memory but not in working memory as measured in the radial arm maze. Inhibition of the pathway during adolescence did not affect exploratory behavior and locomotor activity in the open field, social interaction, social memory, and reversal learning in adult mice. Our data suggest that alteration of ErbB signaling during adolescence resulted in changes in the dopaminergic systems that emerge in pathological learning and hedonic behavior in adulthood, and pinpoints the possible role of the pathway in the development of cognitive skills and motivated behavior. PMID:25451700
Dykens, Elisabeth M.
Although maladaptive and compulsive behaviors are increasingly well-described in young persons with Prader-Willi syndrome, it is unclear how these problems manifest in older adults with this syndrome. In Part I, I compared maladaptive and compulsive behaviors in 45 older adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (ages 30 to 50 years) to 195 children,…
Devlin, Renee S.; Gibbs, John C.
This article examined cognitive and behavioral changes among participants in Responsible Adult Culture (RAC), a cognitive-behavioral (especially, cognitive restructuring) treatment program in use at the Franklin County Community-Based Correctional Facility (CBCF). Participants were adult felony offenders (approximately three-fourths male). A…
Taylor, Julie Lounds; Smith, Leann E.; Mailick, Marsha R.
This study examined the bidirectional relations over time between behavioral functioning (autism symptoms, maladaptive behaviors, activities of daily living) and vocational/educational activities of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were 153 adults with ASD (M age = 30.2 years) who were part of a larger longitudinal study.…
Duangpatra, Krisna N. K.; Bradley, Graham L.; Glendon, A. Ian
Young adults' behaviors are frequently characterized by risk-taking and recklessness. Few studies have examined the correlates of risk and reckless behaviors in emerging adults. Drawing on theories emphasising multifactorial effects of personality, social, and cognitive variables, this study explores psychosocial factors contributing to risk and…
Lerman, Dorothea C; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A
Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In Experiment 1, training of the adults focused on the implementation of mand training via incidental teaching. Experiment 2 focused on teaching participants to use discrete-trial training (DTT) with children who exhibited problem behavior. Both experiments showed that behavioral skills training was effective for teaching the adult participants the behavioral procedures needed to teach children with autism. In addition, the children acquired skills as a result of training. Results of Experiment 2 further demonstrated that the DTT skills generalized across untrained targets and children. Social validity ratings suggested that some participants' teaching was indistinguishable from that of individuals without ASD. PMID:25869079
Tuuri, Georgianna; Cater, Melissa; Craft, Brittany; Bailey, Ariana; Miketinas, Derek
Whole grains are recommended by dietary guidelines because of their health-promoting properties, yet attitudes toward consuming these foods have not been examined. This study developed and validated a questionnaire to estimate willingness to consume whole grain foods. Focus group interviews with high school students and input from nutrition educators produced a list of 10 whole grain items that were included in the "Willingness to Eat Whole Grains Questionnaire". Young adult university students 18-29 years of age indicated their willingness to consume each of the whole grain foods using a 4-point, Likert-type scale with responses ranging from "always unwilling" to "always willing" and a fifth option of "never eaten". Participants' age, race/ethnicity, and gender were collected. Data were examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and test-retest reliability. The EFA test (n = 266; 65% female; 69% white) using principal axis factoring returned a single factor that included all survey items and explained 58.3% of the variance. The CFA (n = 252; 62% female, 74% white) supported a single-factor solution: χ(2) = 80.57 (35); RMSEA = 0.07; Comparative Fit Index = 0.92; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.90; and SRMR = 0.05. The questionnaire, administered on two occasions separated by two weeks to 36 university students, demonstrated good testretest reliability (r = 0.87, p < 0.0001). The "Willingness to Eat Whole Grains Questionnaire" had good face validity when used with a young adult population and will be a useful tool to help nutrition educators examine attitudes toward consuming nutrient-rich whole grain foods. PMID:27328099
Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A.
Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In…
Zarcadoolas, Christina; Blanco, Mercedes; Boyer, John F; Pleasant, Andrew
For traditionally underserved populations, the Web can potentially unlock resources that could fundamentally improve health and wellbeing. However, there are many barriers to using Web-based content. While physical access issues are well documented, there is little understanding of how nonmainstream populations use or will use the Web. Based on an ethnographic study of a group of low-literate adults, we have identified specific navigational and content issues that present barriers to this population. We discuss preliminary assumptions that can be used to inform the development of Web tools for this target audience, and directions for future applied research. PMID:12356289
Hill, Alexis S; Sahay, Amar; Hen, René
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is increased by antidepressants, and is required for some of their behavioral effects. However, it remains unclear whether expanding the population of adult-born neurons is sufficient to affect anxiety and depression-related behavior. Here, we use an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the pro-apoptotic gene Bax is deleted from neural stem cells and their progeny in the adult brain, and thereby increases adult neurogenesis. We find no effects on baseline anxiety and depression-related behavior; however, we find that increasing adult neurogenesis is sufficient to reduce anxiety and depression-related behaviors in mice treated chronically with corticosterone (CORT), a mouse model of stress. Thus, neurogenesis differentially affects behavior under baseline conditions and in a model of chronic stress. Moreover, we find no effect of increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, either at baseline or following chronic CORT administration, suggesting that increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis can affect anxiety and depression-related behavior through a mechanism independent of the HPA axis. The use of future techniques to specifically inhibit BAX in the hippocampus could be used to augment adult neurogenesis, and may therefore represent a novel strategy to promote antidepressant-like behavioral effects. PMID:25833129
Gould, Drew D; Watson, Shelley L; Price, Stephanie R; Valliant, Paul M
High levels of occupational stress and burnout are costly for correctional services and their employees. Correctional officers report high levels of burnout, absenteeism, turnover, and poor physical health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of burnout and the coping mechanisms used to buffer the effects of burnout within correctional centers. In the current study, 208 correctional officers from adult and young offender centers completed an online survey measuring burnout and coping strategies. Results from the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) Scale indicated that even though correctional center officers mostly used adaptive coping strategies, they still reported high levels of burnout. The results of this study suggest that there are variables other than coping strategies, such as gender and length of experience, that lead to the level of burnout as observed in correctional officers. PMID:22924799
Saunders, Richard R.; McEntee, Julie E.; Saunders, Muriel D.
The effects of variable-interval (VI) and fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement for work-related behavior and an organizer for the work materials (behavioral prosthesis) were evaluated with 3 adults with severe or profound mental retardation. The participants had been recommended for study because of high rates of off-task and aberrant…
Watkins, Tommie L; Simpson, Cathy; Cofield, Stacey S; Davies, Susan; Kohler, Connie; Usdan, Stuart
Blacks in the USA, including black men who have sex with men (MSM), tend to have stronger religious and spiritual affiliations compared with other racial/ethnic populations. HIV and STD incidence rates continue to rise among Black MSM. Using data from the CDC Brothers y Hermanos (ByHS) project, this study examined correlations between high-risk behavior, e.g., substance use and high-risk sexual behavior (e.g., condom use history, unprotected sexual intercourse, HIV infection status, and STD infection status) religiosity, spirituality, age, among Black MSM (N = 1141). This exploratory study examined whether religiosity and spirituality were associated with high-risk behavior and high-risk sexual behavior among Black MSM. Religiosity and spirituality indices were compiled from the ByHS data. The religiosity index was significantly associated with HIV infection and use of cocaine, crack, and poppers as well as marginally associated with ecstasy use. Spirituality was significantly associated with HIV infection status, STD infection status, alcohol use, and crack use. Given these relationships, current and future HIV prevention models targeting Black MSM should consider the potential importance of the roles of religiosity and spirituality in the lives of Black MSM to increase the efficacy of risk reduction interventions. PMID:26475314
Boss, Roberta S.
A study examined the influence of cultural values on classroom behaviors of adult Vietnamese refugees. More specifically, the study was designed to determine the effect of culturally acquired attitudes and personality traits on the refugees' classroom behaviors, the relationship between these behaviors and the cognitive learning styles favored by…
Dwyer-Moore, Kimberly J.; Dixon, Mark R.
Functional analyses were conducted for the problem behavior of 3 older adults in a long-term care setting. Two of the problem behaviors were maintained by attention, and a third was maintained by escape from demands. Function-based interventions were implemented that resulted in decreases in problem behavior in each case. Implications for the use…
The well-established notion that the frequency of self-interested unethical behavior increases among anonymous people was reexamined employing a more strict definition of anonymity, voluntary unethical behavior, and adult individuals. Anonymity was defined as nonassociability of the participant's traits with respect to unethical behavior. The…
Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.
Behavior problems such as aggression, property destruction, stereotypy, self-injurious behavior, and other disruptive behavior are commonly observed among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy residing at state-run facilities. However, it is unknown how these populations differ on behavior…
Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea
Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…
Nguyen, Quynh C.; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Poole, Charles
Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE) as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994–95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7–12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001–02 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24–32). Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50–50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly) at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth. PMID:22870260
Oelke, Nelly D.; Rush, Kathy L.; Goma, Fastone M.; Barker, Jessica; Marck, Patricia; Pedersen, Chloe
Hypertension is an important public health issue in Zambia. Despite the need for early detection, treatment, and ongoing monitoring, there is little documented research on hypertension in Zambia. The study aims were to: 1) better understand risk factors for hypertension in urban and rural communities in Mongu and Limulunga Districts, Western Province; 2) identify current health practices for hypertension and prevention in these communities; and 3) explore intersections between culture and hypertension perceptions and practices for study participants. A mixed methods approach was used; 203 adults completed surveys including demographics, anthropometric measures, blood pressure (BP), physicial activity, diet, and salt intake at five health check stations. Two focus groups were conducted with rural and urban community members to better understand their perspectives on hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 32.8% for survey participants. A further 24.6% had pre-hypertension. The mean total weight of salt added to food was nearly double the WHO recommendation with women adding significantly more salt to food than men. Significant differences in waist circumference were observed between men and women with men at low risk and women at substantialy high risk. In focus groups, participants cited westernized diets, lack of physical activity, stress, psychological factors, and urbanization as causative factors for hypertension. Participants lacked understanding of BP medications, healthy lifestyles, adherence to treatment, and ongoing monitoring. Focus group participants mentioned challenges in obtaining treatment for hypertension and desired to be active contributors in creating solutions. They recommended that government priorize hypertension initiatives that increase access to health education to reduce risk, enhance early detection, and support lifestyle changes and medication adherence. Our findings suggest that policy-makers need to engage communities more
Helgadottir, Fjola Dogg; Menzies, Ross G.; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue
Purpose: Those with anxiety use safety behaviors when attempting to prevent negative outcomes. There is evidence that these behaviors contribute to the persistence of anxiety disorders. Safety behaviors have been prominent in the cognitive behavior therapy literature during the last decade, particularly with social phobia management. However,…
Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Lee, Euna; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio
The promotion of strength training is now recognized as an important component of public health initiatives for older adults. To develop successful communication strategies to increase strength-training behavior among older adults, the identification of effective communication channels to reach older adults is necessary. This study aimed to identify the information sources about strength training that were associated with strength-training behaviors among Japanese older adults. The participants were 1144 adults (60-74 years old) randomly sampled from the registry of residential addresses. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. The independent variables were sources of strength-training information (healthcare providers, friends, families, radio, television, newspapers, newsletters, posters, books, magazines, booklets, the Internet, lectures, other sources), and the dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential relationships. After adjusting for demographic factors and all other information sources, strength-training information from healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet were positively related to regular strength-training behavior. The findings of the present study contribute to a better understanding of strength-training behavior and the means of successful communication directed at increasing strength training among older adults. The results suggest that healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet are effective methods of communication for increasing strength-training behaviors among older adults. PMID:24997193
Garrett, Lillian; Zhang, Jingzhong; Zimprich, Annemarie; Niedermeier, Kristina M.; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Vogt Weisenhorn, Daniela; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M.
Adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian subventricular zone (SVZ) along the walls of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. While a burgeoning body of research implicates adult neurogenesis in olfactory bulb (OB)- and hippocampal-related behaviors, the precise function continues to elude. To further assess the behavioral importance of adult neurogenesis, we herein generated a novel inducible transgenic mouse model of adult neurogenesis reduction where mice with CreERT2 under doublecortin (DCX) promoter control were crossed with mice where diphtheria toxin A (DTA) was driven by the Rosa26 promoter. Activation of DTA, through the administration of tamoxifen (TAM), results in a specific reduction of DCX+ immature neurons in both the hippocampal dentate gyrus and OB. We show that the decrease of DCX+ cells causes impaired social discrimination ability in both young adult (from 3 months) and middle aged (from 10 months) mice. Furthermore, these animals showed an age-independent altered coping behavior in the Forced Swim Test without clear changes in anxiety-related behavior. Notably, these behavior changes were reversible on repopulating the neurogenic zones with DCX+ cells on cessation of the TAM treatment, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Overall, these results support the notion that adult neurogenesis plays a role in social memory and in stress coping but not necessarily in anxiety-related behavior. PMID:26617501
Meier, Madeline H; Slutske, Wendy S; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G
Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior were examined in a large community sample of 6,383 adult male, female, and opposite-sex twins. Retrospective reports of childhood conduct disorder (prior to 18 years of age) were obtained when participants were approximately 30 years old, and lifetime reports of adult antisocial behavior (antisocial behavior after 17 years of age) were obtained 8 years later. Results revealed that either the genetic or the shared environmental factors influencing childhood conduct disorder differed for males and females (i.e., a qualitative sex difference), but by adulthood, these sex-specific influences on antisocial behavior were no longer apparent. Further, genetic and environmental influences accounted for proportionally the same amount of variance in antisocial behavior for males and females in childhood and adulthood (i.e., there were no quantitative sex differences). Additionally, the stability of antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood was slightly greater for males than females. Though familial factors accounted for more of the stability of antisocial behavior for males than females, genetic factors accounted for the majority of the covariation between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior for both sexes. The genetic influences on adult antisocial behavior overlapped completely with the genetic influences on childhood conduct disorder for both males and females. Implications for future twin and molecular genetic studies are discussed. PMID:21319923
Adult students are a growing population on college campuses. Adult students have lower graduation rates and longer times to graduation than traditional-age students. The ability to pass a college level mathematics course is a key factor in the graduation rates of all students. Past research has identified developmental mathematics, college…
Hinton, Barbara E.
Examines three particular areas of nonverbal communication important to adult educators: proxemics (interrelated observations and theories of people's use of space as a specialized elaboration of culture), eye contact, and touch. The implications of nonverbal communication for teaching adults are surveyed. (CT)
Matson, Johnny L; Dempsey, Timothy; Wilkins, Jonathan
Rett syndrome is a genetically linked form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) accompanied by intellectual disability (ID). The disorder is also characterized by cardiorespiratory dysregulation, disturbance in muscle tone, reduced brain growth and scoliosis. Over 300 studies have been published on the disorder, most of which has focused on identification of causative factors, which appears to be the result of mutations of gene MECP2. Rarely have adults with Rett syndrome been studied, and behavioral characteristics in these individuals are largely unknown. The present study aimed to extend what little is known about behavioral characteristics of Rett syndrome in adults, with particular emphasis on social, communicative, and adaptive behavior. Rett syndrome adults with severe ID were matched to autistic adults with ID and ID only controls. The implications of these data for more fully describing and diagnosing the condition in adults are discussed. PMID:18207372
Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Knoll, Nina
The study of health behaviors and fostering health-behavior change is an important endeavor even in old age. The aim of this viewpoint article is threefold. First, we use a broad perspective for the definition of health behaviors to capture all relevant aspects of health-behavior change in older adults. Particularly, we suggest a distinction between proximal (e.g., physical activity) and distal health behaviors (e.g., social participation). Second, we recommend a stronger orientation towards processes in order to study health behaviors and the design of health-behavior change interventions. Third, we review the advantages of a developmental perspective in health psychology. Future directions in the study of health behavior among older adults are discussed. PMID:25660128
Blevins, Claire E; Wusik, Michael F; Sullivan, Connor P; Jones, Russell T; Hughes, Michael
Trauma exposure heightens the risk of reckless behavior and is now included in DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology. Individuals exposed to trauma may be likely to engage in reckless behavior because of negative changes in their worldview (referred to as disrupted worldview). The current study investigates the relationship between DSM-IV posttraumatic stress symptoms, disrupted worldview, and increased reckless behavior among 1145 students exposed to mass violence. Total posttraumatic stress symptomatology was associated with increased and persistent reckless behavior, supporting DSM-5 diagnostic inclusion. Although posttraumatic stress symptomatology predicted reckless behavior among those with varying levels of posttraumatic symptomatology, individuals with high symptomatology reported significantly higher recklessness. Disrupted worldview mediated the relationship between posttraumatic symptomatology and reckless behavior among individuals with high symptomatology, while only partially mediating the relationship among those with low symptomatology. These findings provide support for worldview disruptions as a mechanism by which prolonged reckless behavior may be manifested. PMID:26148489
Clapp, Joshua D.; Beck, J. Gayle
The literature examining trauma among older adults is growing, but little is known about the efficacy of empirically supported interventions for PTSD within this population. Clinical writing on this topic often implies that cognitive-behavioral treatments may be ineffective or inappropriate for older adults with PTSD given physical and/or cognitive vulnerabilities. Review of the limited research in this area, however, provides little support for the claim that cognitive-behavioral interventions are ineffective in treating PTSD among the elderly. In an effort to explicate specific issues related to treatment process and outcome among older survivors of trauma, a case series is presented outlining the treatment of three older adults within the context of a structured, cognitive-behavioral group intervention. Observations from this case series suggests that cognitive-behavioral interventions continue to be useful in treating PTSD with this population. Specific treatment issues unique to older adults are explored and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:22383863
Berge, Jerica M.; Bauer, Katherine W.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Denny, Kara; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Purpose Previous research has shown a relationship between childhood/adolescent chronic conditions and negative health behaviors, psychological outcomes, and social outcomes. Less is known about whether these negative outcomes are experienced by young adults with chronic health conditions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young adults’ BMI, health behaviors, and psychological and social outcomes differ depending on whether they have diabetes, asthma, or neither of these chronic conditions. Methods Data were drawn from the third wave of Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Young Adults, a population-based study of 2287 young adults (mean age = 25.3; range 19.8 – 31.2). General linear models were used to test differences in BMI, health behaviors (e.g., fast food intake) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. depressive symptoms) by young adults’ chronic disease status. Results Young adults with diabetes had higher BMIs, engaged in less physical activity and more unhealthy weight control behaviors and binge eating, had lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction, and experienced more depressive symptoms and appearance-based teasing compared to young adults with asthma or no chronic conditions, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and, when relevant, for BMI. There were no significant differences between young adults with asthma and young adults with no chronic condition on all of the psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. Conclusions Young adults with diabetes reported higher prevalence of negative health behaviors and psychosocial outcomes. Providers may find it useful to assess for negative health behaviors and psychosocial variables with young adults with diabetes in order to improve treatment and quality of life for these individuals. PMID:24298429
Meyers, Allan R.; And Others
Surveyed 928 older Bostonians and found a negative correlation between age and alcohol consumption among older adults. Retrospective data suggest that there are cohort or generational patterns of drinking behavior by older adults. Survey provides no insight into the historical factors which account for the differences in alcohol use. (Author/JAC)